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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _________________ to _________________
 
Commission file number:  0-18953

AAON, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada87-0448736
(State or other jurisdiction(IRS Employer
of incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
2425 South Yukon Ave.,Tulsa,Oklahoma74107
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  (918) 583-2266
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockAAONNASDAQ

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. 
☐ Yes        ☒ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. 
 ☐  Yes        ☒  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
☒  Yes        ☐  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
☒  Yes        ☐  No
      



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).
 
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act.) 
   Yes        ☒  No

The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the closing price of registrant’s common stock on the last business day of registrant’s most recently completed second quarter June 30, 2023 was $4,193.6 million based upon the closing price reported for such date on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

As of February 23, 2024, registrant had outstanding a total of 81,581,679 shares of its $.004 par value Common Stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held May 21, 2024, incorporated herein by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item Number and Caption
Page
Number
   
PART I 
   
1.Business.
   
1A.Risk Factors.
   
1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
   
2.Properties. 
   
3.Legal Proceedings.
   
4.Mine Safety Disclosure.
   
PART II  
   
5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
   
6.Reserved.
   
7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
   
7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
   
8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
   
9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
   
9A. Controls and Procedures.
   
9B.Other Information.
   
PART III  
   
10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
   
11.Executive Compensation. 
   
12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
   
13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
   
14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
   
PART IV  
   
15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Signatures




Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (or statements otherwise made by the Company or on the Company’s behalf from time to time in other reports, filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), news releases, conferences, website postings, presentations or otherwise) includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Any statements contained herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements and involve risks and uncertainties. For all of these forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “intends”, “plans”, “believes”, “seeks”, “estimates”, “confident”, “outlook”, “project”, “should”, “will”, and variations of such words and other words of similar meaning or similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which are difficult to predict. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in such forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, among others:
market conditions and customer demand for our products;
the timing and extent of changes in raw material and component prices;
naturally-occurring events, pandemics, and other disasters causing disruption to our manufacturing operations, product deliveries and production capacity;
the impact caused by inflationary cost pressures, national or global health issues, such as the coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19”), any variants or similar outbreaks (including the response thereto) and their effects on, among other things, demand for our products, supply chain disruptions, our liquidity and financial position, results of operations, stock price, payment of dividends, our ability to secure new orders, our ability to convert backlog to revenue and impacts to the operations status of our facilities;
natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, including, without limitation, their effects on locations where our products are manufactured;
the effects of fluctuations in the commercial/industrial new construction market;
the timing of introduction and market acceptance of new products;
the timing and extent of changes in interest rates, as well as other competitive factors during the year;
general economic, market or business conditions;
creditworthiness of our customers and their access to capital;
changing technologies;
the material failure, interruption of service, compromised data or information technology security, phishing emails, cybersecurity breaches or other impacts to our information technology and related systems and networks (including any of the foregoing of third-party vendors and other contractors who provide information technology or other services);
costs and results of litigation, including trial and appellate costs;
economic, market or business conditions in the specific industry and market in which our businesses operate;
future levels of capital expenditures, research and development and indebtedness, including, without limitation, our ability to reduce indebtedness and risks associated with the same;
legal, regulatory, and environmental issues, including, without limitation, compliance of our products with mandated standards and specifications; and
integration of acquired businesses and our ability to realize synergies and cost savings.
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. Except as required by federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events, occurrences or developments after the date on which such statement is made. For a discussion of risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ from those contained in the forward-looking statements, please see Item 1A “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and as otherwise disclosed from time to time in our other filings with the SEC.
1


PART I
Item 1.  Business.
Overview
AAON, Inc., a Nevada corporation, (“AAON Nevada”) was incorporated on August 18, 1987. Our operating subsidiaries include AAON, Inc., an Oklahoma corporation ("AAON Oklahoma"), AAON Coil Products, Inc., a Texas corporation ("AAON Coil Products"), and BASX, Inc., an Oregon corporation ("BASX"). Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report to “AAON”, the “Company”, “we”, “us”, “our”, or “ours” refer to AAON Nevada and our subsidiaries.
AAON is a lead producer in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ("HVAC") systems for commercial and industrial indoor environments. We are engaged in the engineering, manufacturing, and selling of premium heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment consisting primarily of semi-custom and custom rooftop units, data center cooling solutions, cleanroom systems, packaged outdoor mechanical rooms, air handling units, makeup air units, energy recovery units, condensing units, geothermal/water-source heat pumps, coils, and controls.
Business Segments
The Company conducts its business through three business segments: AAON Oklahoma, AAON Coil Products, and BASX.
AAON Oklahoma: AAON Oklahoma engineers, manufactures, and sells, semi-custom, and custom HVAC systems, designs and manufactures controls solutions, and sells retail parts to customers through retail part stores and online. AAON Oklahoma includes the operations of our Tulsa, OK and Parkville, MO manufacturing facilities, two retail locations, and the Norman Asbjornson Innovation Center ("NAIC") research and development laboratory accredited by the Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc. ("AMCA").
With the NAIC, a world-class research and development ("R&D") laboratory in Tulsa, OK, our products are continuously tested under a variety of extreme environmental conditions to ensure they deliver the ultimate performance, efficiency, and value.
Also located in Tulsa, OK, our cutting-edge Customer Exploration Center showcases the engineering, design attributes and premium build quality of our equipment side-by-side the market alternatives.
AAON Coil Products: AAON Coil Products engineers and manufactures a selection of our semi-custom, and custom HVAC systems as well as a variety of heating and cooling coils to be used in HVAC systems, mostly for the benefit of AAON Oklahoma, AAON Coil Products, and BASX. AAON Coil Products consists of operations at our Longview, TX manufacturing facilities.
BASX: BASX engineers, manufactures, and sells an array of custom, high-performance cooling solutions for the rapidly growing hyperscale data center market, ventilation solutions for cleanroom environments in the bio-pharmaceutical, semiconductor, medical and agriculture markets, and highly custom, air handlers and modular solutions for a vast array of markets. BASX consists of operations at our Redmond, OR manufacturing facilities.
For more information on our business segments' financial position and results of operations, refer to Note 22, "Segments," of the notes to consolidated financial statements.
Business and Marketing Strategy
Our products serve the commercial, industrial, data center, and cleanroom markets within the HVAC equipment industry. Our business strategy involves mass semi-customization leveraging flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce highly configurable equipment. We differentiate from other HVAC manufacturers by combining the low unit costs of mass production processes with the flexibility of individual customization.
Through a collaborative effort with our network of independent sales representatives, we engineer and manufacture products and systems that best serve the buyer's unique needs and applications.
Our go-to-market strategy is centered around customers and markets that demand HVAC equipment with extraordinary performance and durability, greater energy efficiency, and best overall value. We manufacture equipment with more configurability than other "standard" offerings found in the HVAC equipment industry and we do not manufacture equipment that has not been pre-specified by our customers with an emphasis on high customer satisfaction and reduced product delivery channel time.
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Since day one, AAON has been dedicated to manufacturing and product leadership with innovation through research and development with a specific emphasis on energy performance, durability, efficiency, and indoor air quality.
As a result of our strategy to engineer and manufacture innovative HVAC products of the highest performance, efficiency, and value, we are naturally committed to meeting regulatory and certification standards of the relevant standard setting bodies, including the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (“AHRI”); the American National Standards Institute ("ANSI"); American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers ("ASHRAE"); the AMCA and the International Organization for Standardization ("ISO").
To date, our sales have been primarily derived from the domestic market. Foreign sales accounted for approximately $39.9 million, $27.6 million, and $14.8 million of our net sales in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. As a percentage of net sales, foreign sales accounted for approximately 3.4%, 3.1%, and 3.0% of our net sales in each of those years, respectively.
Products - AAON Oklahoma and AAON Coil Products
Our rooftop and condensing units are primarily installed on commercial or industrial structures. Our air handling units, self-contained units, geothermal/water-source heat pumps, and coils are suitable for all sizes of commercial and industrial buildings.
The size of these markets is determined primarily by the number of commercial and industrial building completions and replacement demand from existing buildings. The replacement market consists of products installed to replace existing units/components that are worn or damaged and products to upgrade certain components, such as low leakage dampers, high efficiency heat exchangers and modern controls components.
The commercial and industrial new construction markets are subject to cyclical fluctuations in that they generally lag behind the housing market. The housing market, in turn, is influenced by cyclical factors such as interest rates, inflation, consumer spending habits, employment rates, the state of the economy and other macroeconomic factors. When new construction is down, we emphasize the replacement market. The ratio of sales for new construction versus replacement is related to various factors. Generally, the cyclicality of the new construction market impacts this ratio the most over an economic cycle.
We purchase certain components, fabricate sheet metal and tubing and then assemble and test the finished products. Our primary finished product consists of a single unit system that generates heating and cooling in a self-contained cabinet, referred to in the industry as “unitary product”. Our other finished products are coils, air handling units, condensing units, makeup air units, energy recovery units, rooftop units, geothermal/water-source heat pumps, and controls. 
We offer three groups of rooftop units: the RQ Series, consisting of five cooling sizes ranging from two to six tons; the RN Series, offered in 28 cooling sizes ranging from six to 140 tons; and the RZ Series, which is offered in 15 cooling sizes ranging from 45 to 261 tons.
When configured as Air-Source Heat Pumps ("ASHP"), the RQ and RN Series (2 to 50 tons), are capable of operating in ambient outside temperatures as low as zero degrees Fahrenheit. Known as the AAON Alpha Class, our omni-climate ASHPs are a critical solution that meet the increasing demand for building decarbonization. Utilizing variable speed technology, these innovative ASHPs provide energy-efficient heating and cooling throughout the year in virtually any climate.
In addition to our legendary RTUs, we offer the SA, SB and M2 Series as indoor packaged, water-cooled or geothermal/water-source heat pump self-contained units with cooling capacities of three to 70 tons.
Our condensing unit, the CF Series, is available from two to 70 tons and can be configured as an Alpha Class ASHP.
Our air handling units consist of the indoor H3 and V3 Series and the modular M2 Series, as well as air handling unit configurations of the RQ, RN, RZ, and SA Series units.
Our energy recovery option applicable to our RQ, RN, RZ, and SB units, as well as our H3, V3, and M2 Series air handling units, responds to the U.S. Clean Air Act mandate to increase fresh air in commercial structures. Our products are designed to compete on the higher quality end of standardized products.
Our RN, RQ, M2, and SB Series, are AHRI certified in accordance with ANSI/AHRI/ASHRAE/ISO 13256.
Our unitary products (RQ and RN Series) are certified with AHRI and the US Department of Energy to ANSI/AHRI 210/240 up to five tons capacity and ANSI/AHRI 340/360 up to 63 tons capacity.
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Performance characteristics of our products range in cooling capacity from two to 261 tons and in heating capacity from 7,200 to 4,500,000 British Thermal Units ("BTUs"). Many of our products far exceed these minimum standards and are among the highest efficiency products currently available in the market.
A typical commercial building installation requires one ton of air conditioning for every 300-400 square feet or, for a 100,000 square foot building, 250 tons of air conditioning, which can involve multiple units.
Our packaged RTUs with two stage or variable speed compressors are optimized with high efficiency evaporator and condenser coils and variable speed fans, leading to an AHRI Certified performance up to 20.3 seasonal energy efficiency ratio ("SEER") and 22.5 integrated energy efficiency ratio ("IEER"). AAON H3/V3 Series energy recovery wheel air handling units provide energy efficient 100% outside air ventilation by recovering energy that would otherwise be exhausted from a building.
In addition to the equipment we manufacture, we design and produce high-performance controls solutions that enhances our equipment’s unique features and capabilities. Our controls division provides factory-developed and tested control options for Variable Air Volume, Make-Up Air, Single Zone VAV, Constant Volume, and Zoning systems associated with our products and other HVAC related equipment.
We offer several controls options: the Orion Controller, factory installed customer provided controls, and terminal block for field installed controls. Most of our controls are Underwriters Laboratories category ZPVI2 compliant and BACnet Testing Laboratories certified which ensures our products meet internationally recognized standards for safety, traceability, conformance, and production quality. Our economizer function is California Title 24 certified to minimize energy consumption. Our proven sequences of operation optimize the performance of our HVAC units.
Out of the box, our controls are user-friendly and configurable to provide a variety of HVAC unit application options, in addition, we are able to customize our controls to meet customers’ unique requirements.
Products - BASX
The products BASX manufactures are highly engineered and customized products, fully complementing our legacy business. BASX data center cooling solutions are focused on providing highly configurable, purpose-built equipment with a focus on efficiency, speed of deployment, and quality. High-performance air-cooled chiller solutions are provided with indirect airside economization and optional adiabatic assisted cooling, and are designed to integrate with high performance computing systems requiring direct to chip cooling. White space process cooling solutions include fan coil walls, computer room air handling ("CRAH") units, overhead fan coils, in-row coolers, and chilled water air handlers. Packaged solutions include coupled economizing chillers with integrated air handling units, direct evaporative coolers, and packaged direct expansion ("DX") solutions with airside economizers.
BASX cleanroom products are built to provide environmental control serving critical processes and high-fidelity control for precise industry requirements. Process cooling solutions include recirculation air handling units and make up air handling units including integration of piping systems and controls. Environmental control solutions include modular cleanroom environments, fan filter units, filtered ceiling grids with integral flush mount lighting, pressurized plenums with integral ceiling grids, and hospital surgical suites.
BASX custom air handling products are primarily used in commercial, industrial, healthcare, and institutional facilities employing chilled water cooling, packaged direct expansion, heating hot water, indirect gas direct heat, humidification, dehumidification, filtration, and integrated controls. BASX manufactures plenum fans for integration into air handling units as well as for replacement applications. BASX also offers integrated sound performance solutions.
Air Quality Products
The ASHRAE, a professional association with a goal of advancing HVAC systems designs and construction, established an Epidemic Task Force in 2020 and determined several recommendations to mitigate the spread of the virus, including humidity control, air filtration, increased outdoor air ventilation, and air disinfection.
Humidity control - We continue to lead the market in developing energy efficient humidity control with the use of variable capacity compressors and modulating hot gas reheat. Designing HVAC systems with superior humidity control allows building management to maintain ASHRAE’s recommended ambient relative humidity levels of 40%-60%, the ideal level to inactivate viruses in the air and on surfaces.
Air Filtration - We standardized a design that uses a backward curved fan wheel, which can accommodate higher airflow and static pressure required for the ASHRAE recommended MERV 13 filtration, the minimum filter level for virus mitigation, with very little reconfiguration. Prior to 2020, a vast majority of commercial buildings used
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filtration levels of MERV 4 to MERV 8, which has always been acceptable for filtering out typical particulates in the air stream.
Outdoor Air Ventilation - Our innovative use of energy recovery wheels and energy recovery plates combined with its superior humidity control design can help building management follow outdoor ventilation air recommendations while limiting an increase of energy usage and maintaining recommended humidity levels. AAON has been the leader in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems ("DOAS") for many years.
On October 31st, 2022, the US Department of Energy ("DOE") released their final ruling concerning DX-DOAS. These are systems that condition primarily fresh outside air streams to maintain space comfort and air quality.
Starting May 1, 2024 the DOE will begin regulating the efficiency of dedicated outdoor air units separately from other comfort cooling systems. AAON perceives this as an advantage because our equipment is designed for higher energy efficiency and superior part load and dehumidification performance than competitors who focus on the initial sale price of their equipment or do not participate in the certification programs offered by AHRI.
Air Disinfection - Our basic design characteristics allow for an easy installation of ultraviolet lighting equipment. In addition to this equipment offered as options in new units sold, our basic design characteristics allow for easy installation in units already used in the field.
Overall, we are well positioned to accommodate the heightened demand for features that can help mitigate virus transmission and improve indoor air quality. The features that ASHRAE recommends require premium designs and configurations that are standard in our units. As a result, we are able to incorporate air quality features into our units at a minimal price premium and with no delivery delay.
Representatives
As of December 31, 2023, we employ a sales staff of 82 individuals and utilize approximately 59 independent manufacturer representatives’ organizations (“Representatives”) having 139 offices to market our products primarily in the United States and Canada. Sales are made directly to the contractor or end user, with shipments being made from our Tulsa, Oklahoma, Longview, Texas, Parkville, Missouri, or Redmond, Oregon facilities to the job site.
Historically, our products and sales strategy focused on niche markets and applications. However, market trends related to the COVID-19 pandemic and indoor air quality, decarbonization and energy efficiency, and higher energy prices, have positioned us to focus on a wider spectrum of the nonresidential HVAC equipment industry. The targeted markets for our equipment are customers seeking products of higher performance and better quality than those offered, and/or options not offered, by standardized manufacturers.
To support and service our customers and the ultimate consumer, we provide parts availability through our Representatives' sales offices, as well as our two Tulsa, Oklahoma operated retail parts stores, to serve the local markets. We also have factory service organizations at each of our facilities. Additionally, a number of the Representatives we utilize have their own service organizations, which, in connection with us, provide the necessary warranty work and/or normal service to customers.
We have a program focused on increasing service capabilities across our North America Representative network, by assisting Representatives with business plans, providing training, and creating a cohesive network of service organizations to better meet the operational and maintenance needs of our customer base.
Warranties
Our product warranty policy is the earlier of one year from the date of first use or 18 months from date of shipment for parts only, including controls; 18 months for data center cooling solutions and cleanroom systems; five years for compressors (if applicable); 15 years on aluminized steel gas-fired heat exchangers (if applicable); 25 years on stainless steel heat exchangers (if applicable); and ten years on gas-fired heat exchangers in our historical RL products (if applicable). Our warranty policy for the RQ series covers parts for two years from date of unit shipment. Our warranty policy for the WH and WV Series geothermal/water-source heat pumps covers parts for five years from the date of installation.
The Company also sells extended warranties on parts for various lengths of time ranging from six months to ten years. Revenue for these separately priced warranties is deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the separately priced warranty period.
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Major Customers
For the years-ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, Texas AirSystems accounted for approximately 13.8%, 12.4%, and 11.7% of our sales, respectively. Through portfolio groups, Meriton has an ownership interest in Texas AirSystems and certain other of our sales representatives. The aggregate sales percentages through Meriton-affiliated groups that are in addition to Texas AirSystems’ sales for the years-ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 accounted for an additional 2.3%, 1.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two other similar groups, Ambient and Hobbs/Insight, share common ownership of some of our other sales representatives through portfolio groups and for the year-ended December 31, 2023, aggregate sales through their portfolio groups accounted for approximately 11.5% and 10.2% of our sales, respectively. Sales through the portfolio groups of either Ambient or Hobbs/Insight did not account for 10% or more of our sales for any years-ended prior to December 31, 2023.
Backlog
Our backlog as of February 1, 2024 was approximately $507.7 million. Management considers the orders that make up the backlog to be firm commitments with minimal risk of cancellation. This is consistent with historical trends as we rarely receive cancellations, even during recessionary times. Nonetheless, orders are subject to cancellation, in which case, cancellation charges apply up to the full price of the equipment. After an order is deemed firm and is entered into the backlog, lead times to fulfill orders for AAON Oklahoma and AAON Coil Products is generally around 11 weeks. Orders for BASX product, including orders built at AAON Coil Products' Longview location are typically placed months in advance of requested delivery to secure production for those projects. As a result, portions of the backlog do not turn over within our 11 week lead time.
Competition
Our AAON Oklahoma and AAON Coil Products product offerings primarily compete with Lennox (Lennox International, Inc.), Trane (Trane Technologies plc), York International (Johnson Controls International PLC), Carrier (Carrier Global Corporation), and Daikin (Daikin Industries). Our BASX product offerings primarily compete with Vertiv (Vertiv Holdings Co.), STULZ (STULZ Air Technology Systems, Inc.), Munters, Silent Aire (Johnson Controls International PLC), Nortek (Nortek Air Solutions), and Engineered Air.
All of our publicly traded competitors are substantially larger and have greater resources than we do. Our products compete on the basis of total value, quality, function, serviceability, efficiency, availability of product, reliability, product line recognition, and acceptability of sales outlets. Historically, our premium equipment was sold at a higher average price compared to most of the competition. In the replacement market and other owner-controlled purchases, we have been successful at taking market share due to the total value proposition and lower cost of ownership our products provide to building owners over the life span of the equipment. In the new construction market where the contractor is the purchasing decision maker, we were often at a competitive disadvantage because of the emphasis placed on initial cost. However, due to operational efficiency improvements we made over the last several years, the cost of our semi-custom equipment is more comparable to the standard equipment market. As a result, the value proposition of our higher quality equipment is now more attractive, making us more competitive in both the new construction and replacement markets.
Resources
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
The most important materials we purchase are steel, copper, and aluminum. We also purchase from other manufacturers certain components, including coils, compressors, electric motors, and electrical controls used in our products. We attempt to obtain the lowest possible cost in our purchases of raw materials and components, consistent with meeting specified quality standards. We are not dependent upon any one source for raw materials or the major components of our manufactured products. By having multiple suppliers, we believe that we will have adequate sources of supplies to meet our manufacturing requirements for the foreseeable future.
We attempt to limit the impact of price fluctuations on these materials by entering into cancellable and non-cancellable contracts with our major suppliers for periods of six to 18 months. We expect to receive delivery of raw materials from our contracts for use in our manufacturing operations.
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Working Capital Practices
Working capital practices in the industry center on inventories and accounts receivable. Our management regularly reviews our working capital with a view of maintaining the lowest level consistent with requirements of anticipated levels of operation and expected supply chain restraints. Our working capital requirements are generally met by cash flow from operations and a bank revolving credit facility, which currently permits borrowings up to $200.0 million and had a $38.3 million outstanding balance at December 31, 2023. Borrowings available under the revolving credit facility at December 31, 2023, were $159.4 million. We believe that we will have sufficient funds available to meet our working capital needs for the foreseeable future.
Research and Development
Our products are engineered for performance, flexibility, and serviceability. This has become a critical factor in competing in the HVAC equipment industry. We must continually develop new and improved products in order to compete effectively and to meet evolving regulatory standards in all of our major product lines.
We self-sponsor our R&D activities, rather than needing to be customer-sponsored. R&D activities have involved the RQ, RN, and RZ (rooftop units), H3, SA, V3, and M2 (air handling units), CF (condensing units), and the SA and SB (self-contained units), as well as component evaluation and refinement, development of control systems and new product development. R&D expenses incurred were approximately $43.7 million, $46.8 million, and $16.6 million in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. The significant increase for the year ended December 31, 2022 was related to the inclusion of a full year of operations of BASX (Note 4) as well as our commitment to product performance and innovation.
Our NAIC research and development laboratory facility includes many unique capabilities, which, to our knowledge, exist nowhere else in the world. A few features of the NAIC include supply, return, and outside sound testing at actual load conditions, testing of up to a 300 ton air conditioning system, up to a 540 ton chiller system, and 80 million BTU/hr of gas heating test capacity. The NAIC carries accreditation from AMCA for standards AMCA 210 (aerodynamic performance rating) & AMCA 300 (reverberant room sound testing). Environmental application testing capabilities include -20 to 130°F testing conditions, up to 8 inches per hour rain testing, up to 2 inches per hour snow testing, and up to 50 mph wind testing. We believe we have the largest sound-testing chamber in the world for testing heating and air conditioning equipment and are not aware of any similar labs that can conduct this testing while putting the equipment under full environmental load. The unique capabilities of the NAIC will enable us to lead the industry in the development of quiet, energy efficient commercial and industrial heating and air conditioning equipment.  
The NAIC currently houses twelve testing chambers. These testing chambers allow us to meet and maintain AHRI and DOE certification and solidify the Company’s industry position as a technological leader in the manufacturing of HVAC equipment. Current voluntary industry certification programs and government regulations only go up to 63 tons of air conditioning. The NAIC contains both a 100 ton and a 300 ton chamber, allowing us to uniquely prove to customers our capacity and efficiency on these larger units.    
The NAIC was designed to test products well beyond the standard AHRI rating points and allows us to offer testing services on our equipment throughout our range of product application. This capability is vital for critical facilities where the units must perform properly and allows our customers to verify the performance of our units in advance, rather than after installation. These same capabilities have allowed AAON to develop low ambient air source heat pump products that are unique in being able to address the growing need for these type units that address electrification initiatives and commitments.
Our Parkville, Missouri location is home to our new Electronics Prototyping Lab ("Lab") featuring a fully functional SMD (Surface Mount Device) production line. The production line incorporates automated pick-and-place equipment able to quickly and accurately place devices as small as 0.1mm by 0.2mm, the same technology scale used in cell phones. The production line also includes a profiled reflow oven to assure reliability in the finished prototypes. The Lab has allowed us to increase our speed to market and incorporate cutting-edge technology into our control designs. In addition, it allows our Controls Engineering team to utilize their hardware and software development skills to outpace our competitors in responding to market changes and upsets.
Patents, Trademarks, Licenses, and Concessions
We do not consider any patents, trademarks, licenses, or concessions to be material to our business operations, other than those described below.
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We hold several patents that relate to the design and use of our products. We consider these patents important, but no single patent is material to the overall conduct of our business. We proactively obtain patents to further our strategic intellectual property objectives. We own certain trademarks we consider important in the marketing of our products and services, and we protect our marks through national registrations and common law rights. Our patents have legal terms of 20 years with expiration dates ranging from 2023 to 2039.
The Company’s trademarks, certain of which are material to its business, are registered or otherwise legally protected in the U.S.
Seasonality
Historically, sales of our products were moderately seasonal with the peak period being May-October of each year due to timing of construction projects being directly related to warmer weather. However, in recent years, given the increase in demand of our products and increase in our backlog, sales has become more constant throughout the year.
Environmental & Regulatory Matters
Laws concerning the environment that affect or could affect our operations include, among others, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, regulations promulgated under these Acts and any other federal, state or local laws or regulations governing environmental matters. We believe that we are in compliance with these laws and that future compliance will not materially affect our earnings or competitive position.
Since our founding in 1987, we have maintained a commitment to design, develop, manufacture, and deliver heating and cooling products to perform beyond all expectations and to demonstrate our quality and value to our customers. Our equipment is designed with energy efficiency in mind, without sacrificing premium features and options. In addition to our high standard of product performance, is a commitment to sustainability for our employees, our stockholders, and our customers. We strive to conduct our business in a socially responsible and ethical manner with a focus on environmental stewardship, team member safety and community engagement. We comply with industry regulations and requirements while pursuing responsible economic growth and profitability.
In 2023, we published our fifth annual environmental, social, and governance ("ESG") report sharing our approach in the material areas of stakeholder engagement, innovation and efficiency, environmental responsibility, climate change, occupational health and safety, talent attraction and retention, diversity and inclusion, community engagement and investment, corporate governance and ethics and compliance. The report also highlights achievements and long-term targets related to greenhouse gas emissions, hazardous waste recycling, and non-fossil fuel consuming products. We participate in a sustainability benchmarking initiative, the Sustainability Alliance Scor3card, through which we monitor and report in the material areas of energy, material management, water, community stewardship, transportation, communication, and health. We achieved Platinum level in this program in 2023 and 2022. Our ESG committee provides oversight for ESG activities, ESG report development and an internal grassroots sustainability committee provides education opportunities, communications and recommendations to the Company on a regular basis.
We are committed to environmental responsibility and continue to make progress toward reducing greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions, increasing paint byproduct recycling from our facilities and increasing the percentage of non-fossil fuel powered units we produce. Our approach toward emissions reduction and climate change includes product solutions for our customers and improvements to our own facilities. Approximately 36% of our energy portfolio is currently derived from renewable sources, and the Company's Scope 1 and 2 emissions (emissions that occur from sources that are controlled or owned by an organization and emissions associated with the purchase of electricity, steam, heat, or cooling) are being tracked. We opted into an additional percentage of renewable energy at our Tulsa, Oklahoma facilities in 2022, continued to invest and partner on projects that reduce GHG emissions globally and have begun the transition to the lower global warming potential R-454B refrigerant. We continue to develop and manufacture non-fossil fuel consuming units to provide the most sustainable commercial HVAC equipment in the market and announced the zero degree cold air-source heat pump in 2022 as a critical solution that meets the increasing demand for building decarbonization in cold climates.
In the area of energy efficiency and conservation, our Tulsa, Oklahoma and Longview, Texas facilities have transitioned to nearly 100% LED lighting in our facilities leading to considerable cost savings and reduced energy consumption. Our Redmond, Oregon facilities are installing LED lights into any new fixtures in their current facility and working towards retrofitting old fixtures to LED. We participate in an energy demand response program through
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the public utility provider to reduce demand during peak hours. Energy efficiency has been a priority not only in product development, but also in overall capital investments which include the acquisition of new, energy efficient equipment for the production floor, new high-speed overhead facility doors, the installation of new HVAC equipment, building control systems, the application of heat and light reflective material to production facilities, along with other behavioral-based energy efficiency changes. We are tracking our energy usage intensity before and after these updates. We also opened the Customer Exploration Center in 2023, a net-zero facility powered by solar and geothermal energy.
In the area of material management, we focus on recycling, reducing, reusing and sourcing more environmentally-friendly materials into our processes. At our Tulsa, Oklahoma and Longview, Texas facilities, we recycled over 13,678 tons, 14,928 tons, and 13,793 tons of metal in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Also, through our partnership with a waste to energy facility, we successfully diverted over 694 tons, 668 tons, and 460 tons of waste from landfills in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. We have identified paint product recycling partners at both our Tulsa, Oklahoma and Longview, Texas facilities. We also recycle paper, wood, and cardboard where available. We continue to innovate ways to reduce and reuse shipping packaging between facilities and identify new opportunities to reduce or reuse items in our production and administrative areas.
Human Capital Resources
Our employees are not represented by unions or other collective bargaining agreements. Management considers its relations with our employees to be good. The following table represents the number of our direct employees and contract personnel we employed on each respective date:
As ofAs of As of
February 20, 2024February 22, 2023February 23, 2022
AAON Oklahoma2,6632,4741,979
AAON Coil Products586 681574
BASX607 511 328 
    Total employees3,856 3,666 2,881 
Our key human capital measures include employee safety, turnover, absenteeism, and production. We frequently benchmark our compensation practices and benefits programs against those of comparable industries and in the geographic areas where our facilities are located. We believe that our compensation and employee benefits are competitive and allow us to attract and retain skilled and unskilled labor throughout our organization. Some of our notable health, welfare, and retirement benefits include:
Employee medical plan (with 175% employer health saving plan match)
401(k) Plan (with 175% employer match)
Profit sharing bonus plan
Tuition assistance program
Paid time off
Paid parental leave
Military pay
Short-term and long-term disability
Identity theft protection
Group life insurance
Available Information
Our Internet website address is http://www.aaon.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, will be available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The information on our website is not a part of, or incorporated by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K.
Copies of any materials we file with the SEC can also be obtained free of charge through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549, or by calling the SEC at 1-800-732-0330.
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Item 1A.  Risk Factors.
The following risks and uncertainties may affect our performance and results of operations. The discussion below contains “forward-looking statements” as outlined in the Forward-Looking Statements section above. Our ability to mitigate risks may cause our future results to materially differ from what we currently anticipate. Additionally, the ability of our competitors to react to material risks will affect our future results.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and stock price can be adversely affected by pandemics, epidemics, or other public health emergencies, such as COVID-19.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic, and the President of the United States declared the COVID-19 outbreak a national emergency. The outbreak resulted in governments around the world implementing increasingly stringent measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments, school closures, vaccination or testing mandates and other measures. In addition, governments and central banks in several parts of the world enacted fiscal and monetary stimulus measures to counteract the impacts of COVID-19.
We are considered a critical infrastructure industry, as defined by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Although we have continued to operate our facilities to date consistent with federal guidelines and state and local orders, the outbreak of COVID-19 and any preventive or protective actions taken by governmental authorities may have a material adverse effect on our operations, supply chain, customers, and transportation networks, including business shutdowns or disruptions. During 2023, 2022, and 2021 we experienced some price increases in our components and raw materials, which appear to be a result of COVID-19 and subsequent inflation, as well as supply chain challenges related to certain manufacturing parts.
Even though the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may experience materially adverse impacts to our business due to any resulting economic recession or depression. Additionally, concerns over the economic impact of COVID-19 have caused extreme volatility in financial and other capital markets which may adversely impact our stock price and our ability to access capital markets. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this Annual Report, such as those relating to our products and financial performance.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our business can be hurt by economic conditions.
Our business is affected by a number of economic factors, including the level of economic activity in the markets in which we operate. Sales in the commercial and industrial new construction markets correlate to the number of new homes and buildings that are built, which in turn is influenced by cyclical factors such as interest rates, inflation, consumer spending habits, employment rates, and other macroeconomic factors over which we have no control. In the HVAC business, a decline in economic activity as a result of these cyclical or other factors typically results in a decline in new construction and replacement purchases which could impact our sales volume and profitability.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted by the loss of one or more major customers.
From time to time in the past we derived a significant portion of our sales from a limited number of customers, and such concentration may continue in the future.  The loss of, or significant reduction in sales to significant customers (or a related portfolio group of customers) could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flow. Further, the addition of new major customers in the future could increase our customer concentration risks as described above.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted by the loss of a major third-party representative.
We are dependent on our third-party representatives to market and sell our products. If such relationships were terminated or impaired for any reason, it could materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues and profits. Certain of our competitors with greater financial resources than us could target our third-party representatives for exclusive sales channels. We may not be able to secure additional third-party representatives who will effectively market our products in certain geographical areas. In addition, adding new representatives requires
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additional administrative efforts and costs. If we are unable to establish new representative relationships or continue current relationships, or terminate and replace our third-party representatives, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We may incur material costs as a result of warranty and product liability claims that would negatively affect our profitability.
The development, manufacture, sale and use of our products involve a risk of warranty and product liability claims. Our product liability insurance policies have limits that, if exceeded, may result in material costs that would have an adverse effect on our future profitability. An excess of or significant claim(s) could lead to the cancellation of our polices and the loss of and inability to find additional insurance carriers. In addition, warranty claims are not covered by our product liability insurance and there may be types of product liability claims that are also not covered by our product liability insurance.
We depend on our senior leadership team and the loss of our Chief Executive Officer or one or more key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our officers and senior leadership team. In particular, our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"), Gary D. Fields, is critical to our vision, strategic direction, culture, and overall business success. Furthermore, Mr. Fields' extensive industry knowledge and sales-channel experience would be difficult to replace. We also rely on our senior leadership team in the areas of research and development, marketing, production, sales, and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our senior leadership team resulting from the hiring or departure of senior leadership team members, which could disrupt our business. While we have a robust succession plan in place for each one of our officers and senior leadership team members, the loss of one or more could have a serious adverse effect on our business.
We do not maintain key-man insurance for Gary D. Fields or any other member of our senior leadership team. Other than the employment agreements negotiated with certain employees of BASX, we do not have employment agreements with our officers or senior leadership team members that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period and, therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. The employment agreements with the employees of BASX guarantee certain compensation, such as salary and benefits, and employment terms. We do not believe the terms or conditions of these agreements are outside the standard expectation of another employee at a similar level.
Operations may be affected by natural disasters, especially since most of our operations are performed at a single location.
Natural disasters such as tornadoes, ice storms and fires, as well as accidents, acts of terror, infection, and other factors beyond our control could adversely affect our operations. Our facilities are in areas where tornadoes are likely to occur, and the majority of our operations are at our Tulsa, Oklahoma facilities. With the acquisition of BASX in 2021, we now have operations in an area that is, historically, impacted by wild fires. The effects of natural disasters and other events could damage our facilities and equipment and force a temporary halt to manufacturing and other operations, and such events could consequently cause severe damage to our business. We maintain insurance against these sorts of events; however, this is not guaranteed to cover all the losses and damages incurred. Furthermore, we may experience significant increases in our insurance premium costs in relation to these matters that may have a material adverse effect upon our business, liquidity, financial condition, or results of operations.
If we are unable to hire, develop or retain employees, it could have an adverse effect on our business.
We compete to hire new employees and then seek to train them to develop their skills. We may not be able to successfully recruit, develop, and retain the personnel we need. Unplanned turnover or failure to hire and retain a diverse, skilled workforce, could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our results of operations.
Variability in self-insurance liability estimates could impact our results of operations.
We self-insure for certain employee health insurance and workers’ compensation insurance coverage up to a predetermined level, beyond which we maintain stop-loss insurance from a third-party insurer. Our aggregate exposure varies from year to year based upon the number of participants in our insurance plans. We estimate our self-insurance liabilities using an analysis provided by our claims administrator and our historical claims experience. Our accruals for insurance reserves reflect these estimates and other management judgments, which are subject to a
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high degree of variability. If the number or severity of claims for which we self-insure increases, it could cause a material and adverse change to our reserves for self-insurance liabilities, as well as to our earnings.
Risks Related to Our Brand and Product Offerings
We may not be able to compete favorably in the highly competitive HVAC business.
Competition in our various markets could cause us to reduce our prices or lose market share, which could have an adverse effect on our future financial results. Substantially all of the markets in which we participate are highly competitive. The most significant competitive factors we face are product reliability, product performance, service, manufacturing lead-times, and price, with the relative importance of these factors varying among our product line. Other factors that affect competition in the HVAC market include the development and application of new technologies and an increasing emphasis on the development of more efficient HVAC products. Moreover, new product introductions are an important factor in the market categories in which our products compete. Several of our competitors have greater financial and other resources than we have, allowing them to invest in more extensive research and development. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competition and current and future competitive pressures faced by us may materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We may not be able to successfully develop and market new products.
Our future success will depend upon our continued investment in research and new product development and our ability to continue to achieve new technological advances in the HVAC industry. Our inability to continue to successfully develop and market new products or our inability to implement technological advances on a pace consistent with that of our competitors could lead to a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Furthermore, our continued investment in new product development may render certain legacy products and components obsolete resulting in increased inventory obsolescence expense that may have a material adverse effect upon our financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to Material Sourcing and Supply
We may be adversely affected by problems in the availability, or increases in the prices, of raw materials and components.
Problems in the availability, or increases in the prices, of raw materials or components could depress our sales or increase the costs of our products. We are dependent upon components purchased from third parties, as well as raw materials such as steel, copper and aluminum. Occasionally, we enter into cancellable and non-cancellable contracts on terms from six to 18 months for raw materials and components. However, if a key supplier is unable or unwilling to meet our supply requirements, we could experience supply interruptions or cost increases, either of which could have an adverse effect on our gross profit.
We risk having losses resulting from the use of non-cancellable contracts.
Historically, we have attempted to limit the impact of price fluctuations on commodities by entering into non-cancellable contracts with our major suppliers for periods of six to 18 months. We expect to receive delivery of raw materials from our contracts for use in our manufacturing operations. These contracts are not accounted for using hedge accounting since they meet the normal purchases and sales exemption. The use of such contracts could cause us to forego the economic benefits we would otherwise realize if prices were to change in our favor. Additionally, should there be a downturn in the market, we could be committed to purchase more materials than necessary for our production and carry excess inventory which could result in additional costs to the business.
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Risks Related to Electronic Data Processing and Digital Information
Our business is subject to the risks of interruptions by cybersecurity attacks.
We depend upon information technology infrastructure, including network, hardware and software systems to conduct our business. Despite our implementation of network and other cybersecurity measures, our information technology system and networks could be disrupted due to technological problems, a cyber-attack, acts of terrorism, severe weather, a solar event, an electromagnetic event, a natural disaster, the age and condition of information technology assets, human error, or other reasons. To date, we have not experienced a material impact to our business or operations resulting from cyber-security or other similar information attacks, but due to the ever-evolving attack methods, as well as the increased amount and level of sophistication of these attacks, our security measures may not be adequate to protect against highly targeted sophisticated cyber-attacks, or other improper disclosures of confidential and/or sensitive information. Additionally, we may have access to confidential or other sensitive information of our customers, which, despite our efforts to protect, may be vulnerable to security breaches, theft, or other improper disclosure. Any cyber-related attack or other improper disclosure of confidential information could have a material adverse effect on our business, as well as other negative consequences, including significant damage to our reputation, litigation, regulatory actions, and increased cost.
We are reliant on information technology.
We are reliant on information technology in all aspects of our business, operated and maintained by the Company as well as under control of third parties. If we do not invest sufficient capital in a timely manner to acquire, develop, or implement new information technologies or maintain or upgrade current information technologies, we could suffer outages as well as be at a competitive disadvantage within our industry which could have a material adverse effect upon our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Governmental Regulation and Policies
Exposure to environmental liabilities could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our future profitability could be adversely affected by current or future environmental laws. We are subject to extensive and changing federal, state and local laws and regulations designed to protect the environment in the United States and in other parts of the world. These laws and regulations could impose liability for remediation costs and result in civil or criminal penalties in case of non-compliance. Compliance with environmental laws increases our costs of doing business. Because these laws are subject to frequent change, we are unable to predict the future costs resulting from environmental compliance.
We are subject to potentially extreme governmental regulations and policies.
We always face the possibility of new governmental regulations, policies and trade agreements which could have a substantial or even extreme negative effect on our operations and profitability. Several intrusive component part governmental regulations are in process. If these proposals become final rules, the effect would be the regulation of compressors and fans in products for which the Department of Energy does not have current authority. This could affect equipment we currently manufacture and could have an impact on our product design, operations, and profitability.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act contains provisions to improve transparency and accountability concerning the supply of certain minerals, known as “conflict minerals”, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. As a result, in August 2012, the SEC adopted annual disclosure and reporting requirements for those companies who use conflict minerals in their products. Accordingly, we began our reasonable country of origin inquiries in fiscal year 2013, with initial disclosure requirements beginning in May 2014. There are costs associated with complying with these disclosure requirements, including for due diligence to determine the sources of conflict minerals used in our products and other potential changes to products, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. The implementation of these rules could adversely affect the sourcing, supply, and pricing of materials used in our products. As there may be only a limited number of suppliers offering “conflict free” conflict minerals, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain necessary conflict minerals from such suppliers in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. Also, we may face reputational challenges if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict free or if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins for all conflict minerals used in our products through the procedures we may implement.
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Our operations could be negatively impacted by new legislation as well as changes in regulations and trade agreements, including tariffs and taxes. Unfavorable conditions resulting from such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to adverse changes in tax laws.
Our tax expense or benefits could be adversely affected by changes in tax provisions, unfavorable findings in tax examinations, or differing interpretations by tax authorities. We are unable to estimate the impact that current and future tax proposals and tax laws could have on our results of operations. We are currently subject to state and local tax examinations for which we do not expect any major assessments.
We are subject to international regulations that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Due to our use of Representatives in foreign markets, we are subject to many laws governing international relations, including those that prohibit improper payments to government officials and commercial customers, and restrict where we can do business, what information or products we can supply to certain countries and what information we can provide to a non-U.S. government, including but not limited to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, U.K. Bribery Act and the U.S. Export Administration Act. Violations of these laws, which are complex, may result in criminal penalties or sanctions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in legislation or government regulations or policies could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our sales, gross margins and profitability could be directly impacted by changes in legislation or government regulations or policies. Specifically, changes in environmental and energy efficiency standards and regulations related to global climate change are being implemented to curtail the use of hydrofluorocarbons which are used in refrigerants that are essential to many of our products. Our inability or delay in developing or marketing products that match customer demand while also meeting applicable efficiency and environmental standards may negatively impact our results.
We are transitioning to a new refrigerant with lower global warming potential for our HVAC systems and must be fully compliant under current governmental regulations by 2025. We expect to incur costs associated with this transition related to the purchase of the new refrigerant as well as additional sensors and detectors on our HVAC systems. In addition, we expect to incur cost to our facilities, specifically costs to store and use the new refrigerant in production; however, we do not expect these costs to be significant. Due to the increased flammability of the new refrigerant, the insurance industry may require higher premiums for companies once the conversion begins. Furthermore, due to the expected increased demand of the newer refrigerants as well as the older hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants (as they are phased out), we expect to see increased manufacturing costs related to purchases of refrigerants and could see higher costs for future warranty claims. As with any significant regulatory change, delays or other changes to implementation timing could also have a negative impact on our operations and profitability.
Additionally, regulations that reduce or eliminate the use of fossil fuels such as natural gas and propane may reduce or eliminate sales of gas fired equipment for which AAON holds a strong market position. This will result in a shift to more air- and water-cooled heat pump type units to provide space heating. This shift in product line could affect production productivity material costs and aftermarket warranty costs.
Future legislation or regulations relating to environmental policies, product certification, product liability, taxes, amount and availability of tax incentives and other matters, may impact the results of each of our operating segments and our consolidated results.
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
ITEM 1C. Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity risk management and strategy
Our cybersecurity risk management is based on recognized cybersecurity industry frameworks and standards, including those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"), the Center for Internet Security ("CIS"), the Computer Objectives for Information and related Technology ("COBIT"), and the International Organization for Standardization ("ISO"). We use these frameworks, together with information collected from
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internal assessments, to develop policies for use of our information assets, access to specific intellectual property or technologies, and protection of personal information. We protect these information assets through industry-standard techniques, such as multifactor authentication and malware defenses. We also work with internal stakeholders across the company to integrate foundational cybersecurity principles throughout our organization’s operations, including employment of multiple layers of cybersecurity defenses, restricted access based on business need, and integrity of our business information. Throughout the year, we also regularly train our employees on cybersecurity awareness, confidential information protection and simulated phishing attacks.
We engage third-party assessors to conduct penetration testing and measure our program to industry standard frameworks as needed. We also have standing engagements with incident response experts and external counsel. We frequently collaborate with industry experts and cybersecurity practitioners at other companies to exchange information about potential cybersecurity threats, best practices and trends.
Our cybersecurity risk management is an important part of our comprehensive business continuity program and internal risk management. Our information security team periodically engages with a cross-functional group of subject matter experts and leaders to assess and refine our cybersecurity risk posture and preparedness. We practice our response to potential cybersecurity incidents through regular tabletop exercises, threat hunting and red team exercises.
For more information about cybersecurity risks, see the Risk factors discussion in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Governance of cybersecurity risk management
The board of directors, as a whole, has oversight responsibility for our strategic and operational risks. The audit committee assists the board of directors with this responsibility by reviewing and discussing our risk assessment and risk management practices, including cybersecurity risks, with members of management. The audit committee, in turn, periodically reports on its review with the board of directors.
Management is responsible for day-to-day assessment and management of cybersecurity risks. Our chief information officer has primary oversight of material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our chief information officer has more than 25 years of experience across various engineering, business and management roles, including leading the development and implementation of information technology strategies and roadmaps for manufacturing automation.
Our chief information officer assesses our cybersecurity readiness through internal assessment tools as well as third-party control tests, vulnerability assessments, audits and evaluation against industry standards. We have governance and compliance structures that are designed to elevate issues relating to cybersecurity to our chief information officer, such as potential threats or vulnerabilities. We also employ various defensive and continuous monitoring techniques using recognized industry frameworks and cybersecurity standards.
Our chief information officer meets with the audit committee periodically to review our information technology systems and discuss key cybersecurity risks. In addition, the chief financial officer reviews with the audit committee at least annually our risk management program, which includes cybersecurity risks, and is also reported to the board.
Item 2.  Properties.
Our manufacturing areas are heavy industrial type buildings, with some coverage by overhead cranes, containing manufacturing equipment designed for sheet metal fabrication, metal stamping and tube forming. The manufacturing equipment contained in the facilities consists primarily of automated sheet metal fabrication equipment, supplemented by presses and tube bending equipment. Assembly lines consist of cart-type and roller-type conveyor lines with variable line speed adjustment. Subassembly areas and production line manning are based upon line rates set by production management.
We own and lease our properties and facilities, as further described below. We believe that all of our facilities are well maintained and are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business.
AAON Oklahoma
Our plant and office facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma, consist of a 342,000 square foot building (327,000 square feet of manufacturing/warehouse space and 15,000 square feet of office space) located on a 12-acre tract of land at 2425 South Yukon Avenue. Additionally we own a 940,000 square foot manufacturing/warehouse building and a 70,000 square foot office building located on an approximately 79-acre tract of land across the street from the original facility (2440 South Yukon Avenue) and a 40,000 square foot building used as warehouse space located on a 6-acre tract.
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In 2023, we acquired an additional 17-acre tract of land adjacent to the east side of the current 12-acre tract. We also lease a 198,000 square foot warehouse space which is used for additional inventory storage in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
In addition to a retail parts store location at our Tulsa facilities, we also own a 13,500 square foot stand alone building (7,500 square foot warehouse and 6,000 square foot office) which is utilized as an additional retail parts store to provide our customers more accessibility to our products. The stand alone parts store building is on approximately one acre and is located at 9528 E 51st St in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Our Tulsa location is also home to our engineering research and development laboratory, the NAIC. The three-story, 134,000 square foot stand alone facility is both an acoustical and a performance measuring laboratory. This facility currently consists of twelve test chambers, allowing AAON to meet and maintain industry certifications. This facility is located west of the 940,000 square foot manufacturing/warehouse building at 2440 South Yukon Avenue.
In 2023, we opened our Exploration Center at our Tulsa location. The Exploration Center is a 28,000 square foot facility located adjacent to the NAIC. The Exploration Center provides an immersive and educational experience of our products, solutions and our people and also serves as an event hub for our stakeholders, including our customers, employees, representatives and investors. The Exploration Center adds a dimension of customer engagement that showcases our products and our competitors' products and allows our customers to interact with our employees.
Our operations in Parkville, Missouri, are conducted in a leased plant/office at 8500 NW River Park Drive. This location is home to our Controls design and manufacturing facilities. In October 2022, we modified the existing lease to increased our manufacturing and office space to approximately 86,000 square feet. During mid-2023, we began utilizing this additional space for manufacturing operations.
AAON Coil Products
Our plant and office facilities in Longview, Texas, consist of a 263,000 square foot building (256,000 square feet of manufacturing/warehouse space and 7,000 square feet of office space) located on a 13-acre tract of land, a 222,000 square foot building (210,000 square feet of manufacturing/warehouse space and 12,000 square feet of office space) located on an approximately 22-acre tract of land, and a 5,000 square foot building utilized as a retail parts store which we lease to a Representative of the Company. All of these facilities are located on Gum Springs Road.
In January 2023, we purchased additional real property and improvements consisting of 64,000 square feet of warehouse space located on a 10-acre tract of land at 115 Kodak Boulevard in Longview, Texas.
In April 2023, we broke ground on an expansion to our 222,000 square foot building. The expansion consists of 237,500 square feet of office and manufacturing space that will be dedicated to unit production. We expect that we will be able to utilize this space in late 2024.
BASX
Our operations in Redmond, Oregon, are conducted in a plant/office at 3500 SW 21st Place, containing approximately 194,000 square feet (169,000 square feet of manufacturing/warehouse space and 25,000 square feet of office space) on a 13-acre tract of land.
In August 2022, we purchased additional real property of approximately one-acre adjacent to the plant/office at 3500 SW 21st Place, to facilitate future growth of our operations. In the third quarter of 2023, we broke ground on an approximate 30,000 square foot fabrication facility residing on the one-acre tract of land. We expect to be in operation in this facility in late 2024.
We lease several properties near our main Redmond, Oregon location. In the aggregate, these properties contain approximately 104,500 square feet of additional warehouse space. Additionally, we lease an office of approximately 4,000 square feet located at 1725 Blankenship Road, West Linn, Oregon.
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings.
See Note 18 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosure.
Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information - Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “AAON”. As of the close of business on February 23, 2024, there were 1,030 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends - At the discretion of the Board of Directors, we pay cash dividends. Board approval is required to determine the date of declaration and amount for each cash dividend payment.
Our cash dividends for the three years ended December 31, 2023 are as follows:
DividendAnnualized Dividend
Declaration Date1
Record DatePayment Date
 per Share2
per Share2
May 17, 2021June 3, 2021July 1, 2021$0.13$0.26
November 9, 2021November 26, 2021December 17, 2021$0.13$0.26
May 18, 2022June 3, 2022July 1, 2022$0.13$0.26
November 8, 2022November 28, 2022December 16, 2022$0.16$0.32
March 1, 2023March 13, 2023March 31, 2023$0.08$0.32
May 18, 2023June 9, 2023June 30, 2023$0.08$0.32
August 18, 2023September 8, 2023September 29, 2023$0.08$0.32
November 10, 2023November 29, 2023December 18, 2023$0.08$0.32
1 Effective with the cash dividend declared on March 1, 2023 (paid on March 31, 2023), the Company moved from semi-annual cash dividends to quarterly cash dividends.
2 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
Stock Split - On July 7, 2023, the Board of Directors declared a three-for-two stock split of the Company's common stock to be paid in the form of a stock dividend. Stockholders of record at the close of business on July 28, 2023 received one additional share for every two shares they held as of that date on August 16, 2023 (ex-dividend date August 17, 2023).
Share-Based Compensation Plans - The following is a summary of our share-based compensation plans as of December 31, 2023:
EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION
Plan category
(a)
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights
(b)
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
(c)
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
The 2007 Long-Term Incentive Plan161,854 $15.02 — 
The 2016 Long-Term Incentive Plan1,862,571 $29.55 5,070,436 
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities - Repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2023, which include repurchases from our employee repurchase program, were as follows:
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
(a)
Total
Number
of Shares
(or Units
(b)
Average
Price
Paid
(Per Share
(c)
Total Number
of Shares (or
Units) Purchased
as part of
Publicly Announced
(d)
Maximum Number (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares (or
Units) that may yet be
Purchased under the
PeriodPurchased)or Unit)Plans or ProgramsPlans or Programs
October 20231,158 $54.89 1,158 — 
November 2023180 61.00 180 — 
December 2023348 70.99 348 — 
Total     1,686 $58.86 1,686 — 

Contingent Shares Issued in BASX Acquisition - On December 10, 2021, we closed on the acquisition of BASX (Note 4). Under the MIPA Agreement, we committed to $78.0 million in the aggregate of contingent consideration to the former owners of BASX, which is payable in approximately 1.56 million shares of AAON stock, par value $0.004 per share. The shares do not accrue dividends.
Under the MIPA Agreement, the potential future issuance of the shares is contingent upon BASX meeting certain post-closing earn-out milestones during each of the years ended 2021, 2022, and 2023. We estimated the fair value of contingent consideration related to these shares to be approximately $60.0 million, which is included in additional paid-in capital on the consolidated balance sheets. As of December 31, 2023, 0.58 million, and 0.73 million shares related to the earn-out milestones for the years ended 2022 and 2021, respectively, have been issued to the former owners of BASX as private placements exempt from registration with the SEC under Rule 506(b), which are included in common stock on the consolidated statements of stockholders' equity.
Rule 10b5-1 Trading Arrangements - The following table describes contracts, instructions or written plans for the purchase or sale of our securities intended to satisfy the affirmative defense conditions of Rule 10b5-1(c).
Name and Title of Director or OfficerDate of Adoption of ArrangementDuration of the ArrangementAggregate Number of Securities to be Purchased or Sold Pursuant to the Arrangement
Stephen E. WakefieldNovember 23, 2022Terminated May 17, 202395,788
Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
Stephen E. WakefieldSeptember 13, 2023Terminated December 27, 2023181,000
Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
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Comparative Stock Performance Graph
The following performance graph compares our cumulative total shareholder return for the Company’s common stock for the five-year period ending on December 31, 2023, compared to an overall stock market index (the NASDAQ Composite Index) and the Company’s peer group index (S&P 600 Capital Goods Industry Group Index). We believe the S&P 600 Capital Goods Industry Group Index best represents our relative peer group based on our current business and market capitalization. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at the close of trading December 31, 2018, with the reinvestment of dividends since that date. This table is not intended to forecast future performance of our Common Stock.
1536
Company / Index201820192020202120222023
AAON, Inc.$100 $142 $193 $231 $220 $326 
NASDAQ Composite Index100 137 198 242 163 236 
S&P 600 Capital Goods Industry Group Index$100 $130 $150 $188 $180 $249 
This stock performance graph is not deemed to be “soliciting material” or otherwise be considered to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, except to the extent the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such a filing.
Item 6.  Reserved.
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Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Overview
The following discussion summarizes the significant factors affecting the consolidated operating results, financial condition and liquidity of the Company for the year ended December 31, 2023. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. A detailed discussion of the year to year changes for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 is not included herein and can be found in Part II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Description of the Company
AAON is a leader in HVAC solutions for commercial and industrial indoor environments. The company’s industry-leading approach to designing and manufacturing highly configurable equipment to meet exact needs creates a premier ownership experience with greater efficiency, performance, and long-term value. AAON is headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, where its world-class innovation center and testing capabilities enable continuous advancement toward a cleaner and more sustainable future.
We engineer, manufacture, and sell premium heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment consisting of semi-custom and custom rooftop units, data center cooling solutions, cleanroom systems, packaged outdoor mechanical rooms, air handling units, makeup air units, energy recovery units, condensing units, geothermal/water-source heat pumps, coils, and controls. These products are marketed and sold to a variety of vertical markets including retail, manufacturing, educational, lodging, supermarket, data centers, medical and pharmaceutical, industrial, and other commercial markets. We sell our products to all 50 states in the United States and certain provinces in Canada.  
Our business can be affected by a number of economic factors, including the level of economic activity in the markets in which we operate. The uncertainty of the economy negatively impacted the commercial and industrial new construction markets in 2020 and the first half of 2021. Since mid-2021, nonresidential construction spending has been strong, recovering well beyond pre-2020 levels and finishing 2023 near record levels. Recently, however, certain leading indicators, including architectural billings and construction starts, signal a slowing in construction spending within the next 12 months. Furthermore, some economic general indicators are suggesting the general economy is slowing, which could also impact the replacement market. If the domestic economy were to slow or enter a recession, this could result in a decline in our sales volume and profitability. Sales in the commercial and industrial new construction markets generally lag the housing market, which in turn is influenced by cyclical factors such as interest rates, inflation, consumer spending habits, employment rates, the state of the economy and other macroeconomic factors over which we have no control. Sales in the replacement markets are driven by various factors, including general economic growth, the Company's new product introductions, fluctuations in the average age of existing equipment in the market, government regulations and stimulus, change in market demand between more customized, higher performing HVAC equipment and lower priced standard equipment, as well as many other factors. When new construction is down, we emphasize the replacement market.
We sell our products to property owners and contractors mainly through a network of independent manufacturers’ Representatives. This go-to-market strategy is unique compared to most of our larger competitors in that most control their sales channel. We value the independent sales channel as we think it is a more effective way of increasing market share. Although we concede full control of the sales process with this strategy, the entrepreneurial aspect of the independent sales channel attracts the most talent and provides greater financial incentives for its salespeople. Furthermore, the independent sales channel sells different types of equipment from various manufacturers, allowing it to operate with more of a solutions-based mindset, as opposed to an internal sales department of a manufacturing company that is incentivized to only sell its equipment regardless if it is the best solution for the end customer. We also have a small internal sales force that supports the relationships between the Company and our sales channel partners. BASX sells highly customized products for unique applications for a more concentrated customer base and an internal sales force is more effective for such products.
The principal components of cost of sales are labor, raw materials, component costs, factory overhead, freight out, and engineering expense. The principal high volume raw materials used in our manufacturing processes are steel, copper, and aluminum, and are obtained from domestic suppliers. We also purchase from domestic manufacturers certain components, including coils, compressors, motors, and electrical controls.
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The price levels of our raw materials fluctuate due to various economic factors within the U.S. and global economy. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the prices for copper, galvanized steel, and stainless steel decreased by approximately 4.5%, 38.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, and aluminum increased by approximately 15.5% from 2022. 
We attempt to limit the impact of price fluctuations on these materials by entering into cancellable and non-cancellable contracts with our major suppliers for periods of six to 18 months. We expect to receive delivery of raw materials from our contracts for use in our manufacturing operations.
We occasionally increase the price of our products to help offset any inflationary headwinds. In recent years, price increases have been more frequent due to the amount of inflation the business has endured. In 2021, we implemented three price increases. In 2022, we implemented two significant price increases as well as a recurring 1% monthly price increase beginning June 1, 2022 and ending on April 1, 2023. We reinstated a recurring 1% monthly price increase on October 1, 2023 and carried that through February 1, 2024.
Additionally, we continue to experience challenges in a tight labor market, especially the hiring of both skilled and unskilled production labor. We have implemented the following wage increases to remain competitive and to attract and retain employees:
In March 2021, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 5.0% increase to wages.
In July 2021, we increased starting wages for our production workforce by 7.0%.
In October 2021, we implemented a cost of living increase of 3.5% in place for all employees
below our Senior Leadership Team ("SLT") which consists of officers and key members of management.
In March 2022, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 3.0% increase to wages.
In October 2022, we implemented a cost of living increase of 3.5% in place for all employees
below the SLT level.
In March 2023, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 3.9% increase to wages.
We will continue to implement human resource initiatives to retain and attract labor to further improve productivity and production efficiencies.
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Backlog
The following table shows our historical backlog levels:
December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
(in thousands)
$510,028 $548,022 
While our backlog is down at December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022, our bookings remain strong. The year-ended December 31, 2022 was a record year for bookings and our backlog was elevated causing us to extend lead times. Investments made in our facilities and workforce have significantly improved our capacity and operational efficiencies. Production rates are at all time highs, trimming our backlog down to a more manageable size and allowing our lead times to improve.
Consolidated Results of Operations
Years Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Net Sales$1,168,518 $888,788 
Cost of Sales769,498 651,216 
Gross Profit399,020 237,572 
Selling, general and administrative expenses171,539 110,823 
Gain on disposal of assets(13)(12)
Income from operations$227,494 $126,761 
The following are highlights of our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition:
Net sales for 2023 grew 31.5% to $1,168.5 million due to record production rates and price increases realized during the period as compared to the same period in the prior year.
Overall gross margin increased 740 basis points in 2023 due to increased organic volumes for operational efficiencies and better overhead absorption.
We continue to invest in the future growth of the Company as evidenced by our $104.3 million in capital expenditures in 2023, an increase $50.3 million or 93.1% when compared to 2022 .
We completed the repurchase of $25.0 million of shares under our current share repurchase authorization.

We report our financial results based on three reportable segments: AAON Oklahoma, AAON Coil Products, and BASX, which are further described in Item 1 and Item 8. The Company's chief decision maker ("CODM"), our CEO, allocates resources and assesses the performance of each operating segment using information about the operating segment's net sales and income from operations. The CODM does not evaluate operating segments using asset or liability information.
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Segment Operating Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
For the years ended December 31,
2023
Percent of Sales2
2022
Percent of Sales1
 $ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Net Sales2
AAON Oklahoma$897,919 76.8 %$663,845 74.7 %$234,074 35.3 %
AAON Coil Products112,320 9.6 %107,290 12.1 %5,030 4.7 %
BASX158,279 13.5 %117,653 13.2 %40,626 34.5 %
     Net sales$1,168,518 $888,788 $279,730 31.5 %
Cost of Sales2
AAON Oklahoma$577,852 64.4 %490,862 73.9 %$86,990 17.7 %
AAON Coil Products82,996 73.9 %73,979 69.0 %9,017 12.2 %
BASX108,650 68.6 %86,375 73.4 %22,275 25.8 %
     Cost of sales$769,498 65.9 %$651,216 73.3 %$118,282 18.2 %
Gross Profit2
AAON Oklahoma$320,067 35.6 %$172,983 26.1 %$147,084 85.0 %
AAON Coil Products29,324 26.1 %33,311 31.0 %(3,987)(12.0)%
BASX49,629 31.4 %31,278 26.6 %18,351 58.7 %
     Gross profit$399,020 34.1 %$237,572 26.7 %$161,448 68.0 %
1 Cost of sales and gross profit for each segment are calculated as a percentage of the respective segment's net sales. Total cost of sales and total gross profit are calculated as a percentage of total net sales.
2 Presented after intercompany eliminations.
Total net sales increased $279.7 million, or 31.5%, with 17.0% of the increase coming from realization of price increases and the remaining 14.5% coming from increases in organic volume. AAON Coil Products had a smaller backlog and along with inefficiencies related to implementing a new production line of BASX product at AAON Coil Products led to smaller year over year increase sales for this segment. The increase in BASX net sales is primarily related to large jobs in the data center market as a result of the revenue synergies created by being part of AAON.
Gross profit as a percent of sales increased to 34.1% during 2023 as compared 26.7% in 2022. As noted above, realization of price increases has improved our margin profile along with the slowing of inflation. Additionally, most of the organic growth noted above comes from our AAON Oklahoma segment, significantly improving overhead absorption and margin performance. The increase in net sales at BASX has improved their overhead absorption, thus increasing their gross profit margin year over year.
As shown in the table below, we've experienced year over year fluctuations in the cost of several raw materials. We implemented multiple price increases during 2022 and 2023 to counteract the increased cost of material. Some of the price increases have yet to be realized. Additionally, in order to retain our existing employees, we continue to award periodic raises in addition to our annual merit raises to our employees.
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Raw Material Costs
Twelve month average raw material cost per pound as of December 31:
20232022% Change
Copper$5.35 $5.60 (4.5)%
Galvanized Steel$0.58 $0.95 (38.9)%
Stainless Steel$3.19 $3.30 (3.3)%
Aluminum$2.54 $2.20 15.5 %
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Years Ended December 31,Percent of Sales
2023202220232022
(in thousands)
Warranty$16,165 $8,497 1.4 %1.0 %
Profit Sharing24,590 14,009 2.1 %1.6 %
Salaries & Benefits53,281 41,351 4.6 %4.7 %
Stock Compensation9,318 7,025 0.8 %0.8 %
Advertising2,594 2,353 0.2 %0.3 %
Depreciation & Amortization13,761 8,050 1.2 %0.9 %
Insurance5,354 3,755 0.5 %0.4 %
Professional Fees15,372 5,754 1.3 %0.6 %
Donations1,242 1,134 0.1 %0.1 %
Other29,862 18,895 2.6 %2.1 %
Total SG&A$171,539 $110,823 14.7 %12.5 %

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $60.7 million or 54.8% during 2023 as compared to the prior year. As a percentage of sales, selling, general and administrative increased from 12.5% to 14.7%. Most of the increase is due to professional fees that increased $9.6 million due to the litigation settlement (Note 18).
Profit sharing increased $10.6 million or 75.5% due to our increased operating results. Other expenses increased $11.0 million or 58.0% during year due mostly to increased travel, consulting expenses and closing costs related to the 2023 New Market Tax Credit (Note 17).
Income Taxes
 Years Ended December 31,Effective Tax Rate
 2023202220232022
(in thousands)
Income tax provision$45,531 $24,157 20.4 %19.4 %
The Company’s estimated annual 2023 effective tax rate, excluding discrete events, was 23.8%.
The increase year over year in the overall effective tax rate was primarily due the non-deductible executive compensation. In accordance with the 2017 Tax Cuts & Jobs Act, under Internal Revenue Code Section 162(m), the tax deduction for covered executives of public companies is limited to $1.0 million per individual. Because of our high stock price and timing of executive stock option exercises this resulted in an increase to the income tax provision of $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023.

24


Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our working capital and capital expenditure requirements are generally met through net cash provided by operations and the use of the revolving bank line of credit based on our current liquidity at the time.
Working Capital - Our unrestricted cash and cash equivalents decreased $5.2 million from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, we had $9.0 million in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash.
Revolving Line of Credit - Our revolving credit facility ("Revolver"), as amended and restated, provides for maximum borrowings of $200.0 million. As of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we had an outstanding balance under the Revolver of $38.3 million and $71.0 million, respectively. We had two standby letters of credit totaling $2.3 million as of December 31, 2023 and one standby letter of credit totaling $0.8 million as of December 31, 2022. Borrowings available under the Revolver at December 31, 2023, were $159.4 million. The Revolver expires on May 27, 2027.
Any outstanding loans under the Revolver bear interest at the daily compounded secured overnight financing rate ("SOFR") plus the applicable margin. Applicable margin, ranging from 1.25% - 1.75%, is determined quarterly based on the Company's leverage ratio. The Company is also subject to letter of credit fees, ranging from 1.25% - 1.75%, and a commitment fee, ranging from 0.10% - 0.20%. The applicable fee percentage is determined quarterly based on the Company's leverage ratio. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, the weighted average interest rate of our Revolver was 6.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Fees associated with the unused portion of the committed amount are included in interest expense on our consolidated statements of income and were not material for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
If SOFR cannot be determined pursuant to the definition, as defined by the Revolver agreement, any outstanding effected loans will be deemed to have been converted into alternative base rate ("ABR") loans. ABR loans would bear interest at a rate per annum equal to the highest of (a) the Prime Rate in effect on such day, (b) the Federal Funds Rate in effect on such day plus 0.50%, or (c) daily simple SOFR for a one-month tenor in effect on such day plus 1.00%.
At December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with our financial covenants, as defined by the Revolver. These covenants require that we meet certain parameters related to our leverage ratio. At December 31, 2023, our leverage ratio was 0.15 to 1.0, which meets the requirement of not being above 3 to 1.

2019 New Markets Tax Credit - On October 24, 2019, the Company entered into a transaction with a subsidiary of an unrelated third-party financial institution (the “2019 Investor”) and a certified Community Development Entity under a qualified New Markets Tax Credit (“2019 NMTC”) program pursuant to Section 45D of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, related to an investment in plant and equipment to facilitate the expansion of our Longview, Texas manufacturing operations (the “2019 Project”). In connection with the 2019 NMTC transaction, the Company received a $23.0 million NMTC allocation for the Project and secured low interest financing and the potential for future debt forgiveness related to the 2019 Project.
Upon closing of the 2019 NMTC transaction, the Company provided an aggregate of approximately $15.9 million to the 2019 Investor, in the form of a loan receivable, with a term of twenty-five years, bearing an interest rate of 1.0%. This $15.9 million in proceeds plus capital contributed from the 2019 Investor was used to make an aggregate $22.5 million loan to a subsidiary of the Company. This financing arrangement is secured by equipment at the Company's Longview, Texas facilities and a guarantee from the Company, including an unconditional guarantee of the NMTCs.

2023 New Markets Tax Credit - On April 25, 2023, the Company entered into a transaction with a subsidiary of an unrelated third-party financial institution (the “2023 Investor”) and a certified Community Development Entity under a qualified New Markets Tax Credit (“2023 NMTC”) program pursuant to Section 45D of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, related to an investment in plant and equipment to facilitate the expansion of our Longview, Texas manufacturing operations (the “2023 Project”). In connection with the 2023 NMTC transaction, the Company received a $23.0 million NMTC allocation for the 2023 Project and secured low interest financing and the potential for future debt forgiveness related to the expansion of its Longview, Texas facilities.
Upon closing of the 2023 NMTC transaction, the Company provided an aggregate of approximately $16.7 million to the Investor, in the form of a loan receivable, with a term of twenty-five years,, bearing an interest rate of 1.0%. This $16.7 million in proceeds plus capital contributed from the 2023 Investor was used to make an aggregate
25


$23.8 million loan to a subsidiary of the Company. This financing arrangement is secured by a guarantee from the Company, including an unconditional guarantee of the NMTCs. The net proceeds from the closing of the 2023 NMTC is included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets required to be used for the 2023 Project.
2024 New Markets Tax Credit - On February 27, 2024, the Company entered into a transaction with a subsidiary of an unrelated third-party financial institution (the “2024 Investor”) and a certified Community Development Entity under a qualified New Markets Tax Credit (“2024 NMTC”) program pursuant to Section 45D of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, related to an investment in real estate to facilitate the current expansion of our Longview, Texas manufacturing operations (the “Project”). In connection with the 2024 NMTC transaction, the Company received a $15.5 million NMTC allocation for the Project and secured low interest financing and the potential for future debt forgiveness related to the expansion of its Longview, Texas facilities.
Upon closing of the 2024 NMTC transaction, the Company provided an aggregate of approximately $11.0 million to the Investor, in the form of a loan receivable, with a term of twenty-five years, bearing an interest rate of 1.0%. This $11.0 million in proceeds plus capital contributed from the Investor was used to make an aggregate $16.0 million loan to a subsidiary of the Company. This financing arrangement is secured by a guarantee from the Company, including an unconditional guarantee of NMTCs.
Stock Repurchase - The Board has authorized stock repurchase programs for the Company. The Company may purchase shares on the open market from time to time. The Board must authorize the timing and amount of these purchases and all repurchases are in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC allowing the Company to repurchase shares from the open market.
Our open market repurchase programs are as follows:
Agreement Execution DateAuthorized Repurchase $Expiration Date
March 13, 2020$20 millionNovember 9, 2022
November 3, 2022$50 million
**1, 2
1 Expiration Date is at Board's discretion. The Company is authorized to effectuate repurchases of the Company's common stock on terms and conditions approved in advance by the Board.
2 As of December 31, 2023, there is approximately $25.0 million remaining under the current stock repurchase program. The remaining amount available is subject to a Board authorized 10b5-1 plan requiring certain market conditions and requirements.
The Company also had a stock repurchase arrangement by which employee-participants in our 401(k) Plan were entitled to have shares in AAON, Inc. stock in their accounts sold to the Company. The 401(k) Plan was amended in June 2022 to discontinue this program. No additional shares have been purchased by the Company under this arrangement since June 2022.
Lastly, the Company repurchases shares of AAON, Inc. stock from certain of its employees for payment of statutory tax withholdings on stock transactions. All other repurchases from directors or employees are contingent upon Board approval. All repurchases are done at current market prices.
26


Our repurchase activity is as follows:
20232022
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Program
Shares1
Total $
$ per share1
Shares1
Total $
$ per share1
Open market402,873 $25,009 $62.08 183,168 $6,823 $37.25 
401(k)— — — 155,904 5,913 37.93 
Employees21,904 1,302 59.44 25,842 1,019 39.43 
Total424,777 $26,311 $61.94 364,914 $13,755 $37.69 
1 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
Inception to Date
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Program
Shares1
Total $
$ per share1
Open market6,893,924 $106,625 $15.47 
401(k)12,462,552 171,789 13.78 
Directors and employees3,089,337 24,662 7.98 
Total22,445,813 $303,076 $13.50 
1 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
Dividends - At the discretion of the Board of Directors, we pay cash dividends. Board approval is required to determine the date of declaration and amount for each cash dividend payment.
Our recent dividends are as follows:
DividendAnnualized Dividend
Declaration Date1
Record DatePayment Date
 per Share2
per Share2
May 18, 2022June 3, 2022July 1, 2022$0.13$0.26
November 8, 2022November 28, 2022December 16, 2022$0.16$0.32
March 1, 2023March 13, 2023March 31, 2023$0.08$0.32
May 18, 2023June 9, 2023June 30, 2023$0.08$0.32
August 18, 2023September 8, 2023September 29, 2023$0.08$0.32
November 10, 2023November 29, 2023December 18, 2023$0.08$0.32
1 Effective with the cash dividend declared on March 1, 2023 (paid on March 31, 2023), the Company moved from semi-annual cash dividends to quarterly cash dividends.
2 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
On July 7, 2023, the Board of Directors declared a three-for-two stock split of the Company's common stock that was paid in the form of a stock dividend. Stockholders of record at the close of business on July 28, 2023 received one additional share for every two shares they held as of that date on August 16, 2023 (ex-dividend date August 17, 2023). All share and per share information has been updated to reflect the effects of this stock split.
Based on historical performance and current expectations, we believe our cash and cash equivalents balance, the projected cash flows generated from our operations, our existing committed revolving credit facility (or comparable financing), and our expected ability to access capital markets will satisfy our working capital needs, capital expenditures and other liquidity requirements associated with our operations in 2024 and the foreseeable future.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements - We are not party to any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues, expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, or capital resources.
27


Statement of Cash Flows
The table below reflects a summary of our net cash flows provided by operating activities, net cash flows used in investing activities, and net cash flows provided by financing activities for the years indicated.
 20232022
 (in thousands)
Operating Activities
Net Income$177,623 $100,376 
Income statement adjustments, net58,166 38,516 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(9,978)(56,306)
Income taxes(11,302)18,195 
Inventories(16,226)(71,409)
Contract assets(30,043)(9,402)
Prepaid expenses and other long-term assets(1,048)(2,367)
Accounts payable(18,316)11,574 
Contract liabilities(7,667)13,882 
Extended warranties2,600 1,314 
Accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities15,086 16,945 
Net cash provided by operating activities
158,895 61,318 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(104,294)(54,024)
Cash paid for building (Note 4)— (22,000)
Cash paid in business combination, net of cash acquired— (249)
Acquisition of intangible assets(5,197)— 
Other180 60 
Net cash used in investing activities(109,311)(76,213)
Financing Activities
Borrowings under revolving credit facility597,111 225,758 
Payments under revolving credit facility(629,787)(194,754)
Proceeds from financing obligation, net of issuance costs6,061 — 
Payment related to financing costs(398)— 
Principal payments on financing lease— (115)
Stock options exercised33,259 23,140 
Repurchase of stock(25,009)(12,737)
Employee taxes paid by withholding shares(1,302)(1,018)
Cash dividends paid to stockholders(26,445)(22,917)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities$(46,510)$17,357 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities
The Company currently manages cash needs through working capital as well as drawing on its line of credit. Collections and payments cycles are on a normal pattern and fluctuate due to timing of receipts and payments. In early 2022, the Company began increasing the purchase of inventory to take advantage of favorable pricing opportunities and also to mitigate the impact of future supply chain disruptions on our operations.
Payment terms for BASX jobs typically require upfront cash to fund the job resulting in cash inflows related to our contract liabilities and cash inflows fluctuate due to job timing and scheduling.

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The decrease in cash flows from income taxes is primarily due to the 2017 Tax Cuts & Jobs Act, which requires research and development expenses incurred after December 31, 2021 to be capitalized and amortized over 5 years. This defers our current period income tax deduction which increased our income tax payments due at the end of 2022.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
The capital expenditures increase during 2023 related to our continued investment in our production capabilities. Purchases during 2023 relate to additional sheet metal and other machinery for both replacement and growth, additional production and warehouse space in Longview, Texas, additional office space in Tulsa, Oklahoma, additional land in Tulsa, Oklahoma for future growth, and a partial interest in an airplane. The cash paid for building is related to the purchase of the BASX office and manufacturing facility in May 2022 (Note 4).
Our capital expenditure program for 2024 is estimated to be approximately $125.0 million. Many of these projects are subject to review and cancellation at the discretion of our CEO and Board of Directors without incurring substantial charges.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
The change in cash from financing activities in 2023 is primarily related to borrowings under our revolving credit facility to manage our working capital needs, especially strategic purchases of inventory to avoid supply chain delays and the funding of certain capital expenditures, offset by repayments we were able to make due to our increased operating results and financial condition.
Furthermore, cash flows from financing activities is historically affected by the timing of stock options exercised by our employees. Stock options exercised increased due to the increase in the number of employee options exercised and increase in our average stock price during 2023 as compared to the previous period.
Additionally, we repurchased approximately 424,777 shares for approximately $26.3 million during 2023 (Note 16).
Effective with the cash dividend declared on March 1, 2023 (paid on March 31, 2023), the Company moved from semi-annual cash dividends to quarterly cash dividends.
Commitments and Contractual Agreements
We are occasionally party to short-term, cancellable and occasionally non-cancellable, contracts with major suppliers for the purchase of raw material and component parts. We expect to receive delivery of raw materials for use in our manufacturing operations. These contracts are not accounted for as derivative instruments because they meet the normal purchase and normal sales exemption. In 2023, the Company executed a five-year purchase commitment for refrigerants. In 2023, the Company made payments of $10.1 million on this contract. Estimated minimum future payments are $11.9 million, $9.1 million, $10.5 million, and $11.2 million for 2024, 2025, 2026, and 2027, respectively. We had no other material contractual purchase obligations as of December 31, 2023.
Contingencies
We are subject to various claims and legal actions that arise in the ordinary course of business. We closely monitor these claims and legal actions and frequently consult with our legal counsel to determine whether they may, when resolved, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows and we accrue and/or disclose loss contingencies as appropriate. See Note 18 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information with respect to specific legal proceedings.
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Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and the Company's discussion and analysis of its financial condition and operating results require management to make estimates and assumptions about future events, and apply judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses in our consolidated financial statements and related notes. We base our estimates, assumptions, and judgments on historical experience, current trends, and other factors believed to be relevant at the time our consolidated financial statements are prepared. However, because future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty, actual results could differ from our estimates and assumptions, and such differences could be material. We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant estimates, assumptions and judgments used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We discuss these estimates with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors periodically.
Inventory - Raw material or component inventory typically transfers from one stage of manufacturing to another where it accumulates additional costs directly incurred with the production of finished goods, including estimated standard labor and overhead costs. Labor and overhead costs associated with the manufacturing of our products are capitalized into inventory on an estimated standard basis. These include certain direct and indirect costs such as compensation, manufacturing, and facility costs associated with manufacturing support functions. We continually monitor our labor and overhead standard costs to ensure that standard costs reasonably reflects our actual costs and make manual adjusts the value of inventory accordingly. Our manual adjustments from standard to actual labor and overhead costs contain uncertainties that require management to make assumptions and to apply judgment regarding a number of factors, including inventory turns, supply usage, manufacturing efficiencies, and historical production costs.
Inventory Reserves – We establish a reserve for inventories based on the change in inventory requirements due to product line changes, the feasibility of using obsolete parts for upgraded part substitutions, the required parts needed for part supply sales and replacement parts, and for estimated shrinkage. Assumptions used to estimate inventory reserves include future manufacturing requirements and industry trends. Evolving technology and changes in product mix or customer demand can significantly affect the outcome of this analysis.
Warranty Accrual – A provision is made for estimated warranty costs at the time the product is shipped and revenue is recognized. Our product warranty policy is the earlier of one year from the date of first use or 18 months from date of shipment for parts only; 18 months for data center cooling solutions and cleanroom systems; an additional four years for compressors (if applicable); 15 years on aluminized steel gas-fired heat exchangers (if applicable); 25 years on stainless steel heat exchangers (if applicable); and ten years on gas-fired heat exchangers in our historical RL products (if applicable). Our warranty policy for the RQ series covers parts for two years from date of unit shipment. Our warranty policy for the WH and WV Series geothermal/water-source heat pumps covers parts for five years from the date of installation. Warranty expense is estimated based on the warranty period, historical warranty trends and associated costs, and any known identifiable warranty issue.
Due to the absence of warranty history on new products, an additional provision may be made for such products. Our estimated future warranty cost is subject to adjustment from time to time depending on changes in actual warranty trends and cost experience. Should actual claim rates differ from our estimates, revisions to the estimated product warranty liability would be required.
Share-Based Compensation – We measure and recognize compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to our employees and directors, including stock options, restricted stock awards, performance stock units ("PSUs"), and key employee awards ("Key Employee Awards") based on their fair values at the time of grant. Compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the service period of stock options, restricted stock awards, and PSUs. Compensation expense is recognized for the Key Employee Awards on a straight line basis over the service period when the performance condition is determined to be probable. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur. The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model. The fair value of the PSUs is estimated on the date of grant using the Monte Carlo Model. The use of the Black-Scholes-Merton option valuation model and the Monte Carlo Model requires the input of subjective assumptions such as: the expected volatility, the expected term of the grant, forward-looking market conditions, risk-free rate, and expected dividend yield for stock options. The fair value of restricted stock awards and Key Employee Awards is based on the fair market value of AAON common stock on the respective grant dates. The fair value of restricted stock awards is reduced for the present value of dividends.
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Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets – Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration paid for the acquired businesses over the fair value of the individual assets acquired, net of liabilities assumed. Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of trademarks and trade names.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but instead are evaluated for impairment at least annually. We perform our annual assessment of impairment during the fourth quarter of our fiscal year, and more frequently if circumstances warrant.
To perform this assessment, we first consider qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible assets exceeds their carrying amount. If we conclude that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets does not exceed their carrying amount, we calculate the fair value for the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets and compare the amount to their carrying amount. If the fair value of a reporting unit and indefinite-lived asset exceeds their carrying amount, the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets are not considered impaired. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets exceeds their fair value, the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets are considered to be impaired and the balance is reduced by the difference between the fair value and carrying amount of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets.
We performed a qualitative assessment as of December 31, 2023 to determine whether it was more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets was greater than the carrying value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets. Based on these qualitative assessments, we determined that the fair value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets was more likely than not greater than the carrying value of the reporting unit and indefinite-lived assets.
Estimates and assumptions used to perform the impairment evaluation are inherently uncertain and can significantly affect the outcome of the analysis. The estimates and assumptions we use in the annual impairment assessment included macro-industry trends, market participant considerations, historical profitability, including free cash flows, and forecasted multi-year operating results. Changes in operating results and other assumptions could materially affect these estimates. A considerable amount of management judgment and assumptions are required in performing the impairment tests.
New Accounting Pronouncements
Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASUs”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification.
We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs. ASUs not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
In October 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-06, Disclosure Improvements: Codification Amendments in Response to SEC's Disclosure Update and Simplification Initiative. The new guidance is intended to update a variety of disclosure requirements. The effective date for each amendment will be the date on with the SEC's removal of that related disclosure from Regulation S-X or Regulation S-K becomes effective. Early adoption is prohibited. Upon adoption, this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280). The new guidance improves reportable segment disclosures primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses and by requiring current annual disclosures to be provided in interim periods. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740). The new guidance is intended to enhance the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures. The amendments in this ASU are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. Upon adoption, this ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial statements and related disclosures.
31


Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Commodity Price Risk
We are exposed to volatility in the prices of commodities used in some of our products and, occasionally, we use cancellable and non-cancellable contracts with our major suppliers for periods of six to 18 months to manage this exposure.
Interest Rate Risk
We are exposed to changes in interest rates related to our outstanding debt. As of December 31, 2023, we had an outstanding balance of $38.3 million. For each one percentage point increase in the interest rate applicable to our outstanding debt, our annual income before taxes would decrease by approximately $0.4 million.
32


Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 Page
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID Number 248)
Consolidated Balance Sheets 
Consolidated Statements of Income 
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements 

33


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Stockholders
AAON, Inc.
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of AAON, Inc. (a Nevada corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 28, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matters
Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. We determined that there are no critical audit matters.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2004.
Tulsa, Oklahoma
February 28, 2024
34


AAON, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 December 31,
 20232022
Assets(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$287 $5,451 
Restricted cash8,736 498 
Accounts receivable, net 138,108 127,158 
Inventories, net213,532 198,939 
Contract assets45,194 15,151 
Prepaid expenses and other3,097 1,919 
Total current assets408,954 349,116 
Property, plant and equipment:  
Land15,438 8,537 
Buildings205,841 169,156 
Machinery and equipment391,366 342,045 
Furniture and fixtures40,787 30,033 
Total property, plant and equipment653,432 549,771 
Less:  Accumulated depreciation283,485 245,026 
Property, plant and equipment, net369,947 304,745 
Intangible assets, net68,053 64,606 
Goodwill81,892 81,892 
Right of use assets11,774 7,123 
Other long-term assets816 6,421 
Total assets$941,436 $813,903 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$27,484 $45,513 
Accrued liabilities85,508 78,630 
     Contract liabilities13,757 21,424 
Total current liabilities126,749 145,567 
Revolving credit facility, long-term38,328 71,004 
Deferred tax liabilities12,134 18,661 
Other long-term liabilities 16,807 11,508 
New markets tax credit obligations 1
12,194 6,449 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 18)
Stockholders’ equity:  
Preferred stock, $.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued
  
Common stock, $.004 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized, 81,508,381 and 80,137,776 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively2
326 322 
Additional paid-in capital122,063 98,735 
Retained earnings2
612,835 461,657 
Total stockholders’ equity735,224 560,714 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$941,436 $813,903 
1 Held by variable interest entities (Note 17)
2 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
35


AAON, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
 Years Ended December 31,
 202320222021
 (in thousands, except share and per share data)
Net sales$1,168,518 $888,788 $534,517 
Cost of sales769,498 651,216 396,687 
Gross profit399,020 237,572 137,830 
Selling, general and administrative expenses171,539 110,823 68,598 
Gain on disposal of assets(13)(12)(21)
Income from operations227,494 126,761 69,253 
Interest expense, net(4,843)(2,627)(132)
Other income, net503 399 61 
Income before taxes223,154 124,533 69,182 
Income tax provision45,531 24,157 10,424 
Net income$177,623 $100,376 $58,758 
Earnings per share:   
Basic1
$2.19 $1.26 $0.75 
Diluted1
$2.13 $1.24 $0.73 
Cash dividends declared per common share1:
$0.32 $0.29 $0.25 
Weighted average shares outstanding:  
Basic1
81,156,114 79,582,480 78,606,298 
Diluted1
83,295,290 81,145,610 80,593,484 
1 Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
36


AAON, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
      
      
Common StockPaid-inRetained 
Shares1
Amount1
Capital
Earnings1
Total
 (in thousands)
Balance at December 31, 202078,337 $317 $5,161 $345,387 $350,865 
Net income— — — 58,758 58,758 
Stock options exercised and restricted935 2 21,146 — 21,148 
stock awards granted   
Share-based compensation— — 11,812 — 11,812 
Stock repurchased and retired(480)(1)(22,465)— (22,466)
Contingent consideration (Note 4)
— — 66,000 — 66,000 
Dividends— — — (19,947)(19,947)
Balance at December 31, 202178,792 318 81,654 384,198 466,170 
Net income— — — 100,376 100,376 
Stock options exercised and restricted1,711 5 23,135 — 23,140 
stock awards granted   
Share-based compensation— — 13,700 — 13,700 
Stock repurchased and retired(365)(1)(13,754)— (13,755)
Contingent consideration (Note 4)
— — (6,000)— (6,000)
Dividends— — — (22,917)(22,917)
Balance at December 31, 202280,138 322 98,735 461,657 560,714 
Net income— — — 177,623 177,623 
Stock options exercised and restricted1,795 7 33,252 — 33,259 
stock awards granted   
Share-based compensation— — 16,384 — 16,384 
Stock repurchased and retired(425)(3)(26,308)— (26,311)
Dividends— — — (26,445)(26,445)
Balance at December 31, 202381,508 $326 $122,063 $612,835 $735,224 
1Reflects three-for-two stock split effective August 16, 2023.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

37


AAON, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
 Years Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Operating Activities(in thousands)
Net income
$177,623 $100,376 $58,758 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:   
Depreciation and amortization46,468 35,106 30,343 
Amortization of debt issuance costs82 43 43 
Amortization of right of use assets324 324 73 
(Recoveries of) provision for credit losses on accounts receivable, net of adjustments
(154)(72)43 
Provision for excess and obsolete inventories, net of write-offs
1,633 2,740 629 
Share-based compensation16,384 13,700 11,812 
Gain on disposition of assets
(13)(12)(21)
Foreign currency transaction (gain) loss
(10)41 (1)
Interest income on note receivable
(21)(22)(24)
Deferred income taxes(6,527)(13,332)3,669 
Changes in assets and liabilities:   
Accounts receivable(9,978)(56,306)(9,737)
Income taxes(11,302)18,195 (1,136)
Inventories(16,226)(71,409)(45,955)
Contract assets(30,043)(9,402)1,886 
Prepaid expenses and other long-term assets(1,048)(2,367)1,374 
Accounts payable(18,316)11,574 10,899 
Contract liabilities(7,667)13,882 (229)
Extended warranties2,600 1,314 447 
Accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities15,086 16,945 (1,690)
Net cash provided by operating activities
158,895 61,318 61,183 
Investing Activities   
Capital expenditures(104,294)(54,024)(55,362)
Cash paid for building (Note 4)
 (22,000) 
Cash paid in business combination, net of cash acquired (249)(103,430)
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment129 12 19 
Acquisition of intangible assets(5,197)  
Principal payments from note receivable51 48 54 
Net cash used in investing activities
(109,311)(76,213)(158,719)
Financing Activities   
Borrowings under revolving credit facility597,111 225,758 40,000 
Payments under revolving credit facility(629,787)(194,754) 
    Proceeds from financing obligation, net of issuance costs6,061   
Payments related to financing costs(398)  
Principal payments on financing lease (115) 
Stock options exercised33,259 23,140 21,148 
Repurchase of stock(25,009)(12,737)(20,876)
Employee taxes paid by withholding shares(1,302)(1,018)(1,590)
Dividends paid to stockholders(26,445)(22,917)(19,947)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(46,510)17,357 18,735 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
3,074 2,462 (78,801)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of year5,949 3,487 82,288 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of year$9,023 $5,949 $3,487 
 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
38


AAON, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
December 31, 2023
 
1.  Business Description
AAON, Inc. is a Nevada corporation which was incorporated on August 18, 1987. Our operating subsidiaries include AAON, Inc., an Oklahoma corporation, AAON Coil Products, Inc., a Texas corporation, and BASX, Inc., an Oregon corporation (collectively, the “Company”). The consolidated financial statements include our accounts and the accounts of our subsidiaries.  
We are engaged in the engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and sale of premium air conditioning and heating equipment consisting of standard, semi-custom, and custom rooftop units, data centers cooling solutions, cleanroom systems, packaged outdoor mechanical rooms, air handling units, makeup air units, energy recovery units, condensing units, geothermal/water-source heat pumps, coils, and controls.
Inflation and Labor Market
In late 2021 and throughout 2022, we witnessed increases in our raw material and component prices. Due to our favorable liquidity position, we continued to make strategic purchases of materials when we see opportunities. We continue to manage the increase in the cost of raw materials through price increases for our products. We have also experienced supply chain challenges related to specific manufacturing parts, which we have managed through our strong vendor relationships as well as expanding our list of vendors.
Additionally, we continue to experience challenges in a tight labor market, especially the hiring of both skilled and unskilled production labor. We have implemented the following wage increases to remain competitive and to attract and retain employees:
In March 2021, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 5.0% increase to wages.
In July 2021, we increased starting wages for our production workforce by 7.0%.
In October 2021, we implemented a cost of living increase of 3.5% in place for all employees
below our Senior Leadership Team ("SLT"), which consists of officers and key members of management.
In March 2022, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 3.0% increase to wages.
In October 2022, we implemented a cost of living increase of 3.5% in place for all employees
below the SLT level.
In March 2023, we awarded annual merit raises for an overall 3.9% increase to wages.
We will continue to implement human resource initiatives to retain and attract labor to further improve productivity and production efficiencies.
Despite efforts to mitigate the impact of inflation, supply chain issues and the tight labor market, future disruptions, while temporary, could negatively impact our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
First Quarter 2021 Planned Maintenance and Adverse Weather
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we made the strategic decision to shut down our Tulsa, OK and Longview, TX manufacturing facilities to perform planned and necessary maintenance during the last week of December 2020 as well several days in early January 2021.
In February 2021, record-breaking winter storms affected Oklahoma and Texas, causing sustained below freezing temperatures, hazardous driving conditions, rolling blackouts, water main breaks, and a host of other weather related issues. In addition to significant absenteeism as a result of employees being unable to travel to and from work due to inadequate transportation and/or hazardous road conditions, the Company made the decision to shut down the Tulsa, OK and Longview, TX plants for several days. This decision was based on the expected employee absenteeism, as well as the expected rolling blackouts caused by the increased demand on the electrical and natural gas power grids.
39


WH Series and WV Series Water Source Heat Pump Units
As part of the normal course of business, management continually monitors the profitability of the Company's various product series offerings. During the third quarter of 2022, management made the decision to no longer produce our small packaged geothermal/water-source heat pump units consisting of the WH Series horizontal configuration and WV Series vertical configuration, from one-half to 12 1/2 tons ("WH/WV"). These WH/WV units were produced solely out of the AAON Oklahoma facility. Production of the remaining WH/WV backlog was completed during the second quarter 2023.
Change in Estimate
During the first quarter of 2022, a review of the Company's useful lives for certain sheet metal manufacturing equipment at our Longview, Texas facilities resulted in a change in estimate that increased the useful lives from between ten and twelve years to fifteen years. This determination was based on recent and estimated future production levels as well as management's knowledge of the equipment and historical and future use of the equipment. The change in estimate was made prospectively and resulted in a decrease to depreciation expense within cost of sales on our consolidated statements of income of $1.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
We do not believe the impact of these events had a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
2.  Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
These financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Our financial statements also consolidate all of our affiliated entities in which we have a controlling financial interest. Because we hold certain rights that give us the power to direct the activities of five variable interest entities ("VIEs") (Note 17) that most significantly impact the VIEs economic performance, combined with a variable interest that gives us the right to receive potentially significant benefits or the obligation to absorb potentially significant losses, we have a controlling financial interest in those VIEs.
On December 10, 2021, we closed on the acquisition of all of the issued and outstanding equity ownership of BASX, LLC, doing business as BASX Solutions (Note 4). On December 29, 2021, BASX, LLC converted to a C-Corporation, BASX, Inc. ("BASX"), and is subject to income tax. We have included the results of BASX’s operations in our consolidated financial statements beginning December 11, 2021.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid temporary investments with original maturity dates of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of bank deposits and highly liquid, interest-bearing money market funds.
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are held in a few financial institutions in amounts that exceed the insurance limits of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. However, management believes that the Company’s counterparty risks are minimal based on the reputation and history of the institutions selected.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash held at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 consists of bank deposits and highly liquid, interest-bearing money market funds held for the purpose of the Company's qualified New Markets Tax Credit programs (Note 17) to benefit an investment in plant and equipment to facilitate the expansion of our Longview, Texas manufacturing operations.
The Company’s restricted cash is held in financial institutions in amounts that exceed the insurance limits of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. However, management believes that the Company’s counterparty risks are minimal based on the reputation and history of the institutions selected.
40


Accounts and Note Receivable
Accounts and note receivable are stated at amounts due from customers, net of an allowance for credit losses. We generally do not require that our customers provide collateral; however, our billings and customer payment terms can vary based on product type as a way to manage collections risk. The Company determines its allowance for credit losses by considering a number of factors, including the credit risk of specific customers, the customer’s ability to pay current obligations, historical trends, economic and market conditions, and the age of the receivable. Accounts are considered past due when the balance has been outstanding for ninety days past negotiated credit terms. Past due accounts are generally written-off against the allowance for credit losses only after all collection attempts have been exhausted.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Our customers are concentrated primarily in the domestic commercial and industrial new construction and replacement markets. To date, our sales have been primarily to the domestic market, with foreign sales accounting for approximately 3.4%, 3.1%, and 3.0% of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
For the years-ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, Texas AirSystems accounted for approximately 13.8%, 12.4%, and 11.7% of our sales, respectively. Through portfolio groups, Meriton has an ownership interest in Texas AirSystems and certain other of our sales representatives. The aggregate sales percentages through Meriton-affiliated groups that are in addition to Texas AirSystems’ sales for the years-ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 accounted for an additional 2.3%, 1.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two other similar groups, Ambient and Hobbs/Insight, share common ownership of some of our other sales representatives through portfolio groups and for the year-ended December 31, 2023, aggregate sales through their portfolio groups accounted for approximately 11.5% and 10.2% of our sales, respectively. Sales through the portfolio groups of either Ambient or Hobbs/Insight did not account for 10% or more of our sales for any years-ended prior to December 31, 2023.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, Texas AirSystems accounted for approximately 13.5% and 12.3%, of our accounts receivable balance, respectively. The aggregate percentages through Meriton-affiliated groups that are in addition to Texas AirSystems’ accounts receivable as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, accounted for an additional 2.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Two other similar groups, Ambient and Hobbs/Insight, aggregate percentages through their portfolio groups accounted for approximately 16.8% and 11.5