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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from______ to______
Commission File Number: 333-254800
aawh-20220331_g1.jpg
ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware83-0602006
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
__________________________
1411 Broadway
16th Floor
New York, NY 10018
(Address of principal executive offices)
(646) 661-7600
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
None
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
__________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
As of May 9, 2022, there were 188,090,158 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.001, and 65,000 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.001, outstanding.


ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Item 4. Mine Safety Information
Item 5. Other Information
Item 6. Exhibits
SIGNATURES





FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking statements” regarding Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “AWH,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”). We make forward-looking statements related to future expectations, estimates, and projections that are uncertain and often contain words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “outlook,” “plan,” “predict,” “should,” “target,” or other similar words or phrases. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Particular risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to be materially different from those expressed in our forward-looking statements include those listed below:
the effect of the volatility of the market price and liquidity risks on shares of our Class A common stock;
the effect of the voting control exercised by holders of Class B common stock;
our ability to attract and maintain key personnel;
our ability to continue to open new dispensaries and cultivation facilities as anticipated;
the illegality of cannabis under federal law;
our ability to comply with state and federal regulations;
the uncertainty regarding enforcement of cannabis laws;
the effect of restricted access to banking and other financial services;
the effect of constraints on marketing and risks related to our products;
the effect of unfavorable tax treatment for cannabis businesses;
the effect of security risks;
the effect of infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties;
our ability to comply with potential future U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations;
our ability to enforce our contracts;
the effect of unfavorable publicity or consumer perception;
the effect of risks related to material acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic transactions;
the effect of agricultural and environmental risks;
the effect of risks related to information technology systems;
the effect of product liability claims and other litigation to which we may be subjected;
the effect of risks related to the results of future clinical research;
the effect of intense competition in the industry;
the effect of adverse changes in the wholesale and retail prices;
the effect of outbreaks of pandemic diseases, fear of such outbreaks or economic disturbances due to such outbreaks, particularly the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
the effect of general economic risks, such as the unemployment level, interest rates and inflation, and challenging global economic conditions.
The list of factors above is illustrative and by no means exhaustive. Additional information regarding these risks and other risks and uncertainties we face is contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and in other reports we may file from time to time with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission and the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authorities (including all amendments to those reports). Although the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking information, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated, or intended.
We urge readers to consider these risks and uncertainties in evaluating our forward-looking statements. We caution readers not to place undue reliance upon any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.
1


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands, except per share amounts)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$143,797 $155,481 
Accounts receivable, net10,371 7,612 
Inventory78,233 65,588 
Notes receivable5,500 4,500 
Other current assets22,651 24,831 
Total current assets260,552 258,012 
Property and equipment, net226,129 239,656 
Operating lease right-of-use assets107,279 103,958 
Intangible assets, net57,301 59,271 
Goodwill43,018 42,967 
Other noncurrent assets19,925 19,572 
TOTAL ASSETS$714,204 $723,436 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$46,771 $45,454 
Current portion of debt, net11,107 27,940 
Operating lease liabilities, current 3,606 2,665 
Income taxes payable43,791 36,184 
Other current liabilities4,053 5,152 
Total current liabilities109,328 117,395 
Long-term debt, net222,593 230,846 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent223,981 197,295 
Deferred tax liabilities, net276 1,423 
Total liabilities556,178 546,959 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)
Stockholders' Equity
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; 10,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (Note 12)
  
Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 750,000 shares authorized; 174,392 and 171,521 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively (Note 12)
174 171 
Class B common stock, $0.001 par value per share, 100 shares authorized; 65 issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (Note 12)
  
Additional paid-in capital371,916 362,555 
Accumulated deficit(214,064)(186,249)
Total stockholders' equity158,026 176,477 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$714,204 $723,436 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
2

ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(UNAUDITED)


Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except per share amounts)20222021
Revenue, net$85,090 $66,137 
Cost of goods sold(61,643)(36,470)
Gross profit23,447 29,667 
Operating expenses
General and administrative expenses33,227 25,146 
Settlement expense5,000 36,511 
Total operating expenses38,227 61,657 
Operating loss(14,780)(31,990)
Other (expense) income
Interest expense(6,031)(7,337)
Other, net103 80 
Total other expense(5,928)(7,257)
Loss before income taxes(20,708)(39,247)
Income tax expense(7,107)(8,976)
Net loss$(27,815)$(48,223)
Net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders — basic and diluted (Note 12)$(0.16)$(0.45)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding — basic and diluted172,494 106,443 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(UNAUDITED)



Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
Class A and Class B
Common Stock
(in thousands)SharesAmountAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitTotal
December 31, 2021171,586 $171 $362,555 $(186,249)$176,477 
Vesting of equity-based payment awards4,131 4 (4)—  
Equity-based compensation expense— — 14,306 — 14,306 
Taxes withheld under equity-based compensation plans, net(1,260)(1)(4,941)— (4,942)
Net loss— — — (27,815)(27,815)
March 31, 2022174,457 $174 $371,916 $(214,064)$158,026 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Class A and Class B
Common Stock
(in thousands)Historical LLC UnitsSharesAmountAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated DeficitTotal
December 31, 2020106,082  $ $67,378 $(63,592)$3,786 
Vesting of equity-based payment awards1,033 — — — —  
Equity-based compensation expense50 — — 2,487 — 2,487 
Reserve for equity issued in litigation settlement— — — 27,431 — 27,431 
Net loss— — — — (48,223)(48,223)
March 31, 2021107,165  $ $97,296 $(111,815)$(14,519)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(27,815)$(48,223)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization9,918 6,254 
Amortization of operating lease assets291 352 
Non-cash interest expense571 3,255 
Equity-based compensation expense5,715 2,487 
Equity issued in litigation settlement 27,431 
Deferred income taxes(1,147)(796)
Loss on sale of assets818  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects of acquisitions
Accounts receivable(2,759)(888)
Inventory(15,217)(11,320)
Other current assets3,031 (563)
Other noncurrent assets(353)(6,914)
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities9,950 16,903 
Other current liabilities(1,099)(446)
Lease liabilities244 414 
Income taxes payable7,607 4,225 
Net cash used in operating activities(10,245)(7,829)
Cash flows from investing activities
Additions to capital assets(10,214)(23,351)
Investments in notes receivable(1,000)(760)
Collection of notes receivable82 82 
Proceeds from sale of assets35,400  
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired(24,890)(11,174)
Net cash used in investing activities(622)(35,203)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from issuance of debt 49,500 
Repayments of debt(786)(1,286)
Debt issuance costs(31) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(817)48,214 
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(11,684)5,182 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period155,481 58,097 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$143,797 $63,279 





The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
5

ASCEND WELLNESS HOLDINGS, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(CONTINUED, UNAUDITED)

Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
Interest paid$5,133 $3,426 
Income taxes paid650 5,562 
Non-cash investing and financing activities
Capital expenditures incurred but not yet paid10,695 10,583 
Taxes withheld under equity-based compensation plans, net4,942  
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
6

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)


1. THE COMPANY AND NATURE OF OPERATIONS
Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc., which operates through its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as “AWH,” “Ascend,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or the “Company”), is a multi-state operator in the United States cannabis industry. AWH owns, manages, and operates cannabis cultivation facilities and dispensaries in several states across the United States, including Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. AWH is headquartered in New York, New York.
The Company was originally formed on May 15, 2018 as Ascend Group Partners, LLC, and changed its name to “Ascend Wellness Holdings, LLC” on September 10, 2018. On April 22, 2021, Ascend Wellness Holdings, LLC converted into a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.” and effected a 2-for-1 reverse stock split (the “Reverse Split”), which is retrospectively presented for all periods in these financial statements. We refer to this conversion throughout this filing as the “Conversion.” As a result of the Conversion, the members of Ascend Wellness Holdings, LLC became holders of shares of stock of Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc. The historical consolidated financial statements prior to the Conversion date are those of Ascend Wellness Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries.
Following the Conversion, the Company has authorized 750,000 shares of Class A common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share, 100 shares of Class B common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share and 10,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.001 per share. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except for voting and conversion rights. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to 1,000 votes per share and is convertible at any time into one share of Class A common stock at the option of the holder. On May 4, 2021, the Company completed an Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) of its Class A common stock. See Note 12, “Stockholders’ Equity,” for additional details.
Shares of the Company’s Class A common stock are listed on the Canadian Securities Exchange (the “CSE”) under the ticker symbol “AAWH.U” and are quoted on the OTCQX® Best Market (the “OTCQX”) under the symbol “AAWH.” We are an emerging growth company under federal securities laws and as such we are able to elect to follow scaled disclosure requirements for this filing.
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with (i) United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information, and (ii) the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. In the opinion of our management, our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes (the “Financial Statements”) include all normal recurring adjustments that are necessary for the fair statement of the interim periods presented. Interim results of operations are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year, or any other period. The Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements (and notes thereto) in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 (the “Annual Report”), as filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and with the relevant Canadian securities regulatory authorities under its profile on the System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval (“SEDAR”). Except as noted below, there have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies and estimates during the three months ended March 31, 2022.
The Financial Statements include the accounts of Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Refer to Note 8, “Variable Interest Entities,” for additional information regarding certain entities that are not wholly-owned by the Company. We include the results of acquired businesses in the consolidated statements of operations from their respective acquisition dates. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

We round amounts in the Financial Statements to thousands, except per unit or per share amounts or as otherwise stated. We calculate all percentages, per-unit, and per-share data from the underlying whole-dollar amounts. Thus, certain amounts may not foot, crossfoot, or recalculate based on reported numbers due to rounding. Unless otherwise indicated, all references to years are to our fiscal year, which ends on December 31.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts. We base our estimates on historical experience, known or expected trends, independent valuations, and various other measurements that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results could differ significantly from these estimates.
Liquidity
As reflected in the Financial Statements, the Company had an accumulated deficit as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, as well as a net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, and negative cash flows from operating activities during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, which are indicators that raise substantial doubt of our ability to continue as a going concern. Management believes that substantial doubt of our ability to continue as a going concern for at least one year from the issuance of these Financial Statements has been alleviated due to: (i) cash on hand and (ii) continued growth of sales and gross profit from our consolidated operations. Management plans to continue to access capital markets for additional funding through debt and/or equity financings to supplement future cash needs, as may be required. However, management cannot provide any assurances that the Company will be successful in accomplishing its business plans. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital whenever necessary, it may be forced to decelerate or curtail certain of its operations until such time as additional capital becomes available.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we did not hold significant restricted cash or cash equivalents.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, we had no transfers of assets or liabilities between any of the hierarchy levels.
In addition to assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis, we are also required to measure certain assets at fair value on a non-recurring basis that are subject to fair value adjustments in specific circumstances. These assets can include: goodwill; intangible assets; property and equipment; and lease related right-of use assets. We estimate the fair value of these assets using primarily unobservable Level 3 inputs.
Basic and Diluted Loss per Share
The Company computes earnings (loss) per share (“EPS”) using the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock. The rights, including the liquidation and dividend rights, of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock are substantially identical, except for voting and conversion rights. As the liquidation and dividend rights are identical, undistributed earnings are allocated on a proportionate basis to each class of common stock and the resulting basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders are, therefore, the same for both Class A and Class B common stock on both an individual and combined basis. EPS and weighted-average shares outstanding for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 have been computed on the basis of treating the historical common unit equivalents previously outstanding as shares of Class A common stock, as such historical units converted into shares of Class A common stock in the Conversion.
Basic EPS is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects potential dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period increased by the number of additional common
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

shares that would have been outstanding if all potential common shares had been issued and were dilutive. However, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted EPS to the extent that their effect is anti-dilutive. Potential dilutive securities in the current year include incremental shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants, unvested restricted stock awards, unvested restricted stock units, and outstanding stock options. Potential dilutive securities in the prior year include incremental shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants, unvested restricted stock awards, and the conversion of convertible notes. At March 31, 2022 and 2021, 11,447 and 47,187 shares of common stock equivalents, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.
Shares of restricted stock granted by us are considered to be legally issued and outstanding as of the date of grant, notwithstanding that the shares remain subject to the risk of forfeiture if the vesting conditions for such shares are not met, and are included in the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding disclosed on the cover page of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Weighted-average common shares outstanding excludes time-based and performance-based unvested shares of restricted Class A common stock, as restricted shares are treated as issued and outstanding for financial statement presentation purposes only after such shares have vested and, therefore, have ceased to be subject to a risk of forfeiture.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Debt
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments by reducing the number of accounting models available for convertible debt instruments. This guidance also eliminates the treasury stock method to calculate diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments and requires the use of the if-converted method. ASU 2020-06 became effective for us on January 1, 2022 and did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Modification or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt – Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting For Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options, (“ASU 2021-04”). ASU 2021-04 provides clarification and reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for certain modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options, such as warrants, that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. ASU 2021-04 became effective for us on January 1, 2022 and did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The following standards have been recently issued by the FASB. Pronouncements that are not applicable to the Company or where it has been determined do not have a significant impact on us have been excluded herein.
Financial Instruments
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, (“ASU 2016-13”). ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing guidance surrounding measurement and recognition of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost, including trade receivables and investments in certain debt securities, by requiring recognition of an allowance for credit losses expected to be incurred over an asset’s life based on relevant information about past events, current conditions, and supportable forecasts impacting its ultimate collectability. This current expected credit losses (“CECL”) model will result in earlier recognition of credit losses than the current “as incurred” model, under which losses are recognized only upon the occurrence of an event that gives rise to the incurrence of a probable loss.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

ASU 2019-05, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief, was issued in May 2019 to provide target transition relief allowing entities to make an irrevocable one-time election upon adoption of the new credit losses standard to measure financial assets previously measured at amortized cost (except held-to-maturity securities) using the fair value option.
ASU 2019-11, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, was issued in November 2019 to clarify, improve, and amend certain aspects of ASU 2016-13, such as disclosures related to accrued interest receivables and the estimation of credit losses associated with financial assets secured by collateral.
ASU 2020-03, Codification Improvements to Financial Instruments, was issued in March 2020 to improve and clarify various financial instruments topics, including the CECL standard issued in 2016. The ASU includes seven different issues that describe the areas of improvement and the related amendments to U.S. GAAP, intended to make the standards easier to understand and apply by eliminating inconsistencies and providing clarifications. Certain amendments contained within this update were effective upon issuance and had no material impact on our Financial Statements.
The amendments related to ASU 2019-05 and ASU 2016-13 will be adopted in conjunction with ASU 2016-13. ASU 2016-13 and its related ASUs are effective for us beginning January 1, 2023. We are currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
Reference Rate Reform
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. This guidance was effective upon issuance as of March 12, 2020 and may be adopted as reference rate reform activities occur through December 31, 2022. We have not yet applied any of the expedients and exceptions and do not expect this guidance to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
3. REPORTABLE SEGMENTS AND REVENUE
The Company operates under one operating segment, which is its only reportable segment: the production and sale of cannabis products. The Company prepares its segment reporting on the same basis that its Chief Operating Decision Maker manages the business and makes operating decisions. The Company’s measure of segment performance is net income and derives its revenue primarily from the sale of cannabis products. All of the Company’s operations are located in the United States.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company disaggregates its revenue from the direct sale of cannabis to customers as retail revenue and wholesale revenue. We have determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories best depicts how the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Retail revenue$63,290 $45,521 
Wholesale revenue37,933 30,342 
101,223 75,863 
Elimination of inter-company revenue(16,133)(9,726)
Total revenue, net$85,090 $66,137 

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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

Sales discounts were not material during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The liability related to the loyalty program we offer dispensary customers at certain locations was $460 and $518 at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, and is included in “Other current liabilities” on the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company recorded $625 and $374, respectively, in allowance for doubtful accounts. Write-offs were not significant during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
4. ACQUISITIONS
The Company has determined that the acquisitions discussed below are considered business combinations under ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations, (“ASC Topic 805”) and are accounted for by applying the acquisition method, whereby the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values with any excess of the aggregate consideration over the fair values of the identifiable net assets allocated to goodwill. Operating results are included in the Financial Statements from the date of the acquisition.
The Company allocates the purchase price of each of its acquisitions to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at fair value. The preliminary purchase price allocation for each acquisition reflects various preliminary fair value estimates and analyses, including certain tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the valuation of intangible assets acquired, and goodwill, which are subject to change within the measurement period as preliminary valuations are finalized (generally one year from the acquisition date). Measurement period adjustments are recorded in the reporting period in which the estimates are finalized and adjustment amounts are determined.
2021 Acquisitions
Effective May 5, 2021 the Company completed the acquisition of the parent company of Hemma, LLC (“Hemma”), the owner of a medical cultivation site in Ohio. Effective October 1, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of BCCO, LLC (“BCCO”), a medical dispensary license holder in Ohio. Additionally, effective December 22, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of Ohio Cannabis Clinic, LLC (“OCC”), a medical dispensary license holder in Ohio.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recorded a measurement period purchase accounting adjustment of $51 related to the OCC acquisition for the final working capital adjustment, with a related impact to goodwill.
Financial and Pro Forma Information
The following table summarizes the revenue and net (loss) income related to Hemma, BCCO, and OCC that is included in our consolidated results for the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
(in thousands)HemmaBCCOOCC
Revenue, net$144 $1,779 $1,374 
Net (loss) income(290)338 204 
Pro forma financial information is not presented for Hemma, BCCO, or OCC as such results are immaterial, individually and in aggregate, to both the current and prior period.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

5. INVENTORY
The components of inventory are as follows:
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Materials and supplies$14,488 $8,899 
Work in process38,874 28,235 
Finished goods24,871 28,454 
Total$78,233 $65,588 
Total compensation expense capitalized to inventory was $13,134 and $6,363 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $12,723 and $8,571, respectively, of compensation expense remained capitalized as part of inventory.
6. NOTES RECEIVABLE
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
MMNY - working capital loan(1)
$2,422 $2,422 
Marichron - note receivable(2)
1,500 1,500 
Marichron - working capital loan(2)
229 78 
Other(3)
1,349 500 
Total$5,500 $4,500 
(1)On February 25, 2021, the Company entered into a working capital advance agreement with MedMen NY, Inc. (“MMNY”), an unrelated third party, in conjunction with an Investment Agreement (as defined in Note 15, “Commitments and Contingencies”). The working capital advance agreement allows for initial maximum borrowings of up to $10,000, which may be increased to $17,500, and was issued to provide MMNY with additional funding for operations in conjunction with the Investment Agreement. Borrowings do not bear interest, but may be subject to a financing fee. The outstanding balance is due and payable at the earlier of the initial closing of the Investment Agreement or, if the Investment Agreement is terminated, three business days following such termination. Additional borrowing requests are at the Company’s discretion.
(2)In April 2019, the Company issued a $1,500 promissory note to Marichron Pharma LLC (“Marichron”), an unrelated third party, with a stated interest rate of 12% per year. The Company also entered into a working capital line of credit with Marichron, allowing for maximum borrowings of $1,000. The promissory note and working capital line of credit were issued in conjunction with a unit purchase option agreement that the parties entered into during 2019 and were issued to provide Marichron with additional funding for operations. The note, as amended, matures at the earlier of the definitive closing of the unit purchase option agreement or December 31, 2022. The Company expects to submit a license transfer application to the state during 2022 and may settle the outstanding balances as part of the purchase price at closing following state approval.
(3)In November 2021, the Company issued a bridge loan to an unrelated third party that provides for maximum borrowings of up to $16,000 with an interest rate of 9% per annum. Repayment is due at maturity in November 2023 or upon an event of default (as defined in the bridge loan agreement). The Company has full discretion to approve additional borrowing requests under the agreement.
Additionally, a total of $4,299 is outstanding at March 31, 2022 related to a promissory note issued to the owner of a property the Company is leasing, of which $158 and $4,141 is included in “Other current assets” and “Other noncurrent assets,” respectively, on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. At December 31, 2021, $4,337 was outstanding, of which $156 and $4,181 is included in “Other current assets” and “Other noncurrent assets,” respectively, on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.
The Company has not identified any collectability concerns as of March 31, 2022 for the amounts due under notes receivable. No impairment losses on notes receivable were recognized during the three months ended March 31, 2022 or 2021.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

7. PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT
Property and equipment consists of the following:
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Leasehold improvements$138,923 $103,976 
Furniture, fixtures, and equipment50,746 49,058 
Buildings45,249 45,663 
Construction in progress15,731 60,986 
Land1,802 1,302 
Property and equipment, gross252,451 260,985 
Less: accumulated depreciation26,322 21,329 
Property and equipment, net$226,129 $239,656 
Total depreciation expense was $5,378 and $2,951 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Total depreciation expense capitalized to inventory was $4,208 and $1,956 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $3,541 and $2,070, respectively, of depreciation expense remained capitalized as part of inventory.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recognized a loss of $946 related to the sale of a property, which is included in “General and administrative expenses” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations, and wrote-off $385 of accumulated depreciation.
8. VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES
A variable interest entity (“VIE”) is a legal entity that does not have sufficient equity at risk to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or is structured that such equity investors lack the ability to make significant decisions relating to the entity’s operations through voting rights or do not substantively participate in the gains or losses of the entity. The primary beneficiary has both the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
We assess all variable interests in the entity and use our judgment when determining if we are the primary beneficiary. Other qualitative factors that are considered include decision-making responsibilities, the VIE capital structure, risk and rewards sharing, contractual agreements with the VIE, voting rights, and level of involvement of other parties. We assess the primary beneficiary determination for a VIE on an ongoing basis if there are any changes in the facts and circumstances related to a VIE.
Where we determine we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE, we consolidate the accounts of that VIE. The equity owned by other stockholders is shown as non-controlling interests in the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, Statements of Operations, and Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity. The assets of the VIE can only be used to settle obligations of that entity, and any creditors of that entity generally have no recourse to the assets of other entities or the Company unless the Company separately agrees to be subject to such claims.
The following tables present the summarized financial information about the Company’s consolidated VIE that is included in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 and in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. This entity was determined to be a VIE since the Company possesses the power to direct the significant activities of the VIE and has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

Ascend Illinois
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Current assets$112,537 $111,118 
Other noncurrent assets171,585 171,566 
Current liabilities69,127 71,264 
Noncurrent liabilities116,798 126,397 
Equity49,180 41,873 
Ascend Illinois
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Revenue, net$63,892 $54,738 
Net income7,298 7,094 
9. INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL
Intangible Assets
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Finite-lived intangible assets
Licenses and permits$55,281 $55,281 
In-place leases19,963 19,963 
Trade names380 380 
75,624 75,624 
Accumulated amortization:
Licenses and permits(6,836)(5,415)
In-place leases(11,107)(10,558)
Trade names(380)(380)
(18,323)(16,353)
Total intangible assets, net$57,301 $59,271 
Amortization expense was $1,970 and $1,685 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Total amortization expense capitalized to inventory was $408 and $261 during three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $702 and $502, respectively, of amortization expense remained capitalized as part of inventory.
No impairment indicators were noted during the three months ended March 31, 2022 or 2021 and, as such, we did not record any impairment charges during either period.
Goodwill
(in thousands)
Balance, December 31, 2021$42,967 
Adjustments to purchase price allocation(1)
51 
Balance, March 31, 2022$43,018 
(1)During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recorded measurement period purchase accounting adjustments related to one of our 2021 acquisitions. See Note 4, “Acquisitions,” for additional information.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

10. LEASES
The Company leases land, buildings, equipment, and other capital assets which it uses for corporate purposes and the production and sale of cannabis products. We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception and begin recording lease activity at the commencement date, which is generally the date in which we take possession of or control the physical use of the asset. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term with lease expense recognized on a straight-line basis. We use our incremental borrowing rate to determine the present value of future lease payments unless the implicit rate is readily determinable. Our incremental borrowing rate is the rate of interest we would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term at an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. This incremental borrowing rate is applied to the minimum lease payments within each lease agreement to determine the amounts of our ROU assets and lease liabilities.
Our lease terms range from 1 to 20 years. Some leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease terms. We typically exclude options to extend the lease in a lease term unless it is reasonably certain that we will exercise the option and when doing so is at our sole discretion. The depreciable lives of assets and leasehold improvements are limited by the expected lease term unless there is a transfer of title or purchase option reasonably certain of exercise. Typically, if we decide to cancel or terminate a lease before the end of its term, we would owe the lessor the remaining lease payments under the term of such lease. Our lease agreements generally do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. We may rent or sublease to third parties certain real property assets that we no longer use.
Lease agreements may contain rent escalation clauses, rent holidays, or certain landlord incentives, including tenant improvement allowances. ROU assets include amounts for scheduled rent increases and are reduced by lease incentive amounts. Certain of our lease agreements include variable rent payments, consisting primarily of rental payments adjusted periodically for inflation and amounts paid to the lessor based on cost or consumption, such as maintenance and utilities. Variable rent lease components are not included in the lease liability.
The components of lease assets and lease liabilities and their classification on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets were as follows:
(in thousands)ClassificationMarch 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Lease assets
Operating leasesOperating lease right-of-use assets$107,279 $103,958 
Lease liabilities
Current liabilities
Operating leasesOperating lease liabilities, current $3,606 $2,665 
Noncurrent liabilities
Operating leasesOperating lease liabilities, noncurrent223,981 197,295 
Total lease liabilities$227,587 $199,960 
The components of lease costs and classification within the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Operating lease costs
Capitalized to inventory
$7,058 $4,494 
General and administrative expenses
332 1,280 
Total operating lease costs$7,390 $5,774 
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

At March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $6,699 and $4,393, respectively, of lease costs remained capitalized in inventory. We recognized a gain of $128 during the three months ended March 31, 2022 related to the termination of two of our leases, which is included in “General and administrative expenses” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations.
The following table presents information on short-term and variable lease costs:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Total short-term and variable lease costs$1,206 $652 
Sublease income generated during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was immaterial.
The following table includes supplemental cash and non-cash information related to our leases:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities
Operating cash flows from operating leases$6,829 $5,069 
ROU assets obtained in exchange for new lease obligations
Operating leases$30,746 $11,442 
The weighted-average remaining lease term for our real estate leases is 16.6 years and 15.8 years at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, and the weighted-average discount rate is 14.8% and 12.7% at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
The amounts of future undiscounted cash flows related to the lease payments over the lease terms and the reconciliation to the present value of the lease liabilities as recorded on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of March 31, 2022 are as follows:
(in thousands)
Operating Lease Liabilities
Remainder of 2022$24,060 
202333,028 
202433,952 
202534,903 
202635,488 
Thereafter472,009 
Total lease payments633,440 
Less: imputed interest405,853 
Present value of lease liabilities$227,587 
Lease Amendments
In March 2022, we amended the leases related to our Athol, Massachusetts and Lansing, Michigan cultivation facilities to increase the tenant improvement allowance for each, which resulted in increased rent amounts. We accounted for the amendments as lease modifications and remeasured each ROU asset and lease liability as of the amendment dates. The modifications resulted in a total additional tenant improvement allowance of $19,300, a reduction of $22,483 to total ROU assets, and a reduction of $3,183 to total lease liabilities.
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Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

Sale Leaseback Transactions
In February 2022, the Company sold and subsequently leased back one of its capital assets in Franklin, New Jersey for total proceeds of $35,400, excluding transaction costs. The transaction met the criteria for sale leaseback treatment. The lease was recorded as an operating lease and resulted in a lease liability of $33,707 and an ROU asset of $29,107, which was recorded net of a $4,600 tenant improvement allowance.
On June 29, 2021, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company entered into a definitive agreement for the sale of certain real estate and related assets of a commercial property located in New Bedford, Massachusetts to a third-party for a total purchase price of $350, subject to certain adjustments. The closing is subject to certain conditions, including entering into an operating lease with the third-party. The Company anticipates this transaction will be accounted for either as a sale leaseback transaction or a finance liability, depending on the final lease terms.
The following table presents cash payments due under transactions that did not qualify for sale-leaseback treatment. The cash payments are allocated between interest and liability reduction, as applicable. The “sold” assets remain within land, buildings, and leasehold improvements, as appropriate, for the duration of the lease and a financing liability equal to the amount of proceeds received is recorded within “Long-term debt, net” on the accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(in thousands)Remainder of 20222023202420252026ThereafterTotal
Cash payments due under financing liabilities$1,567 $2,143 $2,206 $2,271 $2,338 $6,811 $17,336 
11. DEBT
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
2021 Credit Facility(1)
$210,000 $210,000 
Sellers’ Notes(2)
13,493 39,116 
Finance liabilities17,750 17,750 
Total debt$241,243 $266,866 
Current portion of debt$11,140 $27,980 
Less: unamortized deferred financing costs33 40 
Current portion of debt, net$11,107 $27,940 
Long-term debt$230,103 $238,886 
Less: unamortized deferred financing costs7,510 8,040 
Long-term debt, net$222,593 $230,846 
(1)On August 27, 2021, the Company entered into a credit agreement with a group of lenders (the “2021 Credit Agreement”) that provides for a term loan of $210,000 (the “2021 Credit Facility”), which was borrowed in full. The 2021 Credit Facility matures on August 27, 2025 and does not require scheduled principal amortization payments. Borrowings under the 2021 Credit Facility bear interest at a rate of 9.5% per annum, payable quarterly and, as to any portion of the term loan that is prepaid, on the date of prepayment. We incurred total financing costs of $8,806, that are being amortized to interest expense over the term of 2021 Credit Facility using the straight-line method which approximates the interest rate method.
Mandatory prepayments are required from proceeds of certain events, including the proceeds of indebtedness that is not permitted under the agreement and asset sales and casualty events, subject to customary reinvestment rights. The Company may prepay the 2021 Credit Facility at any time, subject to a customary make-whole payment or prepayment penalty, as applicable. Once repaid, amounts borrowed under the 2021 Credit Facility may not be re-borrowed. The 2021 Credit Agreement permits the company to request an extension of the maturity date for 364 days, in the lenders’ discretion, and to
17

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

increase the 2021 Credit Facility up to $275,000 if the then-existing lenders (or other lenders) agree to provide such additional term loans.
The Company is required to comply with two financial covenants under the 2021 Credit Agreement. The Company may not permit its liquidity (defined as unrestricted cash and cash equivalents pledged under the 2021 Credit Facility plus any future revolving credit availability) to be below $20,000 as of the last day of any fiscal quarter. Additionally, the Company may not permit the ratio of Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the 2021 Credit Agreement) to consolidated cash interest expense for any period of four consecutive fiscal quarters to be less than 2.25:1.00 for the period ending March 31, 2022, and less than 2.50:1.00 for the period ending June 30, 2022 and thereafter. The Company has a customary equity cure right for each of these financial covenants. The Company is in compliance with these covenants as of March 31, 2022.
The 2021 Credit Agreement requires the Company to make certain representations and warranties and to comply with customary covenants, including restrictions on the payment of dividends, repurchase of stock, incurrence of indebtedness, dispositions, and acquisitions. The 2021 Credit Agreement also contains customary events of default including: non-payment of principal or interest; violations of covenants; bankruptcy; change of control; cross defaults to other debt; and material judgments. The 2021 Credit Facility is guaranteed by all of the Company’s subsidiaries and is secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company and its subsidiaries.
(2)Sellers’ Notes consist of amounts owed for acquisitions or other purchases. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we repaid $24,839 to the former owners of two entities that we previously acquired, which is included in “Current portion of debt, net” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2021. A total of $8,000 remains due to the former owners of one entity that we previously acquired, which is included on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets under the caption “Current portion of debt, net” at March 31, 2022 and Long-term debt, net” at December 31, 2021.
Additionally, at March 31, 2022, $5,493 remains due under the purchase of a non-controlling interest, of which $3,140 and $2,353 is included in “Current portion of debt, net” and “Long-term debt, net” respectively on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. At December 31, 2021, $3,140 and $3,136 is included in “Current portion of debt, net” and “Long-term debt, net” respectively.
Debt Maturities
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we repaid $24,839 of sellers’ notes related to two previous acquisitions and $786 of sellers’ notes related to the former owners of a previous non-controlling interest.
At March 31, 2022, the following cash payments are required under our debt arrangements:
(in thousands)Remainder of 20222023202420252026Total
Sellers’ notes(1)
$2,357 $11,143 $ $ $ $13,500 
Term note maturities   210,000  210,000 
(1)Certain cash payments include an interest accretion component.
Interest Expense
Interest expense during 2022 and 2021 consisted of the following:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Cash interest$4,943 $3,426 
Accretion573 3,412 
Interest on financing liability(1)
515 499 
Total $6,031 $7,337 
(1)Interest on financing liability related to failed sale leaseback transactions. See Note 10, “Leases,” for additional details.
18

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

12. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Following the Conversion, the Company has authorized 750,000 shares of Class A common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share, 100 shares of Class B common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share, and 10,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.001 per share.
Holders of each share of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share and holders of Class B common stock are entitled to 1,000 votes per share. Holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote of stockholders, unless otherwise required by law or our certificate of incorporation. Each share of Class B common stock is convertible at any time into one share of Class A common stock at the option of the holder. In addition, each share of Class B common stock will automatically convert into one share of Class A common stock on May 4, 2026, the final conversion date. Each share of Class B common stock will convert automatically into one share of Class A common stock upon any transfer, whether or not for value, except for certain transfers described in our certificate of incorporation, including, without limitation, transfers for tax and estate planning purposes, so long as the transferring holder of Class B common stock continues to hold exclusive voting and dispositive power with respect to any such transferred shares. Once converted into a share of Class A common stock, a converted share of Class B common stock will not be reissued, and following the conversion of all outstanding shares of Class B common stock, no further shares of Class B common stock will be issued.
Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time and any contractual limitations, such as our credit agreements, the holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive dividends out of funds then legally available, if any, if our board of directors (the “Board”), in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our Board may determine. If a dividend is paid in the form of a Class A common stock or Class B common stock, then holders of Class A common stock shall receive Class A common stock and holders of Class B common stock shall receive Class B common stock.
In the event of a liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock.
In the event of any change of control transaction in respect of the Company, shares of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock shall be treated equally, ratably, and identically, on a per share basis, with respect to any consideration into which such shares are converted or any consideration paid or otherwise distributed to stockholders of the Company, unless different treatment of the shares of each class is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, each voting separately as a class.
Immediately prior to the Conversion, the Company was authorized to issue Common Units, Preferred Units, and Restricted Common Units (see Note 13, “Equity-Based Compensation Expense”), all with no par value. Preferred Units collectively included Series Seed Preferred Units, Series Seed+ Preferred Units, and Real Estate Preferred Units, unless otherwise specified. These share classes are included within “Additional Paid-In Capital” in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity on an as-converted to historical common units basis. In conjunction with the Conversion, each historical common unit then-outstanding converted into one share of Class A common stock, except 65 units that were allocated to shares of Class B common stock.

19

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

On May 4, 2021, the Company completed an IPO of its Class A common stock, in which it issued and sold 10,000 shares of Class A common stock at a price of $8.00 per share. On May 7, 2021, the underwriters exercised their over-allotment option in full and we issued and sold an additional 1,500 shares of Class A common stock. We received total net proceeds of approximately $86,065 after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and certain other direct offering expenses paid by us. In conjunction with the IPO, each Real Estate Preferred Unit converted into Class A common stock at a rate of one plus 1.5x, divided by the IPO price of $8.00 per share, for a total of 26,221 shares of Class A common stock. The additional 3,420 shares issued per the conversion feature was considered a contingent beneficial conversion feature and was recognized when the conversion event occurred and the contingency was resolved, for a total non-cash interest charge of $27,361. Each Series Seed Preferred Unit and Series Seed+ Preferred Unit converted into shares of Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis. Additionally, the then-outstanding convertible promissory notes, plus accrued interest, converted into a total of 37,388 shares of Class A common stock.
The following table summarizes the total shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021:
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Shares of Class A common stock174,392 171,521 
Shares of Class B common stock65 65 
Total174,457171,586
Warrants
The following table summarizes the warrants activity during the quarter ended March 31, 2022:
Number of Warrants
(in thousands)(1)
Weighted-Average Exercise Price
Weighted-Average Remaining Exercise Period
(years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)(2)
Outstanding, December 31, 20213,531 $4.00 2.0$9,216 
Outstanding, March 31, 20223,531 $4.00 1.8$71 
(1)In conjunction with the Conversion, the holders of warrants to acquire 3,531 common units at an exercise price of $4.00 received warrants to acquire an equal number of shares of Class A common stock.
(2)Based on the amount by which the closing market price of our Class A common stock exceeds the exercise price on each date indicated.
The warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2022 are equity-classified instruments, are subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments, are stand-alone instruments, and are not part of the terms of the notes to which they were originally issued. The warrants had an estimated total fair value of $237 at issuance, which was calculated using a Black-Scholes model. The fair value per warrant ranged from $0.02 to $0.10 and significant assumptions used in the calculation included volatility ranging from 69.2% to 108.4% and risk-free rates ranging from 0.17% to 2.17%.
20

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

13. EQUITY-BASED COMPENSATION EXPENSE
Equity Incentive Plans
The Company adopted an incentive plan in November 2020 (the “2020 Plan”) which authorized the issuance of incentive common unit options and restricted common units (collectively, “Awards”). The maximum number of Awards to be issued under the 2020 Plan is 10,031 and any Awards that expire or are forfeited may be re-issued. A total of 9,994 Awards had been issued under the plan as of March 31, 2022. The Awards generally vest over two or three years. The estimated fair value of the Awards at issuance is recognized as compensation expense over the related vesting period.
In conjunction with the Conversion, the holders of the restricted common units issued under the 2020 Plan received one restricted share of Class A common stock (a “Restricted Common Share”) for each restricted common unit held immediately prior to the Conversion.
The following table summarizes the restricted common shares activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Restricted Common Shares
Unvested, December 31, 20211,653 
Vested(866)
Forfeited(12)
Unvested, March 31, 2022775 
As of March 31, 2022, total unrecognized compensation cost related to the restricted common shares was $206, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average remaining vesting period of 0.5 years.
In July 2021, the Company adopted a new stock incentive plan (the “2021 Plan”), pursuant to which 17,000 shares of Class A common stock are reserved for issuance thereunder, subject to certain adjustments and other terms. Following the adoption of the 2021 Plan, no additional awards are expected to be issued under the 2020 Plan. The 2021 Plan authorized the issuance of stock options, stock appreciation rights (“SAR Awards”), restricted stock awards (“RSAs”), restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and other stock-based awards (collectively the “2021 Plan Awards”). Any 2021 Plan Awards that expire or are forfeited may be re-issued. The estimated fair value of the 2021 Plan Awards at issuance is recognized as compensation expense over the related vesting, exercise, or service periods, as applicable. As of March 31, 2022, there were 6,546 shares of Class A common stock available for grant for future equity-based compensation awards under the 2021 Plan. Activity related to awards issued under the 2021 Plan is further described below. As of March 31, 2022, no SAR Awards and no RSAs have been granted under the 2021 Plan.
Stock Options
The following table summarizes stock option activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Options Outstanding
(in thousands, except per share amounts)Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise PriceWeighted-Average Remaining Contractual Life
(years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value(1)
Outstanding, December 31, 2021$ — $— 
Granted1,331$4.10 
Outstanding, March 31, 2022
1,331$4.10 5.0$ 
Exercisable at March 31, 2022
$4.10 5.0$ 
(1)Based on the amount by which the closing market price of our Class A common stock exceeds the exercise price on each date indicated.
21

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

No options were exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2022. As of March 31, 2022, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested options was $2,590, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average remaining vesting period of 2.5 years.
We determine the fair value of stock options on the grant date using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of stock options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2022 was calculated on the date of grant using the following weighted-average assumptions:
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022
Risk-free interest rate2.6 %
Expected term (years)3.75
Dividend yield0 %
Expected volatility70.0 %
Using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, the weighted-average fair value of stock options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $1.97 per share.
Restricted Stock Units
The following table summarizes the RSU activity during the three months ended March 31, 2022:
Number of Shares
(in thousands)
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value per Share
Unvested, December 31, 20216,329 $10.48 
Granted3,238 3.87 
Vested(1)
(3,265)6.28 
Forfeited(498)6.09 
Unvested, March 31, 2022
5,804 $9.36 
(1)Includes 1,260 vested shares that were withheld to cover tax obligations and were subsequently canceled.
As of March 31, 2022, total unrecognized compensation cost related to the RSUs was $51,392, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average remaining vesting period of 2.0 years.
Compensation Expense by Type of Award
The following table details the equity-based compensation expense by type of award for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
RSUs(1)
$5,533 $ 
Restricted Common Shares155 2,487 
Stock Options27  
Total equity-based compensation expense$5,715 $2,487 
(1)Includes RSUs issued for the 2021 annual performance bonus, which is included in “Accounts payable and accrued liabilities” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2021. These RSUs vested at issuance with a value of $7,959, which reflects a change in estimate of $632 that is included as a reduction to equity-based compensation expense and is included within “General and administrative expenses” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022.
22

Ascend Wellness Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per unit or per share data)

Of the total equity-based compensation expense, $3,211 was capitalized to inventory during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and $4,030 and $4,814 remains capitalized as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. No equity-based compensation expense was capitalized during the three months ended March 31, 2021. During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, we recognized $2,504 and $2,487, respectively, within “General and administrative expenses” and $3,995 and none, respectively, within “Cost of goods sold” on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In July 2021, the Company also adopted an employee stock purchase plan (the “2021 ESPP”), pursuant to which 4,000 shares of Class A common stock are reserved for issuance thereunder, subject to certain adjustments and other terms. No shares have been issued under the 2021 ESPP as of March 31, 2022.
14. INCOME TAXES
Three Months Ended March 31,
($ in thousands)20222021
Loss before income taxes$(20,708)$(39,247)
Income tax expense7,107 8,976 
Effective tax rate(34.3)%(22.9)%
Gross profit$23,447 $29,667 
Effective tax rate on gross profit30.3 %30.3 %
Since the Company operates in the cannabis industry, it is subject to the limitations of Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) Section 280E, which prohibits businesses engaged in the trafficking of Schedule I or Schedule II controlled substances from deducting ordinary and necessary business expenses from gross profit. Cannabis businesses operating in states that align their tax codes with IRC Section 280E are also unable to deduct ordinary and necessary business expenses for state tax purposes. Ordinary and necessary business expenses deemed non-deductible under IRC Section 280E are treated as permanent book-to-tax differences. Therefore, the effective tax rate can be highly variable and may not necessarily correlate with pre-tax income or loss. As such, the effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2022 varies from the effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2021 due to the tax-effected change in nondeductible expenses under IRC Section 280E as a proportion of pre-tax loss during the period.
The Company’s quarterly tax provision is calculated under the discrete method which treats the interim period as if it were the annual period and determines the income tax expense or benefit on that basis. The discrete method is applied when application of the estimated annual effective tax rate is impractical because it is not possible to reliably estimate the annual effective tax rate. The Company believes, at this time, the use of this discrete method is more appropriate than the annual effective tax rate method due to the high degree of uncertainty in estimating annual pre-tax income due to the early growth stage of the business.
15.