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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED September 30, 2021

    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM ___________ TO___________

Commission file number 1-16671
AMERISOURCEBERGEN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 23-3079390
(State or other jurisdiction of (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization) Identification No.)
1 West First AvenueConshohocken,PA 19428-1800
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(610727-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
Common stockABCNew York Stock Exchange(NYSE)
_________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer þ  Accelerated filer o  Non-accelerated filer o  Smaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes  No þ
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on March 31, 2021 based upon the closing price of such stock on the New York Stock Exchange on March 31, 2021 was $14,163,374,015.
The number of shares of common stock of AmerisourceBergen Corporation outstanding as of October 31, 2021 was 208,133,361.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
    Portions of the following document are incorporated by reference in the Part of this report indicated below:
    Part III — Registrant's Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item Page
 
 
 
 


PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
As used herein, the terms "Company," "AmerisourceBergen," "we," "us," or "our" refer to AmerisourceBergen Corporation, a Delaware corporation.
    AmerisourceBergen is one of the largest global pharmaceutical sourcing and distribution services companies, helping both healthcare providers and pharmaceutical and biotech manufacturers improve patient access to products and enhance patient care. We deliver innovative programs and services designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the pharmaceutical supply chain in both human and animal health. More specifically, we distribute a comprehensive offering of brand-name, specialty brand-name, and generic pharmaceuticals, over-the-counter healthcare products, home healthcare supplies and equipment, and related services to a wide variety of healthcare providers located in the United States and select global markets, including acute care hospitals and health systems, independent and chain retail pharmacies, mail order pharmacies, medical clinics, long-term care and alternate site pharmacies, physician practices, medical and dialysis clinics, veterinarians, and other customers. Additionally, we furnish healthcare providers and pharmaceutical manufacturers with an assortment of related services, including data analytics, outcomes research, reimbursement and pharmaceutical consulting services, niche premium logistics services, inventory management, pharmacy automation, pharmacy management, and packaging solutions.
Industry Overview
Pharmaceutical sales in the United States, as recently estimated by IQVIA, an independent third-party provider of information to the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry, are expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of approximately 4.2% from 2020 through 2025, and the growth rate is dependent, in part, on pharmaceutical manufacturer price increases. In addition to general economic conditions, factors that impact the growth of the pharmaceutical industry in the United States and other industry trends include:
Aging Population. The number of individuals aged 65 and over in the United States is expected to exceed 65 million by 2025 and is the most rapidly growing segment of the population. This age group suffers from more chronic illnesses and disabilities than the rest of the population and accounts for a substantial portion of total healthcare expenditures in the United States.
Introduction of New Pharmaceuticals. Traditional research and development, as well as the advent of new research, production, and delivery methods, such as biotechnology and gene therapy, continue to generate new pharmaceuticals and delivery methods that are more effective in treating diseases. We believe ongoing research and development expenditures by the leading pharmaceutical manufacturers will contribute to continued growth of the industry. In particular, we believe ongoing research and development of biotechnology and other specialty pharmaceutical drugs will provide opportunities for the continued growth of our specialty pharmaceuticals business.
Increased Use of Generic and Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals. A number of patents for widely used brand-name pharmaceutical products will continue to expire during the next several years. In addition, increased emphasis by managed care and other third-party payors on utilization of generics and biosimilars has accelerated their growth. We consider the increase in generic and biosimilar usage a favorable trend because generic and biosimilar pharmaceuticals have historically provided us with a greater gross profit margin opportunity than brand-name products, although their lower prices reduce revenue growth. Generic pharmaceuticals currently account for approximately 90% of the prescription volume in the United States.
Increased Use of Drug Therapies. In response to rising healthcare costs, governmental and private payors have adopted cost containment measures that encourage the use of efficient drug therapies to prevent or treat diseases. While national attention has been focused on the overall increase in aggregate healthcare costs, we believe drug therapy has had a beneficial impact on healthcare costs by reducing expensive surgeries and prolonged hospital stays. Pharmaceuticals currently account for approximately 10% of overall healthcare costs. Pharmaceutical manufacturers' continued emphasis on research and development is expected to result in the continuing introduction of cost-effective drug therapies and new uses for existing drug therapies.
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Legislative Developments. In 2010, the federal government enacted major health reform legislation designed to expand access to health insurance, which increased the number of people in the United States who are eligible to be reimbursed for all or a portion of prescription drug costs. The health reform law provides for sweeping changes to Medicare and Medicaid policies (including drug reimbursement policies), expanded disclosure requirements regarding financial arrangements within the healthcare industry, enhanced enforcement authority to prevent fraud and abuse, and new taxes and fees on pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers. Subsequent legislation and rules promulgated by government agencies have made additional changes to federal drug payment policies. These policies and other legislative developments (including potential revisions to or repeal of any portions of the health reform legislation) may affect our businesses directly and/or indirectly (see Government Regulation on page 8 and the risk factor titled Legal, regulatory, and legislative changes with respect to reimbursement, pricing, and contracting may adversely affect our business and results of operations, including through declining reimbursement rates on page 16 for further details).
COVID-19 Pandemic. In March 2020, the World Health Organization ("WHO") declared a global pandemic attributable to the outbreak and continued spread of COVID-19. In connection with the mitigation and containment procedures recommended by the WHO and imposed by federal, state, and local governmental authorities, we implemented measures designed to keep our employees safe and address business continuity issues at our distribution centers and other locations. We continue to evaluate and plan for the potential effects of any disruption and the related impacts on our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows. These items include, but are not limited to, the financial condition of our customers and the realization of accounts receivable, changes in availability and demand for our products and services, changes in operating costs, and delays related to current and future projects. While our operational and financial performance may be significantly impacted by COVID-19, it is not possible for us to predict the duration or magnitude of the outbreak and whether it could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations, or cash flows (see Risk Factor - We face risks related to health epidemics and pandemics, and the continued spread of COVID-19 has had adverse effects on our business).
Other economic conditions and certain risk factors could adversely affect our business and prospects (see Item 1A. Risk Factors on page 11).
The Company
We serve our customers (healthcare providers and pharmaceutical and biotech manufacturers) through a geographically diverse network of distribution service centers and other operations in the United States and select global markets. In our pharmaceutical distribution business, we are typically the primary supplier of pharmaceutical and related products to our healthcare provider customers. We offer a broad range of services to our customers designed to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations, which allow them to improve the delivery of healthcare to patients and to lower overall costs in the pharmaceutical supply channel.
Strategy
Our business strategy is focused on the global pharmaceutical supply channel where we provide value-added distribution and global commercialization services to healthcare providers (primarily pharmacies, health systems, medical and dialysis clinics, physicians, and veterinarians) and pharmaceutical manufacturers that improve channel efficiencies and patient outcomes. Implementing this disciplined and focused strategy in a seamless and unified way has allowed us to significantly expand our business, and we believe we are well positioned to grow revenue and increase operating income through the execution of the following key elements of our business strategy:
Optimize and Grow Our Pharmaceutical Distribution and Strategic Global Sourcing Businesses.  We believe we are well positioned in size and market breadth to continue to grow our distribution businesses as we invest to improve our operating and capital efficiencies. Distribution, including specialty pharmaceuticals, anchors our growth and position in the pharmaceutical supply channel as we provide superior distribution services and deliver value-added solutions, which improve the efficiency and competitiveness of both healthcare providers and pharmaceutical manufacturers, thus allowing the pharmaceutical supply channel to better deliver healthcare to patients.

We are a leader in distribution and services to community oncologists and have leading positions in other physician-administered products. We distribute plasma and other blood products, injectable pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and other specialty products. We are well positioned to service and support many of the new biotechnology therapies that are expected to be coming to market in the near future.
We have introduced strategies to enhance our position in the generic marketplace, including our generic product private label program based in Ireland. We source generics globally, offer a value-added generic formulary program to our healthcare provider customers, and monitor our customers' compliance with our generics program. We also
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provide data and other valuable services to our manufacturer customers, which includes our international presence in Switzerland where we lead our global manufacturer relations and commercialization strategy.
We offer value-added services and solutions to assist healthcare providers and pharmaceutical manufacturers to improve their efficiency and their patient outcomes. Services for manufacturers include: assistance with rapid new product launches, promotional and marketing services to accelerate product sales, product data reporting, and logistical support.
Our provider solutions include: our Good Neighbor Pharmacy® program, which enables independent community pharmacies to compete more effectively through pharmaceutical benefit and merchandising programs; Elevate Provider Network®, our managed care network, which connects our retail pharmacy customers to payor plans throughout the country and is one of the largest in the United States; generic product purchasing and private label services; hospital pharmacy consulting designed to improve operational efficiencies; and packaging solutions for institutional and retail healthcare providers.
We believe we have one of the lowest operating cost structures among all pharmaceutical distributors. Our robust distribution facility network includes a national distribution center in Columbus, OH, which offers pharmaceutical manufacturers a single shipping destination. We continue to seek opportunities to achieve increased productivity and operating income gains as we invest in and continue to implement warehouse automation technology, adopt "best practices" in warehousing activities, and increase operating leverage by increasing volume per full-service distribution facility. We continue to seek opportunities to expand our offerings in our Pharmaceutical Distribution and Strategic Global Sourcing businesses.

Optimize and Grow Our Global Commercialization Services and Animal Health Businesses.  Our consulting service businesses help global pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturers commercialize their products. We believe we are one of the largest providers of reimbursement services that assist pharmaceutical companies in supporting access to branded drugs. We also provide outcomes research, contract field staffing, patient assistance and copay assistance programs, adherence programs, risk mitigation services, and other market access programs to pharmaceutical companies. World Courier is a leading global specialty transportation and logistics provider for the biopharmaceutical industry. World Courier further strengthens our service offerings to global pharmaceutical manufacturers and provides an established platform for the introduction of our specialty services outside North America. MWI Animal Health (“MWI”) sells pharmaceuticals, vaccines, parasiticides, diagnostics, micro feed ingredients, and various other products to customers in both the companion animal and production animal markets. MWI also offers its customers a variety of value-added services, including its e-commerce platform, technology management systems, pharmacy fulfillment, inventory management system, equipment procurement consultation, special order fulfillment, and educational seminars, which we believe closely integrate MWI with its customers' day-to-day operations and provide them with meaningful incentives to continue doing business with MWI. We continue to seek opportunities to expand our offerings in our Global Commercialization Services and Animal Health businesses.

Acquisitions. In order to grow our core strategic offerings and to enter related markets, we have acquired and invested in businesses and will continue to consider additional acquisitions and investments.

On June 1, 2021, we acquired a majority of Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.'s ("WBA") Alliance Healthcare businesses ("Alliance Healthcare"). Alliance Healthcare supplies pharmaceuticals, other healthcare products, and related services to healthcare providers, including pharmacies, doctors, health centers, and hospitals in 10 countries, primarily in Europe. The acquisition expands our reach and solutions in pharmaceutical distribution and adds to our depth and breadth of global manufacturer services. For the allocation of the purchase price, see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Divestitures. In order to allow us to concentrate on our strategic focus areas, we have divested certain non-core businesses and may, from time to time, consider additional divestitures.

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We recently entered into agreements to sell two non-core subsidiaries. In connection with entering into these agreements, we concluded that both disposal groups met the held for sale criteria and classified their assets and liabilities as held for sale as of September 30, 2021. Refer to Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a summary of the assets and liabilities classified as held for sale.
Operations
    Operating Structure. We are organized based upon the products and services we provide to our customers. Our operations as of September 30, 2021 are comprised of the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment and other operating segments that are not significant enough to require separate reportable segment disclosure, and, therefore, have been included in Other for the purpose of reportable segment presentation.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services Segment
    Servicing healthcare providers in the pharmaceutical supply channel, the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment's operations provide drug distribution, strategic global sourcing, and related services designed to reduce healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes.
    The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment distributes a comprehensive offering of brand-name, specialty brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals, over-the-counter healthcare products, home healthcare supplies and equipment, and related services to a wide variety of healthcare providers, including acute care hospitals and health systems, independent and chain retail pharmacies, mail order pharmacies, medical clinics, long-term care and alternate site pharmacies, and other customers. Through a number of operating businesses, the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment provides pharmaceutical distribution (including plasma and other blood products, injectable pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and other specialty pharmaceutical products) and additional services to physicians who specialize in a variety of disease states, especially oncology, and to other healthcare providers, including hospitals and dialysis clinics. Additionally, the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment provides data analytics, outcomes research, and additional services for biotechnology and pharmaceutical manufacturers. The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment also provides pharmacy management, staffing and additional consulting services, and supply management software to a variety of retail and institutional healthcare providers. Additionally, it delivers packaging solutions to institutional and retail healthcare providers.
Other
Other consists of operating segments that focus on global commercialization services, animal health (MWI Animal Health), and international pharmaceutical wholesale and related service operations (Alliance Healthcare). The operating segments that focus on global commercialization services include AmerisourceBergen Consulting Services ("ABCS") and World Courier.

Alliance Healthcare supplies pharmaceuticals, other healthcare products, and related services to healthcare providers, including pharmacies, doctors, health centers, and hospitals in 10 countries, primarily in Europe. MWI is a leading animal health distribution company in the United States and in the United Kingdom. MWI sells pharmaceuticals, vaccines, parasiticides, diagnostics, micro feed ingredients, and various other products to customers in both the companion animal and production animal markets. Additionally, MWI offers demand-creating sales force services to manufacturers. ABCS, through a number of operating businesses, provides a full suite of integrated manufacturer services that range from clinical trial support to product post-approval and commercialization support. World Courier, which operates in more than 50 countries, is a leading global specialty transportation and logistics provider for the biopharmaceutical industry.
Sales and Marketing. The majority of Pharmaceutical Distribution Services’ sales force is led nationally, with geographic focus and specialized by either healthcare provider type or size. Customer service representatives are centralized in order to respond to customer needs in a timely and effective manner. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services also has support professionals focused on its various technologies and service offerings. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services’ sales teams also serve national account customers through close coordination with local distribution centers and ensure that our customers are receiving service offerings that meet their needs. Our other operating segments each have independent sales forces that specialize in their respective product and service offerings. In addition, we have an enterprise-wide marketing team that coordinates branding and all other marketing activities across the Company.
Customers. We have a diverse customer base that includes institutional and retail healthcare providers as well as pharmaceutical manufacturers. Institutional healthcare providers include acute care hospitals, health systems, mail order pharmacies, long-term care and other alternate care pharmacies, and providers of pharmacy services to such facilities, physicians, and physician group practices. Retail healthcare providers include national and regional retail drugstore chains, independent community pharmacies, pharmacy departments of supermarkets and mass merchandisers, and veterinarians. We are typically the primary source of supply for our healthcare provider customers. Our manufacturer customers include branded,
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generic, and biotechnology manufacturers of prescription pharmaceuticals, as well as over-the-counter product and health and beauty aid manufacturers. In addition, we offer a broad range of value-added solutions designed to enhance the operating efficiencies and competitive positions of our customers, thereby allowing them to improve the delivery of healthcare to patients and consumers.
Our two largest customers, WBA and Express Scripts, Inc. ("Express Scripts"), accounted for approximately 31% and approximately 12%, respectively, of revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Our top 10 customers, including governmental agencies and group purchasing organizations ("GPO"), represented approximately 69% of revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. The loss of any major customer or GPO relationship could adversely affect future revenue and results of operations. Additionally, from time to time, significant contracts may be terminated in accordance with their terms or extended, renewed, or replaced prior to their expiration dates. If those contracts are not renewed, or are extended, renewed, or replaced at less favorable terms, they may negatively impact our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
    Suppliers. We obtain pharmaceutical and other products from manufacturers, none of which accounted for 10% or more of our purchases in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. The loss of a supplier could adversely affect our business if alternate sources of supply are unavailable since we are committed to be the primary source of pharmaceutical products for a majority of our customers. We believe that our relationships with our suppliers are strong. The 10 largest suppliers in fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 accounted for approximately 49% of our purchases.
Information Systems. The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services operating segment’s distribution facilities in the United States operate under a single enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services’ ERP system provides for, among other things, electronic order entry by customers, invoice preparation and purchasing, and inventory tracking. Our other operating segments operate the majority of their businesses on their own common operating systems resulting in the ability to rapidly deploy new capabilities. We continue to make investments to enhance and upgrade the operating systems utilized by our other operating segments, including, but not limited to, Alliance Healthcare.
Additionally, we are improving our entity-wide infrastructure environment to drive efficiency, capabilities, and speed to market.
We will continue to invest in advanced information systems and automated warehouse technology. For example, in an effort to comply with future pedigree and other supply chain custody requirements (see Risk Factor - Increasing governmental efforts to regulate the pharmaceutical supply channel and pharmaceutical compounding may increase our costs and reduce our profitability), we expect to continue to make significant investments in our secure supply chain information systems.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services has made significant investments in its electronic ordering systems. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services’ systems are intended to strengthen customer relationships by helping customers to reduce operating costs, and by providing them a platform for a number of basic and value-added services, including product demand data, inventory replenishment, single-source billing, third-party claims processing, real-time price and incentive updates, and price labels.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services processes a substantial portion of its purchase orders, invoices, and payments electronically, and it continues to make substantial investments to expand its electronic interface with its suppliers. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services has warehouse operating systems, which are used to manage the majority of its transactional volume. The warehouse operating systems have improved Pharmaceutical Distribution Services’ productivity and operating leverage. Our data center operations are insourced.
Competition
We face a highly competitive global environment in the distribution of pharmaceuticals and related healthcare services. Our largest competitors are McKesson Corporation ("McKesson"), Cardinal Health, Inc. ("Cardinal"), and UPS Logistics, among others. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services competes with both McKesson and Cardinal, as well as national generic distributors and regional distributors within pharmaceutical distribution. In addition, we compete with manufacturers who sell directly to customers, chain drugstores who manage their own warehousing, specialty distributors, and packaging and healthcare technology companies. ABCS, World Courier, MWI, and Alliance Healthcare also face competition from a variety of businesses. In all areas, competitive factors include price, product offerings, value-added service programs, service and delivery, credit terms, and customer support.
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Intellectual Property
We use a number of trademarks and service marks. All of the principal trademarks and service marks used in the course of our business have been registered in the United States and, in some cases, in foreign jurisdictions, or are the subject of pending applications for registration.
We have developed or acquired various proprietary products, processes, software, and other intellectual property that are used either to facilitate the conduct of our business or that are made available as products or services to customers. We generally seek to protect such intellectual property through a combination of trade secret, patent and copyright laws, and through confidentiality and other contractually imposed protections.
We hold patents and have patent applications pending that relate to certain of our products, particularly our automated pharmacy dispensing equipment, our medication and supply dispensing equipment, certain warehousing equipment, and some of our proprietary packaging solutions. We seek patent protection for our proprietary intellectual property from time to time as appropriate.
Although we believe that our patents or other proprietary products and processes do not infringe upon the intellectual property rights of any third parties, third parties may assert infringement claims against us from time to time.
Human Capital Resources
Our ability to be successful in the global marketplace directly depends on attracting and retaining a talented and skilled workforce. As the strength of our workforce is critical to our success, we aspire to create healthier futures and accelerate business results by inspiring the best and brightest global talent across all dimensions of diversity to perform at their full potential.
Workforce
As of September 30, 2021, we had approximately 42,000 employees, of which approximately 38,000 were full-time employees and approximately 40% were U.S.-based employees.
Approximately 27% of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, a large majority of which are Alliance Healthcare employees located outside of the United States.
Talent Development
We consider employee development to be a strategic priority. We support employee growth and development by offering a variety of benefits including:
Leadership and professional development programs and resources;
Tuition reimbursement;
Opportunities to volunteer and participate in mentorship programs and Employee Resource Groups;
Recognition for excellence, such as our annual Pursuit of Purpose awards and True Blue associate recognition program; and a
Personalized learning and skill building experiences through a global learning experience platform.
Importantly, we have also made thoughtful investments to build our talent and culture. In fiscal 2020, we partnered with leaders across the Company to create a new integrated talent framework aligned to our business strategy and purpose, and in fiscal 2021, we introduced to our global team members this new framework, which includes a new leadership competency model, enterprise learning strategy, and modern approach to performance management.
We introduced our new leadership model, which emphasizes people, collaboration, innovation, and purpose, to our team members in fiscal 2021 through a series of experiential learning programs. Implementation started with our top 300 leaders and we are working to embed it into our hiring, performance management, development, and succession-planning processes. The ultimate goal of the new leadership model is to help us unlock the full potential of our people and build the new skills and behaviors we need to achieve our enterprise strategy.
Our goal is to provide our team members with clear pathways for career development, access to programs and benefits that allow them to live fuller, healthier lives, and an ability to participate in the community in ways that inspire and celebrate individuality. Our talent development programs are designed to help provide a supportive and engaging work environment where team members can excel, while remaining authentic and empowered to share their unique perspectives.
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Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion ("DE&I")
At AmerisourceBergen, we strive to foster a global workplace that values varying cultural, experiential, and philosophical perspectives, creates pathways for every team member to thrive, makes a positive impact on our communities through equitable access to healthcare, and is transparent and accountable for progress.
We encourage and embrace different cultures and backgrounds, as we recognize the value of employing a workforce of unique and varying viewpoints and experiences. Currently, 49% of our U.S. workforce are individuals with ethnically and/or racially diverse backgrounds and 57% are women. We have one ethnically and/or racially diverse Director, and women account for 30% of our Board of Directors and 57% of our Executive Management Committee.
Our long-term DE&I strategy is focused on four critical dimensions—people, culture, progress, and community—and is grounded in deep organizational insights, our people data, and industry research and benchmarks. In pursuit of this strategy, in 2021, we:
Introduced AmerisourceBergen’s Global Diversity & Inclusion Council, representing central leadership and driving force accelerating business results through our global diversity & inclusion strategy.
Launched the ABility Employee Resource Group ("ERG") with the mission to elevate employee voices, bring enterprise-wide awareness, and become a resource for all individuals and their families with visible and invisible disabilities.
Furthered our focus on supplier diversity by partnering with businesses with diverse ownership in sectors that we rely on.
Supported equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines through our Good Neighbor Pharmacy partners, including our partnership with the Federal Retail Pharmacy Program to support vaccination efforts across the U.S., and delivered vaccines in more than 30 countries around the world.
Directed meaningful dollars, through both the Company and the AmerisourceBergen Foundation, to philanthropic causes that benefit diverse communities, including $700 thousand to the Boys & Girls Clubs of America to address vaccine hesitancy in diverse communities, along with nearly $2.7 million of in-kind donations of healthcare products to underserved communities across the globe in conjunction with our non-profit partners.
Doubled investment in team member development and launched new enterprise learning strategy and digital learning platform.
In addition to the foregoing, we offer the following DE&I programs and initiatives:
To connect and align our diverse workforce, our ERG program includes eight ERGs, comprised of approximately 4,000 members globally. The ERGs continue to evolve, as leaders and members help to enhance workforce engagement, support the local communities in which we live and work, and provide career development opportunities for our global team members.
We follow six competencies to accelerate growth through talent and culture. This model leads with "People Forward," which focuses on the "employee experience," as we continue to build our diverse, equitable, and inclusive workplace.
We are proud that our DE&I efforts continue to be recognized. The Human Rights Campaign awarded the Company a perfect score of 100 percent on its Corporate Equality Index for the third consecutive year. We were also listed as one of the "Best Places to Work for LGBT Equality." DiversityInc deemed us a "Noteworthy Company," and we ranked eighth on DiversityInc’s "Top Companies for Philanthropy."
We aim to grow, learn, and shape our approach to DE&I for the betterment of our workforce and the communities we serve. To that end, our Board of Directors continues to believe that DE&I is an important cornerstone of our culture and competitive advantage and, through its Governance, Sustainability & Corporate Responsibility Committee, plans to continue monitoring our DE&I practices and performance.
Competitive Compensation and Benefits
We offer all full-time team members a comprehensive benefit and compensation package, which includes:
Medical, dental, and vision care, life insurance and other income protection, a retirement plan with Company match, and a discount employee stock purchase program;
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An employee assistance program with free counseling sessions and unlimited digital mental health support, tuition assistance (including scholarships for dependents), medical coverage for same and opposite gender domestic partners, holidays, and paid time off;
Infertility coverage and family building counseling services, as well as reimbursement for adoption expenses;
Counseling and education guidance benefits to support the needs of team members and dependents with developmental and cognitive challenges; and
A minimum of eight weeks of paid parental leave following birth, adoption, or surrogacy for both parents.
We offer postpartum support and return-to-work assistance, including on-site lactation rooms and flexible work arrangements, such as flex hours. For nursing moms who travel for work, we offer a service to ship breast milk back to their homes. We also offer back-up child and elder care, plus discounts on services, such as childcare, saving for college, and tutoring. Beginning in 2022, we will offer one week of paid caregiver leave to care for a family member who has a serious health condition.
We also believe it is important to invest in the health and wellness of our team members. Our myWellbeing program focuses on the physical, emotional, financial, and social aspects of wellness. Team members can earn points towards a reduction in health insurance premium costs by completing activities, such as monthly challenges, financial training, and getting preventive exams and screenings. We also offer diabetes, weight management, and musculoskeletal programs for team members and their dependents. To help team members navigate the often-confusing healthcare system, we provide a navigation and advocacy service to assist in finding the right care, obtaining a medical second opinion, and dealing with confusing medical bills.
Safety and COVID-19
We are focused on the safety and wellbeing of our team members. In addition to utilizing a peer-to-peer safety program, we regularly convene our company leaders to review and evaluate safety data and issue operational excellence scorecards. Distribution center team members receive training on proper safety procedures and incentive opportunities, with safety performance tracked and shared across the organization.
In connection with prioritizing safety, we have also implemented numerous safety precautions in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, such as mandatory health and temperature monitoring, face coverings and social distancing requirements, supplying personal protective equipment, enhanced cleaning and access to sanitizing supplies, and remote work options where available. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, we plan to continue to monitor and look for ways to enhance our safety protocols.
To further support our team members during the COVID-19 pandemic, we enhanced our benefit offerings (which are discussed above) to provide greater access to mental health telemedicine, additional paid time off for those needing to self-quarantine or care for a family member, and access to mindfulness videos and other wellness resources. Additionally, team members whose household income was impacted, such as by a spouse experiencing job loss, were offered financial support through the AmerisourceBergen Associate Assistance Fund.
Government Regulation
We are subject to extensive oversight by United States, United Kingdom and European Union governmental entities and we are subject to, and affected by, a variety of laws, regulations, and policies.
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration ("DEA"), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), the U.S. Department of Justice, and various other federal and state authorities regulate the purchase, storage, and/or distribution of pharmaceutical products, including controlled substances. Wholesale distributors of controlled substances must hold valid DEA licenses, meet various security and operating standards, and comply with regulations governing the sale, marketing, packaging, holding, and distribution of controlled substances.
We and our customers are subject to fraud and abuse laws, including the federal anti-kickback statute and False Claims Act. The anti-kickback statute prohibits persons from soliciting, offering, receiving, or paying any remuneration in order to induce the purchasing, leasing, or ordering, induce a referral to purchase, lease, or order, or arrange for or recommend purchasing, leasing, or ordering items or services that are in any way paid for by Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal healthcare programs. The False Claims Act prohibits knowingly submitting, or causing the submission, of false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government and authorizes treble damages and substantial civil penalties in the case of violations. The fraud and abuse laws and regulations are broad in scope and are subject to frequent and varied interpretation.
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In recent years, some states have passed or proposed laws and regulations that are intended to protect the safety of the pharmaceutical supply channel. These laws and regulations are designed to prevent the introduction of counterfeit, diverted, adulterated, or mislabeled pharmaceuticals into the distribution system. At the federal level, the supply chain security legislation known as the Drug Quality and Security Act ("DQSA") became law in 2013. The DQSA establishes federal traceability standards requiring drugs to be labeled and tracked at the lot level, preempts state drug pedigree requirements, and requires all supply-chain stakeholders to participate in an electronic, interoperable prescription drug traceability system. The DQSA also establishes requirements for drug wholesale distributors and third-party logistics providers, including licensing requirements applicable in states that had not previously licensed third-party logistics providers. We expect that the FDA, and eventually all comparable state agencies, will promulgate implementing regulations governing wholesale distributor and third-party logistics providers. To date, many states have created third-party logistics licensing categories aligned with the DQSA. There can be no assurance that we are fully compliant with the DQSA requirements, or with additional related state regulatory and licensing requirements, and any failure to comply may result in suspension or delay of certain operations and additional costs to bring our operations into compliance. These and other requirements will continue to increase the cost of our operations.
    The regulation of public and private health insurance and benefit programs can also affect our business and scrutiny of the healthcare delivery and reimbursement systems in the United States, including those related to the importation and reimportation of certain drugs from foreign markets, can be expected to continue at both the state and federal levels. This process may result in additional legislation and/or regulation governing the production, delivery, or pricing of pharmaceutical products and other healthcare services. In addition, changes in the interpretations of existing regulations may result in significant additional compliance costs or the discontinuation of our ability to continue to operate certain of our distribution centers, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Any future reductions in Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement rates could negatively impact our customers' businesses and their ability to continue to purchase drugs from us. We cannot predict what additional initiatives, if any, will be adopted, when they may be adopted, or what impact they may have on us.
We are subject to various federal, state, and local environmental laws, including with respect to the sale, transportation, storage, handling, and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances, as well as laws relating to safe working conditions and laboratory practices.
The costs, burdens, and/or impacts of complying with federal and state regulations could be significant and the failure to comply with any such legal requirements could have a significant impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 11 for a discussion of additional legal and regulatory developments, as well as enforcement actions or other litigation that may arise out of our failure to adequately comply with applicable laws and regulations that may negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Health Information and Privacy Practices
The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and its implementing regulations set forth privacy and security standards designed to protect the privacy of and provide for the security of protected health information, as defined under the HIPAA regulations. Some of our businesses collect, maintain, and/or access protected health information and are subject to the HIPAA regulations. Our operations, depending on their location, may also be subject to state or foreign regulations affecting personal data protection and the manner in which information services or products are provided. Significant criminal and civil penalties may be imposed for violation of HIPAA standards and other such laws. We have a HIPAA compliance program to facilitate our ongoing efforts to comply with the HIPAA regulations.
The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act ("HITECH Act") strengthened federal privacy and security provisions governing protected health information. Among other things, the HITECH Act expanded certain aspects of the HIPAA privacy and security rules, imposed new notification requirements related to health data security breaches, broadened the rights of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ("HHS") to enforce HIPAA, and directed HHS to publish more specific security standards. In January 2013, the Office for Civil Rights of HHS published the HIPAA omnibus final rule ("HIPAA Final Rule"), which amended certain aspects of the HIPAA privacy, security, and enforcement rules pursuant to the HITECH Act, extending certain HIPAA obligations to business associates and their subcontractors. Certain components of our business act as "business associates" within the meaning of HIPAA and are subject to these additional obligations under the HIPAA Final Rule.
Some of our businesses collect, maintain, and/or access other personal information (including sensitive personal information) that is subject to federal and state laws protecting such information, in addition to the requirements of HIPAA, the HITECH Act, and the implementing regulations. Personal information is also highly regulated in many other countries in which we operate and many of these law place restrictions on the transfer of personal information to other jurisdictions. As such regulations continue to evolve, we must comply with applicable privacy and security requirements of these countries, including
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but not limited to those in the European Union and the United Kingdom. Most notably certain aspects of our business are subject to the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") which became effective on May 25, 2018, the UK GDPR and the UK Data Protection Act of 2018, the California Consumer Protection Act ("CCPA"), which became effective on January 1, 2020, and Brazil's new General Data Protection Law (Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais) – Law No. 13,709/208 ("LGPD") which became effective in August 2020. On November 3, 2020, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, which builds on the CCPA, was enacted through a ballot initiative. Similarly, Virginia (the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, effective on January 1, 2023) and Colorado (the Colorado Privacy Act, with certain initial compliance required by July 1, 2023) have also enacted similarly situated data protection laws. Other states and countries continue to enact similar legislation. We have implemented a privacy and information security compliance program to facilitate our ongoing efforts to comply with the applicable privacy laws and regulations. There can be no assurances that compliance with these requirements will not impose new costs on our business.
Available Information
For more information about us, visit our website at www.amerisourcebergen.com. The contents of the website are not part of this Form 10-K. Our electronic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (including all Forms 10-K, 10-Q, and 8-K, and any amendments to these reports) are available free of charge through our website at investor.amerisourcebergen.com immediately after we electronically file with or furnish them to the Securities and Exchange Commission and may also be viewed using their website at www.sec.gov.
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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The following discussion describes certain risk factors that we believe could affect our business and prospects. These risk factors are in addition to those set forth elsewhere in this report. Our business operations could also be affected by additional factors that are not presently known to us or that we currently consider not to be material. The reader should not consider this list to be a complete statement of all risks and uncertainties.
Business and Operational Risks
Our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows may suffer upon the loss, or renewal at less favorable terms, of a significant customer or group purchasing organization.
WBA accounted for approximately 31% of our revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Express Scripts accounted for approximately 12% of our revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Our top ten customers, including governmental agencies, represented approximately 69% of revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. We have distributor relationships with GPOs in multiple distribution segments. We may lose a significant customer or GPO relationship if any existing contract with such customer or GPO expires without being extended, renewed, renegotiated or replaced or is terminated by the customer or GPO prior to expiration, to the extent such early termination is permitted by the contract. A number of our contracts with significant customers or GPOs are typically subject to expiration each year and we may lose any of these customers or GPO relationships if we are unable to extend, renew, renegotiate or replace the contracts. The loss of any significant customer or GPO relationship could adversely affect our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows. Additionally, from time to time, significant contracts may be renewed or modified prior to their expiration date in furtherance of our strategic objectives. If those contracts are renewed or modified at less favorable terms, they may also negatively impact our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
The anticipated ongoing strategic and financial benefits of our relationship with WBA may not be realized.
In June 2021, we extended to 2029 our distribution agreement under which we distribute drugs to Walgreens pharmacies and our generics purchasing services arrangement under which Walgreens Boots Alliance Development GmbH ("WBAD") provides a variety of services, including negotiating acquisition pricing with generic manufacturers on our behalf. This reflected our continued expectation that partnering strategically with WBA will result in various benefits including continued cost savings and initiatives designed to create incremental growth and efficiencies in sourcing, logistics and distribution. We also entered into a distribution agreement pursuant to which we will supply branded and generic pharmaceutical products to WBA's Boots UK Ltd. subsidiary through 2031. The processes needed to achieve and maintain these initiatives and benefits are complex, costly, and time-consuming. Achieving the anticipated benefits from the arrangements on an ongoing basis is subject to a number of significant challenges and uncertainties, including: the potential inability to realize and/or delays in realizing potential benefits resulting from participation in our generics purchasing services arrangement with WBAD, including improved generic drug pricing and terms, improved service fees from generic manufacturers, cost savings, innovations, or other benefits due to its inability to negotiate successfully with generic manufacturers or otherwise to perform as expected; the potential disruption of our plans and operations as a result of the extension of the duration of our distribution agreement for Walgreens pharmacies and our generics purchasing services agreement with WBAD and the respective terms thereunder, including any disruption of our cash flow and ability to return value to our stockholders in accordance with our past practices and any reduction in our operational, strategic or financial flexibility; potential changes in supplier relationships and terms; unexpected or unforeseen costs, fees, expenses and charges incurred by us related to the transaction or the overall strategic relationship; changes in the economic terms under which we distribute pharmaceuticals to Walgreens pharmacies in the United States or to pharmacies operated by Boots UK Ltd. in the United Kingdom, including changes necessitated by changing market conditions or other unforeseen developments that may arise during the term of either distribution agreement, to the extent that any such changes are not offset by other financial benefits that we are able to obtain through collaboration in other aspects of our strategic relationship with WBA; and any potential issues that could impede our ability to continue to work collaboratively with WBA in an efficient and effective manner in furtherance of the anticipated strategic and financial benefits of the relationship.

In addition, WBA has the right, but not the obligation, under the transactions contemplated by the Framework Agreement dated March 18, 2013 and the Amended and Restated AmerisourceBergen Shareholders Agreement dated June 1, 2021 to make certain additional investments in our common stock. WBA also has the right to sell any of the shares of our common stock that it has acquired so long as WBA has held the shares beyond the requisite dates specified in the Shareholders Agreement, subject to certain restrictions on the number of shares that may be sold at any given time. Any sales in the public market of common stock currently held by WBA or acquired by WBA pursuant to open market purchases could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. We could also encounter unforeseen costs, circumstances, or issues with respect to the transactions and collaboration we anticipate pursuing with WBA. Many of these potential circumstances are outside of our control and any of them could result in increased costs, decreased revenue, decreased benefits and the diversion
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of management time and attention. If we are unable to achieve any of our objectives, the expected future benefits may not be realized fully or may take longer to realize than expected, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

A disruption in our distribution or generic purchasing services arrangements with WBA could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We are the primary distributor of pharmaceutical products for WBA in the United States and the United Kingdom. If our operations are seriously disrupted for any reason deemed within our control, we may have an obligation to pay or credit WBA for failure to supply products. In addition, upon the expiration or termination of our distribution agreement for Walgreens pharmacies, our distribution agreement with Boots UK Ltd or our generics purchasing services arrangement with WBAD, there can be no assurance that we or WBA will be willing to renew, on terms favorable to us or at all.
Our generic pharmaceutical program has also benefited from the generics purchasing services arrangement with WBAD. If the operations of WBA are seriously disrupted for any reason, whether by the COVID-19 pandemic, natural disaster, labor disruption, regulatory or governmental action, or otherwise, it could adversely affect our business and our sales and profitability. Moreover, if the economic benefits we are able to obtain through the generics purchasing services arrangement with WBA decline due to changes in market conditions or other changes impacting the fees and rebates that generic manufacturers make available through the arrangement, our margins and results of operations could also be adversely affected.
In addition, our business may be adversely affected by any operational, financial, or regulatory difficulties that WBA experiences, including any disruptions of certain of its existing distribution facilities or retail pharmacies resulting from ongoing inspections by the DEA and/or state regulatory agencies and possible revocation of the controlled substance registrations for those facilities and pharmacies.
Our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected if we undertake acquisitions of or investments in businesses that do not perform as we expect or that are difficult for us to integrate.
As part of our strategy we seek to pursue acquisitions of and investments in other companies. At any particular time, we may be in various stages of assessment, discussion, and negotiation with regard to one or more potential acquisitions or investments, not all of which will be consummated. We make public disclosure of pending and completed acquisitions when appropriate and required by applicable securities laws and regulations. As previously announced, on June 1, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Alliance Healthcare from WBA for $6,602.0 million in cash, subject to certain purchase price adjustments, $229.1 million of the Company's common stock (2 million shares at the Company's June 1, 2021 opening stock price of $114.54 per share), $96.9 million of estimated accrued consideration, and $6.1 million of other equity consideration (see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Alliance Healthcare operates in the United Kingdom, a number of countries in the European Union and in select other markets. We may find that our ability to integrate and control Alliance Healthcare is more difficult, time consuming or costly than expected, especially in certain countries where our investment is not wholly-owned, such as our 50%-owned Alliance Healthcare Egypt subsidiary. Alliance Healthcare may fail to achieve its expected future financial and operating performance and results and the acquisition may have the effect of disrupting relationships with employees, suppliers, and other business partners.

Acquisitions involve numerous risks and uncertainties and may be of businesses or in regions in which we lack operational or market experience. Acquired companies may have business practices that we are not accustomed to or have unique terms and conditions with their business partners. As a result of the acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and other future acquisitions, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including: regulatory or compliance issues that could arise; changes in regulations and laws; the failure of the acquired businesses to achieve the results we have projected in either the near or long term; the assumption of unknown liabilities, including litigation risks; the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed not being properly estimated; the difficulties of imposing adequate financial and operating controls on the acquired companies and their management and the potential liabilities that might arise pending the imposition of adequate controls; the difficulties in the integration of the operations, technologies, services and products of the acquired companies; and the failure to achieve the strategic objectives of these acquisitions. Alliance Healthcare operates in a number of jurisdictions, including Egypt and other locations, that have a higher business, operating and regulatory risk profile than the United States and European Union jurisdictions. Such risks may include risks of violation of United States, United Kingdom and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and international trade laws. Our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected if we are not able to effectively put in place effective financial controls and compliance policies to safeguard against such risks as part of our integration of Alliance Healthcare.

Our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if we fail to manage and complete divestitures.

    We regularly evaluate our portfolio in order to determine whether an asset or business may no longer help us meet our objectives. When we decide to sell assets or a business, we may encounter difficulty finding buyers or alternative exit strategies, which could delay the achievement of our strategic objectives. Further, divestitures may be delayed due to failure to obtain required approvals on a timely basis, if at all, from governmental authorities, or may become more difficult to execute due to
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conditions placed upon approval that could, among other things, delay or prevent us from completing a transaction, or otherwise restrict our ability to realize the expected financial or strategic goals of a transaction. The impact of a divestiture on our results of operations could also be greater than anticipated.

Our results of operations and our financial condition may be adversely affected by our global operations.

Our operations in jurisdictions outside of the United States are subject to various risks inherent in global operations. We currently have operations in over 50 countries. We may conduct business in additional foreign jurisdictions in the future, which may carry operational risks in addition to the risks of acquisition described above. At any particular time, our global operations may be affected by local changes in laws, regulations, and political and economic environments, including inflation, recession, currency volatility, and competition, as well as business and operational decisions made by joint venture partners.
Changes or uncertainty in U.S. policies or policies in other countries and regions in which we do business, including any changes or uncertainty with respect to U.S. or international trade policies or tariffs, also can disrupt our global operations, as well as our customers and suppliers, in a particular location and may require us to spend more money to source certain products or materials that we purchase. Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial position, and results of operations.
We might be adversely impacted by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
We conduct our business in various currencies, including the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the U.K. Pound Sterling, the Turkish Lira, the Egyptian Pound, the Brazilian Real, and the Canadian Dollar. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates could reduce our revenues, increase our costs or otherwise adversely affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollars. We may from time to time enter into foreign currency contracts, foreign currency borrowings or other techniques intended to hedge a portion of our foreign currency exchange rate risks. These hedging activities may not completely offset the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign currency exchange rates during the time the hedges are in place. Any of these risks might have an adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
We might be adversely impacted by the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.
We have operations in the United Kingdom and the European Union and face risks associated with the uncertainty and potential disruptions associated with the United Kingdom withdrawing from the European Union (“Brexit”). Brexit could adversely affect political, regulatory, economic or market conditions and contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. For example, we might experience volatility in exchange rates and interest rates and changes in laws regulating our United Kingdom operations as well as sourcing disruptions and associated pricing volatility. Customers might reduce purchases due to the uncertainty caused by Brexit. Any of these risks might have a materially adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position or results of operations.

We are subject to operational and logistical risks that might not be covered by insurance.

We have distribution centers and facilities located in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union and throughout the world. Our business exposes us to risks that are inherent in the distribution of pharmaceuticals and the provision of related services, including with respect to cold chain storage and shipping. The volume of cold chain storage and shipping has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the requirements for distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and certain treatments. We expect this trend to continue in the near term. Although we seek to maintain adequate insurance coverage, coverage on acceptable terms might be unavailable, or coverage might not cover our losses or may require large deductibles.

Additionally, we seek to maintain coverage for risks associated with cybersecurity, but such insurance has become increasingly difficult to secure and, in some cases, policies may not provide adequate coverage for possible losses. Uninsured losses or operational losses that result from large deductible payments under commercial insurance coverage might have an adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position or results of operations.

We might be unable to successfully recruit and retain qualified employees.

Our ability to attract, engage, develop and retain qualified and experienced employees, including key executives and other talent, is essential for us to meet our objectives. We compete with many other businesses to attract and retain employees. Competition among potential employers might result in increased salaries, benefits or other employee-related costs, or in our failure to recruit and retain employees. We may experience sudden loss of key personnel due to a variety of causes, such as illness, and must adequately plan for succession of key management roles. Employees might not successfully transition into new roles. Any of these risks might have a materially adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position or results of operations.

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Additionally, approximately 27% of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, a large majority of which are Alliance Healthcare employees located outside of the United States. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good but if any of our employees in locations that are unionized should engage in strikes or other such bargaining tactics in connection with the negotiation of new collective bargaining agreements upon the expiration of any existing collective bargaining agreements, such tactics could be disruptive to our operations and adversely affect our results of operations.

Industry and Economic Risks
Our results of operations could be adversely impacted by manufacturer pricing changes.
In fiscal 2021, we continued to experience less favorable brand and generic pharmaceutical pricing trends, which negatively impacted our Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment profit and our consolidated operating earnings. We expect these trends to continue in fiscal 2022, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

    Our contractual arrangements with pharmaceutical manufacturers for the purchase of brand pharmaceutical products in the United States generally use wholesale acquisition cost ("WAC") as the reference price. We sell brand pharmaceutical products to many of our customers using WAC as the reference price and to other customers based on their negotiated contract price. If manufacturers change their pricing policies or practices with regard to WAC or if prices charged by manufacturers do not align with prices negotiated to be paid by our customers, and we are unable to negotiate alternative ways to be compensated by manufacturers or customers for the value of our services, our results of operations could be adversely affected. Additionally, there are a number of U.S. government policy initiatives being considered which, if enacted, could directly or indirectly regulate or impact WAC prices. If such initiatives are passed or finalized and we are unable to negotiate equitable changes with our suppliers and/or customers, our results of operations could be adversely impacted.

The pharmaceutical products that we purchase are also subject to price inflation and deflation. Additionally, certain distribution service agreements that we have entered into with brand and generic pharmaceutical manufacturers have a price appreciation component to them. As a result, our gross profit from brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals continues to be subject to fluctuation based upon the timing and extent of manufacturer price increases, which we do not control. If the frequency or rate of brand and generic pharmaceutical price increases slows, whether due to regulatory mandates, the implementation of legislative proposals, policy initiatives or voluntary manufacturer actions, our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, generic pharmaceuticals are also subject to price deflation. If the frequency or rate of generic pharmaceutical price deflation accelerates, the negative impact on our results of operations will be greater.

Competition and industry consolidation may erode our profit.
As described in greater detail in the "Competition" section beginning on page 5, the industries in which we operate are highly competitive. In addition, in recent years the healthcare industry has been subject to increasing consolidation, including among pharmaceutical manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and health insurers, which may create further competitive pressures on our pharmaceutical distribution business. If we do not compete successfully, it could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The impact on us will be greater if consolidation among our customers, suppliers, and competitors gives the resulting enterprises greater bargaining power, which could lead to greater pressure on us to reduce prices for our products and services.
Our revenue and results of operations may suffer upon the bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of a significant customer.
Most of our customers buy pharmaceuticals and other products and services from us on credit. Credit is made available to customers based upon our assessment and analysis of creditworthiness. Although we often try to obtain a security interest in assets and other arrangements intended to protect our credit exposure, we generally are either subordinated to the position of the primary lenders to our customers or substantially unsecured. Volatility of the capital and credit markets, general economic conditions, and regulatory changes, including changes in reimbursement, may adversely affect the solvency or creditworthiness of our customers. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased volatility of the capital and credit markets and has led to a general worsening of economic conditions, which has put financial pressure on many of our customers and may threaten certain customers’ ability to maintain liquidity sufficient to repay their obligations to us as they become due. The bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of any customer that has a substantial amount owed to us could have a material adverse effect on our operating revenue and results of operations. As of September 30, 2021, our two largest trade receivable balances due from customers represented approximately 38% and 6% of accounts receivable, net.
    
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Our results of operations may suffer upon the bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of a significant supplier.
Our relationships with pharmaceutical suppliers give rise to substantial amounts that are due to us from the suppliers, including amounts owed to us for returned goods or defective goods, chargebacks, and amounts due to us for services provided to the suppliers. Volatility of the capital and credit markets, general economic conditions, pending litigation, and regulatory changes may adversely affect the solvency or creditworthiness of our suppliers. The bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of any supplier at a time when the supplier has a substantial account payable balance due to us could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our stock price and our ability to access credit markets may be adversely affected by financial market volatility and disruption or a downgrade in our credit ratings.
If the capital and credit markets experience significant disruption and volatility in the future, there can be no assurance that we will not experience downward movement in our stock price without regard to our financial condition or results of operations or an adverse effect, which may be material, on our ability to access credit. Although we believe that our operating cash flow and existing credit arrangements give us the ability to meet our financing needs, there can be no assurance that disruption and volatility will not increase our costs of borrowing, impair our liquidity, or adversely impact our business.
Additionally, rating agencies continually review the ratings they have assigned to us and our outstanding debt securities. To maintain our ratings, we are required to meet certain financial performance ratios. Liabilities related to litigation or any significant related settlements, an increase in our debt or a decline in our earnings could result in downgrades in our credit ratings. Actual or anticipated changes or downgrades in our credit ratings, including any announcement that our ratings are under review for a downgrade or have been assigned a negative outlook, could limit our access to public debt markets, limit the institutions willing to provide credit to us, result in more restrictive financial and other covenants in our public and private debt, and would likely increase our overall borrowing costs and adversely affect our earnings.
Declining economic conditions could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations and performance depend on economic conditions in the United States and other countries or regions where we do business. Deterioration in general economic conditions, whether due to COVID-19 or otherwise, could adversely affect the amount of prescriptions that are filled and the amount of pharmaceutical products purchased by consumers and, therefore, could reduce purchases by our customers, which would negatively affect our revenue growth and cause a decrease in our profitability. Negative trends in the general economy, including interest rate fluctuations, financial market volatility, or credit market disruptions, may also affect our customers' ability to obtain credit to finance their businesses on acceptable terms and reduce discretionary spending on health products. Reduced purchases by our customers or changes in payment terms could adversely affect our revenue growth and cause a decrease in our cash flows from operations. Bankruptcies or similar events affecting our customers may cause us to incur bad debt expense at levels higher than historically experienced. Declining economic conditions or increases in inflation may also increase our costs. If the economic conditions in the United States or in the countries or regions where we do business deteriorate, our results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected.
Litigation and Regulatory Risks

Increasing governmental efforts to regulate the pharmaceutical supply channel may increase our costs and reduce our profitability.

The healthcare industry in the United States, as well as in the other countries and regions in which we do business, is highly regulated at many levels of government. There have been increasing efforts in the United States by Congress and state and federal agencies, including state boards of pharmacy, departments of health, the FDA, DEA, and TSA, and by similar regulators in the United Kingdom, the European Union, and other countries, to regulate the pharmaceutical supply chain. Regulation of pharmaceutical distribution is intended to prevent diversion and the introduction of counterfeit, adulterated, and/or mislabeled drugs into the pharmaceutical distribution system. Consequently, we are subject to the risk of changes in various laws, which include operating, record keeping, and security standards of the DEA, the FDA, various state boards of pharmacy and comparable agencies. In recent years, some governments have passed or proposed laws and regulations that are intended to protect the safety and security of the supply channel but that also may substantially increase the costs and burden of pharmaceutical distribution.
At the federal level, in the United States, the DQSA establishes federal traceability standards requiring drugs to be labeled and tracked at the bottle level, preempts state drug pedigree requirements, and will require all supply-chain stakeholders to participate in an electronic, interoperable prescription drug traceability system by November 2023. The DQSA, and in
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particular Title II of the DQSA, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act ("DSCSA") also established requirements for drug wholesale distributors and third-party logistics providers, including licensing requirements applicable in states that had not previously licensed third-party logistics providers.
Failure to fully comply with the DQSA requirements, including the DSCSA requirements, or with additional similar governmental regulatory and licensing requirements, and any failure to comply may result in suspension or delay of certain operations and additional costs to bring our facilities into compliance. Our international operations may also be subject to local regulations containing record-keeping and other obligations related to our distribution operations in those locations. For example, in 2019, the safety features of the Falsified Medicines Directive became operational in EU member states, which consists of placing a unique identifier (a two-dimensional barcode) and an anti-tampering device on the outer packaging of medicines. Pedigree tracking laws increase our compliance burden and our pharmaceutical distribution costs and could have an adverse impact on our financial position or results of operations.
As discussed in the risk factor below about public concern over the abuse of opioid medications, certain governmental and regulatory agencies, as well as state and local jurisdictions, are focused on the abuse of opioid medications in the United States. In addition to conducting investigations and participating in litigation related to the misuse of prescription opioid medications, federal, state and local governmental and regulatory agencies are considering legislation and regulatory measures to limit opioid prescriptions and more closely monitor product distribution, prescribing, and dispensing of these drugs.
Complying with the DQSA requirements, including the DSCSA requirements, and other chain of custody and pharmaceutical distribution requirements, including follow-on actions related to current public concern over the abuse of opioid medications, could result in suspension or delays in our production and distribution activities which may increase our costs and could otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.
Legal, regulatory, and legislative changes with respect to reimbursement, pricing, and contracting may adversely affect our business and results of operations, including through declining reimbursement rates.
Both our business and our customers' businesses may be adversely affected by laws and regulations reducing reimbursement rates for pharmaceuticals and/or medical treatments or services, changing the methodology by which reimbursement levels are determined, or regulating pricing, contracting, and discounting practices with respect to medical products and services. Additionally, on occasion, price increases and pricing practices with respect to certain brand and generic pharmaceuticals have been the subject of governmental inquiries, national, federal and state investigations and private litigation. The United States Congress is currently considering proposals to allow centralized negotiation of manufacturer prices based on indexing models in the context of certain government programs. Any law or regulation impacting pharmaceutical pricing or reimbursement, such as pricing controls or indexing models at a national, federal or state level, could adversely affect our operations.
In the United States, federal insurance and healthcare reform legislation known as the Affordable Care Act ("ACA") became law in March 2010, and included numerous reforms broadening healthcare access and affecting Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, pricing, and contracting for prescription drugs, including changes to the Medicaid rebate statute. Given the scope of the changes made by the ACA and continuing implementation controversies, we cannot predict the impact of every aspect of the law on our operations. Likewise, we cannot predict the impact of any efforts to change or repeal any provisions of the ACA may have on the ACA or other healthcare legislation and regulation.
Subsequent legislation has made additional changes to federal drug payment policies, including the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, which increased the Medicaid rebate due with respect to line extensions of single source or innovator multiple source oral solid dosage form drugs. The federal government and state governments could take other actions in the future that impact Medicaid reimbursement and rebate amounts or the cost of drugs. Any reduction in the Medicaid reimbursement rates to our customers may indirectly impact the prices that we can charge our customers for multiple source pharmaceuticals and cause corresponding declines in our profitability. There can be no assurance that recent or future changes in Medicaid prescription drug reimbursement policies will not have an adverse impact on our business. Unless we are able to successfully advocate to prevent or mitigate the impact of these legislative and regulatory changes, these changes in reimbursement and related reporting requirements could adversely affect our results of operations.
In the European Union, many governments provide or subsidize healthcare to consumers and regulate pharmaceutical prices, patient eligibility and reimbursement levels in order to control government healthcare system costs. In most EU member states, for example, the government regulates pricing of a new pharmaceutical product at launch often through direct price controls, international price comparisons, controlling profits and/or reference pricing. Some European governments have implemented or are considering austerity measures to reduce healthcare spending such as volume discounts, cost caps, cost sharing for increases in excess of prior year costs for individual products or aggregated market level spending, outcome-based
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pricing schemes and free products for a portion of the expected therapy period. All of these measures exert pressure on the pricing and reimbursement levels for pharmaceuticals and may cause our customers to purchase fewer of our products and services or influence us to reduce prices.

Our businesses also sell specialty and other drugs to physicians, hospitals, community oncology practices and other providers that are reimbursed under Part B of the Medicare program. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ("CMS") published a final rule in November 2017 that reduces Medicare outpatient hospital reimbursement for separately payable drugs (other than vaccines) purchased through the 340B drug discount program from average sales price ("ASP") plus 6% to ASP minus 22.5% (with certain exceptions), effective January 2018. In July 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia reversed the district court’s decision, which would allow the payment reductions to take effect. The United States Supreme Court has agreed to review the decision, with a decision expected sometime in 2022. While the appeals process is still underway, CMS solicited comments in the proposed calendar year 2020 Medicare outpatient prospective payment system rule on appropriate payment for such 340B-acquired drugs, and finalized a rule in November 2019 that would impose the same ASP minus 22.5% rate that was the subject of the litigation described above. More recently, in August 2020, CMS proposed further reductions such that net payments would be based on an ASP minus 28.7% rate. Separately, November 2018, CMS published a final rule that reduces from 6% to 3% the “add-on” payment for new, separately-payable Part B drugs and biologicals that are paid based on WAC when ASP data during first quarter or sales is unavailable. There can be no assurance that recent or future rules established by CMS will not have an adverse impact on our business.

Further, even where a government does not affirmatively change drug price regulation standards, other parties in the drug manufacturing and distribution system may change their interpretation or approach to implementing or complying with those standards, in a manner that may adversely affect our business. For example, the 340B drug discount program requires manufacturers to provide discounts on outpatient drugs to “covered entity” safety net providers, and previous Health Resources and Services Administration (“HRSA”) guidance has allowed covered entities to dispense 340B discounted drugs through arrangements with multiple “contract pharmacies.” Recently, several manufacturers have announced initiatives that may inhibit or limit covered entities’ ability to use any, or multiple, contract pharmacies, and may direct us not to honor 340B discounted pricing requests on orders to be shipped to contract pharmacies (or may not honor chargebacks where such discounts are extended to contract pharmacies). HRSA has initially indicated that it lacks regulatory authority to enforce its prior guidance allowing multiple contract pharmacies, but recently advised that it is considering whether it may have other enforcement remedies in the event that manufacturers do not extend 340B discounts through contract pharmacy arrangements. Since these manufacturer policies were first announced, both manufacturers and covered entities have filed lawsuits against HRSA regarding the contract pharmacy policy, which are currently pending, and in September 2021, HRSA advised certain manufacturers that it was referring their policies to the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services for potential civil money penalty enforcement proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of these proceedings. Our customers include covered entities and organizations with significant participation as contract pharmacies, and the unavailability of 340B discounts through contract pharmacy arrangements may adversely affect such customers and, therefore, could adversely affect our business.

The federal government may adopt measures in the future that would further reduce Medicare and/or Medicaid spending or impose additional requirements on healthcare entities. Any future reductions in Medicare reimbursement rates or modifications to Medicare drug pricing regulations such as ASP calculations could negatively impact our customers' businesses and their ability to continue to purchase such drugs from us, or could indirectly affect the structure of our relationships with manufacturers and our customers. At this time, we can provide no assurances that future Medicare and/or Medicaid payment or policy changes, if adopted, would not have a material adverse effect on our business.
Finally, federal and state governments may adopt policies affecting drug pricing and contracting practices outside of the context of federal programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, which may adversely affect our business. For example, several states have adopted laws that require drug manufacturers to provide advance notice of certain price increases and to report information relating to those price increases, while others have taken legislative or administrative action to establish prescription drug affordability boards or multi-payer purchasing pools to reduce the cost of prescription drugs. On July 31, 2019, the Department of Health and Human Services announced a “Safe Importation Action Plan” that outlines two potential pathways to allow importation of certain drugs from foreign markets. Following this framework, the FDA proposed a draft rule in December 2019 that would allow importation of certain lower-cost prescription drugs from Canada, and in September 2020 the rulemaking was finalized by the FDA along with an industry guidance document. Under the rule, states or certain other non-federal governmental entities would be able to submit importation program proposals to the FDA for review and authorization of two-year programs (with the opportunity to extend for two more years). The new rule became effective on November 30, 2020, although its implementation has been delayed and its impact is uncertain, in part because lawsuits have been filed challenging the government’s authority to promulgate it. Further, authorities in Canada have passed rules designed to safeguard the Canadian drug supply from shortages. Despite the ongoing litigation, on July 9, 2021, President Biden signed an Executive Order pertaining to drug pricing that directs the Commissioner of the FDA to work with states and Indian Tribes to facilitate the commercial importation of certain prescription drugs from Canada. If implemented, importation of drugs from Canada may materially and adversely affect our business. The regulatory and market implications of the final rule and guidance are unknown at this time. Proponents of drug reimportation may attempt to pass legislation that would directly allow reimportation under
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certain circumstances. Legislation or regulations allowing the reimportation of drugs, if enacted, could decrease the price we receive for products and adversely affect our future revenues and prospects for profitability.

There can be no assurances that future changes to drug reimbursement policies, drug pricing and contracting practices outside of federal healthcare programs, or to government drug price regulation programs such as the Medicaid rebate, ASP, or 340B program will not have an adverse impact on our business.
If we fail to comply with laws and regulations in respect of healthcare fraud and abuse, we could suffer penalties or be required to make significant changes to our operations.

We are subject to extensive and frequently changing laws and regulations relating to healthcare fraud and abuse. The U.S. federal government continues to strengthen its scrutiny of practices potentially involving healthcare fraud affecting Medicare, Medicaid and other government healthcare programs. Our relationships with healthcare providers and pharmaceutical manufacturers subject our business to laws and regulations on fraud and abuse which, among other things, (i) prohibit persons from soliciting, offering, receiving or paying any remuneration in order to induce the referral of a patient for treatment or the ordering or purchasing of items or services that are in any way paid for by Medicare, Medicaid or other government-sponsored healthcare programs and (ii) impose a number of restrictions upon referring physicians and providers of designated health services under Medicare and Medicaid programs. Legislative provisions relating to healthcare fraud and abuse give federal enforcement personnel substantially increased funding, powers and remedies to pursue suspected fraud and abuse, and these enforcement authorities were further expanded by the ACA. Many states have enacted similar statutes which are not necessarily limited to items and services for which payment is made by federal healthcare programs. While we believe that we are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, many of the regulations applicable to us, including those relating to certain incentives offered in connection with sales of pharmaceutical products and related services, are vague or indefinite, and have not been interpreted by the courts. They may be interpreted or applied by a prosecutorial, regulatory or judicial authority in a manner that could require us to make changes in our operations. If we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, including the loss of licenses or our ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal, state, or governmental healthcare programs.
Public concern over the abuse of opioid medications, including increased legal and regulatory action, could negatively affect our business.

    Certain governmental and regulatory agencies, as well as state and local jurisdictions, are focused on the abuse of opioid medications in the United States. Federal, state and local governmental and regulatory agencies are conducting investigations of us and others in the pharmaceutical supply chain, including pharmaceutical manufacturers, national retail pharmacy chains, independent pharmacies, prescribers, and other pharmaceutical wholesale distributors, regarding the manufacture, dispensing, and distribution of opioid medications. In addition, a significant number of lawsuits have been filed against us, other pharmaceutical wholesale distributors, and others in the pharmaceutical supply chain by state and local governmental entities and other plaintiffs for claims related to the Company’s distribution of opioid medications. The lawsuits against us and other pharmaceutical wholesale distributors allege, among other claims, that we failed to provide effective controls and procedures to guard against the diversion of controlled substances, acted negligently by distributing controlled substances to pharmacies that serve individuals who abuse controlled substances, and failed to report suspicious orders of controlled substances in accordance with regulations. Additional governmental and regulatory entities have indicated an intent to sue and may conduct investigations of us in the future and lawsuits could be brought against the Company by other plaintiffs under other theories related to opioid abuse. We are deeply committed to diversion control efforts, have sophisticated systems to identify orders placed warranting further review to determine if they are suspicious (including through the use of data analytics), and engage in due diligence and ongoing monitoring of customers. While we are vigorously defending ourselves in these lawsuits, the allegations may negatively affect our business in various ways, including through increased costs and harm to our reputation.

    Legislative, regulatory or industry measures to address the misuse of prescription opioid medications may also affect our business in ways that we are not be able to predict. Certain jurisdictions have enacted and others are considering legislation that could require entities to pay an assessment or tax on the sale or distribution of opioid medications in those states. If additional state or local jurisdictions enact legislation that taxes or assesses the sale or distribution of opioid medications and we are not able to mitigate the impact on our business through operational changes or commercial arrangements where permitted, such legislation in the aggregate may have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations, cash flows, or financial condition.

Failure to finalize the proposed settlement agreement and settlement process could negatively affect our business.

On July 21, 2021, we announced that AmerisourceBergen and the two other national pharmaceutical distributors had negotiated a comprehensive proposed settlement agreement that, if all conditions are satisfied, would result in the resolution of
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a substantial majority of opioid lawsuits filed by state and local governmental entities. The proposed settlement agreement and settlement process is subject to conditions and will not become effective unless and until we and the two other distributors each make separate independent determinations that (1) following a 30-day sign-on period, a sufficient number of “States” (including the District of Columbia and U.S. territories) have agreed to the proposed settlement agreement (the “Settling States”); and, subsequently, (2) following a 120-day sign-on period, a sufficient number of political subdivisions in the Settling States, including those that have not sued, have agreed to the proposed settlement agreement (or otherwise had their claims foreclosed). On September 4, 2021, we announced that AmerisourceBergen and the two other national pharmaceutical distributors had determined that enough States had agreed to proceed to the next phase of the settlement agreement process. Further details on the status of a global resolution of the multi-district opioid litigation involving certain state and local governmental entities and other related state court litigation are provided in Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. While a global settlement with respect to certain governmental entities within the Multidistrict Litigation ("MDL") and other related state court litigation remains subject to contingencies that could impact whether the parties ultimately decide to move forward, we believe a global settlement is probable and its liability related thereto can be reasonably estimated as of September 30, 2021. We recorded a charge of $6.6 billion in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 related to the proposed global settlement and other related opioid litigation and recorded an additional $147.7 million accrual in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 in connection with the proposed settlement agreement and related obligations and other opioid-related litigation. Until such time as a plaintiff participates in a global settlement or otherwise resolves its lawsuit, we will continue to litigate and prepare for trial in the cases pending in the MDL, those remanded from the MDL to federal district courts, as well as in state courts where lawsuits have been filed, and we intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves in all such cases. Since these matters are still developing, we are unable to predict the outcome, but the result of these lawsuits could include excessive monetary verdicts and/or injunctive relief, including changes to our anti-diversion programs, that may affect how we operate our business. Further, any final settlement amongst parties may differ materially from our advanced discussions related to global resolution of the MDL. The inability to reach a global settlement of the MDL and adverse resolution of any of these lawsuits or investigations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and cash flows and could result in a lower than historical level of capital available for deployment, including a lower level of capital returned to stockholders.

Our business, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected by legal proceedings.
We conduct our operations through a variety of businesses, including the distribution of pharmaceuticals, the dispensing of healthcare products, and the provision of services to the pharmaceutical industry. Each of our businesses may cause us to become involved in legal disputes or proceedings. These disputes or proceedings have involved or may involve healthcare fraud and abuse, the False Claims Act, antitrust, class action, commercial, employment, environmental, intellectual property, licensing, public disclosures and various other claims, including claims related to opioid medications as discussed in the above risk factor. Litigation is costly, time-consuming, and disruptive to ordinary business operations. The defense and resolution of these current and future proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Violations of various laws, including with respect to the marketing, sale, purchase, and dispensing of pharmaceutical products and the provision of services to the pharmaceutical industry, can result in criminal, civil, and administrative liability for which there can be significant financial damages, criminal and civil penalties, and possible exclusion from participation in federal and state health programs. Any settlement, judgment or fine could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
Statutory and/or regulatory violations could also form the basis for qui tam complaints. The qui tam provisions of the federal and various state civil False Claims Acts authorize a private person, known as a relator, to file civil actions under these statutes on behalf of the federal and state governments. Under False Claims Acts, the filing of a qui tam complaint by a relator imposes obligations on government authorities to investigate the allegations and determine whether or not to intervene in the action. Such cases may involve allegations around the marketing, sale, purchase, and/or dispensing of brand and/or generic pharmaceutical products or the provision of services to the pharmaceutical industry. Such complaints are filed under seal and remain sealed until the applicable court orders otherwise. Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if qui tam complaints are filed against us for alleged violations of any health laws and regulations and damages arising from resultant false claims, if the litigation proceeds whether or not government authorities decide to intervene in any such matters, and/or if we are found liable for all or any portion of violations alleged in any such matters.
    In fiscal 2018, we resolved potential civil claims and administrative action by entering into, among other things, a Corporate Integrity Agreement with the Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Corporate Integrity Agreement has a five-year term. Failure to comply with obligations under the Corporate Integrity Agreement could lead to monetary or other penalties.
Tax legislation or challenges to our tax positions could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are a large corporation with operations in the United States and select global markets. As such, we are subject to tax laws and regulations of the U.S. federal, state and local governments, and various foreign jurisdictions. From time to time, various legislative initiatives, such as corporate tax rate and law changes, the repeal of last-in, first-out ("LIFO") U.S. tax
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treatment or the promulgation of state opioid taxes and fees, may be proposed that could adversely affect our tax positions and/or our tax liabilities. There can be no assurance that our effective tax rate or tax payments will not be adversely affected by legislation resulting from these initiatives both within the United States and other jurisdictions in which we operate. In addition, tax laws and regulations are extremely complex and subject to varying interpretations. While we believe that our historical tax positions are consistent with applicable laws, regulations, and existing precedent, there can be no assurance that our tax positions will not be challenged by relevant tax authorities or that we would be successful in any such challenge.

Due to the potential for changes to tax laws and regulations or changes to the interpretation thereof, the ambiguity of tax laws and regulations, the subjectivity of factual interpretations, the complexity of our business and intercompany arrangements, uncertainties regarding the geographic mix of earnings in any particular period, and other factors, material adjustments to our tax estimates may impact our provision for income taxes and our earnings per share, as well as our cash flows.

Violations of anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and/or international trade laws to which we are subject could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and results of operations.
We are subject to laws concerning our business operations and marketing activities in foreign countries where we conduct business. For example, we are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), U.S. export control and trade sanction laws, and similar anti-corruption and international trade laws in certain foreign countries, such as the U.K. Bribery Act, any violation of which could create substantial liability for us and also cause a loss of reputation in the market. The FCPA generally prohibits U.S. companies and their officers, directors, employees, and intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. The FCPA also requires that U.S. public companies maintain books and records that fairly and accurately reflect transactions and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. If we are found to have violated the FCPA, we may face sanctions including civil and criminal fines, disgorgement of profits, and suspension or debarment of our ability to contract with government agencies or receive export licenses. We have business operations in many countries worldwide, including business operations in Egypt (through our 50%-owned Alliance Healthcare Egypt subsidiary) as well as Turkey, Ukraine, Brazil, and other countries that are considered to have business environments with higher risk of conduct that could give rise to potential violations and liabilities. From time to time, we may face audits or investigations by one or more domestic or foreign government agencies relating to our international business activities, compliance with which could be costly and time-consuming, and could divert our management and key personnel from our business operations. An adverse outcome under any such investigation or audit could subject us to fines or other penalties, which could adversely affect our business, financial position, and results of operations.
Risks generally associated with data privacy regulation and the international transfer of personal data.
We are required to comply with increasingly complex and changing data privacy regulations both in the United States and beyond that regulate the collection, use, security, processing, and transfer of personal data, including particularly the transfer of personal data between or among countries. Many of these regulations also grant rights to individuals. Many foreign data privacy regulations (including, without limitation, GDPR in the European Union, UK GDPR, Brazil's General Data Protection Law, LGPD, and the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act in Canada) and certain state laws and regulations (including California's CCPA) impose requirements beyond those enacted under United States federal law including, in some instances, private rights of action. For example, the EU GDPR imposes more stringent data protection requirements, including a broader scope of protected data, restrictions on cross-border transfers of personal data and more onerous breach reporting requirements, and the EU GDPR imposes greater penalties for non-compliance than the federal data protection laws in the United States. We may also face audits or investigations by one or more domestic or foreign government agencies relating to our compliance with these regulations. An adverse outcome under any such investigation or audit could subject us to fines or other penalties. We also have contractual obligations to our customers related to the protection of personal data and compliance with privacy laws. The foregoing or other circumstances related to our collection, use, and transfer of personal data could cause a loss of reputation in the market and/or adversely affect our business and financial position.
Other Risks
We face risks related to health epidemics and pandemics, and the continued spread of COVID-19 has had adverse effects on our business.
We face risks related to health epidemics and pandemics, including risks related to any responses thereto by the federal, state or foreign governments as well as customers and suppliers. The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our operations, supply chains and distribution network, and we have experienced and expect to continue to experience unpredictable reductions in supply and demand for certain of our products and services. Further, it is possible that the
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manufacturers that produce the products that we distribute may experience delays or shutdowns due to COVID-19, such as from disruptions in their supply chains or in a suspension of production at their own facilities. Accordingly, we expect the continued spread of COVID-19 to adversely affect the supply of products and/or potentially disrupt our ability to deliver products to customers. The implementation of any government mandated vaccination or testing mandates may impact our ability to retain current employees and attract new employees. For example, the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued an Emergency Temporary Standard requiring employers with at least 100 employees to require their employees to get vaccinated or submit to regular COVID-19 testing. Any extended disruption in our ability to service our customers could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
We also face risks related to our employees' health and the impact it may have on operations. Certain of our employees have contracted COVID-19 which resulted in our decision to temporarily close, and subsequently reopen, a small number of our distribution centers in the first half of fiscal year 2021 in accordance with our internal protocols. We have implemented measures designed to keep our employees safe and have protocols in place to address business continuity issues at our distribution centers and other locations, but a widespread or sustained outbreak of COVID-19 at one or more locations could disrupt our ability to service our customers.
We also face risks related to a downturn in our customers' respective businesses, including the operations of our retail pharmacy and health systems customers due to COVID-19. An economic slowdown or recession related to COVID-19 may affect our customers' ability to obtain credit to finance their business on acceptable terms, which could result in reduced spending on our products and services.
The impacts of the continued spread of COVID-19 could also cause other unpredictable events, each of which could adversely affect our business, revenue, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. For example, the continued spread of COVID-19 has led to disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, which could increase our cost of capital and adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets. A sustained or prolonged outbreak could exacerbate the adverse impact of such events, and the impact of COVID-19 may also exacerbate other risks discussed in Item 1A to our Form 10-K, any of which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Risks generally associated with our information systems and cyber security may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our businesses rely on sophisticated information systems to obtain, rapidly process, analyze, and manage data to facilitate the purchase and distribution of thousands of inventory items from numerous distribution centers; to receive, process, and ship orders on a timely basis; to account for other product and service transactions with customers; to manage the accurate billing and collections for thousands of customers; and to process payments to suppliers. We continue to make substantial investments in data centers and information systems, including, but not limited to, those relating to our recent acquisition of Alliance Healthcare. To the extent our information systems are not successfully implemented or fail, or to the extent there are data center interruptions, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. Our business and results of operations may also be adversely affected if a third-party service provider does not perform satisfactorily, or if the information systems are interrupted or damaged by unforeseen events, including due to the actions of third parties.
Information security risks have generally increased in recent years because of the proliferation of cloud-based infrastructure and other services, new technologies, and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber attacks. These risks have increased with the growth of our business, including as we integrate the information systems of Alliance Healthcare into our enterprise. A failure, interruption, or breach of our operational or information security systems, or those of our third-party service providers, as a result of cyber attacks or information security breaches could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information or personal data, damage our reputation, cause loss of customers or revenue, increase our costs, result in litigation and/or regulatory action, and/or cause other losses, any of which might have a materially adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position or results of operations. In addition, security incidents may require that we expend substantial additional resources related to the security of information systems and disrupt our businesses. As a result, cyber security and the continued development and enhancement of the controls and processes designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data, and networks from attack, damage, or unauthorized access remain a priority for us. Although we believe that we have robust information security procedures, controls and other safeguards in place, as cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to enhance our information security measures and/or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.
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Our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets may become impaired, which may require us to record a further significant charge to earnings in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") require us to test our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if indicators for potential impairment exist. Indicators that are considered include significant changes in performance relative to expected operating results, significant negative industry or economic trends, or a significant decline in our stock price and/or market capitalization for a sustained period of time. In addition, we periodically review our intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our long-lived assets may not be recoverable include slower growth rates, the loss of a significant customer, or divestiture of a business or asset for below its carrying value. The testing required by GAAP involves estimates and judgments by management.
We may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our consolidated financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets is determined. Any such charge could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Natural disasters or other unexpected events, including those related to climate change, may disrupt our operations, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and may not be covered by insurance.
We continue to focus on strategies and systems, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and packaging waste, to address climate change. However, we face climate and environmental risks and the occurrence of one or more unexpected events, including fires, tornadoes, tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and other severe hazards or accidents in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union or in other countries or regions in which we operate could adversely affect our operations and financial performance. Extreme weather, natural disasters, power outages, or other unexpected events could result in physical damage to and complete or partial closure of one or more of distribution centers or outsourcing facilities, temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of products, delay in the delivery of products to our distribution centers, and/or disruption of our ability to deliver products to customers. Current or future insurance arrangements may not provide protection for costs that may arise from such events, particularly if such events are catastrophic in nature or occur in combination. Further, the long-term effects of climate change on general economic conditions and the pharmaceutical distribution industry in particular are unclear, and changes in the supply, demand, or available sources of energy and the regulatory and other costs associated with energy production and delivery may affect the availability or cost of goods and services, including natural resources, necessary to run our businesses. Any long-term disruption in our ability to service our customers from one or more distribution centers or outsourcing facilities could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
As of September 30, 2021, we conducted our business from office and operating facilities at owned and leased locations throughout the United States (including Puerto Rico) and select global markets. We lease a facility in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania for our corporate headquarters.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services has a robust distribution facility network in the United States. Significant leased facilities are located in Puerto Rico plus the following states: Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Utah, and Washington. Owned facilities are located in the following states: Alabama, California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia.
As of September 30, 2021, Alliance Healthcare’s operations were conducted in the Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Its headquarters is in Weybridge, England. Alliance Healthcare has leased and owned properties.
As of September 30, 2021, the Consulting Group's operations were conducted in leased locations. Its headquarters is located in South Carolina and internationally in Canada.
As of September 30, 2021, World Courier's office and operating facilities are located in over 50 countries. Its headquarters is located in London, England. Most of the facilities are leased.
As of September 30, 2021, MWI's operations were conducted in the United States and in the United Kingdom. Leased facilities are located in California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina,
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Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington, and internationally in the United Kingdom. Significant owned facilities are located in Alabama, Idaho, Texas, and Virginia and internationally in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters is located in Idaho.
We consider our operating and office properties to be in satisfactory condition.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Legal proceedings in which we are involved are discussed in Note 14 (Legal Matters and Contingencies) of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
23

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following is a list of our executive officers and their ages and positions as of November 15, 2021.
NameAgeCurrent Position with the Company
Steven H. Collis60Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer
Silvana Battaglia54Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Elizabeth S. Campbell47Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
John G. Chou65Executive Vice President and Special Advisor to the Chairman & CEO
Gina K. Clark64Executive Vice President and Chief Communications & Administration Officer
James F. Cleary58Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Leslie E. Donato52Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer
Robert P. Mauch54Executive Vice President and Group President
Unless indicated to the contrary, the business experience summaries provided below for our executive officers describe positions held by the named individuals during the last five years.
Mr. Collis has been President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since July 2011 and Chairman since March 2016. From November 2010 to July 2011, he served as President and Chief Operating Officer. He served as Executive Vice President and President of AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from September 2009 to November 2010. He was Executive Vice President and President of AmerisourceBergen Specialty Group from September 2007 to September 2009 and was Senior Vice President of the Company and President of AmerisourceBergen Specialty Group from August 2001 to September 2007. Mr. Collis has been employed by the Company or one of its predecessors for over 25 years.
Ms. Battaglia has been Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since January 2019. Prior to joining the Company, she worked at Aramark as Senior Vice President of Global Compensation, Benefits, and Labor Relations from August 2017 to December 2018 and as Senior Vice President, Global Field Human Resources from May 2011 to August 2017. She also previously worked for Day & Zimmerman and Merck Corporation.
Ms. Campbell was named Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer in September 2021. She served as Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel from June 2020 to August 2021. Prior to that, Ms. Campbell served in a variety of roles within the Company’s legal department with increased responsibility, including serving as Chief Litigator and Chief Compliance Counsel. Ms. Campbell has been employed by the Company for 11 years.
Mr. Chou has been Executive Vice President since August 2011. He was named Special Advisor to the Chairman & CEO in September 2021. He served as Chief Legal Officer from September 2019 to August 2021. He served as Chief Legal & Business Officer of the Company from May 2017 to September 2019. He served as General Counsel of the Company from January 2007 to June 2017. From January 2007 to August 2011, Mr. Chou was a Senior Vice President. He served as Secretary of the Company from February 2006 to May 2012 and from September 2019 to May 2020. He was Vice President and Deputy General Counsel from November 2004 to January 2007 and Associate General Counsel from July 2002 to November 2004. Mr. Chou has been employed by the Company for 19 years.
Ms. Clark has been Executive Vice President since November 2014 and became Chief Communication & Administration Officer in June 2017. She served as Chief Marketing Officer from November 2014 to June 2017. Ms. Clark was named Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer in June 2011. She previously served as Senior Vice President of Marketing and Business Development for AmerisourceBergen Specialty Group from January 2007 to June 2011. Prior to joining the Company, she worked in executive leadership roles at Premier Inc. and HealthSouth, including Senior Vice President of Marketing and Alliance Relations, Group Vice President of Relationship Management, and Senior Vice President of Managed Care and National Contracting.
Mr. Cleary has been Executive Vice President since March 2015 and became Chief Financial Officer in November 2018. He served as Group President, Global Commercialization Services & Animal Health from June 2017 to November 2018. He previously served as President, MWI Animal Health from March 2015 to June 2017. Prior to joining the Company, he was President and Chief Executive Officer of MWI Veterinary Supply, Inc. from June 2002.
    Ms. Donato has been Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer since July 2019. Prior to joining the Company, she held various leadership roles at Bayer from May 2009 to May 2019, including Vice President of Strategy, Pharmaceuticals Division, Vice President of Strategy, Bayer Healthcare US, and Vice President & General Manager of Neurology & Hematology. She also worked for McKinsey & Company where she was a Partner in the Healthcare Practice.
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Mr. Mauch has been Executive Vice President since February 2015 and became Group President in February 2019. He served as Group President, Pharmaceutical Distribution & Strategic Global Sourcing from June 2017 to February 2019. He served as President, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from February 2015 to June 2017. Mr. Mauch previously served as Senior Vice President Chief Operating Officer, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from March 2014 to February 2015. He was Senior Vice President, Operations, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from April 2012 to March 2014. He was Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from April 2011 to April 2012. He was Senior Vice President, Alternate Care Sales and Marketing, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation from May 2010 to April 2011. Mr. Mauch has been employed by the Company or one of its predecessors for over 25 years.
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PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Company's common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol "ABC." As of October 31, 2021, there were 2,315 record holders of the Company's common stock.
Our board of directors approved the following quarterly dividend increases:
Dividend Increases
 Per Share 
DateNew RateOld Rate% Increase
November 2018$0.400$0.3805%
January 2020$0.420$0.4005%
November 2020$0.440$0.4205%
November 2021$0.460$0.4405%
Computershare is the Company's transfer agent. Computershare can be reached at (mail) AmerisourceBergen Corporation c/o Computershare, P.O. Box 50500, Louisville, KY 40233-500; (telephone): Domestic 1-800-522-6645, International 1-201-680-6578, and (internet) www.computershare.com/investor.
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ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The following sets forth the total number of shares purchased, the average price paid per share, the total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced programs, and the approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the programs during each month during the quarter ended September 30, 2021.

PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average
Price
Paid Per
Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced
Programs
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the
Programs
July 1 to July 31150 $116.44 — $473,380,878 
August 1 to August 31— — — $473,380,878 
September 1 to September 30— — — $473,380,878 
Total150—  
________________________________________________
(a)In October 2018, the Company's board of directors authorized a share repurchase program allowing the Company to purchase up to $1.0 billion of its outstanding shares of common stock, subject to market conditions. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, the Company purchased 0.6 million shares of its common stock for a total of $55.5 million to complete its authorization under this program.
(b)In May 2020, the Company's board of directors authorized a share repurchase program allowing the Company to purchase up to $500 million of its outstanding shares of common stock, subject to market conditions. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, the Company purchased 0.3 million shares of its common stock for $26.6 million. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had $473.4 million of availability remaining under this program.
(c)Employees surrendered 229,049 shares during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 to meet minimum tax-withholding obligations upon vesting of restricted stock.
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STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
This graph depicts the Company's five-year cumulative total stockholder returns relative to the performance of the Standard and Poor's 500 Composite Stock Index, the S&P Health Care Index, and an index of peer companies selected by the Company from the market close on September 30, 2016 to September 30, 2021. The graph assumes $100 invested at the closing price of the common stock of the Company and of each of the other indices on the New York Stock Exchange on September 30, 2016. The points on the graph represent fiscal year-end index levels based upon the last trading day in each fiscal year. The Peer Group index (which is weighted on the basis of market capitalization) consists of the following companies engaged primarily in wholesale pharmaceutical distribution and related services: McKesson Corporation and Cardinal Health, Inc.
abc-20210930_g1.gif
September 30,
201620172018201920202021
AmerisourceBergen Corporation$100.00 $104.23 $118.20 $107.53 $128.87 $161.34 
S&P 500$100.00 $118.61 $139.85 $145.80 $167.89 $218.27 
S&P Health Care$100.00 $115.49 $136.68 $131.80 $158.31 $194.03 
Peer Group$100.00 $91.02 $78.03 $77.45 $83.47 $104.88 
* $100 invested on September 30, 2016 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.







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ITEM 6.    [RESERVED]
ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto contained herein.
We are one of the largest global pharmaceutical sourcing and distribution services companies, helping both healthcare providers and pharmaceutical and biotech manufacturers improve patient access to products and enhance patient care. We deliver innovative programs and services designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the pharmaceutical supply chain in both human and animal health. We are organized based upon the products and services we provide to our customers. Our operations are comprised of the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment and other operating segments that are not significant enough to require separate reportable segment disclosure and, therefore, have been included in Other for the purpose of our reportable segment presentation.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services Segment
The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment distributes a comprehensive offering of brand-name, specialty brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals, over-the-counter healthcare products, home healthcare supplies and equipment, and related services to a wide variety of healthcare providers, including acute care hospitals and health systems, independent and chain retail pharmacies, mail order pharmacies, medical clinics, long-term care and alternate site pharmacies, and other customers. Through a number of operating businesses, the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment provides pharmaceutical distribution (including plasma and other blood products, injectable pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and other specialty pharmaceutical products) and additional services to physicians who specialize in a variety of disease states, especially oncology, and to other healthcare providers, including hospitals and dialysis clinics. Additionally, the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment provides data analytics, outcomes research, and additional services for biotechnology and pharmaceutical manufacturers. The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment also provides pharmacy management, staffing and additional consulting services, and supply management software to a variety of retail and institutional healthcare providers. Additionally, it delivers packaging solutions to institutional and retail healthcare providers.
    Other
Other consists of operating segments that focus on global commercialization services, animal health (MWI Animal Health or "MWI"), and international pharmaceutical wholesale and related service operations (Alliance Healthcare). The operating segments that focus on global commercialization services include AmerisourceBergen Consulting Services ("ABCS") and World Courier.
Alliance Healthcare supplies pharmaceuticals, other healthcare products, and related services to healthcare providers, including pharmacies, doctors, health centers and hospitals in 10 countries, primarily in Europe. MWI is a leading animal health distribution company in the United States and in the United Kingdom. MWI sells pharmaceuticals, vaccines, parasiticides, diagnostics, micro feed ingredients, and various other products to customers in both the companion animal and production animal markets. Additionally, MWI offers demand-creating sales force services to manufacturers. ABCS, through a number of operating businesses, provides a full suite of integrated manufacturer services that range from clinical trial support to product post-approval and commercialization support. World Courier, which operates in over 50 countries, is a leading global specialty transportation and logistics provider for the biopharmaceutical industry.








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Recent Developments
Alliance Healthcare Acquisition
On June 1, 2021, we acquired a majority of Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.'s ("WBA") Alliance Healthcare businesses ("Alliance Healthcare") for $6,602.0 million in cash, subject to certain purchase price adjustments, $229.1 million of our common stock (2 million shares at the Company's June 1, 2021 opening stock price of $114.54 per share), $96.9 million of estimated accrued consideration, and $6.1 million of other equity consideration. The net cash payment was $5,536.7 million, as we acquired $922.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and $143.3 million of restricted cash (see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the allocation of the purchase price). The shares issued were from our treasury stock on a first-in, first-out basis and were originally purchased for $149.1 million. We funded the cash purchase price through a combination of cash on hand and new debt financing (see Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). The acquisition expands our reach and solutions in pharmaceutical distribution and adds to our depth and breadth of global manufacturer services.
Other Strategic Transactions with Walgreens
We agreed to a three-year extension of our existing pharmaceutical distribution agreement with WBA and the arrangement pursuant to which we have access to generic drugs and related pharmaceutical products through Walgreens Boots Alliance Development GmbH (both through 2029), as well as a distribution agreement pursuant to which we will supply branded and generic pharmaceutical products to WBA’s Boots UK Ltd. subsidiary (through 2031). In January 2021, we also entered into an agreement with WBA to pursue a series of strategic initiatives designed to create incremental growth and efficiencies in sourcing, logistics, and distribution.
See Item 1A. Risk Factors beginning on page 11 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional risk factors related to our strategic transactions with WBA.
Opioid Litigation
On July 21, 2021, it was announced that we and the two other national pharmaceutical distributors have negotiated a comprehensive proposed settlement agreement that, if all conditions are satisfied, would result in the resolution of a substantial majority of opioid lawsuits filed by state and local governmental entities (see Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).
New Reporting Structure
Recently, we undertook a strategic evaluation of our reporting structure to reflect our expanded international presence as a result of the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare. As a result of this review, beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2022, we have re-aligned our reporting structure under two reportable segments: U.S. Healthcare Solutions and International Healthcare Solutions. U.S. Healthcare Solutions will consist of the legacy Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment (excluding Profarma Distribuidora de Produtos Farmacêuticos S.A. ("Profarma")), MWI Animal Health, Xcenda, Lash Group, and ICS 3PL. International Healthcare Solutions will consist of Alliance Healthcare, World Courier, Innomar, Profarma, and Profarma Specialty. Profarma had previously been included in the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services reportable segment. Profarma Specialty had previously been reported in Other. Beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2022, we will report our results under this new structure.
Executive Summary
This executive summary provides highlights from the results of operations that follow:
Revenue increased by 12.7% from the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the revenue growth in our Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment and our June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare. The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment grew its revenue 8.6% from the prior fiscal year, primarily due to increased sales of specialty products (which generally have higher selling prices), including COVID-19 treatments and overall market growth principally driven by unit volume growth. Revenue in Other increased by 112.3% from the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare;
Total gross profit increased 33.7% from the prior fiscal year. Gross profit was favorably impacted by increases in gross profit in Other of 63.4% and Pharmaceutical Distribution Services of 12.3% from the prior fiscal year, a last-in, first-out ("LIFO") credit in the current fiscal year in comparison to a LIFO expense in the prior fiscal year, and an increase in gains from antitrust litigation settlements. Pharmaceutical Distribution Services' gross profit increased from the prior fiscal year primarily due to revenue growth, including an increase in specialty product
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sales. Gross profit in Other increased from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and revenue growth at World Courier and MWI;
Total operating expenses declined by 55.6% from the prior fiscal year primarily due to a decrease in legal accruals primarily related to our proposed opioid litigation settlement and related obligations and other opioid-related litigation and a decrease in the impairment of assets. These expense reductions were offset in part by a 29.9% increase in distribution, selling, and administrative expenses compared to the prior fiscal year primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and increases in payroll-related operating costs to support current and future revenue growth;
Operating income increased by 145.8%, from the prior fiscal year due to the decrease in total operating expenses and the increase in total gross profit; and
Our effective tax rates were 30.5% and 35.8% for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The effective tax rate in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was higher than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to U.K. Tax Reform (see Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).

31

Results of Operations
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2021 compared to the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020
Revenue
 Fiscal Year Ended
September 30,
(dollars in thousands)20212020Change
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services$198,153,202 $182,467,189 8.6%
Other:
MWI Animal Health4,684,417 4,216,462 11.1%
Alliance Healthcare7,373,365 — 
Global Commercialization Services3,917,017 3,308,640 18.4%
Total Other15,974,799 7,525,102 112.3%
Intersegment eliminations(139,158)(98,365)
Revenue$213,988,843 $189,893,926 12.7%
We expect our revenue growth percentage to be in the high-single to low-double digits in fiscal 2022. Our future revenue growth will continue to be affected by various factors, such as industry growth trends, including drug utilization, the introduction of new, innovative brand therapies, the likely increase in the number of generic drugs and biosimilars that will be available over the next few years as a result of the expiration of certain drug patents held by brand-name pharmaceutical manufacturers and the rate of conversion from brand products to those generic drugs and biosimilars, price inflation and price deflation, general economic conditions in the United States and Europe, competition within the industry, customer consolidation, changes in pharmaceutical manufacturer pricing and distribution policies and practices, increased downward pressure on government and other third-party reimbursement rates to our customers, changes in government rules and regulations, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Revenue increased by 12.7% from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the revenue growth of our Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment and our June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare.
The Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment grew its revenue by 8.6%, or $15.7 billion, from the prior fiscal year, primarily due to increased sales of specialty products (which generally have higher selling prices) including COVID-19 treatments and overall market growth principally driven by unit volume growth.
More specifically, the increase in the Pharmaceutical Distribution Services segment revenue was largely attributable to the following (in billions):
Increased sales to Walgreens, our largest customer$1.8
Increased sales to specialty physician practices$2.3
Increased sales of COVID-19 treatments$3.2
Increased sales to other customers$8.4
Revenue in Other increased 112.3%, or $8.4 billion, from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and due to growth in the other operating segments: MWI, ABCS, and World Courier.
A number of our contracts with customers, including group purchasing organizations, are typically subject to expiration each year. We may lose a significant customer if an existing contract with such customer expires without being extended, renewed, or replaced. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, no significant contracts expired. The only significant customer contract scheduled to expire in the next twelve months is our contract with Express Scripts, which expires in September 2022. Additionally, from time to time, significant contracts may be terminated in accordance with their terms or extended, renewed, or replaced prior to their expiration dates. If those contracts are extended, renewed, or replaced at less favorable terms, they may also negatively impact our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
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Gross Profit
 Fiscal Year Ended
September 30,
(dollars in thousands)20212020Change
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services$4,294,992 $3,824,129 12.3%
Other2,287,021 1,399,553 63.4%
Intersegment eliminations(10,607)(6,096)
Gains from antitrust litigation settlements168,794 9,076  
LIFO credit (expense)203,028 (7,422) 
PharMEDium remediation costs— (7,135)
PharMEDium shutdown costs— (5,421)
New York State Opioid Stewardship Act— (14,800)
Gross profit$6,943,228 $5,191,884 33.7%
Gross profit increased 33.7%, or $1,751.3 million, from the prior fiscal year. Gross profit in the current fiscal year was favorably impacted by increases in gross profit in Other and Pharmaceutical Distribution Services, a LIFO credit in the current year period in comparison to a LIFO expense in the prior year period, and an increase in gains from antitrust litigation settlements.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services gross profit increased 12.3%, or $470.9 million, from the prior fiscal year due to revenue growth, including an increase in specialty product sales. As a percentage of revenue, Pharmaceutical Distribution Services gross profit margin of 2.17% in the current fiscal year increased 7 basis points compared to the prior fiscal year primarily due to an increase in specialty product sales, including COVID-19 treatments.
Gross profit in Other increased 63.4%, or $887.5 million, from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and revenue growth at World Courier and MWI. As a percentage of revenue, gross profit margin in Other of 14.32% in the current fiscal year decreased from 18.60% in the prior fiscal year. The decline in gross profit margin in the current fiscal year was primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare, which has a lower gross profit margin than the other operating segments within Other.
We recognized gains from antitrust litigation settlements with pharmaceutical manufacturers of $168.8 million and $9.1 million in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The gains were recorded as reductions to Cost of Goods Sold (see Note 15 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).
    Our cost of goods sold includes a LIFO provision that is affected by manufacturer pricing practices, which may be impacted by market and other external influences, changes in inventory quantities, and product mix, many of which are difficult to predict. Changes to any of the above factors may have a material impact to our annual LIFO provision. The LIFO credit in the current fiscal year was largely driven by an increase in generic pharmaceutical deflation.
In the prior fiscal year, we incurred remediation costs in connection with the suspended production activities at PharMEDium. We also incurred shutdown costs in connection with permanently exiting the PharMEDium compounding business.
New York State ("NYS") enacted the Opioid Stewardship Act ("OSA"), which went into effect on July 1, 2018. The OSA established an annual $100 million Opioid Stewardship Fund (the "Fund") and required manufacturers, distributors, and importers licensed in NYS to ratably source the Fund. The ratable share of the assessment for each licensee was to be based upon opioids sold or distributed to or within NYS. In December 2018, the OSA was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. In September 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reversed the District Court’s decision, and, as a result, we accrued $14.8 million in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 related to our ratable share of the assessment.






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Operating Expenses
 Fiscal Year Ended
September 30,
(dollars in thousands)20212020Change
Distribution, selling, and administrative$3,594,251 $2,767,217 29.9%
Depreciation and amortization505,172 391,062 29.2%
Employee severance, litigation, and other471,911 6,807,307  
Goodwill impairment6,373 — 
Impairment of assets11,324 361,652 
Total operating expenses$4,589,031 $10,327,238 (55.6)%
Distribution, selling, and administrative expenses increased 29.9%, or $827.0 million, from the prior fiscal year. The increase from the prior fiscal year was primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and an increase in payroll-related operating costs to support current and future revenue growth. As a percentage of revenue, distribution, selling, and administrative expenses were 1.68% in the current fiscal year and represents a 22-basis point increase compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in distribution, selling, and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue was primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare.
Depreciation expense increased 16.6% from the prior fiscal year primarily due to depreciation of property and equipment originating from the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare. Amortization expense increased 60.9% from the prior fiscal year primarily due to amortization of intangible assets originating from the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare.
Employee severance, litigation, and other in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 included a $147.7 million accrual related to opioid litigation settlements and $124.9 million of legal fees and opioid related costs in connection with opioid lawsuits and investigations, $117.0 million of acquisition-related deal and integration costs primarily related to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare, $46.1 million of severance and other restructuring initiatives primarily related to the disposal of assets related to our return to office plan, and $36.3 million related to our business transformation efforts.
Employee severance, litigation, and other in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 included a $6.6 billion legal accrual (see Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements) and $115.4 million of legal fees in connection with opioid lawsuits and investigations, $34.4 million of severance costs primarily related to position eliminations resulting from our decision to permanently exit the PharMEDium compounding business, $38.0 million related to our business transformation efforts, and $12.6 million of acquisition-related deal and integration costs and other restructuring initiatives.
We recorded a goodwill impairment of $6.4 million in our Profarma reporting unit in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 in connection with our fiscal 2021 annual impairment test (see Note 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). We recorded an $11.3 million loss on the remeasurement of a disposal group held for sale to fair value less cost to sell in Impairment of Assets in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 (see Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).
    We recorded a $361.7 million impairment of PharMEDium's assets in Impairment of Assets in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 (see Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).



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Operating Income (Loss)
 Fiscal Year Ended
September 30,
(dollars in thousands)20212020Change
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services$2,041,072 $1,807,001 13.0%
Other614,973 400,139 53.7%
Intersegment eliminations(7,841)(2,693)
Total segment operating income2,648,204 2,204,447 20.1%
Gains from antitrust litigation settlements168,794 9,076  
LIFO credit (expense)203,028 (7,422) 
Acquisition-related intangibles amortization(176,221)(110,478)
Employee severance, litigation, and other(471,911)(6,807,307)
Goodwill impairment(6,373)— 
Impairment of assets(11,324)(361,652)
PharMEDium remediation costs— (16,165)
PharMEDium shutdown costs— (43,206)
New York State Opioid Stewardship Act— (14,800)
Contingent consideration adjustment— 12,153 
Operating income (loss)$2,354,197 $(5,135,354)145.8%
Segment operating income is evaluated before gains from antitrust litigation settlements; LIFO credit (expense); acquisition-related intangibles amortization; employee severance, litigation, and other; goodwill impairment; impairment of assets; PharMEDium remediation costs; PharMEDium shutdown costs; New York State Opioid Stewardship Act; and contingent consideration adjustment.
Pharmaceutical Distribution Services operating income increased 13.0%, or $234.1 million, from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the increase in gross profit, as noted above, and was offset in part by an increase in operating expenses. As a percentage of revenue, Pharmaceutical Distribution Services operating income margin was 1.03% and represented an increase of 4 basis points compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase from the prior year fiscal year was primarily due to the increase in specialty product sales, including COVID-19 treatments.
Operating income in Other increased 53.7%, or $214.8 million, from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare and the increases in operating income at MWI and World Courier.
One of our non-wholly-owned subsidiaries, Profarma, which we consolidate based on certain governance rights (see Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), adjusted its previous estimate of contingent consideration in the prior fiscal year related to the purchase price of one of its prior business acquisitions.
Other Income
We recorded a $64.7 million gain on the remeasurement of an equity investment, a $14.0 million impairment of a non-customer note receivable related to a start-up venture, and a foreign currency loss of $3.4 million on the remeasurement of deferred tax assets relating to Swiss tax reform in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net and the respective weighted average interest rates were as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended September 30,
 20212020
(dollars in thousands)AmountWeighted Average
Interest Rate
AmountWeighted Average
Interest Rate
Interest expense$182,544 2.62%$158,522 3.42%
Interest income(8,470)0.28%(20,639)0.69%
Interest expense, net$174,074  $137,883  
Interest expense, net increased 26.2%, or $36.2 million, from the prior fiscal year due to the issuance of our $1,525 million of 0.737% senior notes, $1,000 million of 2.700% senior notes in March 2021, and the $500 million variable-rate term loan that was issued in June 2021, all of which were used to finance a portion of the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance
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Healthcare, the incremental interest expense associated with Alliance Healthcare's debt in certain countries, and the decrease in interest income resulting from a decrease in investment interest rates. The increase in interest expense as a result of the above-mentioned debt issuances was offset in part by a lower weighted-average borrowing interest rate and the repayment of our $400 million term loan upon its maturity in October 2020.
Our interest expense in future periods may vary significantly depending upon changes in net borrowings, interest rates, amendments to our current borrowing facilities, and strategic decisions to deploy our invested cash.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
    Our effective tax rates were 30.5% and 35.8% in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our effective tax rate in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was higher than the U.S. statutory rate due to U.K. Tax Reform (see Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). Our effective tax rate in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 was higher than the U.S. statutory rate due to our operating loss, the tax benefits associated with our decision to permanently exit the PharMEDium compounding business, Swiss Tax Reform, the CARES Act, and other discrete items and offset in part by the tax impact of the portion of the opioid legal accrual that is not expected to be tax deductible.
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to AmerisourceBergen Corporation and Diluted Earnings Per Share
Net income attributable to AmerisourceBergen and diluted earnings per share were significantly lower in the prior fiscal year primarily due to the legal accrual recognized in connection with opioid lawsuits.
Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020 compared to the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2019
For a discussion of the comparison of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, refer to the Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section in our previously filed Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Critical accounting policies are those policies that involve accounting estimates and assumptions that can have a material impact on our financial position and results of operations and require the use of complex and subjective estimates based upon past experience and management's judgment. Actual results may differ from these estimates due to uncertainties inherent in such estimates. Below are those policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are the most dependent upon the application of estimates and assumptions. For a complete list of significant accounting policies, see Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Allowances for Returns and Credit Losses
Trade receivables are primarily comprised of amounts owed to us for our pharmaceutical distribution and services activities and are presented net of an allowance for customer sales returns and an allowance for credit losses. Our customer sales return policy generally allows customers to return products only if the products can be resold at full value or returned to suppliers for full credit. We record an accrual for estimated customer sales returns at the time of sale to the customer based upon historical customer return trends. The allowance for returns as of September 30, 2021 and 2020 was $1,271.6 million and $1,344.6 million, respectively.
We evaluate our receivables for risk of loss by grouping our receivables with similar risk characteristics. Expected losses are determined based on a combination of historical loss trends, current economic conditions, and forward-looking risk factors. Changes in these factors, among others, may lead to adjustments in our allowance for credit losses. The calculation of the required allowance requires judgment by management as to the impact of those and other factors on the ultimate realization of our trade receivables. Each of our business units performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers' financial condition and maintains reserves for expected credit losses and specific credit problems when they arise. We write off balances against the reserves when collectability is deemed remote. Each business unit performs formal, documented reviews of the allowance at least quarterly, and our largest business units perform such reviews monthly. There were no significant changes to this process during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019 bad debt expense was computed in a consistent manner during these periods. The bad debt expense for any period presented is equal to the changes in the period end allowance for credit losses, net of write-offs, recoveries, and other adjustments.
Bad debt expense for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $12.1 million, $11.9 million, and $25.2 million respectively. An increase or decrease of 0.1% in the 2021 allowance as a percentage of trade receivables would result in an increase or decrease in the provision on accounts receivable of approximately $18.3 million. The allowance for credit losses was $85.1 million and $72.7 million as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
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Schedule II of this Form 10-K sets forth a rollforward of allowances for returns and credit losses.
Business Combinations
The assets acquired and liabilities assumed upon the acquisition or consolidation of a business are recorded at fair value, with the residual of the purchase price allocated to goodwill. We engage third-party appraisal firms to assist management in determining the fair values of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Such valuations require management to make significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Management makes estimates of fair value based upon assumptions it believes to be reasonable. These estimates are based upon historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets include, but are not limited to: discount rates and expected future cash flows from and economic lives of customer relationships, trade names, existing technology, and other intangible assets. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur, which may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions or estimates.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill arises from acquisitions or consolidations of specific operating companies and is assigned to the reporting unit in which a particular operating company resides. We identify our reporting units based upon our management reporting structure, beginning with our operating segments. We aggregate two or more components within an operating segment that have similar economic characteristics. We evaluate whether the components within our operating segments have similar economic characteristics, which include the similarity of long-term gross margins, the nature of the components' products, services, and production processes, the types of customers and the methods by which products or services are delivered to customers, and the components' regulatory environment. Our reporting units include Pharmaceutical Distribution Services, Profarma, ABCS, World Courier, MWI, and Alliance Healthcare.
Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, such as certain trademarks and trade names, are not amortized; rather, they are tested for impairment at least annually. For the purpose of these impairment tests, we can elect to perform a qualitative assessment to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair values of its reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets are less than the respective carrying values of those reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets, respectively. Such qualitative factors can include, among others, industry and market conditions, overall financial performance, and relevant entity-specific events. If we conclude based on its qualitative assessment that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, it performs a quantitative analysis. We elected to perform a qualitative impairment assessment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, with the exception of our testing of goodwill in the ABCS and Profarma reporting units. We elected to perform a qualitative impairment assessment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, with the exception of our testing of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles in the MWI and Profarma reporting units. We elected to perform a qualitative impairment assessment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019, with the exception of our testing of goodwill in the Profarma reporting unit.
The quantitative goodwill impairment test requires us to compare the carrying value of the reporting unit's net assets to the fair value of the reporting unit. If the fair value exceeds the carrying value, no further evaluation is required, and no impairment loss is recognized. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, the difference between the carrying value and the fair value is recorded as an impairment loss, the amount of which may not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
When performing a quantitative impairment assessment, we utilize an income-based approach to value our reporting units, with the exception of the Profarma reporting unit, the fair value of which is based upon its publicly-traded stock price, plus an estimated control premium. The income-based approach relies on a discounted cash flow analysis, which considers forecasted cash flows discounted at an appropriate discount rate, to determine the fair value of each reporting unit. We generally believe that market participants would use a discounted cash flow analysis to determine the fair value of our reporting units in a sale transaction. The annual goodwill impairment test requires us to make a number of assumptions and estimates concerning future levels of revenue growth, operating margins, depreciation, amortization, capital expenditures, and working capital requirements, which are based upon our long-range plan. The discount rate is an estimate of the overall after-tax rate of return required by a market participant whose weighted average cost of capital includes both debt and equity, including a risk premium. While we use the best available information to prepare our cash flows and discount rate assumptions, actual future cash flows and/or market conditions could differ significantly resulting in future impairment charges related to recorded goodwill balances. While there are always changes in assumptions to reflect changing business and market conditions, our overall methodology and the population of assumptions used have remained unchanged.
The quantitative impairment test for indefinite-lived intangibles other than goodwill (certain trademarks and trade names) consists of a comparison of the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset to the carrying value of the asset as of
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the impairment testing date. We estimate the fair value of its indefinite-lived intangibles using the relief from royalty method. We believe the relief from royalty method is a widely used valuation technique for such assets. The fair value derived from the relief from royalty method is measured as the discounted cash flow savings realized from owning such indefinite-lived trademarks and trade names and not having to pay a royalty for their use.
We completed our required annual impairment tests relating to goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets in the fourth quarter of the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019. We recorded a goodwill impairment of $6.4 million in our Profarma reporting unit in connection with its fiscal 2021 annual impairment test (see Note 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). No indefinite-lived intangible asset impairments were recorded in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019 and no goodwill impairments were recorded in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.
Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. We perform a recoverability assessment of our long-lived assets when impairment indicators are present.
After U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") inspections of PharMEDium Healthcare Holdings, Inc.'s ("PharMEDium") compounding facilities, we voluntarily suspended production activities in December 2017 at its largest compounding facility located in Memphis, Tennessee pending execution of certain remedial measures.
As a result of the suspension of production activities at PharMEDium's compounding facility located in Memphis, Tennessee and the regulatory matters, we performed a recoverability assessment of PharMEDium's long-lived assets and recorded a $570.0 million impairment loss in the quarter ended March 31, 2019 for the amount that the carrying value of the PharMEDium asset group exceeded its fair value. Prior to the impairment, the carrying value of the asset group was $792 million. The fair value of the asset group was $222 million as of March 31, 2019.
As a result of the continued suspension of the production activities at PharMEDium's compounding facility located in Memphis, Tennessee, certain regulatory matters, ongoing operational challenges, and lower-than-expected operating results, we updated our recoverability assessment of PharMEDium’s long-lived assets as of December 31, 2019. The recoverability assessment was based upon comparing PharMEDium's forecasted undiscounted cash flows to the carrying value of its asset group. Using forecasted undiscounted cash flows that were based on the weighted average of multiple strategic alternatives, we concluded that the carrying value of the PharMEDium long-lived asset group was not recoverable as of December 31, 2019 and recorded an impairment loss of $138.0 million in the three months ended December 31, 2019. We allocated $123.2 million of the impairment to finite-lived intangibles, $11.6 million of the impairment to property and equipment, and $3.2 million to ROU assets.
In January 2020, we decided to permanently exit the PharMEDium compounding business, and, as a result, we ceased all commercial and administrative operations related to this business in fiscal 2020. The decision to permanently exit the PharMEDium business was due to a number of factors including, but not limited to, ongoing operational, regulatory, and commercial challenges, such as PharMEDium's decision in January 2020 to suspend production at the compounding facility in New Jersey pending facility upgrades related to the air handling and filtration systems. In connection with the decision to exit the PharMEDium business, we recorded an impairment of PharMEDium's assets of $223.7 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020, which included impairments of the remaining finite-lived intangible assets and the majority of the remaining tangible assets.
Income Taxes
Our income tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and uncertain tax positions reflect management's assessment of estimated future taxes to be paid on items in the financial statements. Deferred income taxes arise from temporary differences between financial reporting and tax reporting bases of assets and liabilities, as well as net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards for tax purposes.
We have established a valuation allowance against certain deferred tax assets for which the ultimate realization of future benefits is uncertain. Expiring carryforwards and the required valuation allowances are adjusted annually. After application of the valuation allowances described above, we anticipate that no limitations will apply with respect to utilization of any of the other deferred income tax assets described above.
We prepare and file tax returns based upon our interpretation of tax laws and regulations and record estimates based upon these judgments and interpretations. In the normal course of business, our tax returns are subject to examination by various taxing authorities. Such examinations may result in future tax and interest assessments by these taxing authorities. Inherent uncertainties exist in estimates of tax contingencies due to changes in tax law resulting from legislation, regulation, and/or as concluded through the various jurisdictions' tax court systems. Significant judgment is exercised in applying complex tax laws and regulations across multiple global jurisdictions where we conduct our operations. We recognize the tax benefit
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from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based upon the technical merits of the position.
We believe that our estimates for the valuation allowances against deferred tax assets and the amount of benefits recognized in our financial statements for uncertain tax positions are appropriate based upon current facts and circumstances. However, others applying reasonable judgment to the same facts and circumstances could develop a different estimate and the amount ultimately paid upon resolution of issues raised may differ from the amounts accrued.
The significant assumptions and estimates described in the preceding paragraphs are important contributors to the ultimate effective tax rate in each year. If any of our assumptions or estimates were to change, an increase or decrease in our effective tax rate by 1% on income before income taxes would have caused income tax expense to change by $22.2 million in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
For a complete discussion of the tax impact of UK Tax Reform, Swiss Tax Reform, the legal accrual related to opioid litigation, the CARES Act, and the PharMEDium worthless stock deduction, refer to Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost for approximately 66% and 70% of our inventories as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, has been determined using the LIFO method. If we had used the first-in, first-out method of inventory valuation, which approximates current replacement cost, inventories would have been approximately $1,316.2 million and $1,519.2 million higher than the amounts reported as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We recorded LIFO credits of $203.0 million and $22.5 million in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2019, respectively. We recorded a LIFO expense of $7.4 million in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. The annual LIFO provision is affected by manufacturer pricing practices, which may be impacted by market and other external influences, changes in inventory quantities, and product mix, many of which are difficult to predict. Changes to any of the above factors can have a material impact to our annual LIFO provision.
Loss Contingencies
In the ordinary course of business, we become involved in lawsuits, administrative proceedings, government subpoenas, government investigations, stockholder demands, and other disputes, including antitrust, commercial, product liability, intellectual property, regulatory, employment discrimination, and other matters. Significant damages or penalties may be sought in some matters, and some matters may require years to resolve. We record a liability when it is both probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. We also perform an assessment of the materiality of loss contingencies where a loss is either not probable or it is reasonably possible that a loss could be incurred in excess of amounts accrued. If a loss or an additional loss has at least a reasonable possibility of occurring and the impact on the financial statements would be material, we provide disclosure of the loss contingency and whether a reasonable estimate of the loss or the range of the loss can made in the footnotes to our financial statements. We review all contingencies at least quarterly to determine whether the likelihood of loss has changed and to assess whether a reasonable estimate of the loss or the range of the loss can be made. Among the loss contingencies we considered in accordance with the foregoing in connection with the preparation of the accompanying financial statements were the opioid matters described in Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our operating results have generated cash flows, which, together with availability under our debt agreements and credit terms from suppliers, have provided sufficient capital resources to finance working capital and cash operating requirements, and to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions, repayment of debt, the payment of interest on outstanding debt, dividends, and purchases of shares of our common stock.
 Our primary ongoing cash requirements will be to finance working capital, fund the repayment of debt, fund the payment of interest on debt, fund the payment of dividends, fund purchases of our common stock, finance acquisitions, and fund capital expenditures and routine growth and expansion through new business opportunities. Future cash flows from operations and borrowings are expected to be sufficient to fund our ongoing cash requirements, including the opioid litigation payments that are expected to be made over 18 years (see below).
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Cash Flows
As of September 30, 2021 and 2020, our cash and cash equivalents held by foreign subsidiaries were $725.4 million and $675.9 million, respectively. We have the ability to repatriate the majority of our cash and cash equivalents held by our foreign subsidiaries without incurring significant additional taxes upon repatriation.
We have increased seasonal needs related to our inventory build during the December and March quarters that, depending on our cash balance, may require the use of our credit facilities to fund short-term capital needs. Our cash balances in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were supplemented by intra-period credit facility borrowings to cover short-term working capital needs. The largest amount of intra-period borrowings under our revolving and securitization credit facilities that was outstanding at any one time during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was $637.7 million and $39.6 million, respectively. We had $4,730.5 million, $117.4 million, and $606.0 million of cumulative intra-period borrowings that were repaid under our credit facilities during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, our operating activities provided cash of $2,666.6 million and $2,207.0 million, respectively. Cash provided by operations in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was principally the result of an increase in accounts payable of $2,049.2 million, net income of $1,544.6 million, and non-cash items of $754.7 million, offset in part by an increase in inventories of $1,116.3 million and an increase in accounts receivable of $930.1 million. The increase in accounts payable was primarily driven by the increase in inventories and the timing of scheduled payments to suppliers. Non-cash items were primarily comprised of the provision for deferred income taxes of $334.9 million, depreciation expense of $326.7 million, amortization expense of $188.1 million, and a LIFO credit of $203.0 million. The increase in inventories reflects the increase in business volume. The increase in accounts receivable was the result of our revenue growth and the timing of payments from our customers.
During the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, our operating activities provided cash of $2,207.0 million and $2,344.0 million, respectively. Cash provided by operations in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 was principally the result of an increase in the accrued litigation liability of $6,198.9 million, an increase in accounts payable of $3,300.8 million, and an increase in accrued expenses of $524.0 million, largely offset in part by a net loss of $3,399.6 million, an increase in accounts receivable of $1,629.0 million, an increase in inventories of $1,621.1 million, non-cash items of $662.4 million, and an increase in income taxes receivable of $482.6 million. The increases in the accrued litigation liability and accrued expenses were primarily due to a legal accrual for litigation relating to the distribution of prescription opioid pain medications (see Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). The increase in accounts payable was primarily driven by the increase in inventories and the timing of scheduled payments to suppliers. The increase in accounts receivable was the result of our revenue growth and the timing of payments from our customers. The increase in inventories was due to an increase in business volume. Non-cash items were comprised primarily of a deferred income tax benefit of $1,545.0 million primarily related to a legal accrual in connection with opioid lawsuits and Swiss Tax Reform, offset in part by a $361.7 million impairment of PharMEDium's long-lived assets (see Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), $290.7 million of depreciation expense, and $117.3 million of amortization expense. The increase in income taxes receivable was the result of a benefit recorded in connection with certain discrete items (see Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).
We use days sales outstanding, days inventory on hand, and days payable outstanding to evaluate our working capital performance. The below financial metrics are calculated based upon a quarterly average and can be impacted by the timing of cash receipts and disbursements, which can vary significantly depending upon the day of the week in which the month ends.
 Fiscal Year Ended September 30,
 202120202019
Days sales outstanding26.224.725.1
Days inventory on hand28.628.728.4
Days payable outstanding58.357.657.5
Our cash flows from operating activities can vary significantly from period to period based upon fluctuations in our period-end working capital account balances. Additionally, any changes to payment terms with a significant customer or manufacturer supplier could have a material impact to our cash flows from operations. The acquisition of Alliance Healthcare increased our days sales outstanding and days payable outstanding as it has longer payment terms with customers and manufacturers. Our ratios could increase in fiscal 2022 as a result of a full year's impact of Alliance Healthcare. Operating cash flows during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 included $170.9 million of interest payments and $93.5 million of income tax payments, net of refunds. Operating cash flows during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 included $150.7 million of interest payments and $139.4 million of income tax payments, net of refunds. Operating cash flows during the fiscal
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year ended September 30, 2019 included $167.4 million of interest payments and $117.7 million of income tax payments, net of refunds.
Capital expenditures in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019 were $438.2 million, $369.7 million, and $310.2 million, respectively. Significant capital expenditures in fiscal 2021 and 2020 included costs associated with facility expansions, and various technology initiatives, including costs related to enhancing and upgrading our primary information technology operating systems. Significant capital expenditures in fiscal 2019 included costs associated with the construction of a new support facility and technology initiatives, including costs related to enhancing and upgrading our information technology systems.
We currently expect to spend approximately $500 million for capital expenditures during fiscal 2022. Larger 2022 capital expenditures will include investments relating to various technology initiatives, including technology investments at Alliance Healthcare.
Net cash used in investing activities in the fiscal year ended 2021 included $5,563.0 million of costs to acquire companies, which principally related to the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare, net of cash acquired, and $162.6 million for equity investments. We acquired a business to support our animal health business for $54.0 million in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019.
Net cash used in financing activities in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 principally resulted from the issuance of senior notes and the February 2021 Term Loan (see above) and $198.8 million of exercises of stock options, offset in part by $650 million of repayments of our term loans, $366.6 million in cash dividends paid on our common stock, and $82.2 million in purchases of our common stock.
Net cash used in financing activities in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 principally related to $420.4 million in purchases of our common stock and $343.6 million in cash dividends paid on our common stock.
Net cash used in financing activities in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 principally related to $674.0 million in purchases of our common stock and $339.0 million in cash dividends paid on our common stock.
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Debt and Credit Facility Availability
The following illustrates our debt structure as of September 30, 2021, including availability under the multi-currency revolving credit facility, the receivables securitization facility, the revolving credit note, the 364-day revolving credit facility, Alliance Healthcare debt, and the overdraft facility:
(in thousands)Outstanding
Balance
Additional
Availability
Fixed-Rate Debt:  
$1,525,000, 0.737% senior notes due 2023$1,518,223 $— 
$500,000, 3.400% senior notes due 2024498,714 — 
$500,000, 3.250% senior notes due 2025497,669 — 
$750,000, 3.450% senior notes due 2027744,781 — 
$500,000, 2.800% senior notes due 2030494,738 — 
$1,000,000, 2.700% senior notes due 2031989,366 — 
$500,000, 4.250% senior notes due 2045494,946 — 
$500,000, 4.300% senior notes due 2047493,021 — 
Nonrecourse debt48,190 — 
Total fixed-rate debt5,779,648 — 
Variable-Rate Debt:  
Revolving credit note— 75,000 
Receivables securitization facility due 2022350,000 1,100,000 
364-day revolving credit facility— 1,000,000 
Term loan due June 2023249,640 — 
Overdraft facility due 2024 (£10,000)— 13,475 
Multi-currency revolving credit facility due 2024— 1,400,000 
Alliance Healthcare debt235,998 398,961 
Nonrecourse debt68,638 — 
Total variable-rate debt904,276 3,987,436 
Total debt$6,683,924 $3,987,436 
In May 2020, we issued $500 million of 2.80% senior notes due May 15, 2030 (the "2030 Notes"). The 2030 Notes were sold at 99.71% of the principal amount and have an effective yield of 2.81%. Interest on the 2030 Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears and commenced on November 15, 2020.
We used the proceeds from the 2030 Notes to finance the early retirement of the $500 million of 3.50% senior notes that were due in 2021 and made a $21.4 million prepayment premium in connection with this early retirement.
In March 2021, we issued $1,525 million of 0.737% senior notes due March 15, 2023 (the "2023 Notes"). The 2023 Notes were sold at 100.00% of the principal amount. Interest on the 2023 Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears, commencing on September 15, 2021. In March 2021, we issued $1,000 million of 2.700% senior notes due March 15, 2031 (the "2031 Notes"). The 2031 Notes were sold at 99.79% of the principal amount and have an effective yield of 2.706%. Interest on the 2031 Notes is payable semi-annually in arrears, commencing on September 15, 2021. The 2023 Notes and 2031 Notes rank pari passu to our other senior notes, the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility, the Revolving Credit Note, and the Overdraft Facility. We used the proceeds from the 2023 Notes and 2031 Notes to finance a portion of the June 2021 Alliance Healthcare acquisition.
In addition to the 2023 Notes, the 2030 Notes, and the 2031 Notes, we have $500 million of 3.40% senior notes due May 15, 2024, $500 million of 3.25% senior notes due March 1, 2025, $750 million of 3.45% senior notes due December 15, 2027, $500 million of 4.25% senior notes due March 1, 2045, and $500 million of 4.300% senior notes due December 15, 2047 (collectively, the "Notes"). Interest on the Notes is payable semiannually in arrears.
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We have a $1.4 billion multi-currency senior unsecured revolving credit facility ("Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility"), which was scheduled to expire in September 2024, with a syndicate of lenders. In November 2021, we increased the capacity of the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility by $1.0 billion to $2.4 billion and extended the expiration to November 2026. Interest on borrowings under the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility accrues at specified rates based upon our debt rating and ranges from 70 basis points to 112.5 basis points over CDOR/LIBOR/EURIBOR/Bankers Acceptance Stamping Fee, as applicable (101.5 basis points over CDOR/LIBOR/EURIBOR/Bankers Acceptance Stamping Fee as of September 30, 2021) and from 0 basis points to 12.5 basis points over the alternate base rate and Canadian prime rate, as applicable. We pay facility fees to maintain the availability under the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility at specified rates based upon our debt rating, ranging from 5 basis points to 12.5 basis points, annually, of the total commitment (11 basis points as of September 30, 2021). We may choose to repay or reduce our commitments under the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility at any time. The Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility contains covenants, including compliance with a financial leverage ratio test, as well as others that impose limitations on, among other things, indebtedness of subsidiaries and asset sales, with which we were compliant as of September 30, 2021.
We have a commercial paper program whereby we may from time to time issue short-term promissory notes in an aggregate amount of up to $1.4 billion at any one time. Amounts available under the program may be borrowed, repaid, and re-borrowed from time to time. The maturities on the notes will vary, but may not exceed 365 days from the date of issuance. The notes will bear interest, if interest bearing, or will be sold at a discount from their face amounts. The commercial paper program does not increase our borrowing capacity as it is fully backed by our Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility. There were no borrowings outstanding under our commercial paper program as of September 30, 2021 and 2020.
We have a $1,450 million receivables securitization facility ("Receivables Securitization Facility"), which was scheduled to expire in September 2022. In November 2021, we amended the Receivables Securitization Facility to extend the maturity to November 2024. We have available to us an accordion feature whereby the commitment on the Receivables Securitization Facility may be increased by up to $250 million, subject to lender approval, for seasonal needs during the December and March quarters. Interest rates are based upon prevailing market rates for short-term commercial paper or LIBOR plus a program fee. We pay a customary unused fee at prevailing market rates, annually, to maintain the availability under the Receivables Securitization Facility.
In connection with the Receivables Securitization Facility, AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation and a specialty distribution subsidiary sell on a revolving basis certain accounts receivable to Amerisource Receivables Financial Corporation, a wholly-owned special purpose entity, which in turn sells a percentage ownership interest in the receivables to financial institutions and commercial paper conduits sponsored by financial institutions. AmerisourceBergen Drug Corporation is the servicer of the accounts receivable under the Receivables Securitization Facility. As sold receivables are collected, additional receivables may be sold up to the maximum amount available under the facility. We use the facility as a financing vehicle because it generally offers an attractive interest rate relative to other financing sources. We securitize our trade accounts, which are generally non-interest bearing, in transactions that are accounted for as borrowings. The Receivables Securitization Facility contains similar covenants to the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility, with which we were compliant as of September 30, 2021.
In April 2019, we elected to repay $150.0 million of our outstanding Receivables Securitization Facility balance prior to the scheduled maturity date.
We have an uncommitted, unsecured line of credit available to us pursuant to a revolving credit note ("Revolving Credit Note"). The Revolving Credit Note provides us with the ability to request short-term unsecured revolving credit loans from time to time in a principal amount not to exceed $75 million. The Revolving Credit Note may be decreased or terminated by the bank or us at any time without prior notice. We also have an uncommitted U.K. overdraft facility ("Overdraft Facility") to fund short-term normal trading cycle fluctuations related to its MWI business. In February 2021, we extended the Overdraft Facility to February 2024 and reduced the borrowing capacity from £30 million to £10 million.
In February 2021, we entered into an agreement pursuant to which we obtained a $1.0 billion senior unsecured revolving credit facility ("364-Day Revolving Credit Facility") with a syndicate of lenders, which is scheduled to expire 364 days after June 1, 2021, the closing of the Alliance Healthcare acquisition. In November 2021, we terminated the 364-Day Revolving Credit Facility.
In October 2018, we refinanced $400 million of outstanding term loans by issuing a new $400 million variable-rate term loan ("October 2018 Term Loan"). Our $400 million Term Loan matured and was repaid in October 2020.
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In February 2021, we entered into a $1.0 billion variable-rate term loan (“February 2021 Term Loan”), which was available to be drawn on the closing date of the acquisition of Alliance Healthcare. In April 2021, we reduced our commitment under the February 2021 Term Loan to $500 million. In June 2021, we borrowed $500 million under the February 2021 Term Loan to finance a portion of the Alliance Healthcare acquisition. The February 2021 Term Loan matures in June 2023. In September 2021, we elected to make a principal payment, prior to the scheduled repayment date, of $250 million on the February 2021 term loan. The February 2021 Term Loan bears interest at a rate equal either to a base rate plus a margin, or LIBOR, plus a margin. The margin is based on the public debt ratings of us and ranges from 87.5 basis points to 137.5 basis points (112.5 basis points as of September 30, 2021) over LIBOR and 0 basis points to 37.5 basis points (12.5 basis points as of September 30, 2021) over a base rate. The February 2021 Term Loan contains similar covenants to the Multi-Currency Revolving Credit Facility, with which we were compliant as of September 30, 2021.
Alliance Healthcare debt is comprised of uncommitted revolving credit facilities in various currencies with various rates. A vast majority of the outstanding borrowings were held in Egypt (which is 50% owned) as of September 30, 2021. These facilities are used to fund its working capital needs.
Nonrecourse debt is comprised of short-term and long-term debt belonging to the Brazil subsidiaries and is repaid solely from the Brazil subsidiaries' cash flows and such debt agreements provide that the repayment of the loans (and interest thereon) is secured solely by the capital stock, physical assets, contracts, and cash flows of the Brazil subsidiaries.
Share Purchase Programs and Dividends
In November 2016, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program allowing us to purchase up to $1.0 billion in shares of our common stock, subject to market conditions. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, we purchased $125.8 million of our common stock under this program, which excluded $24.0 million of September 2018 purchases that cash settled in October 2018, to complete our authorization under this program.
    In October 2018, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program allowing us to purchase up to $1.0 billion of our shares of common stock, subject to market conditions. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019, we purchased $538.9 million of our common stock under this program, which included $14.8 million of September 2019 purchases that cash settled in October 2019. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, we purchased $405.6 million of our common stock, which excluded $14.8 million of September 2019 purchases that cash settled in October 2019. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, we purchased $55.5 million of our common stock to complete our authorization under this program.
In May 2020, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program allowing us to purchase up to $500 million of our outstanding shares of common stock, subject to market conditions. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, we purchased $26.6 million of our common stock. As of September 30, 2021, we had $473.4 million of availability remaining under this program.
Our board of directors approved the following quarterly dividend increases:
Dividend Increases
 Per Share 
DateNew RateOld Rate% Increase
November 2018$0.400$0.3805%
January 2020$0.420$0.4005%
November 2020$0.440$0.4205%
November 2021$0.460$0.4405%
We anticipate that we will continue to pay quarterly cash dividends in the future. However, the payment and amount of future dividends remain within the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our future earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, and other factors.
Commitments and Obligations
As discussed in Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, with regard to litigation relating to our proposed global opioid settlement as well as other opioid-related litigation, we recorded a $6.6 billion liability ($5.5 billion, net of an income tax benefit). On July 21, 2021, it was announced that we and the two other national pharmaceutical distributors have negotiated a comprehensive proposed settlement agreement that, if all conditions are satisfied, would result in the resolution of a substantial majority of opioid lawsuits filed by state and local governmental entities. The proposed settlement agreement includes a cash component, pursuant to which we would pay up to approximately
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$6.4 billion over 18 years, including a $288.4 million payment into escrow that was made in September 2021. The $288.4 million that was paid into escrow did not reduce our short-term liability as it was recorded as restricted cash in Prepaid Expense and Other on our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of September 30, 2021. The escrow payment related to the proposed settlement agreement will be disbursed following the effective date of the settlement, or returned to us if the settlement does not become effective. The payment of the aforementioned litigation liability has not and is not expected to have an impact on our ability to pay dividends.
The following is a summary of our contractual obligations for future principal and interest payments on our debt, minimum rental payments on our noncancellable operating leases, and minimum payments on our other commitments as of September 30, 2021:
Payments Due by Period (in thousands)Debt, Including Interest PaymentsOperating
Leases
Other CommitmentsTotal
Within 1 year$472,586 $206,923 $139,207 $818,716 
1-3 years2,621,577 342,347 181,316 3,145,240 
4-5 years1,087,051 265,421 108,254 1,460,726 
After 5 years4,323,746 495,546 — 4,819,292 
Total$8,504,960 $1,310,237 $428,777 $10,243,974 
    The 2017 Tax Act required a one-time transition tax to be recognized on historical foreign earnings and profits. We expect to pay $175.6 million, net of overpayments and tax credits, related to this transition tax, as of September 30, 2021, which is payable in installments over a six-year period that commenced in January 2021. The transition tax commitment is included in "Other Commitments" in the above table.
Our liability for uncertain tax positions was $522.8 million (including interest and penalties) as of September 30, 2021. This liability represents an estimate of tax positions that we have taken in our tax returns which may ultimately not be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. Since the amount and timing of any future cash settlements cannot be predicted with reasonable certainty, the estimated liability has been excluded from the above contractual obligations table. Our liability for uncertain tax positions as of September 30, 2021 primarily includes an uncertain tax benefit related to the $6.7 billion legal accrual for litigation related to the distribution of prescription opioid pain medications, as disclosed in Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Market Risk
We have market risk exposure to interest rate fluctuations relating to our debt. We manage interest rate risk by using a combination of fixed-rate and variable-rate debt. The amount of variable-rate debt fluctuates during the year based on our working capital requirements. We had $0.9 billion of variable-rate debt outstanding as of September 30, 2021. We periodically evaluate financial instruments to manage our exposure to fixed and variable interest rates. However, there are no assurances that such instruments will be available in the combinations we want and/or on terms acceptable to us. There were no such financial instruments in effect as of September 30, 2021.
We also have market risk exposure to interest rate fluctuations relating to our cash and cash equivalents. We had $2,547.1 million in cash and cash equivalents as of September 30, 2021. The unfavorable impact of a hypothetical decrease in interest rates on cash and cash equivalents would be partially offset by the favorable impact of such a decrease on variable-rate debt. For every $100 million of cash invested that is in excess of variable-rate debt, a 10-basis point decrease in interest rates would increase our annual net interest expense by $0.1 million. 
We have exposure to foreign currency and exchange rate risk from our non-U.S. operations. Our largest exposure to foreign exchange rates exists primarily with the Euro, the U.K. Pound Sterling, the Turkish Lira, the Egyptian Pound, the Brazilian Real, and the Canadian Dollar. With the June 2021 acquisition of Alliance Healthcare, our foreign currency and exchange rate risk increased; therefore, we now use foreign currency denominated forward contracts to hedge against changes in foreign exchange rates. We may use derivative instruments to hedge our foreign currency exposure, but not for speculative or trading purposes. Revenue from our foreign operations during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was approximately five percent of our consolidated revenue and included four months of revenue from Alliance Healthcare. We expect revenue from foreign operations to increase in the future as Alliance Healthcare's revenue will comprise a larger portion of our total revenue.
Deterioration of general economic conditions, among other factors, could adversely affect the number of prescriptions that are filled and the amount of pharmaceutical products purchased by consumers and, therefore, could reduce purchases by our customers. In addition, volatility in financial markets may also negatively impact our customers' ability to obtain credit to finance their businesses on acceptable terms. Reduced purchases by our customers or changes in the ability of our customers to remit payments to us could adversely affect our revenue growth, our profitability, and our cash flow from operations.
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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain of the statements contained in this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere in this report are "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Securities Exchange Act"). Words such as "expect," "likely," "outlook," "forecast," "would," "could," "should," "can," "project," "intend," "plan," "continue," "sustain," "synergy," "on track," "believe," "seek," "estimate," "anticipate," "may," "possible," "assume," variations of such words, and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are based on management's current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes in circumstances and speak only as of the date hereof. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are based on assumptions and estimates that could prove incorrect or could cause actual results to vary materially from those indicated. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, anticipated, or implied are the following: unfavorable trends in brand and generic pharmaceutical pricing, including in rate or frequency of price inflation or deflation; competition and industry consolidation of both customers and suppliers resulting in increasing pressure to reduce prices for our products and services; changes in the United States healthcare and regulatory environment, including changes that could impact prescription drug reimbursement under Medicare and Medicaid; increasing governmental regulations regarding the pharmaceutical supply channel; declining reimbursement rates for pharmaceuticals; continued federal and state government enforcement initiatives to detect and prevent suspicious orders of controlled substances and the diversion of controlled substances; continued prosecution or suit by federal, state and other governmental entities of alleged violations of laws and regulations regarding controlled substances, including due to failure to achieve a global resolution of the multi-district opioid litigation and other related state court litigation, and any related disputes, including shareholder derivative lawsuits; increased federal scrutiny and litigation, including qui tam litigation, for alleged violations of laws and regulations governing the marketing, sale, purchase and/or dispensing of pharmaceutical products or services, and associated reserves and costs; failure to comply with the Corporate Integrity Agreement; material adverse resolution of pending legal proceedings; the retention of key customer or supplier relationships under less favorable economics or the adverse resolution of any contract or other dispute with customers or suppliers; changes to customer or supplier payment terms, including as a result of the COVID-19 impact on such payment terms; the integration of the Alliance Healthcare businesses into the Company being more difficult, time consuming or costly than expected; the Company's or Alliance Healthcare's failure to achieve expected or targeted future financial and operating performance and results; the effects of disruption from the acquisition and related strategic transactions on the respective businesses of the Company and Alliance Healthcare and the fact that the acquisition and related strategic transactions may make it more difficult to establish or maintain relationships with employees, suppliers and other business partners; the acquisition of businesses, including the acquisition of the Alliance Healthcare businesses and related strategic transactions, that do not perform as expected, or that are difficult to integrate or control, or the inability to capture all of the anticipated synergies related thereto or to capture the anticipated synergies within the expected time period; risks associated with the strategic, long-term relationship between WBA and the Company, including with respect to the pharmaceutical distribution agreement and/or the global generic purchasing services arrangement; managing foreign expansion, including non-compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, anti-bribery laws, economic sanctions and import laws and regulations; financial market volatility and disruption; changes in tax laws or legislative initiatives that could adversely affect the Company's tax positions and/or the Company's tax liabilities or adverse resolution of challenges to the Company's tax positions; substantial defaults in payment, material reduction in purchases by or the loss, bankruptcy or insolvency of a major customer, including as a result of COVID-19; the loss, bankruptcy or insolvency of a major supplier, including as a result of COVID-19; financial and other impacts of COVID-19 on our operations or business continuity; changes to the customer or supplier mix; malfunction, failure or breach of sophisticated information systems to operate as designed; risks generally associated with data privacy regulation and the international transfer of personal data; natural disasters or other unexpected events, such as additional pandemics, that affect the Company’s operations; the impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets (including any additional impairments with respect to foreign operations), resulting in a charge to earnings; the acquisition of businesses that do not perform as expected, or that are difficult to integrate or control, or the inability to capture all of the anticipated synergies related thereto or to capture the anticipated synergies within the expected time period; the Company's ability to manage and complete divestitures; the disruption of the Company’s cash flow and ability to return value to its stockholders in accordance with its past practices; interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; declining economic conditions in the United States and abroad; and other economic, business, competitive, legal, tax, regulatory and/or operational factors affecting the Company’s business generally. Certain additional factors that management believes could cause actual outcomes and results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking statements are set forth (i) elsewhere in this Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, (ii) in Item 1A (Risk Factors), (iii) Item 1 (Business), (iv) elsewhere in this report, and (v) in other reports filed by the Company pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, except as required by the federal securities laws.
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ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The Company's most significant market risks are the effects of changing interest rates, foreign currency risk, and the changes in the price of the Company's common stock. See discussion on page 45 under the heading "Market Risk," which is incorporated by reference herein.
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of AmerisourceBergen Corporation

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of AmerisourceBergen Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of September 30, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2021, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at September 30, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated November 23, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Legal Matters and Contingencies - Opioid Lawsuits
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 14 of the consolidated financial statements, the Company is involved in a significant number of lawsuits with counties, municipalities, and other governmental entities in a majority of U.S. states and Puerto Rico, as well as numerous states and tribes relating to the distribution of prescription opioid pain medications (“opioid litigation”). The Company recognizes a liability for those legal contingencies for which it is probable that a liability has been incurred at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the amount is reasonably estimable. The Company has recognized a $6.7 billion liability related to the opioid litigation as of September 30, 2021 and has disclosed that it is unable to estimate the range of possible loss in excess of the amount accrued. In connection with this liability, the Company recognized a related income tax benefit, which reflects an unrecognized tax benefit resulting from uncertainty in the amount that is more likely than not to be deductible for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes based in part upon the final terms and conditions of the settlement agreements. The Company used significant judgment in measuring the amount of income tax benefit that qualified for recognition and may ultimately be deductible for U.S. federal and state purposes.
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Auditing management’s determination of the measurement of the opioid litigation liability and disclosures is highly subjective and requires significant judgment. For instance, auditing management’s judgments related to the opioid litigation was challenging due to the significant judgment applied in determining the magnitude of the liability and whether a range of possible loss in excess of the amount accrued is reasonably estimable, based upon the proposed or final settlement agreements. In addition, auditing management's estimate of the amount of income tax benefit related to the Company's uncertain tax position that qualified for recognition is challenging because the assumptions and estimates require significant judgment as they are based upon settlement terms and documentation, including provisions related to deductibility, that have not been finalized.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We tested the Company’s internal controls that address the risks of material misstatement related to the valuation, presentation and disclosure of the opioid litigation liability and related uncertain tax position. This included testing controls related to the Company’s process for identification, recognition, measurement and disclosure of the opioid litigation and testing controls related to the Company’s process to assess the technical merits of its tax position, including the Company’s assessment as to the amount of benefit that is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement with taxing authorities. For example, we inspected management’s review of correspondence from external legal counsel, the proposed or final settlement agreements, statements made by the Company, and communications with the plaintiffs to determine the accuracy of the opioid litigation liability and the related financial statement footnote disclosures.
To test the Company’s opioid litigation liability, our substantive audit procedures included, among others, testing the measurement of the opioid litigation contingencies by inspecting the proposed or final settlement agreements and agreeing key terms to management's reserve calculation and assumptions. We inspected responses to inquiry letters sent to both internal and external legal counsel, held discussions with internal legal counsel to confirm our understanding of the settlement discussions, and obtained written representations from executives of the Company. In addition, we also evaluated the adequacy of the Company’s financial statement disclosures.
We involved our tax subject matter professionals in assessing the technical merits and measurement of the Company’s tax position related to the opioid litigation liability. We examined the Company’s analysis and evaluated the underlying facts upon which the tax position was based. We used our knowledge of historical settlement activity to evaluate the Company’s measurement of the uncertain tax position associated with the opioid litigation. This included evaluating third-party evidence obtained from the Company’s external income tax advisors. We also evaluated the adequacy of the Company’s financial statement disclosures and obtained written representations from executives of the Company related to this income tax matter.
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Other Legal Matters and Contingencies
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 14 of the consolidated financial statements, in addition to the opioid litigation addressed above, the Company is involved in government subpoenas, civil investigative demands, derivative actions, and other disputes. The Company recognizes a liability for those legal contingencies for which it is probable that a liability has been incurred at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the amount is reasonably estimable. The Company also performs an assessment of the materiality of legal contingencies where a loss is either reasonably possible or it is reasonably possible that an exposure to loss exists in excess of the amount accrued. If it is reasonably possible that such a loss or an additional loss may have been incurred and the effect on the consolidated financial statements is material, the Company discloses the nature of the loss contingency and an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss or a statement that such an estimate cannot be made within the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Auditing management’s determination of whether a loss for a legal contingency is probable and reasonably estimable, reasonably possible or remote, and the related measurement and disclosures, is highly subjective and requires significant judgment. For instance, auditing management’s judgments was challenging due to the significant judgment applied in determining the likelihood of resolution of the matters through settlement or litigation.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We tested the Company’s internal controls that address the risks of material misstatement related to the completeness, valuation, presentation and disclosure of legal contingencies. This included testing controls related to the Company’s process for identification, recognition, measurement and disclosure of legal contingencies. For example, we tested controls over management’s review of correspondence from external legal counsel, historical legal settlements executed by the Company and those executed by other defendants, actions and statements made by the Company, and communications with the plaintiffs to determine the completeness and accuracy of legal contingencies and the related financial statement footnote disclosures. We also tested controls over management’s assessment of the likelihood of the resolution of the matters through settlement or litigation.
To test the Company’s legal contingencies, our substantive audit procedures included, among others, testing the completeness of the legal contingencies subject to evaluation by the Company and evaluating the Company’s analysis of its assessment of the probability of outcome for each material legal contingency through inspection of responses to inquiry letters sent to both internal and external legal counsel, discussions with internal counsel to confirm our understanding of the allegations, and obtaining written representations from executives of the Company. We also compared the Company’s assessment with its relevant history of similar legal contingencies that have been settled or otherwise resolved to evaluate the consistency of the Company’s assessment for outstanding legal contingencies at the balance sheet date.
For those legal contingencies for which the Company has determined that a loss is probable and reasonably estimable and is therefore required to be recognized, and for those legal contingencies for which the Company has determined that a loss is either probable or reasonably possible, but the Company is unable to estimate the range of loss, and is therefore required to be disclosed, we evaluated the method of measuring the amounts of the recorded and disclosed contingencies. We assessed the Company’s estimate of the amount of the loss, for both contingencies that are probable and reasonably possible, through inspection of responses to inquiry letters sent to both internal and external legal counsel, direct discussions with internal legal counsel, inspection of court rulings, and inspection of settlement agreements. We also obtained written representations from executives of the Company.






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Accounting for certain acquired intangible assets associated with acquisition of Alliance Healthcare
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, on June 1, 2021, the Company acquired the majority of Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.'s ("WBA") Alliance Healthcare businesses ("Alliance Healthcare"), for $6,934 million in cash and other consideration, subject to certain purchase price adjustments (the "Transaction"). The Transaction was accounted for as a business combination. As part of the allocation of the purchase price, the Company estimated the fair value of finite-lived intangible assets to be $3,735 million, comprised of trade names and customer relationships.
Auditing the Company's accounting for its acquisition of Alliance Healthcare was complex due to the estimation uncertainty in determining the fair value of certain customer relationship intangible assets. The estimation uncertainty was primarily due to the sensitivity of the respective assets’ fair value to underlying assumptions about the future performance of Alliance Healthcare and other related valuation assumptions. The significant assumptions used to estimate the value of these assets included discount rates and certain assumptions that form the basis of the forecasted results including customer attrition rate and EBITDA margin. These assumptions are forward looking and could be affected by future economic and market conditions.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We tested the Company's controls over its accounting for acquisitions, including controls over management’s review of the significant assumptions described above.
To test the estimated fair value of these intangible assets, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, evaluating the Company's use of the selected valuation model, testing the significant assumptions used in the model and testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data. For example, we compared certain assumptions to current market and economic trends, to historical results of the acquired business, to assumptions derived from the results of guideline companies within the industry, and to internal communications and analysis. Our valuation specialists assisted with the evaluation of the valuation model selected and the significant assumptions above, including the customer attrition rate and discount rate.
 /s/ Ernst & Young LLP 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1985.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
November 23, 2021
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AMERISOURCEBERGEN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
September 30,
(in thousands, except share and per share data)20212020
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$2,547,142 $4,597,746 
Accounts receivable, less allowances for returns and credit losses:
2021 — $1,356,684; 2020 — $1,417,308
18,167,175 13,846,301 
Inventories15,368,352 12,589,278 
Right to recover assets1,271,557 1,344,649 
Income tax receivable
221,875 488,428 
Prepaid expenses and other853,600 189,300 
Assets held for sale372,908  
Total current assets38,802,609 33,055,702 
Property and equipment, net2,162,961 1,484,808 
Goodwill9,030,531 6,706,719 
Other intangible assets5,256,927 1,886,107 
Deferred income taxes290,791 361,640 
Other assets1,793,986 779,854 
TOTAL ASSETS$57,337,805 $44,274,830 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$38,009,954 $31,705,055 
Accrued expenses and other2,856,405 1,646,763 
Short-term debt300,213 501,259 
Liabilities held for sale192,069  
Total current liabilities41,358,641 33,853,077 
Long-term debt6,383,711 3,618,261 
Accrued income taxes281,070 284,845 
Deferred income taxes1,685,296 686,485 
Other liabilities1,082,723 472,855 
Accrued litigation liability
5,961,953 6,198,943 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)
Stockholders' equity (deficit):  
Common stock, $0.01 par value — authorized, issued, and outstanding:
2021 — 600,000,000 shares, 290,722,533 shares and 208,089,298 shares;
2020 — 600,000,000 shares, 287,790,479 shares and 204,226,465 shares
2,907 2,878 
Additional paid-in capital5,465,104 5,081,776 
Retained earnings1,670,513 518,335 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(445,442)(108,830)
Treasury stock, at cost: 2021 — 82,633,235 shares; 2020 — 83,564,014 shares
(6,469,728)(6,513,083)
Total AmerisourceBergen Corporation stockholders' equity (deficit)223,354 (1,018,924)
Noncontrolling interests361,057 179,288 
Total equity (deficit)584,411 (839,636)
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)$57,337,805 $44,274,830 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.
53

AMERISOURCEBERGEN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 Fiscal Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands, except per share data)202120202019
Revenue$213,988,843 $189,893,926 $179,589,121 
Cost of goods sold207,045,615 184,702,042 174,450,809 
Gross profit6,943,228 5,191,884 5,138,312 
Operating expenses:   
Distribution, selling, and administrative3,594,251 2,767,217 2,663,508 
Depreciation326,824 280,187 294,965 
Amortization178,348 110,875 167,442 
Employee severance, litigation, and other471,911 6,807,307 330,474 
Goodwill impairment6,373   
Impairment of assets11,324 361,652 570,000 
Operating income (loss)2,354,197 (5,135,354)1,111,923 
Other income(41,736)(1,581)(12,952)
Interest expense, net174,074 137,883 157,769 
Loss on early retirement of debt 22,175  
Income (loss) before income taxes2,221,859 (5,293,831)967,106 
Income tax expense (benefit) 677,251 (1,894,273)112,971 
Net income (loss)1,544,608 (3,399,558)854,135 
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(4,676)(9,158)1,230 
Net income (loss) attributable to AmerisourceBergen Corporation$1,539,932 $(3,408,716)$855,365 
Earnings per share:   
Basic$7.48 $(16.65)$4.07 
Diluted$7.39 $(16.65)$4.04 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:   
Basic205,919 204,783 210,165 
Diluted208,465 204,783 211,840 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.

54

AMERISOURCEBERGEN CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 Fiscal Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands)202120202019
Net income (loss)$1,544,608 $(3,399,558)$854,135 
Other comprehensive loss:   
Foreign currency translation adjustments(334,522)(7,872)(32,957)
Other, net10 (1,074)(271)
Total other comprehensive loss(334,512)(8,946)(33,228)
Total comprehensive income (loss)1,210,096 (3,408,504)820,907 
Comprehensive (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(6,776)2,923 1,746 
Comprehensive income (loss) income attributable to AmerisourceBergen Corporation$1,203,320 $(3,405,581)$822,653