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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934


For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission file number: 001-31262
 
ASBURY AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware01-0609375
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2905 Premiere Parkway, NW,Suite 300
Duluth,Georgia30097
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(770) 418-8200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Trading
Title of each classSymbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value per shareABGNew York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
a
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x   No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer  Accelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.
7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No x
Based on the closing price of the registrant's common stock as of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $4.92 billion (based upon the assumption, solely for purposes of this computation, that all of the officers and directors of the registrant were affiliates of the registrant).
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: The number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 27, 2024 was 20,404,121.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
List hereunder the following documents if incorporated by reference and the Part of the Form 10-K into which the document is incorporated:
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10 through 14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


ASBURY AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31, 2023

  Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV








PART I.
Forward-Looking Information
Certain of the discussions and information included or incorporated by reference in this report may constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements are statements that are not historical in nature and may include statements relating to our goals, plans and projections regarding industry and general economic trends, our expected financial position, results of operations or market position and our business strategy. Such statements can generally be identified by words such as "may," "target," "could," "would," "will," "should," "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "plan," "intend," "foresee," and other similar words or phrases. Forward-looking statements may also relate to our expectations and assumptions with respect to, among other things:

the seasonally adjusted annual rate of new vehicle sales in the United States;
general economic conditions and its expected impact on our revenue and expenses;
our expected parts and service revenue due to, among other things, improvements in vehicle technology;
our ability to limit our exposure to regional economic downturns due to our geographic diversity and brand mix;
manufacturers' continued use of incentive programs to drive demand for their product offerings;
our capital allocation strategy, including as it relates to acquisitions and divestitures, stock repurchases, dividends and capital expenditures;
our revenue growth strategy;
the growth of the brands that comprise our portfolio over the long-term;
disruptions in the production and supply of vehicles and parts from our vehicle and parts manufacturers and other suppliers, which can disrupt our operations; and
our estimated future capital expenditures, which can be impacted by increasing prices and labor shortages and acquisitions and divestitures.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual future results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to:
the ability to acquire and successfully integrate acquired businesses into our existing operations and realize expected benefits and synergies from such acquisitions;
the effects of increased expenses or unanticipated liabilities incurred as a result of, or due to activities related to our acquisitions or divestitures;
changes in general economic and business conditions, including the current inflationary environment, the current interest rate environment, changes in employment levels, consumer confidence levels, consumer demand and preferences, the availability and cost of credit, fuel prices and levels of discretionary personal income;
our ability to generate sufficient cash flows, maintain our liquidity and obtain any necessary additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, stock repurchases, debt maturity payments and other corporate purposes, if necessary or desirable;
significant disruptions in the production and delivery of vehicles and parts for any reason, including supply shortages, the ongoing conflict in Russia and Ukraine, including any government sanctions imposed in connection therewith, natural disasters, severe weather, civil unrest, product recalls, work stoppages or other occurrences that are outside of our control;
our ability to successfully attract and retain skilled employees;
our ability to successfully operate, including our ability to maintain, and obtain future necessary regulatory approvals, for Total Care Auto, Powered by Landcar ("TCA"), our finance and insurance ("F&I ") product provider;
adverse conditions affecting the vehicle manufacturers whose brands we sell, and their ability to design, manufacture, deliver and market their vehicles successfully;
changes in the mix and total number of vehicles we are able to sell;
our outstanding indebtedness and our continued ability to comply with applicable covenants in our various financing and lease agreements, or to obtain waivers of these covenants as necessary;
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high levels of competition in our industry, which may create pricing and margin pressures on our products and services;
our relationships with manufacturers of the vehicles we sell and our ability to renew, and enter into new framework and dealer agreements with vehicle manufacturers whose brands we sell, on terms acceptable to us;
the availability of manufacturer incentive programs and our ability to earn these incentives;
failure of our, or those of our third-party service providers, management information systems;
any data security breaches occurring, including with regard to personally identifiable information ("PII");
changes in laws and regulations governing the operation of automobile franchises, including trade restrictions, consumer protections, accounting standards, taxation requirements and environmental laws;
changes in, or the imposition of, new tariffs or trade restrictions on imported vehicles or parts;
adverse results from litigation, regulatory investigations or other similar proceedings involving us, including costs, expenses, settlements and judgments related thereto;
our ability to consummate planned or pending mergers, acquisitions and dispositions;
any disruptions in the financial markets, which may impact our ability to access capital;
our relationships with, and the financial stability of, our lenders and lessors;
our ability to execute our initiatives and other strategies; and
our ability to leverage scale and cost structure to improve operating efficiencies across our dealership portfolio.

Many of these factors are beyond our ability to control or predict, and their ultimate impact could be material. Moreover, the factors set forth under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" below and other cautionary statements made in this report should be read and considered as forward-looking statements subject to such uncertainties. We urge you to carefully consider those factors.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statement contained herein.
Additional Information
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to such reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are made available free of charge on our website at http://www.asburyauto.com as soon as practical after such reports are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "Commission"). In addition, the proxy statement that will be delivered to our stockholders in connection with our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, when filed, will also be available on our website, and at the URL stated in such proxy statement. We also make available on our website copies of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws, and other materials that outline our corporate governance policies and practices, including: 
the respective charters of our audit committee, governance and nominating committee, compensation and human resources committee, and capital allocation and risk management committee;
our criteria for independence of the members of our Board of Directors, audit committee, and compensation and human resources committee;
 our Corporate Governance Guidelines; and
 our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Directors, Officers, and Employees.
We intend to provide any information required by Item 5.05 of Form 8-K (relating to amendments or waivers of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for Directors, Officers, and Employees) by disclosure on our website.
You may also obtain a printed copy of the foregoing materials by sending a written request to: Investor Relations Department, Asbury Automotive Group, Inc., 2905 Premiere Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Duluth, Georgia 30097. In addition, the Commission makes available on its website, free of charge, reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as us, that file electronically with the Commission. The Commission's website is http://www.sec.gov. Unless otherwise specified, information contained on our website, available by hyperlink from our website or on the Commission's website, is not incorporated into this report or other documents we file with, or furnish to, the Commission.
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Except as the context otherwise requires, "we," "our," "us," "Asbury," and "the Company" refer to Asbury Automotive Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Item 1. BUSINESS
Asbury Automotive Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation organized in 2002, is a Fortune 500 company and one of the largest franchised automotive retailers in the United States. Our mission and vision is to put the guest experience first and follow our "North Star" to be the most guest-centric automotive retailer in the industry. We follow three key principles to guide us: (1) have a fun, supportive and inclusive culture where team members thrive personally while building meaningful bonds with one another; (2) be great brand ambassadors and exceptional stewards of capital for our partners who fuel our mission; and (3) be caring professionals who strive to delight our guests and foster love for the brand. Our strong organizational culture and purposeful mission allow us to continuously deliver best-in-class experiences to our guests. As of December 31, 2023, we owned and operated 208 new vehicle franchises, representing 31 brands of automobiles at 158 dealership locations, 37 collision centers, and Total Care Auto, Powered by Landcar ("TCA" or "TCA Business"), our finance and insurance ("F&I") product provider, within 16 states. Our store operations are conducted by our subsidiaries.
We offer an extensive range of automotive products and services fulfilling the entire vehicle ownership lifecycle including new and used vehicles, parts and service, which includes vehicle repair and maintenance services, replacement parts and collision repair services (collectively referred to as "parts and services" or "P&S"), and F&I products, including arranging vehicle financing through third parties and aftermarket products, such as extended service contracts, guaranteed asset protection ("GAP") debt cancellation and prepaid maintenance. We strive for a diversified mix of products, services, brands and geographic locations which allows us to reduce our reliance on any one manufacturer, minimize the impact from changes in customer preference and maintain profitability across fluctuations in new vehicle sales. Our diverse revenue base, along with our commitment to operational excellence across our dealership portfolio, provides a resilient business model and strong profit margins.
Our omni-channel platform is designed to engage with customers where and when they want to interact and to increase our market share through digital innovation. We are focused on providing a high level of customer service and have designed our dealerships’ services to meet the increasingly sophisticated needs of customers throughout the vehicle ownership lifecycle. Our digital capabilities further enhance our physical dealership network and drive additional revenue. Our ability to provide a low friction experience across our omni-channel platform drives customer satisfaction and repeat business across our dealership portfolio.
Acquisitions
On December 11, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of the business of the Jim Koons ("Koons") Automotive Companies, (collectively, the "Koons acquisition"), thereby acquiring 20 new vehicle dealerships, six collision centers and the real property related thereto for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.50 billion, which includes $256.1 million of new vehicle floor plan financing and $103.8 million of assets held for sale related to Koons Lexus of Wilmington. The acquisition was funded with borrowings under Asbury’s existing credit facility and cash on hand. The Koons acquisition diversifies Asbury's geographic mix, with expansion in the greater Washington-Baltimore region of the United States.
There were no acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2022.
On December 17, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of the businesses of the Larry H. Miller ("LHM") Dealerships and TCA (collectively, the "LHM acquisition"), thereby acquiring 54 new vehicle dealerships, seven used cars stores, 11 collision centers, a used vehicle wholesale business, the real property related thereto, and the entities comprising the TCA business for a total purchase price of $3.48 billion. The purchase price was financed through a combination of cash, debt, including senior notes, real estate facilities, new and used vehicle floor plan facilities and the proceeds from the issuance of common stock. As a result of the transaction, the Company operates in two reportable segments, the Dealerships and TCA segments.
In addition to the LHM acquisition, during the year ended December 31, 2021, we acquired the assets of 11 franchises (10 dealership locations) in the Denver, Colorado market and three franchises (one dealership location) in the Indianapolis, Indiana market for a combined purchase price of $485.7 million. We funded these acquisitions with an aggregate of $455.1 million of cash and $9.6 million of floor plan borrowings for the purchase of the related new vehicle inventory. In the aggregate, these acquisitions included purchase price holdbacks of $21.0 million for potential indemnity claims made by us with respect to the acquired franchises.
Divestitures
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we sold one franchise (one dealership location) in Austin, Texas. The Company recorded a pre-tax gain totaling $13.5 million.
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During the year ended December 31, 2022, we sold one franchise (one dealership location) in St. Louis, Missouri, three franchises (three dealership locations) and one collision center in Denver, Colorado, two franchises (two dealership locations) in Spokane, Washington, one franchise (one dealership location) in Albuquerque, New Mexico and 11 franchises (nine dealership locations) and two collision centers in North Carolina. The Company recorded a pre-tax gain totaling $207.1 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2021, we sold one franchise (one dealership location) in the Charlottesville, Virginia market. The Company recorded a pre-tax gain totaling $8.0 million.
Four Key Components of Our Business
The following chart presents the contribution to total revenue and gross profit by each line of business for the year ended December 31, 2023:

2023 Rev vs GP Chart (3).jpg











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Our new vehicle franchise retail network within our Dealerships segment is made up of dealerships located in 16 states operating primarily under 16 locally branded dealership groups. The following chart provides a detailed breakdown of our states, brand names, and franchises as of December 31, 2023:
Dealership Group Brand NameStateFranchise
Coggin Automotive GroupFloridaAcura, BMW, Buick, Chevrolet, Ford(a), GMC, Honda(d), Hyundai, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan(a), Toyota
Courtesy AutogroupFloridaChrysler, Dodge, Genesis, Honda, Hyundai, Infiniti, Jeep, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Sprinter, Toyota
Crown Automotive CompanySouth CarolinaNissan
VirginiaAcura, BMW(a), MINI
David McDavid Auto GroupTexasFord, Honda(a), Lincoln
Greenville Automotive GroupSouth CarolinaLand Rover, Porsche, Toyota, Volvo
Hare, Bill Estes & Kahlo Automotive GroupsIndianaBuick, Chevrolet(b), Chrysler(a), Dodge(a), Ford, GMC, Honda, Isuzu, Jeep(a), Toyota
Jim Koons Automotive CompaniesMarylandBuick, Chevrolet(a), Ford, GMC, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Sprinter, Toyota(b), Volvo
VirginiaBuick(a), Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford(b), GMC(a), Hyundai, Jeep, Kia, Toyota(a)
DelawareLexus
Larry H. Miller DealershipsArizonaChrysler(b), Dodge(c), Fiat, Ford, Genesis, Hyundai, Jeep(b), Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen(a)
CaliforniaToyota(a)
ColoradoChrysler(a), Dodge(b), Fiat, Ford, Jeep(a), Nissan(b), Volkswagen
IdahoChrysler, Dodge, Honda, Jeep, Subaru
New MexicoChevrolet, Chrysler(a), Dodge, Hyundai(a), Jeep(a), Toyota
UtahChevrolet(a), Chrysler(c), Dodge(c), Ford(b), Honda, Jeep(c), Lexus(a), Lincoln, Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Sprinter
WashingtonHonda
Mike Shaw, Stevinson & Arapahoe Automotive GroupsColoradoSubaru(a), Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Hyundai(a), Jaguar, Jeep, Lexus(a), Porsche, Toyota(a)
Nalley Automotive GroupGeorgiaAcura, Audi, Bentley, BMW, Chevrolet, Honda, Hyundai, Infiniti(a), Kia, Lexus(a), Nissan, Toyota(b), Volkswagen
Park Place AutomotiveTexasAcura, Lexus(a), Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz(b), Porsche, Volvo, Sprinter(b)
Plaza Motor CompanyMissouriAudi, BMW, Infiniti, Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz(a), Sprinter(a)
____________________________
(a)This state has two of these franchises.
(b)This state has three of these franchises.
(c)This state has four of these franchises.
(d)This state has five of these franchises.


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Operations
New Vehicle Sales
The following table reflects the number of franchises we owned as of December 31, 2023 and the percentage of new vehicle revenues represented by class and franchise for the year ended December 31, 2023:
Class/FranchiseNumber of
Franchises Owned
% of New
Vehicle Revenues
Luxury
Lexus11 %
Mercedes-Benz
BMW
Acura
Infiniti
Land Rover
Porsche
Volvo
Audi
Genesis
Lincoln
Bentley*
Jaguar*
Total Luxury48 33 %
Import
Toyota19 16 %
Honda13 10 
Hyundai
Nissan
Sprinter
Kia
Volkswagen
Subaru
Fiat*
MINI*
Isuzu*
Total Import73 39 %
Domestic
Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Ram52 12 %
Chevrolet, Buick, GMC22 
Ford13 10 
Total Domestic87 28 %
Total Franchises208 100 %

* Franchise accounted for less than 1% of new vehicle revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Our new vehicle revenues include new vehicle sales and lease transactions arranged by our dealerships with third-party financial institutions. We believe that leasing provides a number of benefits to our other business lines, including the historical customer loyalty to the leasing dealership for repairs and maintenance services and the fact that lessors typically give the leasing dealership the first option to purchase the off-lease vehicle.


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Used Vehicle Sales
We sell used vehicles at all our franchised dealership locations. Used vehicle sales include the sale of used vehicles to individual retail customers ("used retail") and the sale of used vehicles to other dealers at auction ("wholesale") (the terms "used retail" and "wholesale" collectively referred to as "used").
Gross profit from the sale of used vehicles depends primarily on our dealerships' ability to obtain a high quality supply of used vehicles and our use of technology to manage our inventory. Our new vehicle operations typically provide our used vehicle operations with a large supply of trade-ins and off-lease vehicles, which we believe are good sources of high quality used vehicles. We also purchase a portion of our used vehicle inventory at "open" auctions and auctions restricted to new vehicle dealers. Additionally, our used vehicle sales benefit from our ability to sell certified pre-owned vehicles from our franchised dealerships.
Parts and Service
We provide vehicle repair and maintenance services, sell replacement parts, and recondition used vehicles at all of our dealerships. In addition, we provide collision repair services at our 37 free-standing collision repair centers that we operate either on the premises of, or in close proximity to, our dealerships. Historically, parts and service revenues have been more stable than those from vehicle sales. Industry-wide, parts and service revenues have consistently increased over time primarily due to the increased cost of maintaining vehicles, the added technical complexity of vehicles, and the increasing number of vehicles on the road.
The automotive parts and service industry tends to be highly fragmented, with franchised dealerships and independent repair shops competing for this business. We believe, however, that the increased use of advanced technology in vehicles is making it difficult for independent repair shops to compete effectively with franchised dealerships as they may not be able to make the investment necessary to perform major or technical repairs. In an effort to maintain the necessary knowledge to service vehicles and further develop our technician staff, we focus on our internal and manufacturer specific training and development programs for new and existing technicians. We believe our parts and service business is also well-positioned to benefit from the service work potentially generated through the sale of extended service contracts to customers who purchase new and used vehicles from us, as historically these customers tend to have their vehicles serviced at the location where they purchased the extended service contract. In addition, our franchised dealerships benefit from manufacturer policies requiring that warranty and recall related repairs be performed at a franchised dealership. We believe our collision repair centers provide us with an attractive opportunity to grow our business due to the high margins provided by collision repair services and the fact that we are able to source original equipment manufacturer parts from our franchised dealerships.
Finance and Insurance
We offer a wide variety of automotive F&I products to our customers. Through the acquisition of TCA in December 2021, we offer extended vehicle service contracts, prepaid maintenance contracts, key replacement contracts, guaranteed asset protection contracts, paintless dent repair contracts, appearance protection contracts, tire and wheel, and lease wear and tear contracts. These F&I products are sold to our customers via our network of dealerships.
In addition to the TCA F&I products, we offer our customers a variety of vehicle protection products through independent third parties in connection with the purchase of vehicles. These products are underwritten and administered by these third parties. Under our arrangements with the providers of these products, we primarily sell the products on a straight commission basis. We are subject to chargebacks for service and other contracts as a result of early termination, default, or prepayment of the contract. In addition, we participate in future profits associated with the performance of the third-party held underlying portfolio for certain products pursuant to retrospective commission arrangements.
We also arrange third-party financing for the sale or lease of vehicles to our customers in exchange for compensation paid to us by the third-party financial institution. We do not directly finance our customers' vehicle purchases or leases, therefore our exposure to losses in connection with those third-party financing arrangements is limited generally to the compensation we receive. The compensation we receive is subject to chargeback, or repayment, to the third-party finance company if a customer defaults or prepays the retail installment contract typically during some limited time period at the beginning of the contract term. We have negotiated agreements with certain lenders pursuant to which we receive additional compensation upon reaching a certain volume of business.
F&I revenue in our Dealerships segment represents the commissions earned from both TCA and independent third parties related to a broad range of F&I products. This F&I revenue is presented net of third-party chargebacks.
F&I revenue in our TCA segment represents the premium revenue earned from customers for F&I products primarily sold in connection with the purchase of vehicles at our dealerships. The premium revenue is recognized over the life of the F&I
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product contract as services are provided. We capitalize costs, such as employee sales commissions, to obtain customer contracts, and amortize those costs over the life of the contract. Amortization of costs to obtain customer contracts is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income. The portion of commissions that are paid to affiliated dealerships are eliminated in the TCA segment upon consolidation. The Dealerships segment also provides vehicle repair and maintenance services to TCA customers in connection with claims related to TCA's products. Upon consolidation, the associated service revenue and costs recorded by the Dealerships segment are eliminated against claims expense recorded by the TCA segment. Third-party claims paid related to the contracts are recognized in F&I cost of sales.
In addition, F&I revenue includes investment income and other gains and losses related to the performance of our investment portfolio.
Business Strategy
We seek to be the most guest-centric automotive retailer and to create long-term value for our stockholders by striving to drive operational excellence and deploy capital to its highest risk adjusted returns. To achieve these objectives, we employ the strategies described below.
Provide an exceptional customer experience in our stores.
We are guided by our mission and vision to be the most guest-centric automotive retailer in the industry and use that framework as our North Star. We have designed our dealerships’ services to meet the needs of an increasingly sophisticated and demanding automotive consumer. We endeavor to establish relationships that we believe will result in both repeat business and additional business through customer referrals. Furthermore, we provide our dealership managers with appropriate incentives to employ efficient selling approaches, engage in extensive follow-up to develop long-term relationships with customers, and extensively train our sales staff to meet customer needs.
Accelerate same store growth and guest experience through technology investment.
As part of our long-term growth strategy, we invest in technologies or partner with leading software platform vendors to develop applications that (i) serve our guests with omni-channel buying options offering enhanced speed, and transparency, (ii) drive a more efficient guest experience at a lower cost to serve and (iii) offer tailored recommendations to value add products and services.
Grow F&I product penetration and expand TCA's service offerings across the full dealership portfolio.
We are positioned to leverage the acquisition of LHM to improve profitability via the ownership of TCA, a highly scalable provider of a full-suite of F&I products. TCA’s key offerings include vehicle service contracts, prepaid maintenance, protection plans, key and remote replacement, leased vehicle protection and tire and wheel protection. We are continuing to integrate TCA’s service offerings across our full dealership portfolio to increase our F&I product penetration and profitability. We expect to complete the rollout of TCA's service offerings to all of our dealerships in 2024.
Attract, retain and invest in top talent to drive growth and optimize operations.
We believe the core of our business success lies in our talent pool, so we are focused on attracting, hiring and retaining the best people. We also invest in resources to train and develop our employees. Our executive management team has extensive experience in the auto retail sector and is able to leverage experience from all positions throughout the Company. In addition, we believe that local management of dealership operations enables our retail network to provide market specific responses to sales, customer service and inventory requirements. The general manager of each of our dealerships is responsible for the operations, personnel and financial performance of that dealership as well as other day-to-day operations.
Leverage scale and cost structure to improve operating efficiencies.
We are positioned to leverage our significant scale so that we are able to achieve competitive operating margins by centralizing and streamlining various back-office functions. We are able to improve financial controls and lower servicing costs by maintaining key store-level accounting and administrative activities in our shared service centers, and we leverage our scale to reduce costs related to purchasing certain equipment, supplies, and services through national vendor relationships. Similarly, we are able to leverage our scale to implement these best practices when integrating newly acquired dealerships allowing us to continue to improve our operating efficiencies.
Deploy capital to highest returns and continue to invest in the business.
Our capital allocation decisions are made within the context of maintaining sufficient liquidity and a prudent capital structure. We target a 2.5x to 3.5x adjusted net leverage ratio, which is calculated as set forth in our credit facility, in a normal
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business environment. The Company’s adjusted net leverage ratio was 2.5x at December 31, 2023, compared to 1.7x at December 31, 2022. We believe our cash position and borrowing capacity, combined with our current and expected future cash generation capability, provides us with financial flexibility to, among other things, reinvest in our business, acquire dealerships and repurchase our stock, when prudent.
We continually evaluate our existing dealership network and seek to make strategic investments that will increase the capacity of our dealerships and improve the customer experience. In addition, we continue to execute on our strategy of selectively acquiring our leased properties where financing rates make it attractive to be an owner and provide us a further means to finance our business.
Evaluate opportunities to refine the dealership portfolio.
We continually evaluate the financial and operating results of our dealerships, as well as each dealership’s geographical location and, based on various financial and strategic rationales, may make decisions to dispose of dealerships to refine our dealership and real estate portfolio. We also evaluate dealership acquisition opportunities based on market position and geography, brand representation and availability, key personnel and other factors. Our approach to dispositions and acquisitions is highly disciplined with a focus on long-term strategic value to stockholders.
Deliver on our mission to grow and transform our business with revenue of $30 billion or more by 2030.
We continually evaluate additional opportunities to drive revenue growth while maintaining our disciplined approach to capital allocation. In February 2024, the Company announced an update to our strategic outlook targeting revenue of $30 billion or more by 2030. We intend to execute on this strategic plan by focusing on a variety of growth efforts including, balanced capital allocation, driving same-store revenue growth and acquiring revenue through strategic transactions.
Competition
The automotive retail and service industry is highly competitive with respect to price, service, location, and selection. For new vehicle sales, our dealerships compete with other franchised dealerships, primarily in their regions. Our new vehicle store competitors also have franchise agreements with the various vehicle manufacturers, and as such, generally obtain new vehicle inventory from vehicle manufacturers on the same terms as us. The franchise agreements grant the franchised dealership a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer's (or distributor's) brand of vehicles and offer related parts and service within a specified market area. State automotive franchise laws restrict competitors from relocating their stores or establishing new stores of a particular vehicle brand within a specified area that is served by our dealership of the same vehicle brand. Recently, certain electric vehicle manufacturers have been permitted to circumvent the state automotive franchise laws of several states in the United States thereby permitting them to sell their new vehicles directly to consumers. We rely on our advertising and merchandising, sales expertise, service reputation, strong local branding, and location of our dealerships to assist in the sale of new vehicles.
Our used vehicle operations compete with other franchised dealerships, non-franchised automotive dealerships, regional and national vehicle rental companies, and internet-based vehicle brokers for the supply and resale of used vehicles.
We compete with other franchised dealerships to perform warranty and recall-related repairs and with other franchised dealerships and independent service centers for non-warranty repair and maintenance services. We compete with other automobile dealers, service stores, and auto parts retailers in our parts operations. We believe that we have a competitive advantage in parts and service sales due to our ability to use factory-approved replacement parts, our skilled manufacturer trained and certified technicians, our competitive prices, our familiarity with manufacturer brands and models, and the quality of our customer service.
We compete with a broad range of financial institutions in arranging financing for our customers' vehicle purchases. In addition, many financial institutions are now offering F&I products through the internet, which has increased competition and may reduce our profits on certain of these items. We believe the principal competitive factors in providing financing are convenience, interest rates, and flexibility in contract length.
Seasonality
The automobile industry has historically been subject to seasonal variations. Demand for new vehicles is generally highest during the second, third, and fourth quarters of each year and, accordingly, we expect our revenues and operating results to generally be higher during these periods. In addition, we typically experience higher sales of luxury vehicles, which have higher average selling prices and gross profit per vehicle retailed, in the fourth quarter. Revenues and operating results may be impacted significantly from quarter to quarter by changing economic conditions, vehicle manufacturer incentive programs, or adverse weather events.
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Dealer and Framework Agreements
Each of our dealerships operate pursuant to a dealer agreement between the dealership and the manufacturer (or in some cases the distributor) of each brand of new vehicles sold and/or serviced at the dealership. The dealer agreements grant the franchised dealership a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer's (or distributor's) brand of vehicles and offer related parts and service within a specified market area. Each dealer agreement also grants our dealerships the right to use the manufacturer's trademarks and service marks in connection with the dealerships' operations and they also impose numerous operational requirements related to, among other things, the following:
inventories of new vehicles and manufacturer replacement parts; 
maintenance of minimum net working capital requirements, and in some cases, minimum net worth requirements; 
achievement of certain sales and customer satisfaction targets; 
advertising and marketing practices; 
facilities and signs; 
products offered to customers;
dealership management; 
personnel training; 
information systems;
geographic market, including but not limited to requirements to meet sales and service targets within an assigned market area, geographic limitations on where the dealership may locate or advertise, and restrictions on the export of vehicles; and 
dealership monthly and annual financial reporting.
Our dealer agreements are for various terms, ranging from one year to indefinite. We expect that we will be able to renew expiring agreements in the ordinary course of business. However, typical dealer agreements give the manufacturer the right to terminate or the option of non-renewal of the dealer agreement under certain circumstances, subject to applicable state automotive dealership franchise laws, including:
insolvency or bankruptcy of the dealership;
failure to adequately operate the dealership or to maintain required capitalization levels;
impairment of the reputation or financial condition of the dealership;
change of ownership or management of the dealership without manufacturer consent;
certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets without manufacturer consent;
failure to complete facility upgrades required by the manufacturer or agreed to by the dealer;
failure to maintain any license, permits or authorization required to conduct the dealership's business;
conviction of a dealer/manager or owner for certain crimes; or
material breach of other provisions of a dealer agreement.
Notwithstanding the terms of any dealer agreement, the states in which we operate have automotive dealership franchise laws which provide that it is unlawful for a manufacturer to terminate or not renew a franchise unless "good cause" exists.
In addition to requirements under dealer agreements, we are subject to provisions contained in supplemental agreements, framework agreements, dealer addenda and manufacturers' policies, collectively referred to as "framework agreements." Framework agreements impose requirements on us in addition to those described above. Such agreements also define other standards and limitations, including:
company-wide performance criteria;
capitalization requirements;
limitations on changes in our ownership or management;
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limitations on the number of a particular manufacturer's franchises owned by us;
restrictions or prohibitions on our ability to pledge the stock of certain of our subsidiaries; and
conditions for consent to proposed acquisitions, including sales and customer satisfaction criteria, as well as limitations on the total local, regional, and national market share percentage that would be represented by a particular manufacturer's franchises owned by us after giving effect to a proposed acquisition.
Some dealer agreements and framework agreements grant the manufacturer the right to terminate or not renew our dealer and framework agreements, or to compel us to divest our dealerships, for a number of reasons, including default under the agreement, any unapproved change of control (specific changes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but which include material changes in the composition of our Board of Directors during a specified time period, the acquisition of 5% or more of our voting stock by another vehicle manufacturer or distributor, the acquisition of 20% or more of our voting stock by third parties, and the acquisition of an ownership interest sufficient to direct or influence management and policies), or certain other unapproved events (including certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets). Triggers of the clauses are often based upon actions by our stockholders and are generally outside of our control. Some of our dealer agreements and framework agreements also give the manufacturer a right of first refusal if we propose to sell any dealership representing the manufacturer's brands to a third-party. These agreements may also attempt to limit the protections available under applicable state laws and require us to resolve disputes through binding arbitration. For additional information, please refer to the risk factor captioned "We are dependent upon our relationships with the manufacturers of vehicles that we sell and are subject to restrictions imposed by, and significant influence from, these vehicle manufacturers. Any of these restrictions or any changes or deterioration of these relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows."
Our framework agreements with certain manufacturers contain provisions that, among other things, attempt to limit the protections available to dealers under these laws. If these laws are repealed in the states in which we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing us with advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. Without the protection of these laws, it may also be more difficult for us to renew our dealer agreements upon expiration.
Changes in laws that provide manufacturers the ability to terminate our dealer agreements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if a manufacturer seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy, courts have held that the federal bankruptcy laws may supersede these laws, resulting in either the termination, non-renewal or rejection of franchises by such manufacturers, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. For additional information, please refer to the risk factor captioned "If state laws that protect automotive retailers are repealed, weakened, or superseded by our framework agreements with manufacturers, our dealerships will be more susceptible to termination, non-renewal or renegotiation of their dealer agreements which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations."
Regulations
We operate in a highly regulated industry. In every state in which we operate, we must obtain one or more licenses issued by state regulatory authorities in order to operate our business. In addition, we are subject to numerous complex federal, state, and local laws regulating the conduct of our business, including those relating to our sales, operations, finance and insurance, marketing, and employment practices. These laws and regulations include state franchise laws and regulations, product standards and recalls, consumer protection laws, privacy and data security laws, anti-money laundering laws, and other extensive laws and regulations applicable to new and used motor vehicle dealers. These laws also include federal and state wage and hour, anti-discrimination, and other laws governing employment practices.
Industry Regulations
The Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") has regulatory authority over automotive dealers and has implemented enforcement initiatives relating to the marketing practices of automotive dealers. Our operations are also subject to the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and other product standards promulgated by the United States Department of Transportation, and the rules and regulations of various state motor vehicle regulatory agencies.
Our financing activities with customers are subject to federal truth-in-lending, consumer leasing, and equal credit opportunity laws and regulations, as well as state and local motor vehicle finance laws, leasing laws, installment finance laws, usury laws, and other installment state and leasing laws and regulations. Some U.S. states regulate fees and charges that may be collected as a result of vehicle sales and service. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may be asserted against us or our stores by individuals or governmental entities and may expose us to significant damages, fines or other penalties, including revocation or suspension of our license to conduct store operations. Our financing activities, as well as our sale of finance and insurance products, may also be impacted indirectly by laws and regulations that govern automotive finance
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companies and other financial institutions, including regulations adopted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the "CFPB").
Our TCA business involves the offer and sale of extended vehicle service contracts, debt protection products, vehicle protection plans and other miscellaneous vehicle protection products, which are subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws and regulations. The Departments of Insurance of U.S. states have regulatory authority over our TCA business. Our TCA business is subject to state licensing and registration requirements, and financial responsibility and security requirements. For additional information, please refer to the risk factors captioned: "Our operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, our business, our reputation, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could suffer" and "Our TCA business is subject to a wide range of federal, state and local laws and regulations, some of which we may not have previously been subject. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our TCA business, our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects could suffer."
Environmental, Health and Safety Laws and Regulations
We are subject to a wide range of environmental laws and regulations, including those governing discharges into water, air emissions, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, remediation of various types of contamination, and otherwise relating to health, safety and protection of the environment. For example, and without creating an exhaustive list: as with automobile dealerships generally, and service and parts and collision repair center operations in particular, our business involves the generation, use, handling, and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances and wastes and the use of above ground and underground storage tanks (ASTs and USTs). Operations involving the management of wastes and the use of ASTs and USTs are subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations. Pursuant to these laws, federal and state environmental agencies have established approved methods for handling, storing, treating, transporting, and disposing of regulated substances and wastes with which we must comply. We also are subject to laws and regulations governing responses to any releases of contamination at or from our facilities or at facilities that receive our hazardous wastes for treatment or disposal. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA") and similar state statutes, can impose strict and joint and several liability for cleanup costs on those that are considered to have contributed to the release of a "hazardous substance." We also are subject to the Clean Water Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations which, among other things, prohibit discharges of pollutants into regulated waters without permits, require containment of potential discharges of oil or hazardous substances, and require preparation of spill contingency plans.
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, costs and capital expenditures to comply with these laws and regulations. We believe that our operations currently are being conducted in substantial compliance with all applicable regulations. From time to time, we may experience incidents and encounter conditions that are not in compliance with regulations. We may occasionally receive notices from governmental agencies regarding potential violations of these laws or regulations. In such cases, we will work with the agencies to address any issues and to implement appropriate corrective action when necessary. However, none of our dealerships has been subject to any material liabilities in the past, nor do we know of any fact or condition that would result in any material liabilities being incurred in the future.
Human Capital
Mission and Vision
At Asbury, our North Star and our mission is to be the most guest-centric automotive retailer. Our success depends on our employees and their commitment to delivering a consistent and exceptional guest experience. Our employees work at locations in Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. We believe that our employees help to set us apart from our competitors, and, therefore, we understand they are our greatest asset. As a result, a critical part of our business strategy is investing in, supporting and developing our employees so that they are trained and incentivized to provide best-in-class service to our guests.
As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 15,000 full-time and part-time employees, none of whom were covered by collective bargaining agreements. We believe we have good relations with our employees.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We strive to recruit new employees based on their diversity of thought, background and experience as well as diversity of personal characteristics to best reflect our guests and communities we serve.
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The goal of our diversity, equity and inclusion ("DE&I") efforts is to create more welcoming and inclusive workplaces throughout our dealerships and offices to enable us to attract, retain and develop the careers of diverse, highly talented team members. We intend to continue to learn and develop - working towards building a workplace where every Asbury team member feels included and welcomed. Our Chief Diversity Equity and Inclusion Officer and her team lead the strategic focus and execution of our DE&I strategy in partnership with our operations leadership and support teams throughout the company.
Community Outreach
Through our Asbury Cares program, we support selected community partner organizations to focus on reducing social inequality. Since 2021, we have awarded all of our employees with an additional 40 hours of paid time off per year that can only be used to volunteer with our local community partners. We have seen significant year-over-year growth in employee participation in our community engagement events.
A significant portion of our Asbury Cares Community Initiative revolves around education and making sure that young people in underserved communities have access to a quality education. We formed a partnership with HBCU Change, an app-based organization that lets users round up their spending and donate to historically black colleges and universities ("HBCU"). We learned that many HBCUs historically lag in funding and resources compared to other public or private universities and many have closed their doors in recent years. Many of our Asbury team members are proud HBCU alumni and these institutions provide a unique community of support and understanding for not only African American students, but students of all races and backgrounds.
In partnership with HBCU Change, we launched a campaign to help raise funds for HBCUs across the country and in the local communities where we operate. All the point-of-sale credit card machines in all our locations show a prompt asking our guests if they would like to round up their change or donate $1, $3, $5, or a custom amount to HBCUs in their communities. At the end of each quarter, the funds raised are donated to the HBCUs across the country. Through donations from our guests and company match, we have contributed more than $1 million to HBCUs since the start of our partnership with HBCU Change in May 2021.
Recruitment and Talent Development
When recruiting for open positions, we search for people of varying backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences in order to support a diverse and inclusive culture. We also partner with local colleges and trade schools to develop apprenticeship and internship programs. This allows us to help provide valuable training to entry-level candidates while also growing our pipeline.
Our goal is to promote employees from within to career growth opportunities whenever possible. We invest resources to train and develop our employees to reach their career goals. In 2022, we launched a training curriculum for all store positions. In addition, we offer our employees access to an online career path tool, which helps them plan their desired career path and see the required performance goals and milestones to be considered for a promotion. Our fixed operations organization encourages technicians to obtain and maintain certification status with our vehicle manufacturers, and in most cases, our dealership pays for the training. Our employees also attend vehicle manufacturer-sponsored and industry training events.
We pride ourselves on rewarding and developing talented and tenured employees.
Compensation and Benefits
We offer competitive compensation and benefits to attract and retain the best people, including the following benefits for our full-time employees:
Health, dental, and vision benefits with multiple plan choices;
Discounted healthcare premiums for biometric screening and completion of health survey; and
Employee assistance program.
Saving and retirement
Holiday match; and
401(k) match.


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Paid time off
Up to 4 weeks paid time off;
Paid pregnancy leave; and
Paid parental leave.
Disability and accident insurance
Short-term disability and long-term disability insurance;
Accident insurance, hospital indemnity, employee critical illness insurance;
Employer paid life insurance; and
Supplemental life insurance.
Scholarships for education
Annual scholarship program.
Broad employee equity ownership
We also lead the industry by offering equity awards to frontline employees because we want them to be owners of our Company and committed to our long-term success.

Self-Insurance Programs
Due to the inherent risk in the automotive retail industry, our operations expose us to a variety of liabilities. These risks generally require significant levels of insurance covering liabilities such as claims from employees, customers, or other third parties, for personal injury and property-related losses occurring in the course of our operations. We may be subject to fines and civil and criminal penalties in connection with alleged violations of federal and state laws or regulatory environments. Further, the automobile retail industry is subject to substantial risk of real and personal property loss, due to the significant concentration of property values located at the various dealership locations.
Under our self-insurance programs, including property and casualty, workers’ compensation, and medical, the Company retains various levels of aggregate loss limits and per-claim deductibles. In addition, the Company maintains separate insurance policies to address potential cyber and directors and officers exposures. We are self-insured for certain employee medical claims and maintain stop-loss insurance for individual claims.
Provisions for retained losses and deductibles are made by charges to expense based upon periodic evaluations of the estimated ultimate liabilities on reported and unreported claims. The insurance companies that underwrite our insurance require we secure certain of our obligations for deductible reimbursements with collateral. Our collateral requirements are set by the insurance companies and, to date, have been satisfied by posting surety bonds, letters of credit, and/or cash deposits. Our collateral requirements may change from time-to-time based on, among other things, our claims experience.










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Item 1A. Risk Factors
In addition to the other information contained, referred to or incorporated by reference into this report, you should consider carefully the following factors when evaluating our business and before making an investment decision. Our business, operations, ability to implement our strategy, reputation, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and prospects may be materially adversely affected by the risks described below. In addition, other risks or uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently do not deem material could arise, any of which could also materially adversely affect us.
Risks Related to Our Business
Operating Risks
Disruptions in the production and delivery of new vehicles and parts from manufacturers due to the lack of availability of parts and key components from suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Historically, we have generated a significant portion of our revenue through new vehicle sales, and new vehicle sales also tend to lead to sales of higher-margin products and services, such as F&I products and vehicle-related parts and service. In addition, new vehicle buyers often trade in an owned vehicle, or turn in a leased vehicle, to us at the time of purchase, and these traded vehicles have historically been an important source for our used vehicle inventory. We rely exclusively on the various vehicle manufacturers for our new vehicle inventory and maintenance and replacement parts inventory. In turn, our vehicle manufacturers rely on certain third-party suppliers to manufacture and deliver certain parts and key components for their vehicles. As a result, our profitability is dependent to a great extent on various aspects of vehicle manufacturers’ operations and timely delivery of new vehicles and parts.
Property loss or other uninsured liabilities could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
We are subject to substantial risk of property loss due to the significant concentration of property at dealership locations, including vehicles and parts. We have historically experienced business interruptions from time to time at several of our dealerships, due to actual or threatened adverse weather conditions or natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods, hail storms, fires or other extraordinary events. Concentration of property at dealership locations also makes the automotive retail business particularly vulnerable to theft, fraud and misappropriation of assets. Illegal or unethical conduct by employees, customers, vendors, and unaffiliated third parties can result in loss of assets, disrupt operations, impact brand reputation, jeopardize manufacturer and other relationships, result in the imposition of fines or penalties, and subject us to governmental investigations or lawsuits. While we maintain insurance to protect against a number of losses, this insurance coverage often contains significant deductibles. In addition, we "self-insure" a portion of our potential liabilities, meaning we do not carry insurance from a third-party for such liabilities, and are wholly responsible for any related losses including for certain potential liabilities that some states prohibit the maintenance of insurance to protect against. In certain instances, our insurance may not fully cover a loss depending on the applicable deductible or the magnitude and nature of the claim. Additionally, changes in the cost or availability of insurance in the future could substantially increase our costs to maintain our current level of coverage or could cause us to reduce our insurance coverage and increase our self-insured risks. To the extent we incur significant additional costs for insurance, suffer losses that are not covered by in-force insurance or suffer losses for which we are self-insured, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted.
If we are unable to acquire and successfully integrate additional businesses into our existing operations, and realize expected benefits and synergies from such acquisitions, our revenue and earnings growth may be adversely affected.
We believe that the automotive retailing industry is a mature industry whose sales are significantly impacted by the prevailing economic climate, both nationally and in local markets. Accordingly, we believe that our future growth depends in part on our ability to manage expansion, control costs in our operations and acquire and effectively integrate acquired dealerships into our organization. For example, with the recent consummation of the Koons acquisition, we will experience significantly more sales, and have more assets and employees than we did prior to the transaction. The integration processes require us to expend significant capital and significantly expand the scope of our operations and financial systems. Integration also requires support or other actions by third-parties such as vendors, suppliers, and licensing agencies and the untimely or inadequate responses from such third-parties can delay or otherwise negatively impact the integration process.
When seeking to acquire other dealerships, we often compete with several other national, regional and local dealership groups, and other strategic and financial buyers, some of which may have greater financial resources than us. Competition for attractive acquisition targets may result in fewer acquisition opportunities for us and we may have to forgo acquisition opportunities to the extent we cannot negotiate such acquisitions on acceptable terms.
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We also face additional risks commonly encountered with growth through acquisitions. These risks include, but are not limited to: (i) failing to obtain manufacturers’ consents to acquisitions of additional franchises; (ii) incurring significant transaction-related costs for both completed and failed acquisitions; (iii) incurring significantly higher capital expenditures and operating expenses; (iv) failing to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired dealerships and impairing relationships with employees; (v) incorrectly valuing entities to be acquired or incurring undisclosed liabilities at acquired dealerships; (vi) disrupting our ongoing business and diverting our management resources to newly acquired dealerships; (vii) failing to achieve expected performance levels; (viii) impairing relationships with manufacturers and customers as a result of changes in management; (ix) failing to realize expected benefits and synergies from the transaction; and (ix) failing to implement or improve controls, policies and information systems and related security measures in the acquired businesses.
We may not adequately anticipate all the demands that our growth will impose on our personnel, procedures and structures, including our financial and reporting control systems, information technology systems, data processing systems, and management structure. Moreover, our failure to retain qualified management personnel at any acquired dealership may increase the risks associated with integrating the acquired dealership. If we cannot adequately anticipate and respond to these demands, we may fail to realize acquisition synergies and our resources will be focused on incorporating new operations into our structure rather than on areas that may be more profitable.
We are a holding company and as a result are dependent on our operating subsidiaries to generate sufficient cash and distribute cash to us to service our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations depends on our operating subsidiaries' ability to generate cash in the future and distribute that cash to us. It is possible that our subsidiaries may not generate cash from operations in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness. In addition, many of our subsidiaries are required to comply with the provisions of franchise agreements, dealer agreements, other agreements with manufacturers, mortgages, and credit facility providers. Many of these agreements contain minimum working capital or net worth requirements, and are subject to change at least annually. Although the requirements contained in these agreements did not restrict our subsidiaries from distributing cash to us as of December 31, 2023, unexpected changes to our financial metrics or to the terms of our franchise agreements, dealer agreements, or other agreements with manufacturers could require us to alter the manner in which we distribute or use cash. If our operating subsidiaries are unable to generate and distribute sufficient cash to us to service our indebtedness and fund our ongoing operations, our financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Our inability to execute a substantial portion of our business strategy, including our mission to grow and transform our business, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our inability to execute a substantial portion of our business strategy, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. We seek to execute on our strategic plan using a variety of growth efforts including, driving same-store revenue growth and acquiring additional revenue through strategic acquisitions. Many of the factors that impact our ability to execute our strategic vision, such as the advancement of certain technologies, general economic conditions and legal and regulatory obstacles are beyond our control.
Consumers are increasingly shopping for new and used vehicles, automotive repair and maintenance service and other automotive products and services online and through mobile applications, including through third-party online and mobile sales platforms, with which we compete, that are designed to generate consumer sales that are sold to automotive dealers. We have invested and will continue to invest in our omni-channel and other online applications in furtherance of our strategic vision. We face increased competition for market share from other automotive retailers and other sales platforms that have also invested in digital channels. There can be no assurance that our initiatives and investments in digital channels will be successful or result in improved financial performance.
We may not adequately anticipate all the demands that our growth will impose on our personnel, procedures and structures, including our financial and reporting control systems, information technology systems, data processing systems, and management structure. Furthermore, we may decide to alter or discontinue aspects of our strategic plan and may adopt alternative or additional strategies in response to business or competitive factors or other factors or events beyond our control. We cannot give assurance that we will be able to execute a substantial portion of our strategic plan which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.



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Goodwill and manufacturer franchise rights comprise a significant portion of our total assets. We must test our goodwill and manufacturer franchise rights for impairment at least annually, which could result in a material, non-cash write-down of goodwill or manufacturer franchise rights and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders’ equity.
Our principal intangible assets are goodwill and our rights under our franchise agreements with vehicle manufacturers. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, including manufacturer franchise rights, are subject to impairment assessments at least annually (or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred), by applying a qualitative or quantitative assessment. A decrease in our market capitalization or profitability increases the risk of goodwill impairment. The fair value of our manufacturer franchise rights is determined by discounting a subset of the projected cash flows at a dealership that we attribute to the value of the franchise. Changes to the business mix or declining cash flows in a dealership increase the risk of impairment. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized asset impairment charges of $117.2 million associated with manufacturer franchise rights recorded at certain dealerships and goodwill associated with certain asset disposal groups. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any additional impairment charges at this time; however, any such impairment charge could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders' equity. See Note 10 "Goodwill and Intangible Franchise Rights" of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for more information.
The loss of key personnel and limited management and personnel resources could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends, to a significant degree, upon the continued contributions of our management team, and service and sales personnel. In addition, manufacturer dealer or framework agreements may require the prior approval of the applicable manufacturer before any change is made in dealership general managers or other management positions. The loss of the services of one or more of these key employees may materially impair the profitability of our operations, or may result in a violation of an applicable dealer or framework agreement. In addition, the market for qualified employees in the industry and in the states in which we operate, specifically for general managers and sales and service personnel, is highly competitive and may subject us to increased labor costs during periods of low unemployment. The loss of the services of such employees or the inability to attract additional qualified employees may adversely affect the ability of our dealerships to conduct their operations in accordance with the standards set by us or the manufacturers. If we are unable to retain our key personnel, we may be unable to successfully execute our business plans, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to Macroeconomic and Market Conditions
The automotive retail industry is sensitive to unfavorable changes in general economic conditions and various other factors that could affect demand for our products and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, our ability to implement our strategy and our results of operations.
Our future performance will be impacted by general economic conditions including among other things: changes in employment levels; consumer demand, preferences and confidence levels; the availability and cost of credit; fuel prices; levels of discretionary personal income; inflation; and interest rates. Recently, inflation has increased throughout the U.S. economy. Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing the costs of labor, fuel and other costs as well as by reducing demand for automobiles. Sales of certain vehicles, particularly trucks and sport utility vehicles that historically have provided us with higher gross profit per vehicle retailed, may be sensitive to fuel prices. In addition, rapid changes in fuel prices can cause shifts in consumer preferences which are difficult to accommodate given the long lead-time of inventory acquisition. Inflation is also often accompanied by higher interest rates, which could reduce the fair value of our outstanding debt obligations. Changes in interest rates can also significantly impact new and used vehicle sales and vehicle affordability due to the direct relationship between interest rates and monthly loan payments, a critical factor for many vehicle buyers, and the impact interest rates have on customers’ borrowing capacity and disposable income. In an inflationary environment, depending on automotive industry and other economic conditions, we may be unable to raise prices to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins. We have experienced, and continue to experience, increases in the prices of labor, fuel and other costs of providing service. Continued inflationary pressures could impact our profitability.
We also are subject to economic, competitive, and other conditions prevailing in the various markets in which we operate, even if those conditions are not prominent nationally.
Retail vehicle sales are cyclical and historically have experienced periodic downturns characterized by oversupply and weak demand, which could result in a need for us to lower the prices at which we sell vehicles, which would reduce our revenue per vehicle sold and our margins. Additionally, a shift in consumer’s vehicle preferences driven by pricing, fuel costs or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, margins and results of operations.
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Changes in general economic conditions may make it difficult for us to execute our business strategy. In such an event, we may be required to enter into certain transactions in order to generate additional cash, which may include, but not be limited to, selling certain of our dealerships or other assets or increasing borrowings under our existing, or any future, credit facilities. There can be no assurance that, if necessary, we would be able to enter into any such transactions in a timely manner or on reasonable terms, if at all. Furthermore, in the event we were required to sell dealership assets, the sale of any material portion of such assets could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.
Adverse conditions affecting one or more of the vehicle manufacturers with which we hold franchises or their inability to deliver a desirable mix of vehicles that our consumers demand could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Historically, we have generated most of our revenue through new vehicle sales, and new vehicle sales also tend to lead to sales of higher-margin products and services, such as finance and insurance products and vehicle-related parts and service. As a result, our profitability is dependent to a great extent on various aspects of vehicle manufacturers’ operations, many of which are outside of our control. Our ability to sell new vehicles is dependent on manufacturers’ ability to design and produce, and willingness to allocate and deliver to our dealerships, a desirable mix of popular new vehicles that consumers demand. For example, improvements in electric, battery-powered and hybrid gas/electric vehicles have increased consumer demand for such vehicles. If consumer demand increases for certain types of vehicles, including electric, battery-powered and hybrid gas/electric, and our manufacturers are not able to adapt and produce such vehicles that meet consumer demands, our new and used vehicle sales volumes, parts and service revenue and our results of operations may be adversely affected. Further, if manufacturers shift significant resources away from traditional production models to invest in clean vehicles and new technologies, we may experience an inadequate supply of historically popular vehicles and other adverse effects on our new and used vehicle sales volume, parts and service revenue and our results of operations until such time as consumer preferences for clean vehicles and other new technologies become widespread. In addition, popular vehicles may often be difficult to obtain from manufacturers for a number of reasons, including the fact that manufacturers generally allocate their vehicles to dealerships based on sales history and capital expenditures associated with such dealerships. Further, if a manufacturer fails to produce desirable vehicles or develops a reputation for producing undesirable vehicles or produces vehicles that do not comply with applicable laws or government regulations, and we own dealerships which sell that manufacturer’s vehicles, our revenues from those dealerships could be adversely affected as consumers shift their vehicle purchases away from that brand.
Although we seek to limit our dependence on any one vehicle manufacturer, there can be no assurance that the brand mix allocated and delivered to our dealerships by the manufacturers will be appropriate or sufficiently diverse, to protect us from a significant decline in the desirability of vehicles manufactured by a particular manufacturer or disruptions in a manufacturer's ability to produce vehicles. For the year ended December 31, 2023, manufacturers representing 5% or more of our revenues from new vehicle sales were as follows:
Manufacturer (Vehicle Brands):% of Total
New Vehicle
Revenues
Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. (Toyota and Lexus)
27 %
Stellantis N.V. (Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Ram and Fiat)
12 %
American Honda Motor Co., Inc. (Honda and Acura)
12 %
Ford Motor Company (Ford and Lincoln)
11 %
Mercedes-Benz USA, LLC (Mercedes-Benz and Sprinter)
%
General Motors Company (Chevrolet, Buick and GMC)
%
Hyundai Motor North America (Hyundai and Genesis)
%
Similar to automotive retailers, vehicle manufacturers may be affected by the long-term U.S. and international economic climate. In addition, we remain vulnerable to other matters that may impact the manufacturers of the vehicles we sell, many of which are outside of our control, including: (i) changes in their respective financial condition; (ii) changes in their respective marketing efforts; (iii) changes in their respective reputation; (iv) manufacturer and other product defects, including recalls; (v) changes in their respective management; (vi) disruptions in the production and delivery of vehicles and parts due to natural disasters, pandemics or other reasons; and (vii) issues with respect to labor relations. Our business is highly dependent on consumer demand and brand preferences for our manufacturers’ products. Manufacturer recall campaigns are a common occurrence that have accelerated in frequency and scope. Manufacturer recall campaigns could (i) adversely affect our new and used vehicle sales or customer residual trade-in valuations, (ii) cause us to temporarily remove vehicles from our inventory, (iii) force us to incur increased costs, and (iv) expose us to litigation and adverse publicity related to the sale of recalled vehicles, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Vehicle manufacturers that produce vehicles outside of the U.S. are subject to additional risks including changes in quotas, tariffs or
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duties, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, regulations governing imports and the costs related thereto, and foreign governmental regulations.
Adverse conditions that materially affect a vehicle manufacturer and its ability to profitably design, market, produce or distribute desirable new vehicles could in turn materially adversely affect our ability to (i) sell vehicles produced by that manufacturer, (ii) obtain or finance our new vehicle inventories, (iii) access or benefit from manufacturer financial assistance programs, (iv) collect in full or on a timely basis any amounts due therefrom, and/or (v) obtain other goods and services provided by the impacted manufacturer. In addition, we depend on manufacturers’ ability to design, produce, and supply parts to us and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our parts and services business. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected as a result of any event that has an adverse effect on any vehicle manufacturer.
In addition, if a vehicle manufacturer’s financial condition worsens and it seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy or similar proceedings, or otherwise under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, (i) the manufacturer could seek to terminate or reject all or certain of our franchises, (ii) if the manufacturer is successful in terminating all or certain of our franchises, we may not receive adequate compensation for those franchises, (iii) our cost to obtain financing for our new vehicle inventory may increase or no longer be available from such manufacturer’s captive finance subsidiary, (iv) consumer demand for such manufacturer’s products could be materially adversely affected, especially if costs related to improving such manufacturer’s financial condition are factored into the price of its products, (v) there may be a significant disruption in the availability of consumer credit to purchase or lease that manufacturer’s vehicles or negative changes in the terms of such financing, which may negatively impact our sales, or (vi) there may be a reduction in the value of receivables and inventory associated with that manufacturer, among other things. The occurrence of any one or more of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Furthermore, the automotive manufacturing supply chain spans the globe. As such, supply chain disruptions resulting from natural disasters, adverse weather, pandemics, labor stoppages and other events may affect the flow of vehicle and parts inventories to us or our manufacturing partners. If we experience disruptions in the supply of vehicle and parts inventories, such disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Substantial competition in automobile sales and services may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The automotive retail and service industry is highly competitive with respect to price, service, location, and selection. Our competition includes: (i) franchised automobile dealerships in our markets that sell the same or similar new and used vehicles; (ii) privately negotiated sales of used vehicles; (iii) other used vehicle retailers, including regional and national vehicle rental companies; (iv) companies with a primarily internet-based business model, such as Carvana, and used vehicle brokers that sell used vehicles to consumers; (v) service center and parts supply chain stores; and (vi) independent service and repair shops.
We do not have any cost advantage over other retailers in purchasing new vehicles from manufacturers. We typically rely on our advertising, merchandising, sales expertise, service reputation, strong local branding and dealership location to sell new vehicles. Because our dealer agreements only grant us a non-exclusive right to sell a manufacturer’s product within a specified market area, our revenues, gross profit and overall profitability may be materially adversely affected if competing dealerships expand their market share. Further, our vehicle manufacturers may decide to award additional franchises in our markets in ways that negatively impact our sales.
The internet has become a significant part of the advertising and sales process in our industry. Customers are using the internet to shop, and compare prices, for new and used vehicles, automotive repair and maintenance services, finance and insurance products and other automotive products. If we are unable to effectively use the internet to attract customers to our own online channels, and mobile applications, and, in turn, to our stores, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected. Additionally, the growing use of social media by consumers increases the speed and extent that information and opinions can be shared, and negative posts or comments on social media about us or any of our stores could damage our reputation and brand names, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Additionally, we rely on the protection of state franchise laws in the states in which we operate and if those laws are repealed or weakened, our framework, franchise and related agreements may become more susceptible to termination, nonrenewal or renegotiation. These laws have historically restricted the ability of automobile manufacturers to directly enter the retail market and sell vehicles directly to consumers. However, many states have recently passed or introduced legislation to permit direct to consumer sales of electric vehicles by certain companies, such as Tesla and Rivian, without the requirements of establishing a dealer network. If the state franchise laws are repealed, weakened or amended to permit vehicle manufacturers to sell vehicles (whether electric or not) directly to consumers, they may be able to have a competitive advantage over the
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traditional dealers, which could have a material adverse effect on our sales in those states, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are dependent upon our relationships with the manufacturers of vehicles that we sell and are subject to restrictions imposed by, and significant influence from, these vehicle manufacturers. Any of these restrictions or any changes or deterioration of these relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are dependent on our relationships with the manufacturers of the vehicles we sell, which have the ability to exercise a great deal of control and influence over our day-to-day operations, as a result of the terms of our dealer, framework and related agreements. We may obtain new vehicles from manufacturers, service vehicles, sell new vehicles and display vehicle manufacturers’ trademarks only to the extent permitted under these agreements. The terms of these agreements may conflict with our interests and objectives and may impose limitations on key aspects of our operations, including acquisition strategy and capital spending.
For example, manufacturers can set performance standards with respect to sales volume, sales effectiveness and customer satisfaction, and require us to obtain manufacturer consent before we can acquire dealerships selling a manufacturer’s automobiles. From time to time, we may be precluded under agreements with certain manufacturers from acquiring additional franchises, or subject to other adverse actions, to the extent we are not meeting certain performance criteria at our existing stores (with respect to matters such as sales volume, customer satisfaction and sales effectiveness) until our performance improves in accordance with the agreements, subject to applicable state franchise laws. In addition, many vehicle manufacturers place limits on the total number of franchises that any group of affiliated dealerships may own and certain manufacturers place limits on the number of franchises or share of total brand vehicle sales that may be maintained by an affiliated dealership group on a national, regional or local basis, as well as limits on store ownership in contiguous markets. If we reach any of these limits, we may be prevented from making further acquisitions, or we may be required to dispose of certain dealerships, which could adversely affect our future growth. We cannot provide assurance that manufacturers will approve future acquisitions timely, if at all, which could significantly impair the execution of our acquisition strategy.
In addition, certain manufacturers use a dealership’s manufacturer-determined customer satisfaction index ("CSI") score as a factor governing participation in incentive programs. To the extent we do not meet minimum score requirements, our future payments may be materially reduced or we may be precluded from receiving certain incentives, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Manufacturers also typically establish facilities and minimum capital requirements for dealerships on a case-by-case basis. In certain circumstances, including as a condition to obtaining consent to a proposed acquisition and qualifying for certain financial incentives, a manufacturer may require us to remodel, upgrade or move our facilities, and capitalize the subject dealership at levels we would not otherwise choose to fund, causing us to divert our financial resources away from uses that management believes may be of higher long-term value to us. Delays in obtaining, or failing to obtain, manufacturer consent, would impede our ability to execute acquisitions that we believe would integrate well with our overall strategy and limit our ability to expand our business.
Manufacturers can also establish new franchises or relocate existing franchises, subject to applicable state franchise laws. The establishment or relocation of franchises in our markets could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and results of operations of our dealerships in the market in which the action is taken.
Manufacturers may also limit our ability to divest one or more of our franchise dealerships in a timely manner. Most of our dealer agreements provide the manufacturer with a right of first refusal to purchase any of the manufacturer’s franchises we seek to sell. Divestitures of our franchise dealerships may also require manufacturer consent and failure to obtain consent would require us to find another potential buyer or wait until the buyer is able to meet the requirements of the manufacturer. A delay in the sale of a dealership could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Manufacturers may terminate or may not renew our dealer and framework agreements, or may compel us to divest our dealerships, for a number of reasons, including default under the agreement, any unapproved change of control (which specific changes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, but which include material changes in the composition of our Board of Directors during a specified time period, the acquisition of 5% or more of our voting stock by another vehicle manufacturer or distributor, the acquisition of 20% or more of our voting stock by third parties, and the acquisition of an ownership interest sufficient to direct or influence management and policies), or certain other unapproved events (including certain extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger or sale of all or substantially all of our assets). Triggers of these clauses are often based upon actions by our stockholders and are generally outside of our control. Restrictions on any unapproved changes of ownership or management may adversely impact our value, as they may prevent or deter prospective acquirers from gaining
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control of us. In addition, actions taken by a manufacturer to exploit its bargaining position in negotiating the terms of renewals of franchise agreements or otherwise could also have a material adverse effect on our revenues and profitability.
There can be no assurances that we will be able to renew our dealer and framework agreements on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected to the extent that our rights become compromised or our operations are restricted due to the terms of our dealer or framework agreements or if we lose franchises representing a significant percentage of our revenues due to the termination of, or failure to renew, such agreements.
If vehicle manufacturers reduce or discontinue sales incentive, warranty or other promotional programs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
We benefit from certain sales incentive, warranty, and other promotional programs of vehicle manufacturers that are intended to promote and support their respective new vehicle sales. Key incentive programs include: (i) customer rebates on new vehicles; (ii) dealer incentives on new vehicles; (iii) special financing or leasing terms; (iv) warranties on new and used vehicles; and (v) sponsorship of used vehicle sales by authorized new vehicle dealers.
Vehicle manufacturers often make many changes to their incentive programs. Any reduction or discontinuation of manufacturers’ incentive programs for any reason, including a supply and demand imbalance, may reduce our sales volume which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Technological advances, including electrification of vehicles and adoption of autonomous vehicles in the long-term, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The automotive industry is predicted to experience change over the long-term. Technological advances are facilitating the development of electric, battery powered and hybrid gas/electric vehicles and autonomous vehicles. While most major vehicle manufacturers have announced plans to electrify some or all of their new vehicle offerings, the eventual timing of widespread availability of electric, battery powered and hybrid gas/electric vehicles and driverless vehicles is uncertain due to regulatory requirements, additional technological requirements, and uncertain consumer acceptance of these vehicles. We expect to continue to sell electric, battery powered and hybrid gas/electric vehicles through our dealerships, however, the effect of these vehicles on the automotive retail business is uncertain and could include changes in the level of the new and used vehicle sales, the price of new and used vehicles and the levels of service required for such vehicles and the profitability of our parts and service business, our finance and insurance business, including our TCA business, and the role of franchised dealers, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financial Matters
Our outstanding indebtedness, ability to incur additional debt and the provisions in the agreements governing our debt, and certain other agreements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
As of December 31, 2023, we had total debt of $3.23 billion and total floor plan notes payable, net of $1.79 billion. We have the ability to incur substantial additional debt in the future to finance, among other things, acquisitions, working capital and capital expenditures, and new and used vehicle inventory, as well as to refinance new and used vehicle inventory, subject in each case to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments and other agreements existing at the time such indebtedness is incurred. We will continue to have substantial debt service obligations, consisting of required cash payments of principal and interest, for the foreseeable future.
Our debt service obligations could have important consequences to us for the foreseeable future, including the following: (i) our ability to obtain additional financing, or to obtain such financing on attractive terms, for acquisitions, capital expenditures, working capital or other general corporate purposes may be impaired; (ii) a substantial portion of our cash flow from operating activities must be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, thereby reducing the funds available to us for our operations and other corporate purposes; (iii) some of our borrowings are and will continue to be at variable rates of interest, which exposes us to certain risks of interest rate increases; and (iv) we may be or become substantially more leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a relative competitive disadvantage and make us more vulnerable to changes in market conditions and governmental regulations.
In addition to our ability to incur additional debt in the future, there are operating and financial restrictions and covenants, such as leverage covenants, in certain of our debt and mortgage agreements, including the agreement governing our 2023 Senior Credit Facility and our mortgage agreements and related mortgage guarantees, as well as certain other agreements to which we are a party that may adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs or to pursue certain business activities. These limit, among other things, our ability to incur certain additional debt, create certain liens or other
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encumbrances and make certain payments (including dividends and repurchases of our common stock and for investments). Certain of these agreements also require us to maintain compliance with certain financial ratios, including, but not limited to, our adjusted net leverage ratio.
Our failure to comply with any of these covenants in the future could constitute a default under the relevant agreement, which could, depending on the relevant agreement, (i) entitle the creditors under such agreement to terminate our ability to borrow under the relevant agreement and accelerate our obligations to repay outstanding borrowings; (ii) require us to repay those borrowings; (iii) entitle the creditors under such agreement to foreclose on the property securing the relevant indebtedness; or (iv) prevent us from making debt service payments on certain of our other indebtedness, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In many cases, a default under one of our debt, mortgage, or other agreements, could trigger cross-default provisions in one or more of our other debt or mortgage agreements. There can be no assurance that our creditors would agree to an amendment or waiver of our covenants. In the event we obtain an amendment or waiver, we would likely incur additional fees and higher interest expense.
In addition to the financial and other covenants contained in our various debt or mortgage agreements, certain of our lease agreements contain covenants that give our landlords the right to terminate the lease, seek significant cash damages, or evict us from the applicable property, if we fail to comply. Similarly, our failure to comply with any financial or other covenants in any of our framework agreements would give the relevant manufacturer certain rights, including the right to reject proposed acquisitions, and may give it the right to repurchase its franchises from us. Events that give rise to such rights, and our inability to acquire additional dealerships or the requirement that we sell one or more of our dealerships at any time, could inhibit the growth of our business, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Manufacturers may also have the right to restrict our ability to provide guarantees of our operating companies, pledges of the capital stock of our subsidiaries and liens on our assets, which could materially adversely affect our ability to obtain financing for our business and operations on favorable terms or at desired levels, if at all.
The occurrence of any one of these events may limit our ability to take strategic actions that would otherwise enable us to manage our business in a manner in which we otherwise would, absent such limitations, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by increases in interest rates.
We generally finance our purchases of new vehicle inventory, have the ability to finance the purchases of used vehicle inventory, and have the availability to borrow funds for working capital under our senior secured credit facilities that charge interest at variable rates. Therefore, our interest expense from variable rate debt will rise with increases in interest rates. In addition, a significant rise in interest rates may also have the effect of depressing demand in the interest rate sensitive aspects of our business, particularly new and used vehicle sales and the related profit margins and F&I revenue per vehicle, because most of our customers finance their vehicle purchases. As a result, rising interest rates may have the effect of simultaneously increasing our capital costs and reducing our revenues. Given our variable interest rate debt and floor plan notes payable outstanding as of December 31, 2023, each one percent increase in market interest rates would increase our total annual interest expense by approximately $18.1 million. When considered in connection with reduced expected sales, if interest rates increase, any such increase could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our vehicle sales, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by changes in costs or availability of consumer financing.
The majority of vehicles purchased by our customers are financed. Reductions in the availability of credit to consumers have contributed to declines in our vehicle sales in past periods. Reductions in available consumer credit or increased costs of that credit, could result in a decline in our vehicle sales, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Lenders that have historically provided financing to those buyers who, for various reasons, do not have access to traditional financing, including those buyers who have a poor credit history or lack the down payment necessary to purchase a vehicle, are often referred to as subprime lenders. If market conditions cause subprime lenders to tighten credit standards, or if interest rates increase, the ability to obtain financing from subprime lenders for these consumers to purchase vehicles could become limited, resulting in a decline in our vehicle sales, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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We may identify a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, which may result in material misstatements or otherwise adversely affect the accuracy, reliability or timeliness of our financial statements.
As described under Item 9A. "Controls and Procedures" below, we previously concluded that a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting existed as of December 31, 2022 and, accordingly, internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of such date. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Management identified the material weakness as a result of deficiencies in information technology general controls ("ITGCs") at LHM and TCA, businesses that we acquired in December 2021.
During 2023, we completed the remediation measures related to the material weakness and we have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of December 31, 2023. Completion of remediation does not provide assurance that our remediation or other controls will continue to operate properly. Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting may adversely affect the accuracy and reliability of our financial statements and have other consequences that may materially and adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters
If state laws that protect automotive retailers are repealed, weakened, or superseded by our framework agreements with manufacturers, our dealerships will be more susceptible to termination, non-renewal, or renegotiation of their dealer agreements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Applicable state laws generally provide that an automobile manufacturer may not terminate or refuse to renew a dealer agreement unless it has first provided the dealer with written notice setting forth "good cause" and stating the grounds for termination or non-renewal. Many states also limit the circumstances in which an automobile manufacturer may sell vehicles directly to consumers. Some state laws allow dealers to file protests or petitions or allow them to attempt to comply with the manufacturer’s criteria within a notice period to avoid the termination or non-renewal. Our framework agreements with certain manufacturers contain provisions that, among other things, attempt to limit the protections available to dealers under these laws, and, though unsuccessful to date, manufacturers’ ongoing lobbying efforts may lead to the repeal or revision of these laws. If these laws are repealed in the states in which we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. Without the protection of these state laws, it may also be more difficult for us to renew our dealer agreements upon expiration. Changes in laws that provide manufacturers the ability to terminate our dealer agreements could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, if a manufacturer seeks protection from creditors in bankruptcy, courts have held that the federal bankruptcy laws may supersede the state laws that protect automotive retailers resulting in either the termination, non-renewal or rejection of franchises by such manufacturers, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, result of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Market disruptors continue to push for legislation permitting direct-to-consumer sales models; if those lobbying efforts are successful, automotive manufacturers could bypass the traditional franchised dealer network, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
New laws, regulations, or governmental policies in response to climate change, including fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, or changes to existing standards, could adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flow, and prospects.
New laws and regulations designed to address climate change concerns could affect vehicle manufacturers’ ability to produce cost effective vehicles. For example, laws and regulations enacted that directly or indirectly affect vehicle manufacturers (through an increase in the cost of production or their ability to produce satisfactory products) or our business (through an impact on our inventory availability, cost of sales, operations or demand for the products we sell) could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flow, and prospects. In addition, vehicle manufacturers are subject to government-mandated fuel economy and greenhouse gas, or GHG, emission standards, which continue to change and become more stringent over time. Significant increases in fuel economy requirements or new federal or state restrictions on emissions of carbon dioxide that may be imposed on vehicles and automobile fuels could adversely affect demand for vehicles, annual miles driven or the products we sell or lead to changes in automotive technology.

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A failure of any of our information systems or those of our third-party service providers, or a data security breach with regard to personally identifiable information ("PII") about our customers or employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We depend on the efficient operation of our information systems and those of our third-party service providers. We rely on information systems at our dealerships in all aspects of our sales and service efforts, as well in the preparation of our consolidated financial and operating data. All of our dealerships currently operate on two dealer management systems ("DMS"). Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we and our partners receive significant PII about our customers in order to complete the sale or service of a vehicle and related products. We also receive PII from our employees. The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding, with numerous state and federal regulations, as well as payment card industry and other vendor standards, governing the collection and maintenance of PII from consumers and other individuals.
Cyber incidents can result from human error or intentional (or deliberate) attacks or unintentional events by insiders (e.g., employees) or third parties, including cybercriminals, competitors, nation-states and “hacktivists,” among others. Cyber incidents can include, for example, phishing, credential harvesting or use of stolen access credentials, unauthorized access to systems, networks or devices (for example, through hacking activity), structured query language attacks, infection from or spread of malware, ransomware, computer viruses or other malicious software code, corruption of data, exfiltration of data to malicious sites, the dark web or other locations or threat actors, the use of fraudulent or fake websites, and other attacks (including, but not limited to, denial-of-service attacks on websites), which shut down, disable, slow, impair or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, technology, connectivity or website or internet access, functionality or performance. In addition to intentional cyber incidents, unintentional cyber incidents can occur (for example, the inadvertent release of confidential or non-public personal information). Changes to our business, processes, systems, or technology, if not implemented properly, can increase our vulnerability to cyber incidents.
Our business could be significantly disrupted if (i) the DMS fails to integrate with other third-party information systems, customer relations management tools or other software, or to the extent that any of these systems become unavailable to us or fail to perform as designed for an extended period of time or (ii) our relationship with our DMS providers or any other third-party provider deteriorates. Additionally, any disruption to access and connectivity of our information systems due to natural disasters, power loss or other reasons could disrupt our business operations, impact sales and results of operations, expose us to customer or third-party claims, or result in adverse publicity. In addition, we believe the automotive dealership industry is a particular target of identity thieves, as there are numerous opportunities for a data security breach, including cybersecurity breaches, burglary, lost or misplaced data, malware, ransomware, computer viruses or other malicious software code, corruption of data, exfiltration of data to malicious sites, the dark web or other locations or threat actors, or misappropriation of data by employees, vendors or unaffiliated third parties. Because of the increasing number and sophistication of cyber-attacks, and despite the security measures we have in place and any additional measures we may implement or adopt in the future, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, scams, burglary, human errors, acts of vandalism and/or other events. While we have experienced cyber incidents in the past, and may experience additional incidents in the future, we are not aware of any incident having a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition to date. However, there can be no assurance that we will not experience future cyber incidents that may be material. Although we believe we have systems and processes in place to protect against risks associated with cyber incidents in the future, depending on the nature of an incident, these protections may not be fully sufficient. In addition, because techniques used in cybersecurity attacks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. An incident may not be detected until well after it occurs and the severity and potential impact may not be fully known for a substantial period of time after it has been discovered. Any such alleged or actual incident can increase costs of doing business, negatively affect customer satisfaction and loyalty, expose us to negative publicity, individual claims or consumer class actions, administrative, civil or criminal investigations or actions, and infringe on proprietary information, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our dealership operations and facilities are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects could suffer.
The automotive retail industry, including our facilities and operations, is subject to a wide range of federal, state, and local laws and regulations, such as those relating to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales, leasing, finance and insurance, marketing, licensing, consumer protection, consumer privacy, escheatment, anti-money laundering, environmental, vehicle emissions and fuel economy, and health and safety. In addition, with respect to employment practices, we are subject to various
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laws and regulations, including complex federal, state, and local wage and hour and anti-discrimination laws. The violation of the laws or regulations to which we are subject could result in administrative, civil, or criminal sanctions against us, which may include a cease and desist order against the subject operations or even revocation or suspension of our license to operate the subject business, as well as significant fines and penalties. Violation of certain laws and regulations to which we are subject may also subject us to consumer class action or other lawsuits or governmental investigations and adverse publicity. We currently devote significant resources to comply with applicable federal, state, and local regulation of health, safety, environmental, zoning and land use regulations, and we may need to spend additional time, effort, and money to keep our operations and existing or acquired facilities in compliance therewith.
In addition, there is a risk that our employees could engage in misconduct that violates the laws or regulations to which we are subject. It is not always possible to detect or deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If any of our employees were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, our business and reputation could be adversely affected.
The CFPB does not have direct regulatory authority over automotive dealers but could implement additional, indirect regulation of automotive dealers, in particular, their sale and marketing of finance and insurance products, through its regulation of automotive finance companies and other financial institutions. In addition, the CFPB possesses supervisory authority with respect to certain non-bank lenders, including automotive finance companies, participating in automotive financing. The FTC may exercise its additional rule-making authority to expand consumer protection regulations relating to the sale, financing and leasing of motor vehicles.
In May 2016, we signed a consent order with the FTC to settle allegations that in certain instances our advertisements did not adequately disclose information about used vehicles with open safety recalls. Under the consent order, we did not agree to make any payments or admit wrong-doing, but we did agree to make certain disclosures in marketing materials and at the point of sale and comply with certain record-keeping obligations. Our failure to comply with the consent order may result in the imposition of significant fines and/or penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In January 2024, the FTC published the Combatting Auto Retail Scams Final Rule (the “CARS Rule”), which prohibits a broad range of current accepted industry sales and marketing practices and imposes significant new dealer disclosure obligations and record-keeping requirements throughout the vehicle-buying process. The FTC has stayed the CARS Rule’s original effective date of July 30, 2024 pending the resolution of a judicial challenge to the CARS Rule. Compliance with the CARS Rule, if it becomes effective, would be burdensome and cause us to incur increased costs. A failure to comply with the CARS Rule would expose us to potential significant damages, penalties and adverse publicity, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial results.
Continued pressure from the CFPB, FTC, and other federal agencies could lead to significant changes in the manner that dealers are compensated for arranging customer financing and vehicle protection products, and while it is difficult to predict how any such changes might impact us, any adverse changes could have a material adverse impact on our finance and insurance business and results of operations. Furthermore, we expect that new laws and regulations, particularly at the federal level, in other areas may be enacted, which could also materially adversely impact our business. On August 3, 2022, we received a Civil Investigative Demand (“CID”) from the FTC requesting information and documents concerning the Company’s corporate structure and operation of six of its dealerships. We responded to the CID by producing information and documents for the period August 1, 2019 to April 24, 2023. On February 8, 2024, the FTC staff counsel sent to us a proposed consent order and draft complaint, alleging that the Company and three of our dealerships had violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTC Act”) and certain provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”) in connection with the sale of add-on products (e.g., vehicle service contracts, maintenance plans, etc.), and advising that it would recommend the filing of an enforcement action if the Company did not settle the FTC’s claims. The Company disputes the FTC’s allegations that it violated the FTC Act and the ECOA, and is currently involved in discussions with the FTC staff regarding the matter. There can be no assurance that negotiations between us and the FTC for a favorable settlement will be successful, or that we will succeed in any litigation as a result of the investigation. At this time, we are unable to reasonably predict the possible outcome of this matter, or provide a reasonably possible range of loss, if any, as a result of the investigation. If the FTC files a suit against us based on these allegations, whether meritorious or not, it may adversely affect our ability to attract customers, result in the loss of existing customers, harm our reputation and cause us to incur defense costs and other expenses.
Environmental laws and regulations govern, among other things, discharges into the air and water, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, investigation and remediation of contamination. Similar to many of our competitors, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur capital and operating expenditures and other costs to comply with such federal and state laws and regulations. In addition, we may become subject to broad liabilities arising out of contamination at our currently and formerly owned or operated facilities, at locations to which hazardous substances were transported from such facilities, and at such locations related to entities formerly affiliated with us.
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Liability under these laws and regulations can be imposed on a joint and several basis and without regard to fault. For such potential liabilities, we believe we are entitled to indemnification from other entities. However, we cannot provide assurance that such entities will view their obligations as we do or will be able or willing to satisfy them. We may have indemnity obligations for liabilities relating to contamination at our currently or formerly owned and/or operated facilities as part of the acquisition or divestiture of certain properties in the ordinary course of business. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or significant additional expenditures required to maintain compliance therewith, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
A significant judgment against us or the imposition of a significant fine could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and future prospects. We further expect that, from time to time, new laws and regulations, particularly in the environmental area, will be enacted, and compliance with such laws, or penalties for failure to comply, could significantly increase our costs. For example, vehicle manufacturers are subject to government-mandated fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, which continue to change and become more stringent over time. Failure of a manufacturer to develop passenger vehicles and light trucks that meet these and other government standards could subject the manufacturer to substantial penalties, increase the cost of vehicles sold to us, and adversely affect our ability to market and sell vehicles to meet consumer needs and desires, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Our TCA business is subject to a wide range of federal, state, and local laws and regulations, some of which we may not have previously been subject. If we are found to be in purported violation of or subject to liabilities under any of these laws or regulations, or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our TCA business, our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects could suffer.
The TCA business is, and will continue to be, subject to a wide range of federal, state, and local laws and regulations, some of which Asbury may not have been previously subject. Such laws and regulations include but are not limited to:
state and local licensing requirements;
federal and state laws regulating vehicle finance and insurance products; and
federal and state consumer protection laws.
No assurance can be given that applicable statutes, regulations, and other laws will not be amended or construed differently, that new laws will not be adopted, or that any of these laws will not be enforced more aggressively. For example, changes in the regulatory and supervisory environments could adversely affect the TCA business in substantial and unpredictable ways. Further, the TCA business noncompliance with applicable laws (whether as a result of changes in interpretation or enforcement, system or human errors, or otherwise) could result in the suspension or revocation of licenses or registrations necessary to the operation, or the initiation of enforcement actions or private litigation.
In addition, we are required to set aside an amount of restricted cash sufficient to satisfy potential claims associated with the TCA business. While we are permitted to invest such cash in fixed income and equity securities, and other investments, we cannot provide any assurance that a loss in such investments would not have a material adverse effect on our ability to honor customers’ claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to risks related to the provision of employee health care benefits, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We use a combination of insurance and self-insurance for health care plans. We record expenses under those plans based on estimates of the costs of expected claims, administrative costs, stop-loss insurance premiums, and expected health care trends. Actual costs under these plans are subject to variability that is dependent upon participant enrollment, demographics and the actual costs of claims made. Negative trends in any of these areas could cause us to incur additional unplanned health care costs, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, if enrollment in our health care plans increases significantly, the additional costs that we will incur may be significant enough to materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are, and expect to continue to be, subject to legal and administrative proceedings, which, if the outcomes are adverse to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation and prospects.
We are involved and expect to continue to be involved in numerous legal proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including litigation with customers, employment-related lawsuits, class actions, purported class actions, and actions brought by governmental authorities. We do not believe that the ultimate resolution of any known matters will have a material
29

adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects. However, the results of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, and an unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
A decline in our credit rating or a general disruption in the credit markets could negatively impact our liquidity and ability to conduct our operations.
A deterioration of our credit rating, or a general disruption in the credit markets, could limit our ability to obtain credit on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, uncertain economic conditions or the re-pricing of certain credit risks may make it more difficult for us to obtain one or more types of funding in the amounts, or at rates considered acceptable to us, at any given time. Our inability to access necessary or desirable funding, or to enter into certain related transactions, at times and at costs deemed appropriate by us, could have a negative impact on our liquidity and our ability to conduct our operations. Any of these developments could also reduce the ability or willingness of the financial institutions that have extended credit commitments to us, or that have entered into hedge or similar transactions with us, to fulfill their obligations to us, which also could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, our ability to conduct our operations and our prospects.
We are subject to risks associated with imported product restrictions or limitations, foreign trade and currency valuations.
Our business involves the sale of vehicles, parts or vehicles composed of parts that are manufactured outside of the United States. As a result, our operations are subject to risks of doing business outside of the United States and importing merchandise, including import duties, exchange rates, trade restrictions, work stoppages, natural or man-made disasters, and general political and socio-economic conditions in other countries. The United States or the countries from which our products are imported may, from time to time, impose new quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions or limitations, or adjust presently prevailing quotas, duties or tariffs. The imposition of new, or adjustments to prevailing, quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions or limitations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Relative weakness of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies in the future may result in an increase in costs to us and in the retail price of such vehicles or parts, which could discourage consumers from purchasing such vehicles and adversely impact our revenues and profitability.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Overview
We have processes in place designed to protect our information systems, data, assets, infrastructure, and computing environments from cybersecurity threats and risks while maintaining confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Our cybersecurity risk management processes are integrated into our enterprise risk management program.
Training
We conduct regular training for cybersecurity awareness of our employees, senior executives, and certain other vendors or personnel. We also perform phishing and social engineering simulations and provide cybersecurity training for personnel with Company email and access to Company assets. We disseminate security awareness communications to certain employees to highlight emerging or urgent cybersecurity threats.
Asbury’s information and data security training programs are housed in a Learning Management System (LMS). We migrate our acquired companies into Asbury’s current LMS.
Governance
Our Chief Information Officer (“CIO”), who has over 35 years of experience in the technology field, oversees cybersecurity, data privacy and manages Asbury’s information and security procedures. Asbury also has a Director of Cybersecurity, as well as a formal team of analysts.
Our Board of Directors maintains ultimate oversight of the Company’s enterprise risk management program, which includes material cyber security risks. Under the oversight of the audit committee and capital allocation and risk management committee of the Company’s Board of Directors, and as directed by the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, our CIO is primarily responsible for the assessment and management of material cybersecurity risks. Our CIO oversees the Company’s cybersecurity incident response plan and related processes that are designed to assess and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats.
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The CIO also coordinates with the Company’s legal counsel and third parties, such as consultants and legal advisors, to assess and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our CIO is informed about and monitors the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents pursuant to criteria set forth in the Company’s incident response plan and related processes.
The capital allocation and risk management committee of the Company’s Board of Directors assists the Board in the periodic review and evaluation of the Company’s risk profile and related risk management processes which identify and manage the Company’s key financial, strategic and operational risks. The audit committee of the Company’s Board of Directors oversees, among other things, the adequacy and effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls, including internal controls designed to assess, identify, and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats. The audit committee is informed of material risks from cybersecurity threats pursuant to the escalation criteria as set forth in the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures. Further, our CIO reports on cybersecurity matters, including material risks and threats, to the Company’s audit committee on a quarterly basis, and the audit committee provides updates to the Company’s Board of Directors at regular board meetings. In addition, the audit committee and capital allocation and risk management committee hold a joint meeting annually during which the CIO provides a comprehensive update regarding the assessment and management of material cybersecurity risks. Our CIO also provides updates as appropriate to the Company’s Board of Directors.
Risk Management
We have processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats. These processes are integrated into the Company’s overall risk management systems. These processes also include overseeing and identifying risks from cybersecurity threats associated with the use of third-party service providers. The Company conducts security assessments of certain third-party providers before engagement and has established monitoring procedures in its effort to mitigate risks related to data breaches or other security incidents originating from third parties. The Company from time to time engages third-party consultants, legal advisors, and audit firms in evaluating and testing the Company’s risk management systems and assessing and remediating certain potential cybersecurity incidents as appropriate.
Management
In an effort to effectively prevent, detect, and respond to cybersecurity threats, we employ a multi-layered cybersecurity risk management program supervised by our CIO, whose team is responsible for leading enterprise-wide cybersecurity strategy, policy, architecture, and processes. This responsibility includes identifying, considering, and assessing potentially material cybersecurity incidents on an ongoing basis, establishing processes designed to prevent and monitor potential cybersecurity risks, implementing mitigation and remedial measures, and maintaining our cybersecurity program. To do so, our program leverages both internal and external techniques and expertise. Internally, among other things, we may perform penetration tests, internal tests/code reviews, and simulations using cybersecurity professionals to assess vulnerabilities in our information systems and evaluate our cyber defense capabilities. Our cybersecurity capabilities, processes, and other security measures also include, without limitation:
Service Organization Controls ("SOC")-as-a-Service (SOCaas) wherein a third-party vendor operates and maintains a fully-managed SOC on a subscription basis via the cloud;
Security Information and Event Management (“SIEM”) software, which provides a threat detection, compliance, and security incident management system;
Endpoint Detection and Response (“EDR”) software, which monitors for malicious activities on internal endpoints (e.g., Windows workstations, servers, MAC clients, and Linux endpoints);
Cloud monitoring; and
Disaster recovery and incident response plans, including a ransomware response plan.
Although we believe we have systems and processes in place to protect against risks associated with cybersecurity incidents in the future, depending on the nature of an incident, these protections may not be fully sufficient. We have experienced targeted cybersecurity incidents in the past that have resulted in unauthorized persons gaining access to certain of our information systems, and we could in the future experience similar incidents. As of the date of this Form 10-K, no cybersecurity incident or attack, or any risk from cybersecurity threat, has materially affected or has been determined to be reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. For additional information regarding the risks from cybersecurity threats we face, see the section captioned. For further discussion of the risks associated with cybersecurity incidents, see “A failure of any of our information systems or those of our third-party service providers, or a data security breach with regard to personally identifiable information ("PII") about our customers or
31

employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.” beginning on page 27 of the section entitled “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K.
Item 2. Properties
We lease our corporate headquarters, which is located at 2905 Premiere Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Duluth, Georgia 30097. We also have a corporate office in Texas. The operations of our TCA business are located in leased office space in Utah.
As of December 31, 2023, our operations encompassed 158 franchised dealership locations, 37 collision repair centers, throughout 16 states as follows:
Dealerships Collision Repair Centers
Dealership Group Brand Name:OwnedLeased OwnedLeased
Coggin Automotive Group12 (a)
Courtesy Autogroup— 
Crown Automotive Company(b)— — 
David McDavid Auto Group— — 
Greenville Automotive Group— — 
Hare, Bill Estes & Kahlo Automotive Groups— — 
Koons Automotive Group18
Larry H. Miller Dealerships444(b)
Mike Shaw, Stevinson & Arapahoe Automotive Groups— — 
Nalley Automotive Group16 
Park Place Automotive(c)
Plaza Motor Company(b)— 
 Total133 25 29 
______________________________________
(a)Includes one dealership that leases a new vehicle facility and operates a separate used vehicle facility that is owned.
(b)Includes one dealership location where we lease the underlying land but own the building facilities on that land.
(c)Includes two dealership location where we lease the underlying land but own the building facilities on that land.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we and our dealerships are involved and will continue to be involved in various claims relating to, and arising out of, our business and our operations. These claims may involve, but are not limited to, financial and other audits by vehicle manufacturers or lenders, and certain federal, state, and local government authorities, which relate primarily to (i) incentive and warranty payments received from vehicle manufacturers, or allegations of violations of manufacturer agreements or policies, (ii) compliance with lender rules and covenants and (iii) payments made to government authorities relating to federal, state, and local taxes, as well as compliance with other government regulations. Claims may also arise through litigation, government proceedings, and other dispute resolution processes. Such claims, including class actions, can relate to, but are not limited to, the practice of charging administrative fees, employment-related matters, truth-in-lending practices, contractual disputes, actions brought by governmental authorities, and other matters. We evaluate pending and threatened claims and establish loss contingency reserves based upon outcomes we currently believe to be probable and reasonably estimable. We do not believe that the ultimate resolution of the claims we are involved in will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and prospects.
On August 3, 2022, we received a Civil Investigative Demand (“CID”) from the FTC requesting information and documents concerning the Company’s corporate structure and operation of six of its dealerships. We responded to the CID by producing information and documents for the period August 1, 2019 to April 24, 2023. On February 8, 2024, the FTC staff counsel sent to us a proposed consent order and draft complaint, alleging that the Company and three of our dealerships had violated Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (“FTC Act”) and certain provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”) in connection with the sale of add-on products (e.g., vehicle service contracts, maintenance plans, etc.), and advising that it would recommend the filing of an enforcement action if the Company did not settle the FTC’s claims. The Company disputes the FTC’s allegations that it violated the FTC Act and the ECOA, and is currently involved in discussions with the FTC staff regarding the matter. There can be no assurance that negotiations between us and the FTC for a favorable settlement will be successful, or that we will succeed in any litigation as a result of the investigation. At this time, we are unable to reasonably predict the possible outcome of this matter, or provide a reasonably possible range of loss, if any, as a result of the
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investigation. If the FTC files a suit against us based on these allegations, whether meritorious or not, it may adversely affect our ability to attract customers, result in the loss of existing customers, harm our reputation and cause us to incur defense costs and other expenses.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.     Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE") under the symbol "ABG."
We have not paid any dividends since 2008. On February 27, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $212.00 per share, and there were approximately 505 record holders of our common stock.
Our credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A. ("Bank of America"), as administrative agent, and the other agents and lenders party thereto (the "2023 Senior Credit Facility") and the Indentures governing the Senior Notes (as defined below) (collectively, the "Indentures") currently allow for us to make certain restricted payments, including payments to repurchase shares of our common stock, among other things, subject to our continued compliance with certain covenants. For additional information, see the "Covenants and Defaults" section within "Liquidity and Capital Resources."
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Share repurchases are implemented through purchases made from time to time in either the open market or private transactions. The share repurchases could include purchases pursuant to a written trading plan in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which allows companies to repurchase shares of stock at times when they might otherwise be prevented from doing so by securities laws or under self-imposed trading blackout periods. The extent that the Company repurchases its shares, the number of shares and the timing of any repurchases will depend on general market conditions, legal requirements and other corporate considerations. The repurchase program may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time without prior notice.
Information about the shares of our common stock that we repurchased during the quarter ended December 31, 2023 is set forth below:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares (or Units) PurchasedAverage Price Paid per Share (or Unit)Total Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares (or Units) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (In millions
10/01/2023 - 10/31/2023130,785 $188.33 129,834 $225.6 
11/01/2023 - 11/30/2023116,397 $197.20 116,207 $202.6 
12/01/2023 - 12/31/2023— $— — $202.6 
    Total247,182 246,041 
On May 26, 2023, our Board of Directors announced that it authorized a new $250.0 million share repurchase authorization (the "New Share Repurchase Authorization"), which replaced our previous share repurchase authorization for the repurchase of our common stock in open market transactions or privately negotiated transactions or in other manners as permitted by federal security laws and other legal and contractual requirements.


34

PERFORMANCE GRAPH
The following graph furnished by us shows the value as of December 31, 2023, of a $100 investment in our common stock made on December 31, 2018, as compared with similar investments based on (i) the value of the S&P 500 Index (with dividends reinvested) and (ii) the value of a market-weighted Peer Group Index composed of the common stock of AutoNation, Inc.; Sonic Automotive, Inc.; Group 1 Automotive, Inc.; Penske Automotive Group, Inc.; and Lithia Motors, Inc., in each case on a "total return" basis assuming the reinvestment of any dividends. The market-weighted Peer Group Index values were calculated from the beginning of the performance period. The historical stock performance shown below is not necessarily indicative of future expected performance.
The forgoing graph is not, and shall not be deemed to be, filed as part of our annual report on Form 10-K. Such graph is not, and will not be deemed, filed or incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent specifically incorporated by reference therein by us.

2023 Graph.jpg








35

Item 6. Reserved

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements and notes. Forward-looking statements in this MD&A are not guarantees of future performance and may involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. Refer to the "Forward-Looking Statements" and Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors for a discussion of these risks and uncertainties. The discussion of our financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 is included in Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
OVERVIEW
We are one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States. As of December 31, 2023, through our Dealerships segment, we owned and operated 208 new vehicle franchises (158 dealership locations), representing 31 brands of automobiles, within 16 states. We also operated 37 collision centers, and Total Care Auto, Powered by Landcar ("TCA"), our F&I product provider. Our stores offer an extensive range of automotive products and services, including new and used vehicles; parts and service, which include repair and maintenance services, replacement parts, and collision repair service; and finance and insurance products. The finance and insurance products are provided by both independent third parties and TCA. The F&I products offered by TCA are sold through affiliated dealerships. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our new vehicle revenue brand mix consisted of 39% imports, 33% luxury, and 28% domestic brands. The Company manages its operations in two reportable segments: Dealerships and TCA.
Our Dealerships segment revenues are derived primarily from: (i) the sale of new vehicles; (ii) the sale of used vehicles to individual retail customers ("used retail") and to other dealers at auction ("wholesale") (the terms "used retail" and "wholesale" are collectively referred to as "used"); (iii) repair and maintenance services, including collision repair, the sale of automotive replacement parts, and the reconditioning of used vehicles (collectively referred to as "parts and service"); and (iv) the arrangement of third-party vehicle financing and the sale of a number of vehicle protection products. F&I products are offered by dealerships to customers in connection with the purchase of vehicles through either TCA or independent third parties. We evaluate the results of our new and used vehicle sales based on unit volumes and gross profit per vehicle sold, our parts and service operations based on aggregate gross profit, and our F&I business based on F&I gross profit per vehicle sold. Amounts presented have been calculated using non-rounded amounts for all periods presented and therefore certain amounts may not compute or tie to prior year financial statements due to rounding.
Our dealerships gross profit margin varies with our revenue mix. Historically, the sales of new vehicles generally results in a lower gross profit margin than used vehicle sales, sales of parts and service, and sales of F&I products. As a result, when used vehicle, parts and service, and F&I revenue increase as a percentage of total revenue, we expect our overall gross profit margin to increase. However, recently, new vehicle gross profit margins have been above historical levels and higher than used vehicle gross margins as a result of inventory disruptions from supply chain issues.
Our TCA segment revenues, reflected in F&I revenue, net, are derived from the sale of various vehicle protection products including vehicle service contracts, GAP, prepaid maintenance contracts, and appearance protection contracts. These products are sold through company-owned dealerships. TCA's F&I revenues also include investment gains or losses and income earned associated with the performance of TCA's investment portfolio.
Our TCA segment gross profit margin can vary due to incurred claims expense and the performance of our investment portfolio. Certain F&I products may result in higher gross profit margins to TCA. Therefore, the product mix of F&I products sold by TCA can affect the gross profits earned. In addition, interest rate volatility based on economic and market conditions outside the control of the Company, may increase or reduce TCA segment gross profit margins as well as the fair market values of certain securities within our investment portfolio. Fair market values typically fluctuate inversely to the fluctuations in interest rates.
Selling, general, and administrative ("SG&A") expenses consist primarily of fixed and incentive-based compensation, advertising, rent, insurance, utilities, and other customary operating expenses. A significant portion of our cost structure is variable (such as sales commissions) or controllable (such as advertising), which we believe allows us to adapt to changes in the retail environment over the long-term. We evaluate commissions paid to salespeople as a percentage of retail vehicle gross profit, advertising expense on a per vehicle retailed ("PVR") basis, and all other SG&A expenses in the aggregate as a percentage of total gross profit. Commissions expense paid by TCA to our affiliated dealerships and reflected as F&I revenue in our Dealerships segment is eliminated in the TCA segment upon consolidation.
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Our continued organic growth is dependent upon the execution of our balanced automotive retailing and service business strategy, the continued strength of our brand mix, and the production and allocation of desirable vehicles from the automobile manufacturers whose brands we sell. Our vehicle sales have historically fluctuated with product availability as well as local and national economic conditions, including consumer confidence, availability of consumer credit, fuel prices, and employment levels.
In addition, our ability to sell certain new and used vehicles can be negatively impacted by a number of factors, some of which are outside of our control. Manufacturers continue to be hampered by the lack of availability of parts and key components from suppliers which has impacted new vehicle inventory levels and availability of certain parts. We cannot predict with any certainty how long the automotive retail industry will continue to be subject to these production slowdowns or when normalized production will resume at these manufacturers.
Jim Koons Acquisition
On December 11, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all of the assets, including all real property and businesses of the Jim Koons Dealerships ("Koons") pursuant to a Purchase and Sale Agreement with various entities that comprise the Jim Koons automotive dealerships group (the "Koons acquisition") for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.50 billion, which includes $256.1 million of new vehicle floor plan financing and $103.8 million of assets held for sale related to Koons Lexus of Wilmington. The acquisition was funded with borrowings under Asbury’s existing credit facility and cash on hand. The Koons acquisition comprised 20 new vehicle dealerships and six collision centers.
Larry H. Miller Acquisition
On December 17, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of the businesses of the Larry H. Miller ("LHM") Dealerships and TCA (collectively, the "LHM acquisition"), thereby acquiring 54 new vehicle dealerships, seven used cars stores, 11 collision centers, a used vehicle wholesale business, the real property related thereto, and the entities comprising the TCA business for an aggregate purchase price of $3.48 billion. The purchase price was financed through a combination of cash, debt, including senior notes, real estate facilities, new and used vehicle floor plan facilities and the proceeds from the issuance of common stock.
Financial Highlights
Highlights related to our financial condition and results of operations include the following:
Consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to $14.80 billion, compared to $15.43 billion for the prior year.
Consolidated gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to $2.76 billion, compared to $3.10 billion for the prior year.
The decrease in consolidated revenue and gross profit is primarily due to lower used vehicle and F&I revenue. Additionally, lower gross profit was driven by lower gross profit per vehicle sold for both new and used vehicles as margins continue to shift downward from the historic highs in recent years.
The effects of dealership divestitures also impacted consolidated revenue and gross profit. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we sold one franchise (one dealership location) in Austin, Texas. During 2022, we completed sixteen divestitures that contributed $683 million in revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. Four of the divestitures closed in the first quarter, three in the second quarter, and nine in the fourth quarter of 2022.
Our capital allocation priorities were supported by share repurchases of approximately 1,316,167 million shares for $258.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2023.
On October 20, 2023, we entered into a fourth amended and restated credit agreement with Bank of America, as administrative agent, and the other lenders party thereto (the "2023 Senior Credit Facility'). The 2023 Senior Credit Facility increased our borrowing capacity from $2.55 billion to $2.80 billion and extended the maturity date to October 20, 2028.


37

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
We assess the organic growth of our revenue and gross profit on a same store basis. We believe that our assessment on a same store basis represents an important indicator of comparative financial performance and provides relevant information to assess our performance. As such, for the following discussion, same store amounts consist of information from dealerships for identical months in each comparative period, commencing with the first full month we owned the dealership. Additionally, amounts related to divested dealerships are excluded from each comparative period. During 2022, the Company completed sixteen divestitures that contributed $683 million in revenue for the year. Four of the divestitures closed in the first quarter, three in the second quarter, and nine in the fourth quarter of 2022.
The Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
 (Dollars in millions, except per share data)
REVENUE:
New vehicle$7,630.7 $7,365.6 $265.1 %
Used vehicle4,414.3 5,197.1 (782.8)(15)%
Parts and service2,081.5 2,074.2 7.3 — %
Finance and insurance, net676.2 797.0 (120.8)(15)%
TOTAL REVENUE14,802.7 15,433.8 (631.2)(4)%
GROSS PROFIT:
New vehicle703.0 844.0 (141.0)(17)%
Used vehicle264.0 353.2 (89.2)(25)%
Parts and service1,150.6 1,152.6 (2.1)— %
Finance and insurance, net638.2 750.7 (112.5)(15)%
TOTAL GROSS PROFIT2,755.8 3,100.6 (344.8)(11)%
OPERATING EXPENSES:
Selling, general, and administrative1,617.4 1,763.4 (146.0)(8)%
Depreciation and amortization67.7 69.0 (1.3)(2)%
Asset impairments117.2 — 117.2 NM
Other operating income, net— (4.4)4.4 (100)%
INCOME FROM OPERATIONS953.5 1,272.6 (319.1)(25)%
OTHER (INCOME) EXPENSES:
Floor plan interest expense9.6 8.4 1.3 15 %
Other interest expense, net156.1 152.2 3.9 %
Gain on dealership divestitures, net(13.5)(207.1)193.6 NM
Total other expenses (income), net152.2 (46.5)198.8 NM
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES801.3 1,319.1 (517.8)(39)%
Income tax expense198.8 321.8 (123.0)(38)%
NET INCOME$602.5 $997.3 $(394.8)(40)%
Net income per common share—Diluted$28.74 $44.61 $(15.87)(36)%
______________________________
NMNot Meaningful
38

 For the Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
REVENUE MIX PERCENTAGES:
New vehicles51.5 %47.7 %
Used retail vehicles27.1 %31.3 %
Used vehicle wholesale2.7 %2.4 %
Parts and service14.1 %13.4 %
Finance and insurance, net4.6 %5.2 %
Total revenue100.0 %100.0 %
GROSS PROFIT MIX PERCENTAGES:
New vehicles25.5 %27.2 %
Used retail vehicles9.0 %11.2 %
Used vehicle wholesale0.6 %0.2 %
Parts and service41.8 %37.2 %
Finance and insurance, net23.2 %24.2 %
Total gross profit100.0 %100.0 %
GROSS PROFIT MARGIN18.6 %20.1 %
SG&A EXPENSES AS A PERCENTAGE OF GROSS PROFIT58.7 %56.9 %
Total revenue during 2023 decreased by $631.2 million (4%) compared to 2022, due to a $782.8 million (15%) decrease in used vehicle revenue, a $120.8 million (15%) decrease in F&I revenue, offset by a $265.1 million (4%) increase in new vehicle revenue and a $7.3 million increase in parts and service revenue.
The $344.8 million (11%) decrease in gross profit during 2023 was the result of a $141.0 million (17%) decrease in new vehicle gross profit, an $89.2 million (25%) decrease in used vehicle gross profit, a $2.1 million decrease in parts and service gross profit and a $112.5 million (15%) decrease in F&I gross profit. Our total gross profit margin decreased 147 basis points from 20.1% in 2022 to 18.6% in 2023.
Income from operations during 2023 decreased by $319.1 million (25%) compared to 2022, primarily due to a $344.8 million (11%) decrease in gross profit and a $117.2 million increase in asset impairments, partially offset by a $146.0 million (8%) decrease in selling, general, and administrative expenses.
Total other expenses (income), net increased by $198.8 million from income of $46.5 million in 2022 to $152.2 million of expenses in 2023, primarily due to a $193.6 million decrease in gain on dealership divestitures, a $3.9 million (3%) increase in other interest expense, net and a $1.3 million (15%) increase in floor plan interest expense. As a result, income before income taxes decreased by $517.8 million (39%) to $801.3 million in 2023. The $123.0 million (38%) decrease in income tax expense was primarily attributable to the 39% decrease in income before taxes, partially offset by a 41 basis point increase in the 2023 effective tax rate. Overall, net income decreased by $394.8 million (40%) from $997.3 million in 2022 to $602.5 million in 2023.









39

New Vehicle—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Revenue:
Luxury$2,524.1 $2,315.7 $208.4 %
Import3,002.6 2,914.9 87.7 %
Domestic2,104.1 2,135.0 (30.9)(1)%
Total new vehicle revenue$7,630.7 $7,365.6 $265.1 %
Gross profit:
Luxury$274.3 $293.0 $(18.7)(6)%
Import265.8 338.7 (72.9)(22)%
Domestic162.9 212.3 (49.5)(23)%
Total new vehicle gross profit$703.0 $844.0 $(141.0)(17)%
New vehicle units:
Luxury35,300 33,904 1,396 %
Import77,740 78,388 (648)(1)%
Domestic36,469 38,887 (2,418)(6)%
Total new vehicle units149,509 151,179 (1,670)(1)%
Same Store:
Revenue:
Luxury$2,503.2 $2,210.4 $292.8 13 %
Import2,967.3 2,744.2 223.1 %
Domestic2,059.0 2,074.3 (15.4)(1)%
Total new vehicle revenue$7,529.5 $7,028.9 $500.6 %
Gross profit:
Luxury$272.0 $281.6 $(9.6)(3)%
Import262.0 319.5 (57.5)(18)%
Domestic159.6 206.5 (46.9)(23)%
Total new vehicle gross profit$693.6 $807.6 $(114.0)(14)%
New vehicle units:
Luxury34,947 32,154 2,793 %
Import76,896 73,845 3,051 %
Domestic35,700 37,699 (1,999)(5)%
Total new vehicle units147,543 143,698 3,845 %

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New Vehicle Metrics—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
As Reported:
Revenue per new vehicle sold$51,038 $48,721 $2,318 %
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,702 $5,583 $(881)(16)%
New vehicle gross margin9.2 %11.5 %(2.2)%
Luxury:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$7,770 $8,642 $(871)(10)%
New vehicle gross margin10.9 %12.7 %(1.8)%
Import:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$3,419 $4,320 $(901)(21)%
New vehicle gross margin8.9 %11.6 %(2.8)%
Domestic:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,466 $5,460 $(994)(18)%
New vehicle gross margin7.7 %9.9 %(2.2)%
Same Store:
Revenue per new vehicle sold$51,033 $48,915 $2,118 %
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,701 $5,620 $(919)(16)%
New vehicle gross margin9.2 %11.5 %(2.3)%
Luxury:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$7,783 $8,758 $(975)(11)%
New vehicle gross margin10.9 %12.7 %(1.9)%
Import:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$3,407 $4,326 $(919)(21)%
New vehicle gross margin8.8 %11.6 %(2.8)%
Domestic:
Gross profit per new vehicle sold$4,472 $5,479 $(1,007)(18)%
New vehicle gross margin7.8 %10.0 %(2.2)%
During 2023, new vehicle revenue increased by $265.1 million (4%) when compared to 2022, as a result of a 5% increase in revenue per new vehicle sold partially offset by a 1% decrease in new vehicle unit sales. Same store new vehicle revenue increased by $500.6 million (7%) as a result of a 4% increase in revenue per new vehicle sold and a 3% increase in new vehicle units sold.
New vehicle gross profit decreased by $141.0 million (17)% in 2023 when compared to 2022, as a result of a 16% decrease in gross profit per new vehicle sold and a 1% decrease in unit volumes. Same store new vehicle gross profit decreased by $114.0 million (14%) in 2023, as a result of a 16% decrease in gross profit per new vehicle sold partially offset by a 3% increase in unit volumes. Same store new vehicle gross margin decreased 228 basis points to 9.2% in 2023. The decrease in our new vehicle gross profit margin was primarily attributable to the easing of new vehicle inventory constraints which softened the historically high new vehicle margins seen in recent years.
The seasonally adjusted annual rate ("SAAR") for new vehicle sales in the U.S. during the year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately 15.4 million which increased as compared to approximately 13.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in new vehicle sales revenue on a same store basis for the year ended December 31, 2023 over the same period in the prior year is primarily attributable to an increase of $2,118 of revenue per new vehicle sold and an increase of 3,845 in new vehicle units sold. The increase in SAAR period over period reflects higher inventory supply, including fleet, coupled with continued consumer demand for new vehicles. However, we continue to be negatively impacted by the significant variation in new vehicle days supply among brands and models. We ended the year with approximately 43
41

days of supply of new vehicle inventory which reflects an increase from 26 days of supply as of December 31, 2022 but remains well below historical levels.
Used Vehicle— 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Revenue:
Used vehicle retail revenue$4,017.5 $4,828.8 $(811.3)(17)%
Used vehicle wholesale revenue396.7 368.3 28.5 %
Used vehicle revenue$4,414.3 $5,197.1 $(782.8)(15)%
Gross profit:
Used vehicle retail gross profit$248.5 $347.1 $(98.5)(28)%
Used vehicle wholesale gross profit15.5 6.2 9.3 151 %
Used vehicle gross profit$264.0 $353.2 $(89.2)(25)%
Used vehicle retail units:
Used vehicle retail units127,507 151,464 (23,957)(16)%
Same Store:
Revenue:
Used vehicle retail revenue$3,949.1 $4,503.7 $(554.6)(12)%
Used vehicle wholesale revenue389.7 348.9 40.8 12 %
Used vehicle revenue$4,338.8 $4,852.6 $(513.7)(11)%
Gross profit:
Used vehicle retail gross profit$243.7 $323.7 $(80.0)(25)%
Used vehicle wholesale gross profit15.3 7.1 8.3 117 %
Used vehicle gross profit$259.1 $330.8 $(71.7)(22)%
Used vehicle retail units:
Used vehicle retail units125,124 139,446 (14,322)(10)%

Used Vehicle Metrics—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
As Reported:
Revenue per used vehicle retailed$31,508 $31,881 $(372)(1)%
Gross profit per used vehicle retailed$1,949 $2,291 $(342)(15)%
Used vehicle retail gross margin6.2 %7.2 %(1.0)%
Same Store:
Revenue per used vehicle retailed$31,562 $32,297 $(735)(2)%
Gross profit per used vehicle retailed$1,948 $2,321 $(374)(16)%
Used vehicle retail gross margin6.2 %7.2 %(1.0)%
Used vehicle revenue decreased by $782.8 million (15%), due to an $811.3 million (17%) decrease in used vehicle retail revenue, partially offset by a $28.5 million (8%) increase in used vehicle wholesale revenue. Same store used vehicle revenue decreased by $513.7 million (11%) due to a $554.6 million (12%) decrease in used vehicle retail revenue, partially offset by a $40.8 million (12%) increase in used vehicle wholesale revenue. Used vehicle revenues and unit volume have continued to
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contract during 2023, along with margins on both an all store and same store basis. Used vehicle revenue and unit volumes have been negatively impacted by the affordability headwinds and lack of inventory availability, especially in vehicles with lower mileage.
In 2023, total Company and same store used vehicle retail gross profit margins decreased 100 and 102 basis points, respectively, to both 6.2%. We attribute the decreases in used vehicle retail gross profit margin to a softening in the used vehicle market, which was at record highs in 2021 and, to a lesser extent 2022, as a result of new vehicle inventory shortages initially caused by COVID-19 disruptions followed by supply chain issues.
We believe that our used vehicle inventory continues to be well-aligned with current consumer demand, with approximately 32 days of supply as of December 31, 2023. This level of days of supply is in line with our historic targeted range of 30 to 35 days.
Parts and Service—
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
 (Dollars in millions)
As Reported:
Parts and service revenue$2,081.5$2,074.2$7.3 — %
Parts and service gross profit:
Customer pay709.5709.7(0.1)— %
Warranty148.4142.45.9 %
Wholesale parts78.779.4(0.7)(1)%
Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation936.6931.55.1 %
Parts and service gross margin, excluding reconditioning and preparation45.0%44.9%0.1 %
Reconditioning and preparation *214.0221.1(7.1)(3)%
Total parts and service gross profit$1,150.6$1,152.6$(2.1)— %
Total parts and service gross margin55.3%55.6%(0.3)%
Same Store:
Parts and service revenue$2,063.2$1,960.5$102.6 %
Parts and service gross profit:
Customer pay702.3668.433.8 %
Warranty147.5136.211.3 %
Wholesale parts78.375.92.5 %
Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation928.1880.547.6 %
Parts and service gross margin, excluding reconditioning and preparation45.0%44.9%0.1 %
Reconditioning and preparation *212.7207.35.4 %
Total parts and service gross profit$1,140.7$1,087.8$52.9 %
Total parts and service gross margin55.3%55.5%(0.2)%
* Reconditioning and preparation represents the gross profit earned by our parts and service departments for internal work performed and is included as a reduction of Parts and service cost of sales within the accompanying consolidated statements of income upon the sale of the vehicle.
The $7.3 million increase in parts and service revenue was due to a $6.3 million increase in customer pay revenue and a $10.2 million (4%) increase in warranty revenue, partially offset by a $9.2 million (2%) decrease in wholesale parts revenue. Same store parts and service revenue increased $102.6 (5%) from $1.96 billion in 2022 to $2.06 billion in 2023. The increase in same store parts and service revenue was due to a $72.1 million (6%) increase in customer pay revenue, a $19.8 million (8%) increase in warranty revenue and a $10.7 million (2%) increase in wholesale parts revenue.
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Parts and service gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, increased by $5.1 million (1%) to $936.6 million and same store gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, increased by $47.6 million (5%) to $928.1 million. The $47.6 million increase in same store gross profit, excluding reconditioning and preparation, is primarily due to a $33.8 million (5%) increase in customer pay gross profit, an $11.3 million (8%) increase in warranty gross profit, and a $2.5 million (3%) increase in wholesale parts gross profit. As a result of the shortage of new vehicle inventory, many customers have elected to keep their current vehicles longer which has generated additional customer pay and wholesale parts gross profit for the parts and service departments. We continue to focus on increasing our customer pay parts and service revenue over the long-term by improving the customer experience, providing competitive benefits to our technicians, capitalizing on our dealership training programs and upgrading equipment.
Finance and Insurance, net— 
 For the Year Ended December 31,Increase
(Decrease)
%
Change
 20232022
 (Dollars in millions, except for per vehicle data)
As Reported:
Finance and insurance, net revenue$676.2 $797.0 $(120.8)(15)%
Finance and insurance, net gross profit$638.2 $750.7 $(112.5)(15)%
Finance and insurance, net per vehicle sold$2,304 $2,480 $(177)(7)%
Same Store:
Finance and insurance, net revenue$667.3 $761.7 $(94.4)(12)%
Finance and insurance, net gross profit$629.4 $715.5 $(86.1)(12)%
Finance and insurance, net per vehicle sold$2,308 $2,527