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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from_____ to _____
Commission File Number: 001-39778
______________
ABNBLogo.jpg
Airbnb, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
______________
Delaware26-3051428
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
888 Brannan Street
San Francisco, California 94103
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(415) 510-4027
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
______________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
ABNBThe Nasdaq Stock Market
______________

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

As of April 22, 2024, 441,500,418 shares of the registrant's Class A common stock were outstanding, 193,343,397 shares of the registrant's Class B common stock were outstanding, no shares of the registrant’s Class C common stock were outstanding, and 9,200,000 shares of the registrant’s Class H common stock were outstanding.



AIRBNB, INC.
Form 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.
Item 3.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.



Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our strategy, future financial condition, future operations, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives of management, and expected market growth, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “may,” “will,” “shall,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “goal,” “objective,” “seeks,” or “continue” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions that concern our expectations, strategy, plans, or intentions. Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the effects of macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, slower growth or recession, higher interest rates, high unemployment, and foreign currency fluctuations, on the demand for travel or similar experiences;
the effects of fluctuations in demand for host homes, including lower demand in certain areas or as a result of oversupply in others;
the effects of supply constraints on availability of host homes;
our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests;
our ability to effectively manage our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
the impact of the ongoing armed conflicts around the world on our business;
our expectations regarding our financial performance, including our revenue, costs, Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization, and Free Cash Flow;
our expectations regarding future operating performance, including Nights and Experiences Booked, Gross Booking Value (“GBV”), Average Daily Rate, and GBV per Night and Experience Booked;
our ability to compete in our industry;
our expectations regarding the resilience of our model, including in areas such as domestic travel, short-distance travel, travel outside of top cities, and long-term stays;
our ability to stay in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or may become applicable to our business, both in the United States and internationally, and our expectations regarding various laws and restrictions that relate to our business;
seasonality and the effects of seasonal trends on our results of operations;
our expectations regarding the impact of our marketing strategy, and our ability to continue to attract guests and hosts to our platform through direct and unpaid channels;
anticipated trends, developments, and challenges in our industry, business, and the highly competitive markets in which we operate;
our ability to anticipate market needs or develop new or enhanced offerings and services to meet those needs;
our ability to manage expansion into international markets and new businesses;
laws, regulations, and rules that affect the short-term rental, long-term rental, and home sharing business that have limited and may continue to limit the ability or willingness of hosts to share their spaces over our platform and expose our hosts or us to significant fees or penalties;
the impact on our income as a result of the release of valuation allowances on deferred tax assets;
our expectations regarding lodging tax obligations and other non-income tax matters;
our expectations regarding our income tax liabilities, including anticipated increases in foreign taxes, valuation allowances, and the adequacy of our reserves;
our expectations regarding settlement discussions related to tax audits;
our expectations regarding the impact of the recently enacted Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax;
our ability to effectively manage our growth and expand our infrastructure and our ability to maintain our corporate culture, and our employee initiatives;
the safety, affordability, and convenience of our platform and our offerings;
our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us;
the sufficiency of our cash, cash equivalents, and investments to meet our liquidity needs;
our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property; and
our ability to make required payments under our credit agreement and to comply with the various requirements of our indebtedness.

We caution you that the foregoing list does not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts, and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance, or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur at all. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors. Risks that contribute to the uncertain nature of the forward-looking statements include, among others, the Company’s ability to retain existing hosts and guests and add new hosts and guests; any decline or disruption in the travel and hospitality industries or economic downturn; the Company’s ability to compete successfully; changes to the laws and regulations that may limit hosts’ ability and willingness to provide their listings, and/or result in significant fines, liabilities, and penalties to the Company; the effect of extensive regulation and oversight, litigation, and other proceedings related to the Company’s business in a variety of areas; the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business, including as a result of new strains or variants of the virus, the travel industry, travel trends, and the global economy generally; the Company’s ability to maintain its brand and reputation, and effectively drive traffic to its platform; the effectiveness of the Company’s strategy and business initiatives, including measures to improve trust and safety; the Company’s operations in international markets; the Company’s indebtedness; the Company’s final closing procedures, final adjustments, and other developments that may arise in the course of audit and review procedures; and changes in political, business, and economic conditions; as well as other risks listed or described from time to time in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. Moreover, we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and
1

uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made available. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and have filed as exhibits to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q by these cautionary statements.
2

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Airbnb, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except par value)
(unaudited)
December 31,
2023
March 31,
2024
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$6,874 $7,829 
Short-term investments (including assets reported at fair value of $2,507 and $2,524, respectively)
3,197 3,264 
Funds receivable and amounts held on behalf of customers5,869 8,737 
Prepaids and other current assets (including customer receivables of $249 and $212 and allowances of $44 and $37, respectively)
569 563 
Total current assets16,509 20,393 
Deferred tax assets, net
2,881 2,886 
Goodwill and intangible assets, net792 786 
Other assets, noncurrent463 472 
Total assets$20,645 $24,537 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities$2,654 $2,968 
Funds payable and amounts payable to customers5,869 8,737 
Unearned fees1,427 2,434 
Total current liabilities9,950 14,139 
Long-term debt1,991 1,992 
Other liabilities, noncurrent539 510 
Total liabilities12,480 16,641 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value:
Class A - authorized 2,000 shares; 438 and 443 shares issued & outstanding, respectively;
Class B - authorized 710 shares; 200 and 193 shares issued & outstanding, respectively;
Class C - authorized 2,000 shares; zero shares of Class C common stock issued & outstanding, respectively; and
Class H - authorized 26 shares; 9 shares issued and zero shares outstanding, respectively
  
Additional paid-in capital11,639 11,819 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(49)(9)
Accumulated deficit(3,425)(3,914)
Total stockholders’ equity8,165 7,896 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$20,645 $24,537 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3

Airbnb, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in millions, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Revenue$1,818 $2,142 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of revenue428 480 
Operations and support282 285 
Product development420 475 
Sales and marketing450 514 
General and administrative243 287 
Total costs and expenses1,823 2,041 
Income (loss) from operations(5)101 
Interest income146 202 
Other expense, net
(11)(10)
Income before income taxes130 293 
Provision for income taxes13 29 
Net income $117 $264 
Net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders:
Basic$0.18 $0.41 
Diluted$0.18 $0.41 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders:
Basic634 638 
Diluted670 654 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
4

Airbnb, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(in millions)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Net income $117 $264 
Other comprehensive income:
Net unrealized income (loss) on available-for-sale marketable securities, net of tax3 (3)
Net unrealized income (loss) on cash flow hedges, net of tax
(4)48 
Foreign currency translation adjustments3 (5)
Other comprehensive income2 40 
Comprehensive income $119 $304 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


Airbnb, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(in millions)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’ Equity
Shares
Amount
Balances as of December 31, 2022631 $ *$11,557 $(32)$(5,965)$5,560 
Net income— — — — 117 117 
Other comprehensive income— — — 2 — 2 
Exercise of common stock options
2 — *17 — — 17 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of shares withheld for taxes1 — *(155)— — (155)
Stock-based compensation— — 243 — — 243 
Repurchases of common stock(4)— *— — (493)(493)
Balances as of March 31, 2023630  $11,662 $(30)$(6,341)$5,291 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’ Equity
Shares
Amount
Balances as of December 31, 2023638 $ *$11,639 $(49)$(3,425)$8,165 
Net income— — — — 264 264 
Other comprehensive income— — — 40 — 40 
Exercise of common stock options
1 — *46 — — 46 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of shares withheld for taxes2 — *(168)— — (168)
Stock-based compensation— — 302 — — 302 
Repurchases of common stock(5)— *— — (753)(753)
Balances as of March 31, 2024636  $11,819 $(9)$(3,914)$7,896 
*Amounts round to zero and do not change rounded totals.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
6

Airbnb, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232024
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income $117 $264 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization11 14 
Stock-based compensation expense240 295 
Other, net12 4 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaids and other assets(32)13 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities250 325 
Unearned fees989 1,008 
Net cash provided by operating activities1,587 1,923 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of short-term investments(1,094)(826)
Sales and maturities of short-term investments917 756 
Other investing activities, net(6)(14)
Net cash used in investing activities
(183)(84)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(151)(155)
Proceeds from exercise of equity awards 17 46 
Repurchases of common stock(493)(750)
Change in funds payable and amounts payable to customers2,913 2,993 
Net cash provided by financing activities
2,286 2,134 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash79 (111)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash3,769 3,862 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, beginning of period12,103 12,667 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of period$15,872 $16,529 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds$11 $29 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

Note 1. Description of Business

Airbnb, Inc. (the “Company” or “Airbnb”) was incorporated in Delaware in June 2008 and is headquartered in San Francisco, California. The Company operates a global platform for unique stays and experiences. The Company’s marketplace model connects hosts and guests (collectively referred to as “customers”) online or through mobile devices to book spaces and experiences around the world.

Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) regarding interim financial information. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. As such, the information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on February 16, 2024. The results for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year. Certain immaterial amounts in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.

In the opinion of management, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are necessary for the fair statement of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows for these interim periods.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries in accordance with consolidation accounting guidance. All intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company regularly evaluates its estimates, including those related to bad debt reserves, fair value of investments, useful lives of long-lived assets and intangible assets, valuation of goodwill and intangible assets from acquisitions, contingent liabilities, insurance reserves, revenue recognition, valuation of common stock, stock-based compensation, and income and non-income taxes, among others. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.

As the impact of the uncertain macroeconomic conditions, including inflation and rising interest rates, continues to evolve, estimates and assumptions about future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty and therefore require increased judgment. These estimates and assumptions may change in future periods and will be recognized in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as new events occur and additional information becomes known. To the extent the Company’s actual results differ materially from those estimates and assumptions, the Company’s future unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements could be affected.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In June 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued guidance related to the fair value measurement of an equity security subject to contractual sale restrictions that prohibit the sale of the equity security. The new guidance also introduced new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value. The Company adopted the guidance effective January 1, 2024. There was no impact to the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements upon adoption.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

In December 2023, the FASB issued an update which expands income tax disclosure in an entity’s income tax rate reconciliation table and regarding cash taxes paid both in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. The update is effective for public companies in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 on a prospective basis, with the option to apply the update retrospectively. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new guidance to have a material impact on its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements other than the expanded footnote disclosure.

In November 2023, the FASB issued an update to improve disclosure of reportable segments on an annual and interim basis, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. The update is effective for public companies in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and for interim periods beginning after December 15, 2024, on a retrospective basis with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of the new guidance to have a material impact on its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements other than the expanded footnote disclosure.

There are other new accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB that the Company has adopted or will adopt, as applicable, and the Company does not believe any of these accounting pronouncements have had, or will have, a material impact on its unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.

8


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
Note 3. Supplemental Financial Statement Information

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash

The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets to the total amount presented in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows (in millions):

December 31,
2023
March 31,
2024
Cash and cash equivalents$6,874 $7,829 
Cash and cash equivalents included in funds receivable and amounts held on behalf of customers5,769 8,665 
Restricted cash included in prepaids and other current assets
24 35 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash presented in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows$12,667 $16,529 

Supplemental disclosures of balance sheet information

Supplemental balance sheet information consisted of the following (in millions):
December 31,
2023
March 31,
2024
Other assets, noncurrent:
Property and equipment, net$160 $171 
Operating lease right-of-use assets119 111 
Other184 190 
Other assets, noncurrent$463 $472 
Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities:
Indirect taxes payable and withholding tax reserves$1,119 $1,455 
Compensation and employee benefits436 346 
Accounts payable141 184 
Operating lease liabilities, current61 61 
Other897 922 
Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities
$2,654 $2,968 
Other liabilities, noncurrent:
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent$252 $237 
Other liabilities, noncurrent287 273 
Other liabilities, noncurrent$539 $510 

Payments to Customers

The Company makes payments to customers as part of its incentive programs (composed of referral programs and marketing promotions) and refund activities. The payments are generally in the form of coupon credits to be applied toward future bookings or as cash refunds.

The following table summarizes total payments made to customers (in millions):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Reductions to revenue
$77 $87 
Charges to operations and support
22 20 
Charges to sales and marketing expense
13 9 
Total payments made to customers
$112 $116 
9


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

Revenue Disaggregated by Geographic Region

The following table presents revenue disaggregated by listing location (in millions):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
North America$925 $1,015 
Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
458 567 
Latin America235 307 
Asia Pacific200 253 
Total revenue disaggregated by geographic region$1,818 $2,142 

Note 4. Investments

The following tables summarize the Company’s investments by major security type (in millions):
December 31, 2023
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Total
Estimated
Fair Value
Short-term investments
Debt securities:
Certificates of deposit$172 $ $ $172 
Government bonds332 1  333 
Commercial paper366   366 
Corporate debt securities1,490 4 (3)1,491 
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities
148 1 (4)145 
Total debt securities2,508 6 (7)2,507 
Time deposits690 — — 690 
Total short-term investments
$3,198 $6 $(7)$3,197 
Long-term investments (1)
Debt securities:
Corporate debt securities$13 $ $(9)$4 

March 31, 2024
Amortized
Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Total
Estimated
Fair Value
Short-term investments
Debt securities:
Certificates of deposit
$13 $ $ $13 
Government bonds
345   345 
Commercial paper
500   500 
Corporate debt securities
1,480 3 (4)1,479 
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities
191  (4)187 
Total debt securities2,529 3 (8)2,524 
Time deposits740 — — 740 
Total short-term investments
$3,269 $3 $(8)$3,264 
Long-term investments (1)
Debt securities:
Corporate debt securities$13 $ $(9)$4 

(1)Classified within other assets, noncurrent on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.
10


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
As of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, the Company did not have any available-for-sale debt securities for which the Company recorded credit-related losses.

Unrealized gains and losses, net of tax before reclassifications from accumulated other comprehensive loss (“AOCI”) to other expense, net were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024. Realized gains and losses reclassified from AOCI to other expense, net were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024.

Debt securities in an unrealized loss position had an estimated fair value of $777 million and $1.1 billion, and unrealized losses of $16 million and $18 million as of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, respectively. A total of $283 million and $479 million of these securities, with unrealized losses of $14 million and $16 million, were in a continuous unrealized loss position for more than twelve months as of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, respectively.

The following table summarizes the contractual maturities of the Company’s available-for-sale debt securities (in millions):

March 31, 2024
Amortized
Cost
Estimated
Fair Value
Due within one year$1,489 $1,489 
Due after one year through five years
957 947 
Due after five years
96 92 
Total$2,542 $2,528 

Note 5. Fair Value Measurements and Financial Instruments

The following table summarizes the Company’s financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in millions):
December 31, 2023
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents:
Money market funds$2,018 $ $ $2,018 
Certificates of deposit 1  1 
Government bonds 115  115 
Commercial paper 223  223 
Corporate debt securities 12  12 
2,018 351  2,369 
Short-term investments:
Certificates of deposit 172  172 
Government bonds 333  333 
Commercial paper 366  366 
Corporate debt securities 1,491  1,491 
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities 145  145 
 2,507  2,507 
Funds receivable and amounts held on behalf of customers:
Money market funds1,360   1,360 
Prepaids and other current assets:
Foreign exchange derivative assets 27  27 
Other assets, noncurrent:
Corporate debt securities  4 4 
Total assets at fair value$3,378 $2,885 $4 $6,267 
Liabilities
Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities:
Foreign exchange derivative liabilities$ $55 $ $55 
Other liabilities, noncurrent:
Foreign exchange derivative liabilities 5  5 
Total liabilities at fair value$ $60 $ $60 
11


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
March 31, 2024
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents:
Money market funds$2,144 $ $ $2,144 
Government bonds 124  124 
Commercial paper 251  251 
Corporate debt securities 39  39 
2,144 414  2,558 
Short-term investments:
Certificates of deposit 13  13 
Government bonds 345  345 
Commercial paper 500  500 
Corporate debt securities 1,479  1,479 
Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities 187  187 
 2,524  2,524 
Funds receivable and amounts held on behalf of customers:
Money market funds2,277   2,277 
Prepaids and other current assets:
Foreign exchange derivative assets 35  35 
Other assets, noncurrent:
Corporate debt securities  4 4 
Total assets at fair value$4,421 $2,973 $4 $7,398 
Liabilities
Accrued expenses, accounts payable and other current liabilities:
Foreign exchange derivative liabilities$ $15 $ $15 
Total liabilities at fair value$ $15 $ $15 

There were no material changes in unrealized losses included in other comprehensive income relating to investments measured at fair value for which the Company has utilized Level 3 inputs to determine fair value during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024.

There were no transfers of financial instruments into or out of Level 3 during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024.

Note 6. Derivative Instruments and Hedging

The Company has a portion of its business denominated and transacted in foreign currencies, which subjects the Company to foreign exchange risk, and uses derivative instruments to manage financial exposures that occur in the normal course of business. The Company does not hold or issue derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.

The Company may elect to designate certain derivatives to partially offset its business exposure to foreign exchange risk. However, the Company may choose not to hedge certain exposures for a variety of reasons including accounting considerations or the prohibitive economic cost of hedging particular exposures. There can be no assurance the hedges will offset more than a portion of the financial impact resulting from movements in foreign exchange rates.

Foreign Exchange Risk

To protect revenue from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, the Company may enter into forward contracts, option contracts, or other instruments, and may designate these instruments as cash flow hedges. The Company generally hedges portions of its forecasted foreign currency exposure associated with revenue, for up to 18 months.

The Company may also enter into derivative instruments that are not designated as accounting hedges to offset a portion of the foreign currency exchange gains and losses generated by the remeasurement of certain assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies.

12


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
The following table summarizes the effect of derivative instruments on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets (in millions):

Derivative Assets(1)
Location
December 31,
2023
March 31,
2024
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts (current) Prepaids and other current assets$4 $21 
Foreign exchange contracts (noncurrent)Other assets, noncurrent 1 
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments$4 $22 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts (current)Prepaids and other current assets$23 $15 

Derivative Liabilities(1)
Location
December 31,
2023
March 31,
2024
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts (current)
Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities
$25 $4 
Foreign exchange contracts (noncurrent)Other liabilities, noncurrent5  
Total derivatives designated as hedging instruments$30 $4 
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts (current)Accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities$30 $11 

(1)Derivative assets and derivatives liabilities are measured using Level 2 inputs.

To limit credit risk, the Company generally enters into master netting arrangements with the respective counterparties to the Company’s derivative contracts, under which the Company is allowed to settle transactions with a single net amount payable by one party to the other. As of March 31, 2024, the potential effect of these rights of off-set associated with the Company’s derivative contracts would be a reduction to both derivative assets and liabilities of $15 million, resulting in net derivative assets of $22 million.

The effect of derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2024.

Effect of derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments on AOCI

The following table summarizes the activity of derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges and the impact of these derivative contracts on AOCI, net of tax (in millions):
Gain (Loss) Recognized in Other Comprehensive Income
Gain (Loss) Reclassified from
AOCI into Revenues
Three Months Ended March 31,Three Months Ended March 31,
2023202420232024
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges:
Foreign exchange contracts$(4)$50 $ $2 

As of March 31, 2024, cumulative unrealized gains recorded in AOCI, net of tax related to derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments were $17 million.

Effect of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations

The following table presents the activity of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments and the impact of these derivative contracts on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations (in millions):
13


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

Realized Loss on Derivatives
Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Derivatives
Three Months Ended March 31,Three Months Ended March 31,
2023202420232024
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
Foreign exchange contracts$(20)$(21)$(1)$11 

Cash flow hedges

The total notional amount of outstanding foreign currency derivatives designated as cash flow hedges was $2.0 billion and $2.2 billion as of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, respectively.

As of March 31, 2024, approximately $16 million of deferred net gains on both outstanding and matured derivatives in AOCI are expected to be reclassified to revenue during the next 12 months concurrent with the underlying hedged transactions which will be recorded in revenue. Actual amounts ultimately reclassified to revenue are dependent on the exchange rates in effect when derivative contracts currently outstanding mature.

Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments

The total notional amount of outstanding derivatives not designated as hedging instruments was $2.4 billion and $3.1 billion as of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, respectively.

Note 7. Debt

Convertible Senior Notes

In 2021, the Company issued $2.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the "2026 Notes") pursuant to an indenture, dated March 8, 2021 (the "Indenture"), between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee.

As of both December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, total outstanding debt, net of unamortized debt discount and debit issuance costs, was $2.0 billion. Interest expense was immaterial for both the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024.

As of March 31, 2024, the if-converted value of the 2026 Notes did not exceed the outstanding principal amount.

As of March 31, 2024, the total estimated fair value of the 2026 Notes was $1.9 billion and was determined based on a market approach using actual bids and offers of the 2026 Notes in an over-the-counter market on the last trading day of the period, or Level 2 inputs.

2022 Credit Facility

In 2022, the Company entered into a five-year unsecured Revolving Credit Agreement, which provides for initial commitments by a group of lenders led by Morgan Stanley Senior Funding, Inc. of $1.0 billion (“2022 Credit Facility”). The 2022 Credit Facility provides a $200 million sub-limit for the issuance of letters of credit.

The 2022 Credit Facility contains customary events of default, affirmative and negative covenants, including restrictions on the Company’s and certain of its subsidiaries’ ability to incur debt and liens, undergo fundamental changes, as well as certain financial covenants. The Company was in compliance with all financial covenants as of March 31, 2024.

As of March 31, 2024, no amounts were drawn under the 2022 Credit Facility and outstanding letters of credit totaled $25 million.

Note 8. Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

The following table summarizes total stock-based compensation expense (in millions):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Operations and support$15 $19 
Product development149 185 
Sales and marketing28 35 
General and administrative48 56 
Stock-based compensation expense$240 $295 

14


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
Stock Option and Restricted Stock Unit Activity

A summary of stock option and restricted stock unit (“RSU”) activity under the Company’s equity incentive plans was as follows (in millions, except per share amounts):
Outstanding
Stock Options
Outstanding
RSUs
 Shares
Available for
Grant
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Grant
Date Fair
Value
As of December 31, 2023134 7 $71.76 30 $85.35 
Granted(7)  7 166.17 
Increase in shares available for grant13     
Options exercised/RSUs vested(1)
1 (1)42.12 (2)109.14 
As of March 31, 2024141 6 $80.12 35 $100.12 

(1)RSUs vested are net of shares withheld for taxes.
Number of
Shares
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Options outstanding as of March 31, 20246 $80.12 5.87$541 
Options exercisable as of March 31, 20245 $66.85 5.12$484 

Note 9. Commitments and Contingencies

Commitments

The Company has commitments including purchase obligations for web-hosting services and other commitments for brand marketing. As of March 31, 2024, there were no material changes outside the ordinary course of business to the Company’s commitments, as disclosed in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Lodging Tax Obligations and Other Non-Income Tax Matters

Platform Related Taxes and Collection Obligations

Some states and localities in the United States and elsewhere in the world impose transient occupancy or lodging accommodations taxes (“Lodging Taxes”) on the use or occupancy of lodging accommodations or other traveler services. As of March 31, 2024, the Company collects and remits Lodging Taxes in approximately 33,000 jurisdictions on behalf of its hosts. Such Lodging Taxes are generally remitted to tax jurisdictions within a 30 to 90-day period following the end of each month.

As of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, the Company had an obligation to remit Lodging Taxes collected from guests on bookings in these jurisdictions totaling $274 million and $508 million, respectively. These payables were recorded in accrued expenses, accounts payable, and other current liabilities on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.

In jurisdictions where the Company does not collect and remit Lodging Taxes, hosts are primarily responsible for such taxes. The Company has estimated Lodging Tax liabilities in a certain number of jurisdictions with respect to state, city, and local taxes where management believes it is probable that the Company can be held jointly liable with hosts for taxes and the related amounts can be reasonably estimated. As of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, accrued obligations related to these estimated taxes, including estimated penalties and interest, totaled $114 million and $124 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, the Company estimates that the reasonably possible loss related to certain Lodging Taxes that can be determined in excess of the amounts accrued is between $38 million to $48 million; however, no assurance can be given as to the outcomes and the Company could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. With respect to all other jurisdictions’ Lodging Taxes for which a loss is probable or reasonably possible, the Company is unable to determine an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss beyond the amounts already accrued.

The Company’s potential obligations with respect to Lodging Taxes could be affected by various factors, which include, but are not limited to, whether the Company determines or any tax authority asserts that the Company has a responsibility to collect lodging and related taxes on either historical or future transactions, or by the introduction of new ordinances and taxes that subject the Company’s operations to such taxes. Accordingly, the ultimate resolution of Lodging Taxes may be greater or less than the reserve amounts that the Company has recorded.

The Company is currently involved in disputes brought by certain domestic and international states and localities involving the payment of Lodging Taxes. These jurisdictions are asserting that the Company is liable or jointly liable with hosts to collect and remit Lodging Taxes. These disputes are in various stages and the Company continues to vigorously defend these claims. The Company believes that the statutes
15


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
at issue impose a Lodging Tax obligation on the person exercising the taxable privilege of providing accommodations, or the Company’s hosts.

The imposition of such taxes on the Company could increase the cost of a guest booking and potentially cause a reduction in the volume of bookings on the Company’s platform, which would adversely impact the Company’s results of operations. The Company will continue to monitor the application and interpretation of lodging and related taxes and ordinances and will adjust accruals based on any new information or further developments.

The Company is under audit and inquiry by various domestic and foreign tax authorities with regard to non-income tax matters. The subject matter of these contingent liabilities primarily arises from the Company’s transactions with its customers, as well as the tax treatment of certain employee benefits and related employment taxes. In jurisdictions with disputes connected to transactions with customers, disputes involve the applicability of transactional taxes (such as sales, value-added, and similar taxes) to services provided, as well as the applicability of withholding tax on payments made to such hosts. As of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, the Company accrued a total of $521 million and $428 million of estimated tax liabilities, including interest and penalties, related to hosts’ withholding tax obligations, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, the Company estimates that the reasonably possible loss related to withholding income taxes that can be determined in excess of the amounts accrued is between $95 million to $115 million; however, no assurance can be given as to the outcomes and the Company could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities. Due to the inherent complexity and uncertainty of these matters and judicial processes in certain jurisdictions, the final outcomes may exceed the estimated liabilities recorded.

The Company has identified reasonably possible exposures related to transactional taxes and business taxes and has not accrued for these amounts since the likelihood of the contingent liability is less than probable. As of March 31, 2024, the Company estimates that the reasonably possible loss related to these matters in excess of the amounts accrued is between $320 million and $340 million; however, no assurance can be given as to the outcomes and the Company could be subject to significant additional tax liabilities.

In 2017, Italy passed a law purporting to require short-term rental platforms that process payments to withhold and remit host income tax and collect and remit tourist tax, amongst other obligations (“2017 Law”). The Company challenged this law before the Italian courts and the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”). In December 2022, the CJEU found that European law does not prohibit member states from passing legislation requiring short-term rental platforms to withhold income taxes from their hosts, however a requirement to appoint a tax representative, on which the 2017 Law and the withholding obligations are based, is contrary to European Union (“EU”) law. In October 2023, the Italian national court upheld the ruling of the CJEU. The Company’s subsidiary in Italy and subsidiary in Ireland continue to be, or could be in the future, subject to tax audits in Italy, including in relation to permanent establishment, transfer pricing, and withholding obligations.

In May 2023, the Guardia di Finanza de Milano (“GdF”) issued a Tax Audit Report recommending to the Italian tax authorities a formal tax assessment of 779 million Euro on Airbnb’s subsidiary in Ireland relating to the 2017 Law and associated withholding tax obligations. On December 13, 2023, without admitting any liability, Airbnb Ireland signed an agreement with the Italian Revenue Agency (“ITA”) in settlement of the 2017-2021 audit period for an aggregate payment of 576 million Euro ($621 million). Such agreement settles a dispute about Airbnb Ireland’s obligations to withhold and remit host income tax, including taxes, interest, and penalties, for those relevant periods. The GdF conducted a withholding tax audit of Airbnb Ireland UC for the 2022 and 2023 tax years and issued a report to the ITA in March 2024. The Company expects to begin settlement discussions with the ITA in the second quarter 2024.

With respect to all other withholding tax on payments made to hosts and transactional taxes for which a loss is probable or reasonably possible, the Company is unable to determine an estimate of the possible loss or range of loss beyond the amounts already accrued.

Payroll Taxes

The Company is subject to regular payroll tax examinations by various international, state and local jurisdictions. Although management believes its tax withholding remittance practices are appropriate, the Company may be subject to additional tax liabilities, including interest and penalties, if any tax authority disagrees with the Company’s withholding and remittance practices, or if there are changes in laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles or interpretations related to payroll tax withholding in the various international, state and local jurisdictions.

In addition, as of December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024, the Company accrued a total of $43 million and $45 million of estimated tax liabilities related to employment taxes on certain employee benefits, respectively.

Legal and Regulatory Matters

The Company has been and is currently a party to various legal and regulatory matters arising in the normal course of business. Such proceedings and claims, even if not meritorious, can require significant financial and operational resources, including the diversion of management’s attention from the Company’s business objectives.

Regulatory Matters

The Company operates in a complex legal and regulatory environment and its operations are subject to various U.S. and foreign laws, rules, and regulations, including those related to: Internet activities; short-term rentals, long-term rentals and home sharing; real estate, property rights, housing and land use; travel and hospitality; privacy and data protection; intellectual property; competition; health and safety; protection of minors; consumer protection; employment; payments, money transmission, economic and trade sanctions, anti-corruption and anti-bribery; taxation; and others. In addition, the nature of the Company’s business exposes it to inquiries and potential claims related to the compliance of the business with applicable law and regulations. In some instances, applicable laws and regulations do not yet exist or are being applied, interpreted or implemented to address aspects of the Company’s business, and such adoption or interpretation could
16


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
further alter or impact the Company’s business.

In certain instances, the Company has been party to litigation with municipalities relating to or arising out of certain regulations. In addition, the implementation and enforcement of regulation can have an impact on the Company’s business.

Intellectual Property

The Company has been and is currently subject to claims relating to intellectual property, including alleged patent infringement. Adverse results in such lawsuits may include awards of substantial monetary damages, costly royalty or licensing agreements, or orders preventing the Company from offering certain features, functionalities, products, or services, and may also cause the Company to change its business practices or require development of non-infringing products or technologies, which could result in a loss of revenue or otherwise harm its business. To date, the Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such cases and has not recorded any material liabilities in its consolidated financial statements related to such matters.

Litigation and Other Legal Proceedings

The Company is currently involved in, and may in the future be involved in, legal proceedings, claims, and government investigations in the ordinary course of business. These include proceedings, claims, and investigations relating to, among other things, regulatory matters, commercial matters, intellectual property, competition, tax, employment, pricing, discrimination, consumer rights, personal injury, and property rights.

Depending on the nature of the proceeding, claim, or investigation, the Company may be subject to monetary damage awards, fines, penalties, and/or injunctive orders. Furthermore, the outcome of these matters could materially adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, and financial condition. The outcomes of legal proceedings, claims, and government investigations are inherently unpredictable and subject to significant judgment to determine the likelihood and amount of loss related to such matters. While it is not possible to determine the outcomes, the Company believes based on its current knowledge that the resolution of all such pending matters will not, either individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.

The Company establishes an accrued liability for loss contingencies related to legal matters when a loss is both probable and reasonably estimable. These accruals represent management’s best estimate of probable losses. Such currently accrued amounts are not material to the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. However, management’s views and estimates related to these matters may change in the future, as new events and circumstances arise and the matters continue to develop. Until the final resolution of legal matters, there may be an exposure to losses in excess of the amounts accrued. With respect to outstanding legal matters, based on current knowledge, the amount or range of reasonably possible loss will not, either individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. Legal fees are expensed as incurred.

Host Protections

The Company offers AirCover coverage, which includes but is not limited to, the Company’s Host Damage Protection program that provides protection of up to $3 million for direct physical loss or damage to a host’s covered property caused by guests during a confirmed booking and when the host and guest are unable to resolve the dispute. The Company retains risk and also maintains insurance from third parties on a per claim basis to protect the Company’s financial exposure under this program. In addition, through third-party insurers and self-insurance mechanisms, including a wholly-owned captive insurance subsidiary, the Company provides insurance coverage for third-party bodily injury or property damage liability claims that occur during a stay. The Company’s Host Liability Insurance and Experiences Liability Insurance consists of a commercial general liability policy, with hosts and the Company as named insureds and landlords of hosts as additional insureds. The Host Liability Insurance and Experiences Liability Insurance provides primary coverage for up to $1 million per occurrence, subject to a $1 million cap per listing location, and includes various market standard conditions, limitations, and exclusions.

Indemnifications

The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with certain of its employees, officers and directors. The indemnification agreements and the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”) require the Company to indemnify its directors and officers and those employees who have entered into indemnification agreements to the fullest extent not prohibited by Delaware law. Subject to certain limitations, the indemnification agreements and Bylaws also require the Company to advance expenses incurred by its directors and officers and those employees who have entered into indemnification agreements. No demands have been made upon the Company to provide indemnification or advancement under the indemnification agreements or the Bylaws, and thus, there are no indemnification or advancement claims that the Company is aware of that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.

In the ordinary course of business, the Company has included limited indemnification provisions in certain agreements with parties with whom the Company has commercial relations, which provisions are of varying scope and terms with respect to indemnification of certain matters, which may include losses arising out of the Company’s breach of such agreements or out of intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential loss under these indemnification provisions due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular provision. To date, no significant costs have been incurred, either individually or collectively, in connection with the Company’s indemnification provisions.

17


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
Note 10. Income Taxes

The Company’s tax provision for interim periods is determined by using an estimated annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items arising in that quarter. In each quarter, the Company updates the estimated annual effective tax rate and makes a year-to-date adjustment to the provision. The estimated annual effective tax rate is subject to significant volatility due to several factors, including accurately predicting the Company’s pre-tax and taxable income and loss and the mix of jurisdictions to which they relate, intercompany transactions, audit-related developments, and changes in statutes, regulations, case law, and administrative actions.

The Company recorded income tax expense of $13 million and $29 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2024, respectively, which were primarily driven by current and deferred tax on U.S. and foreign earnings, the accrual of interest on certain uncertain tax positions, and the income tax benefit from excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation arising during the quarter.

The Company’s significant tax jurisdictions include the United States, California, and Ireland. The Company is currently under examination for income taxes by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for the 2013, 2016, 2017, and 2018 tax years. The primary issue under examination in the 2013 audit is the valuation of the Company’s international intellectual property which was sold to a subsidiary in 2013. In the year ended December 31, 2019, new information became available which required the Company to remeasure its reserve for unrecognized tax benefits. The Company recorded additional tax expense of $196 million during the year ended December 31, 2019. In December 2020, the Company received a Notice of Proposed Adjustment (“NOPA”) from the IRS which proposed an increase to the Company’s U.S. taxable income that could result in additional income tax expense and cash liability of $1.3 billion, plus penalties and interest, which exceeds its current reserve recorded in its consolidated financial statements by more than $1.0 billion. The Company disagrees with the proposed adjustment and continues to vigorously contest it. In February 2021, the Company submitted a protest to the IRS describing its disagreement with the proposed adjustment and requesting the case be transferred to the IRS Independent Office of Appeals (“IRS Appeals”). In December 2021, the Company received a rebuttal from the IRS with the same proposed adjustments that were in the NOPA. In January 2022, the Company entered into an administrative dispute process with IRS Appeals. An acceptable outcome is not expected to be reached with IRS Appeals, and the Company expects to receive a Statutory Notice of Deficiency (“Notice”) from the IRS related to the aforementioned valuation of its international intellectual property consistent with the previously received NOPA, claiming that the Company owes $1.3 billion in tax, plus penalties and interest. The Company will continue to pursue all available remedies to resolve this dispute, including petitioning the U.S. Tax Court (“Tax Court”) for redetermination, and if necessary, appealing the Tax Court’s decision to the appropriate appellate court. The Company believes that adequate amounts have been reserved for any adjustments that may ultimately result from these examinations. If the IRS prevails in the assessment of additional tax due based on its position and such tax and related interest and penalties, if any, exceeds the Company’s current reserves, such outcome could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial position and results of operations, and any assessment of additional tax could require a significant cash payment and have a material adverse impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flow.

On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act was signed into law, with tax provisions primarily focused on implementing a 15% minimum tax known as the Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax (“CAMT”) on global adjusted financial statement income and a 1% excise tax on net share repurchases. The Inflation Reduction Act became effective beginning in fiscal year 2023. The Company anticipates paying a material amount of additional federal taxes in 2024 due to the CAMT. The additional CAMT will result in tax credits that are expected to offset the Company’s federal tax in subsequent years, thus there is no impact to the overall tax provision.

Note 11. Net Income per Share

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods indicated (in millions, except per share amounts):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Net income $117 $264 
Add: convertible notes interest expense, net of tax1 1 
Net income - diluted$118 $265 
Weighted-average shares in computing net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders:
Basic634 638 
Effect of dilutive securities36 16 
Diluted670 654 
Net income per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders:
Basic$0.18 $0.41 
Diluted$0.18 $0.41 

As of both March 31, 2023 and 2024, 9.6 million shares of RSUs were excluded from the table below because they are subject to performance conditions that were not achieved as of such date.

18


Airbnb, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)
Additionally, the following securities were not included in the computation of diluted shares outstanding because the effect would be anti-dilutive (in millions):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Stock options1 2 
RSUs8 4 
Total9 6 

Share Repurchase Program

In May 2023 and February 2024, the Company announced that its board of directors approved share repurchase programs to purchase up to $2.5 billion and $6.0 billion of the Company’s Class A common stock, respectively.

Share repurchases under these share repurchase programs may be made through a variety of methods, such as open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, block trades or accelerated share repurchase transactions or by any combination of such methods. Any such repurchases will be made from time to time subject to market and economic conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. These share repurchase programs do not obligate the Company to repurchase any specific number of shares and may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time at the Company’s discretion.

During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repurchased and subsequently retired 4.7 million shares of Class A common stock for $750 million, which completed the repurchases authorized under the share repurchase program announced in May 2023. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had $6.0 billion available to repurchase shares of Class A common stock under its share repurchase program.


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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (the “2023 Annual Report”). This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors” of our 2023 Annual Report. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future.

Overview

We are a community based on connection and belonging—a community that was born in 2007 when two hosts welcomed three guests to their San Francisco home, and has since grown to over 5 million hosts who have welcomed over 1.5 billion guest arrivals in almost every country and region across the globe. Every day, hosts offer unique stays and experiences that make it possible for guests to connect with communities in a more authentic way.

We have five stakeholders and we have designed our Company with all of them in mind. Along with employees and shareholders, we serve hosts, guests, and the communities in which they live. We intend to make long-term decisions considering all of our stakeholders because their collective success is key for our business to thrive.

First Quarter Financial Highlights

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, revenue grew by 18% to $2.1 billion, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to a 9.5% increase in Nights and Experiences Booked of 11.5 million driving a 12% increase in Gross Booking Value (“GBV”) of $2.5 billion, a modest increase in Average Daily Rate (“ADR”), and the shift in timing of Easter from the second quarter of 2023 to the first quarter of 2024. The growth in revenue demonstrated the continued strong travel demand.

Net income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by 126% to $264 million, compared to the same period in the prior year, driven by our revenue growth, increased interest income, and discipline in managing our cost structure.

Adjusted EBITDA1 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased 62% to $424 million, compared to the same period in the prior year, demonstrating the continued strength of our business, a modest increase in ADR, and discipline in managing our cost structure.

Our net cash provided by operating activities was $1.9 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $1.6 billion, in the same period in the prior year. We generated Free Cash Flow1 of $1.9 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $1.6 billion, in the same period in the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by growth in net income, and accrued expenses and other liabilities.

During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased 4.7 million shares of Class A common stock for $750 million, leaving $6.0 billion available to repurchase under our share repurchase program.

Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures

We track the following key business metrics and financial measures that are not calculated and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) (“non-GAAP financial measures”) to evaluate our operating performance, identify trends, formulate financial projections, and make strategic decisions. Accordingly, we believe that these key business metrics and non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our results of operations in the same manner as our management team. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance, and assists in comparisons with other companies, some of which use similar non-GAAP financial information to supplement their U.S. GAAP results.

These key business metrics and non-GAAP financial measures are presented for supplemental informational purposes only, should not be considered a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and may be different from similarly titled metrics or measures presented by other companies. A reconciliation of each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with U.S. GAAP is provided under the subsection titled “— Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation” and “— Free Cash Flow Reconciliation” below. Investors are encouraged to review the related U.S. GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures.

Nights and Experiences Booked

Nights and Experiences Booked is a key measure of the scale of our platform, which in turn drives our financial performance. Nights and Experiences Booked on our platform in a period represents the sum of the total number of nights booked for stays and the total number of seats booked for experiences, net of cancellations and alterations that occurred in that period. For example, a booking made on February 15 would be reflected in Nights and Experiences Booked for our quarter ended March 31. If, in the example, the booking were canceled on
1 A reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to the most comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures is provided under the subsection titled “Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures— Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation” and “— Free Cash Flow Reconciliation” below.
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May 15, Nights and Experiences Booked would be reduced by the cancellation for our quarter ended June 30. A night can include one or more guests and can be for a listing with one or more bedrooms. Nights and Experiences Booked grows as we attract new customers to our platform and as repeat guests increase their activity on our platform. A seat is booked for each participant in an experience. Substantially all of the bookings on our platform to date have come from nights. We believe Nights and Experiences Booked is a key business metric to help investors and others understand and evaluate our results of operations in the same manner as our management team, as it represents a single unit of transaction on our platform.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we had 132.6 million Nights and Experiences Booked, a 9.5% increase from 121.1 million for the same period in the prior year. The increase was driven by growth across all regions, with the strongest growth in Asia Pacific and Latin America, as we continue to focus on international expansion.

Gross Booking Value

GBV represents the dollar value of bookings on our platform in a period and is inclusive of host earnings, service fees, cleaning fees, and taxes, net of cancellations and alterations that occurred during that period. The timing of recording GBV and any related cancellations is similar to that described in the subsection titled “— Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures — Nights and Experiences Booked” above. Revenue from the booking is recognized upon check-in; accordingly, GBV is a leading indicator of revenue. The entire amount of a booking is reflected in GBV during the quarter in which booking occurs, whether the guest pays the entire amount of the booking upfront or elects to use our Pay Less Upfront program. Growth in GBV reflects our ability to attract and retain customers and reflects growth in Nights and Experiences Booked.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, our GBV was $22.9 billion, a 12% increase from $20.4 billion for the same period in the prior year. The increase was primarily due to an increase in Nights and Experiences Booked, combined with a modest increase in ADR. We saw GBV growth across all regions, with the strongest growth in Latin America and Asia Pacific.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Our non-GAAP financial measures include Adjusted EBITDA and Free Cash Flow, which are described below. A reconciliation of each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with U.S. GAAP is provided below. Investors are encouraged to review the related U.S. GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as a financial measure, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Because of these limitations, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including net income and our other U.S. GAAP results. Free Cash Flow has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of other U.S. GAAP financial measures, such as net cash provided by operating activities. Free Cash Flow does not reflect our ability to meet future contractual commitments and may be calculated differently by other companies in our industry, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure.

Non-GAAP MeasureDefinitionPurpose of Non-GAAP Measure
Adjusted EBITDA &
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
Adjusted EBITDA: Net income adjusted for:
provision for income taxes,
other expense, net,
interest income;
depreciation and amortization,
stock-based compensation expense,
acquisition-related impacts consisting of gains (losses) recognized on changes in the fair value of contingent consideration arrangements, and
lodging taxes for which management believes it is probable that we may be held jointly liable with hosts for collecting and remitting such taxes, and the applicability of withholding taxes on payments made to such hosts.
 
Adjusted EBITDA Margin: Adjusted EBITDA divided by revenue.
Enhances comparability on a consistent basis and provides investors with useful insight into the underlying trends of the business.

Used by management to make operating decisions such as evaluating performance, performing strategic planning, and budgeting.

Free Cash Flow
Net cash provided by operating activities less purchases of property and equipment.
Indicator of liquidity that provides information to our management and investors about the amount of cash generated from operations, after purchases of property and equipment, that can be used for strategic initiatives.

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The following table summarizes our non-GAAP financial measures, along with the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure, for each period presented below (in millions):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Net income $117 $264 
Net income as a percentage of revenue
%12 %
Adjusted EBITDA$262 $424 
Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue
14 %20 %
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,587 $1,923 
Net cash provided by operating activities as a percentage of revenue
87 %90 %
Free Cash Flow$1,581 $1,909 
Free Cash Flow as a percentage of revenue87 %89 %

Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation

The following is a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to the most comparable U.S. GAAP measure, net income (in millions, except percentages):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Revenue$1,818 $2,142 
Net income $117 $264 
Adjusted to exclude the following:
Provision for income taxes13 29 
Other expense, net11 10 
Interest income(146)(202)
Depreciation and amortization11 14 
Stock-based compensation expense(1)
240 295 
Acquisition-related impacts
12 
Lodging tax reserves and reserves for host withholding taxes
Adjusted EBITDA$262 $424 
Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of revenue14 %20 %

(1)Stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy.

The above items are excluded from our Adjusted EBITDA measure because they are non-cash in nature, or because the amount and timing of these items are unpredictable, not driven by core results of operations, and renders comparisons with prior periods and competitors less meaningful.

Adjusted EBITDA increased by $162 million to $424 million and Adjusted EBITDA Margin increased from 14% to 20% for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year. The improvements in Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin were primarily driven by the continued strength in our business, a modest increase in ADR, and discipline in managing our cost structure.

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Free Cash Flow Reconciliation

The following is a reconciliation of Free Cash Flow to the most comparable U.S. GAAP cash flow measure, net cash provided by operating activities (in millions, except percentages):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20232024
Revenue$1,818 $2,142 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,587 $1,923 
Purchases of property and equipment(6)(14)
Free Cash Flow$1,581 $1,909 
Free Cash Flow as a percentage of revenue87 %89 %
Other cash flow components:
Net cash used in investing activities$(183)$(84)
Net cash provided by financing activities$2,286 $2,134 

Our Free Cash Flow is impacted by the timing of GBV because we collect our service fees at the time of booking, which is generally before a stay or experience occurs. Funds held on behalf of our customers and amounts payable to our customers do not impact Free Cash Flow, except interest earned on these funds. The increase in Free Cash Flow for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, was primarily driven by growth in net income, and accrued expenses and other liabilities.

Seasonality

Our business is seasonal, reflecting typical travel behavior patterns over the course of the calendar year. In a typical year, the first, second, and third quarters have higher Nights and Experiences Booked than the fourth quarter, as guests plan for travel during the peak travel season, which is in the third quarter for North America and EMEA.

Our key business metrics, including GBV and Adjusted EBITDA, can also be impacted by the timing of holidays and other events. We experience seasonality in our GBV that is generally consistent with the seasonality of Nights and Experiences Booked. Revenue and Adjusted EBITDA have historically been, and are expected to continue to be, highest in the third quarter when we have the most check-ins, which is the point at which we recognize revenue. Seasonal trends in our GBV impact Free Cash Flow for any given quarter. A significant portion of our costs are relatively fixed across quarters or vary in line with the volume of transactions, and we historically achieve our highest GBV in the first and second quarters of the year with comparatively lower check-ins. As a result, increases in unearned fees typically make our Free Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow as a percentage of revenue the highest in the first two quarters of the year. We typically see a slight decline in GBV and a peak in check-ins in the third quarter, which results in a decrease in unearned fees, a lower sequential decrease in Free Cash Flow, and a greater decline in GBV in the fourth quarter, where Free Cash Flow is typically lower.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the periods presented (in millions):

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Revenue$1,818 $2,142 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of revenue428 480 
Operations and support(1)
282 285 
Product development(1)
420 475 
Sales and marketing(1)
450 514 
General and administrative(1)
243 287 
Total costs and expenses1,823 2,041 
Income (loss) from operations(5)101 
Interest income146 202 
Other expense, net(11)(10)
Income before income taxes130 293 
Provision for income taxes13 29 
Net income $117 $264 

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(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows (in millions):

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Operations and support$15 $19 
Product development149 185 
Sales and marketing28 35 
General and administrative48 56 
Stock-based compensation expense$240 $295 

The following table sets forth the components of our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations for each of the periods presented as a percentage of revenue:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024
Revenue100 %100 %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of revenue24 22 
Operations and support15 14 
Product development23 22 
Sales and marketing25 24 
General and administrative13 13 
Total costs and expenses100 95 
Income (loss) from operations— 
Interest income
Other expense, net— (1)
Income before income taxes13 
Provision for income taxes
Net income %12 %

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 with the Same Period in 2023

Revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Revenue$1,818 $2,142 18 %

Revenue increased $324 million, or 18%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to a 9.5% increase in Nights and Experiences Booked driving a 12% increase in GBV, a modest increase in ADR, and the shift in timing of Easter from the second quarter of 2023 to the first quarter of 2024.

Cost of Revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Cost of revenue$428 $480 12 %
Percentage of revenue24 %22 %

Cost of revenue increased $52 million, or 12%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to an increase in merchant fees of $56 million, largely due to an increase in pay-in volumes, and an increase in cloud computing costs of $8 million, due to increased server and data storage usage. These increases were partially offset by a reduction in chargebacks of $13 million.

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Operations and Support
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Operations and support$282 $285 %
Percentage of revenue15 %14 %

Operations and support expense was relatively flat compared to the same period in the prior year.

Product Development
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Product development$420 $475 13 %
Percentage of revenue23 %22 %

Product development expense increased $55 million, or 13%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to a $51 million increase in payroll-related expenses due to growth in headcount and increased compensation costs.

Sales and Marketing
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Brand and performance marketing$307 $370 21 %
Field operations and policy143 144 %
Total sales and marketing$450 $514 14 %
Percentage of revenue25 %24 %

Sales and marketing expense increased $64 million, or 14%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase was primarily due to a $60 million increase in marketing activities associated with ongoing marketing campaigns, and search engine marketing.

General and Administrative
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
General and administrative$243 $287 18 %
Percentage of revenue13 %13 %

General and administrative expense increased $44 million, or 18%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to a $21 million increase in non-income taxes and a $15 million increase in non-recurring employee taxes.

Interest Income
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Interest income$146 $202 38 %
Interest income increased $56 million, or 38%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period in the prior year, primarily due to higher cash and investment balances and higher interest rates.


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Other Expense, Net
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Other expense, net$(11)$(10)(9)%

Other expense, net was relatively flat compared to the same period in the prior year.

Provision for Income Taxes
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20232024

% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Provision for income taxes$13 $29 123 %

The provision for income taxes increased primarily due to increased profitability, additional deferred tax expense resulting from last year’s valuation allowance release on our U.S. deferred tax assets and the utilization of some of those assets in the current year, the accrual of interest on certain uncertain tax positions, partially offset by the income tax benefit from excess tax benefits on stock-based compensation arising during the quarter.

In 2021, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) established an inclusive framework on base erosion and profit shifting and agreed on a two-pillar solution to global taxation, focusing on global profit allocation, known to as Pillar One and a 15% global minimum effective tax rate, known as Pillar Two. On December 15, 2022, the EU member states agreed to implement the OECD’s global minimum tax rate of 15%. The OECD issued Pillar Two model rules and continues to release guidance on these rules. The inclusive framework calls for tax law changes by participating countries to take effect in 2024 and 2025. Various countries have enacted or have announced plans to enact new tax laws to implement the global minimum tax. We considered the applicable tax law changes on Pillar Two implementation in the relevant countries, and concluded there was no material impact to our tax provision for the three months ended March 31, 2024. We will continue to evaluate the impact of these tax law changes on future reporting periods.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources and Conditions of Liquidity

As of March 31, 2024, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments totaling $11.1 billion. As of March 31, 2024, cash and cash equivalents totaled $7.8 billion, which included $2.2 billion held by our foreign subsidiaries. Cash and cash equivalents consist of checking and interest-bearing accounts and highly-liquid securities with an original maturity of 90 days or less. As of March 31, 2024, short-term investments totaled $3.3 billion. Short-term investments primarily consist of highly-liquid investment grade corporate debt securities, time deposits, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, U.S. government and government agency debt securities (“government bonds”), and mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. These amounts do not include funds of $8.7 billion as of March 31, 2024, that we held for bookings in advance of guests completing check-ins that we record separately on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet in funds receivable and amounts held on behalf of customers with a corresponding liability in funds payable and amounts payable to customers.

Our cash and cash equivalents are generally held at large global systemically important banks (or “G-SIBs”) which are subject to high capital requirements and are required to regularly perform stringent stress tests related to their ability to absorb capital losses. Our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments held outside the United States may be repatriated, subject to certain limitations, and would be available to be used to fund our domestic operations. However, repatriation of such funds may result in additional tax liabilities. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments balances in the United States are sufficient to fund our working capital needs in the United States.

We have access to $1.0 billion of commitments and a $200 million sub-limit for the issuance of letters of credit under the 2022 Credit Facility. As of March 31, 2024, no amounts were drawn under the 2022 Credit Facility and outstanding letters of credit totaled $25 million.

Material Cash Requirements

As of March 31, 2024, we had outstanding $2.0 billion in aggregate principal amount of indebtedness of our 0% convertible senior notes due in 2026. On March 3, 2021, in connection with the pricing of the 2026 Notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions (the “Capped Calls”) with certain of the initial purchasers and other financial institutions (the "option counterparties") at a cost of approximately $100 million. The cap price of the Capped Calls was $360.80 per share of Class A common stock, which represented a premium of 100% over the last reported sale price of the Class A common stock of $180.40 per share on March 3, 2021, subject to certain customary adjustments under the terms of the Capped Call Transactions.
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In February 2024, our board of directors approved an additional share repurchase program to purchase up to $6.0 billion of our Class A common stock. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased an aggregate of 4.7 million shares of Class A common stock for $750 million through our share repurchase programs. As of March 31, 2024, we had $6.0 billion available to repurchase shares of Class A common stock under our share repurchase program.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated (in millions):

 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20232024
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,587 $1,923 
Net cash used in investing activities(183)(84)
Net cash provided by financing activities2,286 2,134 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash79 (111)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$3,769 $3,862 

Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $1.9 billion, which was primarily due to net income of $264 million, additional cash provided by a $1.0 billion increase in unearned fees resulting from growth in bookings, and accrued expenses and other liabilities of $325 million. Additionally, we had adjustments for non-cash charges, primarily consisting of $295 million of stock-based compensation expense.

Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $84 million, which was primarily due to purchases of short-term investments, partially offset by proceeds resulting from sales and maturities of short-term investments.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $2.1 billion, primarily due to a decrease in funds payable and amounts payable to customers of $3.0 billion, partially offset by share repurchases of $750 million and an increase in taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards of $155 million.

The effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash on our consolidated statements of cash flows relates to certain of our assets, principally cash balances held on behalf of customers, that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of certain of our subsidiaries. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recorded a decrease of $111 million in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar. The impact of exchange rate changes on cash balances can serve as a natural hedge for the effect of exchange rates on our liabilities to our hosts and guests.

We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to generate cash to fund our short- and long-term cash requirements. As such, we believe that the cash flows generated from operating activities will meet our anticipated cash requirements in the short-term. In addition to normal working capital requirements, we anticipate that our short- and long-term cash requirements will include share repurchases, introduction of new products and offerings, timing and extent of spending to support our efforts to develop our platform, debt repayments, and expansion of sales and marketing activities. Our future capital requirements, however, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to our growth, headcount, and ability to attract and retain customers on our platform. Additionally, we may in the future raise additional capital or incur additional indebtedness to continue to fund our strategic initiatives. On a long-term basis, we would rely on either our access to the capital markets or our credit facility for any long-term funding not provided by operating cash flows and cash on hand. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may seek to raise additional funds at any time through equity, equity-linked arrangements, and/or debt, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired and at reasonable rates, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Our liquidity is subject to various risks including the risks identified in the section titled "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk" in Item 3.