10-Q 1 acel-20220331.htm 10-Q acel-20220331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2022
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______ to ______
Commission File Number 001-38136
Accel Entertainment, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware98-1350261
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
140 Tower Drive
Burr Ridge, Illinois 60527
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(630) 972-2235
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolsName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A-1 Common Stock, par value $.0001 per shareACELThe New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
As of May 2, 2022, there were 92,051,003 shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A-1 Common Stock, par value $.0001 per share.





ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I.
ITEM 1.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at March 31, 2022 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2021
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART II.
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 6.


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except per share amounts)Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Revenues:
Net gaming$188,462 $140,464 
Amusement4,990 4,049 
ATM fees and other revenue3,439 2,556 
Total net revenues196,891 147,069 
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenue (exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense shown below)132,620 98,891 
General and administrative31,119 24,475 
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment5,841 5,989 
Amortization of route and customer acquisition costs and location contracts acquired3,548 6,106 
Other expenses, net2,556 2,053 
Total operating expenses175,684 137,514 
Operating income21,207 9,555 
Interest expense, net4,001 3,344 
(Gain) loss on change in fair value of contingent earnout shares(3,417)2,797 
Income before income tax expense 20,623 3,414 
Income tax expense4,835 1,913 
Net income$15,788 $1,501 
Net income per common share:
Basic$0.17 $0.02 
Diluted0.17 0.02 
Weighted average number of shares outstanding:
Basic92,993 93,471 
Diluted93,741 94,280 
Comprehensive income
Net income$15,788 $1,501 
Unrealized gain on investment in convertible notes (net of income taxes of $0 and $187, respectively)
 469 
Unrealized gain on interest rate caplets (net of income taxes of $1,934 and $0, respectively)
4,864  
Comprehensive income$20,652 $1,970 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements


1

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except par value and share amounts)
March 31,December 31,
20222021
Assets(Unaudited)
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$194,898 $198,786 
Prepaid expenses6,279 6,998 
Interest rate caplets10,532  
Investment in convertible notes32,065 32,065 
Other current assets10,830 10,146 
Total current assets254,604 247,995 
Property and equipment, net157,278 152,251 
Other noncurrent assets:
Route and customer acquisition costs, net15,935 15,913 
Location contracts acquired, net147,397 150,672 
Goodwill46,199 46,199 
Other assets3,101 3,043 
Total other noncurrent assets212,632 215,827 
Total assets$624,514 $616,073 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Current maturities of debt$18,457 $17,500 
Current portion of route and customer acquisition costs payable2,043 2,079 
Accrued location gaming expense3,359 3,969 
Accrued state gaming expense12,769 11,441 
Accounts payable and other accrued expenses19,397 14,616 
Accrued compensation and related expenses4,244 8,886 
Current portion of consideration payable12,101 13,344 
Total current liabilities72,370 71,835 
Long-term liabilities:
Debt, net of current maturities323,057 324,022 
Route and customer acquisition costs payable, less current portion3,871 3,953 
Consideration payable, less current portion12,006 12,706 
Contingent earnout share liability39,414 42,831 
Warrant and other long-term liabilities 17 17 
Deferred income tax liability6,957 2,248 
Total long-term liabilities385,322 385,777 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred Stock, par value of $0.0001; 1,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
  
Class A-1 Common Stock, par value $0.0001; 250,000,000 shares authorized; 92,484,542 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022; 93,410,563 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2021
9 9 
Additional paid-in capital189,299 187,656 
Treasury stock, at cost(22,917)(8,983)
Accumulated other comprehensive income4,864  
Accumulated deficit(4,433)(20,221)
Total stockholders' equity166,822 158,461 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$624,514 $616,073 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
2

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except shares)Accumulated
Class A-1AdditionalTreasuryOtherTotal
Common StockPaid-InStockComprehensiveAccumulatedStockholders’
SharesAmountCapitalSharesAmountIncomeDeficitEquity
Balance, January 1, 202293,410,563 $9 $187,656 (701,305)$(8,983)$ $(20,221)$158,461 
Repurchase of common stock(1,087,990)— — (1,087,990)(13,934)— — (13,934)
Stock-based compensation— — 1,605 — — — — 1,605 
Exercise of stock-based awards161,969 — 38 — — — — 38 
Unrealized gain on interest rate caplets— — — — — 4,864 — 4,864 
Net income— — — — — — 15,788 15,788 
Balance, March 31, 202292,484,542 $9 $189,299 (1,789,295)$(22,917)$4,864 $(4,433)$166,822 

(In thousands, except shares)Accumulated
Class A-1AdditionalOtherTotal
Common StockPaid-InComprehensiveAccumulatedStockholders’
SharesAmountCapitalIncomeDeficitEquity
Balance, January 1, 202193,379,508 $9 $179,549 $93 $(51,780)$127,871 
Stock-based compensation— — 1,593 — — 1,593 
Unrealized gain on investment in convertible notes— — — 469 — 469 
Net income— — — — 1,501 1,501 
Balance, March 31, 202193,379,508 $9 $181,142 $562 $(50,279)$131,434 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
3

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(In thousands)Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income $15,788 $1,501 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment5,841 5,989 
Amortization of route and customer acquisition costs and location contracts acquired
3,548 6,106 
Amortization of debt issuance costs626 504 
(Gain) loss on change in fair value of contingent earnout shares(3,417)2,797 
Stock-based compensation1,605 1,593 
(Gain) on disposal of property and equipment(105)(34)
Net loss on write-off of route and customer acquisition costs and route and customer acquisition costs payable174 104 
Remeasurement of contingent consideration(385)228 
Payments on consideration payable
(1,116)(89)
Accretion of interest on route and customer acquisition costs payable, contingent consideration, and contingent stock consideration
708 615 
Deferred income taxes2,775 1,700 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaid expenses and other current assets199 (908)
Income taxes receivable 3,341 
Route and customer acquisition costs(469)(650)
Route and customer acquisition costs payable(184)39 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses1,173 (886)
Accrued compensation and related expenses(4,642)(335)
Other assets(58)(29)
Net cash provided by operating activities22,061 21,586 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(6,752)(2,044)
Proceeds from the sale of property and equipment365 65 
Business and asset acquisitions, net of cash acquired (483)
Net cash used in investing activities(6,387)(2,462)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Payments on term loan (3,000)
Payments on delayed draw term loans (1,563)
Proceeds from line of credit 27,000 
Payments on line of credit(4,375)(3,000)
Payments for repurchase of common stock(13,934) 
Payments on interest rate caplets(157) 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and warrants38  
Payments on consideration payable(1,084)(334)
Tax withholding on share-based payments(50) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(19,562)19,103 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents(3,888)38,227 
Cash and cash equivalents:
Beginning of period198,786 134,451 
End of period$194,898 $172,678 
4

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - (Continued)
(Unaudited)
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash payments (refunds) for:
Interest$3,386 $3,008 
Income taxes$(204)$ 
Supplemental schedules of noncash investing and financing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$4,338 $3,853 
Deferred premium on interest rate caplets$3,898 $ 
Acquisition of businesses and assets:
Total identifiable net assets acquired$ $483 
Cash purchase price$ $483 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements


5

ACCEL ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Note 1. Description of Business
Accel Entertainment, Inc.'s (and together with its subsidiaries, the Company”) wholly owned subsidiary, Accel Entertainment Gaming LLC, is a terminal operator licensed by the State of Illinois Gaming Board (“IGB”) since March 15, 2012. Its terminal operator license allows the Company to install and operate video gaming terminals (“VGTs”) in licensed video gaming locations throughout the State of Illinois as approved by individual municipalities. The Company also operates redemption terminals, which also function as automated teller machines (“ATMs”) at its licensed video gaming locations, and amusement equipment at certain locations. The Illinois terminal operator license, which is not transferable or assignable, requires compliance with applicable regulations and the license is renewable annually unless sooner cancelled or terminated. In July 2020, the Georgia Lottery Corporation approved one of the Company's consolidated subsidiaries as a licensed operator, or Master Licensee, which allows the Company to install and operate coin operated amusement machines for commercial use by the public for play throughout the State of Georgia. The Company also holds a license from the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board. On December 30, 2021, one of the Company's consolidated subsidiaries acquired amusement and ATM operations in Iowa and registered with the Iowa Department of Inspections and Appeals to conduct such operations in Iowa. The Company is also subject to various other federal, state and local laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations.
The Company operates 13,663 and 12,720 video gaming terminals across 2,565 and 2,470 locations in the State of Illinois as of March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Company is an emerging growth company (“EGC”) under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”) following the consummation of a reverse recapitalization that occurred on November 20, 2019. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards pursuant to Section 107(b) of the JOBS Act and as a result of this election, its financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates. The Company expects to remain an EGC until December 31, 2022.
Impact of COVID-19 on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak and its related variants are having a significant impact on global markets as a result of prior and current government-mandated business closures, supply chain and production disruptions, workforce restrictions, travel restrictions, reduced consumer spending and sentiment, amongst other factors, which are, individually or in the aggregate, negatively affecting the financial performance, liquidity and cash flow projections of many companies in the United States and abroad.
A surge of COVID-19 infections occurred in the fall of 2020, as the virus spread in every geographical region (currently 11 regions) in the State of Illinois. In response, the IGB suspended all video gaming operations across the entire state of Illinois starting at 11:01 PM on Thursday November 19, 2020. Video gaming operations resumed in certain regions of the state beginning on January 16, 2021, and fully resumed in all regions on January 23, 2021. Even though video gaming operations resumed across all regions, certain regions still had government-imposed restrictions that, among other things, limited hours of operation and restricted the number of patrons allowed within the licensed establishments. Given the staggered reopening by region in January of 2021, the temporary shutdown impacted, on average, 18 of the 90 gaming days (or 20% of gaming days) during the three months ended March 31, 2021. In light of these events and their effect on the Company’s employees and licensed establishment partners, the Company took action to help mitigate the potential effects caused by the temporary cessation of operations by furloughing idle staff as appropriate and deferring certain payments to major vendors.
6

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

As a result of these developments, the Company's revenues, results of operations and cash flows were materially affected for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
While COVID-19 infection rates and the related stress on the healthcare system currently remain low, it is possible that the IGB or the State of Illinois may order a future shutdown by region (currently 11 regions), or a complete suspension of video gaming in the state, or institute stay-at-home, closure or other similar orders or measures in the future in response to a resurgence of COVID-19, particularly in light of variant strains of the virus, or other events. If this were to occur, the Company could recognize impairment losses which could be material.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of presentation and preparation: The condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes were prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and of its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements include all recurring adjustments and normal accruals necessary for a fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the dates and periods presented. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 (the “Form 10-K”). In preparing our condensed consolidated financial statements, we applied the same significant accounting policies as described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in the Form 10-K. Any significant changes to those accounting policies are discussed below. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year.
Use of estimates: The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect (i) the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, (ii) disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and (iii) the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates used by the Company include, among other things, the useful lives for depreciable and amortizable assets, income tax provisions, the evaluation of the future realization of deferred tax assets, projected cash flows in assessing the initial valuation of intangible assets in conjunction with business acquisitions, the selection of useful lives for depreciable and amortizable assets in conjunction with business acquisitions, the valuation of level 3 investments, the valuation of contingent earnout shares and interest rate caplets, contingencies, and the expected term of share-based compensation awards and stock price volatility when computing share-based compensation expense. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Change in estimate: During the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company conducted a review of its estimate of depreciable lives for its gaming terminals and equipment. As a result of this review, the Company extended the useful lives of its gaming terminals and equipment from 10 years to 13 years as the equipment is lasting longer than originally estimated. The Company has many gaming terminals and equipment that were purchased when the Company started operations in 2012 that are still being used today.
Also, during the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company conducted a review of its estimate of the amortization periods for its route and customer acquisition costs and its location contracts. As a result of this review, the Company extended the amortization period of its route and customer acquisition costs from 12.4 years to 18 years and its location contracts from 10 years to 15 years. In both cases the extended useful lives reflect the Company's strong relationship with its licensed establishment partners as demonstrated by continued high contract renewal rates.

7

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

The impact of these changes in estimate for the three months ended March 31, 2022, was as follows (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31, 2022
Decrease to depreciation expense$1,230 
Decrease to amortization expense$2,718 
Increase to net income$2,823 
Increase to net income per share$0.03 
Segment information: The Company operates as a single reportable operating segment. The Company’s chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) is the chief executive officer, who has ultimate responsibility for the operating performance of the Company and the allocation of resources. The CODM assesses the Company’s performance and allocates resources based on consolidated results, and this is the only discrete financial information that is regularly reviewed by the CODM.
Derivative instruments: The Company may manage its exposure to certain financial risks through the use of derivative financial instruments (“derivatives”). The Company does not use derivatives for speculative purposes. For a derivative that is designated as a cash flow hedge, changes in the fair value of the derivative are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income to the extent the derivative is effective at offsetting the changes in the cash flows being hedged until the hedged item affects earnings.
Recent accounting pronouncementsIn February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The guidance in this ASU supersedes the leasing guidance in Topic 840, Leases. In July 2018, the FASB also issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides an optional transition method allowing the standard to be applied at the adoption date. Under the new guidance, lessees are required to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. Based on its status as an EGC, the Company expects the new standard will be effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2021. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. The Company is assessing the impact of the standard on its condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as evaluating the impact on arrangements within potential future acquisitions.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805). The guidance in this ASU improves the accounting for revenue contracts with customers acquired in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and inconsistency related to recognition of contract assets and liabilities acquired in a business combination. The provisions of this ASU require that an acquiring entity accounts for the related revenue contracts in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606 as if it had originated the contracts. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the impact of the adoption of this ASU to be material to its financial statements or disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848). This ASU provides temporary guidance to ease the potential burden in accounting for reference rate reform primarily resulting from the discontinuation of LIBOR, which began phasing out on December 31, 2021. The amendments in ASU 2020-04 are elective and apply to all entities that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued. The new guidance (i) simplifies accounting analyses under current GAAP for contract modifications; (ii) simplifies the assessment of hedge effectiveness and allows hedging relationships affected by reference rate reform to continue; and (iii) allows a one-time election to sell or transfer debt securities classified as held to maturity that reference a rate affected by reference rate reform. An entity may elect to apply the amendments prospectively from March 12, 2020, through December 31, 2022 by accounting topic. The Company currently references LIBOR for certain debt and hedging arrangements. While no material
8

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

impacts are expected from the transition from LIBOR, the Company will continue to evaluate the provisions of this ASU and the impacts of transitioning to an alternative rate.
Other recently issued accounting standards or pronouncements have been excluded because they are either not relevant to the Company, or are not expected to have, or did not have, a material effect on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
Note 3. Investment in Convertible Notes
On July 19, 2019, the Company entered into an agreement to purchase up to $30.0 million in convertible notes from Gold Rush Amusements, Inc. (“Gold Rush”), another terminal operator in Illinois, that bore interest at 3% per annum through December 31, 2021. The convertible notes each included an option to convert the notes to common stock of Gold Rush prior to the maturity date upon written notice from the Company. At closing, the Company purchased a $5.0 million convertible promissory note which was subordinated to Gold Rush’s credit facility and matured six months following the satisfaction of administrative conditions.
On October 11, 2019, the Company purchased an additional $25.0 million convertible note which was also subordinated to Gold Rush’s credit facility and, beginning on July 1, 2020, the balance of this note, if not previously converted, was payable in equal $1,000,000 monthly installments until all principal has been repaid in full.
On July 30, 2020, the Company and Gold Rush entered into the Omnibus Amendment (the “Amendment”) to the original agreement to purchase convertible notes from Gold Rush. The Amendment, among other things, extended the maturity date of the $5.0 million convertible note and the beginning of the payback period for the $25.0 million convertible note until December 31, 2020.
On March 9, 2021, the Company and Gold Rush entered into the Second Omnibus Amendment (the “Second Amendment”) to both of the convertible notes and the agreement to purchase the convertible notes. The Second Amendment, among other things, extended the December 31, 2020, maturity and conversion feature of the $5.0 million convertible note to December 31, 2021, the maturity and conversion feature of the $25.0 million convertible note to June 1, 2024 and the beginning of the payback period for the $25.0 million convertible note from December 31, 2020 to January 1, 2022.
On July 30, 2021, the Company provided notice to Gold Rush that it was exercising its rights under each of the convertible notes to convert the entire aggregate principal amount and accrued interest into common stock of Gold Rush, subject to approval from the IGB to transfer the common stock to the Company and receipt of other customary closing deliverables.
On December 2, 2021, the Company received notice from the administrator of the IGB that he was denying the requested transfer of Gold Rush common stock to the Company. The Company disagreed with the administrator’s ruling and requested that the matter be put before the IGB for a public vote. On January 27, 2022, the IGB affirmed the administrator’s denial. Although the Company is pursuing all administrative remedies available to contest the IGB’s ruling, this denial has impacted the conversion assumptions previously used in the accounting valuation of the convertible notes.
On March 9, 2022, the Company filed a lawsuit in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois against Gold Rush relating to the Gold Rush convertible notes. The complaint seeks damages for breach of contract and the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing as well as unjust enrichment. The lawsuit is publicly available.
Based on the IGB denying the Company’s request to transfer Gold Rush common stock despite the Company’s unilateral conversion rights, the convertible notes continue to be accounted for as available for sale debt securities, at fair value, with gains and losses recorded in other comprehensive income (loss). As of the filing of the financial statements, the Gold Rush convertible notes (which the Company converted under the terms of the convertible notes to shares of common stock of Gold Rush, but the IGB has currently denied the distribution of shares to the Company) are deemed in default for disclosure and presentation purposes, assuming non-conversion of the convertible notes, as no repayment or installment payments have been received. The
9

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Company has classified the entire $32.1 million accounting fair value, of the convertible notes as current on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as the Company hopes to resolve this matter within the next year. The Company did not further adjust the valuation of the convertible notes downward as the Company believes, assuming for accounting purposes that the notes have not been converted, the recorded amounts approximate the accounting fair value. If successful, the Company's legal remedies with respect to its rights to receive the Gold Rush common stock or equivalent amounts it is entitled to receive with respect to the convertible notes could be materially in excess of the current accounting fair value. The Company recognized within comprehensive income an unrealized gain of $0.5 million, net of income taxes, for the three months ended March 31, 2021, related to the valuation of the convertible notes. For more information on how the Company determined the fair value of the convertible notes, see Note 12.
Note 4. Property and Equipment
Property and equipment consist of the following at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Gaming terminals and equipment$236,745 $225,692 
Amusement and other equipment18,848 18,547 
Office equipment and furniture1,827 1,731 
Computer equipment and software14,554 14,319 
Leasehold improvements4,836 4,127 
Vehicles11,881 11,518 
Buildings and improvements10,997 10,997 
Land911 911 
Construction in progress1,581 3,898 
Total property and equipment302,180 291,740 
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization(144,902)(139,489)
Property and equipment, net$157,278 $152,251 
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment was $5.8 million and $6.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Depreciation expense in 2022 reflected a change in estimate as the Company extended the useful lives of its gaming terminals and equipment from 10 years to 13 years in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Note 5. Route and Customer Acquisition Costs
The Company enters into contracts with third parties and licensed video gaming locations throughout the State of Illinois that allow the Company to install and operate video gaming terminals. When video gaming operations commence, payments are due monthly or quarterly. Gross payments due, based on the number of live locations, were approximately $6.7 million and $6.8 million as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, respectively. Payments are due over varying terms of the individual agreements and are discounted at the Company’s incremental borrowing rate associated with its long-term debt at the time the contract is acquired. The net present value of payments due was $5.9 million and $6.0 million as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, respectively, of which approximately $2.0 million and $2.1 million is included in current liabilities in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, respectively. The route and customer acquisition cost asset was comprised of payments made on the contracts of $18.2 million and $18.0 million as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, respectively. The Company has upfront payments of commissions paid to the third parties for the acquisition of the customer contracts that are subject to a clawback provision if the customer cancels the contract prior to completion. The payments subject to a clawback were $1.5 million as of both March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021.
10

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Route and customer acquisition costs consisted of the following at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Cost$29,224 $28,902 
Accumulated amortization(13,289)(12,989)
Route and customer acquisition costs, net$15,935 $15,913 
Amortization expense of route and customer acquisition costs was $0.3 million and $0.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Amortization expense of route and customer acquisition costs was lower in 2022 when compared to the prior year as the Company extended the amortization period of its route and customer acquisition costs from 12.4 years to 18 years in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Note 6. Location Contracts Acquired
Location contract assets acquired in business acquisitions are recorded at acquisition at fair value based on an income approach. Location contracts acquired consisted of the following at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Cost$229,287 $229,287 
Accumulated amortization(81,890)(78,615)
Location contracts acquired, net$147,397 $150,672 
Amortization expense of location contracts acquired was $3.3 million and $5.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Amortization expense of location contracts is lower in 2022 when compared to the prior year as the Company extended the amortization period of its location contracts from 10 years to 15 years in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Note 7. Goodwill
The Company acquired various companies which were accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 805, Business Combinations. The total excess of the purchase price over the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed was recorded as goodwill of $46.2 million as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, of which $36.5 million was deductible for tax purposes as of March 31, 2022.
Note 8. Debt
The Company’s debt as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021, consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
Senior Secured Credit Facility:
Term Loan$345,625 $350,000 
Delayed Draw Term Loan (DDTL)  
Total debt on credit facility345,625 350,000 
Add: Interest rate caplet liability3,742  
Less: Debt issuance costs(7,853)(8,478)
Total debt, net of debt issuance costs341,514 341,522 
Less: Current maturities(18,457)(17,500)
Total debt, net of current maturities$323,057 $324,022 
11

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Senior Secured Credit Facility
On November 13, 2019, the Company entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) as borrower, with the Company and its wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries as guarantors, the banks, financial institutions and other lending institutions from time to time party thereto as lenders, the other parties from time to time party thereto, and Capital One, National Association as administrative agent (in such capacity, the “Agent”), collateral agent, issuing bank and swingline lender, providing for a:
$100.0 million revolving credit facility, including a letter of credit facility with a $10.0 million sublimit and a swing line facility with a $10.0 million sublimit,
$240.0 million initial term loan facility and
$125.0 million additional term loan facility.
The additional term loan facility was available for borrowings until November 13, 2020. Each of the revolving loans and the term loans were scheduled to mature on November 13, 2024. The Company incurred $8.8 million of debt issuance costs, which are being amortized over the life of the Credit Agreement.
Given the uncertainty of COVID-19 and its variants and the resulting potential impact to the gaming industry, as well as to provide additional financial flexibility, the Company and the other parties thereto amended the Credit Agreement on August 4, 2020 (“Amendment No. 1”) to provide a waiver of financial covenant breach for the periods ended September 30, 2020 through March 31, 2021 of the First Lien Net Leverage Ratio and Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (each as defined under the Credit Agreement). Amendment No. 1 also raised the floor for the adjusted LIBOR rate to 0.50% and the floor for the Base Rate to 1.50%. The Company incurred costs of $0.4 million associated with Amendment No.1 of the Credit Agreement, of which $0.3 million was capitalized and is being amortized over the remaining life of the Credit Agreement. The waivers of financial covenant breach were never utilized as the Company remained in compliance with all debt covenants during these periods.
On October 22, 2021, in order to increase the borrowing capacity under the Credit Agreement, the Company and the other parties thereto entered into Amendment No. 2 to the Credit Agreement (“Amendment No. 2”). Amendment No. 2, among other things, provides for
an increase in the amount of the revolving credit facility from $100.0 million to $150.0 million,
$350.0 million initial term loan facility, the proceeds of which were applied to refinancing existing indebtedness and
$400.0 million delayed draw term loan facility.
The maturity date of the Credit Agreement was extended to October 22, 2026. The interest rate and covenants remain unchanged. The Company incurred $4.3 million in debt issuance costs associated with Amendment No. 2.
As of March 31, 2022, there remained approximately $550.0 million of availability under the Credit Agreement.
The obligations under the Credit Agreement are guaranteed by the Company and its wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries (collectively, the “Guarantors”), subject to certain exceptions. The obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by substantially all of assets of the Guarantors, subject to certain exceptions. Certain future-formed or acquired wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries of the Company will also be required to guarantee the Credit Agreement and grant a security interest in substantially all of their assets, subject to certain exceptions, to secure the obligations under the Credit Agreement.
Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, at a rate per annum equal to either (a) the adjusted LIBOR rate (“LIBOR”) (which cannot be less than 0.5%) for interest periods of 1, 2, 3 or 6 months (or if consented to by (i) each applicable Lender, 12 months or any period shorter than 1 month or (ii) the Agent, a shorter period necessary to ensure that the end of the relevant interest period would coincide with any required amortization payment) plus the applicable LIBOR margin or (b) the alternative base rate (“ABR”) plus the applicable ABR margin. ABR is a fluctuating rate per annum equal to the
12

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

highest of (i) the Federal Funds Effective Rate plus 1/2 of 1.0%, (ii) the prime rate announced from time to time by Capital One, National Association and (iii) LIBOR for a 1-month interest period on such day plus 1.0%. The Credit Agreement also includes provisions for determining a replacement rate when LIBOR is no longer available. As of March 31, 2022, the weighted-average interest rate was approximately 3.6%.
Interest is payable quarterly in arrears for ABR loans, at the end of the applicable interest period for LIBOR loans (but not less frequently than quarterly) and upon the prepayment or maturity of the underlying loans. The Company is required to pay a commitment fee quarterly in arrears in respect of unused commitments under the revolving credit facility and the additional term loan facility.
The applicable LIBOR and ABR margins and the commitment fee rate are calculated based upon the first lien net leverage ratio of the Company and its restricted subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, as defined in the Credit Agreement. The revolving loans and term loans bear interest at either (a) ABR (150 bps floor) plus a margin of 1.75% or (b) LIBOR (50 bps floor) plus a margin up to 2.75%, at the option of the Company.
The term loans and, once drawn, the additional term loans will amortize at an annual rate equal to approximately 5.00% per annum. Upon the consummation of certain non-ordinary course asset sales, the Company may be required to apply the net cash proceeds thereof to prepay outstanding term loans and additional term loans. The loans under the Credit Agreement may be prepaid without premium or penalty, subject to customary LIBOR “breakage” costs.
The Credit Agreement contains certain customary affirmative and negative covenants and events of default, and requires the Company and certain of its affiliates obligated under the Credit Agreement to make customary representations and warranties in connection with credit extensions thereunder.
In addition, the Credit Agreement requires the Company to maintain (a) a ratio of consolidated first lien net debt to consolidated EBITDA no greater than 4.50 to 1.00 and (b) a ratio of consolidated EBITDA to consolidated fixed charges no less than 1.20 to 1.00, in each case, tested as of the last day of each full fiscal quarter ending after the Closing Date and determined on the basis of the four most recently ended fiscal quarters of the Company for which financial statements have been delivered pursuant to the Credit Agreement, subject to customary “equity cure” rights.
If an event of default (as such term is defined in the Credit Agreement) occurs, the lenders would be entitled to take various actions, including the acceleration of amounts due under the Credit Agreement, termination of the lenders’ commitments thereunder, foreclosure on collateral, and all other remedial actions available to a secured creditor. The failure to pay certain amounts owing under the Credit Agreement may result in an increase in the interest rate applicable thereto.
The Company was in compliance with all debt covenants as of March 31, 2022 and expects to remain in compliance for the next 12 months.

13

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Interest rate caplets
The Company manages its exposure to some of its interest rate risk through the use of interest rate caplets, which are derivative financial instruments. On January 12, 2022, the Company hedged the variability of the cash flows attributable to the changes in the 1-month LIBOR interest rate on the first $300 million of the term loan under the Credit Agreement by entering into a 4-year series of 48 deferred premium caplets (“caplets”). The caplets mature at the end of each month and protect the Company if interest rates exceed 2% of 1-month LIBOR. The maturing dates of these caplets coincide with the timing of the Company's interest payments and each caplet is expected to be highly effective at offsetting changes in interest payment cash flows. The aggregate premium for these caplets was $3.9 million, which was the initial fair value of the caplets recorded in the Company's financial statements, and was financed as additional debt. The Company recognized an unrealized gain on the change in fair value of the interest rate caplets of $4.9 million, net of taxes of $1.9 million, for the three months ended March 31, 2022. For more information on how the Company determines the fair value of the caplets, see Note 12.
Note 9. Business and Asset Acquisitions
2022 Pending Acquisitions
On March 2, 2021, the Company announced that it had entered into a securities purchase agreement, to acquire Century Gaming, Inc. (“Century”). Century is Montana’s largest gaming operator and a leader in the Nevada gaming market with over 900 licensed establishments and more than 8,500 gaming terminals across both states. Pursuant to the purchase agreement, the Company will acquire all of the outstanding equity interests of Century in a cash and stock transaction valued at $140 million. The transaction was approved by the board of directors of each of the Company and Century, and is expected to close in the second quarter of 2022, subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals from applicable gaming authorities. The transaction is expected to be funded through a combination of the Company’s cash on hand and capacity under its existing credit facility, in addition to the issuance of approximately 490,000 shares of common stock.
2021 Business Acquisitions
On May 20, 2021, the Company acquired Island Games, Inc. (“Island”), a southern Georgia amusement operator and Master Licensee in the state of Georgia. The acquisition of Island adds 30 Georgia Coin Operated Amusement Machine (“COAM”) Class B locations to the Accel portfolio, including a total of 89 Class B COAM terminals. The total purchase price was approximately $2.9 million, of which the Company paid $2.8 million in cash at closing. The remaining $0.1 million of contingent consideration is to be paid in cash if certain operating metrics are achieved. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (Topic 805). The purchase price was allocated to the tangible assets and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their estimated fair values.
On December 30, 2021, the Company entered into an agreement with Rich and Junnie's Coin, Inc., an Iowa corporation, and JBCJ, Inc., also an Iowa corporation (collectively referred to as “Rich and Junnie's”), to acquire all of Rich and Junnie's operating assets in Iowa and Illinois. Rich and Junnie's operations in Iowa and Illinois consist of the ownership and operation of amusement devices and ATMs in certain establishments. Total consideration was $4.2 million of which $3.6 million was paid in cash at closing and $0.6 million was recorded in short-term consideration payable on the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2021. The $0.6 million of consideration payable was paid in the first quarter of 2022. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with Topic 805. The purchase price was allocated to the following assets: i) video game terminals and equipment totaling $0.3 million; ii) amusement and other equipment totaling $1.3 million; iii) location contracts totaling $1.6 million; iv) cash totaling $0.6 million; and v) goodwill of $0.4 million.
14

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Pro Forma Results
The following unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information reflects the results of operations of the Company for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as if the acquisitions of Rich and Junnie's and Island had occurred as of January 1, 2020, after giving effect to certain purchase accounting adjustments. These amounts are based on available financial information of the acquiree prior to the acquisition date and are not necessarily indicative of what Company’s operating results would have been had the acquisition actually taken place as of January 1, 2020. This unaudited pro forma information does not project revenues and net income post acquisition (in thousands).
Three months ended
March 31, 2021
Revenues$147,792 
Net income1,558 
Consideration Payable
The Company has a contingent consideration payable related to certain locations, as defined in each respective acquisition agreement, which are placed into operation during a specified period after the acquisition date. The fair value of contingent consideration is included in the consideration payable on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The contingent consideration accrued is measured at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company presents on its statement of cash flows, payments for consideration payable within 90-days in investing activities, payments after 90-days and up to the acquisition date fair value in financing activities, and payments in excess of the acquisition date fair value in operating activities.
Current and long-term portions of consideration payable consist of the following at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
CurrentLong-TermCurrentLong-Term
TAV$621 $2,595 $490 $2,858 
Fair Share Gaming1,686 351 1,875 508 
Family Amusement685 1,965 677 1,944 
Skyhigh811 7,095 801 7,396 
G3414  414  
Grand River6,668  6,479  
Tom's Amusements745  1,491  
AVG371  371  
Rich and Junnie's  646  
Island100  100  
Total$12,101 $12,006 $13,344 $12,706 
Note 10. Contingent Earnout Share Liability
Pursuant to the terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company authorized and has available for issuance 10,000,000 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock. The holders of the Class A-2 Common Stock do not have voting rights and are not entitled to receive or participate in any dividends or distributions when and if declared from time to time. The Company concluded that the Class A-2 Common Stock should be reflected as a contingent earnout share liability due to the fact that such shares are not entitled to dividends, voting rights, or a stake in the Company in the case of liquidation.
15

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

In November of 2019, 5,000,000 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock were issued, subject to the conditions set forth in a restricted stock agreement (the “Restricted Stock Agreement”), which sets forth the terms upon which the Class A-2 Common Stock will be exchanged for an equal number of validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable Class A-1 Common Stock. The exchange of Class A-2 Common Stock for Class A-1 Common Stock will be subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Restricted Stock Agreement, with such exchanges occurring in three separate tranches upon the satisfaction of the following triggers:
Tranche I, equal to 1,666,666 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock, will be exchanged for Class A-1 Common Stock if either (i) the EBITDA for the last twelve months (“LTM EBITDA”) of the Company (as determined pursuant to the Restricted Stock Agreement) as of December 31, 2021, March 31, 2022 or June 30, 2022 equals or exceeds $132 million or (ii) the closing sale price of Class A-1 Common Stock on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) equals or exceeds $12.00 for at least twenty trading days in any consecutive thirty trading day period;
Tranche II, equal to 1,666,667 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock, will be exchanged for Class A-1 Common Stock if either (i) the LTM EBITDA of the Company (as determined pursuant to the Restricted Stock Agreement) as of December 31, 2022, March 31, 2023 or June 30, 2023 equals or exceeds $152 million or (ii) the closing sale price of Class A-1 Common Stock on the NYSE equals or exceeds $14.00 for at least twenty trading days in any consecutive thirty trading day period; and
Tranche III, equal to 1,666,667 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock, will be exchanged for Class A-1 Common Stock if either (i) the LTM EBITDA of the Company (as determined pursuant to the Restricted Stock Agreement) as of December 31, 2023, March 31, 2024 or June 30, 2024 equals or exceeds $172 million or (ii) the closing sale price of Class A-1 Common Stock on the NYSE equals or exceeds $16.00 for at least twenty trading days in any consecutive thirty trading day period.
On January 14, 2020, the market condition for the settlement of Tranche I was satisfied. However, no stockholder is permitted to own more than 4.99% of the issued and outstanding Class A-1 Common Stock after the settlement unless obtaining required gaming approvals from the applicable gaming authorities. In connection with the settlement, no gaming approvals were obtained. In addition, no stockholder can receive a fractional share from a conversion. As a result, only 1,666,636 shares of the 1,666,666 shares of Class A-2 Common Stock were converted into Class A-1 Common Stock.
Note 11. Warrant Liability
In November 2019, 7,333,326 warrants to purchase shares of Class A-1 Common Stock were issued with other consideration prior to the reverse recapitalization (the “Private Placement Warrants”). As a part of the reverse recapitalization, 2,444,437 Private Placement Warrants were canceled and reissued under the same terms and conditions to Accel legacy stockholders. Each warrant expires five years from issuance and entitles the holder to purchase one share of Class A-1 Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustments substantially similar to those applicable to the other outstanding warrants, at any time 30 days after the consummation of the reverse recapitalization.
In 2017, 15,000,000 warrants to purchase shares of Class A-1 Common Stock were issued in connection with the formation of TPG Pace Holdings (“Public Warrants”). Each warrant expires five years from issuance and entitles the holder to purchase one share of Class A-1 Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustments substantially similar to those applicable to the other outstanding warrants, at any time 30 days after the consummation of the reverse recapitalization.
On July 14, 2020, the Company announced that it had commenced an exchange offer (the "Offer") to all holders of its outstanding warrants to receive 0.25 shares of Class A-1 Common Stock in exchange for each warrant tendered pursuant to the Offer. The Offer was open until 11:59 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, on August 11, 2020.
16

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

On July 16, 2020, the Company consummated the redemption of its Public Warrants. The Company exchanged each Public Warrant for 0.25 shares of the Company’s Class A-1 Common Stock and issued 3,784,416 shares of its Class A-1 Common Stock in exchange for the Public Warrants at settlement of the redemption. The exchange was an equitable exchange at fair value and was accounted for as a capital transaction. On July 22, 2020, the Company received written notice from the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) that the NYSE suspended trading in, and had determined to commence proceedings to delist, the Company’s Public Warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A-1 Common Stock (ticker symbol ACEL.WS) from the NYSE. The delisting was a result of the failure of the Public Warrants to comply with the continued listing standard set forth in Section 802.01D of the NYSE Listed Company Manual which requires the Company to maintain at least 100 public holders of a listed security.
On August 14, 2020, 7,189,990 of the Private Placement Warrants were validly tendered representing approximately 99.93% of the total Private Placement Warrants outstanding. The Company accepted all such warrants and issued an aggregate of 1,797,474 shares of its Class A-1 Common Stock in exchange for the warrants tendered. As of March 31, 2022, 5,144 warrants remain outstanding.
Note 12. Fair Value Measurements
ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and the corresponding disclosure requirements around fair value measurements. This topic applies to all financial instruments that are being measured and reported on a fair value basis.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In determining fair value, various methods, including market, income and cost approaches, are used. Based on these approaches, certain assumptions are utilized that the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk and/or the risks inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique. These inputs can be readily observable, market corroborated, or generally unobservable inputs. Valuation techniques are utilized that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Based on the observability of the inputs used in the valuation techniques, it is required to provide information according to the fair value hierarchy. The fair value hierarchy ranks the quality and reliability of the information used to determine fair values. Assets and liabilities carried at fair value will be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Valuations for assets and liabilities traded in active exchange markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange. Level 1 also includes U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities and federal agency mortgage-backed securities, which are traded by dealers or brokers in active markets. Valuations are obtained from readily available pricing sources for market transactions involving identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Valuations for assets and liabilities traded in less active dealer or broker markets. Valuations are obtained from third-party pricing services for identical or similar assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Valuations for assets and liabilities that are derived from other valuation methodologies, including option pricing models, discounted cash flow models and similar techniques, and not based on market exchange, dealer, or broker traded transactions. Level 3 valuations incorporate certain assumptions and projections in determining the fair value assigned to such assets or liabilities.

17

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Assets measured at fair value
The following tables summarize the Company’s assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using
March 31, 2022Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets
(Level 1)
Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2)Significant Unobservable Inputs (Level 3)
Assets:
Investment in convertible notes$32,065 $ $ $32,065 
   Interest rate caplets10,532  10,532  
Total$42,597 $ $10,532 $32,065 
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using
December 31, 2021Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets
 (Level 1)
Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2)Significant Unobservable Inputs (Level 3)
Assets:
Investment in convertible notes$32,065 $ $ $32,065 
Investment in convertible notes
As described in Note 3, on July 30, 2021, the Company provided notice to Gold Rush that it was exercising its rights to convert the convertible notes into common stock of Gold Rush, subject to approval from the IGB to transfer the common stock to the Company. Accordingly, beginning in the third quarter of 2021, given the pending request for regulatory approval on the transfer of equity interest, the fair value of the convertible notes was estimated using a probability-weighted approach. Assuming regulatory approval was received, the fair value of the convertible notes was estimated on an as-converted basis by multiplying the equity value of Gold Rush by the ownership percentage as calculated pursuant to the terms of the convertible note agreements. In the scenario where regulatory approval was not received, the fair value of the convertible notes was estimated using a discounted cash flow approach assuming the Company would request immediate redemption of the principal and accrued interest and the discount rate was estimated based on comparable public debt rates. This assumption did not consider legal claims the Company may have under the convertible notes to receive the economic value of the conversion shares, even if transfer of the actual ownership interest in Gold Rush to Accel was not approved by the IGB. After the IGB Administrator’s denial of the transfer of the equity interest on December 2, 2021, the Company concluded that the fair value of the convertible notes should be calculated as principal plus interest accrued as of December 31, 2021. The Company has considered interest as an input to the accounting fair value for all periods and periodically revaluates its impact, if any, based on developments including the pending lawsuit against Gold Rush. For the avoidance of doubt, this fair value is less than what Accel maintains Gold Rush owes Accel under the convertible notes, but is consistent with ASC Topic 820. This valuation of the Company's investment in convertible notes is considered to be a Level 3 fair value measurement as the significant inputs are unobservable and the Company is pursuing its legal remedies with respect to the amounts owed by Gold Rush.
Interest rate caplets
The Company determines the fair value of the interest rate caplets using quotes that are based on models whose inputs are observable LIBOR forward interest rate curves. The valuation of the interest rate caplets is considered to be a Level 2 fair value measurement as the significant inputs are observable. Changes in the fair value of interest rate caplets are classified within other comprehensive income on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.

18

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Liabilities measured at fair value
The following tables summarizes the Company’s liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using
March 31, 2022Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets (Level 1)Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2)Significant Unobservable Inputs (Level 3)
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration$18,241 $ $ $18,241 
Contingent earnout shares39,414  39,414  
Warrants13  13  
Total$57,668 $ $39,427 $18,241 
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using
December 31, 2021Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets (Level 1)Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2)Significant Unobservable Inputs (Level 3)
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration$19,434 $ $ $19,434 
Contingent earnout shares42,831  42,831  
Warrants13  13  
Total$62,278 $ $42,844 $19,434 
Contingent Consideration
The Company uses a discounted cash flow analysis to determine the value of contingent consideration upon acquisition and updates this estimate on a recurring basis. The significant assumptions in the Company's cash flow analysis includes the probability adjusted projected revenues after state taxes, a discount rate as applicable to each acquisition, and the estimated number of locations that “go live” with the Company during the contingent consideration period. The valuation of the Company's contingent consideration is considered to be a Level 3 fair value measurement as the significant inputs are unobservable and require significant judgment or estimation. Changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities are classified within other expenses, net on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Contingent earnout shares
The Company determined the fair value of the contingent earnout shares based on the market price of the Company's A-1 Common Stock. The liability, by tranche, is then stated at present value based on i) an interest rate derived from the Company's borrowing rate and the applicable risk-free rate and ii) an estimate on when it expects the contingent earnout shares to convert to A-1 Common Stock. The valuation of the Company's contingent consideration is considered to be a Level 2 fair value measurement. Changes in the fair value of contingent earnout shares are included within (gain) loss on change in fair value of contingent earnout shares on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Warrants
The Company determined the fair value of its warrants by using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires inputs such as the fair value of the Company's A-1 Common Stock, the risk-free interest rate, expected term, expected dividend yield and expected volatility. The Company's valuation of its warrants is considered to be a Level 2 fair value measurement. Changes in the fair value of the warrants are included within gain on change in fair value of
19

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

warrants on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, if applicable. There was no change in the fair value of the warrants for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Note 13. Stockholders’ Equity
Pursuant to the terms of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company authorized and has available for issuance the following shares:
Class A-1 Common Stock
The holders of the Class A-1 Common Stock are entitled to one vote for each share. The holders of Class A-1 Common Stock are entitled to receive dividends or other distributions when and if declared from time to time and share equally on a per share basis in such dividends and distributions, subject to such rights of the holders of preferred stock.
Treasury Stock
On November 22, 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program of up to $200 million of shares of common stock. The timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including price, general business and market conditions, and alternative investment opportunities. Under the repurchase program, repurchases can be made from time to time using a variety of methods, including open market purchases or privately negotiated transactions, in compliance with the rules of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission and other applicable legal requirements. The repurchase program does not obligate the Company to acquire any particular amount of shares, and the repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time at the Company’s discretion. As of March 31, 2022, the Company purchased a total of 1,789,295 shares under the plan at a total cost of $22.9 million, of which 1,087,990 shares at a cost of $13.9 million were purchased during the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Note 14. Stock-based Compensation
The Company grants various types of stock-based compensation awards. The Company measures its stock-based compensation expense based on the grant date fair value of the award and recognizes the expense over the requisite service period for the respective award.
Under the Accel Entertainment, Inc. Long Term Incentive Plan, the Company granted 225,881 stock options to eligible officers and employees of the Company during the first quarter of 2022, which shall vest over a period of 4 years. Also in the first quarter of 2022, the Company issued 411,600 restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to the board of directors and certain employees, which shall vest over a period of 4 years for employees and a period of approximately 9 months for board of directors. The estimated grant date fair value of these options and RSUs totaled $7.0 million.
Stock-based compensation expense, which pertains to the Company’s stock options and RSUs, was $1.6 million for both the three months ended March 31, 2022, and 2021. Stock-based compensation expense is included within general and administrative expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and other comprehensive income.
Note 15. Income Taxes
The Company recognized income tax expense of $4.8 million and $1.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Company calculates its provision for income taxes during interim reporting periods by applying an estimate of the annual effective tax rate to its year-to-date pretax book income or loss. The effective tax rate (income taxes as a percentage of income before income taxes) was 23.4% and 56.0% for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The Company’s
20

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

effective income tax rate can vary from period to period depending on, among other factors, the amount of permanent tax adjustments and discrete items.
Note 16. Commitments and Contingencies
Lawsuits and claims are filed against the Company from time to time in the ordinary course of business, including related to employee matters, employment of professionals and non-compete clauses and agreements. Other than settled matters explained as follows, these actions are in various stages, and no judgments or decisions have been rendered. Management, after reviewing matters with legal counsel, believes that the outcome of such matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
Accel has been involved in a series of related litigated matters stemming from claims that Accel wrongly contracted with 10 different licensed establishments (the “Defendant Establishments”) in 2012 in violation of the contractual rights held by J&J Ventures Gaming, LLC (“J&J”), as further described below.
On August 21, 2012, one of the Company’s operating subsidiaries entered into certain agreements with Jason Rowell (“Rowell”), a member of Action Gaming LLC (“Action Gaming”), which was an unlicensed terminal operator that had exclusive rights to place and operate VGTs within a number of establishments, including the Defendant Establishments. Under agreements with Rowell, the Company agreed to pay him for each licensed establishment which decided to enter into exclusive location agreements with the Company. In late August and early September 2012, each of the Defendant Establishments signed separate location agreements with the Company, purporting to grant it the exclusive right to operate VGTs in those establishments. Separately, on August 24, 2012, Action Gaming sold and assigned its rights to all its location agreements to J&J, including its exclusive rights with the Defendant Establishments (the “J&J Assigned Agreements”). At the time of the assignment of such rights to J&J, the Defendant Establishments were not yet licensed by the Illinois Gaming Board (“IGB”).
Action Gaming, J&J, and other parties, collectively, the Plaintiffs, filed a complaint against the Company, Rowell, and other parties in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois (the “Circuit Court”), on August 31, 2012, as amended on November 1, 2012, December 19, 2012, and October 3, 2013, alleging, among other things, that the Company aided and abetted Rowell in breaches of his fiduciary duties and contractual obligations with Action Gaming and tortiously interfered with Action Gaming’s contracts with Rowell and agreements assigned to J&J. The complaint seeks damages and injunctive and equitable relief. On January 24, 2018, the Company filed a motion to dismiss for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, as further described below. On May 14, 2018, the Circuit Court denied the Company’s motion to dismiss and granted a stay to the case, pending a ruling from the IGB on the validity of the J&J Assigned Agreements.
From 2013 to 2015, the Plaintiffs filed additional claims, including J&J Ventures Gaming, LLC et al. v. Wild, Inc. (“Wild”), in various circuit courts seeking declaratory judgements with a number of establishments, including each of the Defendant Establishments, requesting declarations that, among other things, J&J held the exclusive right to operate VGTs at each of the Defendant Establishments as a result of the J&J Assigned Agreements. The Company was granted leave to intervene in all of the declaratory judgments. The circuit courts found that the J&J Assigned Agreements were valid because each of the underlying location agreements were between an unlicensed establishment and an unlicensed terminal operator, and therefore did not constitute use agreements that were otherwise precluded from assignment under the IGB’s regulations. Upon the Company’s appeal, the Illinois Appellate Court, Fifth District (the “District Court”), vacated the circuit courts’ judgments and dismissed the appeals, holding that the IGB had exclusive jurisdiction over the matter that formed the basis of the parties’ claims, and declined to consider the merits of the parties’ disputes. On September 22, 2016, and after the IGB intervened, the Supreme Court of Illinois issued a judgment in Wildaffirming the District Court’s decision vacating the circuit courts’ judgments for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and dismissing the appeals, determining that the IGB has exclusive jurisdiction to decide the validity and enforceability of VGT use agreements.
21

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Between May 2017 and September 2017, both the Company and J&J filed petitions with the IGB seeking adjudication of the rights of the parties and the validity of the use agreements. Those petitions have been fully briefed and remain pending. There is no indication as to when the IGB will rule on the petitions. The Company does not have a present estimate regarding the potential damages, if any, that could potentially be awarded in this litigation and, accordingly, have established no reserves relating to such matters. There are also petitions pending with the IGB which could lead to the Company obtaining new locations.
On October 7, 2019, the Company filed a lawsuit in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois against Jason Rowell and other parties related to Mr. Rowell’s breaches of his non-compete agreement with the Company. The Company alleged that Mr. Rowell and a competitor were working together to interfere with the Company’s customer relationships. On November 7, 2019, Mr. Rowell filed a lawsuit in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois against the Company alleging that he had not received certain equity interests in the Company to which he was allegedly entitled under his agreement. The Company has answered the complaint and asserted a counterclaim, and intends to defend itself against the allegations. Mr. Rowell's claims and the Company's claims are both being litigated in this lawsuit, while the original lawsuit remains pending against the other defendants.
On July 2, 2019, Illinois Gaming Investors, LLC filed a lawsuit against the Company. The lawsuit alleges that a current employee of the Company violated his non-competition agreement with Illinois Gaming Investors, LLC, and together with the Company, wrongfully solicited prohibited licensed video gaming locations. The parties settled this dispute in April 2022.
On December 18, 2020, the Company received a disciplinary complaint from the IGB alleging violations of the Video Gaming Act and the IGB’s Adopted Rules for Video Gaming. The disciplinary complaint seeks to fine the Company in the amount of $5 million. The Company filed its initial answer to the IGB’s complaint on January 11, 2021 and have begun the administrative hearing process. The Company intends to vigorously defend itself against the allegations in the complaint and denies any allegations of wrongdoing.
On March 9, 2022, the Company filed a lawsuit in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois against Gold Rush relating to the Gold Rush convertible notes. The complaint seeks damages for breach of contract and the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing as well as unjust enrichment. The lawsuit is publicly available. For more information on the Gold Rush convertible notes, see Note 3.
On March 25, 2022, Midwest Electronics Gaming LLC (“Midwest”) filed an administrative review action against the IGB, the Company and J&J in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois seeking administrative review of decisions of the IGB ruling in favor of the Company and J&J and against Midwest regarding the validity of certain use agreements covering locations currently serviced by Midwest. No monetary damages are sought against the Company.
Given the status of the legal proceedings discussed above, the Company has determined that a legal liability is probable and has recorded estimated legal reserves of $1.6 million as of March 31, 2022, which includes a loss of $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and is included within other expenses, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and other comprehensive income.
Note 17. Related-Party Transactions
Subsequent to the Company's acquisition of certain assets of Fair Share Gaming, LLC (“Fair Share”), G3 Gaming, LLC (“G3”), Tom’s Amusement Company, Inc., (“Tom's Amusements”), and American Video Gaming, LLC, and Erickson Amusements, Inc. (collectively referred to as “AVG”), the sellers became employees of the Company.
Consideration payable to the Fair Share seller was $2.0 million and $2.4 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Payments to the Fair Share seller under the acquisition agreement were $0.5 million and $0.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
22

Accel Entertainment, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)

Consideration payable to the G3 sellers was $0.4 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. There were no payments to the G3 sellers under the acquisition agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Consideration payable to the Tom's Amusements seller was $0.7 million and $1.5 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Payments to the Tom's Amusements seller under the acquisition agreement were $0.8 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022. There were no payments to the Tom's Amusements seller during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Consideration payable to the AVG seller was $0.4 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. There were no payments to the AVG seller during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
The Company engaged Much Shelist, P.C. (“Much Shelist”), as its legal counsel for general legal and business matters. An attorney at Much Shelist is a related party to management of the Company. Accel paid Much Shelist less than $0.1 million and $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. These payments were included in general and administrative expenses within the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Note 18. Earnings Per Share
The components of basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) were as follows for the three months ended March 31 (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Net income$15,788 $1,501 
Less: Net income applicable to contingently issuable shares  
Net income on which diluted earnings per share is calculated$15,788 $1,501 
Basic weighted average outstanding shares of common stock92,993 93,471 
Dilutive effect of stock-based awards for common stock748 809 
Diluted weighted average outstanding shares of common stock93,741 94,280 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.17 $0.02 
Diluted$0.17 $0.02 
Anti-dilutive stock-based awards, contingent earnout shares and warrants excluded from the calculations of diluted EPS were 4,729,800 and 5,359,661 as of March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Note 19. Subsequent Events
On April 22, 2022, the Company filed a petition in the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois to judicially review the IGB's decision to deny the requested transfer of Gold Rush common stock in respect of the Company's conversion of its convertible notes. For more information on the Gold Rush convertible notes, see Note 3.
23

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. This discussion and analysis should also be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Company Overview
We believe we are a leading distributed gaming operator in the United States on an Adjusted EBITDA basis, and a preferred partner for local business owners in the Illinois market. Our business consists of the installation, maintenance and operation of video gaming terminals (“VGTs”), redemption devices that disburse winnings and contain automated teller machine (“ATM”) functionality, and other amusement devices in authorized non-casino locations such as restaurants, bars, taverns, convenience stores, liquor stores, truck stops, and grocery stores, which are referred to collectively as “licensed establishments.” We also operate stand-alone ATMs in gaming and non-gaming locations. Accel has been licensed by the Illinois Gaming Board (“IGB”) since 2012, received approval from the Georgia Lottery Corporation as a Master Licensee in July 2020, and holds a license from the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board since November 2020. On December 30, 2021, one of the Company's consolidated subsidiaries acquired amusement and ATM operations in Iowa and registered with the Iowa Department of Inspections and Appeals to conduct operations in Iowa. The Company is also subject to various other federal, state and local laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations.
We operate 13,663 video gaming terminals across 2,565 locations in the State of Illinois as of March 31, 2022.
Our gaming-as-a-service platform provides local businesses with a turnkey, capital efficient gaming solution. We own all of our gaming equipment and manage the entire operating process for our licensed establishment partners. We also offer our licensed establishment partners gaming solutions that appeal to players who patronize those businesses. We devote significant resources to licensed establishment partner retention, and seek to provide prompt, personalized player service and support, which we believe is unparalleled among other distributed gaming operators. Dedicated relationship managers assist licensed establishment partners with regulatory applications and compliance onboarding, train licensed establishment partners on how to engage with players and potential players, monitor individual gaming areas for compliance, cleanliness and comfort and recommend potential changes to improve both player gaming experience and overall revenue for each licensed establishment. We also provide weekly gaming revenue reports to our licensed establishment partners and analyze and compare gaming results within individual licensed establishment partners. This information is used to determine an optimal selection of games, layouts and other ideas to generate foot traffic for our licensed establishment partners with the goal of generating increased gaming revenue. Further, our in-house collections and security personnel provide highly secure cash transportation and vault management services. Our best-in-class technicians ensure minimal downtime through proactive service and routine maintenance. As a result, Accel’s voluntary contract renewal rate was approximately 99% for the three-year period ended December 31, 2021.
In addition to our gaming business, we also install, operate and service redemption devices that have ATM functionality, stand-alone ATMs and amusement devices, including jukeboxes, dartboards, pool tables, pinball machines and other related entertainment equipment. These operations provide a complementary source of lead generation for our gaming business by offering a “one-stop” source of additional equipment for its licensed establishment partners. If we are presented with appropriate opportunities, we may acquire other additional businesses, services, resources, or assets, including hospitality operations, that are accretive to our core gaming business.

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Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 outbreak and its related variants are having a significant impact on global markets as a result of government-mandated business closures, supply chain and production disruptions, workforce restrictions, travel restrictions, reduced consumer spending and sentiment, amongst other factors, which are, individually or in the aggregate, negatively affecting the financial performance, liquidity and cash flow projections of many companies in the United States and abroad.
A surge of COVID-19 infections occurred in the fall of 2020, as the virus spread in every geographical region (currently 11 regions) in the State of Illinois. In response, the IGB suspended all video gaming operations across the entire state of Illinois starting at 11:01 PM on Thursday November 19, 2020. Video gaming operations resumed in certain regions of the state beginning on January 16, 2021, and fully resumed in all regions on January 23, 2021. Even though video gaming operations resumed across all regions, certain regions still had government-imposed restrictions that, among other things, limited hours of operation and restricted the number of patrons allowed within the licensed establishments. Given the staggered reopening by region in January of 2021, the temporary shutdown impacted, on average, 18 of the 90 gaming days (or 20% of gaming days) during the three months ended March 31, 2021. In light of these events and their effect on the Company’s employees and licensed establishment partners, the Company took action to help mitigate the potential effects caused by the temporary cessation of operations by furloughing idle staff as appropriate and deferring certain payments to major vendors.
As a result of these developments, the Company's revenues, results of operations and cash flows were materially affected for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
While COVID-19 infection rates and the related stress on the healthcare system remain low, it is possible that the IGB or the State of Illinois may order a future shutdown by region (currently 11 regions), or a complete suspension of video gaming in the state, or institute stay-at-home, closure or other similar orders or measures in the future in response to a resurgence of COVID-19, particularly in light of variant strains of the virus, or other events. Under the guidelines provided by the Illinois Department of Health and Governor’s office, the IGB has been closely monitoring Illinois' COVID-19 related statistics including the positivity rate, hospital admissions, and hospital bed availability in each region. As such, there may be additional operational and financial impacts on the business from future resurgences of COVID-19 and its variant strains, which we cannot reasonably anticipate.
Components of Performance
Revenues
Net gaming. Net gaming revenue represents net cash received from gaming activities, which is the difference between gaming wins and losses. Net gaming revenue includes the amounts earned by the licensed establishments and is recognized at the time of gaming play.
Amusement. Amusement revenue represents amounts collected from amusement devices operated at various licensed establishments and is recognized at the point the amusement device is used.
ATM fees and other revenue. ATM fees and other revenue represents fees charged for the withdrawal of funds from Accel’s redemption devices and stand-alone ATMs and is recognized at the time of the ATM transaction.
Operating Expenses
Cost of revenue. Cost of revenue consists of (i) a 34% tax on net video gaming revenue that is payable to the IGB, (ii) an administrative fee (0.8513% currently) payable to Scientific Games International, the third-party contracted by IGB to maintain the central system to which all VGTs across Illinois are connected, (iii) establishment revenue share, which is defined as 50% of gross gaming revenue after subtracting the tax and administrative fee, (iv) ATM and amusement commissions payable to locations, (v) ATM and amusement fees, and (vi) licenses and permits required for the operation of VGTs and other equipment.
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General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of operating expense and general and administrative (“G&A”) expense. Operating expense includes payroll and related expense for service technicians, route technicians, route security, and preventative maintenance personnel. Operating expense also includes vehicle fuel and maintenance, and non-capitalizable parts expenses. Operating expenses are generally proportionate to the number of licensed establishments and VGTs. G&A expense includes payroll and related expense for account managers, business development managers, marketing, and other corporate personnel. In addition, G&A includes marketing, information technology, insurance, rent and professional fees.
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the individual assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the useful life or the lease.
Amortization of route and customer acquisition costs and location contracts acquired. Route and customer acquisition costs consist of fees paid at the inception of contracts entered into with third parties and licensed video gaming establishments throughout the State of Illinois which allow Accel to install and operate video gaming terminals. The route and customer acquisition costs and route and customer acquisition costs payable are recorded at the net present value of the future payments using a discount rate equal to Accel’s incremental borrowing rate associated with its long-term debt. Route and customer acquisition costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over 18 years, which is the expected estimated life of the contract, including expected renewals.
Location contracts acquired in a business combination are recorded at fair value and then amortized as an intangible asset on a straight-line basis over the expected useful life of 15 years.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net consists of interest on Accel’s current and prior credit facilities, amortization of financing fees, and accretion of interest on route and customer acquisition costs payable. Interest on the current credit facility is payable monthly on unpaid balances at the variable per annum LIBOR rate plus an applicable margin, as defined under the terms of the credit facility, ranging from 1.75% to 2.75% depending on the first lien net leverage ratio. Interest expense, net also consists of interest income on convertible from Gold Rush that bore interest at the greater of 3% per annum or Accel's borrowing rate on its credit facility through December 31, 2021.
Income tax expense
Income tax expense consists mainly of taxes payable to federal, state and local authorities. Deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax b