20-F 1 adag-20231231x20f.htm FORM 20-F
http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#MajorityShareholderMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#MajorityShareholderMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#SubsidiaryOfCommonParentMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#SubsidiaryOfCommonParentMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#SubsidiaryOfCommonParentMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#SubsidiaryOfCommonParentMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#MajorityShareholderMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#MajorityShareholderMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RelatedPartyMember54065709P3YP3YP1YP5Y551458390001818838FY2023false10179 Huennekens Street Suite 103San DiegoCAtrue0001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838dei:AdrMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838dei:AdrMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2022Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2022Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2022Memberdei:AdrMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Memberdei:AdrMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Memberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Memberdei:AdrMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001818838dei:AdrMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001818838dei:AdrMember2022-12-310001818838adag:SeriesC3RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:SeriesC2RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:SeriesC1RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:SeriesBRedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:Series2RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:Series1RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2020-12-310001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2022Member2022-06-292022-06-290001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Member2021-07-072021-07-070001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2022Member2022-06-290001818838adag:ShareRepurchaseProgramOf2021Member2021-07-070001818838adag:SeriesC3RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:SeriesC2RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:SeriesC1RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:SeriesBRedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:Series2RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:Series1RedeemableConvertiblePreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838dei:AdrMemberus-gaap:OverAllotmentOptionMember2021-02-112021-02-110001818838us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001818838us-gaap:ReceivablesFromStockholderMember2020-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2023-04-122023-12-310001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2023-04-122023-12-310001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2022-02-072022-12-270001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2022-02-072022-12-270001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-03-122021-12-220001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-03-122021-12-220001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMember2020-11-092020-11-090001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMember2020-11-092020-11-0900018188382020-01-012020-12-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2023-04-122023-12-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2023-04-012023-04-300001818838adag:ServiceConditionsAndPerformanceConditionsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2023-01-012023-01-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2022-03-082022-03-080001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2022-02-072022-12-270001818838adag:ModificationOfVestingSchedulesAndConditionsOfShareOptionsMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2022-01-072022-01-070001818838adag:ServiceConditionsAndPerformanceConditionsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-03-162021-03-160001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberadag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-03-122021-12-220001818838adag:Plan2019Member2019-12-310001818838adag:Plan2017Member2017-09-300001818838adag:Plan2015Member2015-11-070001818838srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:DeliveryOfDataPackagesAndAchievementOfInitialTargetMilestoneMemberadag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:DeliveryOfAdditionalMaskedAntibodiesMemberadag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:SanofiAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:DragonBoatBiopharmaceuticalShanghaiLimitedLicenseAgreementMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:AdctMaterialTransferAndOptionAgreementMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:DeliveryOfDataPackagesAndAchievementOfInitialTargetMilestoneMemberadag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SixMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SevenMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FourMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FiveMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.EightMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedThreeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdThreeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FourMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FiveMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdThreeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2020-01-012020-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2020-01-012020-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2019-01-012019-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2019-01-012019-12-310001818838adag:WuxiBiologicsCaymanInc.Memberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:WuxiApptecGroupMemberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:CertainSeniorManagementPersonnelMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:WuxiBiologicsCaymanInc.Memberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:WuxiApptecGroupMemberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:WuxiBiologicsCaymanInc.Memberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:WuxiApptecGroupMemberadag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:ReceiptOfContractResearchOrganizationsAndContractManufacturingOrganizationsServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2023-12-310001818838srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2023-12-310001818838srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:VehiclesMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001818838adag:ElectronicEquipmentMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:VehiclesMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001818838adag:ElectronicEquipmentMember2022-12-310001818838dei:AdrMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-02-112021-02-110001818838us-gaap:NonrelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001818838adag:WuxiBiologicsCaymanInc.Member2023-12-310001818838adag:WuxiApptecGroupMember2023-12-310001818838adag:CertainSeniorManagementPersonnelMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:NonrelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001818838adag:WuxiBiologicsCaymanInc.Member2022-12-310001818838adag:WuxiApptecGroupMember2022-12-310001818838adag:AdctCollaborationAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838country:US2023-12-310001818838country:SG2023-12-310001818838country:CN2023-12-310001818838country:CH2023-12-310001818838country:AU2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:AdageneSuzhouLimitedMember2023-12-310001818838adag:AdagenePte.Ltd.Member2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneProjectC1Pte.Ltd.Member2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneIncorporatedMember2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneHongKongLimitedMember2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAustraliaPtyLtd.Member2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAgMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SixMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SevenMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FourMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FiveMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.EightMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdTwoMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdOneMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedTwoMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedThreeMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedOneMember2023-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdThreeMember2023-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdThreeMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SixMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SevenMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FourMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FiveMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedTwoMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedThreeMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedOneMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2021-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2021-12-310001818838stpr:CA2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:HK2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:CN2008-01-012008-01-010001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2023-07-012023-07-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2023-03-012023-03-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2023-01-012023-01-310001818838adag:ChinaConstructionBankCorporationMember2022-12-012022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdMember2022-07-012022-07-310001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2022-04-012022-04-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2022-03-012022-03-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2021-08-012021-08-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2021-06-012021-06-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2020-11-012020-11-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdLoanTwoMember2020-11-012020-11-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2020-09-012020-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2020-06-012020-06-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdTwoMember2023-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdOneMember2023-08-310001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2023-07-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2023-07-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.EightMember2023-04-300001818838adag:ChinaEverbrightBankCorporationMember2023-03-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2023-03-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2023-01-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2023-01-310001818838adag:ChinaConstructionBankCorporationMember2022-12-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SevenMember2022-11-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedThreeMember2022-11-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.SixMember2022-08-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedTwoMember2022-08-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfJiangsuCo.LtdMember2022-07-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FiveMember2022-05-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedOneMember2022-05-310001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2022-04-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2022-03-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.Ltd.FourMember2021-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2021-08-310001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2021-06-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdMember2020-11-300001818838adag:ChinaMerchantsBankCo.LtdLoanTwoMember2020-11-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdThreeMember2020-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromBankOfNingboCo.LtdMember2020-09-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromAgriculturalBankOfChinaLimitedMember2020-06-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdTwoMember2019-06-300001818838adag:BorrowingsFromShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankCo.LtdOneMember2019-02-280001818838us-gaap:IPOMember2021-02-110001818838adag:NoSupplierMemberus-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:OneSupplierMemberus-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:OneSupplierMemberus-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-01-1600018188382021-12-3100018188382020-12-310001818838adag:OutsideMainlandOfChinaMemberadag:CashAndCashEquivalentsAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2023-12-310001818838adag:MainlandOfChinaMemberadag:CashAndCashEquivalentsAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2023-12-310001818838adag:OutsideMainlandOfChinaMemberadag:CashAndCashEquivalentsAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2022-12-310001818838adag:MainlandOfChinaMemberadag:CashAndCashEquivalentsAndShortTermInvestmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMember2022-12-310001818838us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2021-12-310001818838dei:AdrMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838dei:AdrMemberus-gaap:IPOMember2021-02-110001818838dei:BusinessContactMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:US2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:CN2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:CH2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:AU2023-01-012023-12-310001818838country:HK2023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAustraliaPtyLtd.Membercountry:AU2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAustraliaPtyLtd.Membercountry:AU2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAustraliaPtyLtd.Membercountry:AU2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:PerformanceIncentivePlan2021Member2021-01-162021-01-160001818838us-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementNonemployeeMember2020-11-092020-11-090001818838adag:ModificationOfVestingSchedulesAndConditionsOfShareOptionsMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMember2022-01-070001818838adag:TechnologyAdvancedServiceEnterprisesMemberadag:AdageneSuzhouLimitedMembercountry:CN2015-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:AdctCollaborationAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-3100018188382021-01-162021-01-160001818838us-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838us-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:CostOfGoodsProductLineMemberus-gaap:SupplierConcentrationRiskMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:SanofiAgreementMember2022-03-310001818838us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2023-12-310001818838us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2022-12-310001818838adag:TechnologyAdvancedServiceEnterprisesMembercountry:CN2008-01-012008-01-0100018188382022-01-012022-12-310001818838us-gaap:ReceivablesFromStockholderMember2021-01-012021-12-3100018188382021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:SanofiAgreementMember2022-03-012022-03-310001818838adag:SanofiAgreementMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:AdctMaterialTransferAndOptionAgreementMember2022-08-310001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2022-04-300001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2021-02-280001818838adag:DragonBoatBiopharmaceuticalShanghaiLimitedLicenseAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:ExelixisIncAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneAgMembercountry:CH2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneHongKongLimitedMembercountry:HK2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:AdageneHongKongLimitedMembercountry:HK2022-01-012022-12-310001818838adag:AdageneHongKongLimitedMembercountry:HK2021-01-012021-12-310001818838adag:DragonBoatBiopharmaceuticalShanghaiLimitedLicenseAgreementMember2023-01-012023-12-310001818838adag:GuilinSanjinPharmaceuticalCo.Ltd.LicenseAgreementMember2018-12-012018-12-3100018188382023-12-3100018188382022-12-3100018188382023-01-012023-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:pureiso4217:CNYadag:itemxbrli:sharesiso4217:USDxbrli:shares

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR 12(G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report ___________

Commission file number: 001-39997

Adagene Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

4F, Building C14, No. 218

Xinghu Street, Suzhou Industrial Park

Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 215123

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Peter Luo

Chief Executive Officer

+86-512-87773616

Email:peter_luo@adagene.com

At the address of the Company set forth above

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American depositary shares, each ADS representing one

ADAG

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

and one quarter

(The Nasdaq Global Market)

ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share

Ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share*

N/A

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

(The Nasdaq Global Market)

*Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the Nasdaq Global Market of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

55,145,839 ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, as of December 31, 2023.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes        No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes        No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes        No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes        No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Check one:

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-accelerated Filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards † provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accountant firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes        No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP     

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17        Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes        No

APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes        No

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

Forward-Looking Information

3

PART I

5

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors

5

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

5

Item 3. Key Information

5

Item 4. Information of the Company

81

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

146

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

146

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

163

Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

180

Item 8. Financial Information

181

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

182

Item 10. Additional Information

183

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

193

Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities

194

PART II

198

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

198

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Securities Holders and Use of Proceeds.

198

Item 15. Control and Procedures

198

Item 16.A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

199

Item 16.B. Code of Ethics

199

Item 16.C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

200

Item 16.D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

200

Item 16.E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

200

Item 16.F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

200

Item 16.G. Corporate Governance

201

Item 16.H. Mine Safety Disclosure

201

Item 16.I. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

201

Item 16.K. Cybersecurity

202

PART III

202

Item 17. Financial Statements

202

Item 18. Financial Statements

202

Item 19. Exhibits

203

i

INTRODUCTION

Except where the context otherwise indicates and for the purpose of this annual report only:

“Adagene Suzhou” refers to Adagene (Suzhou) Limited, our subsidiary in the PRC;
“Adagene Incorporated” reference to Adagene Incorporated, our subsidiary in the U.S.;
“ADSs” refers to the American depositary shares, each representing one and one quarter (1.25) of our ordinary shares;
“Antibody binding interface” or “antibody binding sites” refers to the antibody binding surface spots in contact with its recognition antigen;
“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China; and only in the context of describing PRC rules, laws, regulations, regulatory authority, and any PRC entities or citizens under such rules, laws and regulations and other legal or tax matters in this annual report, excludes Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau;
“conformational diversity” or “dynamic diversity” refers to the existence of more than one conformation or structure due to dynamic fluctuation of the structures for a given protein sequence, independent of any conformational changes caused by external binding;
“epitopes” or “epitope of an antigen” refers to the specific binding spots of an antigen in contact with its antibody binding surface;
“Greater China,” for the purpose of this annual report, refers to the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;
“multi-specificity” refers to a protein exerting a similar function (such as binding) on distinctly different ligands, perhaps while using different active site residues;
“NEObody” refers to antibody designed with dynamic binding sites that adapt kinetically to unique epitopes through novel MOA, using our NEObody technology;
“POWERbody” refers to antibody that utilizes our SAFEbody technology to create new bispecific T-cell engagers, antibody-drug conjugates, or antibodies, which are designed to reach beyond the therapeutic potency of traditional monospecific antibodies;
“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;
“SAFEbody” refers to antibody engineered with its binding sites masked, which are designed to be selectively activated in the tumor microenvionment (TME), potentially limiting on-target off-tumor toxicity in normal tissues; SAFEbody® is a registered trademark in the United States, China, Australia, Japan, Singapore, and the European Union;

1

“Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
“species cross-reactivity” refers to reactivity of the same protein that recognizes and binds to similar epitopes of a given class of targets in different species;
“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States; and
“we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our,” refer to Adagene Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted company and its subsidiaries.
“NEObodies” refer to antibodies designed with dynamic binding sites that adapt kinetically to unique epitopes through novel MOAs, using our NEObody technology;
“ordinary shares” or “shares” refers to our ordinary shares of par value US$0.0001 per share;
“POWERbodies” refer to antibodies that utilize our SAFEbody technology to create new bispecific T-cell engagers, antibody-drug conjugates, or antibodies, which are designed to reach beyond the therapeutic potency of traditional monospecific antibodies; and
“SAFEbodies” refer to antibodies engineered with their binding sites masked, which are designed to be selectively activated in the tumor microenvironment (“TME”), potentially limiting on-target off-tumor toxicity in normal tissues.

2

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe harbor” provision under Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including but not limited to Adagene’s ability to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of its drug candidates; the clinical results for its drug candidates, which may not support further development or regulatory approval; the content and timing of decisions made by the relevant regulatory authorities regarding regulatory approval of Adagene’s drug candidates; Adagene’s ability to achieve commercial success for its drug candidates, if approved; Adagene’s ability to obtain and maintain protection of intellectual property for its technology and drugs; Adagene’s reliance on third parties to conduct drug development, manufacturing and other services; Adagene’s limited operating history and Adagene’s ability to obtain additional funding for operations and to complete the development and commercialization of its drug candidates; Adagene’s ability to enter into additional collaboration agreements beyond its existing strategic partnerships or collaborations, and the impact of the outbreak of a widespread health epidemic on Adagene’s clinical development, commercial and other operations, as well as those risks more fully discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in Adagene’s filings with the SEC. Such known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to,” “potential,” “continue” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our goals and growth strategies;
our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
the timing of the initiation, progress and potential results of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and our discovery programs;
our ability to utilize our proprietary Dynamic Precision Library platform, or DPL, to design, construct and develop next-generation antibodies;
our ability to advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;
the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
our estimates of the number of patients who suffer from the diseases we are targeting and the number of patients that may enroll in our clinical trials;
the commercializing of our product candidates, if approved;
our ability and the potential to successfully manufacture and supply our product candidates for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;
future strategic arrangements and/or collaborations and the potential benefits of such arrangements;
our anticipated use of our existing resources and the proceeds from our initial public offering;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing and our ability to obtain additional capital;
the sufficiency of our existing cash and cash equivalents to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

3

our ability to retain the continued service of our key personnel and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business and product candidates;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights, such as our proprietary DPL, which fuels our NEObody, SAFEbody and POWERbody platform technologies, product candidates and discovery programs;
our potential to enter into new collaborations;
our ability to contract with third-party suppliers and manufacturers and their ability to perform adequately;
the pricing, coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing product candidates and therapies;
the direct and indirect impact of the outbreak of a widespread health epidemic on our business and operations and on development of our clinical and preclinical programs, and the duration and impact of such widespread health epidemic or any of its variants that may affect, precipitate or exacerbate one or more of any of the risks and uncertainties mentioned in this annual report;
relevant government policies and regulations relating to our business and industry;
general economic and business condition in the markets we have businesses; and
assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

We would like to caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements and you should read these statements in conjunction with the risk factors disclosed in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” of this annual report and other risks outlined in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Those risks are not exhaustive. We operate in an evolving environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is impossible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements except as required under applicable law. You should read this annual report and the documents that we reference in this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

4

PART I

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

3.A. [Reserved]

3.B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

3.C. Reason for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

3.D. Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

Investors in Adagene Inc.’s equity securities are investing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company rather than equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China or in the United States. Adagene Inc. is a Cayman Islands holding company that conducts a substantial portion of its operations in China through its PRC subsidiary, Adagene (Suzhou) Limited. In addition, Adagene Inc. conducts a substantial portion of its operations in the U.S. through its U.S. subsidiary, Adagene Incorporated. Our corporate group does not include any variable interest entities. Such structure involves unique risks to investors in the ADSs and ordinary shares. You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in our ADSs. In particular, as we are a holding company with substantial business operations in China, you should pay special attention to subsections headed “Item 4.A.–– 4.A. History and Development of the Company Recent––Regulatory Developments,” “Item 3.D. Risk Factors––Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC,” including but not limited to risk factor such as “uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us.” The PRC government has significant authority to exert influence on the ability of a company with substantive operations in China, such as us, to conduct its business, accept foreign investments or list on a U.S. or other foreign exchanges. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals of offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of PCAOB inspection on our auditor. Such risks could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer ADSs and/or other securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. The PRC government also has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and as such may influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material adverse effect on our operations. The PRC government has recently published new policies and made statements, such as those related to regulatory approvals of offshore offerings and data security or anti-monopoly concerns, that although did not target on our company specifically, nevertheless have significantly affected certain industries and other PRC-based issuers as a whole, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding the industry where we operate, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. These risks could result in a material change in our operations and the value of our ordinary shares or the ADSs, or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to conduct our business, accept foreign investments, or maintain listing on Nasdaq or listing on other foreign exchange, and offer or continue to offer securities to investors, and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

5

You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in the ordinary shares or ADSs. Below please find a summary of the principal risks and uncertainties we face, organized under relevant headings. In particular, as we are a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with substantive business operations in China, you should pay special attention to subsections headed “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC” and “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to the ADSs.”

Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face, organized under relevant headings.

Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC

Risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China include, but are not limited to, the following:

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us. For details, see page 9 of this annual report;
PRC government has significant oversight over the conduct of our business and as such may influence our operations at any time, which may potentially result in a material adverse effect on our operations. For details, see page 9 of this annual report;
The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections. For details, see page 10 of this annual report.
Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. For details, see page 10 of this annual report;
The enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act decreases the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs will be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market or OTC or delisted. For details, see page 11 of this annual report;
Your investments in our ADSs and/or ordinary shares are investments in equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company rather than equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China for instance. As a result, you may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management based on foreign laws. For details, see page 14 of this annual report;
We may be required to obtain approval or complete filing or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities in connection with our issuances of securities overseas, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such governmental procedure. For details, see page 16 of this annual report; and
Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations. For details, see page 19 of this annual report.

Risks Related to Our Financial Prospects and Need for Additional Capital

Risks and uncertainties related to our financial prospectus and need for additional capital include, but are not limited to, the following:

We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance. For details, see page 26 of this annual report;

6

We have incurred net losses historically and we may continue to incur net losses in the near future. For details, see page 27 of this annual report;
We may need to obtain substantial additional financing to fund our growth and operations, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. For details, see page 28 of this annual report;
Raising additional capital may lead to dilution of shareholdings by our existing shareholders and restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates. For details, see page 29 of this annual report; and
We have certain shareholders who have board representation rights and their individual interests may differ from yours. For details, see page 29 of this annual report.

Risks Related to Clinical Development of Our Product Candidates

Risks and uncertainties related to clinical development of our product candidates include, but are not limited to, the following:

We may not be able to identify or discover new product candidates, and may allocate our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates that may later prove to be more profitable, or for which there is a greater likelihood of success. For details, see page 30 of this annual report;
We may not be successful in our efforts to use and expand our proprietary platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates. For details, see page 30 of this annual report;
Any failures or setbacks in our platforms or our other proprietary technologies could negatively affect our business and financial condition. For details, see page 30 of this annual report;
Our product candidates, for which we intend to seek approval as biologic products, may face competition sooner than anticipated. For details, see page 31 of this annual report; and
We depend substantially on the success of our product candidates, particularly our lead product candidate, ADG126, which is in phase 1b/2 clinical development, and our ability to advance and identify additional product candidates. Clinical trials of our product candidates may not be successful. If we are unable to successfully identify new product candidates, complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and commercialize our product candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed. For details, see page 31 of this annual report.

Risks Related to Obtaining Regulatory Approval of Our Drug Candidates

Risks and uncertainties related to obtaining regulatory approval of our drug candidates include, but are not limited to, the following:

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, NMPA and other comparable regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed. For details, see page 36 of this annual report.
Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business. For details, see page 38 of this annual report.
Even if we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates, we may never obtain approval or commercialize such products outside of the United States, which would limit our ability to realize their full market potential. For details, see page 38 of this annual report.

7

We are conducting clinical trials and may in the future conduct additional clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States and/or China, and FDA, NMPA and similar foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials. For details, see page 39 of this annual report; and
Our product candidates may cause undesirable adverse events, side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following any regulatory approval. For details, see page 39 of this annual report.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Risks and uncertainties related to our intellectual property include, but are not limited to, the following:

It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights and technology, and we may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world. For details, see page 63 of this annual report;
Changes in patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates. For details, see page 66 of this annual report;
We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights for our development pipeline through acquisitions and licensing deals. For details, see page 67 of this annual report;
We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful, and any unfavorable outcome from such litigation could limit our research and development activities and/or our ability to commercialize our product candidates. For details, see page 68 of this annual report; and
Our commercial success depends significantly on our ability to operate without infringing upon, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. For details, see page 68 of this annual report.

Risks Related to the ADSs

Risks and uncertainties related to the ADSs include, but are not limited to, the following:

Our business and financial results, including our ability to raise capital or raise capital on favorable terms and the market price of our ADSs, may be adversely affected by the geopolitical factors arising in connection with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, including particularly how countries like the United States and China choose to respond to this war. As a result, the value of our ADSs may significantly decline. For details, see page 73 of this annual report.
You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs. For details, see page 73 of this annual report;
The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors. For details, see page 73 of this annual report;
we are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements. For details, see page 74 of this annual report;
If securities or industry analysts cease to publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline. For details, see page 74 of this annual report;
The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of the ADSs could adversely affect their market price. For details, see page 74 of this annual report;

8

We were likely a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for 2023, and there is a significant risk that we will be a PFIC for 2024 and possibly subsequent taxable years, in which case U.S. investors will generally be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. For details, see page 80 of this annual report; and
If a U.S. person is treated as owning 10% or more of our stock by vote or value, such person may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. For details, see page 80 of this annual report.

Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China could adversely affect us.

Our operations in China are governed by the PRC laws and regulations. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. In addition, any new PRC laws or changes in PRC laws and regulations related to, among other things, foreign investment and manufacturing in China could have a material adverse effect on our business and our ability to operate our business in China.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy in practice. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce contracts in China and could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property and procedural rights could adversely affect our business, and impede our ability to continue our operations and proceed with our future business plans.

PRC government has significant oversight over the conduct of our business and as such may influence our operations at any time, which may potentially result in a material adverse effect on our operations.

PRC government has significant oversight over the conduct of our business and may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which may potentially result in a material adverse effect on our operations. PRC government has also recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight over offerings that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could impact our ability to raise additional capital in international capital markets. In addition, the PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected certain industries such as the education and internet industries, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future release regulations or policies regarding our industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such action could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

However, as there are still regulatory uncertainties in this regard, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with new laws and regulations in all respects, and we may be ordered to rectify, suspend or terminate any actions or services that are deemed illegal by the regulatory authorities and become subject to material penalties, which may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

9

The PCAOB had historically been unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of our auditor in the past has deprived our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. The auditor is located in mainland China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB was historically unable to conduct inspections and investigations completely before 2022. As a result, we and investors in the ADSs were deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in mainland China in the past has made it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of mainland China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB issued a report that vacated its December 16, 2021 determination and removed mainland China and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. However, if the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong, and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, we and investors in our ADSs would be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections again, which could cause investors and potential investors in the ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting of the ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

Pursuant to the HFCAA and the Consoldiated Appropriations Act, 2023, if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years, the SEC will prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States.

On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and our auditor was subject to that determination. In May 2022, the SEC conclusively listed us as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA following the filing of our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB removed mainland China and Hong Kong from the list of jurisdictions where it is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms. Accordingly, until such time as the PCAOB issues any new determination, we are not at risk of having our securities subject to a trading prohibition under the HFCAA.

Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in mainland China and Hong Kong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on our financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. In accordance with the HFCAA, our securities would be prohibited from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States if we are identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for two consecutive years in the future. If our shares and ADSs are prohibited from trading in the United States, there is no certainty that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the United States. A prohibition of being able to trade in the United States would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and prospects.

10

The enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act decreases the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs will be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market or OTC or delisted.

On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed a bill, also known as the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, to amend Section 104(i) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 7214(i)) to prohibit securities of any registrant from being listed on any of the U.S. securities exchanges or traded over-the-counter if the auditor of the registrant’s financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspection for two consecutive years, instead of three consecutive years as initially required under the HFCAA, after the law becomes effective. On February 4, 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the America COMPETES Act of 2022, which includes the exact same amendments as the bill passed by the Senate. On December 29, 2022, the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act was signed into law as part of the recently passed fiscal year 2023 omnibus spending legislation, which requires the SEC to prohibit an issuer’s securities from trading on U.S. markets if the SEC identifies such issuer to be a Commission-Identified Issuer for two consecutive years.

We may be restricted from transferring our scientific data abroad.

On March 17, 2018, the General Office of the PRC State Council promulgated the Measures for the Management of Scientific Data, or the Scientific Data Measures, which provide a broad definition of scientific data and relevant rules for the management of scientific data. According to the Scientific Data Measures, enterprises in China must seek governmental approval before any scientific data involving a state secret may be transferred abroad or to foreign parties. Further, any researcher conducting research funded, at least in part, by the PRC government is required to submit relevant scientific data for management by the entity to which such researcher is affiliated before such data may be published in any foreign academic journal. Currently, as the term “state secret” is not clearly defined, there is no assurance that we can always obtain relevant approvals for sending scientific data (such as the results of our preclinical studies or clinical trials conducted within China) abroad, or to our foreign partners in China.

Moreover, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, issued the Measures on Security Assessment of the Cross-border Transfer of Personal Information (Draft for Comment) in June 2019, pursuant to which, any cross-border transfer of information that may endanger national security, damage public interest, or fail to offer effective protection of personal information security, as assessed by relevant regulatory bodies, will be prohibited. In July 2022, CAC issued the Measures on Security Assessment of the Cross-border Data Transfer, regulating the thresholds for triggering mandatory security assessments not only in the cross-border transfers of personal information, but also in the cross-border transfers of “important data” collected and generated in China under certain circumstance, which were later amended in the Provisions on Promoting and Regulating Cross-border Flow of Data effective in March 2024. The term “important data” means any data, the tampering, damage, leakage, or illegal acquisition or use of which, if it happens, may endanger national security, the operation of the economy, social stability, public health and security, etc. Given that the government body will have full discretion in the assessment, it is unclear if and the extent to which our clinical data will be considered as an endangerment to national or personal information security. In March 2024, CAC issued the Provisions on Promoting and Regulating Cross-border Flow of Data, which mandates that if the company has not received notification from the relevant industrial or regional authorities that it processes important data, or certain types of data have not been publicly declared as important data, the company will be exempted from the obligation to submit a security assessment declaration solely on the factor of important data. As the regulation is relatively new, there is still some uncertainty about its practical application.

Cross-border data transfer from other jurisdictions may also be limited if we fail to comply with relevant requirements, such as obtaining authorization from patients regarding the use, transfer and retrieval of their personal information or data and adopting measures to ensure the safety of personal information or data in the transfer. Also, cross-border transfer of personal data by its nature is subject to general data privacy regulations in various jurisdictions, and thus any failure to comply with data privacy protection may lead to a restriction of transferring our data across different jurisdictions.

If we are unable to obtain the necessary approvals in a timely manner, or at all, our research and development of product candidates may be hindered, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial conditions and prospects. If relevant government authorities consider the transmission of our scientific data to be in violation of the requirements under the Scientific Data Measures, we may be subject to specific administrative penalties imposed by those government authorities.

11

Failure to comply with existing or future laws and regulations related to privacy or data security could lead to government enforcement actions, which could include civil or criminal fines or penalties, private litigation, other liabilities, and/or adverse publicity. Compliance or the failure to comply with such laws could increase the costs of our products and services, limit their use or adoption, and otherwise negatively affect our operating results and business.

The regulatory framework for the collection, use, safeguarding, sharing, transfer and other processing of personal information and important data worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Regulatory authorities in virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate have implemented and are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection.

Regulatory authorities in China have implemented and are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. For example, China’s Cybersecurity Law, which became effective in June 2017, established China’s first national-level data protection for “network operators,” which may include all organizations in China that connect to or provide services over the internet or other information network. The Cybersecurity Law requires network operators to perform certain functions related to cybersecurity protection. In addition, the Cybersecurity Law imposes certain requirements on network operators of critical information infrastructure, or the CIIOs. For example, the CIIOs generally shall, during their operations in the PRC, store the personal information and important data collected and produced within the territory of PRC, and shall perform certain security obligations as required under the Cybersecurity Law, including that the CIIOs shall pass the national security review when purchasing network product or service which may affect national security. In addition, China’s Data Security Law, which was promulgated by the Standing Committee of PRC National People’s Congress, or the SCNPC, on June 10, 2021 and came into effect on September 1, 2021, outlines the main system framework of data security protection. For example, the Data Security Law introduces a data classification and hierarchical protection system based on the importance of data in economic and social development, as well as the degree of harm it will cause to national security, public interests, or legitimate rights and interests of individuals or organizations when such data is tampered with, destroyed, leaked, or illegally acquired or used. Processors of “important data” are further required to conduct periodic risk assessment and submit assessment report to relevant regulatory authorities. In addition, the Data Security Law provides a national security review procedure for those data activities which may affect national security. Furthermore, Regulations on the Security Protection of Critical Information Infrastructure, which was promulgated by the State Council of PRC on July 30, 2021 and came into effect on September 1, 2021, or the CII Protection Regulations, stipulates the obligations and liabilities of the regulators, society and CIIOs in protecting the security of critical information infrastructure, or the CII. According to the CII Protection Regulations, regulators supervising specific industries shall formulate detailed guidance to recognize the CII in the respective sectors, and CIIOs shall take the responsibility to protect the CII’s security by performing certain prescribed obligations. For example, CIIOs are required to conduct network security test and risk assessment, report the assessment results to relevant regulatory authorities, and timely rectify the issues identified at least once a year.

The Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law, which were issued by the General Committee and State Council on July 6, 2021, require the speed-up of the revision of the provisions on strengthening the confidentiality and archives coordination between regulators related to overseas issuance and listing of securities, and improvement to the laws and regulations related to data security, cross-border data flow, and management of confidential information. Numerous regulations, guidelines and other measures have been or are expected to be adopted under the umbrella of, or in addition to the Cybersecurity Law and Data Security Law , including the Cybersecurity Review Measures published by Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and other 12 relevant PRC government authorities in December 2021, which provides that, among others, if a “network platform operator” that possesses personal information of more than one million users intends to go public in a foreign country, it must apply for a cybersecurity review with the Cybersecurity Review Office, and that the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security.

12

In March 2024, CAC issued the Provisions on Promoting and Regulating Cross-border Flow of Data, which provide that unless otherwise stipulated, data processors shall apply for security assessment for cross-border data transfer in any of the following circumstances: (i) outbound transfer of personal information or important data by CIIO Operators; or (ii) outbound transfer of important data by a data processor other than CIIO Operators, or outbound transfer of personal information (other than sensitive personal information) of more than 1million people or sensitive personal information of more than 10,000 people by a data processor other than CIIO Operators since January 1 of the same year.

In addition, the CAC published the Regulations for the Administration of Cyber Data Security (Draft for Comment), or the Draft Data Security Regulations, for public comments in November 2021, which reiterate that a data processor who processes personal information of more than one million individuals must complete the cybersecurity review if it intends to be listed in a foreign country, and if a data processor conducts any data processing activities that affect or may affect national security, an application for cybersecurity review shall also be made by such a processor. The Draft Data Security Regulations also require that data processors who process important data or whose securities are listed outside of China shall carry out annual data security assessment by itself or through a third party data security service provider and submit the assessment report to local agency of the CAC. Also see “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation—Other PRC Government Regulations—Regulations on Information Security and Data Protection” for detailed discussion.

As of the date of this annual report, the exact scope of CIIOs and important data under the current laws, regulations and regulatory regime remains unclear, and the authorities may have wide discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of the related laws and regulations. If we are deemed as a CIIO, or as an operator who collects, uses and processes important data according to the Cybersecurity Law, Data Security Law and other relevant laws and regulations, we may need to perform or be subject to certain prescribed obligations, and if we were found to be in violation of these applicable laws and regulations, we may be subject to administrative penalties, including fines and service suspension. We also cannot rule out the possibility that certain of our customers may be deemed as CIIOs, or as operators processing important data, in which case our products or services or data processing activities, if being deemed as related to national security, will need to be submitted for cybersecurity review before we can enter into agreements with such customers, and before the conclusion of such procedure, the customers will not be allowed to use our products or services. If the reviewing authority considers that the use of our services by certain of our customers involves risk of disruption, is vulnerable to external attacks, or may negatively affect, compromise, or weaken the protection of national security, we may not be able to provide our products or services to such customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and business prospects.

As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigations on cybersecurity review initiated by the Cyberspace Administration of China, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, sanctions in such respect or any regulatory objections to our listing status on the Nasdaq. As there are still uncertainties regarding the further enaction of new laws and regulations as well as the revision, interpretation and implementation of those existing laws and regulations, however, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with such regulations in all respects, and we may be ordered to rectify, suspend or terminate any actions or services that are deemed illegal or incompliance by the regulatory authorities and become subject to fines and/or other penalties. If we are unable to address such issue in a timely manner or at all, we may be required to suspend or terminate our related businesses or face other penalties, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially harmed.

Furthermore, certain PRC regulatory authorities issued the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities in 2021. These opinions call for strengthened regulation over illegal securities activities and supervision of overseas listings by China-based companies and propose to take effective measures. As of the date of this annual report, no official guidance or related implementation rules have been issued and taken into effect in relation to such opinions and as a result, the interpretation and implementation of these opinions remain unclear at this stage. We cannot assure you that we will not be required to obtain the pre-approval of the CSRC and potentially other regulatory authorities to pursue an offering of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of our ADSs on the Nasdaq. See also “––We may be required to obtain approval or complete filing or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities in connection with our issuances of securities overseas, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such governmental procedure.”

13

In addition, certain industry-specific laws and regulations affect the collection and transfer of personal data in China. For example, the PRC State Council promulgated Regulations on the Administration of Human Genetic Resources (effective in July 2019), which require approval from or filings with the Science and Technology Administration Department of the State Council where human genetic resources, or HGR, are involved in any international collaborative project and additional approval for any export or cross-border transfer of the HGR samples or human genetic resource information. In addition, the Ministry of Science and Technology of the PRC published the Implementing Rules of the Administrative Regulations on Human Genetic Resources in July 2023, which refined the requirements related to the ethical review required in the collection, conservation, utilization, and external provision of HGR.

It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices, potentially resulting in confiscation of HGR samples and human genetic resource information and administrative fines or in worst cases, criminal penalties. In addition, the interpretation and application of data and personal information protection laws in China and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux.

Dividends we receive from our subsidiaries located in the PRC may be taxed at a higher rate, which could materially and adversely affect the amount of dividends, if any, we may pay our shareholders.

Pursuant to the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement between Hong Kong and China, or the Double Tax Avoidance Treaty, and the Notice on Certain Issues with Respect to the Enforcement of Dividend Provisions in Tax Treaties, or the Notice on Tax Treaties, issued on February 20, 2009 by the State Administration of Taxation of the PRC, or the SAT, if a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns more than 25% of the equity interest of a PRC company at all times during the twelve-month period immediately prior to obtaining a dividend from such company, the 10% withholding tax on such dividend is reduced to 5%, provided that certain other conditions and requirements under the Double Tax Avoidance Treaty and other applicable PRC laws are satisfied at the discretion of the relevant PRC tax authority. However, based on the Notice on Tax Treaties, if the relevant PRC tax authorities determine, in their discretion, that a company benefits from such reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, the PRC tax authorities may adjust the preferential tax treatment. Based on the Notice on Issues concerning Beneficial Owner in Tax Treaties, or Circular 9, issued on February 3, 2018 by the SAT and effective on April 1, 2018, when determining the applicant’s status as a “beneficial owner” for purpose of tax treatments in connection with dividends, interests or royalties in the tax treaties, several factors will be taken into account, and it will be analyzed according to the actual circumstances of the specific cases. If our Hong Kong subsidiary is determined by PRC government authorities as receiving benefits from reduced income tax rates due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, the dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to our Hong Kong subsidiary will be taxed at a higher rate, which will have an adverse effect on our financial and operational conditions.

Your investments in our ADSs and/or ordinary shares are investments in equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company rather than equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China for instance. As a result, you may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management based on foreign laws.

Adagene Inc. is a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with no operations of its own. It conducts a substantial portion of its operations in China primarily through its subsidiary in China, Adagene (Suzhou) Limited. In addition, Adagene Inc. conducts a substantial portion of its operations in the U.S. through its U.S. subsidiary, Adagene Incorporated. As such, investors in the ADSs or ordinary shares are not purchasing equity securities of our subsidiaries that have substantive business operations in China or in the U.S. but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. In addition, some of our senior executive officers and directors reside within China for a significant portion of the time and some are PRC nationals. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders or investors to effect service of process upon us or those persons inside China. In addition, China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the Cayman Islands and many other countries and regions. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may be difficult or impossible.

14

Shareholder claims that are common in the United States, including securities law class actions and fraud claims, generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for shareholder investigations or litigation outside China or otherwise with respect to foreign entities. Although the local authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States have not been efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators and relevant authorities, no organization or individual may provide the documents and materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties. See also “Item 3 Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to the ADSs—You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.”

Recent litigation and negative publicity surrounding China-based companies listed in the United States may result in increased regulatory scrutiny of us and negatively impact the trading price of the ADSs and could have a material adverse effect upon our business, including our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.

We believe that litigation and negative publicity surrounding companies with operations in China that are listed in the United States have negatively impacted stock prices for these companies. Various equity-based research organizations have published reports on China-based companies after examining their corporate governance practices, related party transactions, sales practices and financial statements, and these reports have led to special investigations and listing suspensions on U.S. national exchanges. Any similar scrutiny of us, regardless of its lack of merit, could result in a diversion of management resources and energy, potential costs to defend ourselves against rumors, decreases and volatility in the ADS trading price, and increased directors and officers insurance premiums and could have an adverse effect upon our business, including our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.

Changes in U.S. and international trade policies, particularly with regard to China, may adversely impact our business and operating results.

Although cross-border business may not be an area of our focus, if we plan to expand our business internationally in the future, any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact our competitive position, or prevent us from being able to conduct business in certain countries. If any new tariffs, legislation, or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated, such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Recently, there have been heightened tensions in international economic relations, such as the one between the United States and China. The U.S. government has recently imposed, and has recently proposed to impose additional, new, or higher tariffs on certain products imported from China to penalize China for what it characterizes as unfair trade practices. China has responded by imposing, and proposing to impose additional, new, or higher tariffs on certain products imported from the United States. Following mutual retaliatory actions for months, on January 15, 2020, the United States and China entered into the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China as a phase one trade deal, effective on February 14, 2020. It remains unclear what additional actions, if any, will be taken by the U.S. or other governments with respect to international trade, tax policy related to international commerce, or other trade matters. The situation is further complicated by the political tensions between the United States and China that escalated during the outbreak of COVID-19 and in the wake of the PRC National People’s Congress’ decision on Hong Kong national security legislation, sanctions imposed by the U.S. Department of Treasury on certain officials of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the central government of the PRC and the executive orders issued by U.S. President in August 2020 that prohibit certain transactions with certain China-based companies and their respective subsidiaries. Rising trade and political tensions could reduce levels of trade, investments, technological exchanges and other economic activities between China and other countries, which would have an adverse effect on global economic conditions, the stability of global financial markets, and international trade policies.

Although the direct impact of the current international trade and political tension, and any escalation of such tension, on the biopharmaceutical companies in China is uncertain, the negative impact on general, economic, political and social conditions may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

15

We may be required to obtain approval or complete filing or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities in connection with our issuances of securities overseas, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such governmental procedure.

The M&A Rules requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. However, the application of the M&A Rules remains unclear. If CSRC approval is required for any of our future offerings of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of the ADSs, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval, and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC government authorities.

In addition, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the “Opinions on Severely Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law” (“Opinions”) which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies. These Opinions proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, to deal with the risks and incidents facing China-based overseas-listed companies and the demand for cybersecurity and data privacy protection. The policies described above and any related implementation rules to be enacted may subject us to additional compliance requirement in the future. As the Opinions only provide general guidance, the interpretation and implementation of the Opinions remain unclear in several respects at this time. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we will remain fully compliant with all new regulatory requirements of the Opinions or any future implementation rules on a timely basis, or at all.

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC issued the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), collectively the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, for public comment until January 23, 2022. Following issuance of the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, on February 17, 2023, the CSRC issued the Notice on Filing Arrangements for Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “CSRC Filing Notice”), stating that the CSRC has published the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and five supporting guidelines (the “Listing Guidelines”), collectively the Trial Measures and Listing Guidelines, which came into effect on March 31, 2023.

The Trial Measures provide that an overseas listing or offering securities (which, for the purposes of the Trial Measures, are defined thereunder as equity shares, depository receipts, corporate bonds convertible to equity shares, and other equity securities that are offered and listed overseas, either directly or indirectly, by PRC domestic companies) is explicitly prohibited under any of the following circumstances: (i) such securities offering and listing is explicitly prohibited by provisions in laws, administrative regulations and relevant state rules of the PRC; (ii) the intended securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with law; (iii) the domestic company, its controlling shareholder(s) or the actual controller have committed relevant crimes such as corruption, bribery, embezzlement, misappropriation of property or undermining the order of the socialist market economy during the latest three years; (iv) the domestic company is currently under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations of laws and regulations, and no conclusion has yet been made thereof; or (v) there are material ownership disputes over equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder(s) or by other shareholder(s) that are controlled by the controlling shareholder(s) and/or actual controller.

A filing-based regulatory regime is adopted to regulate both direct and indirect overseas securities offering and listing by the domestic companies undert the Trial Measures. Direct overseas offering and listing by domestic companies refers to such overseas offering and listing by a joint-stock company incorporated domestically, while the indirect overseas offering and listing by domestic companies refers to the offering and listing by a company in the name of an overseas incorporated entity which major business operations are located domestically and such offering and listing is based on the underlying equity, assets, earnings or other similar rights of a domestic company.

16

The Trial Measures stipulate that an overseas listing will be determined as “indirect” if the issuer meets both of the following conditions: (1) 50% or more of any of the issuer’s operating revenue, total profit, total assets or net assets as documented in its audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent accounting year are accounted for by PRC domestic companies (“Condition I”), and (2) the main parts of the issuer’s business activities are conducted in the PRC, or its main places of business are located in the PRC, or the senior managers in charge of its business operations and management are mostly Chinese citizens or domiciled in the PRC (“Condition II”); whether Chinese citizens from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau are included in the foregoing specification is not specified. The determination as to whether or not an overseas offering and listing by PRC domestic companies is indirect shall be made on a “substance over form” basis; the Listing Guidelines further stipulate that if an issuer not satisfying Condition I submits an application for issuance and listing in overseas markets in accordance with relevant non-PRC issuance regulations requiring such issuer to disclose risk factors mainly related to the PRC, the securities firm(s) and the issuer’s PRC counsel should follow the principle of “substance over form” in order to identify and argue whether the issuer should complete a filing under the Trial Measures.

Subsequent securities offerings of an issuer in (i) the same overseas market where it has previously offered and listed securities, and (ii) an overseas market other than one where the issuer has previously offered and listed securities shall be filed with the CSRC within three working days after offerings are completed. Additionally, the Trial Measures stipulate that after an issuer has offered and listed securities in an overseas market, the issuer shall submit a report to the CSRC within three working days after the occurrence and public disclosure of (i) a change of control thereof, (ii) investigations of or sanctions imposed on the issuer by overseas securities regulators or relevant competent authorities, (iii) changes of listing status or transfers of listing segment, and (iv) a voluntary or mandatory delisting.

The CSRC Filing Notice states that, beginning from March 31, 2023, PRC domestic enterprises which have already issued and listed securities overseas and fall within the scope of filing under the Trial Measures shall be considered “existing enterprises” (“Existing Listed Enterprises”). Existing Listed Enterprises are not required to complete filings immediately; rather, Existing Listed Enterprises should complete filings if they are subsequently involved in matters require filings, such as follow-on financing activities, in accordance with the Trial Measures.

As advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng, in the event that the issuer does not meet either Condition I or Condition II, the filing requirements under the Trial Measures will not apply. If our relevant indicators meet both Condition I and Condition II, we need to file at the CSRC according to the requirements under the Trial Measures. However, as the Trial Measures are relatively new, there is some uncertainty about the time required for the filing process. As a result, we cannot guarantee whether the filing process will affect our future financing activities. To the extent we are deemed as a PRC domestic company that is subject to the CSRC filing, we may be further deemed as an Existing Listed Enterprise as defined under the CSRC Filing Notice, and that future offerings of listed securities or listings outside China by us or voluntary delisting may be subject to CSRC filing requirements in accordance with the Trial Measures. Given that the Trial Measures and Listing Guidelines have been introduced recently, and that there remain substantial uncertainties surrounding the enforcement thereof, we cannot assure you that, if required, we would be able to complete the filings and fully comply with the relevant new rules on a timely basis, if at all.

In addition, the Measures for Cybersecurity Review, which took effect on February 15, 2022, requires, among others, prior cybersecurity review for online platform operators holding over one million users’ personal information before any public listing in a foreign country. The Provisions on Promoting and Regulating Cross-border Flow of Data, effective on March 22, 2024, specify that data controllers and/or critical information infrastructure operators will be subject to security assessment. There remain uncertainties as to whether such measures are applicable to our business. See also “——Failure to comply with existing or future laws and regulations related to privacy or data security could lead to government enforcement actions, which could include civil or criminal fines or penalties, private litigation, other liabilities, and/or adverse publicity. Compliance or the failure to comply with such laws could increase the costs of our products and services, limit their use or adoption, and otherwise negatively affect our operating results and business.”

17

On February 24, 2023, the CSRC and other PRC governmental authorities jointly issued the Provisions on Strengthening Confidentiality and Archives Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Confidentiality Provisions”), which came into effect on March 31, 2023. According to the Confidentiality Provisions, PRC domestic companies that directly or indirectly conduct overseas offerings and listings shall strictly abide by the laws and regulations on confidentiality when providing or publicly disclosing, whether directly or through their overseas listed entities, materials to securities services providers. In the event such materials contain state secrets or working secrets of government agencies, PRC domestic companies shall first obtain approval from authorities, and file with the secrecy administrative department at the same level with the approving authority; in the event that such materials, if divulged, will jeopardize national security or public interest, PRC domestic companies shall comply with procedures stipulated by national regulations. PRC domestic companies shall also provide a written statement of the specific sensitive information provided when providing materials to securities service providers, and such written statements shall be retained for inspection. As the Confidentiality Provisions were recently promulgated and are yet to take effect, their interpretation and implementation remain substantially uncertain.

If (i) we mistakenly conclude that certain regulatory filings, permissions and approvals are not required or (ii) applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and (iii) we are required to obtain such filings, permissions or approvals in the future, we may be unable to obtain them in a timely manner, or at all, and such filings, permissions or approvals may be denied or rescinded even if obtained. We may face adverse actions or sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies if we are unable to comply with such requirements, which may result in fines and penalties, restrictions on our operations, having to delist from a stock exchange outside of China, the halting of securities offerings to foreign investors and other actions that could materially and adversely affect our operations and the interest of our investors and cause a significant depreciation in the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders or ADS holders.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with a “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control over and overall management of the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, SAT issued a circular, known as SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management and the places where they perform their duties are in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

We believe that we are not a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. See “Item 10 Additional Information—Taxation— Material PRC Income Tax Considerations.” However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that we or any of our non-PRC subsidiaries are a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we or the subsidiary will be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25%. In addition, we may be required to withhold taxes from dividends, and non-PRC shareholders (including ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC, as described below under “Item 3.D.Risk Factors—Risks Related to the ADS—You may be subject to PRC income tax on dividends from us or any gain realized on the transfer of our ADSs.”

18

You may be subject to PRC income tax on dividends from us or on any gain realized on the transfer of our ADSs.

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC, or the EIT Law, and its implementation rules, PRC withholding tax at the rate of 10% is generally applicable to dividends from PRC sources paid to investors that are resident enterprises outside of China and that do not have an establishment or place of business in China, or that have an establishment or place of business in China but the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business. Any gain realized on the transfer of shares by such investors is subject to 10% PRC income tax if this gain is regarded as income derived from sources within China. Under the PRC Individual Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, dividends from sources within China paid to foreign individual investors who are not PRC residents are generally subject to a PRC withholding tax at a rate of 20% and gains from PRC sources realized by these investors on the transfer of shares are generally subject to 20% PRC income tax. Any such PRC tax liability may be reduced by the provisions of an applicable tax treaty.

Although we have substantial business operations in China, it is unclear whether the dividends we pay with respect to our shares or ADSs, or the gains realized from the transfer of our shares or ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within China and as a result be subject to PRC income tax if we were considered a PRC resident enterprise. If PRC income tax is imposed on gains realized through the transfer of our ADSs or on dividends paid to our non-resident investors, the value of your investment in our ADSs may be adversely affected. Furthermore, our shareholders whose jurisdictions of residence have tax treaties or arrangements with China may not qualify for, or able to obtain in practice, the benefits under these tax treaties or arrangements.

The biopharmaceutical industry in China is highly regulated and such regulations are subject to changes which may affect approval and commercialization of our product candidates.

Part of our research and development operations are in China, which we believe confers clinical, commercial and regulatory advantages. The biopharmaceutical industry in China is subject to comprehensive government regulation and supervision, encompassing the approval, registration, manufacturing, packaging, licensing and marketing of new product candidates. See “Item 4 Information on the Company—Regulation” for a discussion of the regulatory requirements that are applicable to our current and planned business activities in China. In recent years, the regulatory framework in China regarding the biopharmaceutical industry has undergone significant changes, and we expect that it will continue to undergo significant changes. Any such changes or amendments may result in increased compliance costs on our business or cause delays in or prevent the successful development or commercialization of our product candidates in China and reduce the current benefits we believe are available to us from developing and manufacturing drugs in China. PRC authorities have become increasingly vigilant in enforcing laws in the biopharmaceutical industry and any failure by us or our partners to maintain compliance with applicable laws and regulations or obtain and maintain required licenses and permits may result in the suspension or termination of our business activities fines, warnings, administrative or criminal penalties in China. We believe our strategy and approach are aligned with the PRC government’s regulatory policies, but we cannot ensure that our strategy and approach will continue to be aligned.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

On March 15, 2019, the PRC National People’s Congress approved the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replaces the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in the PRC, namely, the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-Invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations and become the legal foundation for foreign investment in the PRC. Meanwhile, the Implementation Regulation of the Foreign Investment Law and the Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment came into effect as of January 1, 2020, which clarified and elaborated the relevant provisions of the Foreign Investment Law.

19

The Foreign Investment Law sets out the basic regulatory framework for foreign investments and proposes to implement a system of pre-entry national treatment with a negative list for foreign investments, pursuant to which (i) foreign entities and individuals are prohibited from investing in the areas that are not open to foreign investments, (ii) foreign investments in the restricted industries must satisfy certain requirements under the law, and (iii) foreign investments in business sectors outside of the negative list will be treated equally with domestic investments. The Foreign Investment Law also sets forth necessary mechanisms to facilitate, protect and manage foreign investments and proposes to establish a foreign investment information reporting system, through which foreign investors or foreign-invested enterprises are required to submit initial report, report of changes, report of deregistration and annual report relating to their investments to the Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, or its local branches.

Our business may be negatively affected by the potential obligations to make additional social insurance and housing fund contributions.

We are required by PRC labor laws and regulations, such as the Social Insurance Law, Administrative Regulations on the Housing Provident Fund and other related rules, to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions insurance, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance and housing fund, to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate and timely payments of the requisite statutory employee benefits, and employers who fail to make adequate and timely payments may be subject to supplemental contributions, late payment fees, fines compulsory enforcement and/or other penalties. If the relevant PRC authorities determine that we shall make supplemental social insurance and housing fund contributions or that we are subject to fines and legal sanctions in relation to our failure to make social insurance and housing fund contributions in full for our employees, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The lease agreements of our leased properties have not been registered with the relevant PRC government authorities as required by PRC law, which may expose us to potential fines.

Under PRC law, lease agreements of commodity housing tenancy are required to be registered with the local construction (real estate) departments. Although failure to do so does not in itself invalidate the leases, the parties of the lease agreements may be exposed to potential fines if they fail to rectify such non-compliance within the prescribed time frame after receiving notice from the relevant PRC government authorities. The penalty ranges from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 for each unregistered lease, at the discretion of the relevant authority. As of the date of this annual report, the lease agreements for our leased properties in China have not been registered with the relevant PRC government authorities. As of the date of this annual report, we are not aware of any regulatory or governmental actions, claims or investigations being contemplated or any challenges by third parties to our use of our leased properties that the lease agreements of which have not been registered with the government authorities. However, we cannot assure you that the government authorities will not impose fines on us due to our failure to register any of our lease agreements, which may negatively impact our financial condition.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiary of such overseas-listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas-entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options will be subject to these regulations. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions, there may be additional restrictions on the ability of them to exercise their stock options or remit proceeds gained from the sale of their stock into the PRC. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

20

We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

Pursuant to the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues concerning Enterprise Income Tax on the Indirect Transfers of Property by Non-Resident Enterprises, issued by the SAT in 2015, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers equities and other property of a Chinese resident enterprise to evade its obligation of paying enterprise income tax by implementing arrangements that are not for bona fide commercial purpose, such indirect transfer shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article 47 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, be re-identified and recognized as a direct transfer of equities and other property of the Chinese resident enterprise.

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7. SAT Bulletin 7 supersedes the rules with respect to the Indirect Transfer under SAT Circular 698. SAT Bulletin 7 has introduced a new tax regime that is significantly different from the previous one under SAT Circular 698. SAT Bulletin 7 extends the PRC’s tax jurisdiction to not only Indirect Transfers set forth under SAT Circular 698 but also transactions involving a transfer of other taxable assets through an offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, SAT Bulletin 7 provides clearer criteria than SAT Circular 698 for assessment of reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. SAT Bulletin 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or another person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise, being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or another person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Matters Concerning Withholding of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which, among others, repealed the SAT Circular 698 on December 1, 2017. SAT Bulletin 37 further details and clarifies the tax withholding methods in respect of income of non-resident enterprises under SAT Circular 698. In addition, certain rules stipulated in SAT Bulletin 7 are replaced by SAT Bulletin 37. Where the non-resident enterprise fails to declare the tax payable pursuant to Article 39 of the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, the tax authority may order it to pay the tax due within required time limits, and the non-resident enterprise shall declare and pay the tax payable within such time limits specified by the tax authority; however, if the non-resident enterprise voluntarily declares and pays the tax payable before the tax authority orders it to do so within required time limits, it shall be deemed that such enterprise has paid the tax in time.

We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries and investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is a transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is a transferee in such transactions, under SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37. For transfer of shares in our company by investors who are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiary may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and SAT Bulletin 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

21

If our preferential tax treatments are revoked, become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is challenged by the PRC tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The Chinese government has provided various tax incentives to our subsidiaries in China. These incentives include reduced enterprise income tax rates. For example, under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25%. However, the income tax of an enterprise that has been determined to be a technologically advanced service enterprise can be reduced to a preferential rate of 15%. Any increase in the enterprise income tax rate applicable to our PRC subsidiary, or any discontinuation or retroactive or future reduction of any of the preferential tax treatments currently enjoyed by our PRC subsidiary, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we are subject to complex income tax and other tax regulations and significant judgment is required in the determination of a provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax provisions are reasonable, if the PRC tax authorities successfully challenge our position and we are required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, our financial condition and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

Among other things, the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, the MOFCOM be notified in advance or its approval be obtained in certain situations, such as any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor acquires control of a PRC domestic enterprise of Undertakings, issued by the State Council in 2008 and amended in 2018, were triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the PRC National People’s Congress, or NPC, which was lastesd revised in June 2022 and came into effect in August 2022, requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by the State Council’s anti-monopoly law enforcement authority before they can be completed. In addition, PRC national security review rules which became effective in September 2011 require acquisitions by foreign investors of PRC companies engaged in military-related or certain other industries that are crucial to national security be subject to security review before consummation of any such acquisition. We may pursue potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval or clearance from the State Council’s anti-monopoly law enforcement authority, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to change their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us or our PRC resident beneficial owners to liability and penalties under PRC laws.

In July 2014, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities as well as foreign individuals that are deemed as PRC residents for foreign exchange administration purpose) to register with SAFE or its local branches in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37 is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we make in the future.

22

Under SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who make, or have prior to the implementation of SAFE Circular 37 made, direct or indirect investments in offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, will be required to register such investments with SAFE or its local branches. In addition, any PRC resident who is a direct or indirect shareholder of an SPV, is required to update its filed registration with the local branch of SAFE with respect to that SPV, to reflect any material change, including, among other things, any major change of a PRC resident shareholder, name or term of operation of the SPVs, or any increase or reduction of the SPVs’ registered capital, share transfer or swap, merger or division. Moreover, any subsidiary of such SPV in China is required to urge the PRC resident shareholders to update their registration with the local branch of SAFE. If any PRC shareholder of such SPV fails to make the required registration or to update the previously filed registration, the subsidiary of such SPV in China may be prohibited from distributing its profits or the proceeds from any capital reduction, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, and the SPV may also be prohibited from making additional capital contributions into its subsidiary in China. On February 13, 2015, SAFE promulgated a Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or SAFE Notice 13, which became effective on June 1, 2015. Under SAFE Notice 13, applications for foreign exchange registration of inbound foreign direct investments and outbound overseas direct investments, including those required under SAFE Circular 37, will be filed with qualified banks instead of SAFE or its branches. The qualified banks will directly examine the applications and accept registrations under the supervision of SAFE.

Some of our existing shareholders, each of whom owns our ordinary shares, including but not limited to as a result of exercising share options, are PRC residents under SAFE Circular 37. However, we cannot provide any assurance that these PRC residents comply with our request to make or obtain any applicable registrations or change registration or comply with all of the requirements under SAFE Circular 37 or other related rules. Furthermore, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents holding direct or indirect interest in our company. The failure or inability of our PRC resident shareholders to comply with the registration procedures set forth in these regulations may subject us to fines and legal sanctions, restrict our cross-border investment activities, limit the ability of our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China to distribute dividends and the proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may also be prohibited from injecting additional capital into the subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various foreign exchange registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for circumventing applicable foreign exchange restrictions. As a result, our business operations and our ability to distribute profits to you could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, the interpretation and implementation of these foreign exchange regulations has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant government authorities. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

We may be materially adversely affected if our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC entities fail to comply with the relevant PRC overseas investment regulations.

On December 26, 2017, the NDRC promulgated the Administrative Measures on Overseas Investments, or NDRC Order No. 11, which took effect as of March 1, 2018. According to NDRC Order No. 11, non-sensitive overseas investment projects are subject to record-filing requirements with the local branch of the NDRC. On September 6, 2014, MOFCOM promulgated the Administrative Measures on Overseas Investments, which took effect as of October 6, 2014. According to this regulation, overseas investments of PRC enterprises that involve non-sensitive countries and regions and non-sensitive industries are subject to record-filing requirements with a local MOFCOM branch. According to the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Issuing the Regulations on Foreign Exchange Administration of the Overseas Direct Investment of Domestic Institutions, which was promulgated by SAFE on July 13, 2009 and took effect on August 1, 2009, PRC enterprises must register for overseas direct investment with a local SAFE branch.

23

We may not be fully informed of the identities of all our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC entities, and we cannot provide any assurance that all of our shareholders and beneficial owners who are PRC entities has or will comply with our request to complete the overseas direct investment procedures under the aforementioned regulations or other related rules in a timely manner, or at all. If they fail to complete the filings or registrations required by the overseas direct investment regulations, the relevant authorities may order them to suspend or cease the implementation of such investment impose warnings and sanctions and make corrections within a specified time, or limit our ability to distribute dividends and proceeds to our PRC subsidiary, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiary, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiary. We also hold certain intellectual properties and outsource certain research and development activities related to these intellectual properties to our subsidiaries. We may in the future make loans or provide guarantee to our PRC subsidiary subject to the approval or registration from governmental authorities and limitation of amount, or we may make additional capital contributions to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China. Any loans to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiary in China, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC law, are subject to foreign exchange loan registrations. In addition, a foreign-invested enterprise, or FIE, shall use its capital pursuant to the principle of authenticity and self-use within its business scope. The capital of an FIE shall not be used for the following purposes: (i) directly or indirectly used for payment beyond the business scope of the enterprises or the payment prohibited by relevant laws and regulations; (ii) directly or indirectly used for investment in securities or investments other than banks’ principal-secured products unless otherwise provided by relevant laws and regulations; (iii) the granting of loans to non-affiliated enterprises, except where it is expressly permitted in the business license; and (iv) paying the expenses related to the purchase of real estate that is not for self-use (except for the foreign-invested real estate enterprises).

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiary or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiary. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use the proceeds from our initial public offering and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and we currently rely principally on equity financing for our cash requirements, including the funds necessary to pay cash considerations for services we may incur. In the future, when and after we become profitable and generate cash flows from operating activities, we may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC and U.S. subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders for services of any debt we may incur. If our PRC subsidiary incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary, which is a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, may pay dividends only out of its respective accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a certain statutory reserve fund, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. Such reserve funds cannot be distributed to us as dividends. At its discretion, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to an enterprise expansion fund, or a staff welfare and bonus fund.

A portion of our revenue was generated by our PRC subsidiary in Renminbi, which is not freely convertible into other currencies. As a result, any restriction on currency exchange may limit the ability of our PRC subsidiary to use its Renminbi revenues to pay dividends to us.

24

The PRC government may continue to strengthen its capital controls, and more restrictions and substantial vetting process may be put forward by SAFE for cross-border transactions falling under both the current account and the capital account. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to pay dividends or make other kinds of payments to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

In addition, the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions in China and by China’s foreign exchange policies. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. Since October 1, 2016, Renminbi has joined the International Monetary Fund’s basket of currencies that make up the Special Drawing Right, or SDR, along with the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the British pound. In the fourth quarter of 2016, the Renminbi has depreciated significantly in the backdrop of a surging U.S. dollar and persistent capital outflows of China. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system, and we cannot assure you that the Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material and adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we received from our equity financings into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or the ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

25

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our cash balance effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We did not receive any of our revenues in Renminbi in cash in the years ended Decemebr 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company primarily relies on proceeds from previous equity financing activities to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with applicable laws and regulations, as well as certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiary may be used to pay dividends to our company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use the cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiary to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi. The PRC government may at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs.

Risks Related to Our Financial Prospects and Need for Additional Capital

We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance.

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company with a limited operating history. Since our inception in 2011, we have focused substantially all of our efforts and financial resources on the discovery and development of antibody therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. We have no products approved for commercial sale and therefore we have not generated any revenue from product sales. We have not obtained regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates and there is no assurance that we will obtain approvals in the future. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses over the next several years and for the foreseeable future. Our prior losses, combined with expected future losses, have had and may continue to have an adverse effect on our working capital.

Our operations to date have focused on developing our product candidates, building our intellectual property portfolio, conducting preclinical testing and clinical trials, and raising capital. These operations provide a limited basis for you to assess our ability to successfully market and commercialize our product candidates. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history. We will encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early-stage companies in rapidly evolving fields as we seek to shift our focus to late stage development and commercial activities. If we do not address these risks and difficulties successfully, we may not be successful in such a transition.

26

We have incurred net losses historically and we may continue to incur net losses in the near future.

Since our inception in 2011, we have devoted our resources to the development of innovative antibodies in the therapeutic area. While we have generated revenues from licensing and collaboration deals, we have not generated any revenue from commercial product sales to date, and we have had significant operating losses since our inception. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, we incurred net losses of US$73.2 million, US$80.0 million and US$18.9 million, respectively. Substantially all of our operating losses have resulted from costs incurred in connection with our research and development programs. To date, we have financed our operations principally through proceeds from our prior equity financing activities. Our product candidates and programs are in preclinical development or early stage clinical development, and we have not received marketing approval for any of our product candidates. Our product candidates will require substantial investments and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenues from product sales, if ever. We expect we will continue to incur net losses in the foreseeable future before our product candidates are approved for commercialization. Our ability to generate product revenue and achieve profitability depends on, among other things:

completing research and development of our product candidates;
initiating, enrolling patients in and completing clinical trials of product candidates on a timely basis;
obtaining regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations for any product candidates for which we complete clinical trials;
developing and maintaining adequate manufacturing capabilities either by ourselves or in connection with third-party manufacturers;
launching and commercializing any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations;
establishing a sales, marketing and commercialization team for any future products for which we may obtain regulatory approval;
seeking to identify additional product candidates;
addressing any competing technological and market developments; and
maintaining, protecting and expanding our portfolio of intellectual property rights.

We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenue that is significant enough to achieve profitability. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development, delivery and commercialization of complex innovative antibody therapeutic, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. If we are required by regulatory authorities to perform studies in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in the initiation and completion of our clinical trials or the development of any of our product candidates, our expenses could increase and profitability could be further delayed.

If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce our operations. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to become or remain profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business or continue our operations. Failure to become and remain profitable may adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and our ability to raise capital and continue operations. A decline in the value of our company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

27

We may need to obtain substantial additional financing to fund our growth and operations, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

The development of biopharmaceutical product candidates is capital-intensive. We have used substantial funds to advance our discovery programs and develop our technology and product candidates, and will require significant funds to conduct further research and development, preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates, to seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates and to manufacture and market products, if any, that are approved for commercial sales. If our product candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need substantial additional funds to expand our development, regulatory and manufacturing capabilities. We also expect to incur significant costs associated with operating as a public company.

To date, we have funded our operations primarily through capital contributions from our shareholders via private placements and proceeds from our initial public offering. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. As of December 31, 2023, we had US$109.9 million in cash and cash equivalents. The net cash used in our operating activities was US$43.4 million, US$48.6 million and US$28.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, respectively. Our future funding requirements and the period for which we expect increasing capital need may be different from what we plan. Our monthly spending levels vary based on new and ongoing research and development activities. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with our product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing and amount of our operating expenditures, which will depend largely on:
the scope, timing, progress, costs and results of discovery, preclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical development activities of our current product candidates;
the number, scope, progress and results of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;
the progress of the development efforts of parties with whom we have entered or may in the future enter into collaborations and research and development agreements;
our ability to maintain our current licenses, research and development programs, and to establish new collaboration arrangements;
our ability to maintain competitive advantage over other AI-powered technology platforms at generating highly differentiated product candidates.
the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims;
the cost, timing and outcome of regulatory review of any of our product candidates;
the costs and timing of future commercialization activities, including manufacturing, marketing, sales, and distribution, for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval;
the revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval; and
our efforts to enhance operational systems and hire additional personnel, including personnel to support development of our product candidates and satisfy our obligations as a public company.

We will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Any additional capital-raising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our current and future product candidates, if approved. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or altogether cease our research and development programs or future commercialization efforts.

28

Raising additional capital may lead to dilution of shareholdings by our existing shareholders and restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

We may seek additional funding through a combination of equity and debt financings and collaborations. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the beneficial ownership interest of existing holders of our shares and/or ADSs will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of existing holders of our shares and/or ADSs.

The incurrence of additional indebtedness or the issuance of certain equity securities could result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain additional restrictive covenants, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through partnerships, collaborations, strategic alliances, or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, product candidates, or future revenue streams, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

We have certain shareholders who have board representation rights and their individual interests may differ from yours.

In 2014, we completed private placements of our Series A-1 and A-2 preferred shares, in which we raised gross proceeds of approximately US$8.5 million. In 2016, we completed a private placement of our Series B preferred shares, in which we raised gross proceeds of approximately US$28.0 million. In 2018, we completed a private placement of our Series C-1 preferred shares, in which we raised gross proceeds of approximately US$50.0 million. In 2019, we completed private placements of our Series C-2 and C-3 preferred shares, in which we raised gross proceeds of approximately US$69.0 million in aggregate. As a result of these private placements, a significant portion of our outstanding equity is currently held by multiple separate institutional investors through several separate funds and our founders.

These institutional investors will continue have a significant level of influence because of their level of ownership, including a greater ability than you and our other shareholders to influence the election of directors and the potential outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all of our assets and other extraordinary corporate matters. These investors and our founder, Peter Luo, also have certain rights, such as board representation right and registration right that our other shareholders do not have.

For instance, our current effective memorandum and articles of association provides that JSR Limited shall have the right to designate, appoint, remove and replace and reappoint one director so long it holds at least five percent of the shares outstanding on a fully-diluted basis and an as-converted basis, although JSR Limited currently does not have representation at our board; as long as Wuxi Pharmatech Healthcare Fund I L.P., which is controlled by the ultimate controlling party of our sole supplier, holds at least five percent of the shares outstanding on a fully-diluted basis, it shall have the right to nominate one independent non-executive director and such one director shall be appointed and agreed by the board; as long as Peter Luo holds or beneficially owns any shares or is employed by us or any of our subsidiaries, he will serve as one of our directors and the Chairman of the Board of Directors; in addition, during the period commencing upon February 2021 and ending on the earlier of (i) the date upon which Peter Luo beneficially owns less than five percent of the shares outstanding on a fully diluted basis, (ii) the death or legal determination of Peter Luo’s incapacity or (iii) the termination of Peter Luo as an executive officer or principal scientific advisor to us or any of our subsidiaries or for cause (as determined under his related employment or consulting arrangements and subject to all related cure provisions), Peter Luo shall have the right to designate, appoint, remove and replace and reappoint one additional director; and as long as General Atlantic Singapore AI Pte. Ltd. and its affiliates hold at least five percent of the shares outstanding on a fully-diluted basis, they shall have the right to designate, appoint, remove and replace and reappoint one director.

The interests of these investors could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders, including you, and any future transfer by these investors of their shares of preferred or ordinary share to other investors who have different business objectives could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and the market value of our ordinary shares or ADSs.

29

Risks Related to Clinical Development of Our Product Candidates

We may not be able to identify or discover new product candidates, and may allocate our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates that may later prove to be more profitable, or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Although we will focus our efforts on continued preclinical and clinical developments, regulatory approval process and commercialization with respect to our existing product candidates, the success of our business depends in part upon our ability to identify, license, discover, develop, or commercialize additional product candidates. Research programs to identify new product candidates require substantial technical, financial, and human resources. Our research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential product candidates, yet fail to yield product candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:

our research or business development methodology or search criteria and process may be unsuccessful in identifying potential product candidates;
our potential product candidates may be shown to have harmful side effects or may have other characteristics that may make the products unmarketable or unlikely to obtain marketing approval; and
potential product candidates may not be effective in treating their targeted diseases.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on research programs and product candidates for specific targets. As a result, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates that later may be proved to have greater commercial potential or a greater likelihood of success. On the other hand, if we do not prioritize the allocation of our resources and conduct research programs that cover a broad range of targets or engage clinical programs that are overly expansive, we may be subject to significant risk of loss as a large part of the research and clinical programs fail. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities.

Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will ever be able to develop suitable potential product candidates through internal research programs, which could materially adversely affect our future growth and prospects.

We may not be successful in our efforts to use and expand our proprietary platforms to build a pipeline of product candidates.

A key element of our strategy is to leverage our technology platform to expand our pipeline of antibody product candidates and in order to do so, we will continue to invest in our platform and development capabilities. Although our research and development efforts to date have resulted in a pipeline of product candidates, these product candidates may not be safe and effective. In addition, although we expect that our platform will allow us to develop a diverse pipeline of novel and differentiated product candidates, we may not prove to be successful at doing so. Even if we are successful in continuing to build our pipeline, the potential product candidates that we identify may not be suitable for clinical development, including as a result of being shown to have harmful side effects, efficacy or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will receive marketing approval or achieve market acceptance. Even after approval, if we cannot successfully develop or commercialize our products, or if serious adverse events are discovered after commercialization, we will not be able to generate any product revenue, which would adversely affect business.

Any failures or setbacks in our platforms or our other proprietary technologies could negatively affect our business and financial condition.

Our product candidates are created with, and dependent upon, our proprietary antibody discovery platforms, such as our proprietary DPL, which includes our NEObody platform, SAFEbody platform and POWERbody platform. These proprietary technology platforms are also the basis of our collaborations with certain other partners. To date, no products based on any of these technologies have been approved for commercial sale in any jurisdiction. Any failures or setbacks with respect to our proprietary technologies, including adverse effects resulting from the use of product candidates derived from these technologies in human clinical trials and/or the imposition of clinical holds on trials of any product candidates using our proprietary technologies, could have a detrimental impact on our clinical pipeline, as well as our ability to maintain and enter into new corporate collaborations regarding our technologies or otherwise, which would negatively affect our business and financial conditions.

30

Our product candidates, for which we intend to seek approval as biologic products, may face competition sooner than anticipated.

Even if we are successful in achieving a final regulatory approval to commercialize a product candidate ahead of our competitors, our product candidates may face competition from biosimilar or other biologic products. In the United States, our product candidates are regulated by the FDA as biologic products and we intend to seek approval for these product candidates pursuant to the Biologics License Application (BLA) pathway. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA) created an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biologic products. The abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an existing brand product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the original branded product was approved under a BLA. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. A product may also make modifications and seek approval as a BLA. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our product candidates.

There is a risk that any of our product candidates approved as a biological product under a BLA would not qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity or that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our product candidates to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for interchangeable or generic competition sooner than anticipated. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of litigation. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are not fully understood.

Jurisdictions in addition to the United States have established abbreviated pathways for regulatory approval of biological products that are biosimilar to earlier approved reference products. For example, the European Union has had an established regulatory pathway for biosimilars since 2005.

The increased likelihood of biosimilar competition has increased the risk of loss of innovators’ market exclusivity. Due to this risk, and uncertainties regarding patent protection, if our clinical candidates are approved for marketing, it is not possible to predict the length of market exclusivity for any particular product with certainty based solely on the expiration of the relevant patent(s) or the current forms of regulatory exclusivity. It is also not possible to predict changes in United States regulatory law that might reduce biological product regulatory exclusivity. The loss of market exclusivity for a product would likely materially and negatively affect revenues and we may not generate adequate or sufficient revenues from them or be able to reach or sustain profitability.

We depend substantially on the success of our product candidates, particularly our lead product candidate, ADG126, which is in phase 1b/2 clinical development, and our ability to advance and identify additional product candidates. Clinical trials of our product candidates may not be successful. If we are unable to successfully identify new product candidates, complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and commercialize our product candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

Our business and the ability to generate revenue related to product sales, if ever, will depend on the successful development, regulatory approval and commercialization of our antibody product candidates for the treatment of patients with cancer, particularly ADG126, ADG116, ADG206 and ADG106, which are still in clinical stage. Other than our wholly-owned product candidates (ADG126, ADG116, ADG206 and ADG106) and our outlicensed product candidates, ADG104 and ADG125, our current product candidates are in relatively early stages of development. We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the development of our existing product candidates and all of our product candidates will require significant further development and financial resources. The success of our product candidates, including ADG126, ADG116, ADG206 and ADG106, will depend on several factors, including:

successful enrollment in, and completion of, preclinical studies and clinical trials;
receipt of regulatory approvals from the FDA, NMPA and other comparable regulatory authorities for our product candidates;

31

establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities, either by building facilities ourselves or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
relying on third parties to conduct our clinical trials safely and efficiently;
obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret and other intellectual property protection and regulatory exclusivity;
protecting our rights in our intellectual property;
ensuring we do not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the patent, trade secret or other intellectual property rights of third parties;
launching commercial sales of our product candidates, if and when approved;
competition with other product candidates and drugs; and
continued acceptable safety profile for our product candidates following final regulatory approval, if and when received.

Due to the uncertain, time-consuming and costly clinical development and regulatory approval process, we may not successfully develop any of our product candidates, or we or our partners may choose to discontinue the development of product candidates for a variety of reasons. Our failure to effectively advance our development programs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects, and cause the market price of our ADSs to decline.

Clinical trials are expensive, time consuming and difficult to design and implement and may fail to demonstrate adequate safety and efficacy of our product candidates. The results of our current and previous preclinical studies or clinical trials may not be predictive of future results, and the results of our current and planned clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or provide the basis for regulatory approval.

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of our product candidates, we must conduct preclinical studies and extensive clinical trials to demonstrate their safety and efficacy in humans. Clinical testing is expensive and difficult to design and implement. Clinical testing can take many years to complete, and its ultimate outcome is uncertain. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of the process. We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well-controlled clinical trials that our product candidates are safe, pure, and effiective for use in a diverse patient population before we can seek final regulatory approvals for their commercial sale. Our clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional and expansive preclinical or clinical testings.

We cannot assure that the results of later clinical trials will replicate the results of prior clinical trials and preclinical testing. The results are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data becomes available. Product candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, the NMPA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, despite having progressed through preclinical studies or initial clinical trials. Product candidates that have shown promising results in early clinical trials may still suffer significant setbacks in subsequent clinical trials or registration clinical trials. For example, a number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in later staged clinical trials, even after obtaining promising results in earlier clinical trials.

A failure of a clinical trial to meet its predetermined primary endpoints may cause us to abandon a pipeline product or an indication and may delay development of any other pipeline products. Any delay in, or termination of, our clinical trials will delay the submission for regulatory approval and application, and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize any of our pipeline products and generate revenue.

32

Moreover, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve and have served as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the trial. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority, as the case may be, and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of our pipeline products.

We may experience delays in our ongoing clinical trials.

We may experience delays in our ongoing clinical trials, and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time, or be completed on schedule, if at all. Clinical trials can be delayed, suspended, or terminated for a variety of reasons, including the following:

delays in or failure to obtain regulatory authorization to commence a trial;
delays in or failure to obtain institutional review board, or IRB, approval at each site;
delays in or failure to reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (CROs), and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
difficulty in recruiting clinical trial investigators of appropriate competencies and experience;
delays in establishing the appropriate dosage levels in clinical trials;
delays in or failure to recruit and enroll suitable patients to participate in a trial, particularly considering study inclusion and exclusion criteria and patients’ prior lines of therapy and treatment;
the difficulty in certain countries in identifying the sub-populations that we are trying to treat in a particular trial, which may delay enrollment and reduce the power of a clinical trial to detect statistically significant results;
lower than anticipated retention rates of patients in clinical trials;
failure to have patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;
delays adding new investigators or clinical trial sites;
safety or tolerability concerns could cause us or our collaborators or governmental authorities, as applicable, to suspend or terminate a trial if it is found that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks, undesirable side effects or other unfavorable characteristics of the product candidate, or if such undesirable effects or risks are found to be caused by a chemically or mechanistically similar therapeutic or therapeutic candidate;
our third-party research contractors failing to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
changes in regulatory requirements, policies and guidelines;
failure to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements through the clinical process;

33

manufacturing sufficient quantities of a product candidate for use in clinical trials;
the quality or stability of a product candidate falling below acceptable standards;
changes in the treatment landscape for our target indications that may make our product candidates no longer relevant; and
third-party actions claiming infringement by our product candidates in clinical trials outside the United States and obtaining injunctions interfering with our progress.

In addition, while we plan to submit additional investigational new drug applications, or INDs, for other product candidates, we may not be able to file such INDs on the timeline we expect. For example, we may experience manufacturing delays or other delays with IND-enabling preclinical studies. Moreover, we cannot be sure that submission of an IND will result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to begin, or that, once begun, issues will not arise that suspend or terminate clinical trials. Additionally, even if such regulatory authorities agree with the design and implementation of the clinical trials set forth in an IND, we cannot guarantee that such regulatory authorities will not change their requirements in the future. These considerations also apply to new clinical trials we may submit as amendments to existing INDs.

If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other studies with respect to any of our product candidates beyond those that we initially contemplated, if we are unable to successfully complete our clinical trials or other studies or if the results of these studies are not positive or are only modestly positive, we may be delayed in obtaining regulatory approval for that product candidate, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval at all or we may obtain approval for indications that are not as broad as intended. Our drug development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or approvals, and we may not have sufficient funding to complete the testing and approval process. Significant clinical trial delays could allow our competitors to bring drugs to market before we do and impair our ability to commercialize our drugs, if and when approved. If any of this occurs, our business will be materially harmed.

Clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with the FDA and other applicable regulatory authorities’ legal requirements, regulations and guidelines, and are subject to oversight by these governmental agencies and Ethics Committees or IRBs at the medical institutions where the clinical trials are conducted. We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs or Ethics Committees of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by the Data Review Committee or Data Safety Monitoring Board for such trial or by the FDA, or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial or to perform obligations in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Significant clinical trial delays could also allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do or shorten any periods during which we have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates and impair our ability to commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.

Further, clinical trials must be conducted with supplies of our product candidates produced under current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, requirements and other regulations. Furthermore, we rely on contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and while we have agreements governing their committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance. We depend on our collaborators and on medical institutions and CROs to conduct our clinical trials in compliance with good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements. To the extent our collaborators or the CROs fail to enroll participants for our clinical trials, fail to conduct the study in accordance with GCP or are delayed for a significant time in the execution of trials, including achieving full enrollment, we may be affected by increased costs, program delays or both, which may harm our business. In addition, clinical trials that are conducted in countries outside the United States may subject us to further delays and expenses as a result of increased shipment costs, additional regulatory requirements and the engagement of non-U.S. CROs, as well as expose us to risks associated with clinical investigators who are unknown to the FDA, and different standards of diagnosis, screening and medical care.

34

If we encounter difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

Successful and timely completion of clinical trials will require that we enroll a sufficient number of patients. Our clinical trials may be subject to delays for a variety of reasons, including as a result of enrollment taking longer than anticipated, subject withdrawal or adverse events. These types of developments could cause us to delay the trial or halt further development.

While we believe our differentiated product candidates address highly unmet medical needs that will facilitate our patient enrollment, clinical trials may compete with other clinical trials that are in the same therapeutic areas as our product candidates, and this competition reduces the number and types of patients available to us, as some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors. Moreover, enrolling patients in clinical trials for cancer therapies is challenging, as cancer patients will first receive the applicable standard of care. Many patients who respond positively to the standard of care antibody therapy (and thus do not enroll in clinical trials) are believed to have tumor types that would have responded well to our product candidates. Patients who fail to respond positively to the standard of care treatment will be eligible for clinical trials of unapproved product candidates. However, these prior treatment regimens may render our therapies less effective in clinical trials. Additionally, patients who have failed with prior approved therapies will typically have more advanced cancer and a poorer long-term prognosis.

Because the number of qualified clinical investigators and clinical trial sites is limited, we expect to conduct some of our clinical trials at the same clinical trial sites that some of our competitors use, which will reduce the number of patients who are available for our clinical trials at such clinical trial sites. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including:

severity of the disease under investigation;
the size and nature of the patient population;
the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;
the size of the study population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;
perceived risks and benefits of our pipeline products;
our resources to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
patient referral practices of physicians;
the proximity of patients to trial sites;
the design of the trial;
our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
our ability to obtain and maintain patients’ consent; and
the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will not complete a clinical trial.

These factors may make it difficult for us to enroll enough patients to complete our clinical trials in a timely and cost-effective manner. Delays in the completion of any clinical trial of our product candidates will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and delay or potentially jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue. In addition, some of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.

35

Interim, topline or preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary or topline or data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which is based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available.

From time to time, we may also disclose interim data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects. Further, disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions, or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate or product and our company in general. If the interim, topline, or preliminary data that we report differ from actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, operating results, prospects, or financial condition.

Risks Related to Obtaining Regulatory Approval of Our Drug Candidates

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, NMPA and other comparable regulatory authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approvals for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

In the United States, marketing approval of biologics requires the submission of a BLA to the FDA, and we are not permitted to market any product candidate in the United States until we obtain approval from the FDA of the BLA for that product candidate. A BLA must be supported by extensive clinical and preclinical data, as well as extensive information regarding pharmacology, chemistry, manufacturing and controls. Outside the United States, many comparable foreign regulatory authorities employ similar approval processes.

We have not previously submitted a BLA to the FDA or similar regulatory approval filings to the NMPA or other comparable foreign authorities, for any product candidate, and we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval. Obtaining approval of a BLA can be a lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and as a company we have no experience with the preparation of a BLA submission or any other application for marketing approval. In addition, the FDA has the authority to require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, or REMS, plan as part of a BLA or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved biologic, such as limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry.

36

FDA approval is not guaranteed, and the time required to obtain approval by the FDA, NMPA and other comparable regulatory authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of preclinical trials and clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, due to external issues such as pandemics or other public health emergencies, FDA, NMPA and other comparable regulatory authorities may be delayed in their review of product applications. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may discover, in-license or acquire and seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval from the FDA, NMPA or a comparable regulatory authority for many reasons, including:

disagreement with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
failure to demonstrate that a product candidate is safe and effective or safe, pure, and potent for its proposed indication;
failure of clinical trial results to meet the level of statistical significance required for approval;
failure to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
disagreement with our interpretation of data from preclinical trials or clinical trials;
the insufficiency of data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates to support the submission and filing of a BLA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval;
the FDA, NMPA or comparable regulatory authority’s finding of deficiencies related to the manufacturing processes;
failure of our product candidates to ensure compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practice, or cGMP, following inspections during the regulatory review process or across the production cycle of our product; and
changes in approval policies, guidances or regulations that render our preclinical and clinical data insufficient for approval.

The FDA and other regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process, and determining when or whether regulatory approval will be obtained for any of our product candidates. For example, regulatory authorities in various jurisdictions have in the past had, and may in the future have, differing requirements for, interpretations of and opinions on our preclinical and clinical data. As a result, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies, alter our proposed clinical trial designs or conduct additional clinical trials to satisfy the regulatory authorities in each of the jurisdictions in which we hope to conduct clinical trials and develop and market our products, if approved. Further, even if we believe the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA or any other regulatory authority.

The FDA, NMPA or a comparable regulatory authority may require more information, including additional preclinical or clinical data, to support approval, which may delay or prevent approval and our commercialization plans, or we may decide to abandon the development program. If we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our product candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, may approve a product candidate with a label that is not desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate, or may be difficult to meet manufacturing requirements. In addition, if our product candidate produces undesirable side effects or safety issues, the FDA may require the establishment of Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, or the NMPA or a comparable regulatory authority may require the establishment of a similar strategy, that may, for instance, restrict distribution of our drugs and impose burdensome implementation requirements on us. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects of our product candidates.

37

Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, statutory, regulatory, and policy changes, the FDA’s ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and other events that may otherwise affect the FDA’s ability to perform routine functions. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable. Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new biologics or modifications to licensed biologics to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including for 35 days beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA employees and stop critical activities. In the past several years, including 2024, the federal government has faced the potential of government shutdowns several times. In addition, if other global health concerns prevent the FDA or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Even if we obtain FDA approval of any of our product candidates, we may never obtain approval or commercialize such products outside of the United States, which would limit our ability to realize their full market potential.

In order to market any products outside of the United States, we must establish and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy. Clinical trials conducted in one country may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other countries, and regulatory approval in one country does not mean that regulatory approval will be obtained in any other countries. Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and validation and additional administrative review periods. Seeking regulatory approvals in various jurisdictions could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and may require additional preclinical studies or clinical trials which would be costly and time consuming. Regulatory requirements can vary widely from country to country and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in those countries. Satisfying these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain and subject to unanticipated delays. In addition, our failure to obtain regulatory approval in any country may delay or have negative effects on the process for regulatory approval in other countries. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale in any jurisdiction, including international markets, and we do not have experience in obtaining regulatory approval in international markets. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements in international markets or to obtain and maintain required approvals, our ability to realize the full market potential of our products will be harmed.

38

We are conducting clinical trials and may in the future conduct additional clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States and/or China, and FDA, NMPA and similar foreign regulatory authorities may not accept data from such trials.

We are conducting clinical trials and may in the future conduct additional clinical trials for our product candidates outside the United States, including in Australia, Europe or other foreign jurisdictions. The acceptance of trial data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States by the FDA will likely be subject to certain conditions. In cases where data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States are intended to serve as the sole basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the United States population and United States medical practice; (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and (iii) the data may be considered valid without the need for an on-site inspection by the FDA or, if the FDA considers such an inspection to be necessary, the FDA is able to validate the data through an on-site inspection or other appropriate means. Otherwise, for studies that are conducted at sites outside of the United States and not subject to an IND and which are intended to support a marketing application (but which are not intended to serve as the sole basis for marketing approval), the FDA requires the clinical trial to have been conducted in accordance with good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements and the FDA must be able to validate the data from the clinical trial through an on site inspection if it deems such inspection necessary. Additionally, the FDA’s clinical trial requirements, including sufficient size of patient populations, statistical powering, and specific documentation requirements must be met. Many foreign regulatory bodies, such as NMPA, have similar approval requirements. In addition, such foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA, NMPA or any similar foreign regulatory authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA, NMPA or any similar foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our product candidates not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable adverse events, side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following any regulatory approval.

Undesirable adverse events caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, NMPA or other comparable regulatory authority. Results of our trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity or prevalence of adverse events. In such an event, our trials could be suspended or terminated and the FDA, NMPA or other comparable regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of, or deny approval of, our product candidates for any or all targeted indications. Drug-related adverse events could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial, and could result in potential product liability claims. Moreover, such events may require us to amend our trials, including reducing the dosage in our clinical trials.

For instance, in September 2019, the FDA placed a clinical hold on our Phase 1 trial of ADG116 (ADG116-1001) in the United States after we reported to the FDA the death of the only patient dosed in the trial. We revised the study protocol to mitigate the risk of drug-induced liver toxicity, lower the starting dose of ADG116, and tighten the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The FDA removed the clinical hold on this protocol on December 5, 2019. In parallel, we initiated a new Phase 1 clinical trial of ADG116 (ADG116-1003) in Australia and completed multiple levels of dose escalation without serious adverse events. In March 2021, we submitted this new protocol for ADG116 (ADG116-1003) to FDA with safety data from Australia. Upon opening sites in the United States for ADG116-1003, we terminated the prior Phase 1 trial (ADG116-1001) in the United States for business reasons. In a publication at SITC 2022, we reported data with ADG116 monotherapy in approximately 50 patients up to 10 mg/kg with repeat dosing and the majority of reported TRAEs were Grade 1/2 (56%), with one DLT event (Grade 4 hyperglycemia) at the 10 mg/kg dose level. Further, studies of ADG116 in combination with anti-PD-1 therapies have also demonstrated a manageable safety profile.

39

We cannot provide any assurance that there will not be treatment-related severe adverse events with our product candidates, that the trials for our product candidates will not be suspended in the future, or that patient recruitment for trials with our product candidates will not be adversely impacted by the ADG116 related adverse events, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects. Further, clinical trials by their nature utilize a sample of the potential patient population. With a limited number of patients and limited duration of exposure, rare and severe side effects of our product candidates may only be uncovered with a significantly larger number of patients exposed to the product candidate. In the event that any of our product candidates receives marketing approval and we or others later identify undesirable or unacceptable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

we may suspend marketing of such products;
regulatory authorities may withdraw or limit approvals of such products or require us to take an approved product off the market;
regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, specific warnings, a contraindication or field alerts to physicians and pharmacies, or issue other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;
regulatory authorities may require a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, or that we implement a REMS plan to ensure that the benefits of the product outweigh its risks or to develop a similar strategy as required by a comparable regulatory authority, that may, for instance, restrict distribution of our drugs and impose burdensome implementation requirements on us;
we may be required to conduct post-market studies;
we may be subject to limitations on how we may promote or manufacture the product;
sales of the product may decrease significantly;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to subjects or patients; and
our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

Further, combination therapy involves unique adverse events that could be exacerbated compared to adverse events from monotherapies. These types of adverse events could be caused by our product candidates and could also cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, NMPA or other comparable regulatory authority. Results of our trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity or prevalence of adverse events.

We may seek Orphan Drug Designation for some of our product candidates, and we may be unsuccessful.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a disease with a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or a patient population of greater than 200,000 individuals in the United States, but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States.

40

Generally, if a drug with an Orphan Drug Designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the disease for which it has such designation, the drug is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug for the same indication during the period of exclusivity. The applicable period is seven years in the United States. Orphan Drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.

Even if we obtain Orphan Drug exclusivity for a product candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product candidate from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition and the same drugs can be approved for a different condition but used off-label for any orphan indication we may obtain. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA may subsequently approve a different drug for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process.

We may attempt to secure approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities through the use of accelerated approval pathways. If we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals. Even if we receive accelerated approval from the FDA, if our confirmatory trials do not verify clinical benefit, or if we do not comply with rigorous post-marketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw accelerated approval.

We may in the future seek an accelerated approval for our one or more of our product candidates. Under the accelerated approval program, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product candidate designed to treat a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful therapeutic benefit over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA considers a clinical benefit to be a positive therapeutic effect that is clinically meaningful in the context of a given disease, such as irreversible morbidity or mortality. For the purposes of accelerated approval, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a laboratory measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is thought to predict clinical benefit, but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. An intermediate clinical endpoint is a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. The accelerated approval pathway may be used in cases in which the advantage of a new drug over available therapy may not be a direct therapeutic advantage, but is a clinically important improvement from a patient and public health perspective. If granted, accelerated approval is usually contingent on the sponsor’s agreement to conduct, in a diligent manner, additional post- approval confirmatory studies to verify and describe the drug’s clinical benefit. If such post-approval studies fail to confirm the drug’s clinical benefit, the FDA may withdraw its approval of the drug.

Prior to seeking accelerated approval for any of our product candidates, we intend to obtain a meeting and meet with the FDA and will otherwise evaluate our ability to seek and receive accelerated approval. There can be no assurance that after our evaluation of the feedback and other factors we will decide to pursue or submit a BLA for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval. Similarly, there can be no assurance that after subsequent FDA feedback we will permit or continue to pursue or apply for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval, even if we initially decide to do so. Furthermore, if we decide to submit an application for accelerated approval or receive an expedited regulatory designation (e.g., breakthrough therapy designation) for our product candidates, there can be no assurance that such submission or application will be accepted or that any expedited development, review or approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. The FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could also require us to conduct further studies prior to considering our application or granting approval of any type. A failure to obtain accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval for our product candidate would result in a longer time period to commercialization of such product candidate, could increase the cost of development of such product candidate and could harm our competitive position in the marketplace.

41

Even if we receive regulatory approvals for our product candidates, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory reviews, which may result in significant additional expense and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our product candidates.

If our product candidates are approved, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, import, export, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct of post-marketing studies, and submission of safety, efficacy, and other post-market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable regulatory authorities.

Manufacturers and manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA, NMPA and comparable regulatory authority requirements, including, in the United States, ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to current cGMP regulations. As such, we and our contract manufacturers will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any BLA, other marketing application, and previous responses to inspection observations. Accordingly, we and others with whom we work must continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production and quality control.

Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our product candidates may be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase IV clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate. The FDA may also require a REMS program as a condition of approval of our product candidates, which could entail requirements for long-term patient follow-up, a medication guide, physician communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. In addition, if the FDA, NMPA, or a comparable regulatory authority approves our product candidates, we will have to comply with requirements including, for example, submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance with cGMPs and Good Clinical Practices, or cGCPs, for any clinical trials that we conduct post approval.

The FDA and NMPA may impose consent decrees or withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the drug reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with our product candidates, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market studies or clinical trials to assess new safety risks, or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of our drugs, withdrawal of the product from the market, or voluntary or mandatory product recalls;
fines, untitled or warning letters, or holds on clinical trials;
refusal by the FDA, NMPA or comparable regulatory authorities to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us or suspension or revocation of license approvals;
product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of our product candidates; and
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Drugs may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA, NMPA and other regulatory authorities actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability. The policies of the FDA, NMPA and of other regulatory authorities may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any regulatory approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

42

All material aspects of the research, development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products are heavily regulated.

All jurisdictions in which we intend to conduct our pharmaceutical-industry activities regulate these activities in great depth and detail. We intend to focus our activities in the major markets such as the United States and China. These jurisdictions strictly regulate the pharmaceutical industry, and in doing so they employ broadly similar regulatory strategies, including regulation of product development and approval, manufacturing, and marketing, sales and distribution of products. However, there are differences in the regulatory regimes that make for a more complex and costly regulatory compliance burden for a company like ours that plans to operate in these regions.

The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and compliance with appropriate laws and regulations require substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable requirements at any time during the product development process and approval process, or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include: refusal to approve pending applications; withdrawal of an approval; license revocation; clinical hold; voluntary or mandatory product recalls; product seizures; total or partial suspension of production or distribution; injunctions; fines; refusals of government contracts; providing restitution; undergoing disgorgement; or other civil or criminal penalties. Failure to comply with these regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Future strategic partnerships may be important to us. We will face significant competition in seeking new strategic partners.

We do not yet have any capability for manufacturing, sales, marketing or distribution. For some of our product candidates, we may in the future determine to collaborate with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for development and potential commercialization of therapeutic products. The competition for strategic partners is intense. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the strategic partner’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed strategic partner’s evaluation of a number of factors. These factors may include the design or results of clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the potential market for the subject product candidate, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering such product candidate to patients, the potential of competing products, the existence of uncertainty with respect to our ownership of technology, which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge, and industry and market conditions generally. The strategic partner may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available for collaboration and whether such collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate.

Strategic partnerships are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future strategic partners. Even if we are successful in entering into collaboration, the terms and conditions of that collaboration may restrict us from entering into future agreements with other potential collaborators.

43

If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable strategic partners on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of a product candidate, reduce or delay one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to fund and undertake development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional expertise and additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to enter into strategic partnerships and do not have sufficient funds or expertise to undertake the necessary development and commercialization activities, we may not be able to further develop our product candidates or bring them to market or continue to develop our technology platform and our business may be materially and adversely affected. Any collaboration may be on terms that are not optimal for us, and we may not be able to maintain any new collaboration if, for example, development or approval of a product candidate is delayed, sales of an approved product candidate do not meet expectations or the partner terminates the collaboration. Any such collaboration, or other strategic transaction, may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges, and increase our near- and long-term expenditures and pose significant integration or implementation challenges or disrupt our management or business. Accordingly, although there can be no assurance that we will undertake or successfully complete any transactions of the nature described above, any transactions that we do complete may be subject to the foregoing or other risks and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Conversely, any failure to enter any collaboration or other strategic transaction that would be beneficial to us could delay the development and potential commercialization of our product candidates and have a negative impact on the competitiveness of any product candidate that reaches the market.

We may not be able to enter into additional collaboration agreements beyond our existing clinical trial collaboration with Roche and Merck, technology licensing agreements with Sanofi and Exelixis, our outlicensing agreements with Guilin Sanjin and Dragon Boat, or Discovery Agreements such as those with NIH, Tanabe, Celgene, GSK, Hengrui and others. If we are unable to maintain existing and future strategic partnerships or collaborations, or if these strategic partnerships or collaborations are not successful, our business could be adversely affected.

Our existing strategic partnerships, collaborations and any future strategic partnerships we enter into may pose a number of risks, including the following:

we may not be able to enter into critical strategic partnerships or enter into them on favorable terms;
strategic partners or collaborators have significant discretion in determining the effort and resources that they will apply to such a partnership, and they may not perform their obligations as agreed, expected, or in compliance with applicable legal requirements;
strategic partners or collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of any product candidates that achieve regulatory approval or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in the partners’ strategic focus or available funding, or external factors, such as an acquisition that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;
strategic partners or collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
strategic partners or collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates if the strategic partners or collaborators believe that competitive products are more likely to be successfully developed or can be commercialized under terms that are more economically attractive than our product candidates;
product candidates discovered in collaboration with us may be viewed by our strategic partners or collaborators as competitive with their own product candidates or products, which may cause strategic partners or collaborators to cease to devote resources to the commercialization of our product candidates;

44

a strategic partner or collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more of our product candidates that achieve regulatory approval may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidates;
disagreements with strategic partners or collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, contract interpretation or the preferred course of development, might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;
strategic partners or collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
strategic partners or collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability;
strategic partners or collaborators may claim for a substantial compensation for our failure of development of the product candidates specified under the relevant out-licensing agreements that solely arose out of problems of our previous R&D basis; and
strategic partnerships or collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the partner or the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates.

If any partnerships or collaboration we enter into do not result in the successful development of our product candidates or if one of our partners or collaborator terminates the agreement with us, our continued development of our product candidates could be delayed and our business may be materially and adversely affected.

We will need to grow our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth, which could disrupt our operations.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 174 full-time employees. As our development and commercialization plans and strategies develop, we expect to expand our employee base for managerial, operational, financial and other resources. As our product candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need to expand our development, regulatory and manufacturing capabilities or contract with other organizations to provide these capabilities for us. In the future, we expect to enter into additional relationships with collaborators or partners, suppliers and other organizations and establish a sales and marketing team in preparation for commercialization activities. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to implement improvements to our management information and control systems in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls. Our inability to successfully manage our growth and expand our operations could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Disruptions in the financial markets and economic conditions could affect our ability to raise capital.

Global economies could suffer dramatic downturns as the result of a deterioration in the credit markets and related financial crisis as well as a variety of other factors including, extreme volatility in security prices, severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, ratings downgrades of certain investments and declining valuations of others. In the past, governments have taken unprecedented actions in an attempt to address and rectify these extreme market and economic conditions by providing liquidity and stability to the financial markets. If these actions are not successful, the return of adverse economic conditions may cause a significant impact on our ability to raise capital, if needed, on a timely basis and on acceptable terms or at all.

45

In addition, there is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa and over the conflicts involving Ukraine, Syria and North Korea. There have also been concerns on the relationship among China and other Asian countries, which may result in or intensify potential conflicts in relation to territorial disputes or the trade related disputes between the United States and China. In addition, the U.K. held a referendum on June 23, 2016 on its membership in the EU, in which voters approved an exit from the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit’’; the U.K. formally left the EU on January 31, 2020. The EU and the U.K have entered into the post-Brexit Trade and Cooperation Agreement, an agreement purporting to create a broad economic partnership between the EU and the U.K., which was approved by the European Parliament in April 2021 and went into force fully on May 1, 2021. Nonetheless, Brexit could still adversely affect European and worldwide economic and market conditions and could contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets. It is unclear whether these challenges and uncertainties will be contained or resolved, and what effects they may have on the global political and economic conditions in the long term.

If we face allegations of non-compliance with laws and encounter sanctions, our reputation, revenues and liquidity may suffer, and our product candidates and approved products, if any, could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market.

Any government investigation of alleged violations of laws or regulations could require us to expend significant time and resources in response, and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may significantly and adversely affect our ability to obtain approvals commercialize and generate revenues from our drugs. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval is withdrawn, the value of our company and our operating results will be adversely affected. Additionally, if we are unable to generate revenues from our product sales, our potential for achieving profitability will be diminished and the capital necessary to fund our operations will be increased.

Our reputation is important to our success. Negative publicity may adversely affect our reputation and business prospects.

Any negative publicity concerning us, our affiliates or any entity that shares the “Adagene’’ name, even if untrue, could adversely affect our reputation and business prospects. There can be no assurance that negative publicity about us or any of our affiliates or any entity that shares the “Adagene’’ name would not damage our brand image or have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Potential future acquisitions or strategic collaborations may increase our capital requirements, dilute our shareholders, cause us to incur debt or assume contingent liabilities and subject us to other risks.

We may evaluate various acquisitions and strategic collaborations, including licensing or acquiring complementary products, intellectual property rights, technologies or businesses. Any potential acquisition or strategic collaboration may entail numerous risks, including:

increased operating expenses and cash requirements;
the assumption of additional indebtedness or contingent liabilities;
assimilation of operations, intellectual property and products of an acquired company, including difficulties associated with integrating new personnel;
the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing product programs and initiatives in pursuing such a strategic merger or acquisition;
retention of key employees, the loss of key personnel, and uncertainties in our ability to maintain key business relationships;
risks and uncertainties associated with the other party to such a transaction, including the prospects of that party and their existing products or product candidates and regulatory approvals; and/or

46

our inability to generate revenue from acquired technology and/or products sufficient to meet our objectives in undertaking the acquisition or even to offset the associated acquisition and maintenance costs.

In addition, if we undertake acquisitions, we may issue dilutive securities, assume or incur debt obligations, incur large one-time expenses and acquire intangible assets that could result in significant future amortization expense. Moreover, we may not be able to locate suitable acquisition opportunities and this inability could impair our ability to grow or obtain access to technology or products that may be important to the development of our business.

Our business operations and current or future relationships with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere may be subject, directly or indirectly, to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, physician payment transparency and other healthcare laws and regulations. If we or our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, or vendors violate these laws, we could face substantial penalties.

Our business operations and current or future arrangements with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations. These laws may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct our operations, including how we research, market, sell and distribute our product candidates, if approved. Such laws include, without limitation:

the U.S. federal civil and criminal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or certain rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of, any good, facility, item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under U.S. federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
the U.S. federal false claims laws, including the False Claims Act, which can be enforced through whistleblower actions, and civil monetary penalties laws, which, among other things, impose criminal and civil penalties against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent, knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement, in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services; similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers;
the United States Physician Payments Sunshine Act and its implementing regulations, which require certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the government information related to certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians, as defined by such law, and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, the U.S. federal physician transparency reporting requirements will extend to include transfers of value made during the previous year to certain non-physician providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners;

47

analogous U.S. state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales;
the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, which prohibits, among other things, U.S. companies and their employees and agents from authorizing, promising, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to foreign government officials, employees of public international organizations and foreign government owned or affiliated entities, candidates for foreign political office and foreign political parties or officials thereof; and
marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities. For detailed discussion on material applicable PRC regulation, see “Item 4 Information on the Company—PRC Regulation” Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid or similar programs in other countries or jurisdictions, disgorgement, imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Further, defending against any such actions can be costly and time-consuming and may require significant personnel resources. Even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired.

Recently enacted and future legislation in the United States and other countries may affect the prices we may obtain for our product candidates and increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our product candidates.

In the United States and many other countries, rising healthcare costs have been a concern for governments, patients and the health insurance sector, which resulted a number of changes to laws and regulations, and may result in further legislative and regulatory action regarding the healthcare and health insurance systems that could affect our ability to profitably sell any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively, the ACA, was enacted in the United States in March 2010 with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access to healthcare, and includes measures to change health care delivery, increase the number of individuals with insurance, ensure access to certain basic health care services, and contain the rising cost of care. Since its enactment, there have been numerous judicial, administrative, executive, and legislative challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the ACA in the future. For example, various portions of the ACA are currently facing legal and constitutional challenges in the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court. Additionally, the current administration has issued various Executive Orders which eliminated cost sharing subsidies and various provisions that would impose a fiscal burden on states or a cost, fee, tax, penalty or regulatory burden on individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices, and Congress has introduced several pieces of legislation aimed at significantly revising or repealing the ACA. It is unclear whether the ACA will be overturned, repealed, replaced, or further amended.

48

In addition, other federal health reform measures have been proposed and adopted in the United States. For example, as a result of the Budget Control Act of 2011, providers are subject to Medicare payment reductions of 2% per fiscal year through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, unless additional Congressional action is taken. Further, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 reduced Medicare payments to several providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments from providers from three to five years. The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 also introduced a quality payment program under which certain individual Medicare providers will be subject to certain incentives or penalties based on new program quality standards. Payment adjustments for the Medicare quality payment program began in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement under the Medicare program. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

Further, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny in the United States of pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics.

Since January 2017, there has been legislation considered in Congress to restrict the pricing of drug products to a governmental negotiated rate or to other similar rates that would reduce the costs to government, commercial payers and individuals. In July 2020, President Trump signed four Executive Orders directing the Department of Health and Human Services and other agencies to take specific actions to reduce prescription drug prices. The first order directs federally qualified health centers to pass along significant discounts on insulin and epinephrine from drug companies to low-income individuals. The second order would allow the important of prescription drugs from Canada into the United States where the prices are deemed to be lower. The third order would eliminate safe harbor protections under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute that currently covers rebates paid by manufacturers to Medicare Part D plans and Medicaid managed care organizations, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers under contract with such plans or organizations, so long as such actions are not projected to increase federal spending, Medicare beneficiary premiums or patients’ total out-of-pocket cases. The fourth order will reduce the payment for Medicare part B drugs to be paid at the same rate as other developed nations, thereby reducing the reimbursement. All of these Executive Orders require rulemaking prior to implementation and could be stalled by Congress or the next election.

On August 16, 2022, President Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act that includesa provision that is intended to lower certain prescription drug costs under Medicare. The law permits the Medicare program to negotiate Medicare payments for a limited number of drugs. Beginning in 2026, there will be 10 drugs; 2027-2029 there will be 15 drugs for each of those years; and 20 drugs for each of the following years. In addition, the law set a cap of $2,000 in 2025 on out-of-pocket drug costs for Medicare eligible individuals.

The combination of healthcare cost containment measures, increased health insurance costs, reduction of the number of people with health insurance coverage, as well as future legislation and regulations focused on reducing healthcare costs by reducing the cost of or reimbursement and access to pharmaceutical products, may limit or delay our ability to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our pipeline products, if approved.

49

We face intense competitions and rapid technological changes, as well as the possibility that our competitors may develop therapies that are similar, more advanced, or more effective than ours, which may adversely affect our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and our financial condition.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. We are currently aware of various existing therapies and development candidates that may compete with our wholly owned clinical candidates as they engage similar targets, such as agents targeting CTLA-4 and CD137, and bispecifics targeting both. We have competitors in the United States, China and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies. Many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources, such as larger research and development, marketing and manufacturing organizations. Additional mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. As a result, these companies may obtain regulatory approval more rapidly than we are able to and may be more effective in selling and marketing their products as well. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large, established companies. Competition may increase further as a result of advances in the commercial applicability of technologies and greater availability of capital for investment in these industries. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing on an exclusive basis, products that are more effective or less costly than any product candidate that we may develop, or achieve earlier patent protection, regulatory approval, product commercialization and market penetration than we do. Additionally, technologies developed by our competitors may render our potential product candidates uneconomical or obsolete, and we may not be successful in marketing our product candidates against competitors.

We have no experience in launching and marketing product candidates. We may not be able to effectively build and manage our sales network, or benefit from third-party collaborators’ sales network.

We currently have no manufacturing, sales, marketing or commercial product distribution capabilities and have no experience in marketing drugs. We intend to develop an in-house marketing organization and sales force, which will require significant capital expenditures, management resources and time. We will have to compete with other biopharmaceutical companies to recruit, hire, train and retain marketing and sales personnel.

Given that marketing generally requires extensive training and oversight, and if we are unable or decide not to establish internal sales, marketing and commercial distribution capabilities for any or all of the drugs we develop, we will likely pursue collaborative arrangements regarding the sales and marketing of our product candidates, if approved. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to establish or maintain such collaborative arrangements, or, if we are able to do so, that they will have effective sales forces. Any revenue we receive will depend on the efforts of such third parties, which may not be successful. We may have little or no control over the marketing and sales efforts of such third parties, and our revenue from product sales may be lower than if we had commercialized our product candidates ourselves. We will also face competition in our search for third parties to assist us with the sales and marketing efforts of our product candidates, if approved.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to develop in-house sales, marketing and commercial distribution capabilities or establish or maintain relationships with third-party collaborators to successfully commercialize any product candidate, if approved, and as a result, we may not be able to generate product sales revenue.

Even if we are able to commercialize any approved product candidates, coverage and reimbursement may be limited or unavailable in certain market segments for our product candidates, and we may be subject to unfavorable pricing regulations, which could harm our business.

The regulations that govern regulatory approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new therapeutic products vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or licensing approval is granted. In some non-U.S. markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain regulatory approval for a drug in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the drug and negatively impact our revenues.

50

A primary trend in the global healthcare industry is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Our ability to commercialize any drugs successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement for these drugs and related treatments will be available on adequate terms, or at all, from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations.

In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for biopharmaceutical products exists among third-party payors. As a result, obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a drug from a government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us to provide to each payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our drugs on a payor-by-payor basis, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. Even if we obtain coverage for a given drug, the resulting reimbursement rates might not be adequate for us to achieve or sustain profitability or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices and are challenging the prices charged for medical products. Additionally, third-party payors may not cover, or provide adequate reimbursement for, long-term follow-up evaluations required following the use of our genetically modified drugs. Patients are unlikely to use our drugs and any approved product candidates unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of the drug. Because some of our product candidates have a higher cost of goods than conventional therapies, may require long-term follow up evaluations, and will likely be administered under the supervision of a physician, the risk that coverage and reimbursement rates may be inadequate for us to achieve profitability may be greater.

If reimbursement is not available or is available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate that we successfully develop.

There may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for approved drugs, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug is approved by the FDA or other comparable regulatory authorities outside the United States. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug will be paid for in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim payments for new drugs, if applicable, may also not be sufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Payment rates may vary according to the use of the drug and the clinical setting in which it is used, may be based on payments allowed for lower cost drugs that are already reimbursed, and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. Net prices for drugs may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future weakening of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Our inability to promptly obtain coverage and profitable payment rates from both government-funded and private payors for our drugs and any new product candidates that we develop could have a material adverse effect on our business, our operating results, and our overall financial condition.

In China, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of China or provincial or local human resources and social security authorities, together with other government authorities, review the inclusion or removal of drugs from China’s National Drug Catalog for Basic Medical Insurance, Work-related Injury Insurance and Maternity Insurance, or the National Reimbursement Drug List, or the NRDL, or provincial or local medical insurance catalogues for the National Medical Insurance Program regularly, and the tier under which a drug will be classified, both of which affect the amounts reimbursable to program participants for their purchases of those drugs. There can be no assurance that our drugs and any approved product candidates will be included in the NRDL or provincial reimbursements lists. Products included in the NRDL have been typically generic and essential drugs. Innovative drugs similar to our product candidates have historically been more limited on their inclusion in the NRDL due to the affordability of the government’s Basic Medical Insurance, although this has been changing in recent years. According to currently effective PRC laws and regulations, the prices of approved drugs are determined by market competition. The government regulate prices mainly by establishing a consolidated procurement mechanism, revising the NRDL and strengthening regulation of medical and pricing practices. We cannot predict the extent to which our business may be affected by potential future legislative or regulatory developments. Changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for our future approved drugs, which would adversely affect our revenue, profitability and results of operations.

51

We intend to seek approval to market our product candidates in the United States, China and in other jurisdictions. In some non-U.S. countries, the pricing of drugs and biologics is subject to governmental control, which can take considerable time even after obtaining regulatory approval. Market acceptance and sales of our drugs will depend significantly on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors for drugs and may be affected by existing and future health care reform measures.

As we engage in collaboration worldwide, we may be exposed to specific risks of conducting our business and operations in international markets.

We are a biotechnology company with global footprints. We are currently building our clinical and technology infrastructures to support our future global operations and prepare to serve global markets. If we fail to obtain applicable licenses or fail to enter into strategic collaboration arrangements with third parties in these markets, or if these collaboration arrangements turn out unsuccessful, our revenue-generating growth potential will be adversely affected.

Moreover, international business relationships subject us to additional risks that may materially adversely affect our ability to attain or sustain profitable operations, including:

efforts to enter into collaboration or licensing arrangements with third parties in connection with our international sales, marketing and distribution efforts may increase our expenses or divert our management’s attention from the acquisition or development of product candidates;
changes in a specific country’s or region’s political and cultural climate or economic condition;
differing regulatory requirements for drug approvals and marketing internationally;
difficulty of effective enforcement of contractual provisions in local jurisdictions;
potentially reduced protection for intellectual property rights;
potential third-party patent rights;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;
economic weakness, including inflation or political instability;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees traveling abroad;
the effects of applicable tax structures and potentially adverse tax consequences;
currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenue, and other obligations incidental to doing business in another country;
workforce uncertainty and labor unrest and failure to comply with the applicable laws and
regulations in relation to management of the employment of foreigners within the PRC;
the potential for so-called parallel importing, which is what happens when a local seller, faced with high or higher local prices, opts to import goods from an international market with low or lower prices rather than buying them locally;
failure of our employees and contracted third parties to comply with Office of Foreign Assets Control rules and regulations and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of the United States, and other applicable rules and regulations;
production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and

52

business interruptions resulting from geo-political actions, including war and terrorism, or
natural disasters, including earthquakes, volcanoes, typhoons, floods, hurricanes and fires.

These and other risks may materially adversely affect our ability to attain or sustain revenue from international markets.

Building our commercialization capabilities will require significant investment of time and money. There would be no assurance that we will successfully set up our commercialization capabilities in any of the proposed jurisdictions or at all, or that we will successfully commercialize any of our product candidates in the future.

We are currently in the early stages of building and expanding our commercial capabilities to allow us to market our own products, if approved, in the future. We will need to set up full commercialization capabilities in the jurisdictions, including China and the United States, which would require substantial investment of time and money and will divert significant management focus and resources. We also face competition with multinational and local pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with established commercialization capabilities in terms of marketing and attracting talents.

Therefore, there can be no assurance that our efforts to set up commercialization capabilities will be successful in any of the proposed jurisdictions or at all.

Even if ADG126, ADG116, ADG206, ADG106 or one of our other proprietary product candidates obtains regulatory approval, we may determine that commercializing such product candidate ourselves would not be the most effective way to create value for our shareholders or holders of ADSs. In addition, if we choose to commercialize any of our product candidates, our marketing efforts may be unsuccessful as a result of unfavorable pricing or reimbursement limitations, delays, competition or other factors. Failure to successfully market one or more of our approved products, or delays in our commercialization efforts, may diminish the commercial prospects for such products and may result in financial losses or damage to our reputation, each of which may have a negative impact on the market price of our ADSs and our financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects.

We may continue to pursue collaborations or licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances, partnerships or other strategic investment or arrangements, which may fail to produce anticipated benefits and adversely affect our operations.

We may continue to pursue opportunities for collaboration, out-license, joint ventures, acquisitions of products, assets or technology, strategic alliances, or partnerships that we believe would advance our development. We may consider pursuing growth through the acquisition of technology, assets or other businesses that may enable us to enhance our technologies and capabilities. Proposing, negotiating and implementing these opportunities may be a lengthy and complex process. Other companies, including those with substantially greater financial, marketing, technology, or other business resources, may compete with us for these opportunities or arrangements. We may not be able to identify, secure, or complete any such transactions or arrangements in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, on acceptable terms, or at all.

In addition, we may from time to time engage and participate in third party sponsored clinical trials (“Third Party Trials”). Third Party Trials have allowed us to expand our clinical program to include additional cancer indications. Such Third Party Trials require that we supply our drug candidates for the enrollment requirements of each trial, sufficient intellectual capital to support the principal investigators and in some cases cost sharing of patient enrollment activities. The institutions involved provide the rest of the required activities to operate the clinical trial. These activities include patient screening and enrollment, treatment, monitoring and overall clinical trial management and reporting. We, however, do not have ultimate control or decision-making power on deciding whether to continue or cease operations with respect to a particular Third Party Trial. The third-party institution sponsors may decide not to enroll more patients or terminate on-going trial, etc. due to various reasons out of our control. We cannot assure you that such Third Party Trials once initiated will continue to operate as originally expected or complete in a timely manner.

We have limited experience with respect to these business development activities. Management and integration of a licensing arrangement, collaboration, joint venture or other strategic arrangement may disrupt our current operations, decrease our profitability, result in significant expenses, or divert management resources that otherwise would be available for our existing business. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction or arrangement.

53

Furthermore, partners, collaborators, or other parties to such transactions or arrangements may fail to fully perform their obligations or meet our expectations or cooperate with us satisfactorily for various reasons and subject us to potential risks, including the following:

partners, collaborators, or other parties have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to a transaction or arrangement;
partners, collaborators, or other parties could independently develop, or develop with third parties, services and products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates;
partners, collaborators, or other parties may stop, delay or discontinue clinical trials as well as repeat clinical trials or conduct new clinical trials by using our intellectual property or proprietary information;
partners, collaborators, or other parties may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our intellectual property or proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential liabilities;
disputes may arise between us and partners, collaborators, or other parties that cause the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates, or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management’s attention and resources;
partners, collaborators, or other parties may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable services and products; and
partners, collaborators, or other parties may own or co-own intellectual properties covering our product candidates that results from our collaborating with them, and in such cases, we would not have the exclusive right to commercialize such intellectual properties.

Any such transactions or arrangements may also require actions, consents, approval, waiver, participation or involvement of various degrees from third parties, such as regulators, government authorities, creditors, licensors or licensees, related individuals, suppliers, distributors, shareholders or other stakeholders or interested parties. There is no assurance that such third parties will be cooperative as we desire, or at all, in which case we may be unable to carry out the relevant transactions or arrangements.

We rely on third parties to support, conduct and monitor our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Therefore, we may not be able to directly control the timing, process, expense and quality of our clinical trials and we cannot assure these third parties can duly perform their obligations as agreed and expected.

We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely upon third parties, including independent clinical investigators and third-party CROs, to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials and to monitor and manage data for our ongoing preclinical and clinical programs. We rely on these parties for execution of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and control only certain aspects of their activities. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies and trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on these third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our third-party contractors and CROs are required to comply with GCP requirements, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for all of our products candidates in clinical development. Regulatory authorities enforce these GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat or suspend clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

54

Further, these investigators and CROs are not our employees and we will not be able to control, other than by contract, the amount of resources, including time, which they devote to our product candidates and clinical trials. If independent investigators or CROs fail to devote sufficient resources to the development of our product candidates, or if their performance is substandard, it may delay or compromise the prospects for approval and commercialization of any product candidates that we develop. In addition, the use of third-party service providers may require us to disclose our proprietary information to these parties, which could increase the risk that this information will be misappropriated.

Our CROs have the right to terminate their agreements with us in the event of an uncured material breach. In addition, some of our CROs have an ability to terminate their respective agreements with us if it can be reasonably demonstrated that the safety of the subjects participating in our clinical trials warrants such termination, if we make a general assignment for the benefit of our creditors or if we are liquidated.

If any of our relationships with these third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

Switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays occur, which can materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Additionally, CROs may lack the capacity to absorb higher workloads or take on additional capacity to support our needs. Though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter similar challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

We currently rely on a third-party manufacturer to produce our product candidates. Any failure by the third-party manufacturer to produce acceptable product candidates for us pursuant to our specifications and regulatory standards may delay or impair our ability to initiate or complete our clinical trials, obtain and maintain regulatory approvals or commercialize approved products, if any.

We currently rely on a third-party manufacturer and expect to continue to rely for some time on third parties to manufacture our product candidates for preclinical testing and clinical trials, in compliance with applicable regulatory and quality standards, and may do so for the commercial manufacture of some of our product candidates, if approved. To date, we have obtained bulk drug substance for ADG126, ADG116, ADG206 and ADG106 from a single-source third-party contract manufacturer. Any reduction or halt in supply of the drug substance from such contract manufacturer could severely constrain our ability to develop our product candidates until a replacement contract manufacturer is found and qualified. If we are unable to arrange for and maintain such third-party manufacturing sources that are capable of meeting regulatory standards, or fail to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to successfully produce sufficient supply of product candidate or we may be delayed in doing so. If we were to experience an unexpected loss of supply of our product candidates, for any reason, whether as a result of manufacturing, supply or storage issues or otherwise, we could experience delays, disruptions, suspensions or terminations of, or be required to restart or repeat, any pending or ongoing clinical trials. Such failure or substantial delay or loss of supply could materially harm our business. We are continuously evaluating multiple vendors both in China and abroad to ensure that we have a continuous supply of products for global trials.

We may have little to no control regarding the occurrence of third-party manufacturer incidents. Any failure by our third-party manufacturer to comply with good manufacturing practices, or GMPs, or failure to scale up manufacturing processes, including any failure to deliver sufficient quantities of product candidates in a timely manner, would lead to a delay in, or failure to seek or obtain, regulatory approval of any of our product candidates. Furthermore, any change in manufacturer of our product candidates or approved products, if any, would require new regulatory approvals, which could delay completion of clinical trials or disrupt commercial supply of approved products.

55

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our product candidates may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

In some cases, the technical skills or technology required to manufacture our product candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original manufacturer, we may have difficulty transferring such skills or technology to another third party and a feasible alternative many not exist. These factors would increase our reliance on such manufacturer or require us to obtain a license from such manufacturer in order to have another third party manufacture our product candidates. If we are required to change manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations and guidelines. The delays associated with the verification of a new manufacturer could negatively affect our ability to develop product candidates in a timely manner or within budget.

If our current research collaborators or scientific advisors and employees terminate their relationships with us or develop relationships with our competitors, our ability to discover antibodies and to conduct research and development could be adversely affected.

The responsibility of overseeing research and development of our product candidates is concentrated among a number of key research collaborators and/or scientific advisors. There can be no assurance that there will not be a detrimental impact on us if one or more of these key research collaborators and/or scientific advisors were to cease relationship or employment with us, potentially as a result of lateral recruitment by existing or new competitors. As a result, this may adversely affect our ability to conduct research and development on antibody product candidates.

Furthermore, our ability to continue to conduct and expand operations depends on our ability to attract and retain a large and growing number of personnel. The ability to meet our expertise needs, including the ability to find qualified personnel to fill positions that become vacant at our research and development department or to collaborate with us in research and development efforts, while controlling our costs, is generally subject to numerous external factors, including the availability of a sufficient number of qualified persons in the biopharmaceutical industry, the unemployment levels within those markets, prevailing wage rates, changing demographics, health and other insurance costs and adoption of new or revised employment and labor laws and regulations. If we are unable to locate, to attract or to retain qualified personnel, the quality of services and products provided to customers may decrease and our financial performance may be adversely affected. In addition, if costs of labor or related costs to maintain relationships with research collaborators increase for other reasons or if new or revised labor laws, rules or regulations or healthcare laws are adopted or implemented that further increase labor costs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We may not be able to attract and retain key senior management members or research and development personnel.

Our future success depends upon the continuing services of members of our senior management team and key research and development personnel and consultants. Although we typically require our key personnel to enter into non-compete and confidentiality agreements with us, we cannot prevent them from joining our competitors after the non-compete period. The loss of their services could adversely impact our ability to achieve our business objectives. If one or more of our senior management or key clinical and scientific personnel are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions or joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may not be able to replace them in a timely manner or at all, which will have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not maintain “key person” insurance for any of our executives or other employees.

In addition, the continued growth of our business depends on our ability to hire additional qualified personnel with expertise in molecular biology, chemistry, biological information processing, computational biology, software, engineering, sales, marketing, and technical support. We compete for qualified management and scientific personnel with other life science and technology companies, universities, and research institutions in China and overseas. Competition for these individuals is intense, and the turnover rate can be high. Failure to attract and retain management and scientific and engineering personnel could prevent us from pursuing collaborations or developing our product candidates or technologies.

56

We face risks related to health epidemics, severe weather conditions and other outbreaks.

China has in the past experienced significant natural disasters, including earthquakes, extreme weather conditions, as well as health scares related to epidemic diseases, and any similar event could materially impact our business in the future. If a disaster or other disruption were to occur in the future that affects the regions where we operate our business, our operations could be materially and adversely affected due to loss of personnel and damage to property. Even if we are not directly affected, such a disaster or disruption could affect the operations or financial conditions of our customers, which could harm our results of operations.

In addition, our business could be materially and adversely affected by the outbreak of a widespread health epidemic, such as COVID-19, swine flu, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola and Zika; natural disasters, such as earthquakes, snowstorms, storm surges, floods, fires, drought and other extreme weather events and other effects of climate change; or other events, such as wars, acts of terrorism, environmental accidents, power shortages or communication interruptions. The occurrence of a disaster or a prolonged outbreak of an epidemic illness or other adverse public health developments could materially disrupt our industry and our business and operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, these events could cause a temporary closure of the facilities we use for our operations, significantly disrupt manufacturing and supply chain, our sales and marketing and clinical trial operations and those of our collaboration partners, and the ability to advance our research and development activities and pursue development of any of our drug candidates. Our operations could also be disrupted if any of our employees or employees of our business partners are suspected of contracting an epidemic disease, since this could require us or our business partners to quarantine some or all of these employees or disinfect the facilities used for our operations.

We have limited insurance coverage, and any claims beyond our insurance coverage may result in us incurring substantial costs and a diversion of resources.

We maintain insurance policies that are required under PRC laws and regulations as well as insurance based on our assessment of our operational needs and industry practice. We also maintain liability insurance covering our clinical trials as well as maintain key-man insurance policy. In line with industry practice in the PRC, we have elected not to maintain certain types of insurances, such as business interruption insurance. Our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover any claim for product liability, damage to our fixed assets or employee injuries. Any uninsured risks may result in substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We have adopted a share incentive plan and will continue to grant share-based awards in the future, which may increase expenses associated with share-based compensation. Exercise of the awards granted will increase the number of our outstanding ordinary shares, which may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.

We adopted the Second Amended and Restated Share Incentive Plan in December 2019 and the 2021 Performance Incentive Plan in January 2021, which we refer to as the 2019 Plan and the 2021 Plan, respectively, in this annual report, to enhance our ability to attract and retain exceptionally qualified individuals and to encourage them to acquire a proprietary interest in the growth and performance of us. We have terminated the authority to grant additional awards under the 2019 Plan and all future awards will be granted under the 2021 Plan. Therefore, the effective maximum number of shares issuable under the 2019 Plan and 2021 Plan is 9,970,732 and 6,936,060, respectively. A total of 2,994,000 of our ordinary shares was authorized for issuance with respect to awards granted under the 2021 Plan. As of February 29, 2024, the aggregate number of our ordinary shares underlying our outstanding awards under the 2019 Plan was 2,538,070. As of February 29, 2024, we have granted 6,229,557 shares awards under the 2021 Plan, excluding awards that were forfeited, cancelled or exercised after the relevant grant dates. See “Item 6 Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Share Incentive Plan.” We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based compensation to employees in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

57

Our employees, third-party suppliers, consultants and commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, third-party suppliers, consultants and commercial partners. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional failures to comply with the regulations of the NMPA and overseas regulators that have jurisdictions over us, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in China and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing, and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Such misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We currently have a code of conduct applicable to all of our employees, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and our code of conduct and the other precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses, or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could result in the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, monetary fines, individual imprisonment, disgorgement of profits, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, additional reporting or oversight obligations if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of noncompliance with the law and curtailment or restructuring of our operations, which could have a significant impact on our business. Whether or not we are successful in defending against such actions or investigations, we could incur substantial costs, including legal fees and divert the attention of management in defending ourselves against any of these claims or investigations.

We may be subject to liability lawsuits arising from our clinical trials.

We currently carry liability insurance covering our clinical trials. Although we maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or which is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies also contain various exclusions, and we may be subject to particular liability claims for which we have no coverage. We will have to pay any amount awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts. In addition, if we cannot successfully defend ourselves against such claims, we may incur substantial liabilities and be required to suspend or delay our ongoing clinical trials. Even a successful defense would require significant financial and management resources.

Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in significant negative consequences to our business and prospects, including, but not limited to:

decreased demand for our product candidates or any resulting products;
damage to our reputation;
withdrawal of other clinical trial participants;
costs to defend the related litigation;
a diversion of our management’s time and resources;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
inability to commercialize our product candidates; and
a decline in the market price of our ADSs.

58

We are subject to changing law and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that have increased both our costs and the risk of noncompliance.

We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the FDA, the NMPA, the SEC, which is charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and the various regulatory authorities in China, the United States, the EU, the Cayman Islands, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalties and our business may be harmed.

We may be exposed to liabilities under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption laws, and any determination that we have violated these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business or our reputation.

We are subject to anti-bribery laws in China that generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or securing any other improper advantage. In addition, although currently our primary operating business is in China, we are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA. The FCPA generally prohibits us from making improper payments to non-U.S. officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We are also subject to the anti-bribery laws of other jurisdictions, particularly China. As our business expands, the applicability of the FCPA and other anti-bribery laws to our operations will increase. Our procedures and controls to monitor anti-bribery compliance may fail to protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. If we, due to either our own deliberate or inadvertent acts or those of others, fail to comply with applicable anti-bribery laws, our reputation could be harmed and we could incur criminal or civil penalties, other sanctions and/or significant expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects.

Any failure to comply with applicable regulations and industry standards or obtain various licenses and permits could harm our reputation, business, results of operations and prospects.

A number of governmental agencies or industry regulatory bodies in China, the United States and other applicable jurisdictions impose strict rules, regulations and industry standards governing biopharmaceutical research and development activities, which apply to us. Our or our CROs’ failure to comply with such regulations could result in the termination of ongoing research, administrative penalties imposed by regulatory bodies or the disqualification of data for submission to regulatory authorities. This could harm our business, reputation, prospects for future work and results of operations. For example, if we or our CROs were to treat research animals inhumanely or in violation of international standards set out by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, it could revoke any such accreditation and the accuracy of our animal research data could be questioned.

59

If we or our third-party research collaborators or other contractors or consultants fail to comply with environmental, fire protection, drainage or health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We and third parties, such as our CROs, are subject to numerous environmental, fire protection, drainage or health and safety laws and regulations, including but not limited to those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes discharge of stationary pollution sources. The cost of compliance with health and safety regulations is substantial. Our business activities involve the controlled use of hazardous materials. Our research and development activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials, including the components of our product candidates and other hazardous compounds. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials, which could cause an interruption of our commercialization efforts, research and development efforts and business operations. We cannot guarantee that the safety procedures utilized by our partners and by third-party manufacturers and suppliers with whom we may contract will comply with the standards prescribed by laws and regulations or will eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In such an event, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and such liability could exceed our resources. In addition, we may be required to incur substantial costs to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations which are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent. We do not currently carry biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage. In the event of an accident or environmental discharge, we may be held liable for any consequential damage and any resulting claims for damages, which may exceed our financial resources and may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects, and the value of our ADSs.

Security breaches, loss of data, and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business or prevent us from accessing critical information and expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store preclinical trial data and clinical trial data which could be sensitive, including research and development information, health-related information, personally identifiable information, intellectual property, and proprietary business information owned or controlled by ourselves or other parties. We manage and maintain our applications and data utilizing a combination of on-site systems and cloud-based application systems. We utilize external security and infrastructure vendors to manage parts of our data centers. We also communicate sensitive data with third parties. We face a number of risks relative to protecting this critical information, including material system failure or security breach, loss of access risk, inappropriate use or disclosure, inappropriate modification, and the risk of our being unable to adequately monitor, audit, and modify our controls over our critical information. This risk extends to the third-party vendors and subcontractors we use to manage this sensitive data and third-party collaborators who share with us sensitive data.

Despite the implementation of security measures to protect sensitive data from unauthorized access, use or disclosure, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or viruses or breached due to employee error, malfeasance, or other malicious or inadvertent disruptions that could result in unauthorized access to, use or disclosure of, corruption of, or loss of sensitive, and/ or proprietary data, including health-related and other personal information, and could subject us to significant liabilities and regulatory and enforcement actions, and reputational damage. The outbreak of a widespread health epidemic had generally increased the attack surface available to criminals, as more companies and individuals work online and work remotely, and as such, the risk of a cybersecurity incident potentially occurring, and our investment in risk mitigations against such an incident, is increasing. For example, there has been an increase in phishing and spam emails as well as social engineering attempts from “hackers” hoping to use the outbreak of COVID-19 to their advantage. In addition, while we have implemented security measures to prevent unauthorized access to patient data, such data is currently accessible through multiple channels, and there is no guarantee we can protect our data from breach. Unauthorized access, loss, or dissemination could also result in delays of our product development and regulatory approval efforts as well as damage our reputation.

60

For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing clinical trials could result in delays in any regulatory approval or clearance efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data, and subsequently commercialize the product. If we or our third-party collaborators, consultants, contractors, suppliers, or service providers were to suffer an attack or breach, for example, that resulted in the unauthorized access to or use or disclosure of health-related or other personal information, we may have to notify consumers, partners, collaborators, government authorities, and the media, and may be subject to investigations, civil penalties, administrative and enforcement actions, and litigation, any of which could harm our business and reputation. Likewise, we rely on our third-party research institution collaborators and other third parties to conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential losses arising from such disruptions, failure, or security breach. In addition, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all. Further, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management attention, and harm our reputation.

We are subject to existing or future foreign laws and regulations related to privacy or data security, which could lead to government enforcement actions, including civil or criminal fines or penalties, private litigation, other liabilities, and/or adverse publicity. Compliance or the failure to comply with such laws could increase the costs of our products and services, limit their use or adoption, and otherwise negatively affect our operating results and business.

In the United States, we and our partners may be subject to state and federal laws and regulations that govern data privacy, protection and security. Numerous laws and regulations, including security breach notification laws, health information privacy laws, and consumer protection laws, govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health-related and other personal information. In addition, we may obtain health information from third parties (including research institutions from which we obtain clinical trial data) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and regulations implemented thereunder (collectively, “HIPAA’’). Depending on the facts and circumstances, we could be subject to criminal penalties if we knowingly obtain, use, or disclose individually identifiable health information maintained by a HIPAA-covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA.

Even when HIPAA does not apply, according to the Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, violating consumers’ privacy rights or failing to take appropriate steps to keep consumers’ personal information secure may constitute unfair acts or practices in or affecting commerce in violation of Section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The FTC expects a company’s data security measures to be reasonable and appropriate in light of the sensitivity and volume of consumer information it holds, the size and complexity of its business, and the cost of available tools to improve security and reduce vulnerabilities. Individually identifiable health information is considered sensitive data that merits stronger safeguards.

61

In addition, certain state and non-U.S. laws, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, govern the privacy and security of health information and other personal information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. Failure to comply with these laws, where applicable, can result in the imposition of significant civil and/or criminal penalties and private litigation. For example, California enacted legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which went into effect January 1, 2020. The CCPA, among other things, creates new data privacy obligations for covered companies and provides new privacy rights to California residents, including the right to opt out of certain disclosures of their information. The CCPA also creates a private right of action with statutory damages for certain data breaches, thereby potentially increasing risks associated with a data breach. In Europe, the GDPR went into effect in May 2018 and introduces strict requirements for processing the personal data of individuals within the EU, and the European Economic Area, or the EEA. In addition, the GDPR increases the scrutiny of transfers of personal data from clinical trial sites located in the EEA to the United States and other jurisdictions that the European Commission does not recognize as having “adequate” data protection laws, and recent legal developments in Europe have created complexity and compliance uncertainty regarding certain transfers of personal data from the EEA. For example, on July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or the CJEU, invalidated the EU-US Privacy Shield Framework, or Privacy Shield, under which personal data could be transferred from the EU and the EEA to United States entities who had self-certified under the Privacy Shield scheme. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the standard contractual clauses will also be invalidated by the European courts or legislature. Companies that must comply with the GDPR face increased compliance obligations and risk, including more robust regulatory enforcement of data protection requirements and potential fines for noncompliance of up to A20 million or 4% of the annual global revenues of the noncompliant company, whichever is greater. Additionally, following Brexit, companies will have to comply with the GDPR and the GDPR as incorporated into United Kingdom national law, the latter regime having the ability to separately fine up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. The relationship between the U.K. and the EU in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, for example around how data can lawfully be transferred between each jurisdiction, which exposes us to further compliance risk.

Given the variability and evolving state of these laws, we face uncertainty as to the exact interpretation of the new requirements, and we may be unsuccessful in implementing all measures required by regulators or courts in their interpretation.

We expect that we will continue to face uncertainty as to whether our efforts to comply with evolving obligations under global data protection, privacy and security laws will be sufficient. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in reputational damage or proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities, individuals or others. These proceedings or actions could subject us to significant civil or criminal penalties and negative publicity, result in the delayed or halted transfer or confiscation of certain personal information, require us to change our business practices, increase our costs and materially harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our current and future relationships with customers, vendors, pharmaceutical partners and other third parties could be negatively affected by any proceedings or actions against us or current or future data protection obligations imposed on them under applicable law, including the GDPR. In addition, a data breach affecting personal information, including health information, could result in significant legal and financial exposure and reputational damage that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.

Business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenue, increase our costs and expenses, and have adverse effect on our financial condition.

Our operations and third parties with which we have collaborations could be subjected to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions, for which we are predominantly self-insured. In addition, we partially rely on our CROs for conducting research and development, and they may be affected by government shutdowns or withdrawn funding. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Although we maintain incident management and disaster response plans, in the event of a major disruption caused by a natural disaster or man-made problem, such as power disruptions, computer viruses, data security breaches or terrorism, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our development activities, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

62

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our results of operations or prevent fraud, and investors’ confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

The SEC, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, adopted rules requiring most public companies to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains the management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. In addition, when a company meets the SEC’s criteria, an independent registered public accounting firm must report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

We are a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023. For details, see “Item 15. Controls and Procedures—Remediation of Previously Reported Material Weaknesses in Internal Control over Financial Reporting.”

However, we cannot assure you that in the future our management or, if applicable, our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify material weaknesses during the Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act audit process. In addition, because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of the ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. Furthermore, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur considerable costs and to use significant management time and the other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which can significantly divert our management’s attention from operating our business.

If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the trading price of our ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the Nasdaq, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

It is difficult and costly to protect our proprietary rights and technology, and we may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Our commercial success will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, maintain and defend patent and other intellectual property protection (including trademarks and trade secrets) with respect to our product candidates. We cannot be certain that patents will be issued or granted with respect to our patent applications that are currently pending, or that issued or granted patents will not later be found to be invalid and/or unenforceable, be interpreted in a manner that does not adequately protect our product candidates, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Additionally, the patent applications in respect of patents licensed under our in-license arrangements may not be issued or granted, and as a result, we may not be able to have adequate protection with respect to such patents.

63

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies is generally uncertain because it involves complex legal and factual considerations. Patent applications we have filed may not be granted or issued as valid enforceable patents. Moreover, some of our patents and patent applications may in the future be, co-owned with third parties. If we are unable to obtain an exclusive license to any such third-party co-owned interest in such patents or patent applications, such co-owners may be able to license or transfer their rights to other third parties, including our competitors, and our competitors could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such co-owners of our patents in order to enforce such patents against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided to us. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects. As such, we do not know the degree of future protection that we will have on our product candidates and technology, if any, and a failure to obtain adequate intellectual property protection with respect to our product candidates could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Composition-of-matter patents on the active pharmaceutical ingredient are generally considered to be the strongest form of intellectual property protection for pharmaceutical products, as such patents provide protection without regard to any method of use. Method-of-use patents protect the use of a product for the specified method. This type of patent does not prevent a competitor from making and marketing a product that is identical to our products for an indication that is outside the scope of the patented method. Moreover, even if competitors do not actively promote their product for our targeted indications, physicians may prescribe these products “off-label.” Although off-label prescriptions may infringe or contribute to the infringement of method-of use patents, the practice is common and such infringement is difficult to prevent or prosecute. We endeavor to seek composition-of-matter patent protection for all of our product candidates. Where appropriate, we also seek method-of-use patents and patents protecting other aspects of our product candidates, including processes for discovery and manufacturing.

Even if our patent applications issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors from competing with us or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Our competitors may be able to circumvent our owned or licensed patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or products in a non-infringing manner. The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its scope, validity or enforceability, and our owned and in-licensed patents may be challenged in the courts or patent offices in the PRC and abroad. For example, we may become involved in opposition, interference, derivation, inter partes review or other similar proceedings challenging our patent rights, and the outcome of any proceedings are highly uncertain. Such challenges may result in the patent claims of our owned or in-licensed patents being narrowed, invalidated or held unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop or prevent us from stopping others from using or commercializing similar or identical technology and products, or limit the duration of the patent protection of our technology and products. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours or otherwise provide us with a competitive advantage.

Despite the measures we can take to increase our likelihood of obtaining patent and other intellectual property protections with respect to our product candidates, there can be no assurance that the existence, validity, enforceability, or scope of our intellectual property rights will not be challenged by a third party, or that we can obtain sufficient scope of claim in those patents to prevent a third party from competing against our product candidates. For example, in an infringement proceeding, a court may hold that patent rights or other intellectual property rights owned by us are invalid or unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the ground that our patent rights or other intellectual property rights do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceedings could put our patent, as well as any patents that may issue in the future from our pending patent applications, at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation.

64

In addition, if we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our product candidates, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid and/or unenforceable. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, for example, lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the National Intellectual Property Administration of China, or NIPA, or the applicable foreign counterpart, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Although we believe that we have conducted our patent prosecution in accordance with all applicable duty of candor and in good faith, the outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our product candidates. Even if a defendant does not prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, our patent claims may be construed in a manner that would limit our ability to enforce such claims against the defendant and others.

Third parties may also raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the PRC or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include ex parte re-examination, inter partes review, post-grant review, derivation and equivalent proceedings, such as opposition proceedings. Such legal proceedings could result in revocation or amendment to our patents in such a way that they no longer cover and protect our product candidates. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability can be unpredictable. With respect to the validity of our patents, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we may lose part or all of the patent protection on our product candidates. Any loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on one or more of our product candidates and our business.

In addition to the protection afforded by patents, we seek to rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our drug discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information or technology that is not covered by patents. We may also rely on trade secret protection as temporary protection for concepts that may be included in a future patent filing. However, trade secret protection will not protect us from innovations that a competitor develops independently of our proprietary know-how. If a competitor independently develops a technology that we protect as a trade secret and files a patent application on that technology, then we may not be able to patent that technology in the future, may require a license from the competitor to use our own know-how, and if the license is not available on commercially viable terms, then we may not be able to launch our product. Although we require our employees to assign their inventions to us, and require our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot be certain that our trade secrets and other confidential proprietary information will not be disclosed or that competitors will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. Furthermore, the laws of different countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the PRC. We may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the PRC and abroad. If we are unable to prevent unauthorized material disclosure of our intellectual property to third parties, we will not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, and this scenario could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Moreover, trade secrets are difficult to protect, and we have limited control over the protection of trade secrets used by our collaborators and suppliers. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our employees, consultants, contractors, outside scientific collaborators and other advisors may unintentionally or willfully disclose our information to competitors or use such information to compete with us. Moreover, our competitors may independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how. If our confidential or proprietary information is divulged to or acquired by third parties, including our competitors, our competitive position in the marketplace will be adversely affected and this would have a material adverse effect on our business.

65

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain countries. The legal systems of certain countries do not favor the enforcement or protection of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property, particularly those relating to pharmaceutical and biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in certain countries could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. We and our contractors and partners operate in certain countries that are at heightened risk of theft of technology, data and intellectual property through direct or indirect intrusion by private parties or international actors, including those affiliated with or controlled by state actors. Accordingly, our efforts to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Changes in patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates.

As is the case with other biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the pharmaceutical industry involves both technological and legal complexity and is therefore costly, time consuming and inherently uncertain. Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of the patent laws in various countries could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of patent applications and the enforcement or defense of issued patents. For example, patent reform legislation in the United States includes provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art and provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents via post-grant proceedings. The Leahy-Smith Act and any continuing changes in patent laws and regulations in various patent jurisdictions could make it more difficult to obtain patent protection for our inventions and increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our or our collaboration partners’ patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our or our collaboration partners’ issued patents, all of which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain due to changes in law and courts’ interpretation of the law. For example, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. Other courts in the United States, for example, have heightened the bar for broadly claiming antibodies. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents, once obtained. Additionally, there are periodic proposals for changes to the patent laws of China, United States and other countries that, if adopted, could impact our ability to enforce our proprietary technology. Depending on future actions by the relevant law-making bodies in other countries, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our existing patent portfolio and weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents that we might obtain in the future.

Similarly in China, intellectual property laws are constantly evolving, with efforts being made to improve intellectual property protection in China. For example, according to the Patent Law of the PRC which was latest amended in June 2021, in order to make up the time taken up by review and approval for marketing of new drugs, the patent administrative department under the State Council shall, at the request of the relevant patentee, make up the patent right duration for invention patents pertaining to new drugs that obtain the marketing authorization in China. The make-up duration shall not exceed five years, and the total valid duration of a patent right shall not exceed 14 years after a new drug is approved for marketing.

66

We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights for our development pipeline through acquisitions and licensing deals.

Because our programs may involve additional product candidates that may require the use of proprietary rights held by third parties, the growth of our business may depend in part on our ability to acquire and maintain licenses or other rights to use these proprietary rights. We may be unable to acquire or in-license any compositions, methods of use, or other intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify. The licensing and acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and a number of more established companies are also pursuing strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may consider attractive or necessary. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, cash resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities. In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment or at all. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights or maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of the relevant program or product candidate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects for growth.

Additionally, we may sometimes collaborate with academic institutions to accelerate our preclinical research or development under written agreements with these institutions. These institutions may provide us with an option to negotiate a license to any of the institution’s rights in technology resulting from the collaboration. Regardless of such option, we may be unable to negotiate a license within the specified timeframe or under terms that are acceptable to us. If we are unable to do so, the institution may offer the intellectual property rights to others, potentially blocking our ability to pursue our program. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property or to maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of such program and our business and financial condition could suffer.

Licensing of intellectual property involves complex legal, business and scientific issues. Disputes may arise between us and our licensors regarding intellectual property subject to a license agreement, including:

the scope of rights granted under the license agreement and other interpretation-related issues;
whether and the extent to which our technology and processes infringe on intellectual property of the licensor that is not subject to the licensing agreement;
our right to sublicense patents and other rights to third parties;
our diligence obligations with respect to the use of the licensed technology in relation to our development and commercialization of our product candidates, and what activities satisfy those diligence obligations;
our right to transfer or assign the license; and
the ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the joint creation or use of intellectual property by our licensors and us and our partners.

If disputes over intellectual property that we license in the future prevent or impair our ability to maintain our licensing arrangements on acceptable terms, we may not be able to successfully develop and commercialize the affected product candidates, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, certain of our future agreements with third parties may limit or delay our ability to consummate certain transactions, may impact the value of those transactions, or may limit our ability to pursue certain activities. For example, we may in the future enter into license agreements that are not assignable or transferable, or that require the licensor’s express consent in order for an assignment or transfer to take place.

67

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful, and any unfavorable outcome from such litigation could limit our research and development activities and/or our ability to commercialize our product candidates.

Competitors may infringe our patent rights or misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property rights. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time consuming and divert the time and attention of our management and scientific personnel. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us, alleging that we infringed their patents. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, there is a risk that a court will decide that our asserted patents are invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and that we do not have the right to stop the others from using the invention at issue. There is also a risk that, even if the validity of such patents is upheld, the court will construe the patent’s claims narrowly or decide that we do not have the right to stop the others from using the invention at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the alleged infringing activity or product. An adverse outcome in a litigation or proceeding involving our patents could limit our ability to assert our patents against those parties and other competitors, and may curtail or preclude our ability to exclude third parties from making and selling similar or competitive products. Any of these occurrences could adversely affect our competitive business position, business prospects, and financial condition. Similarly, if we assert trademark infringement claims, a court may determine that our asserted marks are invalid or unenforceable, or that the party against whom we have asserted trademark infringement has superior rights to the marks in question. In this case, we could ultimately be forced to cease use of our trademarks.

In any litigation involving our intellectual property, the award of monetary damages we receive may not be commercially valuable or even sufficient to cover our cost of bringing such action. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our ADSs. Moreover, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient financial or other resources to file and pursue such infringement claims, which typically last for years before they are concluded. Even if we ultimately prevail in such claims, the monetary cost of such litigation and the diversion of the attention of our management and scientific personnel could outweigh any benefit we receive as a result of the proceedings.

Our commercial success depends significantly on our ability to operate without infringing upon, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties.

The life sciences industry is subject to rapid technological change and substantial litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Our potential competitors in both the PRC and abroad, may have substantially greater resources than us and are likely to make substantial investments in patent portfolios and competing technologies, and may apply for or obtain patents that could prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make, use and sell our products. Numerous third-party patents exist in fields relating to our products and technologies, and it is difficult for industry participants, including us, to identify all third-party patent rights relevant to our products and technologies. Moreover, because some patent applications are maintained as confidential for a certain period of time, we cannot be certain that third parties have not filed patent applications that will cover our products and technologies if they issue as patents.

Patents could be issued to third parties that we may ultimately be found to infringe. Third parties may have or obtain valid and enforceable patents or proprietary rights that could block us from using our technology. Our failure to obtain or maintain a license from third parties to any technology that we require may materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we would be exposed to a threat of litigation.

68

Third-party intellectual property right holders may also actively bring infringement or other intellectual property-related claims against us, even if we have received patent protection for our technologies, products, and services. Regardless of the merit of third parties claims against us for infringement, misappropriation or violations of their intellectual property rights, such third parties may seek and obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to perform clinical trials or develop, manufacture or sell our products. Further, if a patent infringement suit were brought against us, we could be forced to temporarily or permanently stop or delay our development or regulatory approval process or other activities that are the subject of such suit. Defense of these claims, even if such claims are resolved in our favor, could cause us to incur substantial expenses and be a substantial diversion of our employee resources even if we are ultimately successful. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves could have a material adverse impact on our cash position and stock price. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing, or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our ADSs. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock. The occurrence of any of these events may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation, financial condition or cash flows.

Obtaining and maintaining patent protection depend on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent authorities, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

The NIPA, and various foreign governmental patent agencies including the USPTO, JPO, and EPO require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent application and prosecution process. Periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, and various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications will be due to be paid to the NIPA and various other governmental patent agencies outside of China in several stages over the lifetime of the patents and/or applications. We employ reputable professionals and rely on such third parties to help us comply with these requirements and effect payment of these fees with respect to the patents and patent applications that we own. Noncompliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official communications within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. In many cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules. However, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We may not enter into invention assignment and confidentiality agreements with all of our employees and third parties and such agreements may not prevent ownership disputes or unauthorized disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.

We rely in part upon unpatented or unpatentable trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position, which we seek to protect, in part, by entering into agreements, including confidentiality agreements and non-disclosure agreements, with parties that have a need for access to them, such as certain of our employees, consultants, academic institutions, corporate partners and, other third-party service providers. Nevertheless, there can be no guarantee that an employee or a third party will not make an unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary confidential information. This might happen intentionally or inadvertently. It is possible that a competitor will gain access to such information and make use of such information, and that our competitive position will be compromised, in spite of any legal action we might take against persons making such unauthorized disclosures. In addition, to the extent that our employees, consultants or contractors use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions.

69

Trade secrets are difficult to protect. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our employees, consultants, contractors or business partners might intentionally or inadvertently disclose our trade secret information to competitors or our trade secrets may otherwise be misappropriated. Enforcing a claim that a third party illegally obtained and is using any of our trade secrets is expensive and time consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable.

We sometimes engage individuals or research institutions to conduct research relevant to our business. The ability of these individuals or research institutions to publish or otherwise publicly disclose data and other information generated during the course of their research is subject to certain contractual limitations. These contractual provisions may be insufficient or inadequate to protect our confidential information. If we do not apply for patent protection prior to such publication, or if we cannot otherwise maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary technology and other confidential information, then our ability to obtain patent protection or to protect our trade secret information may be jeopardized, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We also seek to enter agreements with our employees and consultants that obligate them to assign any inventions created during their work for us to us. However, we may not obtain these agreements in all circumstances and the assignment of intellectual property under such agreements may not be self-executing. And it is possible that technology relevant to our business will be independently developed by a person that is not a party to such an agreement. Furthermore, if the employees and consultants who are parties to these agreements breach or violate the terms of these agreements, we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach or violation, and we could lose our trade secrets and inventions through such breaches or violations. Any of the foregoing could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to claims that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.

Some of our employees and consultants were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such employee’s former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and our specific personnel.

We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.

We may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our patents, trade secrets, or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we may have inventorship disputes arise from conflicting obligations of employees, consultants or others who are involved in developing our product candidates. Also, former employees may become employed by competitors who develop similar technology, and could assist the competitor in designing around our patents. While it is our policy to require our employees and contractors who may be involved in the development of intellectual property to execute agreements assigning such intellectual property to us, we may be unsuccessful in executing such an agreement with each party who in fact develops intellectual property that we regard as our own. Our and their assignment agreements may not be self-executing or may be breached, and litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship or our ownership of our patents, trade secrets or other intellectual property. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, intellectual property that is important to our product candidates. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

70

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily protect us from all potential threats to our competitive advantages.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:

others may be able to independently develop similar or alternative technologies or designs that are similar to our product candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or have exclusively licensed;
we might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patents or pending patent applications that we own or may in the future exclusively license, which could result in the patent applications not issuing or being invalidated after issuing;
we might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions, which could result in the patent applications not issuing or being invalidated after issuing;
others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;
it is possible that our pending patent applications will not lead to issued patents;
issued patents that we own or have exclusively licensed may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable, as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;
our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive services and products for commercialization in our major markets;
we may fail to develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;
we may fail to apply for or obtain adequate intellectual property protection in all the jurisdictions in which we operate; and
the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business, for example by preventing us from commercializing one or more of our product candidates for one or more indications.

Any of the aforementioned threats to our competitive advantage could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Patent terms may not be sufficient to effectively protect our product candidates.

In most countries in which we plan to file applications for patents, the term of an issued patent is generally 20 years from the earliest claimed filing date of the priority application to which a non-provisional patent application in the applicable country claims priority. Although various extensions may be available in various countries, the life of a patent and the protection it affords are limited. Even if patents covering our product candidates are obtained, we may be open to competition from other companies once our patent rights expire. Accordingly, given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. Excluding any patent term adjustment and patent term extension, our currently issued patents are expected to expire from 2033 to 2039. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights over a sufficient length of time to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

71

Uncertainty of the length of patent term extensions and data and market exclusivities for our pharmaceutical products could increase the risk of generic competition.

In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended by the law generally referred to as the “Hatch-Waxman Amendments,” provides the opportunity for patent-term restoration of up to five years to reflect patent term lost during certain portions of product development and the FDA regulatory review process. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments also have a process for patent linkage, pursuant to which FDA will stay approval of certain follow-on applications during the pendency of litigation between the follow-on applicant and the patent holder or licensee, generally for a period of 30 months. Finally, the Hatch-Waxman Amendments provide for statutory exclusivities that can prevent submission or approval of certain follow-on marketing applications. For example, federal law provides a five-year period of exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to obtain approval of a new chemical entity (as defined) and three years of exclusivity protecting certain innovations to previously approved active ingredients where the applicant was required to conduct new clinical investigations to obtain approval for the modification. Similarly, the Orphan Drug Act provides seven years of market exclusivity for certain drugs to treat rare diseases, where FDA designates the product candidate as an orphan drug and the drug is approved for the designated orphan indication.

These provisions, designed to promote innovation, can prevent competing products from entering the market for a certain period of time after FDA grants marketing approval for the innovative product.

In China, however, there is no currently effective law or regulation providing patent term extension, patent linkage, or data exclusivity (referred to as regulatory data protection). Therefore, a lower-cost generic drug can emerge onto the market much more quickly. Chinese regulators have set forth a framework for integrating patent linkage and data exclusivity into the Chinese regulatory regime, as well as for establishing a pilot program for patent term extension. To be implemented, this framework will require adoption of regulations. To date, the NMPA has issued several draft implementing regulations in this regard for public comment. The amendment to the PRC Patent Law which came into effect in 2021 introduced “patent term compensation” for a maximum of 5 years, corresponding to the patent term extension under the U.S. federal law. The implementation of patent term compensation is specified in the Implementation Rules of the Patent Law of the PRC and the Patent Examination Guidelines which came into effect in January 2024. Since the regulations are relatively new, uncertainties exist with respect to the actual execution of them. These factors result in weaker protection for us against generic competition in China than could be available to us in the United States until the relevant implementing regulations for extension, patent linkage, or data exclusivity are put into effect officially in China.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our products in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. We may also encounter difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the jurisdictions of the registration of our intellectual properties. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products. Our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions. The legal systems of many other countries do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents in such countries.

Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing, and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

72

We may not be able to protect and enforce our trademarks.

We currently hold issued trademark registrations and have trademark applications pending, any of which may be the subject of a governmental or third-party objection, which could prevent the registration or maintenance of the same. If we are unsuccessful in obtaining trademark protection for our primary brands, we may be required to change our brand names, which could materially adversely affect our business. Moreover, as our products mature, our reliance on our trademarks to differentiate us from our competitors will increase, and as a result, if we are unable to prevent third parties from adopting, registering or using trademarks and trade dress that infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our trademark rights, or engaging in conduct that constitutes unfair competition, defamation or other violation of our rights, our business could be materially adversely affected. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. We may license our trademarks and trade names to third parties, such as distributors. Though these license agreements may provide guidelines for how our trademarks and trade names may be used, a breach of these agreements or misuse of our trademarks and tradenames by our licensees may jeopardize our rights in or diminish the goodwill associated with our trademarks and trade names. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade names, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to the ADSs

Our business and financial results, including our ability to raise capital or raise capital on favorable terms and the market price of our ADSs, may be adversely affected by the geopolitical factors arising in connection with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, including particularly how countries like the United States and China choose to respond to this war. As a result, the value of our ADSs may significantly decline.

Our business and financial results, including our ability to raise capital or raise capital on favorable terms and the market price of our ADSs, may be adversely affected by the geopolitical factors arising in connection with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. We do not conduct business in either Russia or Ukraine. However, our global operations expose us to geopolitical risks, including particularly here, how the United States and China choose to respond to the war between Ukraine and Russia. If this war continues, increases, or expands, or leads to continued political or economic instability, terrorist activity, or gives rise to further government actions such as sanctions or increased economic or political tensions between the United States and China, our business and financial results, including our ability to raise capital or raise capital on favorable terms and the market price of our ADSs, may be adversely impacted and the value of our ADSs may significantly decline.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.

The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of our ADSs ranged from US$0.90 to US$29.99 per ADS since the listing of ADSs on Nasdaq. The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for the ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

variations in our net revenues, earnings and cash flow;
announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, or joint ventures by us or our competitors;
announcements of new products and services and expansions by us or our competitors;

73

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
fluctuations in operating metrics;
failure on our part to realize monetization opportunities as expected;
changes in revenues generated from our significant business partners;
additions or departures of key personnel;
release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;
detrimental negative publicity about us, our management, our competitors or our industry;
regulatory developments affecting us or our industry; and
potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the trading volume and price of the ADSs.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

If securities or industry analysts cease to publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of the ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of the ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. The ADSs sold in our initial public offering are freely tradable by persons other than our “affiliates” without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act and the applicable lock-up agreements.

74

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the ADSs.

We have adopted amended and restated memorandum and articles of association. Our new memorandum and articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, including ordinary shares represented by ADSs. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of the ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares and the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You must rely on the judgment of our management as to the use of the net proceeds from our equity financing activities, and such use may not produce income or increase our ADS price.

Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds received by us. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our efforts to achieve or maintain profitability or increase our ADS price. The net proceeds from our initial public offering and other equity financing activities may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

We are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, or to terminate the deposit agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders.

We are entitled to amend the deposit agreement and to change the rights of the ADS holders under the terms of such agreement, without the prior consent of the ADS holders. We and the depositary may agree to amend the deposit agreement in any way we decide is necessary or advantageous to us. Amendments may reflect, among other things, operational changes in the ADS program, legal developments affecting ADSs or changes in the terms of our business relationship with the depositary. In the event that the terms of an amendment are disadvantageous to ADS holders, ADS holders will only receive 30 days’ advance notice of the amendment, and no prior consent of the ADS holders is required under the deposit agreement. Furthermore, we may decide to terminate the ADS facility at any time for any reason. For example, terminations may occur when we decide to list our shares on a non-U.S. securities exchange and determine not to continue to sponsor an ADS facility or when we become the subject of a takeover or a going-private transaction. If the ADS facility is going to terminate, ADS holders will receive at least 90 days’ prior notice, but no prior consent is required from them. Under the circumstances that we decide to make an amendment to the deposit agreement that is disadvantageous to ADS holders or terminate the deposit agreement, the ADS holders may choose to sell their ADSs or surrender their ADSs and become direct holders of the underlying ordinary shares, but will have no right to any compensation whatsoever.

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

75

If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial.

No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to direct the voting of the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights attached to the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Where any matter is to be put to a vote at a general meeting, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try, as far as is practicable, to vote the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying ordinary shares unless you cancel and withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting.

When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to withdraw the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares to allow you to attend the general meeting and to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our post-offering memorandum and articles of association, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs and from becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. Where any matter is to be put to a vote at a general meeting, upon our instruction the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs.

76

In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.

Under the deposit agreement, if you do not vote, the depositary may give us a discretionary proxy to vote the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs at shareholders’ meetings if we have timely provided the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials and (i) we have instructed the depositary that we wish a discretionary proxy to be given, (ii) we have informed the depositary that there is no substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting, and (iii) a matter to be voted on at the meeting would not have a material adverse impact on shareholders.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that you cannot prevent the underlying ordinary shares represented by the ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for ADS holders to influence the management of the company. Holders of ordinary shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on price appreciation of the ADSs for return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in the ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may, subject to the provisions of our articles of association, by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit, retained earnings, or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiary, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in the ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of the ADSs. There is no guarantee that the ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in the ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in the ADSs.

You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our ordinary shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying the ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act of 1933 but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of the ADSs.

77

You may experience dilution of your holdings due to the inability to participate in rights offerings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

We are a public company and expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and the Nasdaq Global Market, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.235 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting and permission to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the number of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (as amended) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by our minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have the standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

78

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulties in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of our board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Our current operations are primarily conducted in China. In addition, some of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the Nasdaq listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the Nasdaq listing standards.

As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, we are subject to the Nasdaq listing standards. However, Nasdaq rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the Nasdaq listing standards. We have relied on and plan to rely on home country practice with respect to our corporate governance. For example, each of our nominating committee and compensation committee is not composed entirely of independent directors. In addition, we do not plan to seek shareholder approval in connection with certain transactions effecting securities issuance. We also do not plan to hold annual meeting of shareholders no later than one year after the end of fiscal year-end. For details, please refer to “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—6.C. Board Practices—Board of Directors” and “Item 16G—Corporate Governance.” As a result, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they would otherwise enjoy under the Nasdaq listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

79

We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we have published and intend to continue to publish a summary of our financial results on a semi-annually basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Global Market. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We were likely a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for 2023, and there is a significant risk that we will be a PFIC for 2024 and possibly subsequent taxable years, in which case U.S. investors will generally be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

In general, a non-U.S. corporation will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income, or the income test, or (ii) 50% or more of the average value of its assets (generally determined on a quarterly basis) consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income, or the asset test. For purposes of the above calculations, a non-U.S. corporation that directly or indirectly owns at least 25% by value of the ordinary shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation. Passive income generally includes interest, dividends, gains from certain property transactions, rents and royalties (other than certain rents or royalties derived in the active conduct of a trade or business). Cash is generally a passive asset for PFIC purposes. Goodwill and other intangible assets are active under the PFIC rules to the extent attributable to activities that produce active income.

The assets shown on our balance sheet are expected to consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents for the foreseeable future. Therefore, whether we will satisfy the asset test for any taxable year will depend largely on the value of our goodwill and other intangible assets and on how quickly we utilize the cash in our business. The value of our goodwill and other intangible assets for any taxable year may be determined in large part by reference to the average of our market capitalization for that year. Because our market capitalization has declined substantially in recent years, if the value of our goodwill is determined by reference to the average of our quarterly market capitalization, then it is our belief that we were likely a PFIC for our 2023 taxable year. Due to the volatility of our market capitalization, there is a significant risk that we will also be a PFIC for 2024 and possibly future taxable years. In addition, the extent to which our goodwill and other intangible assets should be characterized as a non-passive asset is not entirely clear. We have not obtained any valuation of our assets (including goodwill). U.S. Holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares should consult their tax advisors regarding the value and characterization of our assets for purposes of the PFIC rules, which are subject to some uncertainties. In addition, we can give no assurance that we will not be a PFIC under the income test for any taxable year, particularly prior to the commercialization of any of our drug candidates.

If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. investor owns our ADSs or ordinary shares, the U.S. taxpayer generally will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on disposition gains and “excess distributions,” and additional reporting requirements. This will generally continue to be the case even if we ceased to be a PFIC in a later taxable year, unless certain elections are made. See “Item 10 Additional Information—Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

If a U.S. person is treated as owning 10% or more of our stock by vote or value, such person may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

If a U.S. person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) 10% or more of our stock (including our ADSs and ordinary shares) by value or voting power, such person generally will be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation,” or CFC, in our group. A CFC is a non-U.S. corporation more than 50% of the stock (by voting power or value) of which is owned (directly, indirectly or constructively) by “United States shareholders.” We have not determined whether we are a CFC. However, even if we are not a CFC, under certain ownership attribution rules our non-U.S. subsidiaries would be treated as owned by our U.S. subsidiary and thus may be treated as CFCs. A United States shareholder of a CFC may be subject to additional U.S. federal income tax liabilities and reporting requirements. We do not intend to furnish any information that may be necessary for United States shareholders, if any, to comply with the CFC rules. U.S. investors that may be treated for purposes of the CFC rules as owning 10% of our stock by voting power or value should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of these rules in their particular circumstances.

80

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

4.A. History and Development of the Company

In February 2011, Adagene Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company.

In December 2011, we established Adagene (Hong Kong) Limited, or Adagene Hong Kong, a wholly-owned subsidiary incorporated under the laws of Hong Kong, as our intermediary holding company. In February 2012, Adagene Hong Kong incorporated Adagene (Suzhou) Limited, or Adagene Suzhou, in China, through which we commenced our research and development activities in China.

In September 2017, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary in the state of Delaware, the United States, Adagene Incorporated, to conduct our research and development activities in the United States to facilitate the discovery and development of product candidates and expand our global presence, we have further incorporated several subsidiaries overseas, such as Australia, Singapore and Switzerland.

We are a holding company and do not directly conduct any substantive business operations in the PRC. In addition to our R&D activities in the United States, Australia and Singapore, we currently focus our business operations within the PRC through Adagene Suzhou. We (Adagene Inc.), however, hold certain intellectual properties and outsource certain research and development activities related to these intellectual properties to our subsidiaries. See “Item 3 Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC.”

In February 2021, we completed an initial public offering in which we offered and sold an aggregate of 10,571,375 ordinary shares in the form of ADSs. Upon the initial public offering, all of our then issued and outstanding preferred shares were automatically converted into ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis. On February 9, 2021, the ADSs began trading on the Nasdaq under the symbol “ADAG.”

Our corporate headquarters is located at 4F, Building C14, No. 218, Xinghu Street, Suzhou Industrial Park Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 215123, People’s Republic of China. Our San Diego office address is 6042 Cornerstone Court West Suite E, San Diego, CA 92121. Our registered office is located at Vistra (Cayman) Limited, P. O. Box 31119 Grand Pavilion, Hibiscus Way, 802 West Bay Road, Grand Cayman, KY1 - 1205 Cayman Islands. Our telephone number is +86-512-8777-3632. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10168. Our corporate website is www.adagene.com. The information contained on or that can be accessed through our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this annual report.

The SEC maintains an internet site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Recent Regulatory Development

Implication of the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (the “HFCAA”), was enacted on December 18, 2020. Trading in our ADSs on the Nasdaq or over-the-counter will be prohibited, and as a result, our ADSs will be delisted under the HFCAA, if the PCAOB has determined that it has been unable to inspect registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong for two consecutive years. The enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (“AHFCAA”) decreases the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs will be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market or OTC or delisted. For the details of the risks associated with the enactment of the AHFCAA, see “Item 3. Key Information––3.D. Risk Factors–– The enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act decreases the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs may be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market or in the over-the-counter market or delisted.”

81

On December 16, 2021, PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report, according to which our auditor was subject to the determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely (the “2021 Determinaitons”). In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “Conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for two consecutive years. We were conclusively identified on May 26, 2022. See https:// www.sec.gov/hfcaa. Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB had been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor was not inspected by the PCAOB. Final rules implementing the submission and disclosure requirements in the HFCAA were adopted by the SEC on December 2, 2021 and became effective on January 10, 2022.

On August 26, 2022, the PCAOB signed a Statement of Protocol with China Securities Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China, taking the first step toward opening access for the PCAOB to inspect and investigate registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able, in 2022, to inspect and investigate completely issuer audit engagements of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and that it had vacated its 2021 Determinaitons accordingly. As a result, we do not expect to be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer under the HFCAA for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 after we file our annual report on Form 20-F for such fiscal year. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to conduct inspections and investigations completely to its satisfaction of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainty and depends on a number of factors out of our, and our auditor’s, control, including positions taken by authorities of the PRC. The PCAOB is expected to continue to demand complete access to inspections and investigations against accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong in the future. The PCAOB is required under the HFCAA to make its determination on an annual basis with regards to its ability to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms based in the mainland China and Hong Kong. The possibility of being a “Commission-Identified Issuer” and risk of delisting could continue to adversely affect the trading price of our securities. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and we continue to use such accounting firm to conduct audit work, we would be identified as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” under the HFCAA following the filing of the annual report for the relevant fiscal year, and if we were so identified for two consecutive years, trading in our securities on U.S. markets would be prohibited. For the details of the risks associated with the enactment of the HFCAA, see “Item 3. Key Information––3.D. Risk Factors––Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC––Our ADSs may be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China. The delisting of the ADSs, or the threat of them being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

82

Cybersecurity Review Measures

On December 28, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and 12 other relevant PRC government authorities published the amended Cybersecurity Review Measures, or the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which went on February 15, 2022 and supersede and replace the current Cybersecurity Review Measures previously promulgated on April 13, 2020. The Cybersecurity Review Measures provide that the purchase of network products and services by a “critical information infrastructure operator” and the data processing activities of a “network platform operator” that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to the cybersecurity review. Furthermore, if a “network platform operator” that possesses personal information of more than one million users intends to go public in a foreign country, it must apply for a cybersecurity review with the Cybersecurity Review Office. In addition, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security.

On November 14, 2021, the CAC released the Regulations for the Administration of Network Data Security (Draft for Comment), or the Draft Data Security Regulations, for public comments. The Draft Data Security Regulations provide that (i) a data processor who processes personal information of more than one million individuals must complete a cybersecurity review if it intends to be listed in a foreign country, and (ii) a data processor who carries out other data processing activities which affect or may affect national security should also complete the cybersecurity review. The Draft Data Security Regulations provide a broad definition of “data processing activities,” including collection, storage, usage, processing, transfer, provision, publication, deletion and other activities, which covers the entire life cycle of data processing. The Draft Data Security Regulations also provide a broad definition of “data processors” as individuals and entities that may autonomously determine the purpose and method of data processing activities. In addition, the Draft Data Security Regulations require data processors who process important data or whose securities are listed outside of China to carry out annual data security assessment either by itself or through a third party data security service provider and submit the assessment report to a local agency of the CAC. See “Item 4. Information of the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation—Other PRC Government Regulations— Regulations on Information Security and Data Protection” for detailed discussion. As advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng, the Draft Data Security Regulations were released for public comment only with the deadline of submitting public comments or opinions by December 13, 2021, and its provisions and anticipated adoption or effective date are subject to changes and thus its interpretation and implementation remain substantially uncertain. We cannot predict the impact of the Draft Data Security Regulations, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process.

83

As advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng, given the nature of our business, since we do not possess or process personal information of more than one million users/individuals, and we do not believe we are a “critical information infrastructure operator,” “network platform operator” or a data processor whose purchase of network products and services or data processing activities affect or may affect national security, the listing of our ADSs on the Nasdaq and future potential offering of our ADSs will not be subject to the cybersecurity review process under the Cybersecurity Review Measures, although we cannot guarantee that the relevant PRC regulatory authority will agree with our interpretation. Currently, the Cybersecurity Review Measures and the Draft Data Security Regulations have not materially affected our business and operations, but in anticipation of the strengthened implementation of cybersecurity laws and regulations and the continued expansion of our business, we face potential risks if we are deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator, a network platform operator or data processing operator under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations. In such case, we must fulfill certain obligations as required under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, including, among others, storing personal information and other important data collected and produced within the PRC territory as we advance our drug discovery pipelines as part of our future operations in China, and we may be subject to lengthy cybersecurity review, annual data security assessment and other enhanced regulatory requirements when purchasing network products and services or conducting other data processing activities. We may face challenges in addressing such enhanced regulatory requirements and be required to make necessary changes to our internal policies and practices in data privacy and cybersecurity matters. As advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng, as of the date of this annual report, no detailed rules or implementation of the Cybersecurity Review Measures have been issued by the CAC and the Draft Data Security Regulations were only released for public comments, and the PRC governmental authorities have broad discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations. It also remains uncertain whether the future regulatory changes will impose additional restrictions on companies like us. We cannot predict the impact of the Cybersecurity Review Measures and/or the Draft Data Security Regulations, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process. If the future enacted laws and regulations, including the enacted version of the data security regulations mandate clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be completed by companies like us before we are able to complete this offering, we will face uncertainties as to whether such clearance and/or other specific actions can be timely obtained or completed, or at all. If we are not able to comply with the cybersecurity and data privacy requirements in a timely manner, or at all, we may be subject to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, or suspension of our non-compliant operations, among other sanctions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Any failure to complete the required cybersecurity review may result in administrative penalties, including fines, a shut-down of our business, revocation of requisite licenses, as well as reputational damage or legal proceedings or actions against us, which may have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigation on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, or sanction in such respect, and we have not been subject to any material fines or other material penalties due to non-compliance with cybersecurity or data privacy laws or regulations. Our PRC legal counsel does not expect that, as of the date of this annual report, we are required to file an application for the cybersecurity review by CAC in connection with our previous issuance of securities to foreign investors or maintaining our listing status on Nasdaq. We have been making continuous efforts to comply with the relevant cybersecurity and data protection laws and regulations of the PRC, and will endeavor to comply with any updated applicable laws, regulations or guidelines as issued by any relevant regulatory authority in the PRC. See “Item 3 Key Information—3.D.Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC—Failure to comply with existing or future laws and regulations related to privacy or data security could lead to government enforcement actions, which could include civil or criminal fines or penalties, investigation or sanction by regulatory authorities, private litigation, other liabilities, and/or adverse publicity.”

84

Material Licenses and Approvals

Our PRC subsidiary has obtained all material licenses and approvals required for our operations in China. For details of our material licenses and approvals, see “Item 4. Information of the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Material Licenses and Approvals.” For risks relating to licenses and approvals required for our operations in China, see “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC,” “—Risks Related to Clinical Development of Our Product Candidates,” and “—Risks Related to Obtaining Regulatory Approval of Our Drug Candidates.”

Furthermore, in connection with our historical issuance of securities to foreign investors, under currently effective PRC laws, regulations and regulatory rules, as of the date of this annual report, we are not currently required to obtain permissions from the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”), and we have not received any formal notice from any PRC authority indicating that we should apply for or are otherwise subject to cybersecurity review or security assessment. In addition, we have not been asked to obtain such permissions by any PRC authority or received any denial to do so. However, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. For example, the CSRC published the Trial Measures and Listing Guidelines on February 17, 2023, designed to regulate overseas securities offerings by PRC domestic companies. Given the recent nature of the introduction of the Trial Measures and Listing Guidelines, there remains significant uncertainty as to the enactment, interpretation and implementation of regulatory requirements related to overseas securities offerings and other capital markets activities.

If (i) we mistakenly conclude that certain regulatory filings, permissions and approvals are not required or (ii) applicable laws, regulations, or interpretations change and (iii) we are required to obtain such filings, permissions or approvals in the future, but fail to receive or maintain such filings, permissions or approvals, we may face sanctions by the CSRC, the Cyberspace Administration of China (the “CAC”) or other PRC regulatory agencies. In addition, rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our ability to list on stock exchanges outside of China or offer our securities to foreign investors or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our securities. See also “Item 3 Key Information—3.D.Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC—We may be required to obtain approval or complete filing or other requirements of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities in connection with our issuances of securities overseas, and, if required, we cannot predict whether we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such governmental procedure.”

Transfer of Funds and Other Assets

Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to remit funds to Adagene Suzhou through loans, capital contributions or as payment of considerations for the services rendered. In 2021, 2022 and 2023, Adagene Inc. made payments of US$30.0 million, US$24.5 million and US$20.5 million, respectively, in cash to Adagene Suzhou as consideration for providing services associated with research and development activities related to those intellectual properties owned by Adagene Inc. There were no intercompany loans provided by Adagene Inc. to Adagene Suzhou during the years ended and as of December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023. In addition, as advised by our PRC legal counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng, Adagene Suzhou is able to mark up and charge to Adagene Inc., its ultimate parent, for providing services associated with research and development activities related to those intellectual properties owned by Adagene Inc. and Adagene Inc. is able to make cash payments to Adagene Suzhou for considerations of such services. In the future, cash proceeds raised from overseas financing activities, including this offering, may be transferred by Adagene Inc., the Cayman holding company, (i) through Adagene (Hong Kong) Limited, our Hong Kong subsidiary, to Adagene Suzhou, our PRC subsidiary, and (ii) to Adagene Incorporated, our U.S. subsidiary, via capital contribution, shareholder loans or consideration for the services rendered, as the case may be.

Other than the above disclosed transfer of funds, we did not transfer any type of assets between Adagene Suzhou and other Adagene subsidiaries in 2021, 2022 and 2023.

85

Restrictions on Foreign Exchange and the Ability to Transfer Cash between Entities, Across Borders and to U.S. Investors

If we become profitable, Adagene Inc.’s ability to pay dividends, if any, to the shareholders and ADS investors and to service any debt it may incur will depend upon dividends paid by our PRC and U.S. subsidiaries. Under the PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiary is subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets offshore to Adagene Inc. In particular, under the current effective PRC laws and regulations, dividends may be paid only out of distributable profits. Distributable profits are the net profit as determined under PRC GAAP, less any recovery of accumulated losses and appropriations to statutory and other reserves required to be made. Our PRC subsidiary shall appropriate 10% of the net profits as reported in its respective statutory financial statements (after offsetting any prior year’s losses) to the statutory surplus reserves until such reserves have reached 50% of its respective registered capital. In addition, the EIT Law and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated. See “Item 3.D.Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in the PRC—We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiary to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiary to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.” Further, if any of our subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may also restrict its ability to pay dividends ultimately to Adagene Inc. As a result, our PRC subsidiary may not have sufficient, or any, distributable profits to pay dividends to us in the near future.

Furthermore, if certain procedural requirements are satisfied, the payment of current account items, including profit distributions and trade and service related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) or its local branches. However, where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies, approval from or registration with competent government authorities or its authorized banks is required. The PRC government may take measures from time to time to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account or capital account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our offshore intermediary holding companies or ultimate parent company, and therefore, our shareholders or investors in our ADSs. Further, we cannot assure you that new regulations or policies will not be promulgated in the future, which may further restrict the remittance of RMB into or out of the PRC. We cannot assure you, in light of the restrictions in place, or any amendment to be made from time to time, that our current or future PRC subsidiaries will be able to satisfy their respective payment obligations that are denominated in foreign currencies, including the remittance of dividends outside of the PRC. See “Item 4 Information on the Company—PRC Regulation —Regulations on Foreign Exchange and Dividend Distribution” for detailed discussion.

For PRC and United States federal income tax consideration of an investment in the ADSs, see “Item 10. Additional Information—10.E. Taxation.”

4.B. Business Overview

OVERVIEW

We are a platform-driven, clinical-stage biotechnology company transforming the discovery and development of novel antibody-based cancer immunotherapies. We leverage computational biology to design and develop novel antibodies that address unmet patient needs. Powered by our proprietary Dynamic Precision Library (DPL) platform, which fuels our NEObody™, SAFEbody®, and POWERbody™ technologies, we are developing a highly differentiated pipeline of novel immunotherapies. Our lead candidate is an anti-CTLA-4 SAFEbody, ADG126 (muzastotug), which is currently in phase 1b/2 development, initially focused on metastatic microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC). We also have a robust pipeline of earlier stage candidates that apply our NEObody and SAFEbody technologies to targets associated with toxicity challenges, including modalities with potent efficacy features, such as Fc-empowered antibodies (e.g., IgG1 isotype and its enhanced version) and bi/multispecific T-cell engagers. Additionally, we have forged strategic collaborations with reputable global partners that leverage our SAFEbody technology in multiple approaches at the vanguard of science.

86

We aim to push the boundaries of antibody discovery and engineering through the precise design, construction, and selection of antibody product candidates intractable to traditional antibody technology. We have pioneered a dynamic antibody technology interface to harness the conformational diversity of antibodies, which enlarges epitope sampling of a given drug target for differentiated therapeutic antibody development. Additionally, we have proprietary precision masking technology and specialized antibody engineering capabilities which enable us to design therapeutics with unique features.

Our DPL fuels three antibody technology platforms, which can be used alone or together to create novel, differentiated antibody-based therapeutic candidates:

The NEObody technology platform is a fully synthetic phage display and yeast display-based antibody discovery technology, which we believe is differentiated from other synthetic antibody technologies through its innovative designs and precise constructions. NEObody technology enables the generation of antibodies designed with dynamic binding sites that adapt kinetically to unique epitopes, triggering a novel MOA. The species cross-reactive antibodies generated by NEObody technology not only have the potential to reveal new biological functions of the targets, but also facilitate preclinical studies using various immune system intact animal models, resulting in high fidelity translation from preclinical to clinical studies. We refer to antibodies generated by our NEObody technology as NEObodies.
The SAFEbody technology platform is designed to mask an antibody binding interface with a masking motif, which then prevents an antibody from binding to its target in healthy tissues, minimizing on target, off tumor toxicities. The masking motif is designed to activate, or unmask, the antibody to allow binding in the tumor microenvironment, or TME, where certain activation conditions such as a protease is upregulated as compared to healthy tissues, allowing the antibody to bind to its target for tumor killing. Our SAFEbody enabled therapeutic candidates are therefore designed to be activated predominantly in the TME while remaining largely in an inactive state in healthy tissues. Our SAFEbody technology can be applied to mask the binding sites of any antibodies including but not limited to NEObodies. We refer to such masked antibodies as SAFEbodies. Notably, SAFEbody technology can be applied to our NEObodies, such as what we did with ADG116 to potentially achieve an increased therapeutic index with ADG126.
The POWERbody technology platform enables the creation of new versions of antibodies, which may be bi/multi-specific T-cell engagers, or TCEs, or Fc-enhanced antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, or ADCs, or antibodies that are designed to reach beyond the therapeutic potency of traditional monospecific antibodies. Our POWERbody candidates incorporate SAFEbody precision masking technology and are designed to improve antitumor activity while maintaining the enhanced safety profile for potentially safe and durable immunotherapies.

These proprietary technology platforms allow us to engineer and select species cross-reactive antibodies designed to dynamically adapt to unique and evolutionally conserved epitopes. We believe that comprehensive in vivo preclinical evaluations using these species cross-reactive antibodies are the key to assess the efficacy and safety potential of tailor-made antibody candidates before progressing them into lengthy and costly clinical trials. Our NEObody, SAFEbody and POWERbody technology platforms are all designed to facilitate favorable druggability, manageable CMC attributes, and reduced immunogenicity.

Our Robust, Transformative Pipeline

By leveraging our proprietary DPL and three platform technologies, we have developed a robust pipeline of innovative product candidates in various stages of development, including our lead candidate, ADG126 SAFEbody which is currently in phase 1b/2 clinical development.

ADG126 is a fully human anti-CTLA-4 SAFEbody, which applies SAFEbody precision masking technology to its parental unmasked version, ADG116, to further enhance safety and efficacy profiles by masking the antibody binding site which is then conditionally activated in the TME to limit on target, off tumor toxicity. ADG126 targets a unique epitope of CTLA-4 and is designed to provide an enhanced therapeutic window and optimize efficacy by enabling higher, more frequent and repeated doses of anti-CTLA-4 therapy with constant target engagement that may unlock the full potential of CTLA-4 as a proven target for strong ADCC-mediated Treg depletion in the TME. ADG126 has shown a potential best-in-class profile in clinic, which is consistent with and enabled by the broad species cross-reactivity of ADG126 for extensive preclinical evaluation from mouse, rats and monkeys, including GLP toxicology data. ADG126 is currently in phase 1b/2 evaluation, with a focus on phase 2 dose expansion in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced/metastatic MSS CRC.

87

Earlier stage candidates that apply our SAFEbody precision masking technology include ADG206, a masked, Fc-enhanced anti-CD137 agonistic POWERbody. ADG206 incorporates SAFEbody precision masking technology and is designed to achieve improved safety and efficacy. ADG206 has demonstrated enhanced crosslinking by FcgRIIb in vitro upon activation and antitumor activity in vivo, while the SAFEbody masking technology limits on-target off-tumor toxicities by preferential activation in the TME. Preclinical data demonstrated that ADG206 was well tolerated, with normal pharmacokinetic properties and minimal activation in circulation. It also had robust anti-tumor activity as a single agent in multiple tumor models, with 4-fold stronger anti-CD137 agonistic activity of its activated form than a benchmark antibody (urelumab analog). ADG206 is currently in Phase 1 evaluation.

Additionally, we have two IND-ready preclinical programs (ADG153, a masked, IgG1 anti-CD47 SAFEbody, and ADG138, a novel HER2xCD3 POWERbody bispecific TCE that is masked on both arms), as well as another preclinical program (ADG152, a CD20xCD3 POWERbody with masking on the CD3 arm) in the IND-enabling phase. We are developing anti-CD28 bispecific POWERbody TCEs enabled by our suite of antibody platform technologies. We have previously published preclinical data showing the scientific rationale for these differentiated programs. See “—IND-Ready Candidates & Preclinical Pipeline”.

We also have two clinical-stage NEObody product candidates, ADG116 and ADG106, for which we have conducted previous clinical studies that demonstrate the potential clinical benefits of targeting a unique epitope with our NEObody platform. Both of these candidates are currently in phase 1b/2 evaluation.

Further, we have out-licensed the Greater China rights of ADG104, an anti-PD-L1 mAb currently in Phase 2 clinical development, to Sanjin, and the Greater China rights of ADG125, a novel anti-CSF-1R mAb in Phase 1 development, to Dragon Boat Biopharmaceuticals. We have the right to apply for the patents derived from our core and key technologies pertaining to ADG104 and ADG125 in the rest of the world, where we retain a majority of the economic benefits.

Our Global Partnerships and Collaborations

We have a successful track record of collaborations and partnerships with global biopharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. So far, we have established multiple collaborations and we continue to seek partnership opportunities where we can leverage our proprietary technology platform to develop novel antibodies to address unmet medical needs.

We enter into collaborations with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to leverage the power of our technology platforms, creating a network of potential future revenue streams that complement future long-term value from our wholly-owned pipeline. These collaborations include both technology licensing agreements and outlicensing of product candidates, both of which allow us to retain significant future participation in product sales through royalties paid on net sales. In the future, we may also enter into strategic collaborations which may involve joint development for our preclinical and/or clinical assets to both accelerate the path to clinic and drive global commercialization.

Our technology licensing agreements with Sanofi and Exelixis focus on developing antibody-based therapeutics against tumor targets using our SAFEbody technology. We have also out-licensed the Greater China rights for two antibody candidates to Sanjin and its affiliates. To further advance our pipeline, we have also put in place various clinical collaborations, including an agreement with Roche who is sponsoring and conducting a triple combination trial with ADG126, atezolizumab and bevacizumab in first-line hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), clinical collaborations and supply agreements with Merck who will provide pembrolizumab for certain of our combination clinical trials, and an agreement with research organizations in Singapore for investigator-initiated trials of our ADG106 clinical candidate in combination settings. See “—Clinical Collaboration Agreements”.

Our collaborations empower our growth by generating cash flow and revenues that partially offset expenditures on our internal research and development programs, expand our knowledge base regarding antibody technology across multiple targets and antibodies provided by our partners, and provide us with future joint development opportunities.

OUR CLINICAL PIPELINE

By leveraging our proprietary DPL and three platform technologies, we have developed a robust pipeline of innovative product candidates in various stages of clinical evaluation, while we focus on our lead candidate, ADG126. This wholly-owned, differentiated clinical pipeline consists of two anti-CTLA-4 clinical candidates, ADG126 SAFEbody (with masking) and its activated form, ADG116 NEObody, as well as two anti-CD137 candidates, ADG206 POWERbody (Fc-enhanced with masking) and ADG106 NEObody. We also have two IND-ready preclinical candidates and additional preclinical/discovery candidates.

88

Our Approach to Anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) Therapy

The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized cancer immunotherapy in the past decade. In fact, recent trials have shown that immunotherapy can induce durable and extensive tumor regression, potentially converting previously fatal diseases into chronic, manageable diseases for certain patients.

Anti-CTLA-4 therapy is one of the first immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments to demonstrate definite clinical benefit through direct T-cell activation. Ipilimumab (Yervoy®) was the first approved immune checkpoint inhibitor by the FDA in 2011 for the treatment of advanced melanoma. This was followed by FDA approval in 2022 of tremelimumab (Imjudo®) in combination with anti-PD-L1 for treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after more than ten years, while more than ten anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies and their combinations were approved globally with comparable safety and efficacy profiles, highlighting the unique challenge to unleashing the full therapeutic potential for anti-CTLA-4 therapies. Indeed, anti-CTLA-4 therapies approved or in clinical development show a strong dose-dependent toxicity and efficacy, both alone and in combination with anti-PD-1/L1, limiting their acceptance in clinical practice.

The following chart demonstrates the dose-dependent toxicities with ipilimumab monotherapy treatment in melanoma, limiting its dosing and therefore efficacy:

Graphic

* Reference: Ascierto PA, et al. J Immunother Cancer 2020;8:e000391. doi:10.1136/jitc-2019-000391

The following chart shows that ipilimumab has a strong dose-dependent toxicity and efficacy in the combination setting with anti-PD-1, as shown for second-line HCC:

Ipilimumab: Combination Data in HCC Highlight

Dose Dependent Challenge of Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy

Graphic

89

For HCC, approved dose level is Nivo 1mg/kg+ Ipi 3mg/kg; Nivo + 4 doses of Ipi; patient population is previously treated with sorafenib (2L); dosing regimens Q3W for 4 doses.

Additionally, ipilimumab’s function in blocking CTLA-4 via its binding arms or in depleting CTLA-4 expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) intratumorally requires extremely high concentrations which remain limited by its toxicity via systemic delivery, despite the ability to achieve such high concentrations when delivered intratumorally. Thus, development of next generation anti-CTLA-4 therapies with an improved safety profile and antitumor efficacy through enhanced CTLA-4 blockage and/or Treg depletion are urgently needed to improve upon existing anti-CTLA-4 therapies, as well as open the new doors to treat cold tumors such as MSS-CRC. Additionally, addressing the dose-dependent toxicities of anti-CTLA-4 therapy may enable more front-line combinations, fully unlocking the potential of anti-CTLA-4 as a cornerstone of cancer care.

Adagene’s innovative view of anti-CTLA-4 therapy focuses on the fundamental biology of CTLA-4 and its constitutive expression on Tregs within the TME. Research shown below demonstrates that CTLA-4 is highly expressed within the Tregs in the tumor both in mice and humans across tumor types, with up to five times higher of CTLA-4 on the Tregs in the tumor versus CTLA-4 expression on CD4+ T effector and CD8+ T cells in the tumor. Therefore, we believe that CTLA-4 mediated Treg depletion when combined with anti-PD-1 therapy must occur within the TME to stimulate synergy of the combined pathways.

CTLA-4 is Constitutively and Highly Expressed in Tumor Tregs in Both Mouse and Human

Graphic

90

Adagene’s View of Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy:

Synergy to Combine CTLA-4-Mediated Treg Depletion with Teff via PD-1

Graphic

* References: Leach, DR, Krummel, MF, Allison, JP. et al. Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade. Science. 1996;271:1734-6; Marabelle, A. et al. Depleting tumor-specific Tregs at a single site eradicates disseminated tumors. J. Clin.Invest. 2013; 123: 2447-2463; Selby, M.J. et al. Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies of IgG2a Isotype Enhance Antitumor Activity through Reduction of Intratumoral Regulatory T Cells. Cancer Immunol. 2013;RES.1:32-42 ; Simpson, T.R. et al. Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti–CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma. J.Exp.Med. 2013;210:1695-710; Bulliard, Y. et al. Activating Fc receptors contribute to the antitumor activities of immunoregulatory receptor-targeting antibodies. J.Exp.Med. 2013;210:1685-93; Sharma, A. et al. Anti-CTLA-4 Immunotherapy Does Not Deplete FOXP3þ Regulatory T Cells (Tregs) in Human Cancers. Clin.Cancer.Res. 2019:25(4):1233-1238; Sanmamed, F and Chen, L. Leading edge perspective a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy: from enhancement to normalization. Cell. 2019;176(3):677; Marangoni F, Zhakyp A, Corsini M, et al. Expansion of tumor-associated Treg cells upon disruption of a CTLA-4-dependent feedback loop[J]. Cell. 2021;184(15):3998-4015.

The longstanding toxicity challenges of currently available therapies and this foundational thesis is why we have designed our anti-CTLA-4 candidates to enhance the therapeutic index enabling higher, more frequent and repeat doses of anti-CTLA-4 therapy within the TME. While leveraging our technology platforms, we are taking anti-CTLA-4 therapy to a new level by targeting a unique epitope (NEObody) combined with SAFEbody precision masking technology to reach tumor tissues with the best therapeutic index and unleash the therapeutic potential of anti-CTLA-4 therapy.

ADG126 SAFEbody: A Potential Best-in-Class Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy

Our most advanced SAFEbody program, ADG126, is a masked fully-human anti-CTLA-4 mAb engineered to address the safety concerns associated with existing CTLA-4 therapeutics, while maintaining potency when locally activated in the TME. It is currently under Phase 1b/2 clinical evaluation in multiple trials in the U.S., China and APAC, both as monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy.

ADG126 is designed to address the toxicity issues of the approved CTLA-4 immuno-oncology therapy and achieve enhance anti-tumor efficacy to expand the potential of CTLA-4 as a target for the treatment of cancer. It applies our proprietary SAFEbody technology to a parental antibody, ADG116, enabling ADG126 to be activated primarily in tumor tissues rather than healthy tissues, minimizing the risk of on-target, off-tumor toxicities.

91

In September 2022, we presented the first clinical results from our monotherapy evaluation in a poster presentation at the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) annual congress. The data showed a best-in-class safety profile for ADG126 with repeat dosing and anti-tumor activity observed in cold tumors with steady accumulation of activated ADG126. During 2022, we also continued to advance global dose escalation trials of ADG126 in combination with anti-PD-1 therapies. In January 2023, we announced interim findings from these trials showing the combination safety profile and confirmed clinical responses with ADG126 up to 10 mg/kg with repeat cycles in combination with anti-PD-1 from the dose escalation portion of our ongoing phase 1b/2 studies.

Detailed dose escalation results from these trials of ADG126 in combination with either toripalimab or pembrolizumab were later presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting in April 2023, along with updated findings from our ongoing monotherapy evaluation. Subsequently, in January 2024 at the ASCO Gastrointestinal (GI) Symposium 2024, we presented detailed results from both the ADG126/pembrolizumab combination dose escalation and dose expansion cohorts in MSS CRC, which are summarized below. See “—Summary of Combination Clinical Studies & Results.

In totality, our clinical data support best-in-class safety and differentiated efficacy profiles for ADG126 particularly in combination with anti-PD-1, overcoming the safety challenges of anti-CTLA-4 therapy to become a cornerstone of cancer care by its T cell priming and strong Treg depletion in the TME.

Summary of Monotherapy Clinical Studies & Results

In March 2021, we initiated a Phase 1 trial of ADG126 (ADG126-1001) as monotherapy to evaluate safety and determine a RP2D in patients with advance metastatic tumors, using a traditional “3+3” dose escalation design. A secondary objective of the trial is to evaluate preliminary efficacy based upon anti-tumor activity both as monotherapy and in combination regimens.

In October 2021, we initiated a second monotherapy trial of ADG126 following NMPA approval to start an ADG126 Phase 1 trial in China (ADG126-1002), designed to further support our global clinical development program and pave the way for combination studies of ADG126 in China.

During 2022, we completed monotherapy dose escalation of ADG126 up to 20 mg/kg in both trials, and we initiated monotherapy dose expansion cohorts at 10 mg/kg in the ADG126-1001 trial. Patients received continuous dosing, and we observed favorable pharmacokinetic activity compared to our unmasked anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ADG116. ADG126 has shown a differentiated, best-in-class safety profile in clinic, consistent with preclinical evaluation enabled by the broad species cross-reactivity of ADG126, including GLP toxicology data.

In September 2022 and April 2023, we presented these clinical results from our ADG126 monotherapy evaluation at the ESMO and AACR annual meetings, respectively. The presentation at AACR included a larger number of patients (N=30) and further reinforced the compelling, best-in-class safety profile at dosing levels up to 20 mg/kg in a heavily pretreated patient population (majority received ≥3 prior lines of therapy) once every three weeks with repeat dosing. No Grade 3 or higher TRAEs were reported.

Monotherapy data also showed the disease control rate was 37% among 27 evaluable patients across dose levels. Prolonged stable disease (SD) was observed in five patients, including an ovarian cancer patient treated at 1 mg/kg with tumor shrinkage (22% reduction in sum of target lesions) and SD observed after 22 cycles. Previously, this patient had surgery and five prior lines of systemic therapies. Additionally, tumor shrinkage (12% reduction in sum of target lesions) was observed in a non-small cell lung cancer patient (NSCLC) who received 14 cycles of ADG126 at 20 mg/kg. Previously, this patient was treated with pembrolizumab and docetaxel.

In 2024, we initiated dosing of a small number of patients with advanced/metastatic cancers at 30 mg/kg ADG126 monotherapy Q3W in China to define the potential maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ADG126 monotherapy. This evaluation will help us to further understand the dosing and safety profile of ADG126, supporting our goal to transform CTLA-4 therapy with enhanced safety and efficacy.

92

Further, our monotherapy evaluation of ADG126 has increased our understanding of its MOA and our masking technology in clinic. For example, at ESMO 2022, we reported that ADG126 plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) were approximately linear and activated ADG126 accumulated steadily during repeat dosing across different dose levels. This analysis suggests prolonged exposures of activated ADG126 in the tumor microenvironment (TME), with cleaved ADG126 on average accumulating ≥3-fold during repeat dosing, associated with the longer half-life of total ADG126 and its preferential accumulation in TME compared with its parental antibody.

Analysis of a clinical sample from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient previously treated with atezolizumab and bevacizumab and then followed by lenvatinib demonstrated about nine-fold Teff/Treg improved ratio after dosing relative to before dosing due to reduction in Tregs and improvement in T effector cells. These data support the mechanism of action for ADG126 as shown below in data presented at AACR 2023:

ADG126 Monotherapy Tumor Biopsy: Case Study Shows Increased Teff / Treg with Treg Depletion in TME of an HCC Patient who Progressed on Atezolizumab + Bevacizumab*

Graphic

* Data from paired tumor biopsies were collected before and after treatment. Multiplex immunofluorescence analysis was performed by Dr. Joe Yeong’s lab at IMCB, A*STAR. Images were analyzed using HALO. Tregs were defined as Foxp3+ CD8- cells. Teff cells were defined as CD8+ T cells.

Summary of Combination Clinical Studies & Results

Based on the differentiated safety profile of ADG126 as monotherapy, we initiated phase 1b/2 combination trials for ADG126 with two different anti-PD-1 therapies. In March 2022, we initiated a new Phase 1b/2 trial to evaluate ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab (ADG126-P001/KEYNOTE-C98) in a trial at multiple sites in the U.S. and APAC. In parallel, as part of the ongoing ADG126-1001 trial, a combination dose escalation was initiated to evaluate ADG126 with toripalimab.

In April 2023, we presented interim data from the dose escalation portion of these studies of ADG126 in combination with anti-PD-1 treatments at AACR. The results reinforced the best-in-class safety profile of ADG126 at doses from 6 mg/kg up to 10 mg/kg, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed with repeat cycles.

At AACR 2023, the early efficacy profile of ADG126 was also reported in these heavily pre-treated patient groups, with clinical responses and tumor shrinkage observed during combination dose escalation. Data presented in two poster presentations included three confirmed partial responses and multiple cases of prolonged SD with tumor shrinkage in patients who received ADG126 plus anti-PD-1 therapies. Partial responses were reported in two patients with anal and penile squamous cell carcinoma who received ADG126 plus toripalimab; the patients experienced 36% and 72% reductions in sum of target lesions, respectively. A third partial response was reported in a patient with metastatic endometrial cancer (MSI-H) who received ADG126 plus pembrolizumab and experienced a 37% reduction in target lesions. Following AACR, in our 20-F Annual Report for 2022, we reported a fourth partial response in an immunotherapy-experienced cervical cancer patient who had been treated with two lines of therapy and had progressed after nine cycles of pembrolizumab. The patient experienced no Grade 3 or higher TRAEs and an initial 30% tumor reduction, followed by a sustained and deepening tumor response. All four patients were treated at the 10 mg/kg dose administered every three weeks (Q3W).

93

Of particular note, our presentations at AACR also included two cases of significant tumor shrinkage (20% reduction and higher in target lesions) observed in MSS CRC patients with liver metastasis who received ADG126 plus toripalimab. This aligns with anti-tumor activity in MSS CRC shown with ADG116 NEObody in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy showing reductions in CEA levels and supported our strategy to advance ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab to dose expansion cohorts in patients with MSS CRC who were free from active liver metastases.

During 2023, we advanced ADG126 and pembrolizumab in phase 1b/2 dose expansion cohorts in MSS CRC. We enrolled patients in three different dosing regimens: ADG126 6 mg/kg every six weeks (Q6W), ADG126 10 mg/kg Q6W and ADG126 10 mg/kg every three weeks (Q3W) to evaluate our thesis that higher, more frequent and repeated doses of anti-CTLA-4 therapy can enhance efficacy. Detailed results from both dose escalation and dose expansion cohorts in the ongoing trial of ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab (200 mg/Q3W) were later presented at the ASCO GI Symposium 2024 with a data cutoff of November 30, 2023.

The ASCO GI 2024 data summarized results in heavily pre-treated advanced/metastatic patients (N=46) showing limited dose-dependent toxicities observed with the combination. Grade 3 TRAEs occurred in 5/46 patients (10.8%), with no Grade 4 or 5 TRAEs and a discontinuation rate of 6.5% (3/46). The following chart summarizes the toxicities observed for each of the three combination dosing regimens that were evaluated, further reinforcing the potential best-in-class safety profile of ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab.

Combination Safety: ADG126 in Combination with Pembrolizumab is Comparable to Pembrolizumab Alone (N=46)

Graphic

We also observed the efficacy profile at the 10 mg/kg Q3W regimen, which triggered expansion cohorts at this dosing regimen. Specifically, two confirmed PRs were reported among the three patients treated with ADG126 10 mg/kg Q3W combination regimen. One of the patients had endometrial cancer and the other had PD-1 refractory cervical cancer, which was the case first reported in April 2023 with additional follow up. Both confirmed PRs were sustained after more than 55 weeks (over 14 cycles) of treatment, as of the ASCO GI data cut off.

94

We believe the robust safety profile of our masked anti-CTLA-4 SAFEbody ADG126 enables continuous dosing in combination with anti-PD-1 to drive the efficacy in patients with cold tumors such as MSS CRC, and in patients with PD-L1 low expressing or PD-1 resistant warm tumors. For example, the notable case in cervical cancer was the first observed clinical response in a PD-1 refractory patient, reflecting the potential of ADG126 treatment in patients who are PD-1 experienced or have low PD-L1 expression. We later reported details of this case in a SITC-hosted webinar in 2023, which showed that the patient experienced no Grade 3 or higher TRAEs, and had a sustained reduction in target lesions with treatment of ADG126 (10 mg/kg Q3W) and pembrolizumab (200 mg Q3W). Further, PK data supported by modeling correlated with the response and reinforced the ADG126 mechanism, as well as the selection of 10 mg/kg dosing in expansion cohorts for MSS CRC. Those findings were presented in a poster at SITC 2023 as shown below:

Graphic

Our poster at ASCO GI 2024 also reported results of the subsequent dose expansion in patients MSS CRC who were free of active liver metastases which were not visible at baseline. We reported data in 22 efficacy evaluable patients who received either 10 mg/kg Q6W (n=10) or 10 mg/kg Q3W (n=12). We also stratified the findings by peritoneal metastases, which is an indicator of rapidly progressing disease. At the active, potent dose of 10 mg/kg Q3W, we observed two confirmed PRs in 12 evaluable patients resulting in a 17% overall response rate, or a 22% response rate in the subset of nine of these patients without peritoneal or liver metastases. An additional seven of these nine patients experienced SD for an overall disease control rate of 100% (2 PRs and 7 SD). These results are shown in the swimmer and spider plots below.

95

Clinical Efficacy of Patients with MSS CRC (Free of Liver Mets) in Dose Expansion

Graphic

Of particular interest was the confirmed PR in a patient who presented initially without active liver metastases but later experienced tumor shrinkage in new liver lesions, suggesting the potency of the ADG126 and pembrolizumab combination once the cleaved ADG126 in steady state in TME is achieved with repeat cycles of therapy. The patient’s response is shown below.

ADG126 10 mpk Q3W + Pembro 3L MSS CRC Patient: Case Study of Confirmed PR and Reduced Liver Lesions

Graphic

We also presented a preliminary analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) in those MSS CRC patients free of liver and peritoneal metastasis; a median PFS of seven months was observed in those treated with ADG126 10 mg/kg at two dosing frequencies pooled together [every three weeks (n=9) and every six weeks (n=6)]. The durable clinical activity of ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab continues to be evaluated as a larger cohort of subjects becomes evaluable at the 10 mg/kg Q3W dose level.

Following ASCO GI, we announced further expansion and progress in the combination trial of ADG126 and pembrolizumab, which is expected to increase the ongoing phase 2 dose expansion in MSS CRC to over 50 patients. This included our announcement that we completed enrollment of 12 additional patients in the second stage of the Simon’s 2-stage design in the ongoing phase 2 dose expansion cohort evaluating ADG126 10 mg/kg Q3W in combination with pembrolizumab in MSS CRC. The Part 2 results will supplement data from Part 1 of the dose expansion in MSS CRC that was recently presented at the 2024 ASCO GI Symposium.

96

Given the robust safety profile of ADG126 at higher doses, we also initiated evaluation of 20 mg/kg loading doses in combination with pembrolizumab designed to unleash efficacy by quickly reaching the steady state of cleaved ADG126 and potentially controlling the initial disease progression, and therefore, engaging the CTLA-4 target in the TME for improved ORR, PFS and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced/metastatic cancer. Following the ongoing safety evaluation, we plan to study efficacy of the loading doses followed by a maintenance regimen of ADG126 10 mg/kg Q3W in combination with pembrolizumab. We plan dose expansion with this regimen in patients with MSS CRC in the US and Asia Pacific, as part of our strategy to explore enhanced efficacy given the superior therapeutic index of ADG126.

Finally, we announced receiving clearance from China’s Center for Drug Evaluation (CDE) to initiate clinical evaluation of ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab in China. This will enable us to broaden dose expansion cohorts for MSS CRC at selected dosing regimens, and potentially in other tumor types.

Clinical Development Status

Our clinical development of ADG126 is focused on combination evaluation with anti-PD-1 therapy, including an ongoing phase 1b/2 trial of ADG126 in combination with pembrolizumab dose expansion cohorts in patients with cohorts in advanced/metastatic MSS CRC evaluating doses of 10 mg/kg Q3W and evaluating 20 mg/kg loading doses.

ADG126 Background: Mechanism of Action & Preclinical Profile

ADG126 is a fully human anti-CTLA-4 mAb. The masking moiety in ADG126 functions to block the interaction between ADG126 and its target CTLA-4 protein. Once ADG126 is attracted and enters the tumor tissue with constitutively over expressed CTLA-4 on Treg cells in TME, proteases overexpressed in the TME cleave off the masking moiety, and the antibody is then activated, binding to CTLA-4 and inhibiting its function. ADG126 is locally activated specifically in the TME, rather than systemically, to stimulate antitumor immune response.

In preclinical studies, we observed that ADG126 had an enhanced therapeutic window and improved safety features. Furthermore, in PD studies of ADG126, it was observed that while the CTLA-4 binding affinity was masked in an intact ADG126 antibody, once the masking peptide was cleaved off of ADG126, its high binding affinity to CTLA-4 was restored. In preclinical studies, ADG126 was tolerated at doses of up to 200 mg/kg in nonhuman primate models. We believe the encouraging preclinical tolerability of ADG126 suggests its potential in combination with other immunotherapies such as an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody or an anti-CD137 antibody.

We believe that activated ADG126 potentiates T-cell immune response by blocking the inhibitory effect of CTLA-4. ADG126/ADG116 is designed to target CTLA-4 a unique and conserved epitope with species cross-reactivity for translational fidelity.

Graphic

97

Moreover, ADG126 has been observed in preclinical animal studies to mediate effector functions to eliminate highly upregulated CTLA-4 expressing cells, particularly regulatory T-cells in the TME, primarily through its strong ADCC. These actions of ADG126 could lead to enhanced activation and proliferation of tumor infiltrating T-effector cells and reduced T-regulatory cell function, which may contribute to a general increase in T-cell responsiveness, including an enhanced antitumor immune response. The below diagram illustrates the MOA of activated ADG126.

Preclinical Pharmacology: We observed in PD studies that ADG126, in its intact SAFEbody form, bound weakly to CTLA-4. However, once the proteases cleaved off the masking peptide, ADG126 was activated and bound at a high affinity to human, cynomolgus monkey and mouse CTLA-4, as shown in the figures below. Activated ADG126 was observed to lead to the release of CD80/CD86 ligands from CTLA-4 sequestration, and stimulation of CD28 signaling to boost T-cell activity. It also targets regulatory T-cells for depletion within the TME by means of ADCC, to mediate antitumor T-cell immunity.

Graphic

98

We evaluated the in vivo antitumor efficacy of ADG126 in syngeneic mouse tumor models. As shown in the figures below, in these studies, ADG126 was observed to inhibit tumor growth in different mouse tumor models as a monotherapy.

Graphic

As shown in the figure below, ADG126 synergized with an anti-PD-1 antibody to elicit a stronger anti-tumor response than ADG126 or the anti-PD-1 antibody alone in a Lewis lung cancer model.

Graphic

99

ADG126 treatment was observed to specifically deplete regulatory T-cells in the tumor, but not in peripheral tissues. The following figures illustrate the reduction of CTLA-4 expression in infiltrating lymphocytes, or TILs (see figure below on the left) and regulatory T-cell depletion (see figure below on the right) by ADG126 in CT26 tumor model.

Graphic

Note: Treg refers to regulatory T-cells

Preclinical Toxicology: We performed preclinical toxicology studies designed to assess the toxicity features of ADG126. We selected cynomolgus monkeys and mice as toxicology species for animal toxicity evaluation. No abnormal findings attributable to ADG126 were observed. We utilized a nonobese diabetic mouse model to determine percentage of survival with AD126 treatment. All mice survived after six treatments of ADG126 at 50 mg/kg.

In a four-week GLP repeat-dose toxicology studies, intravenous infusion of ADG126 to cynomolgus monkeys at 5, 30, or 200 mg/kg/dose once weekly for five doses followed by a 28-day recovery period was well-tolerated. Adverse, but reversible, microscopic findings of minimal to moderate mixed perivascular infiltrates were observed at 200 mg/kg in both sexes in the kidney, liver, pancreas, epididymis, skin, and were observed in the ovaries in females, and the connective tissue associated with the mesenteric lymph node and thyroid gland. The NOAEL was considered to be 30 mg/kg/dose and the highest non-severely toxic dose was considered to be 200 mg/kg/dose.

ADG116 NEObody: A Unique Entry Point for Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy

ADG116 is a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody generated using our NEObody technology, designed to target a unique epitope of CTLA-4, to enhance the efficacy profile and to address both the toxicity and efficacy concerns associated with existing CTLA-4 therapeutics. We have conducted Phase 1b/2 clinical trials of ADG116 in the U.S., China and Asia Pacific (APAC), both as monotherapy and in combination with other therapies to demonstrate the differentiated safety and efficacy profile of ADG116 and to support our evaluation of our anti-CTLA-4 ADG126 SAFEbody, for which ADG116 is the parental antibody.

Although ADG116 and ipilimumab bind to human CTLA-4 with comparable affinity, ADG116 features a softer CTLA-4 ligand blocking and stronger ADCC for depleting regulatory T-cells than ipilimumab. In a head-to-head in vivo efficacy study, ADG116 was observed to have a five-fold greater anti-tumor activity in comparison with ipilimumab. In addition, ADG116 was observed to induce antitumor responses concomitant with reduced immunosuppressive regulatory T-cell and enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CD8+ T-cells) activities in the TME.

We previously evaluated ADG116 monotherapy in doses up to 15 mg/kg with repeat dosing and conducted dose escalation in combination with anti-PD-1 in a global clinical trial (ADG116-1003) at sites in the U.S., Australia, Singapore and South Korea. The trial was designed to evaluate safety and determine a recommended Phase 2 dose, or RP2D, in patients with advance metastatic tumors. A secondary objective of the trial was to evaluate preliminary efficacy based upon anti-tumor activity both as monotherapy and in combination regimens, including with the anti-PD-1 therapy, toripalimab. In November 2021, we initiated a separate clinical trial of ADG116 in combination with pembrolizumab (ADG116-P001 / KEYNOTE-C97). Data from both of these phase 1b/2 studies were presented in November 2022 at the annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2022).

100

Summary of Clinical Studies & Results

We reported comprehensive safety and interim efficacy data from phase 1b/2 monotherapy and combination clinical studies of ADG116 in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors in two poster presentations at SITC 2022.

ADG116 monotherapy demonstrated a favorable safety profile at doses up to 15 mg/kg (N=59) and an overall response rate (ORR) of 13% (3/23 evaluable) in patients dosed at 10 or 15 mg/kg, including confirmed and durable partial responses in multiple tumor types. Results showed ADG116 was well tolerated across dose levels with repeat dosing. Efficacy data from the monotherapy arm in these heavily pre-treated patients with difficult-to-treat tumors were also reported at SITC 2022 and in subsequent company updates during 2023, with clinical responses observed in patients with multiple tumor types at doses of 10 mg/kg or higher. These responses reinforced the safety and efficacy profiles of ADG116 with repeat dosing, including: a partial response observed in a patient with renal cell carcinoma who progressed after two prior lines of therapy, including an anti-PD-L1 inhibitor; a partial response observed after two cycles of treatment in a Kaposi’s sarcoma patient; and a third partial response in a patient with MSI-H endometrial cancer.

In parallel to the monotherapy evaluation, we conducted dose escalation cohorts for ADG116 in combination with two anti-PD-1 therapies in the ADG116-1003 (toripalimab) and ADG116-P001 (pembrolizumab) trials. Data from these trials were initially presented at SITC 2022 demonstrating the manageable safety profile and early efficacy in heavily pre-treated patients with difficult-to-treat tumors:

-

In ADG116-1003, ADG116 was evaluated in combination with toripalimab (N=12). Although ADG116 at 6 mg/kg with toripalimab did not meet the target toxicity level (TTL) (i.e., lower rate of Grade 3 or higher TRAEs than those approved for anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 combination therapies), 3 mg/kg of ADG116 every six weeks with toripalimab was manageable within the TTL. Among the efficacy evaluable patients who received ADG116 in combination with toripalimab, one confirmed complete response was observed in a patient with platinum-refractory recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Lesions completely disappeared after two cycles of therapy, and the durable response was maintained for approximately two years. In a subsequent update in July 2023, we reported observation of an initial partial response in this combination cohort in a patient with MSS CRC.

-

In ADG116-P001, ADG116 was evaluated in combination with pembrolizumab in pre-treated patients primarily with cold tumors (N=6). No DLT was observed with ADG116 dosed at 3 mg/kg every three weeks combined with pembrolizumab at a flat dose of 200 mg. Additionally, significant changes were observed in a tumor-related biomarker in two patients with metastatic microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC), who experienced a 43% and 27% reduction in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, respectively. Both patients had either liver or lung metastases. These results support further evaluation of ADG116 (which is the activated form of ADG126) in combination with pembrolizumab in difficult-to-treat and cold tumor types such as MSS-CRC.

Clinical Development Status

Clinical data to date has demonstrated that ADG116 is clinically active and ready to advance into further clinical development as resources allow.

Mechanism of Action & Preclinical Profile

We have previously conducted extensive preclinical analysis and modeling to establish the safety and efficacy potentials of ADG116, which is also the parental antibody for our masked, anti-CTLA-4 SAFEbody candidate, ADG126. We have persistently pursued and implemented seamless translational studies using the epitope across different species for both programs, observing a good correlation between preclinical and clinical results both as single agents and in combination with anti-PD-1. Taken together, these preclinical studies (summarized below) have demonstrated that ADG116 has at least a five-fold greater potency profile than ipilimumab, a commercially-available anti-CTLA-4 therapy, and superior activity in various tumor specific models, while its safety profile is at least three-fold better based on GLP monkey data.

101

ADG116 is designed to target a unique conserved epitope of CTLA-4. In preclinical studies, ADG116 was observed to have partial CTLA-4 ligand blocking and stronger ADCC for regulatory T-cell depletion than ipilimumab, even with the same Fc isotype. ADG116 has been observed in preclinical animal studies to mediate effector functions to eliminate CTLA-4 highly expressed cells, particularly regulatory T-cells in TME through strong ADCC effect. These actions of ADG116 could lead to enhanced activation and proliferation of tumor infiltrating T-effector cells and reduced T-regulatory cell function, which may contribute to a general increase in T-cell responsiveness, including an enhanced antitumor immune response.

We extensively evaluated ADG116 in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Our in vivo efficacy studies were conducted in mice, and safety evaluations were conducted in both cynomolgus monkeys and rats. ADG116 was observed to show robust in vivo anti-tumor activity in multiple syngeneic mouse tumor models. Ipilimumab was included as a benchmark and was compared with ADG116 in a series of our preclinical studies. In these preclinical studies, we observed that ADG116 had a potential advantage over ipilimumab in potentiating T-cell activation. While ADG116 has partial CTLA-4 ligand blocking, it was observed to have superior ability in eliminating CTLA-4 positive regulatory T-cells via ADCC in tumors resulting in enhanced antitumor responses. ADG116 was well tolerated in rats and cynomolgus monkeys at doses up to 30 mg/kg in GLP-compliant four-week repeat-dose toxicology studies

In a series of preclinical studies, we compared the effect of ADG116 to ipilimumab. We believe that these studies suggest that ADG116 has a unique MOA compared to ipilimumab and has a potential advantage over ipilimumab in eliciting antitumor responses. These preclinical trial results support the further clinical evaluation of ADG116 as a monotherapy and in combination with other therapies for a wide range of tumor types.

In the CTLA-4 blockade bioassay illustrated in the figure below on the left, ADG116 was observed to exhibit weaker blocking than ipilimumab of CTLA-4’s ability to inhibit CD80- and CD86-induced IL-2 production. This result supports our belief that ADG116 can function as a CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor with weaker activity than ipilimumab, which may result in less systemic autoimmune side effects on normal tissues. On the other hand, ADG116 was observed to exhibit notably stronger ADCC activity than ipilimumab in the in vitro assay shown in the figure below on the right. Since CTLA-4 is expressed on regulatory T-cells, we believe that ADG116 offers a potential advantage over ipilimumab in depleting regulatory T-cells by means of ADCC. We subsequently investigated this in vivo in a syngeneic mouse tumor model.

Graphic

To compare ADG116’s in vivo antitumor activity to ipilimumab, we utilized a subcutaneous MC38 mouse syngeneic colon cancer model in hCTLA-4, knock-in, or KI, C57BL/6 mice. We selected the hCTLA-4 KI mice as ipilimumab does not cross-react with mouse CTLA-4. ADG116 was observed in this study to exhibit stronger antitumor activity than ipilimumab (ADG116 at 0.2 mg/kg induced equivalent antitumor response as 1 mg/kg of ipilimumab).

102

Preclinical Toxicology: We performed preclinical toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys and rats to evaluate the toxicity of ADG116. There were no abnormal findings in the single-dose toxicology studies. We observed that ADG116 was well tolerated in both cynomolgus monkeys and rats at up to 200 mg/kg. In a GLP-compliant, four-week repeat-dose toxicology study, ADG116 was tolerated at doses up to 30 mg/kg/dose (five doses per week). In this study, ADG116 related hematology parameter changes, serum chemistry changes, mononuclear infiltration of predominantly lymphocytes with fewer macrophages into the parenchyma of numerous organs were the primary test article-related effects evaluated. These changes were reversible at ≤ 30 mg/kg/dose, and consistent with the biological role of CTLA-4 in regulating and maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. The NOAEL was considered to be 30 mg/kg/dose in both rats and cynomolgus monkeys.

Our Approach to CD137

CD137 stimulates the immune system to attack cancer cells and is a key driver for T-cell and natural killer cell, or NK cell, proliferation. CD137 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, receptor superfamily. The binding of an antibody to this receptor induces a co-stimulatory signal on activated enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte, or CD8+ T-cells, and natural killer, or NK cells, resulting in proliferation, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and cytolytic function. CD137 co-stimulation is a clinically validated pathway for T-cell activation and its antitumor response is highlighted by the approval of a CD137-targeting CAR-T therapy by the FDA. Because most tumors are killed by cytotoxic T-cells in an antigen specific manner, we believe agents that mediate CD8+ T-cell activation can impart strong cytolytic activity. Therefore, we believe that CD137 agonists are promising candidates with potential to enhance and mediate long lasting antitumor immunity. Yet prior attempts to develop safe and effective anti-CD137 therapies have been burdened by toxicity challenges.

To overcome these challenges, we have created two anti-CD137 antibody candidates that aim to balance the safety and efficacy of anti-CD137 therapies:

ADG206 IgG1 POWERbody features Fc-engineering to enhance the cross-linking and further adds SAFEbody precision masking technology to create a next generation anti-CD137 therapy. ADG206 is poised to power the efficacy of anti-CD137 therapies (4-fold higher preclinical potency than urelumab analog), while ensuring the safety via conditional activation by pushing the boundaries of prior anti-CD137 agonistic approaches.
ADG106 targets a unique conserved epitope of CD137 with a novel MOA for CD137 agonism by its natural ligand-like binding. ADG106 has not been observed to bind to unstimulated naive T-cells, which have no detectable level of CD137 expression. ADG106 is also designed to bind to activated NK cells to boost their cytotoxic and ADCC functions. ADG106 can also mediate cross-linking via Fc receptors, which are critical for its activity.

The figure below shows how ADG206 and ADG106 are designed to target a unique epitope of CD137 and overcome the challenges of anti-CD137 therapy.

103

ADG 106/206 target a unique epitope of CD137/4-1BB pathway validated by CAR-T

Graphic

ADG206 POWERbody: Our Fc-Enhanced IgG1 SAFEbody is a Next Generation Anti-CD137 Therapy

ADG206 is designed to solve the safety and efficacy challenges of anti-CD137 therapy, leveraging learnings from development of urelumab (another company’s anti-CD137 targeting antibody), which showed single agent clinical efficacy and dose-dependent liver toxicity in clinic, as well as the clinical development of our unmasked anti-CD137, ADG106, which is the activated form.

In August 2022, following completion of IND enabling studies, we submitted a Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) regulatory filing in Australia to advance this anti-CD137 POWERbody™, ADG206, into a phase 1 clinical trial in patients with advanced metastatic solid tumors. We have subsequently initiated dose escalation in a phase 1 trial evaluating safety, efficacy and tolerability profiles for ADG206 POWERbody in patients with advanced/metastatic tumors. This next generation anti-CD137 candidate is the first POWERbody candidate to advance into clinic, combining SAFEbody precision masking, Fc-engineering and targeting of a unique epitope to solve the safety and efficacy challenges of anti-CD137 therapies.

We previously reported preclinical data showing how this, Fc-enhanced anti-CD137 agonistic POWERbody incorporates SAFEbody® precision masking technology for conditional activation and is designed to achieve improved safety and efficacy. We reported data from preclinical studies demonstrating that the FcgR-mediated crosslinking of ADG206 in IgG1 format enhances T-cell responses and antitumor activity, while the SAFEbody masking technology secures its activation in the TME to limit on-target off-tumor toxicities.

Preclinical data demonstrated that ADG206 was well tolerated, with normal pharmacokinetic properties and minimal activation in circulation. It also had robust anti-tumor activity as a single agent in multiple tumor models, with 4-fold stronger anti-CD137 agonistic activity of its activated form than a benchmark antibody (analog of urelumab), which is one of the most potent anti-CD137 agonists in development for T-cell co-activation that has demonstrated clinical activity as a single agent but has also shown dose-dependent liver toxicity. ADG206 demonstrated enhanced anti-tumor activity as a single agent and in combination with other checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 therapy. We believe that the safety and efficacy profiles of ADG206 strongly supports its potential as a combination agent.

Clinical Development Status:

ADG206 is currently in phase 1 development with monotherapy dose escalation ongoing. As of this annual report, we have enrolled 10 patients and dose escalation continues with a cohort ongoing at 3 mg/kg Q3W. No MTD has yet been reached.

ADG106 NEObody: A Novel Agonistic Anti-CD137

ADG106, is a fully human ligand-blocking, agonistic anti-CD137 IgG4 mAb generated using our NEObody technology to target a unique conserved epitope of CD137.

104

We previously completed two Phase 1 clinical trials, ADG106-1001 and ADG106-1002, in the U.S. and China, respectively, evaluating ADG106 as monotherapy in a total of 98 patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors and/or NHL. Our results demonstrated that ADG106 had a well-tolerated safety profile and evidence of single-agent efficacy profile. In preclinical studies, we also observed that ADG106 had encouraging antitumor activity and was well tolerated as a monotherapy and had additive or synergistic effects in combination with the existing standard-of-care, or SOC, and other immuno-oncology therapies.

As monotherapy, ADG106 was well-tolerated at doses of 3 and 5 mg/kg, and at 300 mg and 400 mg flat doses. We also observed tumor shrinkage in some patients, including one patient with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) who previously failed multiple therapies and showed a partial response to ADG106 treatment with a 40% tumor size reduction. In addition, two NHL patients showed more than a 30% tumor size reduction. Overall, we observed a significant disease control rate of 56% (45 among 81 patients) for anti-CD137 monotherapy with robust safety profiles, including tumor size reductions in the multiple patients.

Importantly, across all dose cohorts in both trials, we observed three patients with ≥ Grade 3 liver enzyme increase; among them, two patients with ≥Grade 3 AST increase enrolled in ADG106-1001 (treated at 10 mg/kg and 300 mg fixed dose levels), including one patient who had abnormal baseline liver enzyme exhibited Grade 3 AST increase, and one patient enrolled in ADG106-1002 with abnormal liver enzyme baseline showed a Grade 3 AST and ALT liver enzyme increase (treated at 5 mg/kg). These liver enzyme increases were not observed to be dose-dependent.

Previously, we evaluated clinical safety and efficacy profiles of ADG106 in combination with anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced solid tumors and relapsed or refractory NHL. Results from the Phase 1b/2 trial in China (ADG106-1008) showed one observed partial response in an NPC patient out of 20 patients enrolled. In August 2022, we announced plans to wind down the ADG106-1008 trial, given prioritization of our anti-CTLA-4 programs and potential of our next generation anti-CD137 therapy, ADG206.

Clinical Development Status:

ADG106 is being evaluated in combination settings in two investigator-initiated trials in Singapore. For details, please see “ Clinical Collaboration Agreements.”

IND-READY CANDIDATES & PRECLINICAL PIPELINE

In addition to our clinical-stage product candidates, we have several differentiated IND-ready and preclinical candidates with potential to become first and/or best-in-class programs by leveraging our precision masking technology. These programs are in various stages of drug discovery and preclinical evaluation utilizing our three DPL platform technologies NEObody, SAFEbody, and POWERbody.

105

Examples of our preclinical assets include:

ADG153: This masked anti-CD47 IgG1 SAFEbody is differentiated by the novel epitope it recognizes, its strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity, and precision masking for conditional activation. It is designed to realize the full potential of anti-CD47 therapy for both hematologic and solid tumor indications. ADG153 targets a unique epitope with reduced hemagglutination activities in comparison with two benchmark antibodies. It incorporates SAFEbody masking technology to limit on-target off-tumor toxicities and overcome the known safety liabilities of anti-CD47 therapies. The safety mask prevents its rapid clearance by CD47 directed antigen sink effect. Preclinical data demonstrated that ADG153 IgG1 was well tolerated, did not induce human hemagglutination and significantly reduced anemia-related and antigen sink liabilities. In particular, ADG153 IgG1 at a 10 mg/kg dose demonstrated only an 8 percent decrease in red blood cell counts, compared to a 49 percent decrease with a benchmark antibody which is in IgG4 format (analog of magrolimab). After a single intravenous dose, ADG153 IgG1 demonstrated an approximately 8-fold longer apparent half-life and 5-fold higher area under the curve (AUC) at 10mg/kg than the benchmark. Results also showed that ADG153 IgG1 demonstrated greater anti-tumor activity than the benchmark. In a poster presentation at AACR 2023, we reported additional preclinical data for ADG153. The data demonstrated strong in vivo anti-tumor activities