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Adomani
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10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
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ADOM 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11 Executive Compensation
Item 12 Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13 Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-23.1 adom-ex231_356.htm
EX-31.1 adom-ex311_8.htm
EX-31.2 adom-ex312_7.htm
EX-32.1 adom-ex321_6.htm

Adomani Earnings 2018-12-31

ADOM 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 adom-10k_20181231.htm 10-K adom-10k_20181231.htm

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

 

or

 

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from __________to_________

 

Commission file number: 001-38078

 

ADOMANI, INC.

(Name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

46-0774222

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

4740 Green River Road, Suite 106

Corona, California 92880

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number including area code: (951) 407-9860

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock, $0.00001 par value

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Title of class

 

Name of exchange on which registered

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer 

 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  No

 

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 29, 2018, was approximately $61.7 million.

 

As of February 8, 2019, 72,732,292 shares of the registrant’s common stock were issued and outstanding.

 

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

The information that is required to be included in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated by reference to either a definitive proxy statement or an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K to be filed by the registrant within 120 days of December 31, 2018. Only those portions of any such definitive proxy statement that are specifically incorporated by reference herein shall constitute a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 


ADOMANI, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

 

2

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

20

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

44

Item 2.

Properties

 

44

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

 

44

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

45

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

46

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

 

46

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

47

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

57

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

58

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

78

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

 

78

Item 9B.

Other Information

 

78

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

79

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

 

79

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 

 

79

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

79

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

79

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

80

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

 

83

 

 

 


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”), contains “forward-looking statements” that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements relate to future events or our future financial performance or condition and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “should,” “will” and “would” or the negatives of these terms or other comparable terminology.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The cautionary statements set forth in this Annual Report, including in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere, identify important factors which you should consider in evaluating our forward-looking statements. These factors include, among other things:

 

 

Our ability to generate demand for our zero-emission or hybrid drivetrain systems, re-power conversion kits, and zero-emission or hybrid commercial fleet vehicles in order to generate revenue;

 

Our dependence upon external sources for the financing of our operations;

 

Our ability to effectively execute our business plan;

 

Our ability and our suppliers’ ability to scale our zero-emission drivetrain system manufacturing, assembling and converting processes effectively and quickly from low volume production to high volume production;

 

Our ability to manage our expansion, growth and operating expenses and reduce and adequately control the costs and expenses associated with operating our business;

 

Our ability to obtain, retain and grow our customers;

 

Our ability to enter into, sustain and renew strategic relationships on favorable terms;

 

Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability;

 

Our ability to evaluate and measure our current business and future prospects;

 

Our ability to compete and succeed in a highly competitive and evolving industry;

 

Our ability to respond and adapt to changes in electric or hybrid drivetrain system technology; and

 

Our ability to protect our intellectual property and to develop, maintain and enhance a strong brand.

You should read this Annual Report and the documents that we reference elsewhere in this Annual Report completely and with the understanding that our actual results may differ materially from what we expect as expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in more detail in Item 1 (Business) and Item 1A (Risk Factors) of Part I and Item 7 (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) of Part II of this Annual Report. In light of the significant risks and uncertainties to which our forward-looking statements are subject, you should not place undue reliance on or regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at all. These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this Annual Report regardless of the time of delivery of this Annual Report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise after the date of this Annual Report.

Unless expressly indicated or the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report to “ADOMANI,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to ADOMANI, Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.

1


Part I

Item 1.

BUSINESS

Overview

We design and cause to be designed advanced zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems for integration in new school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles. We also design and cause to be designed re-power conversion kits to replace conventional drivetrain systems for combustion powered vehicles with zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems.  We expect to expand our product offerings to include the sale of zero-emission systems in vehicles manufactured by outside, original equipment manufacture (“OEM”) partners located in China, Malaysia and the Philippines, that can be marketed, sold, warrantied and serviced through our developing distribution and service network.

Our drivetrain systems can include options for telemetrics for remote monitoring, electric power-export and various levels of grid-connectivity. Our zero-emission systems may also grow to include automated charging infrastructure and “intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables fast vehicle charging, emergency back-up facility power, and access to the developing, grid-connected opportunities for the aggregate power available from groups of large battery packs.

In addition to providing the zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems and re-power conversion kits mentioned above, we are also a provider of new zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles focused on total cost of ownership. Our drivetrain systems and vehicles are designed to help fleet operators unlock the benefits of green technology and address the challenges of local, state and federal regulatory compliance and traditional-fuel price cost instability, in addition to the health benefits that are a benefit of this technology.

We generated minimal revenue from inception through June 30, 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we generated $5.0 million, most of which we generated in the second half of 2018. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, our net losses were $11.0 million and $21.9 million, respectively.

Market Overview

Concerns regarding climate change and other environmental considerations have led to the implementation of laws and regulations that restrict, cap, or tax emissions in the automotive industry and throughout other industries. In particular, Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) Tier 4 emission standards, California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) regulations, and recently implemented policies in Europe, generally referred to as Stage I, II, III and IV regulations, require a significant reduction in the level of emissions and particulate matter produced by diesel power systems and are increasing the costs associated with producing carbon-intensive fuels. On June 28, 2018, China officially released the China VI emission standard for new heavy-duty vehicles, which is equivalent to, or in some aspects even more stringent than, the Euro VI emission standard. The China VI standard intends to force diesel particulate filters on all new diesel heavy-duty vehicles introduced to the market after July 2021. If effectively implemented, it will transition all new heavy-duty vehicles in China to soot-free emission levels.

These regulations are expected to increase both the cost and size of emission-compliant diesel power products, primarily due to the need to incorporate additional combustion and after-treatment components. A variety of market factors are contributing to the increased use of alternative fuels and growth of alternative fuel technology, including economics, energy independence, environmental concerns, and the widespread availability of alternative fuels. As the price of crude oil remains volatile and the threats of climate change and air pollution increase as public concerns, we believe the search for more cost effective and cleaner fuels has become more important. Electricity has emerged as a cleaner-fuel solution to these challenges. The price of alternative fuels such as electricity is often substantially less than diesel or gasoline, and alternative fuels can result in the production of lower amounts of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. In addition, several public utilities in California and elsewhere have applied to their states’ public utilities commissions (“PUCs”) for rate increases to be used for the purchase or leasing of electric vehicles and infrastructure. Additional requests have been made by the utilities to offer favorable costs for electric bus charging. In fact, three states (California, New York and New Jersey) are expected to spend $1.3 billion to build more electric vehicle charging.

2


According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the world’s fleet of electric vehicles grew 54% to about 3.1 million in 2017, and the IEA forecasts electric vehicles will grow from 3 million to 125 million by 2030, with government policy being the linchpin for electric vehicle adoption.

Based on the IEA’s view, we believe that existing policies will make China and Europe the biggest adopters. In China, we anticipate that credits and subsidies will help electric vehicles grow to account for more than a quarter of the car market by 2030. Meanwhile, we believe that tightening emissions standards and high fuel taxes in Europe will result in substantial increases in the market share of electric vehicles. However, despite increasing market penetration in places like California and other states that have adopted zero emission plans, reduced taxes on fuels and the Trump administration’s stated intentions to scale back vehicle emissions standards could suppress growth. Notwithstanding, new electric car sales in China grew by 72%, or 580,000 units, in 2017, which increased total ownership to over 1 million vehicles. Further, according to the IEA, China is also driving growth in electric buses and two-wheeled vehicles, and accounts for about 99% of the world’s stock of the fast-growing categories.

In the United States, through June 2018, over 123,000 new electric vehicles were registered in the United States, compared to 91,000 in the first half of 2017, an increase of 35% and more than double the sales from just 3 years ago.

The overall market for electric vehicles consists of multiple, discrete markets for various vehicle types, including passenger cars, buses, two-wheelers and others. Passenger cars are the most prominent, but two-wheelers are far more prevalent, particularly in Asia, and buses and trucks, although smaller in number, are significantly higher in price and often purchased in bulk by major corporate customers or government or transit agencies. Because light duty passenger vehicles represent the largest potential market and have received the most attention from both analysts and policymakers, most global forecasts look at light duty electric vehicle sales.

Charging infrastructure is another important factor in electric vehicle adoption rates. According to an October 2018 United States Department of Energy (“DOE”) article, there are 19,975 Level 2 charging stations and 2,368 DC Fast Charging stations to serve electric vehicles in the United States. They define a “station” as a non-residential address where Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (“EVSE”) is located, including both public and private stations, some of which may include several charging outlets per station. Over 60% of those charging stations are maintained by four networks: ChargePoint, Tesla, Blink, and SemaCharge. Level 2 charging stations can be used residentially or commercially to provide electricity faster than a standard 120-volt outlet. ChargePoint has the largest number of non-residential Level 2 charging stations, followed by Tesla. DC Fast Charging stations allow for long distance travel of electric vehicles by providing quick recharge rates along highways and well-traveled corridors between metropolitan areas. The eVgo Network has the largest number of DC Fast Charging stations, followed by Tesla with its SuperCharger network. Some geographic areas have considerably more charging stations than others, contributing to greater electric vehicle usage in those regions.

Commercial Vehicles

As relatively simple as the pricing analysis is for individual consumers, the purchase and deployment of heavy duty commercial vehicles involves consideration of many more variables. Here, the type of customer is a major determinant, whether it is a commercial customer buying trucks for a fleet, a school district, or a municipal entity purchasing buses for public use. Navigant Research forecasts global sales of electric drive and electric-assisted medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles (over 10,000 gross vehicle weight rating (“GVWR”)) to grow from 16,000 in 2014 to almost 160,000 in 2023, for total sales of over 800,000 of such vehicles during the period. Navigant Research expects the electric vehicle market share to increase from 0.4% to 2.9% of all medium and heavy duty commercial vehicle sales over the same period.

Environmental Benefits

Because heavy-duty commercial vehicles consume considerably more fuel than light duty passenger vehicles, the environmental benefits of replacing conventionally fueled commercial vehicles with electric vehicles can also be substantial. Whereas an electric passenger car may reduce greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions by 3 tons per year as compared to a conventional car, replacing a conventional Class 8 port drayage truck with an electric equivalent can bring an 18 metric ton annual reduction in GHG emissions. Replacing a conventional diesel bus with an all-electric bus can achieve a 78 metric ton (approximately 171,961 pounds) reduction in GHG emissions. Electric buses can also reduce nitrous oxide emissions by 47 kg (approximately 104 pounds) per year compared to a diesel bus and 19 kg (approximately 42 pounds) compared to a clean natural gas (“CNG”) bus. As discussed below, we believe these pollution reductions have had the greatest impact in the electric bus market, where municipalities are the principal purchasers.  

3


Electricity Cost Considerations

Despite the higher electricity consumption of electric trucks, more widespread adoption could lead to more efficient utilization of utility and power generation assets and thus not necessarily lead to higher rates. At this point, deployment of electric trucks and buses is still too small to assess their full impact on electricity prices. As a study by the clean transportation nonprofit CALSTART emphasizes, evaluating this impact will involve weighing potential efficiency benefits, the impact on utility distribution grids, including the cost of potential upgrades, and the need for additional infrastructure. In this regard, several public utilities have applied to their state’s PUCs for rate increases to be used for the purchase or leasing of electric vehicles and infrastructure. Additional requests have been made by the utilities to offer favorable costs for electric school bus charging.  

Trucks

Some of the main markets for electric trucks include delivery vans, shuttle buses, and utility or work trucks, each of which has its own set of challenges. Where PHEVs have greater operational flexibility, and require less charging infrastructure, BEVs can be either short range, which can charge quickly and operate with limited interruption, or long range, requiring longer charging times but more intraday operational flexibility. The table below presents a few of the examples of different kinds of vehicles, battery sizes, and electricity demands.

Table 1: Electricity Needs of Electric Truck and Bus Types

 

Technology Type

 

Example

 

Average Peak Demand

 

Battery Size

Short Range PHEV

 

Volvo PHEV Class 8 Drayage Truck

 

10 kW

 

10kWh

Work Truck PHEV

 

Odyne Advanced Diesel PHEV Truck

 

3.3 kW

 

14/28 kWh

Long Range PHEV

 

Efficient Drivetrain PHEV/CNG Class 4 Truck

 

Up to 6.6 kW

 

40 kWh

Short Range BEV

 

Proterra Fast Charge Catalyst

 

280 to 380 kW*

 

53 or 131 kWh

Medium Range BEV

 

Transpower Electric Drayage Drive

 

70 kW

 

215 kWh

Long Range BEV

 

BYD 40-foot Electric Transit Bus

 

80 kW or 200 kW

 

324 kWh

 

*

For deployments of 4 to 8 buses per fast charger

Because of charging needs and restrictions, we believe short-haul fleet vehicles that operate in a limited geographic area and return to central locations, such as delivery vans and shuttle buses, are the best candidates for electrification.

Transit Buses

For a number of reasons, we believe buses present a more promising near-term market for electrification than other commercial vehicles. First, most bus purchases are public in nature, coming from transit agencies or school districts, many of which require public transportation operators to purchase and operate low-emissions vehicles. For public entities, cleaner transportation systems can provide benefits beyond reduced operating costs, in the form of less pollution and lower abatement and cleanup costs. Second, electric buses are likely to have lower fuel and maintenance costs, typically a large cost area for transit operators, compared to conventional diesel buses. Third, we believe electric buses have smoother, faster acceleration and provide a quieter, smoother ride, benefiting both passengers and the surrounding urban environment.

Similar to commercial fleets, high initial costs and the logistics of charging remain the greatest drawbacks. Depending on the market, hybrid buses can cost at least 40% more than, and sometimes over twice as much as, conventional diesel or CNG buses. Electric buses can be anywhere from two to nearly five times as expensive as conventional buses.

4


Hybrid buses have gained greater traction than pure electric models in China and India, the two largest markets for electric buses. Both countries have some of the world’s worst urban pollution, as well as cities where buses form a greater part of public transportation than rail systems. Both China and India have a number of domestic hybrid and electric bus manufacturers, including Yutong, Xiamen King Long Motor Group, BYD, Nanjing Golden Dragon Bus, and Zhongtong Bus in China and Tata and Ashok Leyland in India. Of the 500,000 city buses in operation in China in 2014, analysts estimate that 80,000 were electric (presumably including hybrid electric models), with 27,000 more sold in 2014 and about 20,000 sold through the first half of 2015. The five companies mentioned above accounted for 62.5%, or 17,011, of the buses sold in 2014.

Electric or hybrid electric buses made up 17% of bus fleets in the United States in 2014, with most being gasoline or diesel hybrids, which made up between 30% and 40% of new bus sales. At the end of 2016, there were over 300 zero-emissions buses, that is, fully electric or fuel cell-powered buses, operating in transit fleets throughout the nation. A CALSTART executive has estimated that that zero-emissions models will make up 20% of the transit bus market by 2030. As an example of the cost impact of purchasing new electric buses, the Chicago Transit Authority recently awarded a $32 million contract for the purchase of 20 new electric buses.

School Buses

School buses present another significant potential market for electrification. The United States has 480,000 school buses carrying 25 million children to school every day. The typically short, predictable routes of school buses are particularly suited to running solely on electricity. Traditional diesel school buses, which make up over half the total fleet, not only consume large amounts of fuel-more than 800 million gallons of diesel a year in the United States, at a fuel economy of only 4–5 mpg-but also directly impact children with tailpipe emissions. In response, a number of states have included school buses in clean transportation mandates, and some school districts, notably in California and Illinois, have begun to replace diesel buses with electric. Incentive programs to help fund the purchase of electric school buses in the United States are significant.

Market Drivers

A number of factors, including the general world-wide desire to improve the health of people, impact both the supply and demand for various types of electric vehicles and we believe that we are well positioned to benefit as a result of these driving forces. Except for energy storage technologies, discussed earlier, subsequent sections will address these market drivers in greater detail.

We believe prominent drivers of supply include:

 

The declining cost and higher availability of energy storage technologies, specifically the cost and capacity of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries;

 

Grants, loans, tax breaks, and other financial support available for energy storage and electric vehicle research and development;

 

Requirements that a specific percentage of automakers’ models be electric or other zero-emission vehicles; and

 

Fuel economy standards that require automakers to meet certain fleet-wide miles per gallon benchmarks that effectively require them to sell electric zero-emission vehicles.

We believe prominent drivers of demand include:

 

Mandates that government fleets purchase certain percentages of low emission, energy efficient, or other alternative fuel vehicles;

 

Mandates for transport agencies, ports or school districts to purchase or convert to electric or other alternative fuel vehicles;

 

Rebates, tax credits, and other incentives for purchasing or leasing electric or other alternative fuel vehicles;

5


 

The availability of charging stations and other charging infrastructure, driven in turn by government funding, tax credits, rebates, and other incentives and regulatory initiatives aimed at increasing the number of charging stations;

 

The cost of electricity to recharge plug-in electric vehicles, impacted by special rates introduced by utilities;

 

Preferential treatment in registration, emissions testing, and access to highways, city centers, and HOV lanes; and

 

The cost of traditional petroleum-based fuels compared to the resultant incremental costs of owning and operating an electric vehicle.

United States—Federal Laws and Incentives

As numerous as U.S. policies at the state and federal levels may at first appear, unlike in China and many European nations, few federal and state policies directly single out electric vehicles. More broadly, federal U.S. policies encourage greater use of vehicles that run on some kind of alternative fuel, whether electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, biodiesel or ethanol. In addition, the U.S. federal government has less of a comprehensive, coherent framework aimed at increasing electric vehicle use than do countries like China and many European nations.

United States—State Laws and Incentives

Among U.S. states, California is notable for pioneering a number of measures that have encouraged electric vehicle production and adoption, often later copied by other jurisdictions. These include financial incentives like tax credits and rebates for both individual and fleet owners, HOV lane access, and various grant and loan programs. Besides setting the nation’s most stringent tailpipe emissions standards, California has required automakers to produce increasing percentages of zero-emission vehicles, of which electric vehicles make up a significant portion, along with creating a market that allows manufacturers to buy and sell credits awarded for selling electric vehicles. California has also authorized funding for the purchase of new school buses or retrofit of existing buses to accomplish the primary goal of reducing children’s exposure to both cancer-causing and smog-forming pollutants. The purchase of new buses is also permitted for fleet expansion as well. See “—Governmental Programs and Incentives” for an additional discussion of certain relevant incentive programs.

Fleet Operator Challenges

Fleet operators and their companies face a number of challenges in the market today, including:

 

Difficulty complying with existing and new federal and state emission restrictions and compliance requirements. Federal regulatory agencies, such as the EPA, and state regulatory agencies, such as  CARB, have set forth mandates designed to reduce emissions from mobile sources. According to CARB, 12 other states and the District of Columbia have adopted California’s greenhouse gas emissions standards for vehicles.

 

Finding cost savings while managing high fuel, maintenance and repair costs. The federal Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act of 2007 set strict air quality standards for particulate matter, nitrous oxide and GHG reductions from new manufactured vehicles which were further tightened in 2010 to further reduce the amounts of particulate matter, nitrous oxide and GHG emitted by newly manufactured vehicles.

 

Extending the lives of existing vehicles. Due to reductions in capital expenditure budgets and the legislatively mandated addition of expensive and limiting emission reduction equipment, it is challenging to prolong the lives of existing vehicles because of the increased cost of expensive maintenance, service and repairs.

 

Difficulty planning for the operation of their fleet when fuel supplies are interrupted, such as during a natural disaster. Existing vehicles rely on fuel that must be pumped (using electricity), which may be a challenge to source when supply is interrupted during natural or man-made disasters. It may be possible for emergency service organizations to use the large battery packs of electric drive, commercial fleet vehicles as a mobile source of stored electrical energy. This electrical energy could supplement traditionally fueled back-up generators.

6


 

Difficulty in improving the environment around these heavy-duty commercial fleets. Many studies have shown that the air quality in and around vehicles fueled by fossil fuels poses a health risk not only to drivers of these vehicles but to their passengers and those in and around these vehicles. Especially at risk are children as passengers on older diesel fueled buses, as their lungs, brains and other organs have not fully developed and the air quality surrounding a typical school bus using diesel fuel can pose serious health risks. By using zero-emission buses, trucks and cars, we believe we are creating a healthier environment in and around the vehicles they operate for their employees, customers and the communities they serve. In January 2017 (updated in June 2018), the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, on behalf of the California Environmental Protection Agency, released Version 3.0 of the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen). CalEnviroScreen identifies California communities by census tract that are disproportionately burdened by, and vulnerable to, multiple sources of pollution.

Our Solution

We design and cause to be designed, advanced zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems for integration into new school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles. Variants of these systems, sold in our  re-power conversion kits, can be used to re-power traditionally fueled, existing fleet vehicles for zero-emission, all-electric operation. We also intend to market, sell and support zero-emission vehicles built by others. The drivetrain systems and vehicles we offer are designed to help fleets run more efficiently and cost effectively.  Under our supervision, we subcontract the manufacture of most of our drivetrain systems to integrator partners with excess capacity and appropriate facilities. At this time, we do not manufacture complete vehicles. We sell our zero-emission drivetrain systems to third party OEMs with whom we partner and they manufacture the complete vehicle after installing the drivetrain systems with our initial supervision and support. As of December 31, 2018, we have shipped 22 drivetrain systems.  At December 31, 2018, we have 34 drivetrain systems in production for scheduled delivery in 2019.

We seek to enable our customers to:

 

Add Emission-Compliant Vehicles and Drivetrain Systems to Their Fleets. Our commercial fleet vehicles and drivetrain systems are designed to reduce or eliminate the use of traditional petroleum-based fuels that create greenhouse gases and particulate matter.

 

Reduce Total Cost of Ownership. Our technology is designed to reduce fuel budgets by eliminating or reducing the reliance on traditional petroleum-based fuels, instead using the more energy efficient and less variably priced grid-provided electricity.

 

Prolong Lives of Existing Vehicles. Zero-emission electric vehicles generally have lower maintenance costs. These reduced maintenance costs may take the form of longer service intervals between brake system maintenance, elimination of internal combustion engine oil and oil filter changes, reduction or elimination of transmission oil and oil filter changes, reduction or elimination of air filter changes, elimination of emissions systems services, elimination of diesel emission fluid use, elimination of emissions tests on traditional fuel vehicles (if converted to a zero-emission electric drivetrain system) and the elimination of certification tests of high pressure tanks on propane, liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas powered vehicles (if converted to a zero-emission electric drivetrain system).

 

Plan for Natural Disasters When Fuel Supply May be Interrupted. Our zero-emissions systems are designed, when optionally equipped, to serve as on-site emergency back-up energy storage if grid power becomes intermittent or fails temporarily during natural or man-made disasters.

 

Improve the Environment Around Vehicles. As a result of our zero-emission systems, drivers, operators, customers and the communities they serve could have healthier environments in and around these vehicles.

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Development of the Business to Date

We have taken an active role in building awareness and support for our zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems in industry specific target groups and at all levels of government and regulatory agencies and the constituencies they serve. We have accomplished this through our participation with Blue Bird Corporation (“Blue Bird”) in its DOE grant program to accelerate the adoption of advanced and alternative fuel vehicles. We have also maintained prior and current memberships in industry groups (private and governmental) and participate in their events; speaking engagements; management interviews; pilot product exhibits; fleet vehicle demonstrations and responses to requests for information and requests for proposals. We regularly engage with electric utility companies across the United States to build awareness of the medium to heavy-duty electric vehicles we currently offer and how their greater adoption could positively increase their customers’ electricity usage.

As discussed below under the section entitled “—Partnerships/Teaming Agreements”, we have entered into a number of agreements with third parties and continue to explore additional alliances, and to establish our decentralized assembly, sales and service model. We believe we can preserve cash resources while scaling up quickly when demand requires by leveraging the unused or underutilized service technician time, specific vehicle type expertise and service facility equipment of specific partners in ways to off-load some defined tasks, providing seasonal demand adjustments to technician headcount that will partially mitigate the human resource costs and challenges associated with scaling-up or down an employee base.

Our Strengths

We believe the following attributes and capabilities provide us with long-term competitive advantages:

 

Product Diversity. We have multiple product offerings, including zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems for new vehicles or to re-power existing commercial fleet vehicles, new purpose-built zero-emission electric vehicles and, as a result, the ability to scale-up, scale-down or refine a specific product line in response to market demands and the evolving local, state and federal regulatory and incentive programs. Also, within each product area, we have multiple suppliers of key drivetrain system components, allowing price flexibility both for our final products and replacement parts required over the product lifespan. This allows us to meet the expectations and budget constraints of public or private commercial fleet operators.

 

Regulatory Agency Familiarity. By taking an active role in many trade industry groups and related events, we have developed and continually strive to maintain strong relationships with key local, state and federal regulatory agencies involved in the growing zero-emission and hybrid vehicle industry. To meet their own aggressive emissions targets, these regulatory agencies have encouraged the growth of zero-emission electric vehicles and hybrid drivetrain systems, especially in connection with heavy-duty commercial fleets.

 

Relationships With Purchasers. To help shorten the sales cycles for our products, we have identified and built relationships with key commercial operators that have purchasing authority or influence over their organizations. We are also able to leverage past sales and marketing relationships that were built by our experienced management team.

 

Additional Sales Potential. We have additional sales potential with commercial fleet customers. These potential additional sales could include: automated charging infrastructure, intelligent stationary energy storage systems that enable higher levels of vehicle fast-charging, emergency back-up facility power for use during grid power outages, enabling technologies to access the developing grid-connected opportunities for the aggregate power available from groups of large battery packs, or enabling technologies that allow for the avoidance of electric utility demand charges.

 

Unique Market Knowledge. We have specific and tailored sales cycle knowledge based on the over 30 years of experience of our management team.

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Our Strategy

We intend to capitalize on these opportunities by pursuing the following key strategies:

 

Develop Sales Staff. We currently employ an experienced sales staff with ties to trucking fleet, county and city transportation managers, as well as school districts and an extensive dealer network. In 2019, we plan to hire additional sales staff to augment our current personnel. We expect to be able to train these new additions in the electric vehicle differences, benefits, and opportunities for fleet expansion to help our current and future customer base.

 

Build Dealership Networks. We intend to build dealership networks for the local sales and service of our zero-emission  new purpose-built zero-emission electric and hybrid commercial vehicles either manufactured by or for us, and to service any vehicles that we have converted to all-electric operation. School Bus Sales of California is a wholly owned subsidiary of ADOMANI, and is a licensed vehicle dealer in California.

 

Develop Third Party Relationships. We plan to complete existing negotiations with partners and seek additional partners for the manufacture of our zero-emission systems.

 

Provide Demonstrations. We will seek out and respond to local, state and federal pilot demonstration opportunities in interest areas for which we have relevant current product offerings or in areas of interest that are congruent with product(s) that are on our product development roadmap but still in early stage development. We have participated in multiple ride-and-drive events across the United States and Canada in collaboration with Blue Bird and its dealers. In 2019, we intend to build on these school bus ride-and-drive events by demonstrating our new product offerings, which consist of logistic vans, and Class 3, 4, and 5 trucks and chassis.

 

Obtain Approvals From Incentive Programs. We will seek to have our products approved for various local, state and federal vehicle designations and incentive programs, like the California Heavy Duty Voucher Incentive Project administered by CARB, meant to accelerate the purchase of cleaner, more efficient trucks and buses in California.  The drivetrain systems we have provided to Blue Bird are approved for voucher programs in California and New York.

 

Grow Our Manufacturing, Installation and Service Capability. As facility space and technician time requirements at partners are exceeded, we intend to expand or relocate to larger owned or leased facilities dedicated to the manufacture, installation and service of our zero-emission systems and vehicles.

 

Technical Support. In addition to the technical support we currently provide to Blue Bird and its dealership network, we have assisted in the creation of operator and service manuals, in-field training material, the handling of service inquiries and on-site maintenance technician training.  With the introduction of our new, purpose-built electric vehicles, we anticipate adding additional technicians in 2019 to expand our resources for supporting the maintenance, warranty work or repairs that any vehicle we have sold or that contains our drivetrain system may require.

 

Introduce New Products. As new markets develop, we plan to expand our zero-emission systems into ancillary product verticals, such as charging infrastructure (also called Electric Vehicle Service Equipment), stationary energy storage, vehicle-to-grid hardware and capabilities.

 

Develop Our International Business. We plan to develop our business internationally. For example, we intend to pursue future opportunities in China, which we believe is an important market for us due in part to its publicly announced emphasis on hybrid and all-electric vehicles and large population. However, we remain in the early stages of the development of our business plan to pursue such opportunities. We continue to assess the logistics and costs associated with the production and sale of our zero-emission drivetrain systems and vehicles in China and in other countries around the world.

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Our Customers

Our current primary focus is school buses and Class 3 to Class 7 trucks, cargo vans and chassis. Our target customers primarily include public and private fleet operators that have an interest in meeting or exceeding local, state and federal emission regulatory guidelines while saving money on fuel and maintenance costs over the lifecycle of their fleet vehicles and that also have an interest in tangible demonstrations of their GHG-reducing efforts. These targets include:

 

Public and private K-12 schools that operate Type-A, C and D school buses and special-needs student buses.

 

Public and private schools that operate “white fleet” vehicles for non-student transportations use, such as facility service trucks, food service delivery vans/trucks and campus security vehicles.

 

Public and private transportation services that cater to a prison system.

 

Student transportation contractors that serve public and private schools.

 

Community-based, public/privately funded shuttle buses serving special-needs community members.

 

Public and private colleges and universities that operate shuttle buses, transit style buses, facility service vans and trucks on their campuses.

 

Large companies that operate shuttle buses, transit style buses and facility based vehicles for employee transport to/from remote parking areas, to/from special events and the various vehicles used for facilities maintenance, services and security.

 

Private transportation contractors that shuttle large companies’ employees from common public transportation hubs to their campuses.

 

Commercial fleet operators that provide high daily mileage vehicles for use on routes in and around airports, hotels and offsite parking facilities.

 

Port, railway and distribution center operators that use traditionally-fueled loading equipment, tractors, material handling equipment, forklifts, Class 1 through 8 trucks, delivery vans, yard goats, etc., that could be replaced with zero-emission alternatives.

 

Large agricultural and food processing industry-focused companies that operate Class 1 through 8 trucks, buses and/or delivery vans.

 

Mining companies with fleets of above ground service vehicles and underground staff transport and support vehicles.

 

Oil and gas companies with fleets of field trucks.

 

Electric utility companies with fleets of service trucks that are in the public eye.

 

Package delivery companies with fleets of delivery vans, short haul trucks and distribution/sorting facility center vehicles.

 

Military-based fleet operators that have non-combat fleet vehicles of all sizes.

Our Products and Services

Our products and services primarily include:

 

Zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for use in new school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles.

 

Zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for use in existing fleet school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles.

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Purpose-built, zero-emission vehicles or chassis of all sizes manufactured by outside OEM partners but to be marketed, sold, warrantied and serviced through the developing ADOMANI distribution and service network.

 

Optional drivetrain system components that allow for electric power-export and various levels of grid connectivity.

Zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for use in new school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles.

This drivetrain system results in a zero-emission electric vehicle with similar performance specifications (except range) to a traditionally fueled version. The major drivetrain system components systems include appropriately sized traction motor/generator(s), motor controller(s) and power-flow set up for either a direct-drive configuration, a single speed gearbox (speed reduction) or, a multi-gear ration transmission system. Other integrated drivetrain system components include lithium-ion battery packs, a battery management system (“BMS”), inverters, chargers, electrically driven systems for power steering and power (hydraulic or air) brakes, a vehicle control unit (“VCU”), wiring harnesses, a flat screen user-interface (dash board) and fleet technician diagnostic tools. Pursuant to our agreement with Blue Bird, we supply Blue Bird with zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for integration into its Type C and D school buses on a purchase order basis.

Zero-emission electric re-power conversion drivetrain systems for use in existing fleet, school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles.

This patented drivetrain system process results in the same zero-emission electric vehicle described immediately above. However, this drivetrain system allows for the removal of the OEM’s internal combustion engine (“ICE”), much of the ICE cooling system, fuel tanks, exhaust and emission systems (manifolds, pipes, mufflers, particulate filters, DEF system, etc.) and, typically, the OEM transmission and any associated transmission cooling system.

Purpose-built, zero-emission vehicles or chassis of all sizes manufactured by outside OEM partners but to be marketed, sold, warrantied and serviced through the developing ADOMANI distribution and service network .

Envirotech Drive Systems Incorporated (“Envirotech”), a manufacturer of zero-emission trucks, cargo vans, chassis and other commercial vehicles various sizes, has designed vehicles to our specifications where possible. We intend to utilize the services of Envirotech and other OEMs to support our efforts to sell, warranty and supply zero-emission commercial vehicles  through our developing ADOMANI distribution and service network.

Optional drivetrain system components that allow for electric power-export and various levels of grid connectivity.

These systems integrate bi-directional changers and inverters and require additional facility-based, stationary charging hardware and control systems.

In addition, our products and services may in the future include some or all of the following:

 

Zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for ship-through integration by outside OEMs into their own privately branded medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles.

 

Automated charging infrastructure for commercial fleet vehicles.

 

“Intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables fast vehicle charging.

 

“Intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables emergency back-up facility power during grid power outages.

 

“Intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables access to the developing grid-connected opportunities for the aggregate power available from groups of large battery packs.

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“Intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables avoidance of electric utility demand charges for commercial customers integrated with or independent of ADOMANI-supplied, zero-emission fleet vehicle(s).

 

Energy storage systems (battery packs) replacements with better energy density and/or expected lifecycles for existing electric vehicles and equipment that has outlived their OEM-provided energy storage systems. For example, replace flooded lead acid (“FLA”) battery packs of existing industrial forklifts and underground mining equipment with more energy dense and higher cycle-life battery packs composed of lithium-ion cells.

Testing

Our suppliers are vetted before their products are accepted for use in our products. Our drivetrain systems and finished products are inspected, road-tested (when applicable) and receive quality control testing prior to delivery.

Customer Service, Support and Training

The sales team, both direct and contractors, will be used as the first point of customer contact for customer support and training. At the point that the sales force can no longer handle the volume of these requirements, we will hire, train and support an additional internal staff.

Technology

Zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for purpose-built new vehicles generally include the following: electric traction motor/generator of sufficient kW power for grade, speed, acceleration and efficiency requirements, a motor controller/inverter system that modulates electrical power flow between the battery packs and traction motor, a gear reduction system or multispeed transmission, systems to electrify power steering/brakes, a VCU, high-voltage traction battery packs with integrated BMS, battery disconnect units, thermal management systems, vehicle charging hardware, electric HVAC systems, DC to DC inverter(s) to reduce traction battery pack voltage sufficient to operate on-board, low voltage systems, wiring harnesses, user/driver interface and remote diagnostic/tracking/fault code/data logging systems. Although clear industry power-export standards have not yet been adopted, systems and options for a variety of vehicle-to-other power management options (such as grid, building, stationary energy storage, etc.) are being developed by multiple vendors and their inclusion may be offered as additional cost options in the future.

Re-power drivetrain systems to convert existing traditionally-fueled fleet vehicles with ICEs to zero-emission operation include many of the same components as described above for purpose-built vehicle systems. For simplicity, cost savings and maintenance technician familiarity, some OEM systems of the subject vehicle may be retained and/or utilized, including cooling systems for the engine and transmission, mounting brackets and bolts, power steering and brake systems and 12 and/or 24 volt systems and accessories. Items that are typically not retained/repurposed include the OEM internal combustion engine, transmission, liquid or gaseous fuel tanks and exhaust/treatment systems.

Sales and Marketing

Sales

We intend to expand our marketing and sales force as we open our sales, service and assembly facilities. We expect that each facility will have a team of dedicated marketing and sales employees with responsibility for the geographic region in which the facility is located. As a result, we believe we can efficiently and cost-effectively build out our marketing and sales network.

Marketing

We plan to focus our marketing efforts on increasing brand awareness, generating demand for our products, communicating product advantages and generating qualified leads for our sales force. We intend to rely on a variety of marketing vehicles, including our website and social media, participation in industry conferences and trade shows, public relations and our collaborative relationships with our business and teaming partners to share our technical message and the benefits of our product offering, with customers.

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Manufacturing

We currently contract with third-party suppliers to manufacture our products. In 2019, we plan on increasing our integration and in-house building of sub-assembly components.

Distribution

We intend to distribute our products both inside and outside of our current U.S. market.

Partnerships/Teaming Agreements

We have agreements with Amperics, Inc., Blue Bird, Ebus, Inc., Efficient Drivetrains Inc., Envirotech Drive Systems Incorporated and GerWeiss EV USA LLC. None of these agreements contain any binding purchase or sales minimums. 

Amperics, Inc.

Amperics, Inc., is an energy storage technology innovator, developer and vendor of advanced supercapacitor-based intelligent energy storage solutions. In September 2018, we entered into a non-binding letter of intent with Amperics and made a strategic investment in the company. We initially intend to design and manufacture an uninterruptable power supply product to support a new customer in the Far East. The investment is intended to support product development and manufacture of Amperics product verticals. Since the highest cost components within an electric vehicle drivetrain system or stationary energy storage system are typically the battery packs, we are constantly surveying energy storage options, battery cell chemistry advances and battery vendor offerings to determine how best to balance key attributes such as kilowatt per hour cost, charge/discharge rates, energy density, stability under environmental extremes and degradation over anticipated charge cycles.  A beneficial attribute in one area often comes with a corresponding penalty in another.  Supercapacitors, in general, are often associated with high power density, very high cycle-life, but lower energy density than traditional lithium-ion or FLA batteries.  We believe that the Amperics supercapacitor technology can alter these attributes, exhibiting a unique combination of both high power density and high energy density.

Blue Bird Corporation

Blue Bird offers a complete line of Type A, C and D school buses in a variety of options and configurations. In October 2017, we entered into a three-year agreement with Blue Bird pursuant to which we will provide it, on an exclusive basis, with zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for use in its Type C and D school bus product lines. The agreement sets forth the applicable pricing for the products to be purchased thereunder, but does not include any binding minimum purchase obligations on behalf of Blue Bird. During the term of the agreement, Blue Bird must purchase all zero-emission electric drivetrain systems to be used in its Type C and Type D school bus product lines from us, and we have agreed that we will not sell any zero-emission electric drivetrain systems to any similar manufacturer of school and activity buses, or to suppliers or subcontractors who would resell such products to such bus manufacturers. The agreement, however, does not prevent us from selling zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for any other application. The agreement provides that we will indemnify Blue Bird against certain losses resulting from our breach of the agreement and certain other losses. Blue Bird may terminate the agreement immediately for cause upon certain events or without cause upon thirty days prior written notice to us. In November 2017 at the National Association for Pupil Transportation industry event, Blue Bird unveiled the Type C school bus in which our zero emission electric drivetrain system was installed. We subsequently installed our zero-emission drivetrain system in a Type D school bus, and in conjunction with A-Z Bus Sales and a number of other Blue Bird dealers, we also organized and participated in extensive ride-and-drive events for Blue Bird during 2018. These events showcase the Type D all-electric zero-emission school bus to school districts, community leaders and government officials. Blue Bird delivered its first seven all-electric zero-emission school buses “Powered by ADOMANI®” to school districts in September 2018.

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Ebus, Inc.

Ebus is a company involved in several areas of electric vehicle build and conversion, and is also a manufacturer of charging stations. We are working with Ebus on several projects that may generate sales opportunities by the fourth quarter of 2019.

Efficient Drivetrains, Inc.

Efficient Drivetrains, Inc. (“EDI”), a subsidiary of Cummins, Inc. (“Cummins”) since being acquired in August 2018, develops and markets a range of state-of-the-art PHEV and electric vehicle drivetrain system solutions worldwide. EDI’s leading-edge hybrid-electric and electric drivetrain systems and technologies enable OEMs to meet zero-emissions requirements while providing cost and efficiency advantages across nearly all platform classes and configurations. In October 2017, we entered into a three-year agreement with EDI pursuant to which EDI builds for us, on an exclusive basis, zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for sale to Blue Bird for installation in its Type C and D school bus product lines. The agreement sets forth the applicable pricing for the products to be purchased thereunder, but does not include any binding minimum purchase obligations on our behalf. During the term of the agreement, we must purchase all of our production requirements of zero-emission electric drivetrain systems to be used in Type C and Type D school bus product lines from EDI, and we have agreed that we will not contract with any other manufacturer to produce any zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for use in any Type C or Type D school buses. The agreement, however, does not prevent us from purchasing zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for any other application. The agreement provides that we and EDI will indemnify each other against certain losses resulting from our breach of the agreement and certain other losses. Either party may terminate the agreement for cause upon certain events occurring and not being cured within prescribed time frames or without cause upon one hundred eighty days prior written notice to the other. On December 1, 2018, Cummins informed us that it intends to terminate the agreement effective May 30, 2019. As of the date of this Annual Report, we are in discussions with Cummins regarding the agreement and our future manufacturing process.

Envirotech Electric Vehicles Incorporated

Envirotech Electric Vehicles Incorporated (“Envirotech”) is a Canadian-based company that is engaged in the design, prototyping and certification of electric components and vehicles, including complete drivetrain systems. We engaged Envirotech to design and build a series of zero-emission electric Class 3–6 trucks, cargo vans and chassis built to our specifications and requirements. The vehicles are initially comprised of a cab, chassis and electric drivetrain system. Any customer can then customize the trucks by adding a box or stake bed to the vehicle in accordance with their needs. We received the first truck and cargo van pursuant to our arrangement with Envirotech in December 2018. Once tested and validated by us, Envirotech will submit the vehicle emissions information to CARB for certification and sale via the issuing of an executive order. Once the order is received, we will be able to provide the order along with additional information to the Hybrid and Zero-Emission Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project (“HVIP”) Department of CARB and apply for HVIP listing, which would render the trucks eligible for buy-down funding based on the GVWR. These buy-down funds are intended to enable companies to purchase zero-emission electric trucks and receive a discount to aid in the purchase. The HVIP buy-down funding is currently between $50,000 for Class 3 trucks and up to $110,000 for Class 6 trucks.

GerWeiss EV USA LLC

GerWeiss EV USA LLC (“GerWeiss”) is a manufacturer of zero-emission all-electric vehicles that, to date, has focused on the manufacture of all-electric three-wheeled vehicles in the Philippines. In August 2018, we entered into a non-binding letter of intent with GerWeiss in order to explore, together with Envirotech and Amperics, a collaboration to develop and introduce re-powered zero-emission all-electric transit buses in the Philippines. We are also reviewing GerWeiss’ current conversion design for the light-weight, shorter range three-wheelers in order to determine if the utilization of Amperics’ super-capacitor technology provides a better solution for that market.    

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Raw Materials and Supply Chain

Prices for the systems, components and raw materials we use in our drivetrain systems, many of which are OEM items used by many companies in different applications, can fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand. Our purchase of raw materials is currently limited due to sales volume, but we attempt to limit our exposure to raw material price increases and availability fluctuations by having relationships with a dynamic group of vendors that sell us value-added hardware, components and systems. We have further mitigated these supply chain risks by establishing purchasing relationships with multiple vendors that are diversified by type of product offered, brand of products offered, country of origin of products (which is relevant for “Buy American” provisions that we encounter with our customers), individual specification requirements, purchase quantity requirements, quality, availability and price. Our drivetrain systems allow for component substitution, which further mitigates our exposure to any one supplier or component. For example, for different drivetrain systems, our recent traction motor choices have included the following brands: UQM (US), Yasa (UK) and TM4 (China). We believe that we have adequate supplies and access to the sources of the systems, components and materials to meet our current and anticipated future production and supply requirements. 

Backlog

As of February 8, 2019, our backlog consisted of purchase orders for six zero-emission electric school buses and 42 zero-emission electric drivetrain systems, and as of December 31, 2018, our backlog consisted of purchase orders for six zero-emission electric school buses and 34 zero-emission electric drivetrain systems. We believe our costs associated with the current backlog will be approximately $9.4 million and that the sale price of the current backlog will be approximately $10.1 million.

Employees

As of February 8, 2019, we had 12 full-time employees. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements and we believe our employee relations are good.

Competition

The electric vehicle market is highly competitive and we expect it to become even more so in the future as additional companies launch competing products and vehicle offerings. We compete with other alternative energy technologies, such as natural gas, propane and hybrid technologies. The electric competitors include Ford, which produces the Ford Transit Connect EV® and has made recent statements about producing an electric F-150 pickup truck; Nissan which produces a small electric delivery van called the NV200; Rivian, is introducing an electric pick-up truck; General Motors, has made recent statements about considering the production of an electric pick-up truck; Navistar, which produces the Navistar eStar ®; Freightliner, which produces the eM2 and eCascadia electric trucks; Mercedes-Benz, producing the eActros electric truck, has said it will also offer all its commercial van model lines with an electric drive option; Mitsubishi/Fuso produces the eCanter electric truck; Tesla, producing a Class-8 Semi truck also says they will offer an electric pick-up truck; Bollinger Motors, producing the B2 electric pickup truck; Odyne Systems, which produces plug-in hybrid drivetrain systems for trucks and buses; Lightning Systems, which produces re-power electric drivetrain systems for trucks and buses; Lion Electric Company, a Canadian-based manufacturer of Type C, all-electric school buses, and said to soon offer all-electric mini buses and trucks; Nordresa, which produces re-power electric drivetrain systems for cab-forward trucks and package delivery vans; Workhorse, which produces an all-electric walk-in van and an electric pick-up truck called the W-15; Chanje which produces a large electric package delivery van; Zerotruck, which offers an electric cab forward truck; BYD, which manufactures new electric transit buses; Proterra, which manufactures new electric transit buses; TransPower which converts Type D school buses; and Motiv, which converts Type A school buses and package delivery vans.

Intellectual Property

The protection of our technology and intellectual property is an important component of our success. We rely on intellectual property laws, including trade secret, copyright, trademark and patent laws in the United States and abroad, and use contracts, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, employee disclosure and invention assignment agreements and other contractual rights to protect our intellectual property.

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As of December 31, 2018, we own three issued U.S. patents, which will expire in 2030 and 2033, and one issued Chinese utility model that will expire in 2026. Domestic and foreign applications are also pending on new inventions. In addition, we maintain a trademark portfolio including common law trademarks and service marks and have two service marks registered in the United States.

Circumstances outside of our control could pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. Effective intellectual property protection may not be available in the United States or other countries in which we provide our solution. In addition, the efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient or effective. Any impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business, our ability to compete and harm our operating results. In addition, as the number of competitors grows and solutions of competitors overlap, we may in the future face claims by third parties that we infringe upon or misappropriate their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing upon or to have misappropriated such rights. In the future, we, or our customers, may be the subject of legal proceedings alleging that our solutions or underlying technology infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others.

Governmental Programs and Incentives

We believe that the availability of government subsidies and incentives currently is an important factor considered by our customers when purchasing vehicles that utilize our technology, and that our growth depends in part on the availability and amounts of these subsidies and incentives. Over time, we believe that the importance of the availability of government subsidies and incentives will decrease, as we continue to reduce the upfront cost of vehicles that utilize our technology. In order to help ensure that we and our customers benefit from available subsidies and incentive programs in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Asia and in Europe, we have incentive specialists that work directly with our sales team and our customers on these issues.

Overview of Incentive Programs Most Applicable to Our Products

We intend to seek to have our products approved for various local, state and federal incentive programs, including those set forth below. In particular, California’s zero-emission vehicle mandate, which requires that a certain percentage of an automobile manufacturer’s sales must be zero-emission vehicles, has resulted in numerous incentive programs designed to accelerate the purchase and/or repower of cleaner, more efficient vehicles in California. We anticipate that the relevant aggregate funding available in California alone over the next several years may be in excess of $800 million, which includes federal, state and Volkswagen settlement funding sources.

California Hybrid and Zero-Emissions Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project

We believe our customers may be eligible for purchase under HVIP. HVIP is a partnership between CARB and CALSTART, the purpose of which is to help speed the early market introduction of clean, low-carbon hybrid and electric trucks and buses. Under HVIP, dealers and fleet operators may request vouchers from HVIP on a first-come first-serve basis, up to the funding amount available for that year, to reduce the cost of purchasing hybrid and zero-emission medium- and heavy-duty trucks and buses.

HVIP vouchers range in amounts of up to $315,000, depending on the gross vehicle weight of the purchased vehicle and the number of vehicles purchased. School buses would be entitled to up to $220,000 for each new school bus. Each electric vehicle deployed is also eligible for a voucher of up to $30,000 for EVSE installation.

HVIP funds the purchase of only fully commercialized hybrid and zero-emission trucks and buses. Vehicles still in the demonstration or evaluation stage are not eligible for inclusion in HVIP. Vehicle manufacturers must apply to have their hybrid and zero-emissions trucks and buses included in HVIP’s voucher program. Once a make and model is included in the program, the manufacturer is not required to submit a full application for the succeeding year’s program unless the vehicle has been modified. We intend to comply with the HVIP guidelines and qualify our school buses and vehicles for the HVIP vouchers. Blue Bird received HVIP approval for a school bus powered by our drivetrain system on November 7, 2017.

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New York Truck Voucher Incentive Program (NYT-VIP)

NYT-VIP is a first-come, first-served incentive program funded by the New York State Energy Research & Development Authority. The structure and process for fleets to secure incentives is similar to that of HVIP discussed above. Eligible vehicles include all-electric, hybrid-electric, and CNG trucks and buses, along with retrofit diesel-emission control devices. Funding for eligible vehicles domiciled in New York State and New York City can reach $150,000 per vehicle. With the successful listing on the HVIP eligibility list of the Blue Bird bus mentioned above, we have secured eligibility on the NYT-VIP list and currently qualify for a $150,000 voucher per vehicle. Currently, the funding program has exhausted its funds, but its administrators expect the funds to be replenished in early 2019.

Drive Clean Chicago-Drive Clean Truck Program

Drive Clean Chicago is accelerating the adoption of advanced vehicle technologies for the commercial truck and taxi sectors in the Chicago six-county area by reducing the cost of new alternative fuel vehicles and public alternative fuel stations. The program from the Chicago Department of Transportation offers incentives including $10,000 for CNG and electric taxis, up to $150,000 for hybrid and all-electric trucks, and 30% of the capital cost for CNG and fast-charge electric fueling stations.

Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust Funds

We anticipate that the 23 states that we have prioritized may allocate approximately $200 million in funds per year for the three years beginning in 2018 to on-road vehicle projects. Several individual states have provided carve outs specifically for electric vehicles and, in some cases, electric school buses. For example, California, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Ohio have each allocated funds directly to electric school bus projects. The California program will provide per vehicle incentives of $400,000.These states are currently in the process of funding their initial rounds or are developing specific funding plans. We have engaged with several of these states to support the development of such plans.

California Air Resources Board

CARB gathers air quality data for the State of California, ensures the quality of this data, designs and implements air models, and sets ambient air quality standards for the state, with a particular focus on regulating tailpipe emissions and other mobile sources. CARB compiles the state’s emissions inventory and performs air quality and emissions inventory special studies. CARB uses the Emissions Inventory and Air Quality Models to evaluate air quality and reduce emissions in each of California’s 35 local air districts.

CARB also manages several incentive and rebate programs and awards hundreds of millions of dollars in grants to reduce emissions from on- and off-road vehicles and equipment. CARB is responsible for program oversight. CARB awards grants and funds through the Air Quality Improvement Program (AB 118); the Carl Moyer Program; the Voucher Incentive Program for enhanced fleet modernization and emission reduction; and the Lower-Emission School Bus Program/School Bus Retrofit and Replacement Account.

California Energy Commission

The California Energy Commission (“CEC”) has several core responsibilities, including but not limited to setting energy policy, developing renewable energy, achieving energy efficiency, and transforming California’s transportation infrastructure. One goal of the CEC is to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce the impact of climate change. The CEC carries out its responsibilities pursuant to several of California’s landmark environmental laws. In 2006, the Legislature passed and then Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed two landmark pieces of legislation with far-reaching implications for energy policy. The most comprehensive is AB 32, the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which sets an economy-wide cap on California GHG emissions at 1990 levels by no later than 2020. At the time, this was an aggressive goal that represented an approximately 11% reduction from then-current emissions levels and nearly a 30% reduction from projected business-as-usual levels in 2020. In 2015, California passed Senate Bill (SB) 350, which further committed California to reducing GHG emissions by establishing a 2030 greenhouse gas reduction target of 40% below 1990 levels. The transportation sector represents a significant portion of California’s GHG emissions.

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In 2007, AB 118 created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program. The program is intended to increase the use of alternative and renewable fuels and innovative technologies that will transform California’s fuel and vehicle types to help attain the state’s climate change policies. AB 118 authorizes the CEC to provide approximately $100 million annually as incentives to public agencies, vehicle and technology consortia, businesses, public-private partnerships, workforce training partnerships and collaboratives, fleet owners, consumers, recreational boaters, and academic institutions for projects that: develop and improve alternative and renewable low-carbon fuels; optimize alternative and renewable fuels for existing and developing engine technologies; improve light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle technologies; and retrofit medium-and heavy-duty on-road and non-road vehicle fleets.

Air Quality Management Districts (“AQMD”) and Air Pollution Control Districts (“APCD”)

California’s AQMDs/APCDs are responsible for controlling emissions primarily from stationary sources of air pollution such as large power plants and refineries, but also have a role in distributing funds and administering incentive programs from mobile sources-primarily cars, trucks and buses, but also construction equipment, ships and trains, from which approximately 75% of emissions are generated. The largest AQMD/APCDs are the South Coast AQMD, Bay Area AQMD, San Joaquin Valley APCD, and the San Diego APCD. Local AQMDs/APCDs develop and adopt an Air Quality Improvement Plans, which serves as the blueprint to bring the respective areas into compliance with federal and state clean air standards. Rules are adopted to reduce emissions from various sources, including specific types of equipment, industrial processes, paints and solvents, even consumer products. Permits are issued to many businesses and industries to ensure compliance with air quality rules. Local AQMDs award grants to help reduce emissions in their local communities. These grants and incentive programs include programs aimed at reducing emissions from mobile sources such as buses and trucks.

Clean Cities

Clean Cities is a program administered by the DOE’s Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technology Program. According to the DOE, the mission of Clean Cities is to advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United States by supporting local decisions to adopt practices that reduce the use of petroleum in the transportation sector. Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership. Under the program, public and private stakeholders from businesses, city and state governments, the automotive industry, fuel providers, and community organizations form coalitions throughout the country, which then work with the DOE to establish a plan for reducing petroleum consumption in their respective geographic areas.

National Clean Diesel Program / Diesel Emissions Reduction Act

The National Clean Diesel Funding Assistance Program, which is administered by the EPA National Clean Diesel Campaign, provides funding under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act for projects that seek to reduce emissions from existing diesel engines. Eligible applicants include U.S. regional, state and local agencies that have jurisdiction over transportation or air quality and certain nonprofit institutions that provide pollution reduction or educational services to owners and operators of diesel fleets or that have as their principal purpose the promotion of transportation or air quality. Among the eligible uses of funding under this program are the purchase of buses and medium and heavy-duty trucks that result in reduced diesel emissions.

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (“CMAQ”) Improvement Program

The CMAQ Improvement Program, which is jointly administered by the Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, provides funding to states to support surface transportation projects and other related efforts that contribute air quality improvements and provide congestion relief. CMAQ funding is allocated to the states annually based on a statutory formula that is based on population and air quality classification as designated by the EPA. Each state’s transportation department then is responsible for distributing the funds. State transportation departments may spend CMAQ funds on projects that reduce ozone precursors, and at least 16 states have used CMAQ funds for alternative fuel vehicle projects (such as purchasing electric or hybrid vehicles).  

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Other State Incentives

A number of states and municipalities in the United States, as well as certain private enterprises, offer incentive programs to encourage the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, including tax exemptions, tax credits, exemptions and special privileges. For example, Maryland has introduced a voucher program that provides financial assistance for the purchase of electric trucks registered in that state, and Arizona exempts use tax and lowers registration fees for the purchase of an electric vehicle. Other states, including Colorado, Georgia, Utah, Florida and West Virginia, provide for substantial state tax credits for the purchase of electric vehicles.

Government Regulation

Our products are designed to comply with a significant number of governmental regulations and industry standards, some of which are evolving as new technologies are deployed. Government regulations regarding the manufacture, sale and implementation of products and systems similar to ours are subject to future change. We cannot predict what impact, if any, such changes may have upon our business. We believe that vehicles that utilize our technology are in conformity with all applicable laws in all relevant jurisdictions.

Emission and Fuel Economy Standards

Government regulation related to climate change is under consideration at the U.S. federal and state levels. The EPA and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) issued a final rule for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy requirements for trucks and heavy-duty engines on August 9, 2011, which had an initial phase-in starting with model year 2014 and a final phase-in occurring in model year 2017. NHTSA standards for model years 2014 and 2015 were voluntary, while mandatory standards first went into effect in 2016. In August 2016, the EPA and NHTSA jointly finalized Phase 2 standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles through model year 2027 to improve fleet fuel efficiency and cut carbon emissions.

The rule provides emission standards for carbon dioxide and fuel consumption standards for three main categories of vehicles: (i) combination tractors, (ii) heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans, and (iii) vocational vehicles. According to the EPA and NHTSA, vocational vehicles consist of a wide variety of truck and bus types, including delivery, refuse, utility, dump, cement, transit bus, shuttle bus, school bus, emergency vehicles, motor homes and tow trucks, and are characterized by a complex build process, with an incomplete chassis often built with an engine and transmission purchased from other manufacturers, then sold to a body manufacturer.

The EPA and NHTSA rule also establishes multiple flexibility and incentive programs for manufacturers of alternatively fueled vehicles, including an engine averaging banking and trading (“ABT”) program, a vehicle ABT program and additional credit programs for early adoption of standards or deployment of advanced or innovative technologies. The ABT programs allows for emission and/or fuel consumption credits to be averaged, banked or traded within defined groupings of the regulatory subcategories. The additional credit programs allow manufacturers of engines and vehicles to be eligible to generate credits if they demonstrate improvements in excess of the standards established in the rule prior to the model year the standards become effective or if they introduce advanced or innovative technology engines or vehicles.

Vehicle Safety and Testing

The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (“Safety Act”), regulates motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment in the United States in two primary ways. First, the Safety Act prohibits the sale in the United States of any new vehicle or equipment that does not conform to applicable motor vehicle safety standards established by NHTSA. Meeting or exceeding many safety standards is costly, in part because the standards tend to conflict with the need to reduce vehicle weight in order to meet emissions and fuel economy standards. Second, the Safety Act requires that defects related to motor vehicle safety be remedied through safety recall campaigns. A manufacturer is obligated to recall vehicles if it determines that the vehicles do not comply with a safety standard. Should we or NHTSA determine that either a safety defect or noncompliance exists with respect to any of our modified vehicles, the cost of such recall campaigns could be substantial.

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Battery Safety and Testing

We believe our battery packs conform to mandatory regulations that govern transport of “dangerous goods,” which includes lithium-ion batteries that may present a risk in transportation. The governing regulations, which are issued by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, are based on the UN Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations, and related UN Manual of Tests and Criteria. The requirements for shipments of these goods vary by mode of transportation, such as ocean vessel, rail, truck and air.

Our battery suppliers have completed the applicable transportation tests including:

 

Altitude simulation, which involves simulating air transport;

 

Thermal cycling, which involves assessing cell and battery seal integrity;

 

Vibration, which involves simulating vibration during transport;

 

Shock, which involves simulating possible impacts during transport;

 

External short circuit, which involves simulating an external short circuit; and

 

Overcharge, which involves evaluating the ability of a rechargeable battery to withstand overcharging.

Available Information

We were incorporated in Florida on August 6, 2012 and reincorporated in Delaware in November 2016. Our principal executive offices and mailing address are: 4740 Green River Road, Suite 106, Corona, California 92880. Our telephone number is (951) 407-9860. Our corporate website address is www.adomanielectric.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute part of this Annual Report and inclusion of our website address in this report is an inactive textual reference only. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are accessible free of charge at our website. The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) also maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding our filings at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A.

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves significant risks, including the potential loss of all or part of your investment.  These risks could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and cause a decline in the market price of our common stock.  You should carefully consider all of the risks described in this Annual Report, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report, before you make an investment in our securities. In addition to other matters identified or described by us from time to time in filings with the SEC, there are several important factors that could cause our future results to differ materially from historical results or trends, results anticipated or planned by us, or results that are reflected from time to time in any forward-looking statement. Some of these important factors, but not necessarily all important factors, include the following:

Risks Related to Our Business

We may not successfully execute our business plan to generate revenue and create a sustainable growth trajectory.

We did not generate significant revenues from inception through June 30, 2018. Our ability to generate revenue and grow our revenue will depend, in part, on our ability to execute on our business plan, expand our business model and develop new products in a timely manner. We may fail to do so. A variety of factors outside of our control could affect our ability to generate revenue and our revenue growth. Our success in implementing our strategy of producing and selling new zero-emission drivetrain systems, buses, trucks, other fleet vehicles and re-power conversion kits could also slow our revenue growth.

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We have a history of losses and we may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We generated minimal revenue from inception through June 30, 2018. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we incurred net losses of $11.0 million and $21.9 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2018, we had working capital of $7.2 million, an accumulated deficit of $54.0 million and stockholders’ equity of $7.6 million. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through issuing equity capital, convertible notes and notes payable. Our products have been recently developed and may not be commercially successful or generate significant revenue. If we are to ever achieve profitability it will be dependent upon the successful development and successful commercial introduction and acceptance of zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems such as ours; the demand for new buses, trucks and other fleet vehicles with zero-emission or hybrid drivetrain systems; and the demand for conversion of existing buses, trucks and other fleet vehicles to zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems, any of which may not occur. We may not achieve profitability in the future as we anticipate that our operating expenses will increase significantly in the foreseeable future as we:

 

continue to invest in research and development to enhance our zero-emission products and services;

 

design, develop and manufacture our drivetrain systems and their components as well as future medium to heavy-duty fleet vehicles;

 

increase our sales and marketing to acquire new customers; and

 

increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.

Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any significant incremental revenues with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significantly greater than the losses we would incur if we developed our business more slowly. In addition, these efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, or may not result in increases in our revenues, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. Even if we are successful in generating revenue and increasing our customer base, we may not become profitable in the future or may be unable to maintain any profitability achieved if we fail to increase our revenue and manage our operating expenses or if we incur unanticipated liabilities. And even if our revenue increases, we may not be able to sustain this rate of revenue growth. Revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of reasons, including lack of demand for our zero-emission drivetrain systems, increasing competition, lengthening sales cycles, decelerating growth of, or declines in, our overall market, or our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities or to introduce new offerings. Any failure by us to achieve and maintain revenue or profitability could cause the price of our common stock to decline significantly.

While we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations during the next twelve months, we may not successfully execute our business plan, and if we do not, we may need additional capital to continue our operations.

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects.

Our short operating history and developing business model make it difficult to evaluate our current business and our future prospects. It is difficult to predict our future revenues and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly developing and changing industries, including challenges in forecasting accuracy, determining appropriate investments of our limited resources, market acceptance of our products and services and future products and services, competition from new and established companies, including those with greater financial and technical resources, acquiring and retaining customers and increasing revenue from existing customers, enhancing our products and services and developing new products and services. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties that we will encounter as we continue to develop our business model. We may not be able to address these risks and difficulties successfully, which would materially harm our business and operating results and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

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We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors which make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. You should not consider our past results in any projected growth rate or as indicative of our future performance.

We expect our period-to-period operating results to vary based on our operating costs which we anticipate will increase significantly in future periods as we, among other things, design and develop our zero-emission drivetrain systems, open new design, sales and service facilities, hire additional technology staff, increase our travel and operational budgets, increase our facility costs, hire and train service personnel, increase our sales and marketing activities, and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations. As a result of these factors, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results, especially in the short-term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our operating results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts or investors. If any of this occurs, the trading price of our stock could decline, either suddenly or over time.

Based upon all of the factors described above, we have a limited ability to forecast our future revenue, costs and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may from time to time fall below our estimates.

Our future growth is dependent upon demand for new buses, trucks and other fleet vehicles with zero-emission drivetrain systems and demand for re-power conversion kits for existing diesel- and gasoline-powered buses, truck and other fleet vehicles to zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems.

Our growth is highly dependent upon the market acceptance of, and we are subject to an elevated risk of any reduced demand for, new buses, truck and other fleet vehicles with zero-emission drivetrain systems and demand for re-power conversion kits for existing buses, trucks and other fleet vehicles to zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems.  If this market does not develop as we expect or develops more slowly than we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be harmed and we may need to raise additional capital. This market is relatively new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors. Factors that may influence the market acceptance of zero-emission vehicles, and specifically conversion of existing buses and fleet vehicles to zero-emission electric or hybrid and the demand for new buses and fleet vehicles with zero-emission drivetrain systems, include:

 

perceptions about zero-emission electric vehicle quality, safety design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of any electric vehicle;

 

perceptions about the limitations in the technology resulting in a limited range over which zero-emission electric vehicles may be driven on a single battery charge (increases in distance requires additional batteries, which increases weight, and, at some point, too much weight diminishes the additional distance being sought before requiring a charge);

 

perceptions about vehicle safety in general, in particular safety issues that may be attributed to the use of advanced technology;

 

the availability of alternative fuel vehicles, including competitive vehicles and improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine may cause a slow-down in the demand to switch to zero-emission electric vehicles;

 

the availability of service for zero-emission electric vehicles;

 

the environmental consciousness of owners of diesel- and gasoline-powered buses, truck and other fleet vehicles;

 

changes in the cost of oil and gasoline;

 

government regulations and economic incentives, including a change in the administrations and legislations of federal and state governments, promoting fuel efficiency and alternate forms of energy;

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access to charging stations both public and private, standardization of electric vehicle charging systems and perceptions about convenience and cost to charge an electric vehicle;

 

the availability of tax and other governmental incentives and rebates to purchase and operate electric vehicles or future regulation requiring increased use of zero-emission or hybrid vehicles;

 

perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and

 

macroeconomic factors.

 

Additionally, we have limited experience in introducing new products, as we commenced production and deliveries of our products within the most recent two years. To the extent that we are not able to build our products in accordance with customer expectations, our future sales could be harmed.

We may also become subject to regulations that require us to alter the design of our drivetrain systems, which could negatively impact consumer interest in our drivetrain systems.

The influence of any of the factors described above may cause current or potential customers not to purchase our electric vehicles or drivetrain systems, which would materially adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects.

We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors.

The market for commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles is relatively new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, frequent new vehicle announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors.

Most of our existing and potential competitors, including Ford, Nissan, Navistar, Freightliner, Mercedes-Benz, Odyne Systems, Lightning Systems, Nordresa, Workhorse, Chanje, Zerotruck, Mitsubishi/Fuso, BYD, Proterra, TransPower, Lion Electric Company and Motiv, have substantially greater financial resources, more extensive engineering, manufacturing, marketing and customer service and support capabilities, longer operating histories and greater name recognition than we do. They may be able to devote greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sale and support of their products. Virtually all of our competitors have more extensive customer bases and broader customer and industry relationships than we do. Our competitors may be in a stronger position to respond quickly to new technologies and may be able to design, develop, market and sell their products more effectively. As a result, our competitors may be able to compete more aggressively and sustain that competition over a longer period of time than we can. Each of these competitors has the potential to capture market share in our target market, which could have an adverse effect on our position in our industry and on our business and operating results.

We expect competition in our industry to intensify in the future in light of anticipated increased demand for alternative fuel vehicles and to continued globalization and consolidation in the worldwide automotive industry. Factors affecting competition include product quality and features, innovation and development time, pricing, reliability, safety, fuel economy, customer service and financing terms. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects. Our ability to successfully compete in our industry will be fundamental to our future success in existing and new markets and to our market share. There can be no assurances that we will be able to compete successfully in our markets. If our competitors introduce new products or services that compete with or surpass the quality, price or performance of our products or services, we may be unable to satisfy existing customers or attract new customers at the prices and levels that would allow us to generate attractive rates of return on our investment. A disruptive technology advancement in the electric vehicle industry by a competitor, such as in energy storage, traction motors or power electronics, could affect the sales of our products.

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Demand in the zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicle industry is volatile, which may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which could adversely affect our operating results. Volatility of demand in the zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicle industry may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. The markets in which we currently compete and plan to compete in the future have been subject to considerable volatility in demand in recent periods. As a low volume producer, we have fewer financial resources than more established providers have to withstand changes in the market and disruptions in demand. Volatility in demand may lead to lower vehicle unit sales and increased inventory, which may result in further downward price pressure and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. These effects may have a more pronounced impact on our business given our relatively smaller scale and financial resources as compared to many incumbent providers.

Competition could result in price reductions and revenue shortfalls, loss of customers and loss of market share. If we cannot compete successfully against current and future competitors, our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted. 

Our sales cycle can be long and unpredictable and require considerable time and expense before executing a customer agreement, which may make it difficult to project when, if at all, we will obtain new customers and generate revenue from those customers.

The sales cycle for our business, from initial contact with a potential lead to contract execution and implementation, typically takes significant time and is difficult to predict. Our sales cycle in some cases has lasted up to six to nine months or more. Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use, capabilities and benefits of our products and services. Some of our customers undertake a significant evaluation process that frequently involves not only our products and services but also the offerings of our competitors. This process can be costly and time-consuming. In addition, once a customer is inclined to purchase our products, their ability in most cases to issue a purchase order is dependent on being granted funding toward the purchase. It is very difficult for us, or our customers, to predict the timing of the release of such funding, and specifically whether they will receive any of it. As a result, it is difficult to predict when we will obtain new customers and begin generating revenue from these new customers. As part of our sales cycle, we may incur significant expenses before executing a definitive agreement with a prospective customer and before we are able to generate any revenue from such agreement. The substantial time and money spent on our sales efforts may not generate significant revenue. If conditions in the marketplace generally or with a specific prospective customer change negatively, it is possible that no definitive agreement will be executed, and we will be unable to recover any of these expenses. If we are not successful in targeting, supporting and streamlining our sales processes, our ability to grow our business, and our operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected. If our sales cycles lengthen, our future revenue could be lower than expected, which would have an adverse impact on our consolidated operating results and could cause our stock price to decline.

Developments in alternative technologies or improvements in the internal combustion engine may materially adversely affect the demand for electric vehicles and our drivetrain systems.

Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as advanced diesel, ethanol and other renewable fuels, fuel cells or compressed natural gas, or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we do not currently anticipate. For example, compressed natural gas or propane which are abundant and relatively inexpensive in North America, may emerge as consumers’ preference. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our drivetrain systems, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors.

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If we are unable to keep up with advances in zero-emission electric drivetrain system or hybrid vehicle technology, we may suffer an inability to obtain a competitive position in the market or suffer a decline in our competitive position.

There are companies in the zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicle industry that have developed or are developing vehicles and technologies that compete or will compete with the vehicles that utilize our technology. Our competitors could be able to duplicate our technology or provide products and services similar to ours more efficiently or at greater scale. We may be unable to keep up with changes in zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain system technology and, as a result, may suffer a decline in our competitive position. Any failure to keep up with advances in zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain system technology would result in a decline in our competitive position, which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain system technology. As technologies change, we plan to upgrade or adapt our drivetrain systems and introduce new drivetrain systems in order to continue to provide drivetrain systems with the latest technology, in particular battery cell technology. However, our drivetrain systems may not compete effectively with alternatives if we are not able to source and integrate the latest technology into our drivetrain systems. For example, we do not manufacture most of the high cost items required for our conversion kits, including battery cells, which makes us dependent upon other suppliers of battery cell technology for our battery packs. If for any reason we are unable to keep pace with changes in commercial electric and hybrid vehicle technology, particularly battery technology, our competitive position may be adversely affected.

The demand for commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles depends, in part, on the continuation of current trends resulting from historical dependence on fossil fuels. Extended periods of low diesel or other petroleum-based fuel prices could adversely affect demand for vehicles that utilize our technology, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We believe that much of the present and projected demand for commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles results from concerns about volatility in the cost of petroleum-based fuel, the dependency of the United States on oil from unstable or hostile countries, government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy, as well as the belief that poor air quality and climate change results in part from the burning of fossil fuels. If the cost of petroleum-based fuel decreased significantly, or the long-term supply of oil in the United States improved, the government may eliminate or modify its regulations or economic incentives related to fuel efficiency and alternative forms of energy. If there is a change in the perception that the burning of fossil fuels does not negatively impact the environment, the demand for commercial zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles could be reduced, and our business and revenue may be harmed. Diesel and other petroleum-based fuel prices have been extremely volatile, and we believe this continuing volatility will persist. Lower diesel or other petroleum-based fuel prices over extended periods of time may lower the current perception in government and the private sector that cheaper, more readily available energy alternatives should be developed and produced. If diesel or other petroleum-based fuel prices remain at deflated levels for extended periods of time, the demand for commercial electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles may decrease, which could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. 

We may not be able to reduce and adequately control the costs and expenses associated with operating our business, including our material and production costs.

If we are unable to reduce and/or maintain a sufficiently low level of costs for designing, manufacturing, marketing, selling and distributing and servicing our zero-emission drivetrain systems relative to their selling prices, our operating results, gross margins, business and prospects could be materially and adversely impacted. We have made, and will be required to continue to make, significant investments for the design, manufacture and sales of our zero-emission drivetrain systems.  

We incur significant costs related to procuring the materials and components required to build our drivetrain systems and convert electric and hybrid vehicles. As a result, without including the impact of government or other subsidies, incentives, or tariffs, our costs and therefore the purchase prices for our commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles and/or converting commercial vehicles currently are substantially higher than the purchase prices for gas or diesel-fueled vehicles with comparable features.

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Additionally, in the future we may be required to incur substantial marketing costs and expenses to promote our zero-emission drivetrain systems, including through the use of traditional media such as television, radio and print, even though our marketing expenses to date have been relatively limited. If we are unable to keep our operating costs aligned with the level of revenues we generate, our operating results, business and prospects will be harmed. Many of the factors that impact our operating costs are beyond our control. For example, global demand from all manufacturers of zero-emission vehicles for the same resources could create shortages and drive the costs of our raw materials and certain components, such as lithium-ion battery cells, to a higher level and reduce profit or create or increase losses. Indeed, if the popularity of zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles exceeds current expectations without significant expansion in battery cell production capacity and advancements in battery cell technology, shortages could occur which would result in increased materials costs to us, and could also negatively impact our ability to meet production requirements if the batteries were simply not available.

If we fail to manage our anticipated growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service or address competitive challenges adequately.

Any failure to manage our anticipated growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We have recently expanded our operations and further significant expansion will be required, especially in connection with drivetrain system manufacturing, service and warranty requirements. The requirements of being a public company have significantly increased our general and administrative costs. Our future operating results depend to a large extent on our ability to manage this expansion and growth successfully. Risks that we face in undertaking this expansion include: 

 

establishing sufficient sales, service and service facilities in a timely manner;

 

forecasting production and revenue;

 

training new personnel;

 

controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;

 

establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities;

 

implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes;

 

addressing new markets; and

 

expanding operations and finding and hiring a significant number of additional personnel, including manufacturing personnel, design personnel, engineers and service technicians.

We may in the future hire a significant number of additional personnel, including design and manufacturing personnel and service technicians for our zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles, the timing of which will depend on the success of our sales efforts. Because vehicles that utilize our technology are based on a different technology platform than traditional internal combustion engines, individuals with sufficient training in zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles may not be available to hire, and we may need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we do hire. Competition for individuals with experience designing, manufacturing and servicing zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles is intense, and we may not be able to attract, assimilate, train or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future, which could seriously harm our business and prospects.

In this regard, we will be required to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting procedures and we may not be able to do so effectively. Further, to accommodate our expected growth we must continually improve and maintain our technology, systems and network infrastructure. We therefore may be unable to manage our expenses effectively in the future, which would negatively impact our gross margin or operating expenses in any particular quarter. If we fail to manage our anticipated growth and change in a manner that preserves the quality of our zero-emission systems and services and our ability to deliver in a timely manner, it will negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to retain and attract customers.

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If our zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our drivetrain systems could be harmed.

Our zero-emission drivetrain systems or vehicles that contain our drivetrain systems may not perform in a manner that is consistent with our customers’ expectations for a variety of reasons. If our drivetrain systems or vehicles that contain our drivetrain systems were to contain defects in design and manufacture that cause them not to perform as expected or that require repair, or any other failure of vehicles that contain our drivetrain systems to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, significant warranty and other expenses, which could have a material adverse impact on our ability to develop, market and sell our zero-emission drivetrain systems and vehicles. For example, should we have a significant sale of either new vehicles or re-power drivetrain systems and a defect (from supplier-purchased product or internally assembled components) were to be discovered after delivery that could not be corrected in a timely manner, we could suffer an adverse public relations event that harms the company in a way that it may not be able to recover from, or which turns out to be so costly as to cause a significant loss. Although we attempt to remedy any issues we observe in our drivetrain systems as effectively and as rapidly as possible, such efforts may not be timely, may hamper production or may not provide satisfaction to our customers. While we have performed extensive internal testing, we currently have a limited frame of reference by which to evaluate the long-term performance of our zero-emission drivetrain systems. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our products prior to their sale to customers. Further, the performance of our zero-emission drivetrain systems may be negatively impacted by other factors, such as limitations inherent in existing battery technology and extreme weather conditions. Our zero-emission drivetrain systems have not yet been evaluated by NHTSA for its 5-Star Safety Ratings, and while based on our internal testing we expect to obtain acceptable ratings, this may not occur.

Any vehicle product defects or any other failure of our commercial zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, significant warranty and other expenses, customer losses and lost revenue, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.  

We are dependent on third parties to deliver raw materials, parts, components and services in adequate quantity in a timely manner and at reasonable prices, quality levels, and volumes acceptable to us. Our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if we experience disruptions in our supply chain.

We build zero-emission electric drivetrain systems and re-power drivetrain systems from components supplied by third parties. For example, we rely on third parties for batteries, traction motors, power electronics, connectors, cables, and metal fabrication for battery storage boxes. As a result, we are particularly dependent on those third parties to deliver raw materials, parts, components and services in adequate quality and quantity in a timely manner and at reasonable prices. Some components of our drivetrain systems include materials such as copper, lithium, rare-earth and strategic metals that have historically experienced price volatility and supply interruptions. In addition, we do not currently maintain long-term agreements with our suppliers with guaranteed pricing because we cannot at this time guarantee them adequate volume, which exposes us to fluctuations in component, materials and equipment prices and availability.

Furthermore, currency fluctuations weakening the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies may adversely affect our purchasing power for such raw materials, parts and components and manufacturing equipment from foreign suppliers. Substantial increases in the prices for such raw materials, components and equipment would increase our operating costs, and could reduce our margins if we cannot recoup the increased costs through increased prices. We may not be able to recoup these increased costs by increasing the prices of our products.

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In cases where we rely on a sole supplier for a component or system, if there is an interruption of supply or increased industry demand it may be difficult for us to substitute one supplier for another, increase the number of suppliers or change one component for another in a timely manner or at all. Additionally, many of our current suppliers are small companies that produce a limited number of specialized products. If any of these suppliers were to go out of business or be acquired by a competitor of ours or any other third party that decides to discontinue our supply relationship, we would need to find an alternative supplier, which we may not be able to do. For example, on December 1, 2018, Cummins informed us that it intends to terminate the exclusive agreement we entered into with EDI for the manufacturing of our zero-emission electric drivetrain systems for sale to Blue Bird for installation in its Type C and D school bus product lines agreement effective as of May 30, 2019. While we are currently in discussions with Cummins regarding the agreement and our future manufacturing process, if we are unable to maintain a consistent, high quality and cost-effective supply chain, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

This limited supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages for the production of our zero-emission electric drivetrain systems. We may experience delays due to supply chain disruptions with respect to any of our zero-emission drivetrain systems and any other future products we may produce. In addition, our currently ongoing transition from low to high volume production tooling for our zero-emission drivetrain systems may take longer than expected which may adversely impact our short-term financial results.

Changes in business conditions, domestic and foreign regulations (including tariffs), labor issues, wars, governmental changes, natural disasters and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers’ ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Furthermore, if we experience significantly increased demand, or need to replace certain existing suppliers, there can be no assurance that additional supplies of component parts will be available when required on terms that are favorable to us, or that any supplier would allocate sufficient supplies to us in order to meet our requirements or fill our orders in a timely manner, or that we could engineer replacement components ourselves.

Changes in our supply chain may result in increased costs in the future. We have also experienced cost increases from certain of our suppliers in order to meet our quality targets and development timelines as well as due to design changes that we made, and we may experience similar cost increases in the future. Additionally, we are negotiating with existing suppliers for cost reductions, seeking new and less expensive suppliers for certain parts, and attempting to redesign certain parts to make them less expensive to produce. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts to control and reduce supplier costs, our operating results will suffer.

If we encounter unexpected difficulties with our current suppliers, and if we are unable to fill these needs from other suppliers, we could experience production delays, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.

The inability of these suppliers to deliver, or their refusal to deliver, necessary raw materials, parts and components of our zero-emission drivetrain systems and services in a timely manner at prices, quality levels, and volumes acceptable to us would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. Our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if we experience disruptions in our supply chain. 

The facilities or operations of our third party providers could be damaged or adversely affected as a result of disasters or unpredictable events.

Some of our third party providers have production facilities in California, a state known for seismic activity and wildfires. If major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, wars, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, pandemics or other events occur, the production facilities of some of our third party providers may be seriously damaged, or they may have to stop or delay production and shipment of our products. We may also experience downtime due to a third party provider’s delay in production and shipment of our products due to, among other reasons, their inability to obtain supplies and materials. Either of these delays could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.

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We have become increasingly dependent on information technology and any breakdown, interruption or breach of our information technology systems could subject us to liability or interrupt the operation of our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

 

We are increasingly dependent upon information technology systems and infrastructure in connection with the conduct of our business. We must routinely update our information technology infrastructure and our various information technology systems throughout the organization may not continue to meet our current and future business needs. Furthermore, modification, upgrade or replacement of such systems may be costly. In addition, any breakdown, interruption, corruption or unauthorized access to or cyber-attack on these systems could create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. While we attempt to take appropriate security and cyber-security measures to protect our data and information technology systems and to prevent such breakdowns and unauthorized breaches and cyber-attacks, these measures may not be successful and these breakdowns and breaches in, or attacks on, our systems and data may not be prevented. Such breakdowns, breaches or attacks may cause business interruption and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common stock to decline, and we may suffer financial damage or other losses as a result of lost or misappropriated information.

If our suppliers fail to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations, our brand image could be harmed due to negative publicity.

We do not control our independent suppliers or their business practices and, as such, they may not comply with ethical or legal business practices, such as environmental responsibility, fair wage practices, appropriate sourcing of raw materials, and compliance with child labor laws, among others. A lack of demonstrated compliance could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations.

Violation of labor or other laws by our suppliers or the divergence of an independent supplier’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the United States or other markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and our brand. This could diminish the value of our brand image and reduce demand for our zero-emission drivetrain systems or hybrid vehicle technology if, as a result of such violation, we were to attract negative publicity. If we, or others in our industry, encounter similar problems in the future, it could harm our brand image, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Our business success will depend in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties. We may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.

Our business success will depend in part on our ability to continue to successfully manage and enter into productive strategic relationships with third parties. We depend on various third parties to provide critical parts for our process. We currently maintain strategic relationships with key manufacturers of components we require for our electric drivetrain systems and re-power conversion kits. Maintaining and expanding our strategic relationships with third parties is critical to our continued success. Further, our relationships with these third parties are typically non-exclusive and do not prohibit the other party from working with our competitors. These relationships may not result in additional customers or enable us to generate significant revenue. Identifying suitable business partners and negotiating and documenting relationships with them require significant time and resources. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with these third parties, our ability to successfully sell our products and services, compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results would suffer.

While we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships or engineer replacement components for any single source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term, or at all, at prices or costs that are favorable to us. In particular, while we believe that we will be able to secure alternate sources of supply for most of our single sourced components in a relatively short time frame, qualifying alternate suppliers or developing our own replacements for certain highly customized components of our drivetrain systems may be time consuming, costly and may force us to make additional modifications to a drivetrain system’s design, or at a minimum require us to delay delivery of orders.

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We currently have and are seeking to establish new relationships with third parties to provide alternative parts sources, such as batteries, controllers and battery management systems. For example, we continue to test additional battery manufacturers’ products in order to have back-up options should our existing supplier have delivery or quality issues. However, we may not be able to identify or secure suitable business relationship opportunities in the future or that our competitors will not capitalize on such opportunities before we do. Our strategic relationships for batteries, motors and controllers will keep us competitive if maintained properly. We may not be able to offer benefits to companies that we would like to establish and maintain strategic relationships with. Moreover, identifying such opportunities could demand substantial management time and resources, and negotiating and financing relationships involves significant costs and uncertainties. If we are unable to successfully source and execute on strategic relationship opportunities in the future, our overall growth could be impaired, and our business, prospects and operating results could be materially adversely affected. 

Our suppliers must scale their zero-emission drivetrain system manufacturing, assembling, and converting processes effectively and quickly from low volume production to high volume production.

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing, assembling, and converting to commercial electric and hybrid vehicles. Our existing production model utilizing third parties may not be well suited for the high-volume production we hope to require to scale our business. We do not know whether we or our existing suppliers will be able to develop efficient, low-cost manufacturing, assembly and converting capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supply that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes required, to successfully develop our business. Any failure by us or our suppliers to develop such manufacturing, assembly and converting processes and capabilities and reliable sources of component supply within our projected costs and timelines could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

The ability of our suppliers to scale their zero-emission drivetrain system manufacturing, assembling, and converting processes is in part dependent on ours and their supply chain and on our collective ability to execute on our decentralized production strategy. Even if we and our suppliers are successful in developing our high-volume manufacturing, assembly and converting capability and processes, and reliable sources of component supply, we do not know whether we will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond our control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or in time to meet our commercialization schedules or to satisfy the requirements of customers. In addition, certain components we or our third party suppliers integrate may not be available on a consistent basis or in large quantities. Our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if we or our suppliers experience disruptions in our respective supply chains or if we or they cannot obtain materials of sufficient quality at reasonable prices.

The complexity in our business is expected to grow as we introduce new products and services. We have limited experience in simultaneously designing, testing, manufacturing, upgrading, adapting and selling our zero-emission drivetrain systems as well as limited experience allocating our available resources among the design and production of multiple zero-emission drivetrain systems. As we add complexity to our product line and introduce new products and services, we may experience unexpected delays.

If we and our suppliers are unable to scale our respective existing assembly processes and systems quickly while maintaining our current quality level, including as a result of supply chain constraints and inability to manage complexity in our business, we may be unable to meet our customers’ vehicle quality and quantity requirements or our forecasted production schedule or lower our cost of sales. As a result, we may not be able to meet our customers’ delivery schedules and could face the loss of customers, or be exposed to liability to customers to which we promised delivery, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

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We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.

We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims. The zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicle industry experiences significant product liability claims and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our zero-emission drivetrain systems do not perform as expected or malfunction and personal injury or death results. Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given the limited field experience of our zero-emission systems, number of vehicles delivered to date and limited field experience of those vehicles. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. Moreover, a product liability claim could generate substantial negative publicity about our drivetrain systems and business and inhibit or prevent commercialization of other future vehicle candidates which would have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, prospects and operating results.  We have added product liability insurance on a claims-made basis for all our zero-emission systems with appropriate annual limits. However, our insurance may not be sufficient to cover all potential product liability claims. Any lawsuit seeking significant monetary damages either in excess of our coverage, or outside of our coverage, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business and financial condition.

In connection with the development and sale of our zero-emission drivetrain systems, we may need to comply with various safety regulations and requirements with which it may be expensive or difficult to comply. For example, we may be subject to compliance from CARB and NHTSA. In addition, we may be subject to various other federal and state-level requirements.

We may be compelled to undertake product recalls.

Any product recall in the future may result in adverse publicity, damage our brand and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We may at various times, voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our zero-emission drivetrain system components prove to be defective. Such recalls, voluntary or involuntary, involve significant expense and diversion of management attention and other resources, which would adversely affect our brand image in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Our warranty reserves may be insufficient to cover future warranty claims which could adversely affect our financial performance.

If our warranty reserves are inadequate to cover future warranty claims on vehicles that utilize our technology, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. We provide a two-year warranty on parts and workmanship and a five-year warranty on batteries with every zero-emission drivetrain system. Most of our warranty offering, with the exception of workmanship, is covered by the component manufacturers’ warranty. In addition, customers have the opportunity to purchase an Extended Service Plan for the period after the end of the standard warranty to cover additional services for an additional three-year period or 100,000 miles, whichever comes first. The warranty is similar to other providers’ warranty programs and is intended to cover all parts and labor to repair defects in material or workmanship in the drivetrain system. We plan to record and adjust warranty reserves based on changes in estimated costs and actual warranty costs. However, because we have only recently begun delivering our first zero-emission drivetrain systems, and we have extremely limited operating experience with our drivetrain systems, we therefore have little experience with warranty claims for these zero-emission drivetrain systems or with estimating warranty reserves. We will monitor our warranty reserves based on our actual warranty claim experience. We may be required to provide for increases in warranty reserves in the future. As of December 31, 2018, we recorded warranty reserves of $99,750 against sales recorded through that date. Our future warranty reserves may not be sufficient to cover all claims or our limited experience with warranty claims may not adequately address the needs of our customers to their satisfaction.

Our insurance strategy may not be adequate to protect us from all business risks.

We may be subject, in the ordinary course of business, to claims resulting from products liability, employment-related actions, class-action lawsuits, accidents, acts of God and other actions against us.  Additionally, our insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all existing and future claims against us. We may be compelled to expend significant time and resources defending any such claims, and a loss that is uninsured or which exceeds policy limits may require us to pay substantial amounts, which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

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If we are unable to design, develop, market and sell zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems and other product offerings that address additional market opportunities, our business, prospects and operating results will suffer.

We may not be able to successfully develop new zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems or vehicles containing them, or address new market segments or develop a broader customer base. To date, we have focused our business on the sale of zero-emission electric drivetrain systems and have targeted owners of buses and commercial fleets. We will need to address additional markets and expand our customer demographic in order to further grow our business. In particular, we intend to additionally target trucks (all classes inclusive of 1–8) and vans under 14,000 pounds GVWR, which is a much different market from that of our current zero-emission drivetrain systems. Successfully offering a drivetrain system in this market requires delivering a drivetrain system with different characteristics at a price that is competitive with other similar drivetrain systems. We have only recently completed the design, component sourcing or manufacturing process for these drivetrain systems, and taken delivery of our initial truck, chassis and cargo van vehicles, so it is difficult to forecast their eventual cost, manufacturability or quality, and is equally difficult to project market acceptance and our ability to generate sales in volumes as we currently intend.. Our failure to address additional market opportunities would harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Our growth depends in part on the availability and amounts of government subsidies and incentives and the application of regulations that encourage conversion to electric or hybrid vehicles. These subsidies and incentives are limited and unpredictable and could expire or change to benefit competing technologies

We believe that the availability of government subsidies, rebates, and economic incentives is currently a critical factor considered by our customers when purchasing our zero-emission systems or converting their existing vehicles to zero-emission-electric or hybrids, and that our growth depends in large part on the availability and amounts of these subsidies and economic incentives. Any unavailability, reduction, elimination or adverse application of government subsidies, rebates, and economic incentives because of budgetary challenges, expiration, policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies, rebates, and incentives due to the perceived success of electric or hybrid vehicles or other reasons may result in the diminished price competitiveness of the alternative fuel vehicle industry generally and our zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles in particular, especially prior to our ability to significantly reduce our costs. For example, in the United States, we and our customers benefit from significant subsidies in connection with the purchase of our vehicles under the California HVIP, CARB, local air quality management districts, the EV Demonstration Project, and state-level Clean Cities programs. Under these programs, purchasers of qualifying vehicles and those who convert their existing vehicles are eligible to receive subsidies or incentives from $55,000 to $220,000, respectively, per qualifying vehicle purchased or converted. Certain regulations and programs that encourage sales of zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles could expire, be exhausted, be eliminated or applied in a way that adversely impacts sales of our commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles, either currently or at any time in the future. For example, the U.S. federal government and many state governments, as well as many national governments within the European Union, are facing political changes, fiscal crises and budgetary constraints, which could result in the elimination of programs, subsidies and incentives that encourage the purchase or conversion of zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles. In addition, grants made by the DOE under the U.S. Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to clean technology companies, such as the EV Demonstration Project grant, may be subject to a high level of scrutiny in part due to recent financial difficulties experienced by recipients of DOE loan guarantees. In addition, currently some purchase subsidies are limited in total annual amounts and have been exhausted before all willing buyers have been able to consummate a purchase. We currently benefit from certain government and economic incentives supporting the development and adoption of zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles. If government subsidies and economic incentives to produce and purchase zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles were no longer available to us or our customers, or the amounts of such subsidies and incentives were reduced or eliminated, it could have a negative impact on demand for our vehicles and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.

In addition, we anticipate that in the future there may be new opportunities for us to apply for grants, loans and other incentives from federal, state, local and foreign governments on our own behalf and on behalf of our customers. Our ability to obtain funds or incentives from government sources is subject to the availability of funds under applicable government programs and approval of our applications to participate in such programs. The application process for these funds and other incentives is and will continue to be highly competitive.

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Our service model may be costly for us to operate and may not address the service requirements of our prospective customers.

Our business plan is not to develop company owned and operated service and warranty centers but to leverage existing third party bus and truck facilities to process our new vehicles and conversions. This plan may not prove to be workable and we may be forced to establish our own facilities at some point, resulting in substantial capital expenditures and increased operating costs. Zero-emission electric and hybrid commercial vehicles incorporate new and evolving technologies and require specialized service. These special service arrangements are now and in the future may continue to be costly and we may not be able to recoup the costs of providing these services to our customers. In addition, a number of potential customers may choose not to purchase our commercial zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles because of the lack of a more widespread service network. If we are unable to satisfactorily service vehicles that utilize our technology, our ability to generate customer loyalty, grow our business and sell additional vehicles could be impaired. There can be no assurance that these service arrangements or our limited experience servicing vehicles that utilize our technology will adequately address the service requirements of our customers to their satisfaction, or that we will have sufficient resources to meet these service requirements in a timely manner as the volume of vehicles we are able to deliver annually increases. If we do not adequately address our customers’ service needs, our brand and reputation may be adversely affected, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Traditional providers do not necessarily provide maintenance and repair services directly. Customers must instead service their vehicles through franchised dealerships or through third party maintenance service providers. We are pursuing a number of agreements to provide third party service for us. However, it is unclear when or even whether such third party service providers will be able to acquire the expertise to service our zero-emission electric and hybrid commercial vehicles. As vehicles that utilize our technology are placed in more locations, we may encounter negative reactions from our customers who are frustrated that they cannot use local service stations to the same extent as they have with their conventional commercial vehicles and this frustration may result in negative publicity and reduced sales, thereby harming our business and prospects

Our decentralized assembly, sales and service model will present numerous challenges and we may not be able to execute on our plan to establish sales, service and assembly facilities in the urban areas we have targeted and our facilities in any of those markets may underperform relative to our expectations.

Our strategy of establishing sales, service, and assembly facilities in selected urban areas in the United States is substantially different from the prevailing centralized manufacturing and franchised distribution and service model used currently by our zero-emission and conversion manufacturing competitors. For example, we will not be able to utilize long established sales channels developed through a traditional franchise system to increase our sales volume, which may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Moreover, we will be competing with companies with well established distribution channels. If we determine that our decentralized model is inadequate, opening our own sales, service and assembly facility in any market generally will be capital intensive and require, among other things, establishing a local order volume that is sufficient to support the facility, finding a suitable and available location, negotiating a satisfactory lease agreement for the facility, obtaining permits and approvals from local and state authorities (which, in the case of facilities to be opened in foreign countries, may require obtaining approvals from national governments), building out the facility to our specifications and hiring and training employees to assemble, sell and service our zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles and converting existing vehicles to zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles. If we decide we must open our own facilities, we plan to seek state and local government incentives to defray the costs of opening facilities in the markets we have selected, but we may not be successful in this effort, or the incentives may not be as significant as we would like. As with any development project, the development and build-out of a facility will subject us to the risk of cost overruns and delays, which may be significant. Once our sales, service and assembly facilities are open for business, we will need to ensure that they maintain a high level of quality in order to satisfy customers and enhance the brand. Even if we are able to address all of the challenges discussed above, we have little experience in sales, service or assembly and our sales, service and assembly facilities in one or more markets may not adequately address customer service needs or be profitable and we may lose sales and our entire investment in such facilities, damaging our reputation in the process. If we are unable to establish the local order volume we require in order to open new sales, service and assembly facilities or are unable to successfully assemble, sell, and service our zero-emission electric and hybrid commercial vehicles adequately for customers and profitably operate these new facilities in our target markets, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected. If we do not adequately address our customers’ service needs, our brand and reputation will be adversely affected, which in turn could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

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We are subject to substantial regulation, which is evolving, and unfavorable changes or any failure by us to comply with these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.

Our commercial zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems, the sale of motor vehicles in general and the electronic components used in vehicles are subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws. We may incur in the future increased costs in complying with these regulations. Regulations related to the electric vehicle industry and alternative and renewable energy currently are evolving and we face risks associated with changes to these regulations or new regulations. These risks include the following:

 

Changes to the regulations governing the assembly, transportation and disposal of lithium-ion batteries;

 

Revisions in motor carrier safety laws in the United States to further enhance motor vehicle safety generally and to ensure that electric vehicles achieve levels of safety commensurate with other cars, trucks, and buses could increase the costs associated with the component parts and the manufacture, assembly, and conversion of our drivetrain systems; and

 

Revisions in consumer protection laws to ensure that consumers are fully informed of the particular operational characteristics of vehicles could increase our costs associated with warning labels or other related customer information dissemination.

To the extent the laws governing our business and vehicles change, some or all of our zero-emission drivetrain systems may not comply with applicable international, federal, state or local laws, and certain of the competitive advantages of our drivetrain systems may be reduced or eliminated, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Furthermore, compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time consuming, and expensive. To the extent compliance with changes in regulations or new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected.

Vehicle dealer and distribution laws could adversely affect our ability to sell our commercial zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles.

Sales of our zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles are and/or will be subject to international, state and local vehicle dealer and distribution laws. To the extent such laws prevent us from selling our drivetrain systems to customers located in a particular jurisdiction or require us to retain a local dealer or distributor or establish and maintain a physical presence in a jurisdiction in order to sell drivetrain systems in that jurisdiction, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected. We intend to contract with vehicle dealers to sell our drivetrain systems but we have no assurance at this time that we will successfully contract with vehicle dealers and distributors to sell our drivetrain systems.

We may face risks associated with our international business.

We plan to develop our business internationally. The sale and shipment of our products across international borders, as well as the purchase of components and products from international sources, would subject us to extensive United States, European Economic Area and other foreign governmental trade, import and export and customs regulations and laws. Compliance with these regulations and laws would be costly and may expose us to penalties for non-compliance. If we are successful in developing our international activities, we expect that such operations would be subject to a variety of risks, including:

 

difficulties in staffing and managing foreign and geographically dispersed operations;

 

having to comply with various United States and international laws, including export control laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 and anti-money laundering laws;

 

differing regulatory requirements for obtaining clearances or approvals to market our products;

 

changes in, or uncertainties relating to, foreign rules and regulations that may impact our ability to sell our products, perform services or repatriate profits to the United States;

 

tariffs and trade barriers, export regulations and other regulatory and contractual production costs and/or limitations on our ability to sell our products in certain foreign markets;

 

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

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imposition of limitations on or increase of withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures;

 

imposition of differing labor laws and standards;

 

economic, political or social instability in foreign countries and regions;

 

an inability, or reduced ability, to protect our intellectual property, including our patented zero-emission drivetrain system design, including any effect of compulsory licensing imposed by government action; and

 

availability of government subsidies or other incentives that benefit competitors in their local markets that are not available to us.

While we plan to expand into other markets in the future, our expansion plans may not be realized, or if realized, may not be successful. We expect each market to have particular regulatory and funding hurdles to overcome and future developments in these markets, including the uncertainty relating to governmental policies and regulations, could harm our business. If we expend significant time and resources on expansion plans that fail or are delayed, our reputation, business and financial condition may be harmed.

We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs upon us and cause delays in opening our sales, service and assembly facilities.

We and our operations may, once we begin production of our drivetrain systems through third party agreements, be subject to federal, state and/or local environmental laws and regulations, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, transportation, disposal and human exposure to hazardous substances and wastes. Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we expect that our business and operations may be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental and health and safety laws which may require us to change our operations. These laws can give rise to liability for investigatory costs, administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury and fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third party damages, responsibilities to investigate and take corrective or remedial actions, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.

Contamination at properties we might in the future own and operate, and properties to which hazardous substances and wastes have been and may be sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can impose liability for the full amount of remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results. We may face unexpected delays in obtaining the necessary permits and approvals required by environmental laws and regulations in connection with any planned manufacturing or operational facilities that could require significant time and financial resources and delay our ability to operate these facilities, which would adversely impact our business prospects and operating results.

Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology.

Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our intellectual property. We primarily rely on intellectual property laws, including trade secret, copyright, trademark and patent laws in the United States and abroad, and use contracts, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, employee disclosure and invention assignment agreements and other contractual rights to protect our intellectual property. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate or we may be unable to secure intellectual property protection for all of our products and services. 

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If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, our competitors could use our intellectual property to market products, services or products and services similar to ours and our ability to compete effectively would be impaired. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive to ours or infringe our intellectual property. Any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged by others or invalidated through administrative processes or litigation. The enforcement of our intellectual property rights depends on our legal actions against these infringers being successful, but these actions may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed. In addition, we might be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights, and our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Litigation to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management, whether or not it is resolved in our favor, and could ultimately result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Any patents issued in the future may not provide us with competitive advantages or may be successfully challenged by third parties.

Furthermore, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights are uncertain. Effective protection of our intellectual property may not be available to us in every country in which our products and services are available. The laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights may be inadequate. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.

We could incur substantial costs as a result of any claim of infringement of another party’s intellectual property rights.

Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may hold or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that could prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to produce, use, develop or sell our zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles or components, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. Companies in our industry are increasingly bringing and becoming subject to suits alleging infringement of proprietary rights, particularly patent rights, and our competitors may hold patents or have pending patent applications, which could be related to our business. These risks have been amplified by the increase in third parties, or non-practicing entities, whose sole primary business is to assert such claims. We have not received in the past, but may receive in the future, notices that claim we or our customers using our products and services have misappropriated or misused other parties’ intellectual property rights. In those cases, we intend to investigate the validity of these claims and, if we believe these claims have merit, to respond through licensing or other appropriate actions. If we are sued by a third party that claims that our technology infringes its rights, the litigation could be expensive and could divert our management resources. We do not currently have an extensive patent portfolio of our own, which may limit the defenses available to us in any such litigation.

In addition, in many instances, we have agreed to indemnify our customers against certain claims that our products and services infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. The results of any intellectual property litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, may require us to do one or more of the following:

 

cease offering or using technologies or producing, using, developing or selling vehicles or conversions that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

 

make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;

 

obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, to sell or use the relevant technology; or

 

redesign technology or vehicles that utilize our technology to avoid infringement.

If we are required to make substantial payments or undertake any of the other actions noted above as a result of any intellectual property infringement claims against us or any obligation to indemnify our customers for such claims, such payments or costs could have a material adverse effect upon our business and financial results. Furthermore, our business could be adversely affected by any significant disputes between us and our customers as to the applicability or scope of our indemnification obligations to them.

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In many of our zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems we use battery packs composed of lithium-ion battery cells, which, if not appropriately managed and controlled, on rare occasions have been observed to catch fire or vent smoke and flames. If any such events occur in our commercial electric vehicles, we could face liability for damage or injury, adverse publicity and a potential safety recall.

The battery packs in our manufactured or converted vehicles will use lithium-ion cells, which have been used for years in laptop computers, cell phones and electric vehicles. On rare occasions, if not appropriately managed and controlled, lithium-ion cells can rapidly release the energy they contain by venting smoke and flames in a manner that can ignite nearby materials as well as other lithium-ion cells. Highly publicized incidents of laptop computers, cell phones, and Tesla, Inc.’s electric vehicles bursting into flames have focused consumer attention on the safety of these cells. More recently, a limited number of side-impact tests carried out by NHTSA on non-commercial passenger vehicles containing lithium-ion batteries and thermal management systems containing liquid coolant have resulted in post-collision fires under certain conditions. Any failure of a competitor’s electric vehicle may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our electric vehicles. These events have raised questions about the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications. A field failure of our battery packs may occur, particularly if one of our manufactured or converted vehicles is involved in a collision, which could damage the vehicle or lead to personal injury or death and may subject us to lawsuits, product recalls, or redesign efforts, all of which would be time consuming and expensive. Furthermore, there is some risk of electrocution if individuals who attempt to repair battery packs on our manufactured or converted vehicles do not follow applicable maintenance and repair protocols. Any such damage or injury would likely lead to adverse publicity and potentially a safety recall. Any such adverse publicity or negative public perceptions regarding the suitability of lithium-ion cells for automotive applications or any future incident involving lithium-ion cells such as a vehicle or other fire, even if such incident does not involve vehicles that utilize our technology, could seriously harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Unfavorable conditions in the global economy, rising interest rates and capital market liquidity issues could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.

Revenue growth and potential profitability of our business depends on the level of demand in the markets we serve. To the extent that weak economic conditions cause our customers and potential customers to freeze or reduce their capital expenditure or operational budgets, particularly those for zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles, demand for our products and services may be negatively affected. Historically, economic downturns have resulted in overall reductions in these budgets and corresponding spending. If economic conditions deteriorate or do not materially improve, our customers and potential customers may elect to decrease their operational budgets or defer or reconsider product and service purchases, which would limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.

Our business depends on our Chief Executive Officer and management team, retaining and attracting qualified management, key employees and technical personnel and expanding our sales and marketing capabilities.

Our success depends upon the continued service of Mr. Reynolds, our Chairman, CEO and President, as well as other members of our senior management team. It also depends on our ability to continue to attract and retain additional highly qualified management, technical, engineering, operating and sales and marketing personnel. We do not currently maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our employees. While we have employment contracts with Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Menerey, our Chief Financial Officer, we do not have fixed term employment agreements with any of our other management employees, all who could terminate their relationship with us at any time. Our business also requires skilled technical, engineering, product and sales personnel, who are in high demand and are difficult to recruit and retain. As we continue to innovate and develop our products and services and develop our business, we will require personnel with expertise in these areas. There is increasing competition, especially in California, for talented individuals such as design engineers, manufacturing engineers, and other skilled employees with specialized knowledge of electric vehicles, zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems and conversions. This competition affects both our ability to retain key employees and hire new ones. Key talent may leave us due to various factors, such as a very competitive labor market for talented individuals with automotive or transportation experience. Our success depends upon our ability to hire new employees in a timely manner and retain current employees. Additionally, we compete with both mature and prosperous companies that have far greater financial resources than we do and start-ups and emerging companies that promise short-term growth opportunities. The loss of Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Menerey or any other member of our senior management team, or an inability to attract, retain and motivate additional highly skilled employees required for the planned development and expansion of our business, could delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and could materially harm our business.  

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The forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the markets in which we compete achieve the forecasted growth, our business may not grow at similar rates, if at all.

Growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates, which may not prove to be accurate. Forecasts relating to the expected growth in zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles, electric and hybrid drivetrain systems and conversions and other markets may prove to be inaccurate. Even if these markets experience the forecasted growth, we may not grow our business at similar rates, or at all. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties.

We will require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We need sufficient capital to fund our ongoing operations and continue our development. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and will require additional funds to respond to business challenges, such as keeping pace with technological developments in order to remain competitive in our evolving industry, improve our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. While we believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations during the next twelve months, we will need to engage in additional equity or debt financings to secure additional funds.  We do not expect to be able to satisfy our cash requirements solely through product sales in the near future, therefore we expect to rely on the net proceeds from our previous offerings to fund our operations.  If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when and if we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth, and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired.

We may selectively pursue acquisitions of complementary businesses and technologies, which could divert capital and our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.

We may selectively pursue acquisitions of complementary businesses and technologies that we believe could complement or expand our applications, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.

In addition, we have limited experience with acquiring other businesses or technologies. If we acquire businesses or technologies, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully, or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:

 

inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;

 

unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;

 

incurrence of acquisition-related costs;

 

difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;

 

difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;

 

difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business onto our applications and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support or professional services model of the acquired company;

 

diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

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adverse effects to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;

 

the potential loss of key employees; and

 

use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.

In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. We may also unknowingly inherit liabilities from acquired businesses or assets that arise after the acquisition and that are not adequately covered by indemnities. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position may suffer.

If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and effective disclosure controls and procedures, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and provide a management report on the internal control over financial reporting. Once we are no longer either an “emerging growth company” or a smaller reporting company, such report must be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act also requires that our principal executive officer and principal financial officer conclude as to the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures on a quarterly basis. As of December 31, 2018, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective. Due to our size, we rely heavily on key management for day-to-day operations and internal controls, and our size and correspondingly limited resources give rise to additional internal control weaknesses, including our disclosure controls.

If we fail to detect errors on a timely basis, our financial statements may be materially misstated and if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, if and when required, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

We are an emerging growth company and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies including, but not limited to, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Investors may find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” (ii) the end of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year, (iii) the date on which we issue more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period or (iv) the end of the fiscal year in which the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering occurs. 

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We may not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss or research and development tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.

As of December 31, 2018, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) due to prior period losses. Under previous tax laws, these NOLs, if not utilized, would have begun to expire from 2032 through 2036 for federal and state purposes, respectively. These net operating loss carryforwards could have expired unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could adversely affect our profitability. Due to changes in federal tax laws under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, the NOLs, while limited to 80% in terms of amounts to be utilized, do not expire. California tax law has not changed to conform to the new federal law on NOLs, and the information above thus still applies to our California NOLs.

In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.

Future issuances of our stock could cause an “ownership change.” It is possible that any future ownership change could have a material effect on the use of our net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our profitability.

Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.

Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.

Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Securities

The price of our common stock is and is likely to continue to be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could result in substantial losses for our stockholders and may prevent you from reselling your shares at or above the price you paid for your shares.

The market price of our common stock is and is likely to remain volatile and may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

overall performance of the equity markets;

 

the development and sustainability of an active trading market for our common stock;

 

our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies;

 

changes in the estimates of our operating results that we provide to the public, our failure to meet these projections or changes in recommendations by securities analysts that elect to follow our common stock;

 

press releases or other public announcements by us or others, including our filings with the SEC;

 

changes in the market perception of all-electric and hybrid products and services generally or in the effectiveness of our products and services in particular;

 

announcements of technological innovations, new applications, features, functionality or enhancements to products, services or products and services by us or by our competitors;

 

announcements of acquisitions, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;

 

announcements of customer additions and customer cancellations or delays in customer purchases;

 

announcements regarding litigation involving us;

 

recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of debt or equity securities;

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our entry into new markets;

 

regulatory developments in the United States or foreign countries;

 

the economy as a whole, market conditions in our industry, and the industries of our customers;

 

the expiration of market standoff or contractual lock-up agreements;

 

the size of our market float; and

 

any other factors discussed in this report.

The market price and volume of our common stock could fluctuate, and in the past has fluctuated, relative to our limited public float. We are particularly subject to fluctuations-as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) during the year ended December 31, 2018, our stock price reached highs of $5.14 and lows of $0.16, with daily trade volumes reaching a high of 40,058,400 and a low of 9,300. In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many technology companies. Stock prices of many technology companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies.

In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. In August 2018, a purported class action lawsuit was filed in California against us, certain of our executives officers, and the two underwriters of our offering of common stock under Regulation A in June 2017, which alleges that documents related to our June 2017 offering contained materially false and misleading statements and that all defendants violated Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and that we and the individual defendants violated Section 15 of the Securities Act, in connection therewith. Additionally, we could in the future be the target of additional litigation. Any such litigation could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The warrants issued in connection with our January 2018 public offering contain anti-dilution rights which could cause their exercise price to be reduced and the number of shares underlying such warrants to be correspondingly increased, which could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and adversely affect the market price of our securities.

The warrants issued and sole in our January 2018 public offering include anti-dilution rights, which provide that if, at any time the warrants are outstanding, we issue or are deemed to have issued any shares of common stock or securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock (except for certain exempt issuances, including the issuance of certain stock options, shares of common stock upon the exercise of securities outstanding prior to January 2018 and securities issued in connection with certain acquisitions or strategic transactions) for consideration less than the then current exercise price of the warrants, the exercise price of such warrants is automatically reduced to the price per share of such new issuance. Further, simultaneously with any adjustment to the exercise price of such warrants, the number of shares of common stock that may be purchased upon exercise of such warrants will be increased or decreased proportionately, such that after such adjustment the aggregate exercise price payable thereunder for the adjusted number of shares of common stock underlying such warrants will be the same as the aggregate exercise price in effect immediately prior to such adjustment. To the extent that we issue or are or deemed to have issued securities for consideration that is substantially less than the exercise price of the warrants issued in our January 2018 public offering, holders of our common stock will experience dilution, which may be substantial and which could lower the market price of our securities. Further, the potential application of such anti-dilution rights may prevent us from seeking additional financing, which would adversely affect our ability to finance our operations and continue to support our growth initiatives.

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We have and will continue to incur increased costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies, which adversely affect our operating results.

As a newly public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we are incurring and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, including costs associated with public company reporting, corporate governance requirements, and investor relations expenses. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel have adapted to the requirements of being a public company and devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, these rules and regulations have made it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we have incurred substantially higher costs to obtain increased coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as our executive officers.

The increased costs associated with operating as a public company will decrease our net income or increase our net loss, and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. Additionally, if these requirements divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Nasdaq may delist our common stock from trading on its exchange, which could limit stockholders’ ability to trade our common stock.

As a listed company on Nasdaq, we are required to meet certain financial, public float, bid price and liquidity standards on an ongoing basis in order to continue the listing of our common stock. If we fail to meet these continued listing requirements, our common stock may be subject to delisting. If we fail to meet these continued listing requirements, our common stock may be subject to delisting. As previously reported, on August 16, 2018, we received a letter from the staff of the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq (“Staff”) notifying us that, for the previous 30 consecutive business days, the bid price for our common stock had closed below the minimum $1.00 per share requirement for continued listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market under Nasdaq’s Listing Rule 5550(a)(2), which requires a minimum bid price of $1.00 per share (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”). In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we were automatically afforded an initial “compliance period” of 180 calendar days following the date of the notification, or until February 12, 2019, to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement. Although we did not regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement by February 12, 2019, we received a letter from the Staff on February 13, 2019 notifying us that, pursuant to Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we were eligible for an additional “compliance period” of 180 calendar days, or until August 12, 2019, to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement. The Staff’s determination in the February 13, 2019 notification letter was based on us meeting, as of the last day of the initial “compliance period”, the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other applicable requirements for initial listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market with the exception of the Minimum Bid Price Requirement, and our written notice to NASDAQ of our intention to regain compliance by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. We may achieve compliance during this additional 180 calendar day “compliance period” if the closing bid price of our common stock is at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days, but generally no more than 20 consecutive business days, prior to August 12, 2019.

If we choose to implement a reverse stock split in order to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement, we must complete the split no later than 10 business days prior to August 12, 2019 in order to timely regain compliance. If we do not regain compliance by August 12, 2019, the Staff indicated that it will provide written notification to us that our common stock will be delisted. At that time, we may appeal the Staff’s delisting determination to a NASDAQ Hearings Panel (“Panel”). Our common stock would remain listed pending the Panel’s decision. There can be no assurance that, if we do appeal any delisting determination by the Staff to the Panel, that such appeal would be successful. If our common stock is delisted and we are not able to list our common stock on another national securities exchange, we expect our securities would be quoted on an over-the-counter market. If this were to occur, our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences, including limited availability of market quotations for our common stock and reduced liquidity for the trading of our securities. In addition, we could experience a decreased ability to issue additional securities and obtain additional financing in the future.

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our common stock would be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our common stock price and trading volume to decline.

We may fail to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business, which would cause our stock price to decline.

We may provide guidance regarding our expected financial and business performance, such as projections regarding sales and production, as well as anticipated future revenues, gross margins, profitability and cash flows. Correctly identifying key factors affecting business conditions and predicting future events is inherently an uncertain process and our guidance may not ultimately be accurate. Our guidance is based on certain assumptions such as those relating to anticipated production and sales volumes and average sales prices, supplier and commodity costs, and planned cost reductions. If our guidance is not accurate or varies from actual results due to our inability to meet our assumptions or the impact on our financial performance that could occur as a result of various risks and uncertainties, the market value of our common stock could decline significantly.

The concentration of our common stock ownership with our executive officers, directors and affiliates will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.

Our executive officers, directors and owners of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock and their respective affiliates beneficially owned, in the aggregate 34.47% of our outstanding common stock as of February 6, 2019. This percentage includes both outstanding shares of common stock and stock options that are vested and exercisable as of that date. These stockholders will therefore have significant influence over management and affairs and over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets, for the foreseeable future. This concentrated control will limit our stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders do not view as beneficial. This ownership could affect the value of our common stock.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, stockholders must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.

Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could discourage a takeover that stockholders may consider favorable.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. These provisions include the following: 

 

authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to defend against a takeover attempt;

 

establish a classified board of directors, as a result of which the successors to the directors whose terms have expired will be elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the third annual meeting following their election;

 

require that directors only be removed from office for cause and only upon a supermajority stockholder vote;

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provide that vacancies on the board of directors, including newly created directorships, may be filled only by a majority vote of directors then in office rather than by stockholders;

 

prevent stockholders from calling special meetings; and

 

prohibit stockholder action by written consent, requiring all actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders.

In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder becomes an “interested” stockholder.

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2.

PROPERTIES

We maintain our principal office in Corona, California and additional office and storage space in Los Altos, Pomona, Santa Ana, San Francisco, and Stockton, California under a combination of leases and subleases that are month-to-month or expire in February 2023. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future, and that, should it be needed, we will be able to secure additional space to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.

Item 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Except as set forth below, we know of no material, existing or pending, legal proceedings against our Company, nor are we involved as a plaintiff in any material proceeding or pending litigation. There are no proceedings in which any of our directors, officers or affiliates, or any registered or beneficial stockholder, is an adverse party or has a material interest adverse to our interest.

On August 2, 2018, Edward R. Monfort, our former Chief Technology Officer and former director, filed a complaint, captioned Edward R. Monfort v. ADOMANI, Inc., et al., Case No.: 18CV332757, in the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Santa Clara, against us and certain of our executive officers, alleging that we and the other defendants (i) breached the terms of certain common stock subscription agreements to which Mr. Monfort is a party, (ii) fraudulently deprived Mr. Monfort of certain purported equity in the Company and (iii) fraudulently induced Mr. Monfort to execute a release of claims in connection with his June 2016 employment agreement. Mr. Monfort seeks unspecified monetary damages, declaratory relief regarding the extent of his equity ownership in the Company and other relief. On August 24, 2018, we filed a notice of removal pursuant to which we removed the case to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. On September 24, 2018, Mr. Monfort filed a motion for remand, seeking to remand the proceeding from the United States District Court for the Northern District of California back to the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Santa Clara.  On January 8, 2019, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California denied the motion for remand. On February 7, 2019, we answered Mr. Monfort’s complaint and filed counterclaims against Mr. Monfort alleging counterclaims for: (i) breach of contract; (ii) declaratory judgment; (iii) breach of fiduciary duty; (iv) wrongful dilution; and (v) conversion.  We believe that Mr. Monfort’s lawsuit is without merit and intend to vigorously defend the action.

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On August 23, 2018, a purported class action lawsuit captioned M.D. Ariful Mollik v. ADOMANI, Inc. et al., Case No. RIC 1817493, was filed in the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Riverside against us, certain of our executive officers, and the two underwriters of our offering of common stock under Regulation A in June 2017. This complaint alleges that documents related to our offering of common stock under Regulation A in June 2017 contained materially false and misleading statements and that all defendants violated Section 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act, and that we and the individual defendants violated Section 15 of the Securities Act, in connection therewith. The plaintiff seeks on behalf of himself and all class members: (i) certification of a class under California substantive law and procedure; (ii) compensatory damages and interest in an amount to be proven at trial; (iii) reasonable costs and expenses incurred in this action, including counsel fees and expert fees; (iv) awarding of rescission or rescissionary damages; and (v) equitable relief at the discretion of the Court. Plaintiff’s counsel has subsequently filed a first amended complaint and a second amended complaint. We believe that the purported class action lawsuit is without merit and intend to vigorously defend the action.

Item 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

45


Part II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq under the symbol “ADOM”.

Holders

As of February 7, 2019, we had approximately 122 record holders of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. The number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate that we will pay any dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Instead, we currently plan to retain any earnings to finance the growth of our business. Any future determination relating to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations and capital requirements as well as other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

We did not purchase any of our equity securities during the period covered by this Annual Report.

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

Not applicable.

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Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included in Part IV of this Annual Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, beliefs and expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors including, but not limited to, those discussed in Item 1 (Business) and Item 1A (Risk Factors) of Part I of this Annual Report.

Overview

We design and cause to be designed advanced zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems for integration in new school buses and medium to heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles. We also design and cause to be designed re-power conversion kits to replace conventional drivetrain systems for combustion powered vehicles with zero-emission electric or hybrid drivetrain systems. We expect to expand our product offerings to include the sale of zero-emission systems in vehicles manufactured by outside, OEM partners located in China, Malaysia and the Philippines, that can be marketed, sold, warrantied and serviced through our developing distribution and service network.

Our drivetrain systems can include options for telemetrics for remote monitoring, electric power-export and various levels of grid-connectivity. Our zero-emission systems may also grow to include automated charging infrastructure and “intelligent” stationary energy storage that enables fast vehicle charging, emergency back-up facility power, and access to the developing, grid-connected opportunities for the aggregate power available from groups of large battery packs.

In addition to providing the zero-emission all-electric and hybrid drivetrain systems and re-power conversion kits mentioned above, we are also a provider of new zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles focused on total cost of ownership. Our drivetrain systems and vehicles are designed to help fleet operators unlock the benefits of green technology and address the challenges of local, state and federal regulatory compliance and traditional-fuel price cost instability, in addition to the health benefits that are a benefit of this technology.

We generated minimal revenue from inception through June 30, 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we generated $5.0 million, most of which we generated in the second half of 2018. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, our net losses were $11.0 million and $21.9 million, respectively.

Factors Affecting Our Performance

We believe that the growth and future success of our business depend on various opportunities, challenges and other factors, including the following.

New Customers. We are competing with other companies and technologies to help fleet managers and their districts/companies more efficiently and cost-effectively manage their fleet operations. Once these fleet managers have decided they want to buy from us, we still face challenges helping them obtain financing options to reduce the cost barriers to purchasing. We may also encounter customers with inadequate electrical services at their facilities that may delay their ability to purchase from us.

Investment in Growth. We plan to continue to invest for long-term growth. We anticipate that our operating expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we invest in research and development to enhance our zero-emission systems; design, develop and manufacture our drivetrain systems and their components; increase our sales and marketing to acquire new customers; and increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations. We believe that these investments will contribute to our long-term growth, although they will adversely affect our results of operations in the near term. In addition, the timing of these investments can result in fluctuations in our annual and quarterly operating results.

47


Zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain system experience. Our dealer and service network is not currently established, although we do have certain agreements in place. One issue they may have, and we may encounter, is finding appropriately trained technicians with zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems experience. Our performance will depend on having a robust dealer and service network, which will require appropriately trained technicians to be successful. Because vehicles that utilize our technology are based on a different technology platform than traditional internal combustion engines, individuals with sufficient training in zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles may not be available to hire, and we may need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we do hire. If we are not able to attract, assimilate, train or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the future, or do so cost-effectively, our performance would be significantly and adversely affected.

Market Growth. We believe the market for all-electric and hybrid solutions for alternative fuel technology, specifically all-electric and hybrid vehicles will continue to grow as more purchases of new zero-emission vehicles and as more conversions of existing fleet vehicles to zero-emission vehicles are made. However, unless the costs to produce such vehicles decrease dramatically, purchases of our products will continue to depend in large part on financing subsidies from government agencies. We cannot be assured of the continued availability or the amounts of such assistance to our customers.

Revenue Growth from Additional Products. We seek to add to our product offerings additional zero-emission vehicles of all sizes manufactured by outside OEM partners, to be marketed, sold, warrantied and serviced through our developing distribution and service network, as well as add other ancillary products discussed elsewhere in this report.

Revenue Growth from Additional Geographic Markets. We believe that growth opportunities for our products exist internationally, as well. Our future performance will depend in part upon the growth of these additional markets. Accordingly, our business and operating results will be significantly affected by our ability to timely enter and effectively address these emerging markets and the speed with which and extent to which demand for our products in these markets grows.

Components of Our Results of Operations

Sales

Sales are recognized from the sales of advanced zero-emission electric and hybrid drivetrain systems for fleet vehicles, from the sale of new, purpose-built zero-emission electric or hybrid vehicles, and from contracting to provide engineering services. Sales are recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, as discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part IV of this Annual Report.

Cost of Sales

Cost of sales includes those costs related to the development, manufacture, and distribution of our products. Specifically, we include in cost of sales each of the following: material costs (including commodity costs); freight costs; labor and other costs related to the development and manufacture of our products; and other associated costs. Cost of sales for long-term contracts are recognized proportionate to the prescribed gross profit of each contract. Cost of sales also includes costs related to the valuation of inventory due to impairment, obsolescence, or shrinkage.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Selling, general and administrative expenses include all corporate and administrative functions that support our company, including personnel-related expense and stock-based compensation costs; costs related to investor relations activities; warranty costs, including product recall and customer satisfaction program costs; consulting costs; marketing-related expenses; and other expenses that cannot be included in cost of sales.

Consulting and Research and Development Expenses

These expenses are related to our consulting and research and development activity.

48


Other Income/Expenses, Net

Other income/expenses include non-operating income and expenses, including interest income and expense.

Provision for Income Taxes

We account for income taxes in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ASC 740 “Income Taxes,” which requires the recognition of deferred income tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statements carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Under FASB ASC 740, the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period the enactment occurs. A valuation allowance is provided for certain deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that we will not realize tax assets through future operations. Because we have incurred only losses to this point, no provision for income taxes has been made.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017

Sales

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In thousands, except percentages

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

Sales

 

$

5,011

 

 

$

425

 

 

$

4,586

 

 

 

1,079.06

 

%

 

Sales were $5.0 million and $425,000 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in sales is primarily due to products and services sold to Blue Bird, and work performed under a DOE grant awarded to Blue Bird for which we were selected to provide products and services.

Cost of Goods Sold

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In thousands, except percentages

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

$

4,878

 

 

$

479

 

 

$

4,399

 

 

 

918.37

 

%

 

Cost of goods sold was $4.9 million and $478,772 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase is primarily due to costs related to products and services sold to Blue Bird, and work performed under the DOE grant discussed in “Sales” above, as well as a $15,000 write-down of inventory carrying cost recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2018.

Operating Expenses

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In thousands, except percentages

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

General and administrative1

 

$

10,651

 

 

$

18,705

 

 

$

(8,054

)

 

 

-43.06

 

%

Consulting

 

 

171

 

 

 

2,252

 

 

 

(2,081

)

 

 

-92.41

 

%

Research and development

 

 

686

 

 

 

587

 

 

 

99

 

 

 

16.87

 

%

Total operating expenses, net

 

$

11,508

 

 

$

21,544

 

 

$

(10,036

)

 

 

-118.60

 

%

 

1 Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:

49


 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In thousands, except percentages

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

$

6,410

 

 

$

15,039

 

 

$

(8,629

)

 

 

-57.38

 

%

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses were $10.7 million and $18.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  The decrease is primarily due to decreases of $8.6 million in non-cash stock-based compensation expense and  in other general and administrative expenses, offset by increases of $351,266 in legal and professional fees, $130,000 in bad debt expense, and $119,670 in insurance expense. The decrease in stock-based compensation expense primarily relates to an expense reduction resulting from the forfeiture of options to purchase an aggregate of 3,450,000 shares of common stock previously issued to certain employees and directors in March 2017.

Consulting

Consulting expenses were $170,824 and $2.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  The decrease is primarily due to the issuance of a warrant to purchase 350,000 shares of common stock, which was valued at $1.2 million, and the payment of $800,000, in each case pursuant to the terms of a settlement agreement we entered into during the six months ended June 30, 2017.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses were $686,367 and $586,899 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  The increase is primarily due to expanded product development in 2018.

Interest Expense

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In thousands, except percentages

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

$ Change

 

 

% Change

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

$

46

 

 

$

501

 

 

$

(455

)

 

 

-90.82

 

%

 

Interest expense consists of the following:

 

accrued third party finance charge amortization;

 

accrued benefit conversion features applicable to debt instruments; and

 

accrued interest on existing debt.

Interest expense was $46,362 and $501,857 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to the repayment of the $2,149,000 of remaining principal and accrued and unpaid interest outstanding under our 9% secured notes, originally issued during 2015, upon receipt of the proceeds from our follow-on offering in January 2018 (see Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report).

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Cash Flows

A summary of our operating, investing and financing activities is shown in the following table:

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

In thousands

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Cash flows used in operating activities

 

$

(4,511

)

 

$

(5,578

)

Cash flows used in investing activities

 

 

(3,705

)

 

 

(614

)

Cash flows provided by financing activities

 

 

9,529

 

 

 

7,700

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

1,313

 

 

$

1,508

 

 

Cash Used in Operating Activities

Cash used in operating activities is primarily the result of our operating losses, reduced by the impact of the non-cash stock-based compensation and warrant amounts. These numbers are further impacted by adjustments for non-cash interest expense.

Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $4.5 million, as a result of a net loss of $11.0 million, stock-based compensation expense of $6.4 million, other non-cash charges of $643,415, and changes in operating assets and liabilities that used $516,738 in cash. Accounts receivable increased by $996,622 due to 2018 sales activity and the timing of accounts receivable receipts. Other current assets increased by $496,118,  primarily due to increases in deposits for inventory and prepaid insurance premiums.  Inventory decreased by $210,000 due to the sale of a bus, previously held in inventory as of December 31, 2017, and sold during 2018. Other non-current assets increased by $70,977 due primarily to the amortization of the right-of-use asset established in conjunction with the new lease accounting standard. Accounts payable increased by $312,280, primarily due to 2018 sales activity and the timing of payment for product purchases. Accrued liabilities increased by $453,605, due primarily to production costs of $365,420 and increases in other ongoing accrual accounts.  Other non-current liabilities decreased by $70,500 due to reclassification as current liabilities in conjunction with the new lease accounting standard.

Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was $5.6 million, as a result of a net loss of $21.9 million, stock-based compensation expense of $15.0 million, other non-cash charges of $1.6 million, and changes in operating assets and liabilities that used $367,124 in cash. Other current assets increased by $672,150 due primarily to increases in other receivables of $276,314 and prepaid expenses of $395,836, primarily relating to deposits for inventory. Accrued liabilities increased by $359,265 due primarily to the accrual of employee bonuses of $105,594, accrued franchise taxes of $99,400, a current liability established relating to the new lease accounting standard of $70,492, and other accrued expenses of $83,779. Non-current liabilities increased by $289,012 due to the addition of a non-current liability established in conjunction with the new lease accounting standard. Other non-current assets increased by $266,904 due primarily to the $359,504 addition of a right-of-use asset established in conjunction with the new lease accounting standard, offset by a decrease in deposits of $92,600. Additionally, accounts payable decreased by $76,345.

We expect cash used in operating activities to fluctuate significantly in future periods as a result of a number of factors, some of which are outside of our control, including, among others: the success we achieve in generating revenue; the success we have in helping our customers obtain financing to subsidize their purchases of our products; our ability to efficiently develop our dealer and service network; the costs of batteries and other materials utilized to make our products; the extent to which we need to invest additional funds in research and development; and the amount of expense we incur to satisfy future warranty claims.

Cash Used in Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $3.7 million, due to the purchase of liquid marketable securities in the amount of $3.9 million, the repayment of a $500,000 note receivable from a third party, the issuance of a $200,000 note receivable to another third party, and $79,739 for the acquisition of property and equipment.

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Net cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was $612,856, due to the issuance of a $500,000 note to a third party, and $112,856 for the acquisition of property and equipment relating to the lease of our new office facility.

Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2018 was $9.5 million, due to approximately $9.8 million in net proceeds from the closing of our follow-on offering on January 9, 2018, $1.7 million in net proceeds received under our line of credit with Morgan Stanley and $99,470 in proceeds received from the exercise of stock options, offset by the $2.1 million repayment of notes payable principal and related accrued and unpaid interest.

Net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 was $7.7 million due to net proceeds of $12.6 million received from the closing of our initial public offering under Regulation A and net notes payable proceeds of $500,000, reduced by a $3.6 million repayment of notes payable principal, and related interest of $346,736. The net increase was further offset by payments for costs related to our offering under Regulation A of $1.7 million and payments made for our follow-on offering of $75,500.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

From our incorporation in 2012 until the completion of our offerings of common stock under Regulation A in June 2017 and units in January 2018, we financed our operations and capital expenditures through issuing equity capital, convertible notes and notes payable. Prior to 2015, a significant portion of this funding was provided by affiliated stockholders, as discussed below and in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this Annual Report, although we raised significant equity capital in late 2015, and also raised the majority of our previously outstanding notes in 2015 from non-affiliated third parties.

As of December 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $3.8 million, and short-term liquid marketable securities of $3.9 million. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to fund our operations during the next eighteen months. However, we may not successfully execute our business plan, and if we do not, we may need additional capital to continue our operations and support the increased working capital requirements associated with the fulfillment of purchase orders.   

The sale of additional equity securities in the future could result in additional dilution to our stockholders and those securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock. The incurrence of additional indebtedness in the future would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financial covenants that would restrict our operations. Such capital, if required, may not be available on terms that are favorable to us or at all. We are currently incurring operating deficits that are expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and as we begin to execute our marketing plan, we expect our operating deficit will continue to grow until we begin to generate a sufficient level of sales revenue from our sales and marketing efforts. The sale of additional equity securities in the future could result in additional dilution to our stockholders and those securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock. The incurrence of additional indebtedness in the future would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financial covenants that would restrict our operations. Such capital, if required, may not be available on terms that are favorable to us or at all. We are currently incurring operating deficits that are expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and as we begin to execute our marketing plan, we expect our operating deficit will continue to grow until we begin to generate a sufficient level of sales revenue from our sales and marketing efforts.

52


Debt

As of December 31, 2016, we had borrowed $645,000 from Acaccia Family Trust, formerly a related party, and other parties by issuing notes convertible into our common stock at prices ranging from $0.10 per share to $0.50 per share. On January 30, 2017, the notes plus accrued interest, a total of $725,584, converted into 6,868,578 shares of our common stock. As of December 31, 2016, we also had outstanding a total of $4,255,325 of secured promissory notes, net of $884,700 principal amount of these secured notes that were exchanged for 884,700 shares of common stock on September 1, 2016. In November 2016, we borrowed $500,000 from an unaffiliated stockholder for working capital needs and, in March 2017, borrowed an additional $500,000 from the same stockholder for additional working capital required due to delays in completing our offering under Regulation A. In December 2016, we borrowed $500,000 from a third party pursuant to a secured promissory note, and immediately made a $500,000 loan to another third party who operates in the zero-emissions drivetrain system technology industry. All notes referenced in this paragraph were scheduled to mature in 2017. In connection with the initial closing of our offering under Regulation A, on May 12, 2017, we repaid the $1,500,000 outstanding under the three unsecured notes that we issued in November 2016, December 2016 and March 2017, respectively.

Regulation A Offering

On June 9, 2017, we completed an offering of common stock under Regulation A. We sold 2,852,275 shares of common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $14.6 million, of which approximately $1.7 million was paid to certain selling stockholders for 342,273 shares of common stock they sold in the offering. Net proceeds, after deducting commissions, expenses, and fees of approximately $2.5 million, were approximately $10.0 million.

Follow-On Public Offering

On January 9, 2018, we completed a public offering of 3,666,667 units for gross proceeds of $11.0 million. For each unit sold in the offering, we issued one share of our common stock and a warrant to purchase 1.5 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $4.50. Net proceeds, after deducting commissions, expenses, and fees of approximately $1.2 million, were approximately $9.8 million.

2015 Note Financing and Warrants to Purchase Common Stock

During 2015, we issued two-year secured promissory notes to third party lenders in an aggregate principal amount of $5,147,525 (the “Note Financing”).  As of December 31, 2017, we had repaid $2,106,325 of principal outstanding under such notes, and related cumulative interest of $986,007. The secured promissory notes were due initially on various dates between January 31 and November 30, 2017. Prior to the maturity dates of the notes, we exercised our option to extend the maturity dates six months pursuant to the provisions of such notes. The notes bore interest at an annual rate of 9%, payable monthly in arrears. The note obligations were secured by a lien on all of our assets. On September 1, 2016, holders of $884,700 of principal amount of the notes exchanged their notes for 884,700 shares of our common stock, thereby reducing the principal amount outstanding under the notes to $3,195,325. The remaining outstanding balance of $2,149,000 at December 31, 2017 was repaid in early January 2018 from the proceeds of the follow-on offering discussed above.

In connection with the Note Financing, in 2015, we agreed to issue a warrant to a third party to purchase 1,250,000 shares of our common stock at $4.00 per share, exercisable through September 1, 2021. On September 1, 2016, we issued the warrant to such third party.

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Credit Facilities

Effective May 2, 2018, we secured a line of credit from Morgan Stanley Private Bank, National Association (“Morgan Stanley”). Borrowings under the line of credit bear interest at 30-day LIBOR plus 2.0%. There is no maturity date for the line, but Morgan Stanley may at any time, in its sole discretion and without cause, demand that we immediately repay any and all outstanding obligations under the line of credit in whole or in part. The line is secured by cash and cash equivalents maintained by us in our Morgan Stanley accounts, which was approximately $7.6 million at December 31, 2018, and borrowings under the line may not exceed 95% of our cash and cash equivalent balances, subject to a maximum of $7 million. Such borrowing threshold, however, is subject to change at Morgan Stanley’s discretion and depends upon the holdings in our accounts, the maturity dates of the securities in the accounts and the credit quality of the underlying insurers. As of December 31, 2018, the principal amount outstanding under this line of credit was $1.7 million, and the undrawn borrowing availability was $5.3 million.

Capital Expenditures

We do not have any contractual obligations for ongoing capital expenditures at this time. We do, however, purchase equipment necessary to conduct our operations on an as needed basis.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.

Indemnification Agreements

As we have generated sales, we have provided customers with indemnification of varying scope against claims of intellectual property infringement by third parties arising from the use of our products. We do not estimate the costs related to these indemnification provisions to be significant and are unable to determine the maximum potential impact of these indemnification provisions on our future results of operations. In addition, we have directors and officers liability coverage to further mitigate our indemnification exposure. No demands have been made upon us to provide indemnification and there are no claims that we are aware of that could have a material effect on our consolidated balance sheet, consolidated statement of operations, or consolidated cash flows.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.

We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with the preparation of the financial statement information presented in this report are not significant because we have not generated any appreciable revenue. Therefore, we have not had to make assumptions or estimates related to a reserve for bad debt expense. As to future warranty costs to be incurred, we recorded a warranty reserve against 2018 revenue and will continue to evaluate the provision for such expenses in the future. These two items will have significant potential impact on our consolidated financial statements in the future. We also have no significant current litigation on which we have to provide reserves or estimate accruals and our investment to date in property, plant and equipment has not been significant. We therefore have not had to rely on estimates related to impairment. We have not generated any taxable income to date, so have not had to make any decisions about future profitability that would impact recording income tax expense. Assuming we are able to generate future profits by executing our business plan, these areas, among others, will most likely be our critical accounting policies and estimates.

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On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under ASC Topic 605.  The adoption of ASC Topic 606 did not result in a cumulative impact on us as of January 1, 2018 and the application of ASC Topic 606 had no impact on our statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018.

We have early-adopted ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The amendment requires companies to recognize leased assets and liabilities on the balance sheet and to disclose key information regarding leasing arrangements. This guidance is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early application of this amendment is permitted for all entities. While we do not anticipate that, going forward, leases will be material to our balance sheet, we chose to early-adopt as of December 31, 2017 due to our entering into new leases during the year. These new leases are the only leases required to be included on our balance sheet under the new standard. Consequently, the adoption of the new lease standard did not have any impact to prior period information. Further, these leases are operating leases and, therefore, have no income statement impact resulting from the adoption of this standard.

Contingencies

Certain conditions may exist as of the date the financial statements are issued, which may result in a loss to us, but which will only be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. Our management, in consultation with its legal counsel as appropriate, assesses such contingent liabilities, and such assessment inherently involves an exercise of judgment. In assessing loss contingencies related to legal proceedings that are pending against us or unasserted claims that may result in such proceedings, we, in consultation with legal counsel, evaluates the perceived merits of any legal proceedings or unasserted claims, as well as the perceived merits of the amount of relief sought or expected to be sought therein. If the assessment of a contingency indicates it is probable that a material loss has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be estimated, then the estimated liability would be accrued in our financial statements. If the assessment indicates a potentially material loss contingency is not probable, but is reasonably possible, or is probable, but cannot be estimated, then the nature of the contingent liability, together with an estimate of the range of possible loss, if determinable and material, would be disclosed. Loss contingencies considered remote are generally not disclosed unless they involve guarantees, in which case the guarantees would be disclosed.

Stock-Based Compensation

We measure the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. The fair value of our common stock was estimated by management based on observations of the cash sales prices of its common shares. Awards granted to directors are treated on the same basis as awards granted to employees.

Fair Value Measurement

The carrying values of our financial instruments, including cash, notes receivable and accounts payable approximate their fair value due to the short-term nature of these financial instruments. FASB ASC No. 820, “Fair Value Measurement” defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. It also establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1:

Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets;

 

Level 2:

Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or indirectly; and

55


 

Level 3:

Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.

We do not have any assets or liabilities that are required to be measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis.

Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (JOBS Act)

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, reduce certain reporting requirements for emerging growth companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards, and, therefore, will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. We have chosen to rely on the other exemptions and reduced reporting requirements provided by the JOBS Act. Subject to certain conditions set forth in the JOBS Act, as an emerging growth company we are not required to, among other things, (i) being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure, (ii) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, (iii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, (iv) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation or (v) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

We will retain our emerging growth company status until the first to occur of: (i) the end of the fiscal year in which the fifth anniversary of the completion of our initial public offering occurs, (ii) the end of the fiscal year in which our annual revenues exceed $1.07 billion, (iii) the date on which we issue more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during any three-year period or (iv) the date on which we qualify as a “large accelerated filer.”

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-07, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): “Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting.” The amendment simplifies several aspects of the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions resulting from expanding the scope of ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The guidance is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted, including any interim period, for reporting periods for which financial statements have not been issued, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of ASC Topic 606. The Company will implement this change beginning in 2019, however, the Company believes it will have minimal impact to its consolidated financial statements.

In July 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): “(Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Companies and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception.”  Part I of this amendment addresses complexities of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features, and Part II addresses the difficulty of navigating Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity. For public entities, this guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The amendments in Part II require no transition guidance, as the amendments have no accounting effect. The Company has chosen to early-adopt this ASU, effective January 1, 2018, however, this amendment has no impact on our financial statements as of December 31, 2017.

We have implemented all other new accounting pronouncements that are in effect and that may impact our financial statements and we do not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.

56


Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. We do not currently face material market risks such as interest rate fluctuation risk and foreign currency exchange risk. Our cash and cash equivalents include cash in readily available checking and money market accounts. These investments are not dependent on interest rate fluctuations that may cause the principal amount of these investments to fluctuate, and we do not expect such fluctuation will have a material impact on our financial conditions. If we issue additional debt in the future, we will be subject to interest rate risk. The majority of our expenses are denominated in the U.S. dollar.

As we continue our commercialization efforts internationally, we may generate revenue and incur expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, a majority of which we expect to be denominated in Chinese Yuan. As a result, if and when the operations of ADOMANI China, our wholly owned subsidiary organized under the laws of China, expand in the future, our revenue may be significantly impacted by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We may face risks associated with the costs of raw materials, primarily batteries, as we go into production. To the extent these and other risks materialize, they could have a material effect on our operating results or financial condition. We currently anticipate that our international selling, marketing and administrative costs related to foreign sales will be largely denominated in the same foreign currency, which may mitigate our foreign currency exchange risk exposure.

57


Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

58


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of

ADOMANI, Inc.

Corona, California

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of ADOMANI, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

/s/ MaloneBailey, LLP

www.malonebailey.com

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2014.

Houston, Texas

February 19, 2019

59


ADOMANI, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in thousands, except share data)

 

 

 

December 31,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

3,759

 

 

$

2,446

 

Marketable securities

 

 

3,949

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

997

 

 

 

 

Notes receivable, net

 

 

300

 

 

 

1,000

 

Inventory, net

 

 

 

 

 

225

 

Other current assets

 

 

1,175

 

 

 

778

 

Total current assets

 

 

10,180

 

 

 

4,449

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

150

 

 

 

487

 

Other non-current assets

 

 

503

 

 

 

386

 

Total assets

 

$

10,833

 

 

$

5,322

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

342

 

 

$

30

 

Accrued liabilities

 

 

968

 

 

 

514

 

Notes payable, net

 

 

 

 

 

2,149

 

Line of credit

 

 

1,700

 

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

3,010

 

 

 

2,693

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

219

 

 

 

289

 

Total liabilities

 

 

3,229

 

 

 

2,982

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, 5,000,000 authorized, $0.00001 par value per share,

   none issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and

   December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, 350,000,000 authorized, $0.00001 par value per share,

   72,732,292 and 68,070,930 issued and outstanding as of

   December 31, 2018, and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

61,628

 

 

 

45,316

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(54,025

)

 

 

(42,977

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

7,604

 

 

 

2,340

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

10,833

 

 

$

5,322

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

60


ADOMANI, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Sales

 

 

5,011

 

 

$

425

 

Cost of sales

 

 

4,878

 

 

 

479

 

Gross profit (loss)

 

 

133

 

 

 

(54

)

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative

 

 

10,651

 

 

 

18,705

 

Consulting

 

 

171

 

 

 

2,252

 

Research and development

 

 

686

 

 

 

587

 

Total operating expenses, net

 

 

11,508

 

 

 

21,544

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(11,375

)

 

 

(21,598

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

189

 

 

 

(322

)

Other income

 

 

138

 

 

 

20

 

Total other income (expense)

 

 

327

 

 

 

(302

)

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(11,048

)

 

 

(21,900

)

Income tax expense

 

 

 

 

 

(3

)

Net loss

 

$

(11,048

)

 

$

(21,903

)

Net loss per share to common stockholders: