Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
American Electric Power
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$80.52 493 $39,710
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-30 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-17 Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2018-07-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-24 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-01-25 Earnings, Exhibits
D Dominion Energy
ES Eversource Energy
EIX Edison
FE FirstEnergy
CNP Centerpoint Energy
BEP Brookfield Renewable Partners
BKH Black Hills Power
NEP Nextera Energy Partners
OTTR Otter Tail
AY Atlantica Yield
AEP 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrants' Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
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American Electric Power Earnings 2018-12-31

AEP 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 aep10klegal20184q.htm AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER 2018 10-K Document



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C.  20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)

x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from __________ to_________
Commission
File Number
 
Registrants; States of Incorporation;
Address and Telephone Number
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification Nos.
1-3525
 
AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, INC.  (A New York Corporation)
 
13-4922640
333-221643
 
AEP TEXAS INC. (A Delaware Corporation)
 
51-0007707
333-217143
 
AEP TRANSMISSION COMPANY, LLC (A Delaware Limited Liability Company)
 
46-1125168
1-3457
 
APPALACHIAN POWER COMPANY (A Virginia Corporation)
 
54-0124790
1-3570
 
INDIANA MICHIGAN POWER COMPANY (An Indiana Corporation)
 
35-0410455
1-6543
 
OHIO POWER COMPANY (An Ohio Corporation)
 
31-4271000
0-343
 
PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY OF OKLAHOMA (An Oklahoma Corporation)
 
73-0410895
1-3146
 
SOUTHWESTERN ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY (A Delaware Corporation)
1 Riverside Plaza, Columbus, Ohio 43215
Telephone (614) 716-1000
 
72-0323455

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Registrant
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of Each Exchange
on Which Registered
American Electric Power Company, Inc.
 
Common Stock, $6.50 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
AEP Texas Inc.
 
None
 
 
AEP Transmission Company, LLC
 
None
 
 
Appalachian Power Company
 
None
 
 
Indiana Michigan Power Company
 
None
 
 
Ohio Power Company
 
None
 
 
Public Service Company of Oklahoma
 
None
 
 
Southwestern Electric Power Company
 
None
 
 





Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant American Electric Power Company, Inc. is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes x
No  ¨
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrants AEP Texas Inc., AEP Transmission Company, LLC, Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company, are well-known seasoned issuers, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  ¨
No  x
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrants are not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Yes  ¨
No  x
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants American Electric Power Company, Inc., AEP Texas Inc., AEP Transmission Company, LLC, Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrants were required to file such reports), and (2) have been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x
No  ¨
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes x
No  ¨
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein and will not be contained, to the best of registrants’ knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
x
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether American Electric Power Company, Inc. is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filer
¨
 
Non-accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether AEP Texas Inc., AEP Transmission Company, LLC, Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company are large accelerated filers, accelerated filers, non-accelerated filers, smaller reporting companies, or emerging growth companies.  See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
¨
 
Non-accelerated filer
x
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrants have elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrants are shell companies, as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Yes  ¨
No  x

AEP Texas Inc., AEP Transmission Company, LLC, Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company meet the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and are therefore filing this Form 10-K with the reduced disclosure format specified in General Instruction I(2) to such Form 10-K.




 
 
Aggregate Market Value of Voting and Non-Voting Common Equity Held by Non-Affiliates of the Registrants as of June 30, 2018 the Last Trading Date of the Registrants' Most Recently Completed Second Fiscal Quarter
 
Number of Shares of Common Stock Outstanding of the Registrants as of December 31, 2018
American Electric Power Company, Inc.
 
$34,157,276,913
 
493,245,876

 
 
 
 
($6.50 par value)

AEP Texas Inc.
 
None
 
100

 
 
 
 
($0.01 par value)

AEP Transmission Company, LLC (a)
 
None
 
NA

 
 
 
 
 
Appalachian Power Company
 
None
 
13,499,500

 
 
 
 
(no par value)

Indiana Michigan Power Company
 
None
 
1,400,000

 
 
 
 
(no par value)

Ohio Power Company
 
None
 
27,952,473

 
 
 
 
(no par value)

Public Service Company of Oklahoma
 
None
 
9,013,000

 
 
 
 
($15 par value)

Southwestern Electric Power Company
 
None
 
7,536,640

 
 
 
 
($18 par value)


(a)
100% interest is held by AEP Transmission Holdco.
NA
Not applicable.

Note on Market Value of Common Equity Held by Non-Affiliates

American Electric Power Company, Inc. owns all of the common stock of AEP Texas Inc., Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company and all of the LLC membership interest in AEP Transmission Company, LLC (see Item 12 herein).





Documents Incorporated By Reference
Description
 
Part of Form 10-K into which Document is Incorporated
 
 
 
Portions of Annual Reports of the following companies for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018:
 
Part II
American Electric Power Company, Inc.
 
 
AEP Texas Inc.
 
 
AEP Transmission Company, LLC
 
 
Appalachian Power Company
 
 
Indiana Michigan Power Company
 
 
Ohio Power Company
 
 
Public Service Company of Oklahoma
 
 
Southwestern Electric Power Company
 
 
 
 
 
Portions of Proxy Statement of American Electric Power Company, Inc. for 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
 
Part III

This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by American Electric Power Company, Inc., AEP Texas Inc., AEP Transmission Company, LLC, Appalachian Power Company, Indiana Michigan Power Company, Ohio Power Company, Public Service Company of Oklahoma and Southwestern Electric Power Company.  Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf.  Except for American Electric Power Company, Inc., each registrant makes no representation as to information relating to the other registrants.

You can access financial and other information at AEP’s website, including AEP’s Principles of Business Conduct, certain committee charters and Principles of Corporate Governance.  The address is www.AEP.com.  Investors can obtain copies of our SEC filings from this site free of charge, as well as from the SEC website at www.sec.gov.





TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item
Number
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP Transmission Holdco
 
Generation & Marketing
 
1A
1B
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
4
 
 
 
PART II
5
Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
6
7
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
7A
8
9
9A
Controls and Procedures
9B
Other Information
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
10
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
11
Executive Compensation
12
13
14
 
 
 
15
 
 
 
 
 




GLOSSARY OF TERMS

When the following terms and abbreviations appear in the text of this report, they have the meanings indicated below.
Term
 
Meaning
 
 
 
AEGCo
 
AEP Generating Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
AEP
 
American Electric Power Company, Inc., an investor-owned electric public utility holding company which includes American Electric Power Company, Inc. (Parent) and majority-owned consolidated subsidiaries and consolidated affiliates.
AEP Clean Energy Resources, LLC
 
A nonregulated holding company for AEP’s competitive renewable generation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP Energy Supply, LLC.
AEP Energy
 
AEP Energy, Inc., a wholly-owned retail electric supplier for customers in Ohio, Illinois and other deregulated electricity markets throughout the United States.
AEP Energy Supply, LLC
 
A nonregulated holding company for AEP’s competitive generation, wholesale and retail businesses, and a wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP.
AEP OnSite Partners, LLC
 
A wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP Energy Supply, LLC.
AEP Renewables, LLC
 
A wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP Energy Supply, LLC.
AEP System
 
American Electric Power System, an electric system, owned and operated by AEP subsidiaries.
AEP Texas
 
AEP Texas Inc., an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
AEP Transmission Holdco
 
AEP Transmission Holding Company, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP.
AEPEP
 
AEP Energy Partners, Inc., a subsidiary of AEP dedicated to wholesale marketing and trading, hedging activities, asset management and commercial and industrial sales in the deregulated Ohio and Texas markets.
AEPSC
 
American Electric Power Service Corporation, an AEP service subsidiary providing management and professional services to AEP and its subsidiaries.
AEPTCo
 
AEP Transmission Company, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AEP Transmission Holdco, is an intermediate holding company that owns the State Transcos.
AEPTCo Parent
 
AEP Transmission Company, LLC, the holding company of the State Transcos within the AEPTCo consolidation.
AEPTHCo
 
AEP Transmission Holding Company, LLC, a subsidiary of AEP, an intermediate holding company that owns transmission operations joint ventures and AEPTCo.
AFUDC
 
Allowance for Funds Used During Construction.
AGR
 
AEP Generation Resources Inc., a competitive AEP subsidiary in the Generation & Marketing segment.
APCo
 
Appalachian Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
CAA
 
Clean Air Act.
CO2
 
Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Conesville Plant
 
A generation plant consisting of three coal-fired generating units totaling 1,695 MW located in Conesville, Ohio. The plant is jointly owned by AGR and a nonaffiliate.
Cook Plant
 
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, a two-unit, 2,278 MW nuclear plant owned by I&M.
CSPCo
 
Columbus Southern Power Company, a former AEP electric utility subsidiary that was merged into OPCo effective December 31, 2011.
ERCOT
 
Electric Reliability Council of Texas regional transmission organization.
ETT
 
Electric Transmission Texas, LLC, an equity interest joint venture between AEP Transmission Holdco and Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company formed to own and operate electric transmission facilities in ERCOT.
Federal EPA
 
United States Environmental Protection Agency.
FERC
 
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
FIP
 
Federal Implementation Plan.
I&M
 
Indiana Michigan Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
IMTCo
 
AEP Indiana Michigan Transmission Company, Inc., a wholly-owned AEPTCo transmission subsidiary.

IURC
 
Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission.
KGPCo
 
Kingsport Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.

i



Term
 
Meaning
 
 
 
KPCo
 
Kentucky Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
kV
 
Kilovolt.
MISO
 
Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator.
MMBtu
 
Million British Thermal Units.
MW
 
Megawatt.
MWh
 
Megawatt-hour.
Nonutility Money Pool
 
Centralized funding mechanism AEP uses to meet the short-term cash requirements of certain nonutility subsidiaries.
NOx
 
Nitrogen oxide.
NRC
 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
OATT
 
Open Access Transmission Tariff.
OCC
 
Corporation Commission of the State of Oklahoma.
OHTCo
 
AEP Ohio Transmission Company, Inc., a wholly-owned AEPTCo transmission subsidiary.

Oklaunion Power Station
 
A single unit coal-fired generation plant totaling 650 MW located in Vernon, Texas. The plant is jointly owned by AEP Texas, PSO and certain nonaffiliated entities.
OKTCo
 
AEP Oklahoma Transmission Company, Inc., a wholly-owned AEPTCo transmission subsidiary.

OPCo
 
Ohio Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
OTC
 
Over the counter.
OVEC
 
Ohio Valley Electric Corporation, which is 43.47% owned by AEP.
Parent
 
American Electric Power Company, Inc., the equity owner of AEP subsidiaries within the AEP consolidation.
PJM
 
Pennsylvania – New Jersey – Maryland regional transmission organization.
PPA
 
Purchase Power and Sale Agreement.

PSO
 
Public Service Company of Oklahoma, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
PUCO
 
Public Utilities Commission of Ohio.
PUCT
 
Public Utility Commission of Texas.
Racine
 
A generation plant consisting of two hydroelectric generating units totaling 47.5 MWs located in Racine, Ohio and owned by AGR.
Registrant Subsidiaries
 
AEP subsidiaries which are SEC registrants: AEP Texas, AEPTCo, APCo, I&M, OPCo, PSO and SWEPCo.
Registrants
 
SEC registrants: AEP, AEP Texas, AEPTCo, APCo, I&M, OPCo, PSO and SWEPCo.
REP
 
Texas Retail Electric Provider.
Rockport Plant
 
A generation plant, consisting of two 1,310 MW coal-fired generating units near Rockport, Indiana.  AEGCo and I&M jointly-own Unit 1.  In 1989, AEGCo and I&M entered into a sale-and-leaseback transaction with Wilmington Trust Company, an unrelated, unconsolidated trustee for Rockport Plant, Unit 2.
ROE
 
Return on Equity.
RTO
 
Regional Transmission Organization, responsible for moving electricity over large interstate areas.
SEC
 
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
SIP
 
State Implementation Plan.
SNF
 
Spent Nuclear Fuel.
SO2
 
Sulfur dioxide.
SPP
 
Southwest Power Pool regional transmission organization.
State Transcos
 
AEPTCo’s seven wholly-owned, FERC regulated, transmission only electric utilities, each of which is geographically aligned with AEP existing utility operating companies.
SWEPCo
 
Southwestern Electric Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
TA
 
Transmission Agreement, effective November 2010, among APCo, I&M, KGPCo, KPCo, OPCo and WPCo with AEPSC as agent.

ii



Term
 
Meaning
 
 
 
TCA
 
Transmission Coordination Agreement dated January 1, 1997, by and among, PSO, SWEPCo and AEPSC, in connection with the operation of the transmission assets of the two public utility subsidiaries.
Turk Plant
 
John W. Turk, Jr. Plant, a 600 MW coal-fired plant in Arkansas that is 73% owned by SWEPCo.
UPA
 
Unit Power Agreement.
Utility Money Pool
 
Centralized funding mechanism AEP uses to meet the short-term cash requirements of certain utility subsidiaries.
Virginia SCC
 
Virginia State Corporation Commission.
WPCo
 
Wheeling Power Company, an AEP electric utility subsidiary.
WVPSC
 
Public Service Commission of West Virginia.
WVTCo
 
AEP West Virginia Transmission Company, Inc., a wholly-owned AEPTCo transmission subsidiary.


iii



FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This report made by the Registrants contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Many forward-looking statements appear in “Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” but there are others throughout this document which may be identified by words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “continue” and similar expressions, and include statements reflecting future results or guidance and statements of outlook.  These matters are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected.  Forward-looking statements in this document are presented as of the date of this document.  Except to the extent required by applicable law, management undertakes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement.  Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements are:
Ÿ
Changes in economic conditions, electric market demand and demographic patterns in AEP service territories.
Ÿ
Inflationary or deflationary interest rate trends.
Ÿ
Volatility in the financial markets, particularly developments affecting the availability or cost of capital to finance new capital projects and refinance existing debt.
Ÿ
The availability and cost of funds to finance working capital and capital needs, particularly during periods when the time lag between incurring costs and recovery is long and the costs are material.
Ÿ
Electric load and customer growth.
Ÿ
Weather conditions, including storms and drought conditions, and the ability to recover significant storm restoration costs.
Ÿ
The cost of fuel and its transportation, the creditworthiness and performance of fuel suppliers and transporters and the cost of storing and disposing of used fuel, including coal ash and SNF.
Ÿ
Availability of necessary generation capacity, the performance of generation plants and the availability of fuel.
Ÿ
The ability to recover fuel and other energy costs through regulated or competitive electric rates.
Ÿ
The ability to build or acquire renewable generation, transmission lines and facilities (including the ability to obtain any necessary regulatory approvals and permits) when needed at acceptable prices and terms and to recover those costs.
Ÿ
New legislation, litigation and government regulation, including oversight of nuclear generation, energy commodity trading and new or heightened requirements for reduced emissions of sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, carbon, soot or particulate matter and other substances that could impact the continued operation, cost recovery and/or profitability of generation plants and related assets.
Ÿ
Evolving public perception of the risks associated with fuels used before, during and after the generation of electricity, including nuclear fuel.
Ÿ
Timing and resolution of pending and future rate cases, negotiations and other regulatory decisions, including rate or other recovery of new investments in generation, distribution and transmission service and environmental compliance.
Ÿ
Resolution of litigation.
Ÿ
The ability to constrain operation and maintenance costs.
Ÿ
Prices and demand for power generated and sold at wholesale.
Ÿ
Changes in technology, particularly with respect to energy storage and new, developing, alternative or distributed sources of generation.
Ÿ
The ability to recover through rates any remaining unrecovered investment in generation units that may be retired before the end of their previously projected useful lives.
Ÿ
Volatility and changes in markets for capacity and electricity, coal and other energy-related commodities, particularly changes in the price of natural gas.
Ÿ
Changes in utility regulation and the allocation of costs within regional transmission organizations, including ERCOT, PJM and SPP.
Ÿ
Changes in the creditworthiness of the counterparties with contractual arrangements, including participants in the energy trading market.
Ÿ
Actions of rating agencies, including changes in the ratings of debt.
Ÿ
The impact of volatility in the capital markets on the value of the investments held by the pension, other postretirement benefit plans, captive insurance entity and nuclear decommissioning trust and the impact of such volatility on future funding requirements.
Ÿ
Accounting pronouncements periodically issued by accounting standard-setting bodies.

iv



Ÿ
Other risks and unforeseen events, including wars, the effects of terrorism (including increased security costs), embargoes, naturally occurring and human-caused fires, cyber security threats and other catastrophic events.

The forward-looking statements of the Registrants speak only as of the date of this report or as of the date they are made.  The Registrants expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking information, except as required by law.  For a more detailed discussion of these factors, see “Risk Factors” in Part I of this report.

Investors should note that the Registrants announce material financial information in SEC filings, press releases and public conference calls. Based on guidance from the SEC, the Registrants may use the Investors section of AEP’s website (www.aep.com) to communicate with investors about the Registrants. It is possible that the financial and other information posted there could be deemed to be material information. The information on AEP’s website is not part of this report.

v



PART I

ITEM 1.   BUSINESS

GENERAL

Overview and Description of Major Subsidiaries

AEP was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in 1906 and reorganized in 1925. It is a public utility holding company that owns, directly or indirectly, all of the outstanding common stock of its public utility subsidiaries and varying percentages of other subsidiaries.

The service areas of AEP’s public utility subsidiaries cover portions of the states of Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. Transmission networks are interconnected with extensive distribution facilities in the territories served. The public utility subsidiaries of AEP have traditionally provided electric service, consisting of generation, transmission and distribution, on an integrated basis to their retail customers. Restructuring laws in Michigan, Ohio and the ERCOT area of Texas have caused AEP public utility subsidiaries in those states to unbundle previously integrated regulated rates for their retail customers.

The member companies of the AEP System have contractual, financial and other business relationships with the other member companies, such as participation in the AEP System savings and retirement plans and tax returns, sales of electricity and transportation and handling of fuel. The companies of the AEP System also obtain certain accounting, administrative, information systems, engineering, financial, legal, maintenance and other services at cost from a common provider, AEPSC.

As of December 31, 2018, the subsidiaries of AEP had a total of 17,582 employees. Because it is a holding company rather than an operating company, AEP has no employees. The material subsidiaries of AEP are as follows:

AEP Texas

Organized in Delaware in 1925, AEP Texas is engaged in the transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 1,050,000 retail customers through REPs in west, central and southern Texas.  As of December 31, 2018, AEP Texas had 1,549 employees.  Among the principal industries served by AEP Texas are petroleum and coal products manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, pipeline transportation and primary metal manufacturing.  The territory served by AEP Texas also includes several military installations and correctional facilities.  AEP Texas is a member of ERCOT.  AEP Texas is part of AEP’s Transmission and Distribution Utilities segment.

AEPTCo

Organized in Delaware in 2006, AEPTCo is a holding company for the State Transcos. The State Transcos develop and own new transmission assets that are physically connected to the AEP System.  Individual State Transcos (a) have obtained the approvals necessary to operate in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma and West Virginia, subject to any applicable siting requirements, (b) are authorized to submit projects for commission approval in Virginia and (c) have been granted consent to enter into a joint license agreement that will support investment in Tennessee. Neither AEPTCo nor its subsidiaries have any employees. Instead, AEPSC and certain AEP utility subsidiaries provide the services required by these entities. AEPTCo is part of the AEP Transmission Holdco segment.



1



APCo

Organized in Virginia in 1926, APCo is engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 956,000 retail customers in the southwestern portion of Virginia and southern West Virginia, and in supplying and marketing electric power at wholesale to other electric utility companies, municipalities and other market participants. APCo owns 6,629 MWs of generating capacity.  APCo uses its generation to serve its retail and other customers.  As of December 31, 2018, APCo had 1,797 employees. Among the principal industries served by APCo are coal mining, primary metals, pipeline transportation, chemical manufacturing and paper manufacturing. APCo is a member of PJM.  APCo is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

I&M

Organized in Indiana in 1907, I&M is engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 596,000 retail customers in northern and eastern Indiana and southwestern Michigan, and in supplying and marketing electric power at wholesale to other electric utility companies, rural electric cooperatives, municipalities and other market participants.  I&M owns or leases 3,624 MWs of generating capacity, which it uses to serve its retail and other customers.  As of December 31, 2018, I&M had 2,400 employees. Among the principal industries served are primary metals, transportation equipment, chemical manufacturing, plastics and rubber products and fabricated metal product manufacturing.  I&M is a member of PJM.  I&M is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

KPCo

Organized in Kentucky in 1919, KPCo is engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 166,000 retail customers in eastern Kentucky, and in supplying and marketing electric power at wholesale to other electric utility companies, municipalities and other market participants.  KPCo owns 1,060 MWs of generating capacity.  KPCo uses its generation to serve its retail and other customers.  As of December 31, 2018, KPCo had 522 employees. Among the principal industries served are petroleum and coal products manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and primary metals.  KPCo is a member of PJM.  KPCo is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

KGPCo

Organized in Virginia in 1917, KGPCo provides electric service to approximately 48,000 retail customers in Kingsport and eight neighboring communities in northeastern Tennessee. KGPCo does not own any generating facilities and is a member of PJM. It purchases electric power from APCo for distribution to its customers. As of December 31, 2018, KGPCo had 55 employees. KGPCo is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

OPCo

Organized in Ohio in 1907 and re-incorporated in 1924, OPCo is engaged in the transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 1,486,000 retail customers in Ohio.  OPCo purchases energy and capacity at auction to serve generation service customers who have not switched to a competitive generation supplier.  As of December 31, 2018, OPCo had 1,704 employees.  Among the principal industries served by OPCo are primary metals, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, plastics and rubber products, chemical manufacturing, fabricated metal product manufacturing and data centers. OPCo is a member of PJM.  OPCo is part of AEP’s Transmission and Distribution Utilities segment.

PSO

Organized in Oklahoma in 1913, PSO is engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 556,000 retail customers in eastern and southwestern Oklahoma, and in supplying and marketing electric power at wholesale to other electric utility companies, municipalities, rural electric cooperatives and other market participants.  PSO owns 3,893 MWs of generating capacity, which it uses to serve its retail and other customers.  As of December 31, 2018, PSO had 1,125 employees. Among the principal industries served by PSO are paper manufacturing, oil and gas extraction, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, transportation equipment and pipeline transportation. PSO is a member of SPP.  PSO is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.


2



SWEPCo

Organized in Delaware in 1912, SWEPCo is engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 537,000 retail customers in northeastern and panhandle of Texas, northwestern Louisiana and western Arkansas and in supplying and marketing electric power at wholesale to other electric utility companies, municipalities, rural electric cooperatives and other market participants. SWEPCo owns 5,240 MWs of generating capacity, which it uses to serve its retail and other customers.  As of December 31, 2018, SWEPCo had 1,469 employees. Among the principal industries served by SWEPCo are petroleum and coal products manufacturing, food manufacturing, paper manufacturing, oil and gas extraction and chemical manufacturing. The territory served by SWEPCo includes several military installations, colleges and universities. SWEPCo also owns and operates a lignite coal mining operation. SWEPCo is a member of SPP.  SWEPCo is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

WPCo

Organized in West Virginia in 1883 and reincorporated in 1911, WPCo provides electric service to approximately 42,000 retail customers in northern West Virginia. WPCo owns 780 MWs of generating capacity which it uses to serve its retail and other customers. WPCo is a member of PJM. As of December 31, 2018, WPCo had 57 employees.  WPCo is part of AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities segment.

Service Company Subsidiary

AEPSC is a service company subsidiary that provides accounting, administrative, information systems, engineering, financial, legal, maintenance and other services at cost to AEP subsidiaries. The executive officers of AEP and certain of its public utility subsidiaries are employees of AEPSC. As of December 31, 2018, AEPSC had 6,335 employees.

Company Website and Availability of SEC Filings

Our principal corporate website address is www.aep.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not part of this Form 10-K. We make available free of charge through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such documents are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding AEP.


3



Public Utility Subsidiaries by Jurisdiction

The following table illustrates certain regulatory information with respect to the jurisdictions in which the public utility subsidiaries of AEP operate:
Principal Jurisdiction
 
AEP Utility Subsidiaries Operating in that Jurisdiction
 
Authorized Return on Equity (a)
 
FERC
 
AEPTCo - PJM
 
10.99%
(b)
 
 
AEPTCo - SPP
 
10.70%
(c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ohio
 
OPCo
 
10.20%
(d)
 
 
 
 
 
 
West Virginia
 
APCo
 
9.75%
 
 
 
WPCo
 
9.75%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Virginia
 
APCo
 
9.70%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indiana
 
I&M
 
9.95%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michigan
 
I&M
 
9.90%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Texas
 
AEP Texas
 
9.96%
 
 
 
SWEPCo
 
9.60%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tennessee
 
KGPCo
 
9.85%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kentucky
 
KPCo
 
9.70%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louisiana
 
SWEPCo
 
9.80%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arkansas
 
SWEPCo
 
10.25%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oklahoma
 
PSO
 
9.30%
 

(a)
Identifies the predominant authorized ROE and may not include other, less significant, permitted recovery.  Actual ROE varies from authorized ROE.
(b)
Current authorized ROE is 10.99%. In March 2018, a settlement agreement was filed at FERC lowering the ROE to 9.85% (10.35% inclusive of the RTO incentive adder of 0.5%). See “FERC Transmission Complaint - AEP’s PJM Participants” section of Note 4 included in the 2018 Annual Report.
(c)
Current authorized ROE is being challenged. See “FERC Transmission Complaint - AEP’s SPP Participants” section of Note 4 included in the 2018 Annual Report.
(d)
Authorized ROE was approved in OPCo’s last distribution base case. The authorized ROE for riders with an approved equity return (e.g. Distribution Investment Rider) is 10.00%. See “Ohio Electric Security Plan Filings” section of Note 4 included in the 2018 Annual Report.
rspretaxincpercent.jpg
(a)
Pretax income does not include intercompany eliminations.

4



CLASSES OF SERVICE

The principal classes of service from which the public utility subsidiaries of AEP derive revenues and the amount of such revenues during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are as follows:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Vertically Integrated Utilities Segment
 
 
 
 
 
 
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
3,818.5

 
$
3,399.8

 
$
3,423.1

Commercial Sales
 
2,251.4

 
2,148.6

 
2,102.2

Industrial Sales
 
2,234.1

 
2,156.9

 
2,050.6

PJM Net Charges
 
0.4

 
(1.1
)
 
(0.4
)
Other Retail Sales
 
186.4

 
181.4

 
172.9

Total Retail Revenues
 
8,490.8

 
7,885.6

 
7,748.4

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
888.0

 
907.4

 
921.5

Transmission
 
263.7

 
202.2

 
198.2

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
1,151.7

 
1,109.6

 
1,119.7

Other Electric Revenues
 
93.7

 
106.1

 
114.5

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(210.1
)
 
(46.4
)
 
(10.0
)
Other Operating Revenues
 
30.6

 
40.2

 
39.9

Sales to Affiliates
 
88.8

 
96.9

 
79.4

Total Revenues Vertically Integrated Utilities Segment
 
$
9,645.5

 
$
9,192.0

 
$
9,091.9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transmission and Distribution Utilities Segment
 
 

 
 

 
 

Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Residential Sales
 
$
2,213.5

 
$
2,085.3

 
$
2,217.9

Commercial Sales
 
1,288.3

 
1,225.3

 
1,210.0

Industrial Sales
 
499.2

 
473.0

 
498.2

Other Retail Sales
 
39.6

 
39.8

 
38.9

Total Retail Revenues
 
4,040.6

 
3,823.4

 
3,965.0

Wholesale Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
Off-system Sales
 
119.3

 
100.5

 
131.0

Transmission
 
394.7

 
359.6

 
327.0

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
514.0

 
460.1

 
458.0

Other Electric Revenues
 
54.5

 
48.4

 
55.6

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(69.2
)
 
(11.4
)
 
(159.3
)
Other Operating Revenues
 
12.4

 
8.4

 
8.9

Sales to Affiliates
 
100.8

 
90.4

 
94.2

Total Revenues Transmission and Distribution Utilities Segment
 
$
4,653.1

 
$
4,419.3

 
$
4,422.4

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP Transmission Holdco Segment
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transmission Revenues
 
$
291.3

 
$
204.3

 
$
150.6

Other Electric Revenues
 
0.3

 

 

Other Operating Revenues
 
0.3

 
0.8

 
0.1

Sales to Affiliates
 
555.5

 
588.3

 
366.9

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(43.3
)
 
(26.7
)
 
(4.8
)
Total Revenues AEP Transmission Holdco Segment
 
$
804.1

 
$
766.7

 
$
512.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Generation & Marketing Segment
 
 

 
 

 
 

Generation Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Affiliated
 
$

 
$

 
$
0.1

Nonaffiliated
 
431.5

 
534.6

 
1,534.0

Marketing, Competitive Retail and Renewable Revenues
 
 
 
 

 
 
Affiliated
 
122.2

 
103.7

 
127.2

Nonaffiliated
 
1,386.6

 
1,236.8

 
1,324.7

Total Revenues Generation & Marketing Segment
 
$
1,940.3

 
$
1,875.1

 
$
2,986.0




5



AEP Texas
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
594.6

 
$
573.9

 
$
551.2

Commercial Sales
 
448.1

 
449.3

 
421.2

Industrial Sales
 
113.0

 
107.0

 
102.9

Other Retail Sales
 
26.6

 
26.6

 
24.8

Total Retail Revenues
 
1,182.3

 
1,156.8

 
1,100.1

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Transmission
 
313.4

 
293.8

 
258.0

Other Electric Revenues
 
21.9

 
20.8

 
25.1

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(31.3
)
 
(1.1
)
 

Total Electric Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
1,486.3

 
1,470.3

 
1,383.2

Sales to Affiliates
 
105.2

 
65.7

 
75.7

Other Revenues
 
3.8

 
2.4

 
2.5

Total Revenues
 
$
1,595.3

 
$
1,538.4

 
$
1,461.4


AEPTCo
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Transmission Revenues
 
$
212.8

 
$
167.9

 
$
114.3

Other Electric Revenues
 
0.3

 

 

Other Operating Revenues
 
0.2

 
0.8

 
0.1

Sales to Affiliates
 
598.9

 
580.5

 
367.5

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(36.1
)
 
(26.0
)
 
(3.9
)
Total Revenues
 
$
776.1

 
$
723.2

 
$
478.0


APCo
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
1,372.0

 
$
1,242.8

 
$
1,314.8

Commercial Sales
 
598.3

 
586.0

 
603.0

Industrial Sales
 
618.8

 
639.0

 
628.9

PJM Net Charges
 
(0.2
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(0.6
)
Other Retail Sales
 
79.5

 
78.0

 
80.5

Total Retail Revenues
 
2,668.4

 
2,545.4

 
2,626.6

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
116.4

 
126.8

 
137.8

Transmission
 
56.3

 
57.1

 
45.9

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
172.7

 
183.9

 
183.7

Other Electric Revenues
 
31.1

 
33.4

 
40.5

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(95.1
)
 
(13.7
)
 
(3.4
)
Total Electric Generation, Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
2,777.1

 
2,749.0

 
2,847.4

Sales to Affiliates
 
181.4

 
172.0

 
142.1

Other Revenues
 
9.0

 
13.2

 
11.7

Total Revenues
 
$
2,967.5

 
$
2,934.2

 
$
3,001.2



6




I&M
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
736.5

 
$
620.9

 
$
620.4

Commercial Sales
 
494.6

 
442.7

 
440.1

Industrial Sales
 
565.3

 
518.1

 
510.0

PJM Net Charges
 
0.2

 
(1.0
)
 
0.1

Other Retail Sales
 
7.2

 
7.1

 
7.1

Total Retail Revenues
 
1,803.8

 
1,587.8

 
1,577.7

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
459.3

 
431.2

 
446.6

Transmission
 
18.4

 
17.2

 
23.9

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
477.7

 
448.4

 
470.5

Other Electric Revenues
 
15.7

 
13.5

 
15.2

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(24.6
)
 
(7.2
)
 
(1.1
)
Total Electric Generation, Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
2,272.6

 
2,042.5

 
2,062.3

Sales to Affiliates
 
85.5

 
64.4

 
88.3

Other Revenues
 
12.6

 
14.3

 
17.0

Total Revenues
 
$
2,370.7

 
$
2,121.2

 
$
2,167.6


OPCo
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
1,618.9

 
$
1,511.3

 
$
1,665.0

Commercial Sales
 
840.2

 
776.1

 
785.0

Industrial Sales
 
386.2

 
365.9

 
395.0

Other Retail Sales
 
13.0

 
13.2

 
14.0

Total Retail Revenues
 
2,858.3

 
2,666.5

 
2,859.0

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
119.3

 
100.5

 
131.0

Transmission
 
61.4

 
65.8

 
68.9

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
180.7

 
166.3

 
199.9

Other Electric Revenues
 
32.7

 
31.0

 
30.5

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(37.9
)
 
(10.3
)
 
(159.3
)
Total Electricity, Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
3,033.8

 
2,853.5

 
2,930.1

Sales to Affiliates
 
21.0

 
24.4

 
17.3

Other Revenues
 
8.6

 
6.0

 
6.5

Total Revenues
 
$
3,063.4

 
$
2,883.9

 
$
2,953.9


PSO
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
668.5

 
$
601.4

 
$
538.0

Commercial Sales
 
411.3

 
398.5

 
348.6

Industrial Sales
 
298.6

 
273.4

 
220.6

Other Retail Sales
 
84.2

 
80.9

 
70.8

Total Retail Revenues
 
1,462.6

 
1,354.2

 
1,178.0

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
36.3

 
13.9

 
13.1

Transmission
 
47.4

 
42.3

 
38.3

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
83.7

 
56.2

 
51.4

Other Electric Revenues
 
10.3

 
8.5

 
14.9

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(19.0
)
 
(1.4
)
 
(0.1
)
Total Electric Generation, Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
1,537.6

 
1,417.5

 
1,244.2

Sales to Affiliates
 
5.4

 
4.3

 
3.1

Other Revenues
 
4.3

 
5.4

 
4.4

Total Revenues
 
$
1,547.3

 
$
1,427.2

 
$
1,251.7



7



SWEPCo
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
Description
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in millions)
Retail Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 
Residential Sales
 
$
665.9

 
$
597.0

 
$
587.7

Commercial Sales
 
510.6

 
492.5

 
479.0

Industrial Sales
 
338.3

 
331.4

 
307.1

Other Retail Sales
 
8.9

 
8.8

 
8.1

Total Retail Revenues
 
1,523.7

 
1,429.7

 
1,381.9

Wholesale Revenues
 
 

 
 

 
 

Off-system Sales
 
216.8

 
251.3

 
243.9

Transmission
 
94.2

 
71.7

 
78.4

Total Wholesale Revenues
 
311.0

 
323.0

 
322.3

Other Electric Revenues
 
20.9

 
20.4

 
20.0

Provision for Rate Refund
 
(63.7
)
 
(21.0
)
 
(4.4
)
Total Electric Generation, Transmission and Distribution Revenues
 
1,791.9

 
1,752.1

 
1,719.8

Sales to Affiliates
 
28.4

 
25.9

 
24.5

Other Revenues
 
1.6

 
1.9

 
2.0

Total Revenues
 
$
1,821.9

 
$
1,779.9

 
$
1,746.3


FINANCING

General

Companies within the AEP System generally use short-term debt to finance working capital needs.  Short-term debt may also be used to finance acquisitions, construction and redemption or repurchase of outstanding securities until such needs can be financed with long-term debt.  In recent history, short-term funding needs have been provided for by cash on hand and AEP’s commercial paper program.  Funds are made available to subsidiaries under the AEP corporate borrowing program.  Certain public utility subsidiaries of AEP also sell accounts receivable to provide liquidity.  See “Financial Condition” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

AEP’s revolving credit agreement (which backstops the commercial paper program) includes covenants and events of default typical for this type of facility, including a maximum debt/capital test.  In addition, the acceleration of AEP’s payment obligations, or the obligations of certain of its major subsidiaries, prior to maturity under any other agreement or instrument relating to debt outstanding in excess of $50 million, would cause an event of default under the credit agreement. As of December 31, 2018, AEP was in compliance with its debt covenants.  With the exception of a voluntary bankruptcy or insolvency, any event of default has either or both a cure period or notice requirement before termination of the agreement.  A voluntary bankruptcy or insolvency of AEP or one of its significant subsidiaries would be considered an immediate termination event.  See “Financial Condition” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

AEP’s subsidiaries have also utilized, and expect to continue to utilize, additional financing arrangements, such as securitization financings and leasing arrangements, including the leasing of coal transportation equipment and facilities.


8



ENVIRONMENTAL AND OTHER MATTERS

General

AEP subsidiaries are currently subject to regulation by federal, state and local authorities with regard to air and water-quality control and other environmental matters, and are subject to zoning and other regulation by local authorities.  The environmental issues that management believes are potentially material to the AEP System are outlined below.

Clean Water Act Requirements

Operations for AEP subsidiaries are subject to the Federal Clean Water Act, which prohibits the discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States except pursuant to appropriate permits and regulates systems that withdraw surface water for use in power plants.  In 2014, the Federal EPA issued a final rule setting forth standards for existing power plants that is intended to reduce mortality of aquatic organisms pinned against a plant’s cooling water intake screen (impingement) or entrained in the cooling water.  The standards affect all plants withdrawing more than two million gallons of cooling water per day.  Compliance with this standard is required within eight years of the effective date of the final rule.

In November 2015, the Federal EPA issued a final rule revising effluent limitation guidelines for electricity generating facilities. The rule establishes limits on Flue Gas Desulfurization wastewater, fly ash and bottom ash transport water and flue gas mercury control wastewater to be imposed as soon as possible after November 2018 and no later than December 2023.  See “Environmental Issues - Clean Water Act Regulations” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Coal Ash Regulation

AEP’s operations produce a number of different coal combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum and other materials.  The Federal EPA rule regulates the disposal and beneficial re-use of coal combustion residuals, including fly ash and bottom ash generated at coal-fired electric generating units.  The rule requires certain standards for location, groundwater monitoring and dam stability to be met at landfills and certain surface impoundments at operating facilities. If existing disposal facilities cannot meet these standards, they will be required to close. See “Environmental Issues - Coal Combustion Residual Rule” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Clean Air Act Requirements

The CAA establishes a comprehensive program to protect and improve the nation’s air quality and control mobile and stationary sources of air emissions.  The major CAA programs affecting AEP’s power plants are described below.  The states implement and administer many of these programs and could impose additional or more stringent requirements.

The Acid Rain Program

The CAA includes a cap-and-trade emission reduction program for SO2 emissions from power plants and requirements for power plants and requirements for power plants to reduce NOx emissions through the use of available combustion controls, collectively called the Acid Rain Program. AEP continues to meet its obligations under the Acid Rain Program through the installation of controls, use of alternate fuels and participation in the emissions allowance markets. 


9



National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

The CAA requires the Federal EPA to review the available scientific data for criteria pollutants periodically and establish a concentration level in the ambient air for those substances that is adequate to protect the public health and welfare with an extra safety margin.  The Federal EPA also can list additional pollutants and develop concentration levels for them.  These concentration levels are known as NAAQS.

Each state identifies the areas within its boundaries that meet the NAAQS (attainment areas) and those that do not (non-attainment areas).  Each state must develop a SIP to bring non-attainment areas into compliance with the NAAQS and maintain good air quality in attainment areas.  All SIPs are submitted to the Federal EPA for approval.  If a state fails to develop adequate plans, the Federal EPA develops and implements a plan.  As the Federal EPA reviews the NAAQS and establishes new concentration levels, the attainment status of areas can change and states may be required to develop new SIPs.  See “Environmental Issues - Clean Air Act Requirements” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)

The CAA also requires the Federal EPA to investigate HAP emissions from the electric utility sector and submit a report to Congress to determine whether those emissions should be regulated. In 2011, the Federal EPA issued a rule setting Maximum Achievable Control Technology standards for new and existing coal and oil-fired utility units and New Source Performance Standards for emissions from new and modified power plants.  In 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the Federal EPA acted unreasonably in refusing to consider costs in determining if it was appropriate and necessary to regulate HAP emissions from electric generating units. The Federal EPA has engaged in additional rulemaking activity but the 2011 rule remains in effect. See “Environmental Issues - Hazardous Air Pollutants” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Regional Haze

The CAA establishes visibility goals for certain federally designated areas, including national parks, and requires states to submit SIPs that will demonstrate reasonable progress toward preventing impairment of visibility in these areas Regional Haze program.  In 2005, the Federal EPA issued its Clean Air Visibility Rule, detailing how the CAA’s best available retrofit technology requirements will be applied to facilities built between 1962 and 1977 that emit more than 250 tons per year of certain pollutants in specific industrial categories, including power plants.

PSO executed a settlement with the Federal EPA and the State of Oklahoma to comply with Regional Haze program requirements in Oklahoma, and the settlement is now codified in the Oklahoma SIP and approved by the Federal EPA. The Federal EPA disapproved portions of the Arkansas and Texas SIPs, and finalized FIPs for both states.  Challenges to both federal plans are pending in the courts. See “Environmental Issues - Clean Air Act Requirements” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Climate Change

AEP has taken action to reduce and offset CO2 emissions from its generating fleet and expects CO2 emissions from its operations to continue to decline due to the retirement of some of its coal-fired generation units, and actions taken to diversify the generation fleet and increase energy efficiency where there is regulatory support for such activities. In 2018, AEP announced new intermediate and long-term CO2 emission reduction goals, based on the output of the company’s integrated resource plans, which take into account economics, customer demand, regulations, grid reliability and resiliency, and reflect the company’s current business strategy. The intermediate goal is a 60% reduction from 2000 CO2 emission levels from AEP generating facilities by 2030; the long-term goal is an 80% reduction of CO2 emissions from AEP generating facilities from 2000 levels by 2050. AEP’s total estimated CO2 emissions in 2018 were approximately 69 million metric tons, a 59% reduction from AEP’s 2000 CO2 emissions of approximately 167 million metric tons.

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The Federal EPA has taken action to regulate CO2 emissions from new and existing fossil fueled electric generating units under the existing provisions of the CAA.  The Clean Power Plan was adopted in October 2015 but the U.S. Supreme Court issued a stay of its implementation, including all of the deadlines for submission of initial or final state plans. In 2017, the Federal EPA issued a proposal to repeal the Clean Power Plan and in 2018 the Federal EPA issued a proposal to revise the standards for new and modified sources and less stringent proposed guidelines to replace the Clean Power Plan. See “Environmental Issues - Climate Change, CO2 Regulation and Energy Policy” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Management expects emissions to continue to decline over time as AEP diversifies generating sources and operates fewer coal units.  The projected decline in coal-fired generation is due to a number of factors, including the ongoing cost of operating older units, the relative cost of coal and natural gas as fuel sources, increasing environmental regulations requiring significant capital investments and changing commodity market fundamentals.  Management’s strategy for this transformation includes diversifying AEP’s fuel portfolio and generating more electricity from natural gas, increasing energy efficiency and investing in renewable resources, where there is regulatory support.

Transforming our Generation Fleet

The electric utility industry is in the midst of an historic transformation, driven by changing customer needs, policy demands, demographics, competitive offerings, technologies and commodity prices.  Amid this changing landscape, AEP is also transforming to be more agile and customer-focused as a valued provider of energy solutions.  AEP’s long-term commitment to reduce CO2 emissions reflects the current direction of the company’s resource plans to meet those needs.  AEP’s exposure to carbon regulation has been greatly reduced over the last several years.  From 2000 to 2017, AEP’s CO2 emissions declined 57 percent.  In 2018, coal represented 47 percent of AEP’s generating capacity, compared with 70 percent in 2005.  Management expects the percentage of AEP’s generating resources fueled by coal will continue to decline.  Transforming AEP’s generation portfolio to include more renewable energy and focusing on the efficient use of energy, demand response, distributed resources and technology solutions to more efficiently manage the grid over time is part of this strategy.

The graph below summarizes AEP’s generation capacity by resource type for the years 1999, 2005 and 2018:
generationcapacity.jpg
(a)
Energy Efficiency/Demand Response represents avoided capacity rather than physical assets.

11



Renewable Sources of Energy

The states AEP serves, other than Kentucky, West Virginia and Tennessee, have established mandatory or voluntary programs to increase the use of energy efficiency, alternative energy or renewable energy sources.

As of December 31, 2018, AEP’s regulated utilities had long-term contracts for 2,750 MWs of wind and 10 MWs of solar power delivering renewable energy to the companies’ customers. In addition, I&M owns four solar projects that make up I&M’s 15 MW Clean Energy Solar Pilot Project. Management actively manages AEP’s compliance position and is on pace to meet the relevant requirements or benchmarks in each applicable jurisdiction.

The growth of AEP’s renewable portfolio reflects the company’s strategy to diversify its generation resources to provide clean energy options to customers. In addition to gradually reducing AEP’s reliance on coal-fueled generating units, the growth of renewables and natural gas helps AEP to maintain a diversity of generation resources.

The integrated resource plans filed with state regulatory commissions by AEP’s regulated utility subsidiaries reflect AEP’s renewable strategy to balance reliability and cost with customers’ desire for clean energy in a carbon-constrained world. AEP has committed significant capital investments to modernize the electric grid and integrate these new resources. Transmission assets of the AEP System interconnect approximately 11,900 MWs of renewable energy resources. AEP’s transmission development initiatives are designed to facilitate the interconnection of additional renewable energy resources.

AEP Energy Supply, LLC owned 261 MWs of wind capacity in Texas as of December 31, 2018. AEP Renewables, LLC develops and/or acquires large scale renewable projects backed with long-term contracts with creditworthy counterparties. As of December 2018, AEP Renewables, LLC owned two 20 MW solar projects in California and Utah and a 50 MW solar project in Nevada. In December 2018, AEP Renewables, LLC entered into an agreement to own an additional 227 MWs of Texas wind capacity which is expected to be placed in-service in mid-2019.

AEP OnSite Partners, LLC works directly with wholesale and large retail customers to provide tailored solutions to reduce their energy costs based upon market knowledge, innovative applications of technology and deal structuring capabilities. The company targets opportunities in distributed solar, combined heat and power, energy storage, waste heat recovery, energy efficiency, peaking generation and other energy solutions that create value for customers. AEP OnSite Partners, LLC pursues and develops behind the meter projects with creditworthy customers. As of December 31, 2018, AEP OnSite Partners, LLC owned projects operating in 15 states, including approximately 85 MWs of installed solar capacity, and approximately 57 MWs of solar projects under construction.

In February 2019, AEP Clean Energy Resources, LLC signed an agreement to purchase Sempra Renewables, LLC and its 724 MWs of wind generation and battery assets for approximately $1.1 billion, subject to closing and working capital adjustments. As part of the purchase price, AEP Clean Energy Resources, LLC will pay $551 million in cash and assume $343 million of existing project debt obligations of the non-consolidated joint ventures. Additionally, the acquisition will be accompanied by the recognition of non-controlling tax equity interest of $162 million associated with certain of the acquired wind farms. The wind generation portfolio includes seven wholly or jointly-owned wind farms with long-term PPAs for 100% of their energy production. The transaction is expected to close in mid-2019 and is subject to regulatory approvals from the FERC and federal clearance pursuant to the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976.

Competitive Renewable Generation Facilities
Size of
 
 
 
Renewable
 
 
 
In-Service or
Energy Resource
 
AEP Entity
 
Energy Resource
 
Location
 
Under Construction
261 MW
 
AEP Energy Supply LLC
 
Wind
 
Texas
 
In-service
20 MW
 
AEP Renewables, LLC
 
Solar
 
California
 
In-service
20 MW
 
AEP Renewables, LLC
 
Solar
 
Utah
 
In-service
50 MW
 
AEP Renewables, LLC
 
Solar
 
Nevada
 
In-service
85 MW
 
AEP OnSite Partners, LLC
 
Solar
 
Fifteen states (a)
 
In-service
57 MW
 
AEP OnSite Partners, LLC
 
Solar
 
Four states (b)
 
Under Construction

(a)
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, Texas and Vermont.
(b)
California, Minnesota, New Mexico and Hawaii.

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End Use Energy Efficiency

AEP has reduced energy consumption and peak demand through the introduction of additional energy efficiency and demand response programs.  These programs, commonly and collectively referred to as demand side management, were implemented in jurisdictions where appropriate cost recovery was available.  AEP’s operating companies’ programs have reduced annual consumption by over 8 million MWhs and peak demand by approximately 2,555 MWs since 2008.  AEP estimates that its operating companies spent approximately $1.4 billion during that period to achieve these levels.

Energy efficiency and demand reduction programs have received regulatory support in most of the states AEP serves. Appropriate cost recovery will be essential for AEP operating companies to continue and expand these consumer offerings. Appropriate recovery of program costs, lost revenues and an opportunity to earn a reasonable return ensures that energy efficiency programs are considered equally with supply side investments.  As AEP continues to transition to a cleaner, more efficient energy future, energy efficiency and demand response programs will continue to play an important role in how the company serves its customers. AEP believes its experience providing robust energy efficiency programs in several states positions the company to be a cost-effective provider of these programs as states develop their implementation plans.

Corporate Governance

In response to environmental issues and in connection with its assessment of AEP’s strategic plan, the Board of Directors continually reviews the risks posed by new environmental rules and requirements that could accelerate the retirement of coal-fired generation assets. The Board of Directors is informed of any new environmental regulations and proposed regulation or legislation that would significantly affect the company.  The Board’s Committee on Directors and Corporate Governance oversees the company’s annual Corporate Accountability Report, which includes information about the company’s environmental, social, governance and financial performance. In addition, as a result of ongoing corporate governance outreach efforts with shareholders, AEP set new CO2 emission reduction goals that were published in a new report in February 2018, “American Electric Power: Strategic Vision for a Clean Energy Future.”

Other Environmental Issues and Matters

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 imposes costs for environmental remediation upon owners and previous owners of sites, as well as transporters and generators of hazardous material disposed of at such sites.  See “The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund) and State Remediation” section of Note 6 included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Environmental Investments

Investments related to improving AEP System plants’ environmental performance and compliance with air and water quality standards during 2016, 2017 and 2018 and the current estimate for 2019 are shown below. These investments include both environmental as well as other related spending. Estimated construction expenditures are subject to periodic review and modification and may vary based on the ongoing effects of regulatory constraints, environmental regulations, business opportunities, market volatility, economic trends and the ability to access capital.  In addition to the amounts set forth below, AEP expects to make substantial investments in future years in connection with the modification and addition at generation plants’ facilities for environmental quality controls.  Such future investments are needed in order to comply with air and water quality standards that have been adopted and have deadlines for compliance after 2018 or have been proposed and may be adopted.  Future investments could be significantly greater if emissions reduction requirements are accelerated or otherwise become more stringent. The cost of complying with applicable environmental laws, regulations and rules is expected to be material to the AEP System. AEP typically recovers costs of complying with environmental standards from customers through rates in regulated jurisdictions.  Failure to recover these costs could reduce future net income and cash flows and possibly harm AEP’s financial condition.  See “Environmental Issues” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial

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Condition and Results of Operations and Note 6 - Commitments, Guarantees and Contingencies included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.
Historical and Projected Environmental Investments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
 
Actual
 
Actual
 
Actual
 
Estimate (b)
 
 
(in millions)
AEP (a)
 
$
383.7

 
$
135.9

 
$
115.6

 
$
237.7

APCo
 
50.0

 
25.6

 
20.4

 
32.7

I&M
 
65.0

 
41.9

 
31.1

 
76.8

PSO
 
34.8

 
0.6

 

 
2.5

SWEPCo
 
82.1

 
11.7

 
14.1

 
25.1


(a)
Includes expenditures of the subsidiaries shown and other subsidiaries not shown. The figures reflect construction expenditures, not investments in subsidiary companies.
(b)
Estimated amounts are exclusive of debt AFUDC.

Management continues to refine the cost estimates of complying with air and water quality standards and other impacts of the environmental proposals. The following cost estimates for the years 2019 through 2025 will change depending on the timing of implementation and whether the Federal EPA provides flexibility in the final rules.  These cost estimates will also change based on: (a) the states’ implementation of these regulatory programs, including the potential for SIPs or FIPs that impose more stringent standards, (b) additional rulemaking activities in response to court decisions, (c) the actual performance of the pollution control technologies installed on the units, (d) changes in costs for new pollution controls, (e) new generating technology developments, (f) total MWs of capacity retired, replaced or sold, including the type and amount of such replacement capacity and (g) other factors. Management’s current ranges of estimates of new major environmental investments beginning in 2019, exclusive of debt AFUDC, are set forth below:
Projected (2019 - 2025)
Environmental Investment
Company
 
Low
 
High
 
 
(in millions)
AEP
 
$
650

 
$
1,500

APCo
 
135

 
240

I&M
 
105

 
200

PSO
 
15

 
45

SWEPCo
 
140

 
230


BUSINESS SEGMENTS

AEP’s Reportable Segments

AEP’s primary business is the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.  Within its Vertically Integrated Utilities segment, AEP centrally dispatches generation assets and manages its overall utility operations on an integrated basis because of the substantial impact of cost-based rates and regulatory oversight.  Intersegment sales and transfers are generally based on underlying contractual arrangements and agreements. AEP’s reportable segments are as follows:

Vertically Integrated Utilities
Transmission and Distribution Utilities
AEP Transmission Holdco
Generation & Marketing

The remainder of AEP’s activities is presented as Corporate and Other, which is not considered a reportable segment. See Note 9 - Business Segments included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information on AEP’s segments.


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VERTICALLY INTEGRATED UTILITIES

GENERAL

AEP’s vertically integrated utility operations are engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity for sale to retail and wholesale customers through assets owned and operated by AEGCo, APCo, I&M, KGPCo, KPCo, PSO, SWEPCo and WPCo.  AEPSC, as agent for AEP’s public utility subsidiaries, performs marketing, generation dispatch, fuel procurement and power-related risk management and trading activities on behalf of each of these subsidiaries.

ELECTRIC GENERATION

Facilities

As of December 31, 2018, AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries owned or leased approximately 23,000 MWs of domestic generation.  See Item 2 – Properties for more information regarding the generation capacity of vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries.

Fuel Supply

The following table shows the owned and leased generation sources by type (including wind purchase agreements), on an actual net generation (MWhs) basis, used by the Vertically Integrated Utilities:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Coal and Lignite
58%
 
61%
 
61%
Nuclear
18%
 
18%
 
16%
Natural Gas
14%
 
11%
 
13%
Renewables
10%
 
10%
 
10%

A price increase/decrease in one or more fuel sources relative to other fuels, as well as the addition of renewable resources, may result in the decreased/increased use of other fuels.  AEP’s overall 2018 fossil fuel costs for the Vertically Integrated Utilities remained flat on a dollar per MMBtu basis from 2017.

Coal and Lignite

AEP’s Vertically Integrated Utilities procure coal and lignite under a combination of purchasing arrangements including long-term contracts, affiliate operations and spot agreements with various producers, marketers and coal trading firms.  Coal consumption in 2018 decreased approximately 2% from 2017.

Management believes that the Vertically Integrated Utilities will be able to secure and transport coal and lignite of adequate quality and in adequate quantities to operate their coal and lignite-fired units.  Through subsidiaries, AEP owns, leases or controls more than 3,664 railcars, 468 barges, 9 towboats and a coal handling terminal with approximately 18 million tons of annual capacity to move and store coal for use in AEP generating facilities.

Spot market prices for coal started to strengthen in the second half of 2018. The increased spot coal prices reflect tighter supplies and increased demand for export coal. As of December 31, 2018, approximately half of the coal purchased by AEP’s subsidiaries was procured through term contracts.  As those contracts expire or re-open for price adjustments, needed tonnage is replaced at current market prices as necessary.  The price impact of this process is reflected in subsequent periods.  The price paid for coal delivered in 2018 decreased approximately 2% from 2017.


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The following table shows the amount of coal and lignite delivered to the Vertically Integrated Utilities’ plants during the past three years and the average delivered price of coal purchased by the Vertically Integrated Utilities:
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Total coal delivered to the plants (millions of tons)
29.0

 
29.3

 
30.0

Average cost per ton of coal delivered
$
43.21

 
$
44.24

 
$
45.92


The coal supplies at the Vertically Integrated Utilities plants vary from time to time depending on various factors, including, but not limited to, demand for electric power, unit outages, transportation infrastructure limitations, space limitations, plant coal consumption rates, availability of acceptable coals, labor issues and weather conditions, which may interrupt production or deliveries. As of December 31, 2018, the Vertically Integrated Utilities’ coal inventory was approximately 32 days of full load burn. While inventory targets vary by plant and are changed as necessary, the current coal inventory target for the Vertically Integrated Utilities is approximately 30 days.

Natural Gas

The Vertically Integrated Utilities consumed approximately 112 billion cubic feet of natural gas during 2018 for generating power. This represents an increase of 29% from 2017.  Total gas consumption for the Vertically Integrated Utilities was higher year over year primarily due to lower natural gas prices and increased demand for electricity. Several of AEP’s natural gas-fired power plants are connected to at least two pipelines which allow greater access to competitive supplies and improve delivery reliability. A portfolio of term, monthly, seasonal and daily supply and transportation agreements provide natural gas requirements for each plant, as appropriate. AEP’s natural gas supply agreements are entered into on a competitive basis and based on market prices.

The following table shows the amount of natural gas delivered to the Vertically Integrated Utilities’ plants during the past three years and the average delivered price of natural gas purchased by the Vertically Integrated Utilities.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Total natural gas delivered to the plants (billion of cubic feet)
111.6

 
86.3

 
103.9

Average price per MMBtu of purchased natural gas
$
3.26

 
$
3.37

 
$
2.77


Nuclear

I&M has made commitments to meet the current nuclear fuel requirements of the Cook Plant.  I&M has made and will make purchases of uranium in various forms in the spot, short-term and mid-term markets.  I&M also continues to finance its nuclear fuel through leasing.

For purposes of the storage of high-level radioactive waste in the form of SNF, I&M completed modifications to its SNF storage pool in the early 1990’s.  I&M entered into an agreement to provide for onsite dry cask storage of SNF to permit normal operations to continue.  I&M is scheduled to conduct further dry cask loading and storage projects on an ongoing periodic basis.  I&M completed its initial loading of SNF into the dry casks in 2012, which consisted of 12 casks (32 SNF assemblies contained within each).  The second loading of SNF into dry casks, which consisted of 16 casks, was completed in 2015. The third dry cask loading campaign, which also consisted of 16 casks, was completed in 2018.

Nuclear Waste and Decommissioning

As the owner of the Cook Plant, I&M has a significant future financial commitment to dispose of SNF and decommission and decontaminate the plant safely.  The cost to decommission a nuclear plant is affected by NRC regulations and the SNF disposal program.  The most recent decommissioning cost study was completed in 2018.  The estimated cost of decommissioning and disposal of low-level radioactive waste for the Cook Plant was $2 billion in 2018 non-discounted dollars, with additional ongoing estimated costs of $6 million per year for post decommissioning storage of SNF and an eventual estimated cost of $37 million for the subsequent decommissioning of the spent fuel storage facility, also

16



in 2018 non-discounted dollars. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the total decommissioning trust fund balance for the Cook Plant was approximately $2.2 billion. The balance of funds available to eventually decommission Cook Plant will differ based on contributions and investment returns.  The ultimate cost of retiring the Cook Plant may be materially different from estimates and funding targets as a result of the:

Escalation of various cost elements (including, but not limited to, general inflation and the cost of energy).
Further development of regulatory requirements governing decommissioning.
Technology available at the time of decommissioning differing significantly from that assumed in studies.
Availability of nuclear waste disposal facilities.
Availability of a United States Department of Energy facility for permanent storage of SNF.

Accordingly, management is unable to provide assurance that the ultimate cost of decommissioning the Cook Plant will not be significantly different than current projections.  AEP will seek recovery from customers through regulated rates if actual decommissioning costs exceed projections.  See the “Nuclear Contingencies” section of Note 6 - Commitments, Guarantees and Contingencies included in the 2018 Annual Report for information with respect to nuclear waste and decommissioning.

Low-Level Radioactive Waste

The Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 mandates that the responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste rests with the individual states.  Low-level radioactive waste consists largely of ordinary refuse and other items that have come in contact with radioactive materials.  Michigan does not currently have a disposal site for such waste available.  I&M cannot predict when such a site may be available. However, the states of Utah and Texas have licensed low level radioactive waste disposal sites which currently accept low level radioactive waste from Michigan waste generators.  There is currently no set date limiting I&M’s access to either of these facilities.  The Cook Plant has a facility onsite designed specifically for the storage of low level radioactive waste.  In the event that low level radioactive waste disposal facility access becomes unavailable, it can be stored onsite at this facility.

Counterparty Risk Management

The Vertically Integrated Utilities segment also sells power and enters into related energy transactions with wholesale customers and other market participants. As a result, counterparties and exchanges may require cash or cash related instruments to be deposited on transactions as margin against open positions.  As of December 31, 2018, counterparties posted approximately $9 million in cash, cash equivalents or letters of credit with AEPSC for the benefit of AEP’s public utility subsidiaries (while, as of that date, AEP’s public utility subsidiaries posted approximately $54 million with counterparties and exchanges).  Since open trading contracts are valued based on market prices of various commodities, exposures change daily.  See the “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the 2018 Annual Report for additional information.

Certain Power Agreements

I&M

The UPA between AEGCo and I&M, dated March 31, 1982, provides for the sale by AEGCo to I&M of all the capacity (and the energy associated therewith) available to AEGCo at the Rockport Plant.  Whether or not power is available from AEGCo, I&M is obligated to pay a demand charge for the right to receive such power (and an energy charge for any associated energy taken by I&M).  The agreement will continue in effect until the last of the lease terms of Unit 2 of the Rockport Plant have expired (currently December 2022) unless extended in specified circumstances.


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Pursuant to an assignment between I&M and KPCo, and a UPA between AEGCo and KPCo, AEGCo sells KPCo 30% of the capacity (and the energy associated therewith) available to AEGCo from both units of the Rockport Plant.  KPCo has agreed to pay to AEGCo the amounts that I&M would have paid AEGCo under the terms of the UPA between AEGCo and I&M for such entitlement.  The KPCo UPA expires in December 2022.

OVEC

AEP and several nonaffiliated utility companies jointly own OVEC.  The aggregate equity participation of AEP in OVEC is 43.47%.  Parent owns 39.17% and OPCo owns 4.3%. Under the Inter-Company Power Agreement (ICPA), which defines the rights of the owners and sets the power participation ratio of each, the sponsoring companies are entitled to receive and are obligated to pay for all OVEC capacity (approximately 2,400 MWs) in proportion to their respective power participation ratios.  The aggregate power participation ratio of APCo, I&M and OPCo is 43.47%.  The ICPA terminates in June 2040. The proceeds from the sale of power by OVEC are designed to be sufficient for OVEC to meet its operating expenses and fixed costs.  AEP and the other owners have authorized environmental investments related to their ownership interests.  OVEC financed capital expenditures totaling $1.3 billion in connection with flue gas desulfurization projects and the associated scrubber waste disposal landfills at its two generation plants through debt issuances, including tax-advantaged debt issuances.  Both OVEC generation plants are operating with the new environmental controls in service.  OPCo attempted to assign its rights and obligations under the ICPA to an affiliate as part of its transfer of its generation assets and liabilities in keeping with corporate separation required by Ohio law.  OPCo failed to obtain the consent to assignment from the other owners of OVEC and therefore filed a request with the PUCO seeking authorization to maintain its ownership of OVEC. In December 2013, the PUCO approved OPCo’s request, subject to the condition that energy from the OVEC entitlements are sold into the day-ahead or real-time PJM energy markets, or on a forward basis through a bilateral arrangement. In November 2016, the PUCO approved OPCo’s request to approve a cost-based purchased power agreement (PPA) rider, effective in January 2017, that would initially be based upon OPCo’s contractual entitlement under the ICPA which is approximately 20% of OVEC’s capacity. In late 2016, two nonaffiliated parties to the ICPA owned by First Energy Corp. announced their intention to exit its merchant business and that it may pursue restructuring or bankruptcy. In March 2018 FirstEnergy Solutions (“FES”), with an aggregate power participation ratio of approximately 5% under the ICPA, filed bankruptcy. In July 2018, the Bankruptcy Court granted FES’s motion to reject the ICPA. OVEC is currently appealing this decision in the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. If OVEC does not have sufficient funds to honor its payment obligations, there is risk that APCo, I&M and/or OPCo may need to make payments in addition to their power participation ratio payments.  Further, if OVEC’s indebtedness is accelerated for any reason, there is risk that APCo, I&M and/or OPCo may be required to pay some or all of such accelerated indebtedness in amounts equal to their aggregate power participation ratio of 43.47%. The foregoing and other related actions have adversely impacted the credit ratings of OVEC.

ELECTRIC DELIVERY

General

Other than AEGCo, AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries own and operate transmission and distribution lines and other facilities to deliver electric power.  See Item 2 – Properties for more information regarding the transmission and distribution lines.  Most of the transmission and distribution services are sold to retail customers of AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries in their service territories.  These sales are made at rates approved by the state utility commissions of the states in which they operate, and in some instances, approved by the FERC.  See Item 1. Business – Vertically Integrated Utilities – Regulation – Rates.  The FERC regulates and approves the rates for both wholesale transmission transactions and wholesale generation contracts.  The use and the recovery of costs associated with the transmission assets of the AEP vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries are subject to the rules, principles, protocols and agreements in place with PJM and SPP, and as approved by the FERC. See Item 1. Business – Vertically Integrated Utilities – Regulation – FERC.  As discussed below, some transmission services also are separately sold to nonaffiliated companies.


18



Other than AEGCo, AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries hold franchises or other rights to provide electric service in various municipalities and regions in their service areas.  In some cases, these franchises provide the utility with the exclusive right to provide electric service within a specific territory.  These franchises have varying provisions and expiration dates.  In general, the operating companies consider their franchises to be adequate for the conduct of their business.  For a discussion of competition in the sale of power, see Item 1. Business – Vertically Integrated Utilities – Competition.

Transmission Agreement (TA)

APCo, I&M, KGPCo, KPCo and WPCo own and operate transmission facilities that are used to provide transmission service under the PJM OATT and are parties to the TA.  OPCo, which is a subsidiary in AEP’s Transmission and Distribution Utilities segment that provides transmission service under the PJM OATT, is also a party to the TA.  The TA defines how the parties to the agreement share the revenues associated with their transmission facilities and the costs of transmission service provided by PJM.  The TA has been approved by the FERC.

TCA and OATT

PSO, SWEPCo and AEPSC are parties to the TCA.  Under the TCA, a coordinating committee is charged with the responsibility of (a) overseeing the coordinated planning of the transmission facilities of the parties to the agreement, including the performance of transmission planning studies, (b) the interaction of such subsidiaries with independent system operators and other regional bodies interested in transmission planning and (c) compliance with the terms of the OATT filed with the FERC and the rules of the FERC relating to such tariff.  Pursuant to the TCA, AEPSC has responsibility for monitoring the reliability of their transmission systems and administering the OATT on behalf of the other parties to the agreement.  The TCA also provides for the allocation among the parties of revenues collected for transmission and ancillary services provided under the OATT.  These allocations have been determined by the FERC-approved OATT for the SPP.

Regional Transmission Organizations

AEGCo, APCo, I&M, KGPCo, KPCo and WPCo are members of PJM, and PSO and SWEPCo are members of SPP (both FERC-approved RTOs).  RTOs operate, plan and control utility transmission assets in a manner designed to provide open access to such assets in a way that prevents discrimination between participants owning transmission assets and those that do not.

REGULATION

General

AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries’ retail rates and certain other matters are subject to traditional cost-based regulation by the state utility commissions.  AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries are also subject to regulation by the FERC under the Federal Power Act with respect to wholesale power and transmission service transactions.  I&M is subject to regulation by the NRC under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, with respect to the operation of the Cook Plant.  AEP and its vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries are also subject to the regulatory provisions of, much of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which is administered by the FERC.

Rates

Historically, state utility commissions have established electric service rates on a cost-of-service basis, which is designed to allow a utility an opportunity to recover its cost of providing service and to earn a reasonable return on its investment used in providing that service.  A utility’s cost of service generally reflects its operating expenses, including operation and maintenance expense, depreciation expense and taxes.  State utility commissions periodically adjust rates pursuant to a review of (a) a utility’s adjusted revenues and expenses during a defined test period and (b) such utility’s level of investment.  Absent a legal limitation, such as a law limiting the frequency of rate changes or capping rates for a period

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of time, a state utility commission can review and change rates on its own initiative.  Some states may initiate reviews at the request of a utility, customer, governmental or other representative of a group of customers.  Such parties may, however, agree with one another not to request reviews of or changes to rates for a specified period of time.

Public utilities have traditionally financed capital investments until the new asset is placed in service.  Provided the asset was found to be a prudent investment, it was then added to rate base and entitled to a return through rate recovery.  Given long lead times in construction, the high costs of plant and equipment and volatile capital markets, management actively pursues strategies to accelerate rate recognition of investments and cash flow.  AEP representatives continue to engage state commissioners and legislators on alternative ratemaking options to reduce regulatory lag and enhance certainty in the process.  These options include pre-approvals, a return on construction work in progress, rider/trackers, formula rates and the inclusion of future test-year projections into rates.

The rates of AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries are generally based on the cost of providing traditional bundled electric service (i.e., generation, transmission and distribution service).  Historically, the state regulatory frameworks in the service area of the AEP vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries reflected specified fuel costs as part of bundled (or, more recently, unbundled) rates or incorporated fuel adjustment clauses in a utility’s rates and tariffs.  Fuel adjustment clauses permit periodic adjustments to fuel cost recovery from customers and therefore provide protection against exposure to fuel cost changes.

The following state-by-state analysis summarizes the regulatory environment of certain major jurisdictions in which AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries operate.  Several public utility subsidiaries operate in more than one jurisdiction.  See Note 4 - Rate Matters included in the 2018 Annual Report for more information regarding pending rate matters.

Indiana

I&M provides retail electric service in Indiana at bundled rates approved by the IURC, with rates set on a cost-of-service basis.  Indiana provides for timely fuel and purchased power cost recovery through a fuel cost recovery mechanism.

Oklahoma

PSO provides retail electric service in Oklahoma at bundled rates approved by the OCC.  PSO’s rates are set on a cost-of-service basis.  Fuel and purchased energy costs are recovered or refunded by applying fuel adjustment and other factors to retail kilowatt-hour sales.

Virginia

APCo currently provides retail electric service in Virginia at unbundled generation and distribution rates approved by the Virginia SCC.  Virginia generally allows for timely recovery of fuel costs through a fuel adjustment clause.  In addition to base rates and fuel cost recovery, APCo is permitted to recover a variety of costs through rate adjustment clauses including transmission services provided at OATT rates based on rates established by the FERC.

West Virginia

APCo and WPCo provide retail electric service at bundled rates approved by the WVPSC, with rates set on a combined cost-of-service basis.  West Virginia generally allows for timely recovery of fuel costs through an expanded net energy cost which trues-up to actual expenses.

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FERC

The FERC regulates rates for interstate power sales at wholesale, transmission of electric power, accounting and other matters, including construction and operation of hydroelectric projects.  The FERC regulations require AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries to provide open access transmission service at FERC-approved rates, and AEP has approved cost-based formula transmission rates on file at the FERC.  The FERC also regulates unbundled transmission service to retail customers.  In addition, the FERC regulates the sale of power for resale in interstate commerce by (a) approving contracts for wholesale sales to municipal and cooperative utilities and (b) granting authority to public utilities to sell power at wholesale at market-based rates upon a showing that the seller lacks the ability to improperly influence market prices.  AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries have market-based rate authority from the FERC, under which much of their wholesale marketing activity takes place.  The FERC requires each public utility that owns or controls interstate transmission facilities to, directly or through an RTO, to file an open access network and point-to-point transmission tariff that offers services comparable to the utility’s own uses of its transmission system.  The FERC also requires all transmitting utilities, directly or through an RTO, to establish an Open Access Same-time Information System, which electronically posts transmission information such as available capacity and prices, and requires utilities to comply with Standards of Conduct that prohibit utilities’ transmission employees from providing non-public transmission information to the utility’s marketing employees. Additionally, the vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries are subject to reliability standards promulgated by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, with the approval of the FERC.

The FERC oversees RTOs, entities created to operate, plan and control utility transmission assets.  AEGCo, APCo, I&M, KGPCo, KPCo and WPCo are members of PJM.  PSO and SWEPCo are members of SPP.

The FERC has jurisdiction over the issuances of securities of most of AEP’s public utility subsidiaries, the acquisition of securities of utilities, the acquisition or sale of certain utility assets and mergers with another electric utility or holding company.  In addition, both the FERC and state regulators are permitted to review the books and records of any company within a holding company system.

COMPETITION

Other than AEGCo, AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries generate, transmit and distribute electricity to retail customers of AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries in their service territories.  These sales are made at rates approved by the state utility commissions of the states in which they operate, and in some instances, approved by the FERC, and are not subject to competition from other vertically integrated public utilities.  Other than AEGCo, AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries hold franchises or other rights that effectively grant the exclusive ability to provide electric service in various municipalities and regions in their service areas.  

AEP’s vertically integrated public utility subsidiaries compete with self-generation and with distributors of other energy sources, such as natural gas, fuel oil, renewables and coal, within their service areas.  The primary factors in such competition are price, reliability of service and the capability of customers to utilize alternative sources of energy other than electric power. With respect to competing generators and self-generation, the public utility subsidiaries of AEP believe that they currently maintain a competitive position. 

Changes in regulatory policies and advances in newer technologies for batteries or energy storage, fuel cells, microturbines, wind turbines and photovoltaic solar cells are reducing costs of new technology to levels that are making them competitive with some central station electricity production.  The costs of photovoltaic solar cells in particular have continued to become increasingly competitive. The ability to maintain relatively low cost, efficient and reliable operations and to provide cost-effective programs and services to customers are significant determinants of AEP’s competitiveness.


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SEASONALITY

The consumption of electric power is generally seasonal.  In many parts of the country, demand for power peaks during the hot summer months, with market prices also peaking at that time.  In other areas, power demand peaks during the winter.  The pattern of this fluctuation may change due to the nature and location of AEP’s facilities and the terms of power sale contracts into which AEP enters.  In addition, AEP has historically sold less power, and consequently earned less income, when weather conditions are milder. Unusually mild weather in the future could diminish AEP’s results of operations. Conversely, unusually extreme weather conditions could increase AEP’s results of operations.


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TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

GENERAL

This segment consists of the transmission and distribution of electricity for sale to retail and wholesale customers through assets owned and operated by AEP Texas and OPCo. OPCo is engaged in the transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 1,486,000 retail customers in Ohio.  OPCo purchases energy and capacity at auction to serve generation service customers who have not switched to a competitive generation supplier. AEP Texas is engaged in the transmission and distribution of electric power to approximately 1,050,000 retail customers through REPs in west, central and southern Texas.

AEP’s transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries own and operate transmission and distribution lines and other facilities to deliver electric power.  See Item 2 – Properties, for more information regarding the transmission and distribution lines.  Transmission and distribution services are sold to retail customers of AEP’s transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries in their service territories.  These sales are made at rates approved by the PUCT for AEP Texas and by the PUCO and the FERC for OPCo.  The FERC regulates and approves the rates for wholesale transmission transactions.  As discussed below, some transmission services also are separately sold to nonaffiliated companies.

AEP’s transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries hold franchises or other rights to provide electric service in various municipalities and regions in their service areas.  In some cases, these franchises provide the utility with the exclusive right to provide electric service.  These franchises have varying provisions and expiration dates.  In general, the operating companies consider their franchises to be adequate for the conduct of their business.

The use and the recovery of costs associated with the transmission assets of the AEP transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries are subject to the rules, protocols and agreements in place with PJM and ERCOT, and as approved by the FERC.  In addition to providing transmission services in connection with power sales in their service areas, AEP’s transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries also provide transmission services for nonaffiliated companies through RTOs.

Transmission Agreement

OPCo owns and operates transmission facilities that are used to provide transmission service under the PJM OATT; OPCo is a party to the TA with other utility subsidiary affiliates. The TA defines how the parties to the agreement share the revenues associated with their transmission facilities and the costs of transmission service provided by PJM. The TA has been approved by the FERC.

Regional Transmission Organizations

OPCo is a member of PJM, a FERC-approved RTO.  RTOs operate, plan and control utility transmission assets to provide open access to such assets in a way that prevents discrimination between participants owning transmission assets and those that do not.  AEP Texas is a member of ERCOT.

REGULATION

OPCo provides distribution and transmission services to retail customers within its service territory at cost-based rates approved by the PUCO or by the FERC.  AEP Texas provides transmission and distribution service on a cost-of-service basis at rates approved by the PUCT and wholesale transmission service under tariffs approved by the FERC consistent with PUCT rules.  Transmission and distribution rates are established on a cost-of-service basis, which is designed to allow a utility an opportunity to recover its cost of providing service and to earn a reasonable return on its investment used in providing that service.  The cost of service generally reflects operating expenses, including operation and maintenance expense, depreciation expense and taxes.  Utility commissions periodically adjust rates pursuant to a review of: (a) a utility’s adjusted revenues and expenses during a defined test period and (b) such utility’s level of investment.

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FERC

The FERC regulates rates for transmission of electric power, accounting and other matters.  The FERC regulations require AEP to provide open access transmission service at FERC-approved rates, and it has approved cost-based formula transmission rates on file at the FERC.  The FERC also regulates unbundled transmission service to retail customers.  The FERC requires each public utility that owns or controls interstate transmission facilities to, directly or through an RTO, file an open access network and point-to-point transmission tariff that offers services comparable to the utility’s own uses of its transmission system.  The FERC also requires all transmitting utilities, directly or through an RTO, to establish an Open Access Same-time Information System, which electronically posts transmission information such as available capacity and prices, and requires utilities to comply with Standards of Conduct that prohibit utilities’ transmission employees from providing non-public transmission information to the utility’s marketing employees. In addition, both the FERC and state regulators are permitted to review the books and records of any company within a holding company system. Additionally, the transmission and distribution utility subsidiaries are subject to reliability standards as set forth by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, with the approval of the FERC.

SEASONALITY

The delivery of electric power is generally seasonal.  In many parts of the country, demand for power peaks during the hot summer months.  In other areas, power demand peaks during the winter months.  The pattern of this fluctuation may change due to the nature and location of AEP’s transmission and distribution facilities.  In addition, AEP transmission and distribution has historically delivered less power, and consequently earned less income, when weather conditions are milder.  In Texas, and to a lesser extent, in Ohio, where there is residential decoupling, unusually mild weather in the future could diminish AEP’s results of operations.  Conversely, unusually extreme weather conditions could increase AEP’s results of operations.


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AEP TRANSMISSION HOLDCO

GENERAL

AEPTHCo is a holding company for (a) AEPTCo, which is the direct holding company for the State Transcos and (b) AEP’s Transmission Joint Ventures.

AEPTCo

AEPTCo wholly owns the State Transcos:

AEP Appalachian Transmission Company, Inc. (APTCo)
AEP Indiana Michigan Transmission Company, Inc. (IMTCo)
AEP Kentucky Transmission Company, Inc. (KTCo)
AEP Ohio Transmission Company, Inc. (OHTCo)
AEP West Virginia Transmission Company, Inc. (WVTCo)
AEP Oklahoma Transmission Company, Inc. (OKTCo)
AEP Southwestern Transmission Company, Inc. (SWTCo)

The State Transcos are independent of, but respectively overlay, the following AEP electric utility operating companies: APCo, I&M, KPCo, KGPCo, OPCo, PSO, SWEPCo, and WPCo. The State Transcos develop, own, operate, and maintain their respective transmission assets. Assets of the State Transcos interconnect to transmission facilities owned by the aforementioned operating companies and nonaffiliated transmission owners within the footprints of PJM, MISO and SPP. APTCo, IMTCo, KTCo, OHTCo, and WVTCo are located within PJM. IMTCo also owns portions of the Greentown station assets located in MISO. OKTCo and SWTCo are located within SPP.

IMTCo, KTCo, OHTCo, OKTCo, and WVTCo own and operate transmission assets in their respective jurisdictions.  In December 2016, the Virginia SCC and WVPSC granted consent for APCo and APTCo to enter into a joint license agreement that will support APTCo investment in the state of Tennessee. SWTCo does not currently own or operate transmission assets.

The State Transcos are regulated for rate-making purposes exclusively by the FERC and earn revenues through tariff rates charged for the use of their electric transmission systems.  The State Transcos establish transmission rates each year through formula rate filings with the FERC.  The rate filings calculate the revenue requirement needed to cover the costs of operation and debt service and to earn an allowed ROE.  These rates are then included in an OATT for PJM, MISO and SPP.

The State Transcos own, operate, maintain and invest in transmission infrastructure in order to maintain and enhance system integrity and grid reliability, grid security, safety, reduce transmission constraints and facilitate interconnections of new generating resources and new wholesale customers, as well as enhance competitive wholesale electricity markets. A key part of AEP’s business is replacing and upgrading transmission facilities, assets and components of the existing AEP System as needed to maintain reliability.

The State Transcos provide the capability to replace and upgrade existing facilities. As of December 31, 2018, the State Transcos had $6.7 billion of transmission and other assets in-service with plans to construct approximately $4.5 billion of additional transmission assets through 2021. Additional investment in transmission infrastructure is needed within PJM and SPP to maintain the required level of grid reliability, resiliency, security and efficiency and to address an aging transmission infrastructure. Additional transmission facilities will be needed based on changes in generating resources, such as wind or solar projects, generation additions or retirements, and additional new customer interconnections.  The State Transcos will continue their investment to enhance physical and cyber security of assets, and are also investing in improving the telecommunication network that supports the operation and control of the grid.

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AEPTHCO JOINT VENTURE INITIATIVES

AEP has established joint ventures with other electric utility companies for the purpose of developing, building, and owning transmission assets that seek to improve reliability and market efficiency and provide transmission access to remote generation sources in North America (Transmission Joint Ventures). 

The Transmission Joint Ventures currently include:
Joint Venture Name
 
Location
 
Projected or Actual Completion Date
 
Owners
 (Ownership %)
 
Total Estimated/Actual Project Costs at Completion
 
 
Approved Return on Equity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
ETT
 
Texas
 
(a)
 
Berkshire Hathaway
 
$
3,310.9

(a)
 
9.6
%
 
 
 
(ERCOT) 
 
 
 
Energy (50%) 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (50%) 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prairie Wind
 
Kansas
 
2014
 
Westar Energy (50%) 
 
158.0

 
 
12.8
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Berkshire Hathaway Energy (25%)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (25%) (b) 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pioneer
 
Indiana
 
2018
 
Duke Energy (50%) 
 
187.4

 
 
10.82
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (50%) 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transource
 
Missouri
 
2016
 
Evergy, Inc. 
 
310.5

 
 
11.2
%
(d)
Missouri
 
 
 
 
 
(13.5%) (c)
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (86.5%) (c) 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transource
 
West
 
2019
 
Evergy, Inc.
 
78.1

 
 
10.5
%
 
West Virginia
 
Virginia
 
 
 
(13.5%) (c) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (86.5%) (c) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transource
 
Maryland
 
2020
 
Evergy, Inc.
 
25.0

(e)
 
10.4
%
(f)
Maryland
 
 
 
 
 
(13.5%) (c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (86.5%) (c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transource
 
Pennsylvania
 
2020
 
Evergy, Inc.
 
192.0

(e)
 
10.4
%
(f)
Pennsylvania
 
 
 
 
 
(13.5%) (c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AEP (86.5%) (c)
 
 
 
 
 
 

(a)
ETT is undertaking multiple projects and the completion dates will vary for those projects. ETT’s investment in completed, current and future projects in ERCOT over the next ten years is expected to be $3.3 billion.  Future projects will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
(b)
AEP owns 25% of Prairie Wind Transmission, LLC (Prairie Wind) through its ownership interest in Electric Transmission America, LLC. which is a 50/50 joint venture with Berkshire Hathaway Energy (formerly known as MidAmerican Energy) and AEP.
(c)
AEP owns 86.5% of Transource Missouri, Transource West Virginia, Transource Maryland and Transource Pennsylvania through its ownership interest in Transource Energy, LLC (Transource).  Transource is a joint venture with AEPTHCo and Evergy, Inc. formed to pursue competitive transmission projects.  AEPTHCo and Evergy, Inc. own 86.5% and 13.5% of Transource, respectively.
(d)
The ROE represents the weighted average approved ROE based on the costs of two projects developed by Transource Missouri; the $64 million Iatan-Nashua project (10.3%) and the $247 million Sibley-Nebraska City project (11.3%).
(e)
In August 2016, Transource Maryland and Transource Pennsylvania received approval from the PJM Interconnection Board to construct portions of a transmission project located in both Maryland and Pennsylvania. The project is expected to go in service in 2020. Project costs are in 2018 dollars.
(f)
In January 2018, Transource Maryland and Transource Pennsylvania received FERC approval of a settlement authorizing an ROE of 10.4%. This reflects a 9.9% base plus 0.5% RTO participation adder.

Transource Missouri, Transource West Virginia, Transource Maryland and Transource Pennsylvania are consolidated joint ventures by AEP.  All other joint ventures in the table above are not consolidated by AEP. AEP’s joint ventures do not have employees.  Business services for the joint ventures are provided by AEPSC and other AEP subsidiaries and the joint venture partners. During 2018, approximately 537 AEPSC employees and 283 operating company employees provided service to one or more joint ventures.


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REGULATION

The State Transcos and the Transmission Joint Ventures located outside of ERCOT establish transmission rates annually through forward looking formula rate filings with the FERC pursuant to FERC-approved implementation protocols.  The protocols include a transparent, formal review process to ensure the updated transmission rates are prudently incurred and reasonably calculated. The IMTCo-owned Greentown station assets acquired from Duke Energy Indiana, LLC in December 2018 are located in MISO. IMTCo plans to utilize historic costs for recovery.

The State Transcos’ and the Transmission Joint Ventures’ (where applicable) rates are included in the respective OATT for PJM and SPP.  An OATT is the FERC rate schedule that provides the terms and conditions for transmission and related services on a transmission provider’s transmission system.  The FERC requires transmission providers such as PJM and SPP to offer transmission service to all eligible customers (for example, load-serving entities, power marketers, generators and customers) on a non-discriminatory basis.

The FERC-approved formula rates establish the annual transmission revenue requirement (ATRR) and transmission service rates for transmission owners in annual rate base filings with the FERC.  The formula rates establish rates for a one-year period based on the current projects in-service and proposed projects for a defined timeframe.  The formula rates also include a true-up calculation for the previous year’s billings, allowing for over/under-recovery of the transmission owner’s ATRR.  PJM and SPP pay the transmission owners their ATRR for use of their facilities and bill transmission customers taking service under the PJM and SPP OATTs, based on the terms and conditions in the respective OATT for the service taken. Additionally, the State Transcos are subject to reliability standards promulgated by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, with the approval of the FERC.

AEP’s transmission owning subsidiaries within PJM and six of the complainants filed a settlement agreement with the FERC, which is awaiting FERC approval. The pending formula rate mechanism allows for a total ROE of 10.35% based on a capital structure of up to 55% equity for APTCo, IMTCo, KTCo, OHTCo and WVTCo (the East Transcos).  OKTCo and SWTCo (the West Transcos) are allowed a ROE of 11.2% without a cap on the capital structure. The authorized returns on equity for the State Transcos are the FERC-authorized returns on equity in the PJM and SPP OATTs, respectively. These returns have been challenged by parties in filings before the FERC. The West Transcos’ case is ongoing.

In the annual rate base filings described above, the State Transcos in aggregate filed rate base totals of $4.6 billion for 2018, $3.8 billion for 2017 and $3.2 billion for 2016.  The total transmission revenue requirements filed in the ATRR, including prior year over/under-recovery of revenue and associated carrying charges, for 2018, 2017, and 2016 was $829 million, $690 million and $555 million, respectively.

The rates of ETT, which is located in ERCOT, are determined by the PUCT.  ETT sets its rates through a combination of base rate cases and interim Transmission Cost of Services (TCOS) filings.  ETT may file interim TCOS filings semi-annually to update its rates to reflect changes in its net invested capital.

The Transmission Joint Ventures have approved ROEs ranging from 9.6% to 12.8% based on equity capital structures ranging from 40% to 60%.

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GENERATION & MARKETING

GENERAL

The AEP Generation & Marketing segment subsidiaries consist of competitive generating assets, a wholesale energy trading and marketing business and a retail supply and energy management business.  The primary fossil generation subsidiary in the Generation & Marketing segment is AGR.  In January 2017, AGR sold 4,143 MWs of generation capacity to a nonaffiliated third-party and terminated a 1,186 MW UPA. As of December 31, 2018, AGR owns 2,114 MWs of generating capacity. Management plans to close 39% of this generation capacity in May 2019 and 31% in May 2020. 28% of this generating capacity is operated by Buckeye Power, a nonaffiliated electric cooperative. Other subsidiaries in this segment own or have the right to receive power from additional generation assets.  See Item 2 – Properties for more information regarding the generation assets of the Generation & Marketing segment. AGR is a competitive generation subsidiary.

With respect to the wholesale energy trading and marketing business, AEP Generation & Marketing segment subsidiaries enter into short-term and long-term transactions to buy or sell capacity, energy and ancillary services in ERCOT, SPP, MISO and PJM.  These subsidiaries sell power into the market and engage in power, natural gas and emissions allowances risk management and trading activities.  

These activities primarily involve the purchase-and-sale of electricity (and to a lesser extent, natural gas and emissions allowances) under forward contracts at fixed and variable prices.  These contracts include physical transactions, exchange-traded futures, and to a lesser extent, OTC swaps and options.  The majority of forward contracts are typically settled by entering into offsetting contracts.  These transactions are executed with numerous counterparties or on exchanges.

With respect to the retail supply and energy management business, AEP Energy is a retail energy supplier that supplies electricity and/or natural gas to residential, commercial, and industrial customers.  AEP Energy provides various energy solutions in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio and Washington, D.C.  AEP Energy also provides demand-side management solutions nationwide.  AEP Energy had approximately 415,000 customer accounts as of December 31, 2018.

AEP Energy Supply, LLC owns 261 MWs of wind capacity in Texas. AEP Renewables, LLC develops and/or acquires large scale renewable projects backed with long-term contracts with creditworthy counterparties. As of December 2018, AEP Renewables, LLC owns a 20 MW solar project in California, a 20 MW solar project in Utah and a 50 MW solar project in Nevada. In December 2018, AEP Renewables, LLC entered into an agreement to own an additional 227 MW of Texas wind capacity which is expected to be placed in-service in mid-2019.

AEP OnSite Partners, LLC works directly with wholesale and large retail customers to provide tailored solutions to reduce their energy costs based upon market knowledge, innovative applications of technology and deal structuring capabilities. The company targets opportunities in distributed solar, combined heat and power, energy storage, waste heat recovery, energy efficiency, peaking generation and other energy solutions that create value for customers. AEP OnSite Partners, LLC pursues and develops behind the meter projects with creditworthy customers. As of December 31, 2018, AEP OnSite Partners, LLC owned projects operating in 15 states, including approximately 85 MWs of installed solar capacity, and approximately 57 MWs of solar projects under construction.

In February 2019, AEP Clean Energy Resources, LLC signed an agreement to purchase Sempra Renewables, LLC and its 724 MWs of wind generation and battery assets for approximately $1.1 billion, subject to closing and working capital adjustments. As part of the purchase price, AEP Clean Energy Resources, LLC will pay $551 million in cash and assume $343 million of existing project debt obligations of the non-consolidated joint ventures. Additionally, the acquisition will be accompanied by the recognition of non-controlling tax equity interest of $162 million associated with certain