Company Quick10K Filing
AerCap
20-F 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-03-02
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-05
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-08
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-09
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-20
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-23
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-30
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-18
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-13
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-03-23
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-03-23
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-03-16

AER 20F Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities.
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds.
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert.
Item 16B. Code of Conduct.
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
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AerCap Earnings 2014-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Table of Contents

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014

Commission file number 001-33159

AerCap Holdings N.V.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

AerCap
AerCap House
Stationsplein 965
1117 CE Schiphol
The Netherlands
+ 31 20 655 9655
(Address of principal executive offices)

Wouter M. den Dikken, AerCap House, Stationsplein 965, 1117 CE Schiphol, The Netherlands,
Telephone number: +31 20 655 9655, Fax number: +31 20 655 9100
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares   The New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
6.375% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2017

         Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or ordinary stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

Ordinary Shares, Euro 0.01 par value

  212,318,291

         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

         If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

         Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP ý   International Financial Reporting Standards as
issued by the International Accounting Standards Board o
  Other o

         If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 o    Item 18 o

         If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

   


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Definitions

    1  

Special Note About Forward Looking Statements

    3  

Item 1.

 

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

    4  

Item 2.

 

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

    4  

Item 3.

 

Key Information

    4  

Item 4.

 

Information on the Company

    27  

Item 4A.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

    41  

Item 5.

 

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

    41  

Item 6.

 

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

    67  

Item 7.

 

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

    78  

Item 8.

 

Financial Information

    82  

Item 9.

 

The Offer and Listing. 

    82  

Item 10.

 

Additional Information. 

    84  

Item 11.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk. 

    100  

Item 12.

 

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities. 

    102  

Item 13.

 

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies. 

    102  

Item 14.

 

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds. 

    102  

Item 15.

 

Controls and Procedures. 

    102  

Item 16A.

 

Audit committee financial expert

    103  

Item 16B.

 

Code of Conduct

    103  

Item 16C.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

    103  

Item 16D.

 

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

    104  

Item 16E.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

    104  

Item 16F.

 

Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant

    104  

Item 16G.

 

Corporate Governance

    105  

Item 16H.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

    105  

Item 17.

 

Financial Statements

    106  

Item 18.

 

Financial Statements

    106  

Item 19.

 

Exhibits

    106  

Signatures

    116  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

    F-1  

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TABLE OF DEFINITIONS

AeroTurbine   AeroTurbine, Inc.

AerCap or the Company

 

AerCap Holdings N.V. and its subsidiaries

AerCap Trust

 

AerCap Global Aviation Trust and its consolidated subsidiaries

AerLift

 

AerLift Leasing Ltd.

AerLift Jet

 

AerLift Leasing Jet Ltd.

AIG

 

American International Group, Inc.

Airbus

 

Airbus S.A.S.

ALS II

 

Aircraft Lease Securitisation II Limited

ALS Transaction

 

The sale of our equity interest (E-Notes) in Aircraft Lease Securitisation Limited to Guggenheim Partners, LLC on November 14, 2012.

AOCI

 

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

Boeing

 

The Boeing Company

ECA

 

Export Credit Agency

ECAPS

 

Enhanced Capital Advantaged Preferred Securities

Embraer

 

Embraer S.A.

EOL contract

 

End of lease contract

Ex-Im

 

Export-Import Bank of the United States

FASB

 

Financial Accounting Standards Board

GECC

 

General Electric Capital Corporation

Genesis Transaction

 

The all-share acquisition of Genesis on March 25, 2010.

ILFC

 

International Lease Finance Corporation

ILFC Transaction

 

AerCap and AerCap Ireland Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AerCap, purchase of 100 percent of ILFC's common share from AIG on May 14, 2014.

IRS

 

Internal Revenue Service

LIBOR

 

London Interbank Offered Rates

MR contract

 

Maintenance reserved contract

OCI

 

Other comprehensive income (loss)

Part-out

 

Disassembly of an aircraft for the sale of its parts

PB

 

Primary beneficiary

Reorganization

 

The transfer of substantially all of ILFC's assets to AerCap Trust and AerCap Trust's assumption of substantially all of ILFC's liabilities on May 14, 2014.

SEC

 

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

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SPE   Special purpose entity

STJ

 

Superior Tribunal of Justice

TJSP

 

The State Appellate Court of Sao Paolo

U.S. GAAP

 

Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States of America

VASP

 

Viação Aerea de São Paulo V

VIE

 

Variable interest entity

Waha

 

Waha Capital PJSC

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SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This annual report includes "forward looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, principally under the captions "Item 3. Key Information—Risks Related to Our Business", "Item 4. Information on the Company" and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects". We have based these forward looking statements largely on our current beliefs and projections about future events and financial trends affecting our business. Many important factors, in addition to those discussed in this annual report, could cause our actual results to differ substantially from those anticipated in our forward looking statements, including, among other things:

    the availability of capital to us and to our customers and changes in interest rates;

    the ability of our lessees and potential lessees to make operating lease payments to us;

    our ability to successfully negotiate aircraft purchases, sales and leases, to collect outstanding amounts due and to repossess aircraft under defaulted leases, and to control costs and expenses;

    decreases in the overall demand for commercial aircraft leasing and aircraft management services;

    the economic condition of the global airline and cargo industry and the economic and political conditions;

    competitive pressures within the industry;

    the negotiation of aircraft management services contracts;

    our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the recently completed acquisition of International Lease Finance Corporation ("ILFC") from American International Group ("AIG");

    regulatory changes affecting commercial aircraft operators, aircraft maintenance, engine standards, accounting standards and taxes; and

    the risks set forth in "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors" included in this annual report.

        The words "believe", "may", "aim", "estimate", "continue", "anticipate", "intend", "expect" and similar words are intended to identify forward looking statements. Forward looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, business strategies, financing plans, competitive position, industry environment, potential growth opportunities, the effects of future regulation and the effects of competition. Forward looking statements speak only as of the date they were made and we undertake no obligation to update publicly or to revise any forward looking statements because of new information, future events or other factors. In light of the risks and uncertainties described above, the forward looking events and circumstances described in this annual report might not occur and are not guarantees of future performance.

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PART I

Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

        Not applicable.

Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

        Not applicable.

Item 3.    Key Information

        AerCap Holdings N.V. was formed as a Netherlands public limited liability company ("naamloze vennootschap" or "N.V.") on July 10, 2006. On November 27, 2006, we completed the initial public offering of 26.1 million of our ordinary shares on the New York Stock Exchange (the "NYSE"). On August 6, 2007, we completed the secondary offering of 20.0 million additional ordinary shares on the NYSE. On May 14, 2014, AerCap acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, 100% of the common stock of ILFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AIG (the "ILFC Transaction"), for consideration consisting of $2.4 billion in cash and 97,560,976 newly issued AerCap common shares. As of December 31, 2014, we had 212.3 million shares issued and outstanding.

Selected financial data

        The following table presents AerCap Holdings N.V.'s selected consolidated financial data for each of the periods indicated, prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. This information should be read in conjunction with AerCap Holdings N.V.'s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects". The financial information presented as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 and for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was derived from AerCap Holdings N.V.'s audited consolidated financial statements included in this annual report. The financial information presented as of December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 and for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 was derived from AerCap Holdings N.V. audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.

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Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2014   2013   2012(a)   2011(a)   2010(a)  
 
  (U.S. dollars in thousands)
 

Assets

                               

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 1,490,369   $ 295,514   $ 520,401   $ 411,081   $ 404,450  

Restricted cash

    717,388     272,787     280,653     244,495     233,844  

Flight equipment held for operating leases, net

    31,984,668     8,085,947     7,261,899     7,895,874     8,061,260  

Maintenance rights intangible and lease premium, net

    3,906,026     9,354     18,100     29,677     16,429  

Prepayments on flight equipment

    3,486,514     223,815     53,594     95,619     199,417  

Other assets

    2,282,415     563,724     499,151     438,056     696,587  

Total assets

  $ 43,867,380   $ 9,451,141   $ 8,633,798   $ 9,114,802   $ 9,611,987  

Debt

    30,402,392     6,236,892     5,803,499     6,111,165     6,566,163  

Other liabilities

    5,522,440     785,071     707,393     720,320     828,427  

Total liabilities

    35,924,832     7,021,909     6,510,892     6,831,485     7,394,590  

AerCap Holdings N.V shareholders' equity

    7,863,777     2,425,372     2,122,038     2,277,236     2,211,350  

Non-controlling interest

    78,771     3,860     868     6,081     6,047  

Total equity

    7,942,548     2,429,232     2,122,906     2,283,317     2,217,397  

Total liabilities and equity

  $ 43,867,380   $ 9,451,141   $ 8,633,798   $ 9,114,802   $ 9,611,987  

(a)
The Consolidated Balance Sheet for the year ended December 31, 2012 includes $51.6 million deferred income tax liability which was previously presented on a net basis as part of the deferred tax asset. There were no changes to Net Income or Total Equity as a result of this in that period.

The Consolidated Balance Sheets for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 include $0.8 million, $7.2 million and $11.4 million other assets or other liabilities which was previously presented as part of the restricted cash. There were no changes to Net Income or Total Equity as a result of these in the respective periods.

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Consolidated Income Statement Data:

 
  2014   2013   2012   2011   2010(a)(b)  
 
  (U.S. dollars in thousands except per share amounts)
 

Revenues and other income

                               

Lease revenue

  $ 3,498,300   $ 976,147   $ 997,147   $ 1,050,536   $ 902,320  

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

    37,497     41,873     (46,421 )   9,284     36,204  

Other income

    104,491     32,046     21,794     34,103     20,754  

Total revenues and other income

    3,640,288     1,050,066     972,520     1,093,923     959,278  

Expenses

                               

Depreciation and amortization

    1,282,228     337,730     357,347     361,210     307,706  

Asset impairment

    21,828     26,155     12,625     15,594     10,905  

Interest expense

    780,349     226,329     286,019     292,486     233,985  

Other expenses

    190,301     49,023     78,241     73,836     67,829  

Transaction and integration related expenses

    148,792     10,959              

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    299,892     89,079     83,409     120,746     80,627  

Total expenses

    2,723,390     739,275     817,641     863,872     701,052  

Income before income taxes and income of investments accounted for under the equity method

    916,898     310,791     154,879     230,051     258,226  

Provision for income taxes

    (137,373 )   (26,026 )   (8,067 )   (15,460 )   (22,194 )

Equity in net earnings of investments accounted for under the equity method

    28,973     10,637     11,630     10,904     3,713  

Net income from continuing operations

    808,498     295,402     158,442     225,495     239,745  

Income (loss) from discontinued operations (AeroTurbine, including loss on disposal), net of tax

                (52,745 )   (3,199 )

Bargain purchase gain ("Amalgamation gain"), net of transaction expenses

                    274  

Net Income

  $ 808,498   $ 295,402   $ 158,442   $ 172,750   $ 236,820  

Net loss (income) attributable to non- controlling interest, net of tax

    1,949     (2,992 )   5,213     (526 )   (29,247 )

Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. 

  $ 810,447   $ 292,410   $ 163,655   $ 172,224   $ 207,573  

Net earnings per share—basic

                               

Continuing operations

  $ 4.61   $ 2.58   $ 1.24   $ 1.53   $ 1.84  

Discontinued operations

  $   $   $   $ (0.36 ) $ (0.03 )

Net earnings per share—basic

  $ 4.61   $ 2.58   $ 1.24   $ 1.17   $ 1.81  

Net earnings per share—diluted

                               

Continuing operations

  $ 4.54   $ 2.54   $ 1.24   $ 1.53   $ 1.84  

Discontinued operations

  $   $   $   $ (0.36 ) $ (0.03 )

Net earnings per share—diluted

  $ 4.54   $ 2.54   $ 1.24   $ 1.17   $ 1.81  

(a)
As a result of the sale of AeroTurbine in 2011 and based on ASC 205-20, which governs financial statements for discontinued operations, the results of AeroTurbine have been reclassified to discontinued operations. As a result of the ILFC Transaction, AeroTurbine again became a subsidiary of AerCap on May 14, 2014.

(b)
Includes the results of Genesis for the period from March 25, 2010 (date of acquisition) to December 31, 2010.

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Business

We require significant capital to fund our business.

        As of December 31, 2014 we had 380 new aircraft on order. Due to the capital-intensive nature of our business, we expect that we will incur additional indebtedness in the future and continue to maintain substantial levels of indebtedness. We have significant principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and substantial aircraft forward purchase contract payments. In order to meet these commitments, and to maintain an adequate level of unrestricted cash, we will need to raise additional funds by accessing committed debt facilities, securing additional financing from banks or through capital market transactions, or possibly selling aircraft. Our typical sources of funding may not be sufficient to meet our liquidity needs, in which case we may be required to raise capital from new sources, including by issuing new types of debt, equity or hybrid securities.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we might incur significantly more debt.

        Despite our current indebtedness levels, we expect to incur additional debt in the future to finance our operations, including purchasing aircraft and meeting our contractual obligations. The agreements relating to our debt, including our indentures, securitizations, term loan facilities, ECA guaranteed financings, revolving credit facilities, subordinated joint venture agreements, and other financings, limit but do not prohibit our ability to incur additional debt. If we increase our total indebtedness, our debt service obligations will increase. We will become more exposed to the risks arising from our substantial level of indebtedness as described above as we become more leveraged. As of December 31, 2014, we had approximately $5.8 billion of undrawn commitments available under our revolving credit facilities, subject to certain conditions, including compliance with certain financial covenants. We regularly consider market conditions and our ability to incur indebtedness to either refinance existing indebtedness or for working capital. If additional debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks we could face would increase.

Our level of indebtedness requires significant debt service payments.

        The principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness, which excludes fair value adjustments of $1.3 billion, was approximately $29.1 billion as of December 31, 2014 (approximately 66% of our total assets as of that date), and our interest payments were $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014. Due to the capital-intensive nature of our business, we expect that we will incur additional indebtedness in the future and continue to maintain significant levels of indebtedness. Our fixed rate debt of $20.3 billion equals 69.8% of our principal amount of outstanding indebtedness, as of December 31, 2014. Our level of indebtedness:

    requires a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to be dedicated to interest and principal payments and therefore not available to fund our operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, acquisitions or general corporate or other purposes;

    restricts the ability of some of our subsidiaries and joint ventures to make distributions to us;

    may impair our ability to obtain additional financing on favorable terms or at all in the future;

    may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry; and

    may make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy in general.

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An increase in our cost of borrowing or changes in interest rates may adversely affect our net income.

        We use a mix of fixed rate and floating rate debt to finance our business. Any increase in our cost of borrowing directly impacts our net income. Our cost of borrowing is affected primarily by the market's assessment of our credit risk and fluctuations in interest rates and general market conditions. Interest rates that we obtain on our debt financings can fluctuate based on, among other things, changes in views of our credit risk, fluctuations in Treasury rates and LIBOR rates, as applicable, changes in credit spreads and swap spreads, and the duration of the debt being issued. If we incur significant debt in the future, increased interest rates prevailing in the market at the time of the incurrence or refinancing of such debt will also increase our interest expense. If interest rates increase, we would be obligated to make higher interest payments to our lenders on the floating rate debt to the extent that it is not hedged. In addition, we are exposed to the credit risk that the counterparties to our derivative contracts will default in their obligations.

        Moreover, if interest rates were to rise sharply, we would not be able to increase our lease rates quickly enough to compensate for the negative impact on our net income, even if the market were able to bear such increases in lease rates. Our leases are generally for multiple years with fixed lease rates over the life of the lease and, therefore, lags will exist because our lease rates with respect to a particular aircraft cannot generally be increased until the expiration of the lease.

        Decreases in interest rates may also adversely affect our interest revenue on cash deposits as well as lease revenues generated from leases with lease rates tied to floating interest rates. As of December 31, 2014, 3.7% of rental revenue was derived from such leases. Therefore, if interest rates were to decrease, our lease revenue would decrease. In addition, since our fixed rate leases are based, in part, on prevailing interest rates at the time we enter into the lease, if interest rates decrease, new fixed rate leases we enter into may be at lower lease rates and our lease revenue will be adversely affected.

The agreements governing our debt contain various covenants that impose restrictions on us that may affect our ability to operate our business.

        Our indentures, securitizations, term loan facilities, ECA guaranteed financings, revolving credit facilities, subordinated joint venture agreements, other commercial bank financings, and other agreements governing our debt impose operating and financial restrictions on our activities that limit or prohibit our ability to, among other things:

    incur additional indebtedness;

    create liens on assets;

    sell certain assets;

    make certain investments, loans, guarantees or advances;

    declare or pay certain dividends and distributions;

    make certain acquisitions;

    consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;

    enter into transactions with our affiliates;

    change the business conducted by the borrowers and their respective subsidiaries;

    enter into a securitization transaction unless certain conditions are met; and

    access cash in restricted bank accounts.

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        The agreements governing certain of our indebtedness also contain financial covenants, such as requirements that we comply with certain loan-to-value, interest coverage and leverage ratios. These restrictions could impede our ability to operate our business by, among other things, limiting our ability to take advantage of financing, merger and acquisition and other corporate opportunities.

        Various risks, uncertainties and events beyond our control could affect our ability to comply with these covenants and maintain these financial tests and ratios. Failure to comply with any of the covenants in our existing or future financing agreements would result in a default under those agreements and under other agreements containing cross default provisions. Under these circumstances, we may have insufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all our obligations.

To service our debt and meet our other cash needs, we will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.

        Our ability to make payments on, or repay or refinance, our debt and to fund planned aircraft purchases and other cash needs, will depend largely upon our future operating performance. Our future performance, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In addition, our ability to borrow funds in the future to make payments on our debt will depend on our maintaining specified financial ratios and satisfying financial condition tests and other covenants in the agreements governing our debt now and in the future. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and future borrowings may not be available in amounts sufficient to pay our debt or to satisfy our other liquidity needs.

        If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to seek alternatives, such as to reduce or delay investments and aircraft purchases, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and might require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of our existing or future debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations or to meet our aircraft purchase commitments as they come due.

If we are unable to obtain sufficient cash, we might fail to meet our aircraft purchase commitments.

        If we are unable to meet our aircraft purchase commitments as they come due, we will be subject to several risks, including:

    forfeiting deposits and progress payments to manufacturers and having to pay certain significant costs related to these commitments such as actual damages and legal, accounting and financial advisory expenses;

    defaulting on our lease commitments, which could result in monetary damages and strained relationships with lessees;

    failing to realize the benefits of purchasing and leasing such aircraft; and

    risking harm to our business reputation, which would make it more difficult to purchase and lease aircraft in the future on agreeable terms, if at all.

Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

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We may be unable to generate sufficient returns on our aircraft investments.

        Our results depend on our ability to consistently acquire strategically attractive aircraft, continually and profitably lease and re-lease them, and finally sell or otherwise dispose of them, in order to generate returns on the investments we have made, provide cash to finance our growth and operations, and service our existing debt. Upon acquiring new aircraft we may not be able to enter into leases that generate sufficient cash flow to justify the cost of purchase. When our leases expire or our aircraft are returned prior to the date contemplated in the lease, we bear the risk of re-leasing, selling or parting-out the aircraft. Because our leases are predominantly operating leases, only a portion of an aircraft's value is recovered by the revenues generated from the lease and we may not be able to realize the aircraft's residual value after lease expiration.

        Our ability to profitably purchase, lease, re-lease, sell or part-out our aircraft will depend on conditions in the airline industry and general market and competitive conditions at the time of purchase, lease, and disposition. In addition to factors linked to the aviation industry in general, other factors that may affect our ability to generate adequate returns from of our aircraft include the maintenance and operating history of the airframe and engines, the number of operators using the particular type of aircraft, and aircraft age.

Customer demand for certain types of our aircraft may decline.

        Aircraft are long-lived assets and demand for a particular model and type of aircraft can change over time. Demand may decline for a variety of reasons, including obsolescence following the introduction of newer technologies, market saturation due to increased production rates, technical problems associated with a particular model, new manufacturers entering the marketplace or existing manufacturers entering new market segments, additional governmental regulation such as environmental rules or aircraft age limitations, or the overall health of the airline industry.

        The supply and demand for aircraft is affected by various factors that are outside of our control, including:

    passenger and air cargo demand;

    fuel costs and general economic conditions;

    geopolitical events, including war, prolonged armed conflict and acts of terrorism;

    epidemics and natural disasters;

    governmental regulation;

    interest rates;

    the availability and cost of financing;

    airline restructurings and bankruptcies;

    manufacturer production levels and technological innovation;

    manufacturers merging, entering or exiting the industry;

    retirement and obsolescence of aircraft models;

    increases in production rates from manufacturers;

    reintroduction into service of aircraft previously in storage; and

    airport and air traffic control infrastructure constraints.

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        For example, over recent years and in the face of volatile fuel prices, the market for leasing, financing and selling aircraft has experienced an oversupply of certain older, less fuel-efficient aircraft. Moreover, during roughly the same period, the airline industry has committed to a significant number of aircraft deliveries through order placements with manufacturers, and in response, aircraft manufacturers have raised their production output. The increase in these production levels could result in an oversupply of relatively new aircraft if growth in airline traffic does not meet airline industry expectations.

        As demand for particular aircraft declines as a result of any of these factors, lease rates are likely to correspondingly decline, the residual values of that type of aircraft could be negatively impacted, and we may be unable to lease such aircraft on favorable terms, if at all. In addition, the risks associated with a decline in demand for particular aircraft model or type increase if we acquire a high concentration of such aircraft. For example, as of December 31, 2014, we had 380 new aircraft on order including 205 A320neo family aircraft, 66 Boeing 787 aircraft, 50 Embraer E-Jets E2 aircraft, 29 A350 aircraft, 25 Boeing 737 aircraft, four A321 aircraft, and one A330 aircraft. If demand declines for a model or type of aircraft of which we own or will acquire a relatively high concentration, it could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

The value and lease rates of our aircraft could decline.

        Aircraft values and lease rates have occasionally experienced sharp decreases due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, decreases in passenger air travel and air cargo demand, changes in fuel costs, government regulation and changes in interest rates. In addition to factors linked to the aviation industry generally, many other factors may affect the value and lease rates of particular types or models of aircraft, including:

    the particular maintenance, operating history and documentary records of the aircraft;

    the number of operators using that type of aircraft;

    the regulatory authority under which the aircraft is operated;

    whether the aircraft is subject to a lease and, if so, whether the lease terms are favorable to the lessor;

    the age of the aircraft;

    any renegotiation of a lease on less favorable terms;

    the negotiability of clear title free from mechanics liens and encumbrances;

    any regulatory and legal requirements that must be satisfied before the aircraft can be purchased, sold or re-leased;

    decrease in the credit-worthiness of lessees;

    compatibility of aircraft configurations or specifications with other aircraft owned by operators of that type;

    comparative value based on newly manufactured competitive aircraft; and

    the availability of spare parts.

        Any decrease in the value and lease rates of our aircraft that results from the above factors or other factors may have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

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Strong competition from other aircraft lessors could adversely affect our financial results.

        The aircraft leasing industry is highly competitive. Our competition is primarily comprised of major aircraft leasing companies, but we may also encounter competition from other entities such as:

    airlines;

    aircraft manufacturers;

    financial institutions, including those seeking to dispose of re-possessed aircraft at distressed prices;

    aircraft brokers;

    public and private partnerships, investors and funds with excess capital to invest in aircraft and engines; and

    emerging aircraft leasing companies that we do not currently consider our major competitors.

        Some of these competitors may have greater operating and financial resources than we do. We may not always be able to compete successfully with such competitors and other entities, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

Our financial condition is dependent, in part, on the financial strength of our lessees.

        Our financial condition depends on the ability of lessees to perform their payment and other obligations to us under our leases. We generate the primary portion of our revenue from leases to the aviation industry, and as a result we are indirectly affected by all the risks facing airlines today. The ability of our lessees to perform their obligations depends primarily on their financial condition and cash flows, which may be affected by factors outside our control, including:

    passenger air travel and air cargo demand;

    competition;

    economic conditions and currency fluctuations in the countries and regions in which a lessee operates;

    price and availability of jet fuel;

    availability and cost of financing;

    fare levels;

    geopolitical and other events, including war, acts of terrorism, outbreaks of epidemic diseases and natural disasters;

    increases in operating costs, including labor costs and other general economic conditions affecting our lessees' operations;

    labor difficulties;

    the availability of financial or other governmental support extended to a lessee; and

    governmental regulation and associated fees affecting the air transportation business, including restrictions on carbon emissions and other environmental regulations, and fly over restrictions imposed by route authorities.

        Generally, airlines with high financial leverage are more likely than airlines with stronger balance sheets to be affected, and affected more quickly, by the factors listed above. Such airlines are also more likely to seek operating leases.

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        Any downturns in the aviation industry could greatly exacerbate the weakened financial condition and liquidity problems of some of our lessees and further increase the risk that they will delay, reduce or fail to make rental payments when due. At any point in time, our lessees may be significantly in arrears. Some lessees encountering financial difficulties may seek a reduction in their lease rates or other concessions, such as a decrease in their contribution toward maintenance obligations. Moreover, we may not correctly assess the credit risk of each lessee or charge lease rates that incorrectly reflect related risks. Many of our lessees are not rated investment grade by the principal U.S. rating agencies and may be more likely to suffer liquidity problems than those that are so rated.

        If lessees of a significant number of our aircraft fail to perform their obligations to us, our financial results and cash flows will be materially and adversely affected.

A return to historically high fuel prices or continued volatility in fuel prices could affect the profitability of the aviation industry and our lessees' ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.

        Historically, fuel prices have fluctuated widely depending primarily on international market conditions, geopolitical and environmental events and currency exchange rates. Factors such as natural disasters can also significantly affect fuel availability and prices. The cost of fuel represents a major expense to airlines that is not within their control, and significant increases in fuel costs or hedges that inaccurately assess the direction of fuel costs can materially and adversely affect their operating results. Due to the competitive nature of the aviation industry, operators may be unable to pass on increases in fuel prices to their customers by increasing fares in a manner that fully offsets the increased fuel costs they may incur. In addition, they may not be able to manage this risk by appropriately hedging their exposure to fuel price fluctuations. The profitability and liquidity of those airlines that do hedge their fuel costs can also be adversely affected by swift movements in fuel prices, if such airlines are required as a result to post cash collateral under hedge agreements. Therefore, if for any reason fuel prices return to historically high levels or show significant volatility, our lessees are likely to incur higher costs or generate lower revenues, which may affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.

Interruptions in the capital markets could impair our lessees' ability to finance their operations which could prevent the lessees from complying with payment obligations to us.

        The global financial markets have been highly volatile and the availability of credit from financial markets and financial institutions can vary substantially depending on developments in the global financial markets. Many of our lessees have expanded their airline operations through borrowings and are leveraged. These lessees will depend on banks and the capital markets to provide working capital and to refinance existing indebtedness. To the extent such funding is unavailable, or available only at high interest costs or on unfavorable terms, and to the extent financial markets do not allow equity financing as an alternative, our lessees' operations and operating results may be materially and adversely affected and they may not comply with their respective payment obligations to us.

A sovereign debt crisis could result in higher borrowing costs and more limited availability of credit, as well as impact the overall airline industry and the financial health of our lessees.

        In recent years, significant concerns regarding the sovereign debt of numerous countries have developed and required some of these countries to seek emergency financing. Specifically, the debt crisis in certain European countries could cause the value of the Euro to further deteriorate, thus reducing the purchasing power of our European customers. Many of the structural issues facing the Eurozone remain and problems could resurface that could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, particularly if they lead to sovereign debt default, significant bank failures or defaults, or the exit of one or more countries from the European Monetary Union (the "EMU"). Financial market conditions could materially worsen if, for example, consecutive Eurozone countries were to default on their sovereign debt, significant bank

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failures or defaults in these countries were to occur, or one or more of the members of the Eurozone were to exit the EMU. Further, the effects of the Eurozone debt crisis could be even more significant if they lead to a partial or complete breakup of the EMU. The partial or full breakup of the EMU would be unprecedented and its impact highly uncertain. The exit of one or more countries from the EMU or the dissolution of the EMU could lead to redenomination of certain obligations of obligors in exiting countries. Any such exit and redenomination would cause significant uncertainty with respect to outstanding obligations of counterparties and debtors in any exiting country, whether sovereign or otherwise, and lead to complex and lengthy disputes and litigation.

        The downgrade of the credit rating of the United States in 2011 and the ongoing European debt crisis have contributed to the instability in global credit markets. A sovereign debt crisis could further adversely impact the financial health of the global banking system, not only due to its exposure to the sovereign debt, but also by the imposition of stricter capital requirements, which could limit availability of credit. Further, a sovereign debt crisis could lower consumer confidence, which could impact global financial markets and economic conditions in the United States and throughout the world. As a result, any combination of lower consumer confidence, disrupted global capital markets or reduced economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

If the effects of terrorist attacks and geopolitical conditions adversely affect the financial condition of the airline industry, our lessees might not be able to meet their lease payment obligations to us.

        Terrorist attacks, war or armed hostilities, or the fear of such events, have historically had a negative impact on the aviation industry and could result in:

    higher costs to the airlines due to the increased security measures;

    decreased passenger demand and revenue due to the inconvenience of additional security measures or concerns about the safety of flying;

    the imposition of "no-fly zone" or other restrictions on commercial airline traffic in certain regions;

    uncertainty of the price and availability of jet fuel and the cost and practicability of obtaining fuel hedges under current market conditions;

    higher financing costs and difficulty in raising the desired amount of proceeds on favorable terms, if at all;

    significantly higher costs of aviation insurance coverage for future claims caused by acts of war, terrorism, sabotage, hijacking and other similar perils, or the unavailability of certain types of insurance;

    inability of airlines to reduce their operating costs and conserve financial resources, taking into account the increased costs incurred as a consequence of such events; and

    special charges recognized by some operators, such as those related to the impairment of aircraft and engines and other long-lived assets stemming from the grounding of aircraft as a result of terrorist attacks, the economic slowdown and airline reorganizations.

        For example, as a result of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and subsequent terrorist attacks abroad, notably in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Europe, increased security restrictions were implemented on air travel, costs for aircraft insurance and security measures increased, passenger and cargo demand for air travel decreased, and operators faced difficulties in acquiring war risk and other insurance at reasonable costs. In the future, uncertainty regarding increasing tensions between Ukraine and Russia and the possibility of increased sanctions against Russia, the situation in Iraq, Syria, the Israeli/Palestinian conflict, tension over the nuclear programs of

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Iran and North Korea, political instability in the Middle East and North Africa, and the dispute between Japan and China could lead to further instability in these regions.

        Terrorist attacks, war or armed hostilities, or the fear of such events, in these or any other regions, could adversely affect the aviation industry and the financial condition and liquidity of our lessees, as well as aircraft values and rental rates. In addition, such events might cause certain aviation insurance to become available only at significantly increased premiums or with reduced amounts of coverage insufficient to comply with the current requirements of aircraft lenders and lessors or by applicable government regulations, or not to be available at all. Although some governments provide for limited coverage under government programs for specified types of aviation insurance, these programs may not be available at the relevant time or governments may not pay under these programs in a timely fashion.

        Such events are likely to cause our lessees to incur higher costs and to generate lower revenues, which could result in a material adverse effect on their financial condition and liquidity, including their ability to make rental and other lease payments to us or to obtain the types and amounts of insurance we require. This in turn could lead to aircraft groundings or additional lease restructurings and repossessions, increase our cost of re-leasing or selling aircraft, impair our ability to re-lease or otherwise dispose of aircraft on favorable terms or at all, or reduce the proceeds we receive for our aircraft in a disposition.

The effects of epidemic diseases and natural disasters, such as extreme weather conditions, floods, earthquakes and volcano eruptions, may adversely affect our lessees' ability to meet their lease payment obligations to us.

        The outbreak of epidemic diseases, such as previously experienced with Ebola, measles, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 (swine flu), could materially and adversely affect passenger demand for air travel. Similarly the lack of air travel demand or the inability of airlines to operate to or from certain regions due to severe weather conditions and natural disasters, including floods, earthquakes and volcano eruptions, could impact the financial health of certain airlines, including our lessees. These consequences could result in our lessees' inability to satisfy their lease payment obligations to us, which in turn would materially and adversely affect our financial results.

Airline reorganizations could impair our lessees' ability to comply with their lease payment obligations to us.

        In recent years, several airlines have filed for protection under their local bankruptcy and insolvency laws and, over the past several years, certain airlines have gone into liquidation. Historically, airlines involved in reorganizations have undertaken substantial fare discounting to maintain cash flows and to encourage continued customer loyalty. The bankruptcies have led to the grounding of significant numbers of aircraft, rejection of leases and negotiated reductions in aircraft lease rentals, with the effect of depressing aircraft market values. For example, on a combined basis with ILFC, in 2012, 16 of our customers ceased operations or declared bankruptcy or its equivalent and returned 64 aircraft to us. Additional reorganizations or liquidations by airlines under applicable bankruptcy or reorganization laws or further rejection or abandonment of aircraft by airlines in bankruptcy proceedings may depress aircraft values and aircraft lease rates. Additional grounded aircraft and lower market values would adversely affect our ability to sell certain of our aircraft or re-lease other aircraft at favorable rates if at all.

Our lessees may fail to properly maintain our aircraft.

        We may be exposed to increased maintenance costs for our leased aircraft if lessees fail to properly maintain the aircraft or pay supplemental maintenance rent. Under our leases, our lessees are primarily responsible for maintaining our aircraft and complying with all governmental requirements applicable to the lessee and the aircraft, including operational, maintenance, government agency oversight, registration requirements and airworthiness directives. We also require many of our lessees to

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pay us supplemental maintenance rent. If a lessee fails to perform required maintenance on our aircraft during the term of the lease, its market value may decline, which would result in lower revenues from its subsequent lease or sale, or the aircraft might be grounded. Maintenance failures by a lessee would also likely require us to incur maintenance and modification costs, which could be substantial, upon the termination of the applicable lease to restore the aircraft to an acceptable condition prior to sale or re-leasing. Supplemental maintenance rent paid by our lessees may not be sufficient to fund such maintenance costs. If our lessees fail to meet their obligations to pay supplemental maintenance rent or fail to perform required scheduled maintenance, or if we are required to incur unexpected maintenance costs, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected.

Our lessees may fail to adequately insure our aircraft.

        While an aircraft is on lease, we do not directly control its operation. Nevertheless, because we hold title to such aircraft, we could be held liable for losses resulting from its operation under one or more legal theories in certain jurisdictions around the world, or at a minimum, we might be required to expend resources in our defense. We require our lessees to obtain specified levels of insurance and indemnify us for, and insure against, such operational liabilities. However, some lessees may fail to maintain adequate insurance coverage during a lease term, which, although constituting a breach of the lease, would require us to take some corrective action, such as terminating the lease or securing insurance for the aircraft.

        In addition, there are certain risks of losses our lessees face that insurers may be unwilling to cover or for which the cost of coverage would be prohibitively expensive. For example, following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, aviation insurers significantly reduced the amount of coverage available to airlines for liability to persons other than airline employees or passengers for claims resulting from acts of terrorism, war or similar events and significantly increased the premiums for third party war risk and terrorism liability insurance and coverage in general. Therefore, our lessees' insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all claims that could be asserted against us arising from the operation of our aircraft.

        Inadequate insurance coverage or default by lessees in fulfilling their indemnification or insurance obligations to us will reduce the insurance proceeds that would be received by us in the event we are sued and are required to make payments to claimants. Moreover, our lessees' insurance coverage is dependent on the financial condition of insurance companies, which might not be able to pay claims. A reduction in insurance proceeds otherwise payable to us as a result of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

If our lessees fail to cooperate in returning our aircraft following lease terminations, we may encounter obstacles and are likely to incur significant costs and expenses conducting repossessions.

        Our legal rights and the relative difficulty of repossession vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction in which an aircraft is located and the applicable law. We may need to obtain a court order or consents for de-registration or re-export, a process that can differ substantially in different countries. Where a lessee or other operator flies only domestic routes in the jurisdiction in which the aircraft is registered, repossessing and exporting the aircraft may be challenging, especially if the jurisdiction permits the lessee or the other operator to resist de-registration. When a defaulting lessee is in bankruptcy, protective administration, insolvency or similar proceedings, additional limitations may apply. For example, certain jurisdictions give rights to the trustee in bankruptcy or a similar officer to assume or reject the lease or to assign it to a third party, or entitle the lessee or another third party to retain possession of the aircraft without paying lease rentals or performing all or some of the obligations under the relevant lease. Certain of our lessees are partially or wholly owned by government-related entities, which can complicate our efforts to repossess our aircraft in that

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government's jurisdiction. If we encounter any of these difficulties, we may be delayed in, or prevented from, enforcing certain of our rights under a lease and in re-leasing the affected aircraft.

        When conducting a repossession, we are likely to incur significant costs and expenses that are unlikely to be recouped. These include legal and other expenses of court or other governmental proceedings, including the cost of posting security bonds or letters of credit necessary to effect repossession of the aircraft, particularly if the lessee is contesting the proceedings or is in bankruptcy. We must absorb the cost of lost revenue for the time the aircraft is off-lease. We may incur substantial maintenance, refurbishment or repair costs that a defaulting lessee has failed to pay and are necessary to put the aircraft in suitable condition for re-lease or sale. We may incur significant costs in retrieving or recreating aircraft records required for registration of the aircraft, and in obtaining the certificate of airworthiness for an aircraft. It may be necessary to pay liens, taxes and other governmental charges on the aircraft to obtain clear possession and to remarket the aircraft effectively, including, in some cases, liens that the lessee may have incurred in connection with the operation of its other aircraft. We may also incur other costs in connection with the physical possession of the aircraft.

        At least some of our lessees are likely to default on their lease obligations or file for bankruptcy in the ordinary course of our business. If we incur significant costs in repossessing our aircraft, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected.

If our lessees fail to discharge aircraft liens for which they are responsible, we may be obligated to pay to discharge the liens.

        In the normal course of their business, our lessees are likely to incur aircraft and engine liens that secure the payment of airport fees and taxes, custom duties, Eurocontrol and other air navigation charges, landing charges, crew wages, and other liens that may attach to our aircraft. Aircraft may also be subject to mechanical liens as a result of routine maintenance performed by third parties on behalf of our customers. Some of these liens can secure substantial sums, and if they attach to entire fleets of aircraft, as permitted in certain jurisdictions for certain kinds of liens, they may exceed the value of the aircraft itself. Although the financial obligations relating to these liens are the contractual responsibility of our lessees, if they fail to fulfill their obligations, the liens from an economic perspective may ultimately become our legal responsibility. Until they are discharged, these liens could impair our ability to repossess, re-lease or sell our aircraft or engines. In some jurisdictions, aircraft and engine liens may give the holder thereof the right to detain or, in limited cases, sell or cause the forfeiture of the aircraft. If we are obliged to pay a large amount to discharge a lien, or if we are unable take possession of our aircraft subject to a lien in a timely and cost-effective manner, it could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

In certain countries, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an accession to the aircraft and we may not be able to exercise our ownership rights over the engine.

        In some jurisdictions, an engine affixed to an aircraft may become an accession to the aircraft, whereby the ownership rights of the owner of the aircraft supersede the ownership rights of the owner of the engine. If an aircraft is security for the owner's obligations to a third party, the security interest in the aircraft may supersede our rights as owner of the engine. This legal principle could limit our ability to repossess an engine in the event of a lease default while the aircraft with our engine installed remains in such jurisdiction. We would suffer a substantial loss if we were not able to repossess engines leased to lessees in these jurisdictions, which would materially and adversely affect our financial results.

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If our lessees encounter financial difficulties and we restructure or terminate our leases, we are likely to obtain less favorable lease terms.

        If a lessee delays, reduces, or fails to make rental payments when due, or has advised us that it will do so in the future, we may elect or be required to restructure or terminate the lease. A restructured lease will likely contain terms less favorable to us. If we are unable to agree on a restructuring deal and we terminate the lease, we may not receive all or any payments still outstanding, and we may be unable to re-lease the aircraft promptly and at favorable rates, if at all. We have conducted restructurings and terminations in the ordinary course of our business, and we expect more will occur in the future. If we are obliged to perform a significant number of restructurings and terminations, the associated reduction in lease revenue could materially and adversely affect our financial results and cash flows.

The advent of superior aircraft and engine technology or the introduction of a new line of aircraft could cause our existing aircraft portfolio to become outdated and therefore less desirable.

        As manufacturers introduce technological innovations and new types of aircraft and engines, some of the aircraft and engines in our aircraft portfolio may become less desirable to potential lessees. New aircraft manufacturers, such as Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation in Japan, JSC United Aircraft Corporation in Russia and Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd. in China could produce aircraft that compete with current offerings from Airbus, Aerei da Trasporto Regionale (ATR), Boeing, Bombardier and Embraer. Additionally, new manufacturers may develop a narrowbody aircraft that competes with established aircraft types from Boeing and Airbus, putting downward price pressure on and decreasing the marketability for aircraft from Boeing and Airbus. New aircraft types that are introduced into the market could be more attractive for the target lessees of our aircraft. In addition, the imposition of increasingly stringent noise or emissions regulations may make some of our aircraft and engines less desirable in the marketplace. A decrease in demand for our aircraft as a result of any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

Airbus and Boeing have launched new aircraft types, which could decrease the value and lease rates of aircraft in our fleet.

        Airbus and Boeing have launched several new aircraft types in recent years, including the Boeing 787 family, the Boeing 737 Max family, the Boeing 777X, the Airbus A320neo family, Airbus A330neo family and the Airbus A350 family. The initial variants of the Boeing 787 and the A350 have already been introduced into service, and the other new aircraft types are scheduled to be introduced into service between 2015 and 2020. The availability of these new aircraft types may have an adverse effect on residual value and future lease rates of older aircraft types. The development of these new types could decrease the desirability of the older types and thereby increase the supply of the older types in the marketplace. This increase in supply could, in turn, reduce both future residual values and lease rates for such older aircraft types.

Airbus and Boeing have announced scheduled production increases, which could result in overcapacity and decrease the value and lease rates of aircraft in our fleet.

        The market may not be able to absorb the scheduled production increases announced by Airbus and Boeing. If the additional capacity scheduled to be produced by the manufacturers exceeds demand, the resulting overcapacity could have a negative effect on aircraft values and lease rates. If lending capacity does not increase in line with the increased aircraft production, the cost of lending or the ability to obtain debt could be negatively affected. Any such decrease in aircraft values and lease rates, or increase in the cost or availability of funding, could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

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There are a limited number of aircraft and engine manufacturers and we depend on their ability to meet their obligations to us.

        The supply of commercial jet aircraft is dominated by a small number of airframe and engine manufacturers. As a result, we are dependent on their ability to remain financially stable, manufacture products and related components that meet the airlines' demands and fulfill their contractual obligations to us. In the past we have experienced delays by the manufacturers in meeting their obligations to us including the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350 programs. If in the future the manufacturers fail to fulfill their contractual obligations to us, bring aircraft to market that do not meet customers' expectations, or do not respond appropriately to changes in the market environment, we may experience among others:

    missed or late delivery of aircraft and engines ordered by us and an inability to meet our contractual obligations to our customers, resulting in lost or delayed revenues, lower growth rates and strained customer relationships;

    an inability to acquire aircraft and engines and related components on terms which will allow us to lease those aircraft and engines to customers at a profit, resulting in lower growth rates or a contraction in our aircraft portfolio;

    a market environment with too many aircraft and engines available, creating downward pressure on demand for the aircraft and engines in our fleet and reduced market lease rates and sale prices;

    poor customer support or reputational damage from the manufacturers of aircraft, engines and components resulting in reduced demand for a particular manufacturer's product, creating downward pressure on demand for those aircraft and engines in our fleet and reduced market lease rates and sale prices for those aircraft and engines; and

    reduction in our competitiveness due to deep discounting by the manufacturers, which may lead to reduced market lease rates and sale prices and may affect our ability to remarket or sell some of the aircraft and engines in our portfolio.

        Moreover, our purchase agreements with manufacturers and the leases we have signed with our customers for future lease commitments are all subject to cancellation rights related to delays in delivery dates. Any manufacturer delays for aircraft that we have committed to lease could strain our relations with our customers, and cancellation of such leases by the lessees could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Our international operations expose us to geopolitical, economic and legal risks associated with a global business.

        We conduct our business in many countries. There are risks inherent in conducting our business internationally, including:

    general political and economic instability in international markets;

    limitations in the repatriation of our assets;

    expropriation of our international assets; and

    different liability standards and legal systems that may be less developed and less predictable than those in advanced economies.

        These factors may have a material and adverse effect on our financial results.

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We are indirectly subject to many of the economic and political risks associated with emerging markets.

        We derive substantial revenues from airlines in frontier and emerging market countries. Frontier and emerging market countries have less developed economies and are more vulnerable to economic and political problems and may experience significant fluctuations in gross domestic product, interest rates and currency exchange rates, as well as civil disturbances, government instability, nationalization and expropriation of private assets and the imposition of taxes or other charges by government authorities. The occurrence of any of these events in markets served by our lessees and the resulting economic instability that may arise as a result of these events could adversely affect the value of our ownership interest in aircraft subject to lease in such countries, or the ability of our lessees that operate in these markets to meet their lease obligations. As a result, lessees that operate in emerging market countries may be more likely to default than lessees that operate in developed countries. In addition, legal systems in emerging market countries may be less developed, which could make it more difficult for us to enforce our legal rights in such countries. For these and other reasons, our financial results may be materially and adversely affected by economic and political developments in emerging market countries.

Because our lessees are concentrated in certain geographical regions, we have concentrated exposure to the political and economic risks associated with those regions.

        Through our lessees and the countries in which they operate, we are exposed to the specific economic and political conditions and associated risks of those jurisdictions. For example, we have large concentrations of lessees in Russia, and therefore have increased exposure to the economic and political conditions in that country. These risks can include economic recessions, burdensome local regulations or, in extreme cases, increased risks of requisition of our aircraft. An adverse political or economic event in any region or country in which our lessees are concentrated or where we have a large number of aircraft could affect the ability of our lessees in that region or country to meet their obligations to us, or expose us to various legal or political risks associated with the affected jurisdictions, all of which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial results.

We are subject to various risks and requirements associated with transacting business in many countries.

        Our international operations expose us to trade and economic sanctions and other restrictions imposed by the United States, the United Kingdom, or other governments or organizations. For example, the U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, State and Treasury and other federal agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against corporations and individuals for violations of economic sanctions laws, export control laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), and other federal statutes and regulations, including those established by the Office of Foreign Asset Control ("OFAC"). Under these laws and regulations, the government may require export licenses, may seek to impose modifications to business practices, including cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions. A violation of these laws or regulations could materially and adversely impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.

        We have implemented and maintain in effect policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us, our subsidiaries and our directors, officers, employees, consultants and agents with respect to various export control, anti-corruption, anti-terrorism and anti-money laundering laws and regulations. However, such personnel could engage in unauthorized conduct for which we may be held responsible. Violations of such laws and regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

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Our ability to operate in some countries is restricted by foreign regulations and controls on investments.

        Many countries restrict, or in the future might restrict, foreign investments in a manner adverse to us. These restrictions and controls have limited, and may in the future restrict or preclude, our investment in joint ventures or the acquisition of businesses in certain jurisdictions or may increase the cost to us of entering into such transactions. Various governments, particularly in the Asia/Pacific region, require governmental approval before foreign persons may make investments in domestic businesses and also limit the extent of any such investments. Furthermore, various governments may reserve the right to approve the repatriation of capital by, or the payment of dividends to, foreign investors. Restrictive policies regarding foreign investments may increase our costs of pursuing growth opportunities in foreign jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our financial results.

Our aircraft are subject to various environmental regulations.

        Governmental regulations regarding aircraft and engine noise and emissions levels apply based on where the relevant airframe is registered and where the aircraft is operated. For example, jurisdictions throughout the world have adopted noise regulations which require all aircraft to comply with noise level standards. In addition, the United States and the International Civil Aviation Organization ("ICAO") has adopted a more stringent set of standards for noise levels which apply to engines manufactured or certified beginning in 2006. Currently, United States regulations do not require any phase-out of aircraft that qualify with the older standards, but the European Union has established a framework for the imposition of operating limitations on aircraft that do not comply with the newer standards. These regulations could limit the economic life of certain of our aircraft and engines, reduce their value, limit our ability to lease or sell the non-compliant aircraft and engines or, if engine modifications are permitted, require us to make significant additional investments in the aircraft and engines to make them compliant.

        In addition to more stringent noise restrictions, the United States, European Union and other jurisdictions are beginning to impose more stringent limits on the emission of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from engines. Although current emissions control laws generally apply to newer engines, new laws could be passed in the future that also impose limits on older engines, and therefore any new engines we purchase, as well as our older engines, could be subject to existing or new emissions limitations or indirect taxation. For example, the European Union issued a directive in January 2009 to include aviation within the scope of its greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, thereby requiring that all flights arriving, departing or flying within any European Union country, beginning on January 1, 2012, comply with the scheme and surrender allowances for emissions, regardless of the age of the engine used in the aircraft. Similar legislation is currently being proposed in the United States. Limitations on emissions such as the one in the European Union could favor younger more fuel efficient aircraft since they generally produce lower levels of emissions per passenger, which could adversely affect our ability to re-lease or otherwise dispose of less efficient aircraft on a timely basis, at favorable terms, or at all. This is an area of law that is rapidly changing and as of yet remains specific to certain jurisdictions. While we do not know at this time whether new emission control laws will be passed, and if passed what impact such laws might have on our business, any future emissions limitations could adversely affect us.

Our operations are subject to various environmental regulations.

        Our operations, including AeroTurbine's operations, are subject to various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in the United States, including those relating to the discharge of materials into the air, water and ground, the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, and the health and safety of our employees. A violation of these laws and regulations or permit conditions can result in substantial fines, permit revocation or other damages. Many of these laws impose liability for clean-up of contamination that

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may exist at our facilities (even if we did not know of or did not cause the contamination) or related personal injuries or natural resource damages or costs relating to contamination at third party waste disposal sites where we have sent or may send waste. We might not be in complete compliance with these laws, regulations or permits at all times. We may have liability under environmental laws or be subject to legal actions brought by governmental authorities or other parties for actual or alleged violations of, or liability under, environmental, health and safety laws, regulations or permits.

If a decline in demand for an aircraft causes a decline in its projected lease rates, or if we dispose of an aircraft for a price that is less than its depreciated book value on our balance sheet, then we will recognize impairments or make fair value adjustments.

        We test long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the assets' carrying amounts are not recoverable from their undiscounted cash flows. The difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the aircraft is recognized as an impairment loss. Factors that may contribute to impairment charges include, but are not limited to, unfavorable airline industry trends affecting the residual values of certain aircraft types; high fuel prices and development of more fuel efficient aircraft shortening the useful lives of certain aircraft; management's expectations that certain aircraft are more likely than not to be parted out or otherwise disposed of sooner than their expected life; and new technological developments. Cash flows supporting carrying values of older aircraft are more dependent upon current lease contracts. In addition, we believe that residual values of older aircraft are more exposed to non-recoverable declines in value in the current economic environment.

        Prior to the ILFC Transaction, during 2011, 2012 and 2013, ILFC was required to write down the value of some of their assets, and if economic conditions deteriorate, we may be required to make additional write downs. In that event, our estimates and assumptions regarding forecasted cash flows from our long-lived assets would need to be reassessed, including the duration of the economic downturn and the timing and strength of the pending recovery, both of which are important variables for purposes of our long-lived asset impairment tests. Any of our assumptions may prove to be inaccurate, which could adversely impact forecasted cash flows of certain long-lived assets, especially for older aircraft. If so, it is possible that an impairment may be triggered for other long-lived assets in the future and that any such impairment amounts may be material. As of December 31, 2014, 175 of our owned aircraft on operating leases that were 15 years of age, or older. These aircraft represented approximately 6% of our net book value of flight equipment held for operating leases as of December 31, 2014.

A cyber-attack could lead to a material disruption of our IT systems and the loss of business information, which may hinder our ability to conduct our business effectively and may result in lost revenues and additional costs.

        Parts of our business depend on the secure operation of our computer systems to manage, process, store and transmit information associated with aircraft leasing. Like other global companies, we have, from time to time, experienced threats to our data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks, internet network scans, systems failures and disruptions. A cyber-attack that bypasses our information technology, or IT, security systems, causing an IT security breach, could lead to a material disruption of our IT systems and adversely impact our daily operations and cause the loss of sensitive information, including our own proprietary information and that of our customers, suppliers and employees. Such losses could harm our reputation and result in competitive disadvantages, litigation, regulatory enforcement actions, lost revenues, additional costs and liability. While we devote substantial resources to maintaining adequate levels of cyber-security, our resources and technical sophistication may not be adequate to prevent all types of cyber-attacks.

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We could suffer material damage to, or interruptions in, our IT systems as a result of external factors, staffing shortages or difficulties in updating our existing software or developing or implementing new software.

        We depend largely upon our IT systems in the conduct of all aspects of our operations. Such systems are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, security breaches, fire and natural disasters. Damage or interruption to our information systems may require a significant investment to fix or replace them, and we may suffer interruptions in our operations in the interim. In addition, we are currently pursuing a number of IT related projects that will require ongoing IT related development and conversion of existing systems. Costs and potential problems and interruptions associated with the implementation of new or upgraded systems and technology or with maintenance or adequate support of existing systems could also disrupt or reduce the efficiency of our operations. Any material interruptions or failures in our information systems may have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

If the ownership of our ordinary shares continues to be highly concentrated, it may prevent minority shareholders from influencing significant corporate decisions and may result in conflicts of interest.

        Currently, our largest shareholder is AIG, which owns 46% of our ordinary shares and is entitled, pursuant to a shareholder agreement, to designate for election at the Annual General Meeting of shareholders two members of our Board of Directors for so long as it owns more than 10% of our ordinary shares. In general, AIG may vote shares constituting up to 24.9% of shares able to vote (taking into consideration such voting restrictions) and must abstain from voting the remainder of its shares. See "Item 7—Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions—Shareholders' Agreement and Registration Rights Agreement with AIG." AIG may be able to significantly influence fundamental corporate matters and transactions, including the appointment of our directors, mergers, amalgamations, consolidations or acquisitions, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, the amendment of our articles of association and our dissolution. This concentration of ownership may delay, deter or prevent acts that would be favored by our other shareholders, such as a change of control transaction that would result in the payment of a premium to our other shareholders. In addition, this concentration of share ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares if the perception among investors exists that owning shares in a company with a significant shareholder is not desirable.

Sales of our ordinary shares may negatively affect their market price.

        As a result of the ILFC Transaction, AIG holds approximately 46% of our ordinary shares. The ordinary shares issued in the ILFC Transaction to AIG are subject to a lockup agreement providing for the staggered expiration of lockup periods beginning nine months and ending 15 months after the Closing Date. Sales by AIG of their ordinary shares, or the perception in the market that these sales could occur, may negatively affect the price of our ordinary shares. To date no shares have been sold by AIG.

We have been advised that Waha has entered into funded collar transactions relating to its AerCap ordinary shares. The effect of purchases and sales of our ordinary shares by the collar counterparties (or their affiliates or agents) to modify or terminate their hedge positions may have a negative effect on the market price of our ordinary shares.

        We have been advised that Waha, which previously was a significant direct AerCap shareholder, has entered into funded collar transactions relating to its AerCap ordinary shares, pursuant to which, we have been advised, collar counterparties (or their affiliates or agents) have borrowed from Waha and re-sold, and may continue to purchase and sell, our ordinary shares. The purchases and sales of

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our ordinary shares by the collar counterparties (or their affiliates or agents) to modify the collar counterparties' hedge positions from time to time during the term of the funded collar transactions may variously have a positive, negative or neutral impact on the market price of our ordinary shares, depending on market conditions at such times. In addition, purchases of our ordinary shares by the collar counterparties (or their affiliates or agents) in connection with the termination by Waha of any portion of the loan of our ordinary shares to the collar counterparties under the funded collar transactions, or cash settlement of any funded collar transaction, may have the effect of increasing, or limiting a decrease in, the market price of our ordinary shares during the relevant unwind period.

We are a Netherlands public limited liability company ("naamloze vennootschap" or "N.V.") and it may be difficult to obtain or enforce judgments against us or our executive officers, some of our directors and some of our named experts in the United States.

        We were incorporated under the laws of The Netherlands and, as such, the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the civil liability of our directors will be governed by the laws of The Netherlands and our articles of association. The rights of shareholders under the laws of The Netherlands may differ from the rights of shareholders of companies incorporated in other jurisdictions. Many of our directors and executive officers and most of our assets and the assets of our directors are located outside the United States. In addition, under our articles of association, all lawsuits against us and our directors and executive officers shall be governed by the laws of The Netherlands and must be brought exclusively before the Courts of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. As a result, you may not be able to serve process on us or on such persons in the United States or obtain or enforce judgments from U.S. courts against them or us based on the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. There is doubt as to whether the courts of The Netherlands courts would enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions and enforce claims for punitive damages.

        Under our articles of association, we indemnify and hold our directors, officers and employees harmless against all claims and suits brought against them, subject to limited exceptions. Under our articles of association, to the extent allowed by law, the rights and obligations among or between us, any of our current or former directors, officers and employees and any current or former shareholder shall be governed exclusively by the laws of The Netherlands and subject to the jurisdiction of The Netherlands courts, unless such rights or obligations do not relate to or arise out of their capacities listed above. Although there is doubt as to whether U.S. courts would enforce such provision in an action brought in the United States under U.S. securities laws, such provision could make judgments obtained outside of The Netherlands more difficult to enforce against our assets in The Netherlands or jurisdictions that would apply Netherlands law.

If our subsidiaries do not make distributions to us we will not be able to pay dividends.

        Substantially all of our assets are held by and our revenues are generated by our subsidiaries. While we do not currently, or intend to, pay dividends, we will be limited in our ability to pay dividends unless we receive dividends or other cash flow from our subsidiaries. A substantial portion of our owned aircraft are held through special purpose subsidiaries or finance structures which borrow funds to finance or refinance the aircraft. The terms of such financings place restrictions on distributions of funds to us. If these limitations prevent distributions to us or our subsidiaries do not generate positive cash flows, we will be limited in our ability to pay dividends and may be unable to transfer funds between subsidiaries if required to support our subsidiaries.

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As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the United States. Accordingly, there may be less publicly available information concerning us than there is for companies incorporated in the United States.

        As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act, which impose disclosure requirements, as well as procedural requirements, for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, nor are we generally required to comply with the SEC's Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material non-public information.

The ILFC Transaction may not be successful or achieve its anticipated benefits.

        We may not successfully realize anticipated growth or cost savings opportunities or integrate the businesses and operations of AerCap and ILFC. We have significantly more revenue, expenses, assets and employees than we did prior to the ILFC Transaction. We have also assumed all liabilities of ILFC, including under all of ILFC's outstanding indebtedness. We may not successfully or cost effectively integrate AerCap's and ILFC's businesses and operations. Even if we are able to successfully integrate AerCap's and ILFC's businesses and operations, this integration may not result in the realization of the full benefits of the growth opportunities or cost-savings that we expect within the anticipated time frame, or at all.

The ILFC Transaction may prove disruptive and could result in the combined business failing to meet our expectations.

        The process of integrating the operations of AerCap and ILFC may require a disproportionate amount of resources and management attention. Our future operations and cash flows will depend largely upon our ability to operate the combined company efficiently, achieve the strategic operating objectives for the combined business and realize significant cost savings and synergies. Our management team may encounter unforeseen difficulties in managing the integration. In order to successfully combine AerCap and ILFC and operate the combined company, our management team must focus on realizing anticipated synergies and cost-savings on a timely basis while maintaining the efficiency of our operations. Any substantial diversion of management attention to difficulties in operating the combined business could affect our revenues and ability to achieve operational, financial and strategic objectives.

The ILFC Transaction could adversely impact our relationship with our customers and may result in the departure of key personnel.

        The ILFC Transaction could cause disruptions in our business. For example, our customers may refrain from leasing or re-leasing our aircraft until they determine how the ILFC Transaction will affect our business, including, but not limited to, the pricing of our leases, the availability of certain aircraft, and our customer support. Our customers may also choose to lease aircraft and purchase services from our competitors until they determine whether the ILFC Transaction will affect our business or our relationship with them. Uncertainty concerning potential changes to us and our business could also harm our ability to enter into agreements with new customers. In addition, key personnel may depart for a variety of reasons arising out of the ILFC Transaction.

Risks Related to Taxation

We may become a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

        We cannot yet determine whether we will be classified as a PFIC for the 2015 fiscal year. The determination as to whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC is a complex determination based on all of

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the relevant facts and circumstances and depends on the classification of various assets and income under PFIC rules. In our case, the determination is further complicated by the application of the PFIC rules to leasing companies and to joint ventures and financing structures common in the aircraft leasing industry. It is unclear how some of these rules apply to us. Further, this determination must be tested annually and our circumstances may change in any given year. We do not intend to make decisions regarding the purchase and sale of aircraft with the specific purpose of reducing the likelihood of our becoming a PFIC. Accordingly, our business plan (including the ILFC Transaction) may result in our engaging in activities that could cause us to become a PFIC. If we are or become a PFIC, U.S. shareholders may be subject to increased U.S. federal income taxes on a sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares and on the receipt of certain distributions and will be subject to increased U.S. federal income tax reporting requirements. See "Item 10. Additional Information—U.S. Tax Considerations" for a more detailed discussion of the consequences to you if we are treated as a PFIC and a discussion of certain elections that may be available to mitigate the effects of that treatment. We urge you to consult your own tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to your particular circumstances.

We may become subject to income or other taxes in jurisdictions which would adversely affect our financial results.

        We and our subsidiaries are subject to the income tax laws of The Netherlands, Ireland, the United States and other jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries are incorporated or based. Our effective tax rate in any period is impacted by the source and the amount of earnings among our different tax jurisdictions. A change in the division of our earnings among our tax jurisdictions could have a material impact on our effective tax rate and our financial results. In addition, we or our subsidiaries may be subject to additional income or other taxes in these and other jurisdictions by reason of the management and control of our subsidiaries, our activities and operations, where our aircraft operate, where the lessees of our aircraft (or others in possession of our aircraft) are located or changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles. Although we have adopted guidelines and operating procedures to ensure our subsidiaries are appropriately managed and controlled, we may be subject to such taxes in the future and such taxes may be substantial. The imposition of such taxes could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

We may incur current tax liabilities in our primary operating jurisdictions in the future.

        We expect to make current tax payments in some of the jurisdictions where we do business in the normal course of our operations. Our ability to defer the payment of some level of income taxes to future periods is dependent upon the continued benefit of accelerated tax depreciation on our flight equipment in some jurisdictions, the continued deductibility of external and intercompany financing arrangements and the application of tax losses prior to their expiration in certain tax jurisdictions, among other factors. The level of current tax payments we make in any of our primary operating jurisdictions could adversely affect our cash flows and have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

We may become subject to additional Irish taxes based on the extent of our operations carried on in Ireland.

        Our Irish tax resident subsidiaries are currently subject to Irish corporate income tax on trading income at a rate of 12.5%, on capital gains at 33% and on other income at 25%. We expect that substantially all of our Irish income will be treated as trading income for tax purposes in future periods. As of December 31, 2014, we had significant Irish tax losses available to carry forward against our trading income. The continued application of the 12.5% tax rate to trading income generated in our Irish tax resident subsidiaries and the ability to carry forward Irish tax losses to offset future taxable trading income depends in part on the extent and nature of activities carried on in Ireland both in the

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past and in the future. AerCap Ireland Limited and its Irish tax resident subsidiaries intend to carry on their activities in Ireland so that the 12.5% rate of tax applicable to trading income will apply and that they will be entitled to offset future income with tax losses arising from the same trading activity. We may not continue to be entitled to apply our loss carry-forwards against future taxable trading income in Ireland.

We may fail to qualify for benefits under one or more tax treaties.

        We do not expect that our subsidiaries located outside of the United States will have any material U.S. federal income tax liability by reason of activities we carry out in the United States and the lease of assets to lessees that operate in the United States. This conclusion will depend, in part, on continued qualification for the benefits of income tax treaties between the United States and other countries in which we are subject to tax (particularly The Netherlands and Ireland). That in turn may depend on, among others, the nature and level of activities carried on by us and our subsidiaries in each jurisdiction, the identity of the owners of equity interests in subsidiaries that are not wholly owned and the identities of the direct and indirect owners of our indebtedness.

        The nature of our activities may be such that our subsidiaries may not continue to qualify for the benefits under income tax treaties with the United States and that may not otherwise qualify for treaty benefits. Failure to so qualify could result in the imposition of U.S. federal taxes, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Changes in tax laws may result in additional taxes for us or for our shareholders.

        Tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we reside, in which we conduct activities or operations, or where our aircraft or lessees of our aircraft are located may change in the future. Such changes in tax law could result in additional taxes for us or our shareholders.

Item 4.    Information on the Company

        We are the world's largest independent aircraft leasing company. We focus on acquiring in-demand aircraft at attractive prices, funding them efficiently, hedging interest rate risk conservatively and using our platform to deploy those assets with the objective of delivering superior risk adjusted returns. We believe that by applying our expertise through an integrated business model, we will be able to identify and execute on a broad range of market opportunities that we expect will generate attractive returns for our shareholders. Our ordinary shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (AER), and we are headquartered in Amsterdam with offices in Los Angeles, Shannon, Dublin, Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Singapore, Shanghai, Abu Dhabi and representation offices at the world's largest aircraft manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus in Seattle and Toulouse. As of December 31, 2014, we had 332 permanent employees relating to our aircraft leasing business, and 104 employees with short-term contracts, most of which will terminate in fiscal 2015, who are assisting with the integration of ILFC. In addition, AeroTurbine had 390 employees. We are an independent aircraft lessor, and, as such, we are not affiliated with any airframe or engine manufacturer. This independence provides us with purchasing flexibility to acquire aircraft or engine models regardless of the manufacturer.

        We operate our business on a global basis, leasing aircraft to customers in every major geographical region. As of December 31, 2014, we owned 1,132 aircraft, excluding three aircraft that were owned by AeroTurbine, managed 147 aircraft, including those owned and on order by AerDragon, had 380 new aircraft on order, including 205 A320neo family aircraft, 66 Boeing 787 aircraft, 50 Embraer E-Jets E2 aircraft, 29 A350 aircraft, 25 Boeing 737 aircraft, four A321 aircraft, and one A330 aircraft, excluding five Boeing purchase rights. The average age of our 1,132 owned aircraft fleet, weighted by net book value, was 7.7 years as of December 31, 2014.

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        We lease most of our aircraft to airlines under operating leases. Under an operating lease, the lessee is responsible for the maintenance and servicing of the equipment during the lease term and the lessor receives the benefit, and assumes the risk of the residual value of the equipment at the end of the lease. As of December 31, 2014, our owned and managed aircraft were leased to over 200 commercial airline and cargo operator customers in approximately 90 countries.

        We have the infrastructure, expertise and resources to execute a large number of diverse aircraft transactions in a variety of market conditions. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we executed over 365 aircraft transactions. Our teams of dedicated marketing and asset trading professionals have been successful in leasing and managing our aircraft portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2014, our weighted average owned aircraft utilization rate was 99.2%, calculated based on the average number of months the aircraft are on lease each year. The utilization rate is weighted proportionate to the net book value of the aircraft at the end of the period measured.

        We were formed as a Netherlands public limited liability company ("naamloze vennootschap" or "N.V.") on July 10, 2006. On November 27, 2006, we completed the initial public offering of 26.1 million of our ordinary shares on the NYSE. On August 6, 2007, we completed the secondary offering of an additional 20.0 million of our ordinary shares on the NYSE.

        On May 14, 2014, AerCap consummated the ILFC Transaction, pursuant to which AerCap acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, 100% of the common stock of ILFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AIG, for consideration consisting of $2.4 billion in cash and 97,560,976 newly issued AerCap ordinary shares. As a result, AIG owns approximately 46% of the combined company as of December 31, 2014. Following the ILFC Transaction, we effected a reorganization of ILFC's corporate structure and assets, pursuant to which ILFC transferred its assets substantially as an entirety to AerCap Global Aviation Trust ("AerCap Trust"), a legal entity formed on February 5, 2014, and AerCap Trust assumed substantially all the liabilities of ILFC, including liabilities in respect of ILFC's indebtedness.

        As of December 31, 2014, we had 212.3 million shares issued and outstanding.

        Our principal executive offices are located at AerCap House, Stationsplein 965, 1117 CE Schiphol, The Netherlands, and our general telephone number is +31 20 655 9655. Our website address is www.aercap.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute a part of this annual report. Puglisi & Associates is our authorized representative in the United States. The address of Puglisi & Associates is 850 Liberty Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, DE 19711 and their general telephone number is +1 (302) 738-6680.

Our Business Strategy

    Manage the Profitability of Our Aircraft Portfolio by selectively:

    purchasing aircraft directly from manufacturers;

    entering into sale-leaseback transactions with aircraft operators;

    using our global customer relationships to obtain favorable lease terms for aircraft and maximizing aircraft utilization;

    maintaining diverse sources of global funding;

    optimizing our portfolio by selling select aircraft; and

    providing management services to securitization vehicles, our joint ventures and other aircraft owners at limited incremental cost to us.

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        Our ability to profitably manage aircraft throughout their lifecycle depends in part on our ability to successfully source acquisition opportunities of new and used aircraft at favorable prices, as well as secure long-term funding for such acquisitions, lease aircraft at profitable rates, minimize downtime between leases and associated technical expenses and opportunistically sell aircraft.

        Efficiently Manage Our Liquidity.    As of December 31, 2014, we had access to $5.8 billion of committed undrawn credit facilities and $1.5 billion of cash and cash equivalents. We strive to maintain a diverse financing strategy, both in terms of capital providers and structure, through the use of bank debt, securitization structures, note issuance and export/import financings including European Export Credit Agencies ("ECA") guaranteed loans, in order to maximize our financial flexibility. We also leverage our long-standing relationships with the major aircraft financers and lenders to secure access to capital. In addition, we attempt to maximize the cash flows and continue to pursue the sale of aircraft to generate additional cash flows.

        Manage Our Aircraft Portfolio.    We intend to maintain an attractive portfolio of in-demand aircraft by acquiring new aircraft directly from aircraft manufacturers, executing sale-leasebacks through the airlines, from assisting airlines with refleetings, and through other opportunistic transactions. We will rely on our experienced team of portfolio management professionals to identify and purchase assets we believe are being sold at attractive prices or that we believe will increase in demand and value. In addition, we intend to continue to rebalance our aircraft portfolio through sales to maintain the appropriate mix of aviation assets by customer concentration, age and aircraft type.

        Maintain a Diversified and Satisfied Customer Base.    We currently lease our owned and managed aircraft to over 200 commercial airline and cargo operator customers in approximately 90 countries. We monitor our exposure concentrations by both lessee and country jurisdiction and intend to maintain a well-diversified customer base. We believe we offer a quality product, both in terms of asset and customer service, to all of our customers. We have successfully worked with many airlines to find mutually beneficial solutions to operational and financial challenges. We believe we maintain excellent relations with our customers. We have been able to achieve a high utilization rate on our aircraft assets as a result of our customer reach and quality product offering and strong portfolio management capabilities.

        ILFC Integration.    Following the completion of the ILFC Transaction, we have focused, and will continue to focus, on integration in the short term while maintaining the efficiency of our operations in order to achieve our operational, financial and strategic objectives. We have continued to execute our business strategy described above. As of the date of this filing, we have completed the transfer of the ILFC aircraft designated to be transferred to our existing operations in Ireland.

Aircraft Portfolio

        As of December 31, 2014, we owned 1,132 aircraft, including 1,100 aircraft held for operating lease, 27 aircraft under finance and sales-type lease, four aircraft that met the criteria for being classified as held for sale and one aircraft under contract to be parted-out, but excluding three aircraft owned by AeroTurbine. We also managed 115 aircraft and AerDragon, a non-consolidated joint venture, owned or had on order another 32 aircraft. As of December 31, 2014, we also had 380 new aircraft on order. The average age of our 1,132 owned aircraft fleet, weighted by net book value, was 7.7 years as of December 31, 2014.

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        The following table provides details regarding our aircraft portfolio by type of aircraft as of December 31, 2014:

 
   
   
  Managed portfolio &
AerDragon
   
 
 
  Owned portfolio    
 
 
  Total owned,
managed and
aircraft
on order
 
Aircraft type
  Number of
aircraft
owned(b)
  Percentage of
total
net book value
  Number of
aircraft
  Number of
aircraft on
order(a)
 

Airbus A319

    143     8 %   11         154  

Airbus A320

    241     16 %   33         274  

Airbus A320neo

                155     155  

Airbus A321

    98     7 %   15     4     117  

Airbus A321neo

                50     50  

Airbus A330

    121     17 %   8     1     130  

Airbus A350

                29     29  

Boeing 737 (NG)

    300     26 %   43     25     368  

Boeing 767

    46     2 %           46  

Boeing 777

    71     15 %   3         74  

Boeing 787

    18     6 %       66     84  

ERJ190 E2/195 E2

                50     50  

Other

    94     3 %   34         128  

Total

    1,132     100 %   147     380     1,659  

(a)
Excludes five Boeing purchase rights and 17 spare engines.

(b)
Excludes three aircraft owned by AeroTurbine.

        The following table provides details of movements in our owned aircraft from December 31, 2013 to December 31, 2014:

 
  Held for
operating
leases
  Finance
and sales-
type leases
  Held for
sale/inventory
  Total
owned
aircraft
 

Flight equipment at December 31, 2013

    234     2         236  

ILFC Transaction

    901     24         925  

GFL Transaction

    (37 )           (37 )

Aircraft purchases

    33             33  

Aircraft sold and parted out from flight equipment

    (19 )   (6 )       (25 )

Aircraft reclassified to finance and sales-type leases

    (7 )   7          

Aircraft reclassified to held for sale/inventory

    (5 )       5      

Flight equipment at December 31, 2014

    1,100     27     5     1,132  

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Aircraft on Order

        The following table provides details regarding our aircraft on order as of December 31, 2014:

Aircraft type
  2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   2021   2022   Total  

A320neo/A321neo(a)

    1     21     41     42     40     40     20         205  

A321-200

    4                                 4  

A330

    1                                 1  

A350XWB-900

    2     10     11     6                     29  

B737-800

    24     1                             25  

B787-8/-9(a)

    15     14     14     18     5                 66  

E190/E195 E2

                5     14     14     14     3     50  

Total(b)

    47     46     66     71     59     54     34     3     380  

(a)
We have certain contractual rights for aircraft type substitutions.

(b)
Excludes commitments to purchase 17 new spare engines.

Aircraft Acquisitions and Dispositions

        We purchase new and used aircraft directly from aircraft manufacturers, airlines, financial investors and other aircraft leasing and finance companies. The aircraft we purchase are both on-lease and off-lease, depending on market conditions and the composition of our portfolio. We believe there are additional opportunities to purchase aircraft at attractive prices from investors in aircraft assets who lack the infrastructure to manage their aircraft throughout their lifecycle. The buyers of our aircraft include airlines, financial investors and other aircraft leasing companies. We primarily acquire aircraft at attractive prices in three ways: by purchasing large quantities of aircraft directly from manufacturers to take advantage of volume discounts, by purchasing portfolios consisting of aircraft of varying types and ages, and by entering into large purchase and leaseback transactions with airlines. In addition, we also opportunistically purchase individual aircraft that we believe are being sold at attractive prices, or that we expect will increase in demand or residual value. Through our airline marketing team, which is in frequent contact with airlines worldwide, we are also able to identify further attractive acquisition and disposition opportunities. We sell our aircraft when we believe the market price for the type of aircraft has reached its peak, or to rebalance the composition of our portfolio to meet changing customer demands.

        Our dedicated portfolio management group consists of marketing, financial, engineering, technical and credit professionals. Prior to a purchase, this group analyzes the aircraft's price, fit in our portfolio, specification and configuration, maintenance history and condition, the existing lease terms, financial condition and creditworthiness of the existing lessee, the jurisdiction of the lessee, industry trends, financing arrangements and the aircraft's redeployment potential and value, among other factors. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we executed 33 aircraft purchases and 83 aircraft sales and part-outs.

Aircraft Leases and Transactions

        Over the life of the aircraft, we seek to increase the returns on our investments by managing our aircraft's lease rates, time off-lease, financing costs and maintenance costs, and by carefully timing their sale. We lease most of our aircraft to airlines under operating leases. Under an operating lease, the lessee is responsible for the maintenance and servicing of the equipment during the lease term and the lessor receives the benefit, and assumes the risk, of the residual value of the equipment at the end of the lease. Rather than purchase their aircraft, many airlines operate their aircraft under operating

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leases because operating leases reduce their capital requirements and costs and allow them to manage their fleet more efficiently. Over the past 20 years, the world's airlines have increasingly turned to operating leases to meet their aircraft needs.

        Our current operating aircraft leases have initial terms ranging in length up to approximately 14 years. By varying our lease terms, we mitigate the effects of changes in cyclical market conditions at the time aircraft become eligible for re-lease. In periods of strong aircraft demand, we seek to enter into medium and long-term leases to lock-in the generally higher market lease rates during those periods, while in periods of low aircraft demand we seek to enter into short-term leases to mitigate the effects of the generally lower market lease rates during those periods. In addition, we generally seek to reduce our leasing transition costs by entering into lease extensions rather than taking redelivery of the aircraft and leasing it to a new customer. The terms of our lease extensions reflect the market conditions at the time the lease extension is signed and typically contain different terms than the original lease.

        Upon expiration of an operating lease, we extend the lease term or take redelivery of the aircraft, remarket and re-lease it to new lessees or sell the aircraft. Typically, we re-lease our leased aircraft well in advance of the expiration of the then-current lease and deliver the aircraft to a new lessee in less than two months following redelivery by the prior lessee. During the period in which an aircraft is in between leases, we typically perform routine inspections and the maintenance necessary to place the aircraft in the required condition for delivery and, in some cases, make modifications requested by our next lessee.

        Our extensive experience, global reach and operating capabilities allow us to rapidly complete numerous aircraft transactions, which enables us to increase the returns on our aircraft investments and reduce the time that our aircraft are not generating revenue for us. We successfully executed over 365 aircraft transactions during the year ended December 31, 2014.

        The following tables set forth information regarding the aircraft transactions we have executed during the year ended December 31, 2014, the number of initial leases and re-leases we entered into, the number of leases we extended, the number of aircraft we purchased and the number of aircraft we sold. The trends shown in the table reflect the execution of the various elements of our leasing strategy for our owned and managed portfolio, as described further below.

 
  Owned Aircraft  
Activity
  2014   2013   2012   Total/
Average
 

New leases on new aircraft

    82     21     27     130  

New leases on used aircraft

    35     30     19     84  

Extensions of lease contracts

    108     23     10     141  

Average lease term for new leases (months)(a)

    144     163     149     152  

Average lease term for re-leases (months)(a)

    89     59     62     70  

Average lease term for lease extensions (months)(b)

    44     48     35     42  

Aircraft purchases

    33     38     20     91  

Aircraft sales and part-outs

    64     14     59     137  

Average aircraft utilization rates(c)

    99.2 %   99.5 %   98.5 %   99.1 %

(a)
Average lease term of new leases and re-leases contracted during the period. The average lease term for new leases and re-leases is calculated by reference to the period between the contractual delivery and contractual redelivery dates of the aircraft.

(b)
Average lease term for aircraft extensions contracted during the period. The average lease term for lease extensions is calculated by reference to the period between the date of the original expiration of the lease and the new extended expiration date.

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(c)
Our utilization rate for aircraft is calculated based on the average number of months the aircraft are on lease each year. The utilization rate is weighted proportionately to the net book value of the aircraft at the end of the period measured.

 
  Managed Aircraft  
Activity
  2014   2013   2012   Total/
Average
 

New leases on used aircraft

    10     4     1     15  

Extensions of lease contracts

    15     7     8     30  

Average lease term for re-leases (months)(a)

    80     50     72     67  

Average lease term for lease extensions (months)(b)

    29     45     27     34  

Aircraft sales and part-outs

    19     14     8     41  

(a)
Average lease term of re-leases contracted during the period. The average lease term for re-leases is calculated by reference to the period between the contractual delivery and contractual redelivery dates of the aircraft.

(b)
Average lease term for aircraft lease extensions contracted during the period. The average lease term for lease extensions is calculated by reference to the period between the date of the original expiration of the lease and the new extended expiration date.

        Leases of new aircraft generally have longer terms than used aircraft which are re-leased. In addition, leases of more expensive aircraft generally have longer lease terms than less expensive aircraft. Lease terms for owned aircraft tend to be longer than for managed aircraft because the average age of our owned fleet is lower than that of our managed fleet.

        Before making any decision to lease an aircraft, we perform a review of the prospective lessee, which generally includes reviewing financial statements, business plans, cash flow projections, maintenance records, operational performance histories, hedging arrangements for fuel, foreign currency and interest rates and relevant regulatory approvals and documentation. We also perform on-site credit reviews for new lessees which typically includes extensive discussions with the prospective lessee's management before we enter into a new lease. Depending on the credit quality and financial condition of the lessee, we may require the lessee to obtain guarantees or other financial support from an acceptable financial institution or other third parties.

        We typically require our lessees to provide a security deposit for their performance under their leases, including the return of the aircraft in the specified maintenance condition at the expiration of the lease. The size of the security deposit is normally equal to two months' rent.

        All of our lessees are responsible for their maintenance costs during the lease term. Based on the credit quality of the lessee, we require some of our lessees to pay supplemental maintenance rent to cover scheduled major component maintenance costs. If a lessee pays the supplemental maintenance rent, we reimburse them for their maintenance costs up to the amount of their supplemental maintenance rent payments. Under the terms of our leases, at lease expiration, to the extent that a lessee has paid us more supplemental maintenance rent than we have reimbursed them for their maintenance costs, we retain the excess rent. In most lease contracts not requiring the payment of supplemental rents, the lessee is required to redeliver the aircraft in a similar maintenance condition as when accepted under the lease. To the extent that the redelivery condition is different from the acceptance condition, there is normally an end-of-lease compensation adjustment for the difference at redelivery. As of December 31, 2014, 592 of our 1,132 owned aircraft leases provided for the payment of supplemental maintenance rent. Whether a lessee pays supplemental maintenance rent or not, we usually agree to compensate a lessee for scheduled maintenance on airframe and engines related to the prior utilization of the aircraft. For this prior utilization, we have normally received cash compensation from prior lessees of the aircraft, which was recognized as income at the end of the prior lease.

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        In all cases, we require the lessee to reimburse us for any costs we incur if the aircraft is not in the required condition upon redelivery. All of our leases contain provisions regarding our remedies and rights in the event of a default by the lessee, and also include specific provisions regarding the required condition of the aircraft upon its redelivery.

        Our lessees are also responsible for compliance with all applicable laws and regulations governing the leased aircraft and all related costs. We require our lessees to comply with either the FAA, EASA or their foreign equivalent standards.

        During the term of our leases, some of our lessees have experienced financial difficulties resulting in the need to restructure their leases. Generally, our restructurings have involved a number of possible changes to the lease's terms, including the voluntary termination of leases prior to their scheduled expiration, the arrangement of subleases from the primary lessee to a sublessee, the rescheduling of lease payments and the exchange of lease payments for other consideration, including convertible bonds, warrants, shares and promissory notes. We generally seek to receive these and other marketable securities from our restructured leases, rather than deferred receivables. In some cases, we have been required to repossess a leased aircraft and in those cases, we have usually exported the aircraft from the lessee's jurisdiction to prepare it for remarketing. In the majority of these situations, we have obtained the lessee's cooperation and the return and export of the aircraft was completed without significant delay, generally within two months. In some situations, however, our lessees have not cooperated in returning aircraft and we have been required to take legal action. In connection with the repossession of an aircraft, we may be required to settle claims on the aircraft or to which the lessee is subject, including outstanding liens on the repossessed aircraft.

        The following table provides information regarding the percentage of our total lease revenue attributable to leases of aircraft to the indicated lessees of our owned aircraft portfolio for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Lessee
  Percentage of
2014 lease revenue
 

Air France

    6.4 %

American Airlines

    6.1 %

Emirates

    4.6 %

Virgin Atlantic Airways

    3.2 %

LATAM

    2.8 %

China Southern Airlines

    2.7 %

Aerovias de Mexico

    2.5 %

Other(a)

    71.7 %

Total

    100 %

(a)
No other lessee accounted for more than 2.5% of our lease revenue in 2014.

        Our top five lessees are Air France, American Airlines, Emirates, Virgin Atlantic and LATAM. We lease our aircraft to lessees located in numerous and diverse geographical regions and have focused our leasing efforts on the fast-growing Asia/Pacific market. The following table sets forth the percentage of our total lease revenue by region of lessee in which we lease our owned aircraft for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Region
  Percentage of
2014 lease revenue
 

Europe

    33 %

North America/Caribbean

    13 %

Latin America

    9 %

Middle East/Africa

    10 %

Asia/Pacific/Russia

    35 %

Total

    100 %

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        The following table provides details on our operating lease portfolio by aircraft type, including the scheduled lease expirations (for the minimum non-cancelable period which does not include contracted unexercised lease extension options) by aircraft type, as of December 31, 2014.

Aircraft type
  2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   2021   2022   2023   2024   2025   2026   2027   2028   Total  

Airbus A310

    1                                                         1  

Airbus A319

    5     29     19     17     15     32     17     7     1     1                     143  

Airbus A320

    19     44     34     34     36     36     15     11     4     1     1                 235  

Airbus A321

    4     22     14     13     11     15     12         1     2                     94  

Airbus A330

    7     19     20     9     10     14     8     10     8     6     3     2             116  

Boeing 737 NG

    16     40     48     32     27     22     14     13     5     17     14     30     10     5     293  

Boeing 767

    6     6     8     13     7     3     1                                 44  

Boeing 777

    1     4     12     28     12     1     1     2     5     2     2                 70  

Boeing 787

                                    3             15             18  

Other

    21     12     17     7     7     6     1                                 71  

Total(a)

    80     176     172     153     125     129     69     43     27     29     20     47     10     5     1,085 (b)

(a)
This includes placed and unplaced aircraft.

(b)
Excludes 15 off-lease aircraft. As of March 23, 2015, nine of the off-lease aircraft were under commitments for re-lease and the remaining six aircraft were designated to be sold. None of these off-lease aircraft met the criteria for being classified as held for sale.

        The following table sets forth the percentage of lease revenue attributable to individual countries representing at least 10% of total lease revenue in any year based on each airline's principal place of business for the years indicated:

 
  2014   2013   2012  

China

    12.3 %   8.0 %   7.2 %

United States of America

    10.8 %   17.3 %   12.1 %

        The following table sets forth the percentage of long-lived assets (flight equipment and intangible assets) attributable to individual countries representing at least 10% of total long-lived assets based on each airline's principal place of business for the years indicated:

 
  2014   2013  

United States of America

    13.5 %   22.2 %

China

    12.7 %   2.5 %

        We lease and sell aircraft to airlines and others throughout the world and our trade and notes receivables are from entities located throughout the world. We generally obtain deposits on leases and obtain collateral in flight equipment on notes receivable. During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2012, we had no lessees that represented 10% or more of our total lease revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we had one lessee, American Airlines, that represented 10.9% of total lease revenue.

        During the year ended December 31, 2014, $60.8 million of lease revenue and $616.7 million of long-lived assets were attributable to The Netherlands, our country of domicile. In the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, no lease revenue and no long-lived assets were attributable to The Netherlands.

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Financing

        Our management analyzes sources of financing based on the pricing and other terms and conditions in order to optimize the return on our investments. We have the ability to access a broad range of liquidity sources globally, and since 2010, we, including ILFC, on a combined basis have raised in excess of $46 billion of new financings, including bank debt, governmental secured debt, securitization and debt capital markets.

        We have in place undrawn lines of liquidity in the form of our unsecured revolving credit facilities and our non-recourse "warehouse" facility, which enable us to deploy capital rapidly to accretive purchasing opportunities that arise in the market. As of December 31, 2014, we had approximately $5.8 billion of undrawn commitments available under our revolving credit facilities, subject to certain conditions, including compliance with certain financial covenants. Our debt financing arrangements primarily consist of senior unsecured, subordinated and senior secured notes, export credit facilities, commercial bank debt, revolving credit debt, securitization debt and capital lease structures. Please refer to Note 15 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our outstanding indebtedness.

Joint Ventures

        We conduct some of our business through joint ventures. The joint venture arrangements allowed us to:

    order new aircraft in larger quantities to increase our buying power and economic leverage;

    increase the geographical and product diversity of our portfolio;

    obtain stable servicing revenues; and

    diversify our exposure to the economic risks related to aircraft purchases.

        Please refer to Note 26 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our joint ventures.

Relationship with Airbus and Boeing and other manufacturer relationships

        We are one of the largest customers of Airbus and Boeing measured by deliveries of aircraft through 2014. In 2013 we also finalized our first aircraft order from Embraer. We believe we are one of the largest purchasers of engines from each of CFM International, GE Aviation, International Aero Engines, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce. These extensive manufacturer relationships and the scale of our business enable us to place large orders with favorable terms and conditions, including pricing and delivery terms. In addition, we believe our strategic relationships with manufacturers and market knowledge allow us to influence new aircraft designs, which gives us increased confidence in our airframe and engine selections. As of December 31, 2014, we had an order book comprising 239 Airbus aircraft, 91 Boeing aircraft and 50 Embraer aircraft. AerCap maintains a wide ranging dialogue with manufacturers seeking mutually beneficial opportunities, including additional large orders, purchasing selective new aircraft on short notice, and facilitating manufacturer targets by purchasing used aircraft from airlines seeking to renew their fleets.

Aircraft Services

        We provide aircraft asset management and corporate services to securitization vehicles, joint ventures and other third parties. As of December 31, 2014, we had aircraft management and administration and cash management service contracts with 16 parties covering over 241 aircraft, seven parties of which accounted for 91% of our aircraft services revenue in 2014. We categorize our aircraft services into aircraft asset management, administrative services and cash management services. Since we

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have an established operating system to provide these services to manage our own aircraft assets, the incremental cost of providing aircraft management services to securitization vehicles, joint ventures and third parties is limited. Our primary aircraft asset management activities include:

    remarketing aircraft;

    collecting rental and maintenance payments, monitoring aircraft maintenance, monitoring and enforcing contract compliance and accepting delivery and redelivery of aircraft;

    conducting ongoing lessee financial performance reviews;

    periodically inspecting the leased aircraft;

    coordinating technical modifications to aircraft to meet new lessee requirements;

    conducting restructurings negotiations in connection with lease defaults;

    repossessing aircraft;

    arranging and monitoring insurance coverage;

    registering and de-registering aircraft;

    arranging for aircraft and aircraft engine valuations; and

    providing market research.

        We charge fees for our aircraft management services based primarily on a mixture of fixed retainer amounts, but we also receive performance-based fees related to the managed aircraft lease revenues or sale proceeds, or specific upside sharing arrangements.

        We provide cash management and administrative services to securitization vehicles and joint ventures. Cash management services consist of treasury services such as the financing, refinancing, hedging and ongoing cash management of these vehicles. Our administrative services consist primarily of accounting and secretarial services, including the preparation of budgets and financial statements, and liaising with, in the case of securitization vehicles, the rating agencies.

Engine, parts and supply chain solutions

        Through our wholly-owned subsidiary AeroTurbine, we provide engine leasing; certified aircraft engines, airframes, and engine parts; and supply chain solutions, and we possess the capabilities to disassemble aircraft and engines into parts. These capabilities allow us to maximize the value of our aircraft and engines across their complete life cycle and offer an integrated value proposition to our airline customers as they transition out aging aircraft. AeroTurbine seeks to purchase engines for which there is high market demand, or for which it believes demand will increase in the future, and opportunistically sells and exchanges those engines. AeroTurbine has market insight and well-established customer relationships, which are strengths that can be leveraged for growth in the engine and parts business.

        AeroTurbine also sells airframe parts primarily to airlines, maintenance, repair and overhaul service providers, and aircraft parts distributors. Airframe parts comprise a broad range of aircraft sub-component groups, including avionics, hydraulic and pneumatic systems, auxiliary power units, landing gear, interiors, flight control surfaces, windows and panels. The aircraft disassembly operations are focused on the strategic acquisition of used aircraft with engines that AeroTurbine believes will have high demand in the secondary market. AeroTurbine also provides maintenance, repair and overhaul services for select customers in North America.

        AeroTurbine further maximizes the value of our aircraft by providing us with part-out and engine leasing capabilities. Over time, the combined value of an aircraft's engines and other parts will often

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exceed the value of the aircraft as a whole operating asset, at which time the aircraft may be retired from service. Traditional aircraft lessors and airlines often retire their aircraft by selling or consigning them to companies that specialize in aircraft and engine disassembly. AeroTurbine allows us to integrate this revenue source into our business model and allows us to avoid paying a third party for this service. Disassembling an aircraft and selling its parts directly allows us to increase the value of our aircraft and engine assets by putting each subcomponent (engines, airframes and related parts) to its most profitable use (sale, lease or disassembly for parts sales). In addition, this capability provides us with an advantage over our non-integrated competitors by providing us with a critical source of replacement engines and parts to support the maintenance of our aircraft and engine portfolios.

        Additionally, we can provide a differentiated fleet management product and service offering to our airline customers by providing them with an integrated value proposition as they transition out aging aircraft. The integrated value proposition we are able to offer is being increasingly sought by our customers around the world and should enhance our competitiveness on both the placement of new and existing aircraft as well as the trading of aircraft in the secondary markets.

Subsidiaries

        AerCap Holdings N.V.'s major subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014 were AerCap Global Aviation Trust, and AerCap Ireland Ltd. AerCap Holdings N.V. has numerous other subsidiaries, none of which contribute more than 10% of our consolidated revenues or represent more than 10% of our total assets.

Employees

        The table below provides the number of our permanent employees at each of our principal geographical locations relating to our aircraft leasing business as of the dates indicated.

Location
  December 31,
2014
  December 31,
2013
  December 31,
2012
 

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    89     79     77  

Shannon, Ireland

    64     55     54  

Dublin, Ireland

    65          

Singapore

    32     5     3  

Los Angeles, CA

    63          

Other(a)

    19     24     25  

Total(b)

    332     163     159  

(a)
We also lease offices in Shanghai (China), the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates and throughout the United States.

(b)
Eight out of our total of 332 employees are part-time employees.

        None of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, and we believe that we maintain excellent employee relations. Although under Netherlands law we may be required to have a works council for our operations in The Netherlands, our employees have not elected to date to organize a works council. A works council is an employee organization that is granted certain statutory rights to be involved in certain of the company's decision making processes. The exercise of such rights, however, must take into account the interests of the company and its stakeholders.

        In addition to the above, we have 390 employees mainly located in Miami, Florida and Goodyear, Arizona relating to AeroTurbine, a subsidiary we acquired as part of the ILFC Transaction, and we

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have 104 employees on short-term contracts, most of which will terminate in fiscal 2015, who are assisting with the integration of ILFC.

Organizational Structure

        AerCap Holdings N.V. is a holding company that holds directly and indirectly consolidated investments in six main operating companies, most of which in turn own special purpose entities which hold our aircraft assets. AerCap Holdings N.V. employs 41 people as of December 31, 2014 and does not own significant assets outside of its investments in its subsidiaries. Within the group, we also have several inactive subsidiaries or subsidiaries which are in the process of being liquidated. In addition to AerCap Holdings N.V.'s ownership in our principal operating subsidiaries, it holds our 50% economic interests in AerCap Partners I (11 aircraft), our 50% economic interests in AerCap Partners II (three aircraft) and a 50% ownership interest in a joint venture with Waha (four aircraft). The six principal operating subsidiaries, their share ownership and the identity of their significant asset owning subsidiaries are detailed below.

        AerCap Global Aviation Trust.    AerCap Global Aviation Trust is indirectly owned 100% by AerCap Holdings N.V. AerCap Global Aviation Trust is a Delaware Statutory Trust, with its principal offices in Ireland. AerCap Ireland Capital Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AerCap Ireland Limited, and ILFC, an indirect subsidiary of AerCap Global Aviation Trust, are the sole beneficiaries of AerCap Global Aviation Trust. AerCap Global Aviation Trust does not employ any personnel as of December 31, 2014. AerCap Global Aviation Trust owns 100% of ILFC. AerCap Global Aviation Trust, through its special purpose subsidiaries, owns the economic interests in 915 aircraft as of December 31, 2014.

        International Lease Finance Corporation.    ILFC is located in Los Angeles, California, and had 70 permanent employees and 103 employees with short-term contracts, most of which will terminate in fiscal 2015, who are assisting with the integration of ILFC as of December 31, 2014. ILFC provides a range of services to other asset owning companies in the AerCap group of companies. ILFC owns 100% of AeroTurbine, Inc., located in Miami, Florida with a facility in Goodyear, Arizona, which had 390 employees as of December 31, 2014. AeroTurbine, Inc. provides engine leasing, certified aircraft engines, airframes, and engine parts; and supply chain solutions, and they possess the capabilities to disassemble aircraft and engines into parts.

        AerCap B.V. is owned 100% by AerCap Holdings N.V. AerCap B.V. is located in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and through its special purpose subsidiaries, owns the economic interests in 19 aircraft as of December 31, 2014. AerCap B.V. does not employ any personnel.

        AerCap Group Services B.V. is owned 100% by AerCap Holdings N.V. AerCap Group Services B.V. is located in Amsterdam, The Netherlands and had 46 employees as of December 31, 2014. AerCap Group Services B.V. does not own significant assets as of December 31, 2014, but provides a range of management services to other asset owning companies in the AerCap group of companies.

        AerCap Ireland Limited is indirectly owned 100% by AerCap Holdings N.V. AerCap Ireland Limited is located in Shannon, Ireland and Dublin, Ireland and holds our economic interests in ALS II, which owns 30 aircraft as of December 31, 2014. In addition, AerCap Ireland Limited owns 107 aircraft and seven engines directly or through single aircraft owning special purpose entities as of December 31, 2014 and holds the economic interests in AerFunding (29 aircraft). AerCap Ireland Limited is also the holder of our joint venture investment in AerDragon. AerCap Ireland Limited had 90 employees as of December 31, 2014.

        AerCap, Inc. is 100%-owned by AerCap Holdings N.V. AerCap, Inc. is located in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. AerCap, Inc. does not employ any personnel as of December 31, 2014. AerCap, Inc. owns 100% of AerCap Group Services, Inc., which had 11 employees as of December 31, 2014 and provides a range of services to other asset owning companies in the AerCap group of companies.

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Competition

        The aircraft leasing and sales business is highly competitive. We face competition from aircraft manufacturers, financial institutions, other leasing companies, aircraft brokers and airlines. Competition for a leasing transaction is based on a number of factors, including delivery dates, lease rates, term of lease, other lease provisions, aircraft condition and the availability in the market place of the types of aircraft that can meet the needs of the customer. As a result of our geographical reach, diverse aircraft portfolio and success in remarketing our aircraft, we believe we are a strong competitor in all of these areas. Our primary competitor is GECAS and to a lesser extent a number of smaller aircraft leasing companies.

Insurance

        Our lessees are required under our leases to bear responsibility, through an operational indemnity subject to customary exclusions, and to carry insurance for any liabilities arising out of the operation of our aircraft or engines, including any liabilities for death or injury to persons and damage to property that ordinarily would attach to the operator of the aircraft. In addition, our lessees are required to carry other types of insurance that are customary in the air transportation industry, including hull all risks insurance for both the aircraft and each engine whether or not installed on our aircraft, hull war risks insurance covering risks such as hijacking, terrorism, confiscation, expropriation, nationalization and seizure (in each case at a value stipulated in the relevant lease which typically exceeds the net book value by 10%, subject to adjustment or fleet aggregate limits in certain circumstances and aircraft spares insurance and aircraft third party liability insurance, in each case subject to customary deductibles. We are named as an additional insured on liability insurance policies carried by our lessees, and we or our lenders are designated as a loss payee in the event of a total loss of the aircraft or engine. We monitor the compliance by our lessees with the insurance provisions of our leases by securing confirmation of coverage from the insurance brokers. We also purchase insurance which provides us with coverage when our aircraft or engines are not subject to a lease or where a lessee's policy lapses for any reason. In addition, we carry customary insurance for our property. Insurance experts advise and make recommendations to us as to the appropriate amount of insurance coverage that we should obtain.

Regulation

        While the air transportation industry is highly regulated, since we do not operate aircraft, we generally are not directly subject to most of these regulations. Our lessees are subject, however, to extensive regulation under the laws of the jurisdictions in which they are registered and in which they operate. These regulations, among other things, govern the registration, operation and maintenance of our aircraft and engines. Most of our aircraft are registered in the jurisdiction in which the lessee of the aircraft is certified as an air operator. Both our aircraft and engines are subject to the airworthiness and other standards imposed by our lessees' jurisdictions of operation. Laws affecting the airworthiness of aviation assets are generally designed to ensure that all aircraft, engines and related equipment are continuously maintained in proper condition to enable safe operation of the aircraft. Most countries' aviation laws require aircraft and engines to be maintained under an approved maintenance program having defined procedures and intervals for inspection, maintenance and repair.

        In addition, under our leases, we may be required in some instances to obtain specific licenses, consents or approvals for different aspects of the leases. These required items include consents from governmental or regulatory authorities for certain payments under the leases and for the import, re-export or deregistration of the aircraft and engines. Also, to perform some of our cash management services and insurance services from Ireland under our management arrangements with our joint ventures and securitization entities, we are required to have a license from the Irish regulatory authorities, which we have obtained.

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Facilities

        We lease a 39,000 square foot office facility in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The lease runs through March 31, 2018. We lease our Shannon, Ireland facility under a 21-year lease (10,000 square feet) and a 19-year lease (6,000 square feet) which began March 28, 2008 and June 18, 2010, respectively, and have options to terminate both leases in 2018 and in 2024. We lease our Dublin, Ireland facility under a lease which runs through January 31, 2017 (9,900 square feet). We occupy space in Los Angeles, California (127,000 square feet) that served as ILFC's headquarters prior to the AerCap Transaction. In addition, we lease 22,000 square feet of office space that is currently subleased to third parties. The lease expires in August 2015. We have entered into a new lease in Los Angeles, California, which commences in August 2015 and expires in August 2025.

        Through our AeroTurbine subsidiary we also occupy approximately 264,000 square feet of space near Miami, Florida that is used as the corporate office and warehouse, under a lease that expires in March 2024. We also lease approximately 1,100,000 square feet in AeroTurbine's Goodyear facility in Arizona, which includes two hangars and substantial additional space for outdoor storage of aircraft, pursuant to long-term leases that expire in 2018 and 2026.

        In addition to the above facilities, we also lease small offices in New York (New York), Fort Lauderdale (Florida), Shanghai (China), the United Arab Emirates and Singapore.

Trademarks

        We have registered the "AerCap" name with WIPO International (Madrid) Registry and the Benelux-Merkenbureau. The "AerCap" trademark has been registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The "ILFC" trademark has been registered with WIPO International (Madrid) Registry and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The "AT" trademark has been registered with WIPO International (Madrid) Registry and the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Litigation

        Please refer to Note 28 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of litigations in which we are a party.

Iran Sanctions Disclosure

        Pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), if during 2014, AerCap or any of its affiliates have engaged in certain transactions with Iran or with persons or entities designated under certain executive orders, AerCap would be required to disclose information regarding such transactions in our annual report as required under Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. During 2014, AerCap did not engage in any transactions with Iran or with persons or entities related to Iran.

Item 4A.    Unresolved Staff Comments

        Not applicable.

Item 5.    Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

        You should read this discussion in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this annual report. Our financial statements are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. The discussion below contains forward looking statements that are based upon our current expectations and are subject to uncertainty and changes of circumstances. See "Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors" and "Special Note About Forward Looking Statements".

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Overview

        Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. for the full year 2014 was $810.4 million, compared to $292.4 million in 2013. Adjusted net income was $855.5 million for the full year 2014, compared to $291.8 million in 2013. Adjusted net income excludes non-cash charges relating to the mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps, transaction and integrated related expenses related to the ILFC Transaction, and an adjustment to maintenance rights related expenses. Please refer to page [58] for the reconciliation of adjusted net income (and adjusted earnings per share) to net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013. For the full year 2014, total basic earnings per share were $4.61 and adjusted basic earnings per share were $4.86. The average number of outstanding basic shares was 175.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Net interest margin, or net spread, the difference between basic lease rents and interest expense excluding the mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps, was $2,519.2 million for full year 2014.

Major Developments in 2014

    On April 22, 2014, AerCap's wholly owned subsidiary, AerCap International Bermuda Limited, completed the sale of 100% of the class A common shares in Genesis Funding Limited, an aircraft securitization vehicle with a portfolio of 37 aircraft, to GFL Holdings, LLC, an affiliate of Wood Credit Capital Management, LLC, valued at approximately $750 million.

    On May 14, 2014, AerCap consummated the ILFC Transaction, pursuant to which AerCap acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, 100% of the common stock of ILFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AIG, for consideration consisting of $2.4 billion in cash and 97,560,976 newly issued AerCap common shares.

    Following the ILFC Transaction, AerCap effected a reorganization of ILFC's corporate structure and assets, pursuant to which ILFC transferred its assets substantially as an entirety to AerCap Trust, and AerCap Trust assumed substantially all the liabilities of ILFC, including liabilities in respect of ILFC's indebtedness.

    On May 14, 2014, AerCap Trust and AerCap Ireland Capital Limited issued $2.6 billion aggregate principal amount of senior notes, consisting of three tranches of varying tenor, in a private placement, of which $2.4 billion was used to satisfy the cash consideration of the ILFC Transaction.

    On May 14, 2014, AerCap Ireland Capital Limited's $1.0 billion revolving credit facility with AIG became available for general corporate purposes.

    On May 14, 2014, AerCap replaced ILFC's $2.3 billion unsecured revolving credit facility with a new $2.75 billion four-year unsecured revolving credit facility. On September 11, 2014, the size of the facility was increased to $2.925 billion.

    On July 14, 2014, AerCap exercised options to purchase 50 A320neo family aircraft from Airbus.

    On September 2, 2014, AerCap registered for sale 29.8 million of AerCap's ordinary shares held by Waha, and AerCap entered into a registration agreement with Waha and several underwriters and dealers that sets forth the terms and conditions of the registration and sale of 14.9 million of the shares. AerCap did not receive any proceeds from the sale of the ordinary shares offered in the transaction.

    On September 29, 2014, AerCap Trust and AerCap Ireland Capital Limited issued $800 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes, consisting of two tranches of varying tenor, in a private placement, the proceeds of which are intended to be used for general corporate purposes.

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    On November 14, 2014, AeroTurbine signed an amendment and extension of its credit facility, which increased the size from $430 million to $550 million and extended the maturity to the fourth quarter of 2019.

    On November 28, 2014, AerCap signed an agreement with Azul Linhas Aéreas Brasileiras, the third largest airline in Brazil, for the lease of 20 Airbus A320neo family aircraft and five Airbus A350s aircraft from its order book.

    On December 1, 2014, AerCap entered into a registration agreement with Waha, an underwriter and several dealers that sets forth the terms and conditions of the registration and sale of 14.9 million of AerCap's ordinary shares held by Waha. AerCap did not receive any proceeds from the sale of the ordinary shares offered in the transaction.

    On December 10, 2014, AerCap completed an amendment and upsize of its revolving warehouse facility, increasing the size from $1.6 billion to $2.2 billion and extending the maturity to December 2019.

Liquidity and Access to Capital

        Aircraft leasing is a capital-intensive business and we have significant capital requirements. These commitments might include requirements to make pre-delivery payments, in addition to the requirement to pay the balance of the purchase price for aircraft on delivery. As of December 31, 2014, we had 380 new aircraft on order including 205 A320neo family aircraft, 66 Boeing 787 aircraft, 50 Embraer E-Jets E2 aircraft, 29 A350 aircraft, 25 Boeing 737 aircraft, four A321 aircraft, and one A330 aircraft, excluding five Boeing purchase rights and 17 spare engines. As a result, we will need to raise additional funds through a combination of accessing committed debt facilities and securing additional financing for pre-delivery and final delivery payment obligations and from other sources of capital if needed. We may also need to raise additional funds through selling aircraft or other aircraft investments, including participations in our joint ventures, and, if necessary, generating proceeds from potential capital market transactions.

        We believe our existing sources of liquidity will be sufficient to operate our business and cover at least 120% of our debt maturities and contracted capital expenditures for the next 12 months. Our sources of liquidity include available revolving credit facilities, unrestricted cash, estimated operating cash flows and cash flows from contracted asset sales.

        We expect to have capital expenditures of $4 billion per annum, on average, over the next three years. Sources of new debt finance for these capital expenditures would be through access to all capital markets, including the unsecured and secured bond markets, the commercial bank market, ECA/Ex-Im and the ABS market.

        In the longer term, we expect to fund the growth of our business, including the acquisition of aircraft, through internally generated cash flows, the incurrence of new bank debt, the refinancing of existing bank debt and other capital raising initiatives. For additional information on the availability of funding under our contracted credit facilities see "Indebtedness".

Non Cash Charge for Mark-to-market of Interest Rate Caps and Swaps

        The non-cash charge for mark-to-market of interest rate caps and swaps, net of tax and non-controlling interest, was $14.6 million for the full year 2014. We use interest rate caps and swaps to hedge against the impact of interest rate increases on variable-rate debt. Our interest rate caps and certain swaps do not qualify for hedge accounting under U.S. GAAP and the periodic mark-to-market gains or losses of our caps and those swaps are recorded as interest expense.

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Aviation Assets

        We acquired $2.3 billion of aviation assets, including 33 aircraft in 2014. In addition we completed the ILFC Transaction in 2014. Total assets were $43.9 billion as of December 31, 2014. Total assets increased 364% during 2014, which was driven primarily by the ILFC Transaction and the acquisition of new aircraft. As of December 31, 2014, we owned 1,132 aircraft (excluding three aircraft owned by AeroTurbine), managed 147 aircraft, including those owned and on order by AerDragon. We also had 380 new aircraft on order, which included 205 A320neo family aircraft, 66 Boeing 787 aircraft, 50 Embraer E-Jets E2 aircraft, 29 A350 aircraft, 25 Boeing 737 aircraft, four A321 aircraft, and one A330 aircraft but excluding five Boeing purchase rights and 17 spare engines.

Revenues and Other Income

        Our revenues and other income consist primarily of lease revenue from aircraft leases, net gain on sale of assets, management fee revenue, interest revenue and other income.

Lease Revenue

        Nearly all of our aircraft lease agreements provide for the payment of a fixed, periodic amount of rent or a floating, periodic amount of rent tied to interest rates during the terms of the respective leases. In the year ended December 31, 2014, 4% of our basic aircraft lease revenue was attributable to leases tied to floating interest rates. In limited circumstances, our leases may require a basic rental payment based partially or exclusively on the amount of usage during a period. In addition, many of our leases require the payment of supplemental maintenance rent based on aircraft utilization during the lease term, or an end-of-lease compensation amount calculated with reference to the technical condition of the aircraft at lease expiration. The amount of lease revenue we recognize is primarily influenced by five factors:

    the contracted lease rate, which is highly dependent on the age, condition and type of the leased equipment;

    for leases with rates tied to floating interest rates, interest rates during the term of the lease;

    the number, type, condition and age of flight equipment subject to lease contracts;

    the lessee's performance of their lease obligations; and

    the amount of end-of-lease compensation payments we receive and the amount of accrued maintenance liabilities released to revenue during and at the end of a lease.

        In addition to aircraft-specific factors such as the type, condition and age of the asset, the lease rates for our leases with fixed rental payments are determined in part by reference to the prevailing interest rate for a debt instrument with a term similar to the lease term and with a similar credit quality as the lessee at the time we enter into the lease. Many of the factors described in the points above are influenced by global and regional economic trends, airline market conditions, the supply/demand balance for the type of flight equipment we own and our ability to remarket flight equipment subject to expiring lease contracts under favorable economic terms.

        Lease premium represents the value of an acquired lease where the contractual rent payments are above the market rate. We amortize the lease premium on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease as a reduction of Lease revenue.

        We operate our business on a global basis and as of December 31, 2014, our 1,132 owned aircraft were on lease to 191 customers in 78 countries, with no lessee accounting for more than 10% of lease revenue for the year. As of December 31, 2014, our operating lease portfolio included 15 aircraft off-lease. As of March 23, 2015, nine of the off-lease aircraft were under commitments for re-lease and

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the remaining six were designated to be sold. None of these off-lease aircraft met the criteria to be classified as held for sale.

        The following table shows the regional profile of our lease revenue for the periods indicated:

 
  AerCap Holdings N.V.  
 
  Year ended
December 31,
2014
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
  Year ended
December 31,
2012
 

Europe

    33 %   35 %   39 %

Asia/Pacific/Russia

    35 %   32 %   36 %

North America/Caribbean

    13 %   18 %   14 %

Latin America

    9 %   11 %   7 %

Africa/Middle East

    10 %   4 %   4 %

Total

    100 %   100 %   100 %

Net Gain (Loss) on Sale of Assets

        Our net gain (loss) on sale of assets is generated from the sale of our aircraft, engines and other aircraft assets. The net gain (loss) on sale we achieve on the sale of our aircraft, engines and other aircraft assets is largely dependent on the condition of the asset being sold, prevailing interest rates, airline market conditions and the supply/demand balance for the type of asset we are selling. The timing of the closing of aircraft and engine sales is often uncertain, as a sale may be concluded swiftly or negotiations may extend over several weeks or months. As a result, even if net gain (loss) on sale of assets is comparable over a long period of time, during any particular fiscal quarter or other reporting period we may close significantly more or fewer sale transactions than in other reporting periods. Accordingly, net gain (loss) on sales of assets recorded in one fiscal quarter or other reporting period may not be comparable to net gain (loss) on sales of assets in other periods.

Management Fee Revenue

        We generate management fee revenue through a variety of management services that we provide to non-consolidated aircraft securitization vehicles and joint ventures and third party owners of aircraft. Our management services include leasing and remarketing services, cash management and treasury services, technical advisory services and accounting and administrative services.

Interest Revenue

        Our interest revenue is derived primarily from deposit interest on unrestricted and restricted cash balances, interest earned on assets supporting defeased liabilities and interest recognized on financial instruments we hold, such as notes issued by lessees in connection with lease restructurings and subordinated debt investments in unconsolidated securitization vehicles or affiliates. The amount of interest revenue we recognize in any period is influenced by the amount of unrestricted or restricted cash balances, the scheduled amortization of defeased liabilities, the principal balance of financial instruments we hold, contracted or effective interest rates, and movements in provisions for financial instruments which can affect adjustments to valuations or provisions.

Other Income

        Our other income includes net gains or losses we generate from the sale of non-aircraft assets, including inventory sales by AeroTurbine, and reversals of provisions on such investments such as our subordinated interests in securitization vehicles and notes, warrants or convertible securities issued by our lessees, which we receive from lessees as compensation for amounts owed to us in connection with

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lease restructurings. The amount of other revenue recognized in any period is influenced by the number of saleable financial instruments we hold, the credit profile of the obligor and the demand for such investments in the market at the time. Since there is limited or no market liquidity for some of the securities we receive in connection with lease restructurings, making the securities difficult to value, and because many of the issuers of the securities are in a distressed financial condition, we may experience volatility in our revenues when we sell our non-core assets due to significant changes in their value.

Operating Expenses

        Our primary operating expenses consist of depreciation and amortization, interest expense, leasing expenses, transaction and integration related expenses, and selling, general and administrative expenses.

Depreciation and Amortization

        Our depreciation expense is influenced by the adjusted gross book values of our flight equipment, the depreciable life of the flight equipment and the estimated residual value of the flight equipment. Adjusted gross book value is the original cost of our flight equipment, including purchase expenses, adjusted for subsequent capitalized improvements, impairments and accounting basis adjustments associated with business combinations. The rate of amortization of definite lived intangible assets is calculated with reference to the period over which we expect to derive economic benefits from such assets.

Interest Expense

        Our interest expense arises from a variety of funding structures and related derivative instruments as described in "Indebtedness". Interest expense in any period is primarily affected by contracted interest rates, accretion of fair value adjustments on debt, principal amounts of indebtedness, including notional values of derivative instruments and unrealized mark-to-market gains or losses on derivative instruments for which we did not achieve cash flow hedge accounting treatment.

Leasing expenses

        Our leasing expenses consist primarily of maintenance right intangible amortization, maintenance expenses on our flight equipment, which we incur when our flight equipment is off-lease, lessor maintenance contribution expenses, technical expenses we incur to monitor the maintenance condition of our flight equipment during a lease, end-of-lease payments, expenses to transition flight equipment from an expired lease to a new lease contract and non-capitalizable flight equipment transaction expenses.

        The maintenance rights intangible assets represent the contractual right under our leases acquired as part of the ILFC Transaction to receive the aircraft in a specified maintenance condition at the end of the lease (EOL contracts) or our right to an aircraft in better maintenance condition due to our obligation to contribute towards the cost of the maintenance events performed by the lessee either through reimbursement of maintenance deposit rents held (MR contracts), or through a lessor contribution to the lessee. The maintenance rights intangible assets arose from the application of the acquisition method of accounting to aircraft which were acquired in the ILFC transaction, and represented the fair value of our contractual aircraft return rights under our leases at the Closing Date. The maintenance rights represented the difference between the specified maintenance return condition in our leases and the actual physical condition of our aircraft at the Closing Date.

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        For MR contracts, maintenance rights expense is recognized at the time the lessee provides us with an invoice for reimbursement relating to the cost of a qualifying maintenance event that relates to pre-acquisition usage. For EOL contracts, maintenance rights expense is recognized upon lease termination, to the extent the lease end cash compensation paid to us is less than the maintenance rights intangible asset. Maintenance rights expense is included in Leasing expenses in our Consolidated Income Statement. To the extent the lease end cash compensation paid to us is more than the maintenance rights intangible asset, revenue is recognized in Lease revenue in our Consolidated Income Statement, upon lease termination.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

        Our principal selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits, charges for share-based compensation, severance compensation, professional and advisory costs, provision for doubtful notes and accounts receivable and office and travel expenses as summarized in Note 21 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. The level of our selling, general and administrative expenses is influenced primarily by our number of employees and the extent of transactions or ventures we pursue which require the assistance of outside professionals or advisors. Our selling, general and administrative expenses could also include from time to time the mark-to-market gains and losses for our foreign exchange rate hedges related to our Euro-denominated selling, general and administrative expenses.

Provision for Income Taxes

        Our operations are taxable primarily in three main jurisdictions in which we manage our business: The Netherlands, Ireland and the United States. Deferred income taxes are provided to reflect the impact of temporary differences between our U.S. GAAP income from continuing operations before income taxes and our taxable income. Our effective tax rate has varied significantly year to year. The primary source of temporary differences is the availability of accelerated tax depreciation in our primary operating jurisdictions. Our effective tax rate in any year depends on the tax rates in the jurisdictions from which our income is derived along with the extent of permanent differences between U.S. GAAP income from continuing operations before income taxes and taxable income.

        We have substantial tax losses in certain jurisdictions which can be carried forward, which we recognize as tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of tax assets in each jurisdiction in each period based upon our estimates of future taxable income in those jurisdictions. If we determine that we are not likely to generate sufficient taxable income in a jurisdiction prior to expiration, if any, of the availability of tax losses, we establish a valuation allowance against the tax loss to reduce the tax asset to its recoverable value. We evaluate the appropriate level of valuation allowances annually and make adjustments as necessary. Increases or decreases to valuation allowances can affect our provision for income taxes on our consolidated income statement and consequently may affect our effective tax rate in a given year.

Factors Affecting our Results

The ILFC Transaction and related reorganization and expected cost savings

        The ILFC Transaction and related reorganization has had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on our operations.

        Based on current estimates and assumptions, we expect to achieve cost savings and other synergies as a result of the ILFC Transaction. These expected cost savings and synergies are subject to significant business, economic, competitive and regulatory uncertainties and contingencies, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. As a result, we cannot assure you that these or any other cost savings or synergies will actually be realized. See "Risk factors—Risks related to the

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ILFC Transaction—The ILFC Transaction and related reorganization may not be successful or achieve its anticipated benefits."

Other factors

        Our results of operations have also been affected by a variety of other factors, primarily:

    the number, type, age and condition of the aircraft we own;

    aviation industry market conditions, including general economic and political conditions;

    the demand for our aircraft and the resulting lease rates we are able to obtain for our aircraft;

    the availability and cost of debt capital to finance purchases of aircraft and aviation assets;

    the purchase price we pay for our aircraft;

    the number, types and sale prices of aircraft, or parts in the event of a part-out of an aircraft, we sell in a period;

    the ability of our lessee customers to meet their lease obligations and maintain our aircraft in airworthy and marketable condition;

    the utilization rate of our aircraft;

    the recognition of non-cash share-based compensation expense related to the issuance of restricted share units or restricted shares;

    our expectations of future overhaul reimbursements and lessee maintenance contributions;

    interest rates which affect our aircraft lease revenues, our interest expense and the market value of our interest rate derivatives; and

    our ability to fund our business.

Factors Affecting the Comparability of Our Results

ILFC Transaction and Related Organization

        On May 14, 2014, AerCap and AerCap Ireland Limited completed the purchase of 100% of the common stock of ILFC from AIG for consideration consisting of $2.4 billion in cash and 97,560,976 newly issued AerCap common shares. In addition, ILFC paid a special distribution of $600.0 million to AIG prior to the consummation of the ILFC Transaction. Following the ILFC Transaction, we effected a reorganization of ILFC's corporate structure and assets, pursuant to which ILFC transferred its assets substantially as an entirety to the AerCap Trust, and AerCap Trust assumed substantially all the liabilities of ILFC, including liabilities in respect of ILFC's indebtedness.

Genesis Funding Limited Transaction

        On April 22, 2014, we completed the sale of 100% of the class A common shares in Genesis Funding Limited ("GFL") to GFL Holdings, LLC, an affiliate of Wood Creek Capital Management, LLC. GFL had 37 aircraft in its portfolio with a net book value of $727 million.

Guggenheim Transaction

        On June 27, 2013, we completed a transaction under which we sold eight Boeing 737-800 aircraft to ACSAL HOLDCO, LLC ("ACSAL"), an affiliate of Guggenheim, in exchange for cash and in addition we made a capital contribution of 19.4% in the equity of ACSAL. The aircraft are subject to long term leases to American Airlines. We will continue to service the Boeing 737-800 portfolio. Based

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on ASC 840 we concluded that we did not retain a substantial risk of ownership and therefore the assets were deconsolidated and a $10.5 million gain on sale was recognized.

        We have assessed our ownership in ACSAL, and have determined that it is a variable interest entity. We further determined that while we do not have control and are not the primary beneficiary of ACSAL, we do have significant influence and accordingly, we account for our investment in ACSAL under the equity method of accounting.

LATAM Transaction

        On May 28, 2013, we entered into a $2.6 billion purchase and leaseback agreement with LATAM for 25 widebody aircraft, including 15 with deliveries scheduled between 2014 and 2018. The aircraft consist of nine new Airbus A350-900s, four new Boeing 787-9s, and two new Boeing 787-8s from LATAM's order backlog, and ten Airbus A330-200s with an average age of four years, from LATAM's existing fleet, which were purchased and leased back in June 2013. In accordance with ASC 805-50, we allocated the portfolio purchase price of $2.6 billion to individual aircraft acquired based on their relative fair values which were based on independent appraised values. As part of the transaction, we made payments of $659 million in June 2013, and allocated $577 million to flight equipment held for operating leases relating to the ten aircraft delivered, and accounted for the other $82 million as prepayments on flight equipment for the remaining 15 aircraft to be delivered. As at December 31, 2014, 13 aircraft remained to be delivered.

Trends in Our Business

        Demand for more technologically-advanced, fuel-efficient aircraft has fueled a steady increase in demand for the A330, A320 and Boeing 737 NG aircraft, the most highly concentrated aircraft in our current portfolio. We expect that demand for these types of aircraft will remain strong and combined with our order book of current and new technology aircraft will result in increased revenues in the future. Related to the recent reduction in oil price, certain older and mid life aircraft types, such as Airbus A340 and Boeing 747 aircraft, are experiencing a stronger demand.

        Air traffic demand is returning to 2008 levels as the global economy continues to recover. Emerging markets, have exhibited some of the strongest growth in demand. A significant number (49.4% in 2014, 47.1% in 2013 and 49.6% in 2012) of our aircraft are leased to airlines in emerging markets countries.

        In the last several years, we have incurred significant costs resulting from lease defaults. In 2014, 2013, and 2012, we faced defaults from nine, two, and five of our lessees, respectively. Costs related to lease defaults include expenses to repossess flight equipment and maintenance-related costs.

Critical Accounting Policies

        Our Operating and Financial Review and Prospects is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and require us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The use of estimates is or could be a significant factor affecting the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions, including those related to flight equipment, inventory, lease revenue, fair value estimates, and income taxes, on a recurring and non-recurring basis. Our estimates and assumptions are based on historical experiences and currently available information that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. We utilize third party appraisal and valuation data, where possible, to support our estimates, particularly with respect to flight equipment. Despite our best efforts, actual results may differ from our estimates under different conditions, sometimes materially. A summary of our significant accounting policies is presented in

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Note 3 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. Critical accounting policies and estimates are defined as those that are both most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and require our judgments, estimates and assumptions. Our most critical accounting policies and estimates are described below.

Flight equipment held for operating leases, net

        Flight equipment held for operating leases, including aircraft, is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Flight equipment is depreciated to its estimated residual value using the straight-line method over the assets' useful life, generally 25 years from the date of manufacture, or different period depending on the disposition strategy. The costs of improvements to flight equipment are normally expensed unless the improvement increases the long-term value of the flight equipment or extends the useful life of the flight equipment. The capitalized cost is depreciated over the estimated remaining useful life of the aircraft. The current estimates for the residual values of most aircraft types are 15 percent of original manufacture cost, in line with industry standards, except where more recent industry information indicates a different value is appropriate.

        The Company reviews estimated useful life and residual value of aircraft periodically based on its knowledge and external factors coupled with market conditions to determine if they are appropriate and record adjustments to depreciation prospectively on an aircraft by aircraft basis as necessary.

Impairment charges

        On a quarterly basis, we evaluate the need to perform a recoverability assessment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of our long-lived assets may not be recoverable. When a recoverability assessment is required, the review for recoverability includes an assessment of the estimated future cash flows associated with the use of an asset and its eventual disposal. The assets are grouped at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other groups of assets. In relation to flight equipment on operating lease, the impairment assessment is performed on each individual aircraft, including lease related assets and liabilities. If the sum of the expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss is recognized. The loss is measured as the excess of the carrying amount of the impaired asset over its fair value. Fair value reflects the present value of cash expected to be generated from the aircraft in the future, including its expected residual value discounted at a rate commensurate with the associated risk. Future cash flows are assumed to occur under then current market conditions and assume adequate time for a sale between a willing buyer and a willing seller. Expected future lease rates are based on all relevant information available, including current contracted rates for similar aircraft, appraisal data and industry trends.

        Annually, we perform an impairment assessment for all of our aircraft, including a review of the undiscounted cash flows for aircraft that were 15 years of age, or older, as the cash flows supporting the carrying value of such older aircraft are more dependent upon current lease contracts, which leases are more sensitive to weaknesses in the global economic environment. Deterioration of the global economic environment and a decrease of aircraft values might have a negative effect on the undiscounted cash flows of older aircraft and might trigger impairments.

        Any aircraft for which the carrying value exceeds the appraised value are tested for impairment by comparing the undiscounted cashflows with the carrying value. If such cashflows do not exceed the carrying value by at least 10% the aircraft are more susceptible to impairment risk. The aggregated carrying value of 10 aircraft for which the cashflows did not substantially exceed our 10% threshold at December 31, 2014 was $225 million, which represented approximately 1% of our total flight equipment held for operating lease. The aircraft that are below the 10% threshold did however pass the impairment test as of December 31, 2014 and as such no impairment was recognized.

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        As of December 31, 2014, we owned 1,132 aircraft, of which 175 aircraft were 15 years of age, or older. The 175 aircraft were included in flight equipment held for operating leases and had a carrying value of $1.9 billion, which represented 6% of our total flight equipment held for operating lease at December 31, 2014. The undiscounted cash flows of these 175 aircraft were estimated at $2.7 billion, which represented 39% excess above carrying value. As of December 31, 2014, all of these aircraft passed the recoverability test, with undiscounted cash flows exceeding the carrying value of aircraft by between 0% and 456%. The following assumptions drive the undiscounted cash flows: contracted lease rents through current lease expiry, subsequent re-lease rates based on current marketing information and residual values. We review and stress-test our key assumptions to reflect any observed weakness in the global economic environment. Further deterioration of the global economic environment and a further decrease of aircraft values might have a negative effect on the undiscounted cash flows of older aircraft and might triggering further impairments.

        Management evaluates quarterly the need to perform recoverability assessments of contemplated aircraft sale or disposal transactions considering the requirements under GAAP. The recoverability assessments are performed if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that an aircraft will be sold or parted-out a significant amount of time before the end of its previously estimated economic useful life. Due to the significant uncertainties associated with potential sales transactions, management must use its judgement to evaluate whether a sale or other disposal is more likely than not. The factors that management considers in its assessment include (i) the progress of the potential sales transactions through a review and evaluation of the sales related documents and other communications, including, but not limited to, letters of intent or sales agreements that have been negotiated or executed; (ii) our general or specific fleet strategies and other business needs and how those requirements bear on the likelihood of sale or other disposal; and (iii) the evaluation of potential execution risks, including the source of potential purchaser funding and other execution risks. Recoverability is measured by comparing the carrying amount of the aircraft to the estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the aircraft. If the future undiscounted cash flows are less than the aircraft carrying amount, the aircraft is impaired and is re-measured to fair value. The difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the aircraft is recognized as an impairment. The undiscounted cash flows will depend on the structure of the potential disposal transaction and may consist of cash flows from currently contracted leases, and the estimated proceeds from sale or other disposal.

        Management evaluates all contemplated aircraft sale transactions to determine whether all the required criteria have been met under GAAP to classify the aircraft as flight equipment held for sale. Management uses judgement in evaluating these criteria. Due to the significant uncertainties associated with potential sale transactions, the held for sale criteria generally will not be met unless the aircraft is subject to a signed sale agreement or management has made a specific determination and obtained appropriate approvals to sell a particular aircraft or group of aircraft. Aircraft classified as flight equipment held for sale are recognized at the lower of their carrying amount and estimated fair value less estimated cost to sell. At the time aircraft are sold, or classified as flight equipment held for sale, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the related accounts and we cease recognizing depreciation expense.

Asset value guarantees

        As a result of the ILFC Transaction, we have contracts that guarantee the residual values of aircraft owned by third parties. When it becomes probable that we will be required to perform under a guarantee, we accrue a liability based on an estimate of the loss we will incur to perform under the guarantee. The estimate of the loss is generally measured as the amount by which the contractual guaranteed value exceeds the referenced aircraft fair value.

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Inventory

        Our inventory consists primarily of engine and airframe parts and rotable and consumable parts and is included in Other assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We value our inventory at the lower of cost or market. Cost is primarily determined using the specific identification method for individual part purchases and on an allocated basis for engines and aircraft purchased for disassembly and for bulk inventory purchases. Costs are allocated using the relationship of the cost of the engine, aircraft or bulk inventory purchase to estimated retail sales value at the time of purchase. At the time of sale, this ratio is applied to the sales price of each individual part to determine its cost. We periodically evaluate this ratio and, if necessary, update sales estimates and make adjustments to this ratio. Generally, inventory that is held for more than four years is considered excess inventory, and its carrying value is reduced to zero.

Lease revenue

        We lease flight equipment principally under operating leases and recognize rental income on a straight line basis over the life of the lease. The difference between rental revenue recognized and the cash received is included in Other assets, and in the event it is a liability in Account payables, accrued expenses and other liabilities. In certain cases, our leases provide for rentals based on usage. The usage may be calculated based on hourly usage or on the number of cycles operated, depending on the lease contract. We cease revenue recognition on a lease contract when the collectability of such rentals is no longer reasonably assured. For past-due rentals that exceed related security deposits held, which have been recognized as revenue, provisions are established on the basis of management's assessment of collectability.

        Revenues from Net investment in finance and sales-type leases are recognized using the interest method to produce a level yield over the life of the lease and are included in Lease revenues in the Consolidated Income Statements. Expected unguaranteed residual values of leased flight equipment are based on our assessment of the values of the leased flight equipment at expiration of the lease terms.

        Under our aircraft leases, the lessee is responsible for maintenance and repairs of our flight equipment and related expenses during the term of the lease. Under the provisions of many of our leases, the lessee is required to make payments of supplemental maintenance rents which is calculated with reference to the utilization of the airframe, engines and other major life-limited components during the lease. We record as revenue all supplemental maintenance rent receipts not expected to be reimbursed to lessees. We estimate the total amount of maintenance reimbursements for the entire lease and only record revenue after we have received enough maintenance rents under a particular lease to cover the total amount of estimated maintenance reimbursements during the remaining lease term. In these leases, upon lessee presentation of invoices evidencing the completion of qualifying maintenance on the aircraft, we make a payment to the lessee to compensate for the cost of the maintenance, up to the maximum of the supplemental maintenance rent payments made with respect to the lease contract.

        In most lease contracts not requiring the payment of supplemental maintenance rents, the lessee is generally required to re-deliver the aircraft in a similar maintenance condition (normal wear and tear excepted) as when accepted under the lease, with reference to major life-limited components of the aircraft. To the extent that such components are redelivered in a different condition than at acceptance, there is generally EOL cash compensation for the difference at redelivery. We recognize receipts of EOL cash compensation as Lease revenue when received to the extent those payments exceed the EOL contract maintenance rights intangible asset, and payments of EOL compensation as Leasing expenses when paid to the extent those payments exceed EOL contract maintenance rights intangible liabilities.

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Consolidation

        We consolidate all companies in which we have a direct and indirect legal or effective control and all variable interest entities for which we are deemed the primary beneficiary and have control under ASC 810. All intercompany balances and transactions with consolidated subsidiaries have been eliminated. The results of consolidated entities are included from the effective date of control or, in the case of variable interest entities, from the date that we are or become the primary beneficiary. The results of subsidiaries sold or otherwise deconsolidated are excluded from the date that we cease to control the subsidiary or, in the case of variable interest entities, when we cease to be the primary beneficiary.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities

        We report deferred taxes of our taxable subsidiaries resulting from the temporary differences between the book values and the tax values of assets and liabilities using the liability method. The differences are calculated at nominal value using the enacted tax rate applicable at the time the temporary difference is expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets attributable to unutilized losses carried forward or other timing differences are reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that such losses will not be utilized to offset future taxable income.

Comparative Results of Operations

Results of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2014 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2013

 
  Year ended
December 31,
2014
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
 
 
  (U.S. dollars in millions)
 

Revenues and other income

             

Lease revenue

  $ 3,498.3   $ 976.1  

Net gain on sale of assets

    37.5     41.9  

Other income

    104.5     32.1  

Total revenues and other income

    3,640.3     1,050.1  

Expenses

             

Depreciation and amortization

    1,282.2     337.7  

Asset impairment

    21.8     26.2  

Interest expense

    780.4     226.3  

Other operating expenses

    190.3     49.1  

Transaction and integration related expenses

    148.8     10.9  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    299.9     89.1  

Total expenses

    2,723.4     739.3  

Income before income taxes and income of investments accounted for under the equity method

    916.9     310.8  

Provision for income taxes

    (137.4 )   (26.0 )

Equity in net earnings of investments accounted for under the equity method

    29.0     10.6  

Net income

    808.5     295.4  

Net loss (income) attributable to non-controlling interest, net of taxes

    1.9     (3.0 )

Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. 

  $ 810.4   $ 292.4  

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        Revenues and other income.    Our total revenues and other income increased by $2,590.2 million, or 247%, to $3,640.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $1,050.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The principal categories of our revenues and other income and their variances were:

 
  Year ended
December 31,
2014
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
  Increase/
(decrease)
  Percentage
Difference
 
 
  (U.S. dollars in millions)
 

Lease revenue

                         

Basic rents

  $ 3,282.8   $ 901.6   $ 2,381.2     264 %

Maintenance rents and end-of-lease compensation

    215.5     74.5     141.0     189 %

Net gain on sale of assets

    37.5     41.9     (4.4 )   (11 )%

Other income

    104.5     32.1     72.4     226 %

Total revenues and other income

  $ 3,640.3   $ 1,050.1   $ 2,590.2     247 %

        Basic rents increased by $2,381.2 million, or 264%, to $3,282.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $901.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in basic rents was attributable primarily to:

    the acquisition of 996 aircraft, including aircraft acquired as part of the ILFC Transaction, between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014, with an aggregate net book value of $28.3 billion which was partially offset by the sale of 78 aircraft for lease during the same period, with an aggregate net book value of $1.6 billion at the date of sale, resulting in a $2,409.7 million increase in basic rents in the year ended December 31, 2014, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2013,

      partially offset by

    a decrease in basic rents of $21.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013 due to re-leases at lower rates following their scheduled lease expiration coupled with aircraft that were off-lease and therefore not producing rents and being transitioned between lessees. When aircraft come off-lease following their scheduled lease expiration, the contracted lease rates of their new leases tend to be lower than their previous lease rates as the aircraft are older and older aircraft have lower lease rates than newer aircraft.

        Maintenance rents and other receipts increased by $141.0 million, or 189%, to $215.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $74.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase was primarily attributable to:

    an increase of $59.3 million in maintenance revenue and other receipts from airline defaults in the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013; and

    an increase of $81.7 million in regular maintenance rents relating primarily to the ILFC Transaction in the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Net gain on sale of assets decreased by $4.4 million, or 11%, to a $37.5 million gain in the year ended December 31, 2014 from a $41.9 million gain in the year ended December 31, 2013. The net gain on sale of assets in the year ended December 31, 2014 related to 37 aircraft we sold as part of the GFL Transaction, two A330 aircraft, three A340 aircraft, one A300 aircraft, seven Boeing 737 classic aircraft, three Boeing 767 aircraft, one Boeing 747 aircraft, one Boeing 737NG aircraft, one Boeing 757 aircraft and two MD-11 aircraft, whereas in the year ended December 31, 2013, the gain on sale related to three A330 aircraft, nine Boeing 737 aircraft (including eight aircraft sold as part of the Guggenheim Transaction), one MD-11 aircraft and one Boeing 737 aircraft (both of which were included in net investment in direct finance leases).

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        Other income increased by $72.4 million, or 226%, to $104.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $32.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase was related to a $19.9 million gain on sale of our 42% equity interest in AerData and for the remainder primarily driven by income from our AeroTurbine subsidiary as a result of the ILFC Transaction.

        Depreciation and amortization.    Depreciation and amortization increased by $944.5million, or 280%, to $1,282.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $337.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase was primarily the result of the ILFC Transaction and purchases of new aircraft which was partially offset by sales between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014.

        Asset impairment.    In the year ended December 31, 2014, we recognized an aggregated impairment charge of $21.8 million, whereas in the year ended December 31, 2013, we recognized an aggregated impairment charge of $26.2 million. The impairment charge recognized in the year ended December 31, 2014 primarily related to two A320-200 and six B757-200 aircraft that were returned early from our lessees and three previously leased engines that we will sell for parts. The impairment charge recognized in the year ended December 31, 2013 related to two Boeing 737-700 aircraft, two A319 aircraft and two Boeing 747 freighters.

        Interest Expense.    Our interest expense increased by $554.0 million, or 245%, to $780.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $226.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The majority of the increase in interest expense was the result of:

    a $28.4 million increase in the non-cash recognition of mark-to-market charges on derivatives to a $16.7 million expense in the year ended December 31, 2014 from a $11.7 million income in the year ended December 31, 2013; and

    an increase in average outstanding debt balance to $21.5 billion in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $5.9 billion in the year ended December 31, 2013 primarily due to the ILFC Transaction and aircraft purchases, partially offset by regular debt repayments in the year ended December 31, 2014, resulting in a $609.2 million increase in our interest expense,

      partially offset by

    a decrease in our average cost of debt, excluding the effect of mark-to-market movements and the charges from the early repayment of secured loans, to 3.6% in the year ended December 31, 2014 from 3.9% in the year ended December 31, 2013 including the fair value adjustment on the debt assumed as a result of the ILFC Transaction. The decrease in our average cost of debt resulted in a $79.8 million decrease in our interest expense.

        Other Operating Expenses.    Our other operating expenses increased by $141.2 million, or 288%, to $190.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $49.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The principal categories of our other operating expenses and their variances were as follows:

 
  Year ended
December 31,
2014
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
  Increase/
(decrease)
  Percentage
difference
 
 
  (U.S. dollars in millions)
 

Operating lease-in costs

  $   $ 0.6   $ (0.6 )   (100 )%

Leasing expenses

    190.3     48.5     141.8     292 %

Total

  $ 190.3   $ 49.1   $ 141.2     288 %

        Our operating lease-in costs decreased by $0.6 million, or 100%, to nil in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $0.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease was primarily due to the expiration of our remaining lease-in, lease-out transactions.

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        Our leasing expenses increased by $141.8 million, or 292%, to $190.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $48.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase is primarily due to $69.8 million of maintenance rights expense in the year ended December 31, 2014 and $33.1 million higher normal transition costs and lessor maintenance contributions in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2013. These increases are primarily related to the ILFC Transaction. In addition we recognized expenses of $47.3 million relating to airline defaults and restructurings in the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $15.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. Other leasing expenses increased by $7.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Transaction and Integration Related Expenses.    In the year ended December 31, 2014 we incurred $148.8 million of transaction and integration related expenses compared to $10.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 due to the ILFC Transaction. Those expenses consist primarily of banking fees, professional fees and severance and other compensation expenses.

        Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.    Our selling, general and administrative expenses increased by $210.8 million, or 237%, to $299.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $89.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase was primarily a result of the ILFC Transaction and higher share based compensation expenses.

        Income Before Income Taxes and Income of Investments Accounted for Under the Equity Method.    For the reasons explained above, our income before income taxes and income of investments accounted for under the equity method increased by $606.1 million, or 195%, to $916.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $310.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Provision for Income Taxes.    Our provision for income taxes increased by $111.3 million, or 428%, to a charge of $137.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2014. Our effective tax rate was 15.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014 and was 8.4% for the year ended December 31, 2013. Our effective tax rate in any period is impacted by the source and the amount of earnings among our different tax jurisdictions. Please refer to Note 16 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report for a detailed description of our Income Taxes.

        Equity in Net Earnings of Investments Accounted for Under the Equity Method.    Our equity in net earnings of investments accounted for under the equity method increased by $18.3 million, or 173% to $29.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $10.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 primarily due to approximately $20 million of non recurring income.

        Net Income.    For the reasons explained above, our net income increased by $513.1 million, or 174%, to $808.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $295.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Non-controlling interest, net of tax.    Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest, net of tax was $1.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to net income attributable to non-controlling interest, net of tax of $3.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Net Income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V.    For the reasons explained above, our net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. increased by $518.0 million, or 177%, to $810.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2014 from $292.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2013.

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Results of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2012

 
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
  Year ended
December 31,
2012
 
 
  (U.S. dollars in millions)
 

Revenues and other income

             

Lease revenue

  $ 976.1   $ 997.2  

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

    41.9     (46.4 )

Other income

    32.1     21.7  

Total revenues and other income

    1,050.1     972.5  

Expenses

             

Depreciation and amortization

    337.7     357.4  

Asset impairment

    26.2     12.6  

Interest expense

    226.3     286.0  

Other operating expenses

    49.1     78.2  

Transaction and integration related expenses

    10.9      

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    89.1     83.4  

Total expenses

    739.3     817.6  

Income before income taxes and income of investments accounted for under the equity method

    310.8     154.9  

Provision for income taxes

    (26.0 )   (8.1 )

Equity in net earnings of investments accounted for under the equity method

    10.6     11.6  

Net income

    295.4     158.4  

Net loss (income) attributable to non-controlling interest, net of taxes

    (3.0 )   5.3  

Net income attributable to AerCap Holdings N.V. 

  $ 292.4   $ 163.7  

        Revenues and other income.    Our total revenues and other income increased by $77.6 million, or 8.0%, to $1,050.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 from $972.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The principal categories of our revenue and other income and their variances were:

 
  Year ended
December 31,
2013
  Year ended
December 31,
2012
  Increase/
(decrease)
  Percentage
Difference
 
 
  (U.S. dollars in millions)
 

Lease revenue

                         

Basic rents

  $ 901.6   $ 931.9   $ (30.3 )   (3.3 )%

Maintenance rents and end-of-lease compensation

    74.5     65.3     9.2     14.1 %

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

    41.9     (46.4 )   88.3     190.3 %

Other income

    32.1     21.7     10.4     47.9 %

Total

  $ 1,050.1   $ 972.5   $ 77.6     8.0 %

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        Basic rents decreased by $30.3 million, or 3.3%, to $901.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 from $931.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in basic rents was attributable primarily to:

    a decrease in basic rents of $19.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 due to re-leases at lower rates following their scheduled lease expiration coupled with aircraft that were off-lease and therefore not producing rents and being transitioned between lessees. When aircraft come off-lease following their scheduled lease expiration, the contracted lease rates of their new leases tend to be lower than their previous lease rates as the aircraft are older and older aircraft have lower lease rates than newer aircraft; and

    the sale of 73 aircraft between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 with an aggregate net book value of $2.0 billion (including 50 aircraft sold as part of the ALS Transaction), which was partially offset by the acquisition, during such period, of 58 aircraft for lease with an aggregate net book value of $2.9 billion. The sale of older aircraft with higher lease rate factor and timing of sales and purchases resulted in a $9.1 million decrease in basic rents in the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.

        Maintenance rents and other receipts increased by $9.2 million, or 14.1%, to $74.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 from $65.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase was primarily attributable to:

    an increase of $26.7 million in regular maintenance rents and end-of-lease compensation relating primarily to the redelivery of two Boeing 737 aircraft and two Boeing 747 freighter aircraft in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012,

      partially offset by

    a decrease of $17.5 million in maintenance revenue and other receipts from airline defaults in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 due to fewer airline defaults in the year ended December 31, 2013.

        Net gain (loss) on sale of assets increased by $88.3 million, or 190.3%, to a $41.9 million gain in the year ended December 31, 2013 from a $46.4 million loss in the year ended December 31, 2012. In the year ended December 31, 2013, we sold three A330 aircraft, nine Boeing 737 aircraft (including eight aircraft sold as part of the Guggenheim Transaction), one MD-11 aircraft and one Boeing 737 aircraft (both of which were included in net investment in direct finance leases), whereas in the year ended December 31, 2012, we sold 35 A320 aircraft, four A330 aircraft, 14 Boeing 737 aircraft, and six other aircraft. Net loss on sale of assets in the year ended December 31, 2013 of $46.4 million included a $59.9 million loss as a result of the ALS Transaction. Net gain on sale of assets excluding this $59.9 million loss was $13.5 million.

        Other revenue increased by $10.4 million, or 47.9%, to $32.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 from $21.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase was mainly attributable to the additional management fee revenue in 2013 as a result of the ALS Transaction, which closed at the end of 2012 and the cash recovery of bankruptcy claims against previous lessees, guarantee fees and non-recurring payments.

        Depreciation and amortization.    Depreciation and amortization decreased by $19.6 million, or 5.5%, to $337.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 from $357.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease was primarily the result of sales of older aircraft with a higher depreciation rate factor which was partially offset by the purchases of new aircraft between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013.

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        Asset impairment.</