SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation)
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of Each Class||
|Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered|
|Toronto Stock Exchange|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the ACT: NONE
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as at the close of the period covered by the annual report: Common Shares as at December 31, 2022.
by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐
this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section
13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐
by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2)
has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant
to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant
was required to submit and post such files).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness
of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered
public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
International Accounting Standards Board ☒
If “other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange
Act). Yes ☐
Basis of Presentation
Except where the context otherwise requires, all references in this Annual Report on Form 20-F to the “Company”, “Aeterna Zentaris”, “Aeterna”, “we”, “us”, “our” or similar words or phrases are to Aeterna Zentaris Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together. In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, references to “$” and “U.S.$” are to United States (“U.S.”) dollars, references to “CAN$” are to Canadian dollars and references to “EUR” and “€” are to euros, and references to “£” are to British Pounds. Unless otherwise indicated, all information contained in this Annual Report on Form 20-F are presented as of December 31, 2022.
This Annual Report on Form 20-F also contains certain information regarding products or product candidates that may potentially compete with our products and product candidates, and such information has been primarily derived from information made publicly available by the companies developing such potentially competing products and product candidates and has not been independently verified by Aeterna Zentaris.
Special Note on Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 20-F and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” made pursuant to the safe-harbor provision of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which reflect our current expectations regarding future events. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in or incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 20-F, under the caption “Key Information—Risk Factors” filed with the relevant Canadian securities regulatory authorities in lieu of an annual information form and with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements may relate to the Company’s future outlook and anticipated events or results, and may include statements regarding the financial position, business strategy, growth strategy, budgets, operations, financial results, taxes, dividends, plans and objectives of the Company. Particularly, statements regarding future results, performance, achievements, prospects or opportunities of the Company are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “plans”, “expects” or “does not expect”, “is expected”, “budget”, “scheduled”, “estimates”, “forecasts”, “intends”, “anticipates” or “does not anticipate” or “believes”, or variations of such words and phrases or state that certain actions, events or results “may”, “could”, “would”, “might”, “will” or “will be taken”, “occur” or “be achieved” or the negative of these words or other words and terms of similar meaning.
Certain forward-looking statements contained herein about prospective results of operations, financial position or cash flows may constitute a financial outlook. Such statements are based on assumptions about future events, are given as at the date hereof and are based on economic conditions, proposed courses of action and management’s assessment of the relevant information currently available. Management of the Company has approved the financial outlook as of the date hereof. Readers are cautioned that such financial outlook information contained herein should not be used for purposes other than for which it is disclosed herein.
Forward-looking statements are based on the opinions and estimates of the Company as of the date of this Annual Report, and they are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that may cause the actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, including but not limited to the factors described in “Risk Factors” and those relating to: Aeterna’s expectations with respect to the DETECT-trial (including regarding the enrollment of subjects in the DETECT-trial, the application of the macimorelin growth hormone stimulation tests and the completion of the DETECT-trial); Aeterna’s expectations regarding conducting pre-clinical research to identify and characterize an AIM Biologicals-based development candidate for the treatment of NMOSD as well as Parkinson’s disease, and developing a manufacturing process for selected candidates; Aeterna’s expectations regarding conducting assessments in relevant Parkinson’s disease models; The University of Queensland undertaking a subsequent investigator initiated clinical trial evaluating macimorelin as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of ALS and Aeterna formulating a pre-clinical development plan for same; the commencement of Aeterna’s formal pre-clinical development of AEZS-150 in preparation for a potential IND filing for conducting the first in-human clinical study of AEZS-150; and the impacts associated with the termination of the license agreement with Novo Nordisk Healthcare AG.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements stated herein to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking information. Such risks and uncertainties include, among others, our reliance on the success of the pediatric clinical trial in the European Union and U.S. for Macrilen™ (macimorelin); the commencement of the DETECT-trial may be delayed or we may not obtain regulatory approval to initiate that study; we may be unable to enroll the expected number of subjects in the DETECT-trial and the result of the DETECT-trial may not support receipt of regulatory approval in CGHD; results from ongoing or planned pre-clinical studies of macimorelin by the University of Queensland or for our other products under development may not be successful or may not support advancing the product to human clinical trials; our ability to raise capital and obtain financing to continue our currently planned operations; our now heavy dependence on the success of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) and related out-licensing arrangements and the continued availability of funds and resources to successfully commercialize the product; our ability to enter into a new license agreement or similar arrangement following the termination of the license agreement with Novo Nordisk AG; the global instability due to the global pandemic of COVID-19, and its unknown potential effect on our planned operations; our ability to enter into out-licensing, development, manufacturing, marketing and distribution agreements with other pharmaceutical companies and keep such agreements in effect; and our ability to continue to list our common shares on the NASDAQ Capital Market (“NASDAQ”) or the Toronto Stock Exchange (“TSX”).
These risk factors are not intended to represent a complete list of the risk factors that could affect the Company. These factors and assumptions, however, should be considered carefully. More detailed information about these and other factors is included under “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F and in other documents incorporated herein by reference.
However, we advise you to review any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our reports on Form 6-K filed or furnished to the SEC and in our other public disclosure filed under our profile on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.
Although the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. Many of these factors are beyond our control. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements, particularly in light of the ongoing and developing COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the global economy and its uncertain impact on the Company’s business. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The Company does not undertake to update any forward-looking statements contained herein, except as required by applicable securities laws. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for the Company to predict all of these factors, or to assess in advance the impact of each such factor on the Company’s business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Item 1.||Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers|
|A. Directors and senior management||6|
|Item 2.||Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable|
|A. Offer statistics||6|
|B. Method and expected timetable||6|
|Item 3.||Key Information|
|B. Capitalization and indebtedness||6|
|C. Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds||6|
|D. Risk factors||6|
|Item 4.||Information on the Company|
|A. History and development of the Company||29|
|B. Business overview||30|
|C. Organizational structure||44|
|D. Property and equipment||44|
|Item 4A.||Unresolved Staff Comments||45|
|Item 5.||Operating and Financial Review and Prospects|
|A. Operating results||45|
|B. Liquidity, cash flows and capital resources||51|
|C. Research and development, patents and licenses, etc.||54|
|D. Trend information||54|
|E. Critical Accounting Estimates||55|
|Item 6.||Directors, Senior Management and Employees|
|A. Directors and senior management||56|
|C. Board practices||74|
|E. Share ownership||76|
|Item 7.||Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions|
|A. Major shareholders||76|
|B. Related party transactions||77|
|C. Interests of experts and counsel||77|
|Item 8.||Financial Information|
|A. Consolidated statements and other financial information||77|
|B. Significant changes||77|
|Item 9.||The Offer and Listing|
|A. Offer and listing details||77|
|B. Plan of distribution||78|
|D. Selling shareholders||78|
|F. Expenses of the issue||78|
|Item 10.||Additional Information|
|A. Share capital||78|
|B. Memorandum and articles of association||78|
|C. Material contracts||89|
|D. Exchange controls||94|
|F. Dividends and paying agents||101|
|G. Statement by experts||101|
|H. Documents on display||102|
|I. Subsidiary information||102|
|Item 11.||Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk||102|
|Item 12.||Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities|
|A. Debt securities||103|
|B. Warrants and rights||103|
|C. Other securities||103|
|D. American depositary shares||103|
|Item 13.||Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies||104|
|Item 14.||Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds||104|
|Item 15.||Controls and Procedures||104|
|Item 16A.||Audit Committee Financial Expert||105|
|Item 16B.||Code of Ethics||106|
|Item 16C.||Principal Accountant Fees and Services||106|
|Item 16D.||Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees||107|
|Item 16E.||Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers||107|
|Item 16F.||Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant||107|
|Item 16G.||Corporate Governance||107|
|Item 16H.||Mine Safety Disclosure||107|
|Item 16I||Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections||107|
|Item 17.||Financial Statements||107|
|Item 18.||Financial Statements||107|
|Item 1.||Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers|
|A.||Directors and senior management|
|Item 2.||Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable|
|B.||Method and expected timetable|
|Item 3.||Key Information|
|B.||Capitalization and indebtedness|
|C.||Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds|
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be materially, adversely affected by any of these risks. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This Annual Report also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks mentioned below. Forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and all forward-looking statements in the documents incorporated by reference are based on information available to us as of the date of each such document. We disavow and are under no obligation to update or alter such forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, other than as required by applicable securities legislation.
Risks Relating to Us and Our Business
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the risk factors our business faces. The list below is not exhaustive and investors should read this “Risk Factors” section in full. Some of the risks we face include:
|●||the delisting of our Common Shares from the NASDAQ or the TSX could impact their market price and liquidity;|
|●||we may be a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse tax consequences;|
|●||our net operating losses may be limited under U.S. tax laws;|
|●||our Rights Plan may prevent changes of control of the Company;|
|●||the economic effects of COVID-19 may impact the market price of our Common Shares;|
|●||investments in biopharmaceutical companies are generally considered to be speculative;|
|●||risks relating to the failure to commercialize or out-license Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||our revenues and expenses may fluctuate significantly and we may fail to meet financial expectations;|
|●||the failure to complete the clinical trial program for the pediatric indication of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) could impact our operations;|
|●||our dependence on strategic third party relationships regarding Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||we may be unsuccessful in completing further out-licensing arrangement for Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||we have initiated significant early-stage pre-clinical programs;|
|●||we may require significant additional financing, and we may not have access to sufficient capital;|
|●||we are and will be subject to ongoing government regulation for our products;|
|●||marketing approval for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) could be subject to restrictions or withdrawals;|
|●||healthcare reforms could hinder the commercial success of a product and affect our business;|
|●||we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties if we interact with healthcare practitioners in a way that violates healthcare fraud or abuse laws;|
|●||we may be unable to generate significant revenues if Macrilen™ (macimorelin) does not gain market acceptance;|
|●||we may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product or indication and fail to capitalize on other products or indications for which there may be a greater likelihood of success;|
|●||we may not achieve our projected development goals in the time-frames we announce and expect;|
|●||if we fail to obtain acceptable prices or adequate reimbursement for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), our ability to generate revenues will be diminished;|
|●||competition in our targeted markets is intense, and development by other companies could render Macrilen™ (macimorelin), or any of our future products, non-competitive;|
|●||we may not obtain adequate protection for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) through our intellectual property;|
|●||we may infringe the intellectual property rights of others;|
|●||patent litigation is costly and time consuming and may subject us to liabilities;|
|●||we may not obtain trademark registrations for our current or future products;|
|●||we rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily;|
|●||any difficulties or delays in our clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects;|
|●||the FDA and other foreign equivalents may not accept data from clinical trials outside the United States, in which case our development plans will be delayed, which could materially harm our business;|
|●||in carrying out our operations, we are dependent on a stable and consistent supply of ingredients and raw materials;|
|●||the failure to perform satisfactorily by third parties upon which we expect to rely to manufacture and supply products may lead to supply shortfalls;|
|●||we are subject to intense competition for our skilled personnel, and the loss of key personnel or the inability to attract additional personnel could impair our ability to conduct our operations;|
|●||we may be subject to litigation in the future;|
|●||we are subject to the risk of product liability claims for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage;|
|●||claims of creditors of our subsidiaries will generally have priority as to the assets of such subsidiaries over our claims and those of our creditors and shareholders;|
|●||it may be difficult for U.S. investors to obtain and enforce judgments against us because of our Canadian incorporation and German presence;|
|●||we can provide no assurance that we will, at all times in the future, be able to report that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective;|
|●||we may have material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our Common Shares|
|●||we are subject to environmental laws and may be subject to environmental remediation obligations. The impact of these obligations may have a material adverse effect on our business;|
|●||we may incur losses associated with foreign currency fluctuations;|
|●||legislative actions, new accounting pronouncements and higher insurance costs may adversely impact our future financial position or results of operations;|
|●||data security breaches may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results;|
|●||our share price is volatile, which may result from factors outside of our control;|
|●||we do not intend to pay dividends in the near future;|
|●||future issuances of securities and hedging activities may depress the trading price of our Common Shares;|
|●||in the event we were to lose our foreign private issuer status as of June 30 of a given financial year, we would be required to comply with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 domestic reporting regime, which could cause us to incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses;|
|●||our articles of incorporation contain “blank check” preferred share provisions, which could delay or impede an acquisition of our company; and|
|●||our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist shareholders.|
Our Common Shares may be delisted from the NASDAQ or the TSX, which could affect their market price and liquidity. If our Common Shares were to be delisted, investors may have difficulty in disposing their Common Shares.
Our Common Shares are currently listed on both the NASDAQ and the TSX under the symbol “AEZS”. We must meet continuing listing requirements to maintain the listing of our Common Shares on the NASDAQ and the TSX. For continued listing, the NASDAQ requires, among other things, that listed securities maintain a minimum closing bid price of not less than $1.00 per share.
On July 28, 2021, we received a letter from the Listing Qualifications Staff of the NASDAQ (the “Staff”), notifying us that for the last 30 consecutive business days prior to the date of the letter, the closing bid price of our common shares was below $1.00 per share and, therefore, we did not meet the requirement for continued listing on Nasdaq as required by Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) (the “Bid Price Rule”). In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we were granted a grace period of 180 calendar days, through January 24, 2022, and on January 26, 2022, we were granted a subsequent 180 calendar day extension, through July 26, 2022, to evidence compliance with the Bid Price Rule. In order to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule, the Company implemented a reverse stock split (also known as a share consolidation) effective July 21, 2022 on the basis of one post-consolidation Common Share for every twenty-five pre-consolidation Common Shares. In addition to the minimum bid price requirement, the continued listing rules of the NASDAQ require us to meet at least one of the following listing standards: (i) stockholders’ equity of at least $2.5 million, (ii) market value of listed securities (calculated by multiplying the daily closing bid price of our securities by our total outstanding securities) of at least $35 million or (iii) net income from continuing operations (in the latest fiscal year or in two of the last three fiscal years) of at least $500,000.
It is possible that we may be a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse tax consequences to U.S. investors.
Adverse U.S. federal income tax rules apply to “U.S. Holders” who directly or indirectly hold stock of a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”). We would be classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for a taxable year if (i) at least 75% of our gross income is “passive income” or (ii) at least 50% of the average value of our assets, including goodwill (based on annual quarterly average), is attributable to assets which produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income.
The determination of whether we are, or will be, a PFIC for a taxable year depends, in part, on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules, which are subject to various interpretations. Although the matter is not free from doubt, we believe that we were not a PFIC during our 2022 taxable year and will not likely be a PFIC during our 2023 taxable year. Because PFIC status is based on our income, assets and activities for the entire taxable year, and our market capitalization, it is not possible to determine whether we will be characterized as a PFIC for the 2023 taxable year until after the close of the taxable year. The tests for determining PFIC status are subject to a number of uncertainties. These tests are applied annually, and it is difficult to accurately predict future income, assets and activities relevant to this determination. In addition, because the market price of our Common Shares is likely to fluctuate, the market price may affect the determination of whether we will be considered a PFIC. There can be no assurance that we will not be considered a PFIC for any taxable year (including our 2023 taxable year).
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder holds Common Shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to that U.S. Holder for all succeeding years during which the U.S. Holder holds such Common Shares, even if we ceased to meet the threshold requirements for PFIC status. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we will not constitute a PFIC in the current (or any future) tax year or that the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) will not challenge any determination made by us concerning our PFIC status. PFIC characterization could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders. In particular, absent certain elections, a U.S. Holder would generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax at ordinary income tax rates, plus a possible interest charge, in respect of a gain derived from a disposition of our Common Shares, as well as certain distributions by us. If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder may be able to make an election to “mark-to-market” Common Shares each taxable year and recognize ordinary income pursuant to such election based upon increases in the value of the Common Shares.
In addition, U.S. Holders may mitigate the adverse tax consequences of the PFIC rules by making a “qualified electing fund” (“QEF”) election; however, there can be no assurance that we will satisfy the record keeping requirements applicable to a QEF or that we will provide the information regarding our income that would be necessary for a U.S. Holder to make a QEF election.
If the Company is a PFIC, U.S. Holders will generally be required to file an annual information return with the IRS (on IRS Form 8621 Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund, which PFIC shareholders will be required to file with their U.S. federal income tax or information returns) relating to their ownership of Common Shares. This filing requirement is in addition to any pre-existing reporting requirements that apply to a U.S. Holder’s interest in a PFIC (which this requirement does not affect).
Our net operating losses may be limited for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code.
If a corporation with net operating losses (“NOLs”) undergoes an “ownership change” within the meaning of Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), then such corporation’s use of such “pre-change” NOLs to offset income incurred following such ownership change may be limited. Such limitation also may apply to certain losses or deductions that are “built-in” (i.e., attributable to periods prior to the ownership change, but not yet taken into account for tax purposes) as of the date of the ownership change that are subsequently recognized. An ownership change generally occurs when there is either (i) a shift in ownership involving one or more “5% shareholders,” or (ii) an “equity structure shift” and, as a result, the percentage of stock of the corporation owned by one or more 5% shareholders (based on value) has increased by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of stock of the corporation owned by such shareholders during the “testing period” (generally the 3 years preceding the testing date). In general, if such change occurs, the corporation’s ability to utilize its NOL carry-forwards and certain other tax attributes would be subject to an annual limitation, as described below. The unused portion of any such NOL carry-forwards or tax attributes each year is carried forward, subject to the same limitation in future years. The impact of an ownership change on state NOL carry forwards may vary from state to state. Due to previous ownership changes, or if we undergo an ownership change in connection with or after this offering, our ability to use our NOLs could be limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes to our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Recent legislation added several limitations to the ability to claim deductions for NOLs in future years, particularly for tax years beginning after December 31, 2021, including a deduction limit equal to 80% of taxable income and a restriction on NOL carryback deductions. For these reasons, we may not be able to use a material portion of the NOLs, even if we attain profitability.
Prevention of Transactions Involving a Change of Control of the Company
Effective May 8, 2019, the shareholders re-approved our Rights Plan that provides the Board and the Company’s shareholders with additional time to assess any unsolicited take-over bid for the Company and, where appropriate, to pursue other alternatives for maximizing shareholder value. Under the Rights Plan, one right has been issued for each currently issued Common Share, and one right will be issued with each additional Common Share that may be issued from time to time. The Rights Plan may have a significant anti-takeover effect. The Rights Plan has the potential to significantly dilute the ownership interests of an acquiror of our shares, and therefore may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of the Company.
The economic effects of a pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease could adversely affect our operations or the market price of our Common Shares.
Public health crises such as pandemics, epidemics or similar outbreaks, including the novel strain of coronavirus known as “COVID-19”, could adversely impact our operations or the market price of our Common Shares. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operations or the market price of our Common Shares will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, either internationally or within the U.S., Canada or Germany, including the duration of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19, and the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, among others. COVID-19, however, has already resulted in significant volatility in the world and the national trading markets.
The spread of COVID-19 may impact our operations, including the potential interruption of our clinical trial activities and our supply chain. For example, the rise in the Omicron variant in the COVID-19 pandemic has caused delays in site initiation and patient enrollment in our Phase 3 DETECT clinical trial for diagnostic use in childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. As well, sales activities for Macrilen™ in the US by Novo Nordisk may be impacted due to delays of diagnostic activities on adult growth hormone deficiency (“AGHD”) in the U.S. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic may also cause some patients to be unwilling to enroll in our trials or be unable to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services, which would delay our ability to conduct clinical trials or release clinical trial results on a timely basis and could delay our ability to obtain regulatory approval and commercialize our product candidates. The spread of an infectious disease, including COVID-19, may also result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis or at all. In addition, hospitals may reduce staffing and reduce or postpone certain treatments in response to the spread of an infectious disease. Such events may result in a period of business disruption and, in reduced operations, doctors or medical providers may be unwilling to participate in our clinical trials, any of which could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. The significant spread of COVID-19 within the U.S., Canada or Germany resulted in a widespread health crisis and has had adverse effect on the national economies generally, the markets that we serve, our operations and the market price of our Common Shares.
Investments in biopharmaceutical companies are generally considered to be speculative in nature.
The prospects for companies operating in the biopharmaceutical industry are uncertain, given the very nature of the industry, in which companies often experience lengthy development time, extensive capital requirements, rapid technological developments and a high degree of competition based primarily on scientific and technological factors. These factors include the availability to obtain patent and other protection for technology and products, the ability to commercialize technological developments and the ability to obtain government approval for testing, manufacturing and marketing. Accordingly, investments in biopharmaceutical companies should be considered to be speculative assets.
If we are unable to successfully commercialize or out-license Macrilen™ (macimorelin), or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business would be materially harmed, and the future and viability of the Company could be imperiled.
Our lead product, Macrilen™ (macimorelin), is the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Commission approved oral test indicated for the diagnosis of patients with AGHD and we currently do not have any other products. We are focused on opportunistically utilizing our network with universities in Europe and the U.S., which we believe will provide vital access to innovative development candidates in different indications, with a focus on rare or orphan indications and potential for pediatric use. To date, we have signed agreements to establish this growing pipeline across a number of indications, including neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (“NMOSD”) and Parkinson’s disease (“PD”), primary hypoparathyroidism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (“ALS”, or Lou Gehrig’s disease).
We are a party to license agreements to carry out development, manufacturing, registration and commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the U.S., Canada, the European Economic Area, the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Korea. We are party to a distribution agreement for the commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in Israel and the Palestinian Authority, Turkey and some non-European Union Balkan countries. We continue to explore licensing and distribution opportunities worldwide.
As noted above, on August 26, 2022, the Company announced that it will regain full rights to Macrilen™ in the U.S. and Canada, following Novo’s termination of the development and commercialization license agreement, which triggered a 270-day notice period. Although the Company is actively engaged in exploring all options for Macrilen™ in the U.S. and Canada, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to enter into a similar agreement or any agreement with respect to the rights to Macrilen™ in the U.S. and Canada.
The commercial success of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) depends on several factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
|●||receipt of approvals from foreign regulatory authorities;|
|●||successfully negotiating pricing and reimbursement in key markets in the EU for Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||successfully contracting with qualified third-party suppliers to manufacture Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||developing appropriate distribution and marketing infrastructure and arrangements for our product;|
|●||launching and growing commercial sales of the product;|
|●||out-licensing Macrilen™ (macimorelin) to third parties; and|
|●||acceptance of the product in the medical community, among patients and with third-party payers.|
If we are unable to successfully achieve any of these factors, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially, adversely affected.
Our revenues and expenses may fluctuate significantly, and any failure to meet financial expectations may disappoint securities analysts or investors and result in a decline in the price or the value of our Common Shares or other securities.
We have a history of operating losses. Our revenues and expenses have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. These fluctuations could cause our share price of Common Shares or the value of our other securities to decline. Some of the factors that could cause our revenues and expenses to fluctuate include, but are not limited to, the following:
|●||the timing and willingness of any current or future collaborators to invest the resources necessary to commercialize Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||not obtaining necessary regulatory approvals from the United States Food & Drug Administration (“FDA”), the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), the European Commission (“EC”) or other agencies that may delay or prevent us from obtaining approval of a pediatric indication for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), which may affect the share price of our Common Shares;|
|●||the timing of regulatory submissions and approvals;|
|●||the nature and timing of licensing fee revenues;|
|●||the outcome of future litigation;|
|●||foreign currency fluctuations;|
|●||the effects of the recent outbreak of COVID-19, including the effects of intensified efforts to contain the spread of the virus, which has, to date, included, among other things, quarantines and travel restrictions;|
|●||the timing of the achievement and the receipt of milestone payments from current or future licensing partners; and|
|●||failure to enter into new or the expiration or termination of current agreements with suppliers who manufacture Macrilen™ (macimorelin).|
Due to fluctuations in our revenues and expenses, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations are not necessarily indicative of our future performance. It is possible that in some future periods, our revenues and expenses will be above or below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. In this case, the share price of our Common Shares and the value of our other securities could fluctuate significantly or decline.
If we are unable to successfully complete the pediatric clinical trial program for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), or if such clinical trial takes longer to complete than we project, our ability to execute any related business strategy will be adversely affected.
If we experience delays in identifying and contracting with sites and/or in-patient enrollment in our pediatric clinical trial program for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), we may incur additional costs and delays in our development programs, and may not be able to complete our clinical trials on a cost-effective or timely basis. In addition, conducting multi-national studies adds another level of complexity and risk as we are subject to events affecting countries other than the U.S. and Canada. Moreover, negative or inconclusive results from the clinical trials we conduct or adverse medical events could cause us to have to repeat or terminate the clinical trials. Furthermore, children have different metabolic issues than adults. Accordingly, we may not be able to complete the pediatric clinical trial within an acceptable time-frame, if at all. If we or our Contract Research Organizations (“CRO”) have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay or terminate ongoing clinical trials.
Clinical trials are subject to continuing oversight by governmental regulatory authorities and institutional review boards and must, among other requirements:
|●||meet the requirements of these authorities from multiple countries and jurisdictions and their related statutes, regulations and guidance;|
|●||meet the requirements for informed consent;|
|●||meet the requirements for institutional review boards; and|
|●||meet the requirements for good clinical practices.|
We are currently dependent on certain strategic relationships with third parties for the development, manufacturing and licensing of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) and we may enter into future collaborations for the development, manufacturing and licensing of Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
Our arrangements with third parties may not provide us with the benefits we expect and may expose us to a number of risks.
Currently, we are dependent on various partners to commercialize macimorelin in the U.K. and EU and the Republic of Korea. As set out above, the Company will regain full rights to Macrilen™ following the termination of the license agreement with Novo Nordisk. Most of our potential revenue consists of contingent payments, including milestones and royalties on the sale of Macrilen™ (macimorelin). The milestone and royalty revenue that we may receive under this collaboration will depend upon these parties’ ability to successfully introduce, market and sell Macrilen™ (macimorelin). If they do not devote sufficient time and resources to their respective collaboration arrangements with us, we may not realize the potential commercial benefits of the arrangement, and our results of operations may be materially, adversely affected.
Our reliance on these relationships and other potential third parties poses a number of risks. We may not realize the contemplated benefits of such agreements nor can we be certain that any of these parties will fulfill their obligations in a manner which maximizes our revenue. These arrangements may also require us to transfer certain material rights to third parties. These agreements create certain additional risks. The occurrence of any of the following or other events may delay or impair commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin):
|●||in certain circumstances, third parties may assign their rights and obligations under these agreements to other third parties without our consent or approval;|
|●||the third parties may cease to conduct business for financial or other reasons;|
|●||we may not be able to renew such agreements;|
|●||the third parties may not properly maintain or defend certain intellectual property rights that may be important to the commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||the third parties may encounter conflicts of interest, changes in business strategy or other issues which could adversely affect their willingness or ability to fulfill their obligations to us (for example, pharmaceutical companies historically have re-evaluated their priorities following mergers and consolidations, which have been common in this industry);|
|●||delays in, or failures to achieve, scale-up to commercial quantities, or changes to current raw material suppliers or product manufacturers (whether the change is attributable to us or the supplier or manufacturer) could delay clinical studies, regulatory submissions and commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin); and|
|●||disputes may arise between us and the third parties that could result in the delay or termination of the manufacturing or commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin), resulting in litigation or arbitration that could be time-consuming and expensive, or causing the third parties to act in their own self-interest and not in our interest or those of our shareholders.|
In addition, the third parties can terminate our agreements with them for a number of reasons based on the terms of the individual agreements that we have entered into with them. If one or more of these agreements were to be terminated, we would be required to devote additional resources to manufacturing and commercializing Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
We may be unsuccessful in consummating further out-licensing arrangements for MacrilenTM (macimorelin) on favorable terms and conditions, or we may be significantly delayed in doing so.
As part of our product development and commercialization strategy, we are evaluating out-licensing opportunities for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in addition to existing License Agreements and commercialization agreements signed with Novo Nordisk, Consilient Health, MegaPharm Ltd. and ER Kim Pharmaceuticals Bulgaria Eood and NK MEDITECH Ltd. If we elect to collaborate with third parties in respect of macimorelin, we may not be able to negotiate a collaborative arrangement for macimorelin on favorable terms and conditions, if at all. Should any partner fail to successfully commercialize macimorelin, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We have initiated significant early-stage pre-clinical programs
Over the course of 2021, we in-licensed four new pre-clinical development programs related to potential therapeutics, all of which were added to our development pipeline based on their potential to represent significant individual market opportunities. These pre-clinical development programs are at an early stage of development and none of these potential products has obtained regulatory approval for commercial use and sale in any country and, as such, no revenues have resulted from product sales. Significant additional investment will be necessary to complete the development of any of our product candidates. Pre-clinical and clinical trial work must be completed before our potential products could be ready for use within the markets that we have identified. We may fail to develop any products, obtain regulatory approvals, enter clinical trials or commercialize any products. We do not know whether any of our potential product development efforts will prove to be effective, meet applicable regulatory standards, obtain the requisite regulatory approvals, be capable of being manufactured at a reasonable cost or be accepted in the marketplace. We also do not know whether sales, license fees or related royalties will allow us to recoup any investment we make in the commercialization of our products. The product candidates we are currently developing are not expected to be commercially viable for at least the next several years and we may encounter unforeseen difficulties or delays in commercializing our product candidates. In addition, our potential products may not be effective or may cause undesirable side effects.
Our product candidates require significant funding to reach regulatory approval assuming positive clinical results. Such funding for our product candidates may be difficult, or impossible to raise in the public or private markets or through partnerships. If funding or partnerships are not readily attainable, the development of our product candidates may be significantly delayed or stopped altogether. The announcement of a delay or discontinuation of development would likely have a negative impact on our share price.
We may require significant additional financing, and we may not have access to sufficient capital.
We may require significant additional capital to fund our commercialization efforts and may require additional capital to pursue planned clinical trials and regulatory approvals. Although we believe that our existing cash on hand will be sufficient to fund our anticipated operating and capital expenditure requirements for the next 12 months, we do not anticipate generating significant revenues from operations in the near future. Moreover, we currently have no committed sources of capital.
We may attempt to raise additional funds through public or private financings, collaborations with other pharmaceutical companies or from other sources, including, without limitation, through at-the-market offerings and issuances of securities. Additional funding may not be available on terms that are acceptable to us. If adequate funding is not available to us on reasonable terms, we may need to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development programs or obtain funds on terms less favorable than we would otherwise accept. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity securities or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for equity securities, the issuance of those securities would result in dilution to our shareholders. Moreover, the incurrence of debt financing or the issuance of dividend-paying preferred shares, could result in a substantial portion of our future operating cash flow, if any, being dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on such indebtedness or the payment of dividends on such preferred shares and could impose restrictions on our operations and on our ability to make certain expenditures and/or to incur additional indebtedness, which could render us more vulnerable to competitive pressures and economic downturns.
Our future capital requirements are substantial and may increase beyond our current expectations depending on many factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
|●||the duration of changes to and results of our clinical trials for any future products going forward;|
|●||unexpected delays or developments in seeking regulatory approvals;|
|●||the time and cost involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and enforcing patent claims;|
|●||unexpected developments encountered in implementing our business development and commercialization strategies;|
|●||the potential addition of commercialized products to our portfolio;|
|●||the outcome of future litigation; and|
|●||further arrangements, if any, with collaborators.|
In addition, global economic and market conditions, as well as future developments in the credit and capital markets, may make it even more difficult for us to raise additional financing in the future.
We are and will be subject to stringent ongoing government regulation for our products and our product candidates, even if we obtain regulatory approvals for the latter.
The manufacturing, marketing and sale of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) and our product candidates are and will be subject to strict and ongoing regulation, even with marketing approval by the FDA and the EC for Macrilen™ (macimorelin). Compliance with such regulation will be expensive and consume substantial financial and management resources. For example, the EC approval for macimorelin was conditioned on our agreement to conduct post-marketing follow-up studies to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product. In addition, as clinical experience with a drug expands after approval because the drug is used by a greater number and more diverse group of patients than during clinical trials, side effects or other problems may be observed after approval that were not observed or anticipated during pre-approval clinical trials. In such a case, a regulatory authority could restrict the indications for which the product may be sold or revoke the product’s regulatory approval.
We and our contract manufacturers will be required to comply with applicable current Good Manufacturing Practice (“GMP”) regulations for the manufacture of our current or future products and other regulations. These regulations include requirements relating to quality assurance, as well as the corresponding maintenance of rigorous records and documentation. Manufacturing facilities must be approved before we can use them in the commercial manufacturing of a product and are subject to subsequent periodic inspection by regulatory authorities. In addition, material changes in the methods of manufacturing or changes in the suppliers of raw materials are subject to further regulatory review and approval.
If we, or if any future marketing collaborators or contract manufacturers, fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, we may be subject to sanctions including fines, product recalls or seizures and related publicity requirements, injunctions, total or partial suspension of production, civil penalties, suspension or withdrawals of previously granted regulatory approvals, warning or untitled letters, refusal to approve pending applications for marketing approval of new products or of supplements to approved applications, complete withdrawal of a marketing application, exclusion from government healthcare programs, import or export bans or restrictions, and/or criminal prosecution and penalties. Any of these penalties could delay or prevent the promotion, marketing or sale of a product.
Even with marketing approval for MacrilenTM (macimorelin), such product approval could be subject to restrictions or withdrawals. Regulatory requirements are subject to change.
On December 20, 2017, the FDA granted marketing approval in the U.S. for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) to be used in the diagnosis of patients with AGHD, and on January 16, 2019, the EC granted marketing approval in Europe for macimorelin for the diagnosis of AGHD. Regulatory authorities generally approve products for specified indications. If an approval is for a limited indication, this limitation reduces the size of the potential market for that product. Product approvals, once granted, are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by regulatory authorities. Our operations and practices are subject to regulation and scrutiny by the U.S. government, as well as governments of any other countries in which we do business or conduct activities. Later discovery of previously unknown problems or safety issues and/or failure to comply with domestic or foreign laws, knowingly or unknowingly, can result in various adverse consequences, including, among other things, a possible delay in the approval or refusal to approve a product, warning or untitled letters, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, recalls or seizures of products and related publicity requirements, total or partial suspension of production, import or export bans or restrictions, refusal of the government to renew marketing applications, complete withdrawal of a marketing application, criminal prosecution and penalties, suspension or withdrawals of previously granted regulatory approvals, withdrawal of an approved product from the market and/or exclusion from government healthcare programs. Such regulatory enforcement could have a direct and negative impact on the product for which approval is granted, but also could have a negative impact on the approval of any pending applications for marketing approval of new drugs or supplements to approved applications.
Because we operate in a highly regulated industry, regulatory authorities could take enforcement action against us in connection with our licensees’ or collaborators’ businesses or marketing activities for various reasons.
From time to time, new legislation is passed into law that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the approval, manufacturing and marketing of products regulated by the FDA, the EC and other health authorities. In addition, regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by health agencies in ways that may significantly affect our business. It is impossible to predict whether further legislative changes will be enacted, or whether regulations, guidance, or interpretations will change, and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.
Healthcare reform measures could hinder or prevent the commercial success of a product and adversely affect our business.
The business prospects and financial condition of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are affected by the efforts of governmental and third-party payers to contain or reduce the costs of healthcare. The U.S. government and other governments have shown significant interest in pursuing healthcare reform and reducing healthcare costs. Any government-adopted reform measures could cause significant pressure on the pricing of healthcare products and services, including Macrilen™ (macimorelin), both in the U.S. and internationally, as well as the amount of reimbursement available from governmental agencies and other third-party payers. If reimbursement for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is substantially less than we expect, our revenue prospects could be materially and adversely impacted.
In the U.S. and in other jurisdictions there have been, and we expect that there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory proposals aimed at changing the healthcare system, such as proposals relating to the pricing of healthcare products and services in the U.S. or internationally, the reimportation of drugs into the U.S. from other countries (where they are then sold at a lower price), and the amount of reimbursement available from governmental agencies or other third-party payers. Furthermore, the pricing of pharmaceutical products, in general, and specialty drugs, in particular, has been a topic of concern in the U.S. Congress, where hearings on the topic have been held, and has been a topic of speeches given by political figures, including the President of the U.S. Additionally, in the U.S., individual states have also passed legislation and proposed bills that are aimed at drug pricing transparency, which will likely impact drug pricing. There can be no assurance as to how this scrutiny on pricing of pharmaceutical products will impact future pricing of Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Healthcare and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively, the “ACA”) has had far-reaching consequences for most healthcare companies, including specialty biopharmaceutical companies like us. The future of the ACA is, however, uncertain as there have been executive, judicial and congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. In June 2021, the United States Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to the ACA on the grounds the plaintiffs did not have standing to attack as unconstitutional the ACA’s minimum essential coverage provision because they had not shown they had suffered damages from the defendants’ conduct in enforcing the ACA. It is unclear how other such litigation and the healthcare reform efforts of the Biden administration will impact the ACA and our business.
In addition, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gives the FDA enhanced post-market authority, including the authority to require post-marketing studies and clinical trials, labeling changes based on new safety information, and compliance with risk evaluations and mitigation strategies approved by the FDA. The FDA’s exercise of this authority may result in delays or increased costs during the period of product development, clinical trials and regulatory review and approval, which may also increase costs related to complying with new post-approval regulatory requirements, and increase potential FDA restrictions on the sale or distribution of approved products.
If we or our licensees market products or interact with health care practitioners in a manner that violates healthcare fraud or abuse laws, we or our licensees may be subject to civil or criminal penalties, including exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs.
As a pharmaceutical company, even though we do not provide healthcare services or receive payments directly from or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other national or third-party payers for our current product, U.S. federal and state healthcare laws and regulations, as well as certain EU regulatory and government agencies, pertaining to fraud or abuse are and will be applicable to our business. We, and our licensees, are subject to healthcare fraud and abuse regulation by EU regulatory and government agencies in the countries where we may seek marketing access, and the U.S. federal government and the states in which we conduct our business.
The laws that may affect us or affect our licensee’s ability to operate include the federal healthcare program anti-kickback statute, which prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration to induce, or in return for, the purchase, lease or order, or arrangement for the purchase, lease or order of any healthcare item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federally financed healthcare programs. This statute applies to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers and prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers. Although there are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common activities, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that involve remuneration intended to induce prescribing, purchases or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exception or a safe harbor.
Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. Pharmaceutical companies have been prosecuted under these laws for a variety of alleged promotional and marketing activities, such as providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product, reporting to pricing services inflated average wholesale prices that were then used by federal programs to set reimbursement rates, engaging in off-label promotion that caused claims to be submitted to Medicaid for non-covered off-label uses, and submitting inflated best price information to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 also created prohibitions against healthcare fraud and false statements relating to healthcare matters. The healthcare fraud statute prohibits knowingly and willfully executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private payers. The false statements statute immediately noted above prohibits knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services.
In addition, there has been a recent trend of increased federal and state regulation of payments made to physicians. The ACA, through the Physician Payment Sunshine Act of 2010, imposed new requirements on manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”), information related to payments or other “transfers of value” made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, and applicable manufacturers and group purchasing organizations to report annually to CMS ownership and investment interests held by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members and payments or other “transfers of value” to such physician owners and their immediate family members. Manufacturers are required to report such data to the government by the 90th calendar day of each year.
The majority of states also have statutes or regulations similar to these federal laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payer. In addition, some states have laws that require pharmaceutical companies to adopt comprehensive compliance programs. For example, under California law, pharmaceutical companies must comply with both the April 2003 Office of Inspector General Compliance Program Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and the PhRMA Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals, as amended. Certain states also mandate the tracking and reporting of gifts, compensation, and other remuneration paid by us to physicians and other healthcare providers.
Although compliance programs can mitigate the risk of investigation and prosecution for violations of these laws, the risks cannot be entirely eliminated. Any action against us or our licensees for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, cause reputational harm and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Moreover, achieving and sustaining compliance with EU government and regulatory agencies and applicable U.S. federal and state laws may prove costly.
Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. The ACA also made several important changes to the federal anti-kickback statute, false claims laws and healthcare fraud statute by weakening the intent requirement under the anti-kickback and healthcare fraud statutes that may make it easier for the government or whistleblowers to charge such fraud and abuse violations. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it. In addition, the ACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal anti-kickback statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the false claims statutes. In addition, the ACA increases penalties for fraud and abuse violations. If our past, present or future operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or other similar governmental regulations to which we are subject, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and negatively impact our financial results.
If Macrilen™ (macimorelin) does not gain market acceptance, we may be unable to generate significant revenues.
Market acceptance of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
|●||demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety;|
|●||the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects;|
|●||limitations or warnings contained in the product’s approved labeling;|
|●||availability of alternative treatments or tests for the indications we target;|
|●||the advantages and disadvantages of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) relative to current or alternative treatments and tests;|
|●||the classification and description of MacrilenTM (macimorelin) in relevant guidelines;|
|●||the availability of acceptable pricing and adequate third-party reimbursement; and|
|●||the effectiveness of marketing and distribution methods for Macrilen™ (macimorelin).|
If Macrilen™ (macimorelin) does not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payers and others in the medical community, who may not accept or utilize Macrilen™ (macimorelin), our ability to generate significant revenues from Macrilen™ (macimorelin) would be limited, and our financial condition could be materially, adversely affected. In addition, if we fail to further penetrate our core markets and existing geographic markets or to successfully expand our business into new markets, the growth in sales of Macrilen™ (macimorelin), along with our operating results, could be negatively impacted.
Our ability to further penetrate our core markets and existing geographic markets in which we compete or to successfully expand our business into additional countries in Europe, Asia or elsewhere is subject to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. Macrilen™ (macimorelin), if successfully commercialized, may compete with a number of drugs, therapies, products and tests currently manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical and other biotechnology companies. Macrilen™ (macimorelin) may also compete with new products currently under development by others or with products which may be less expensive than Macrilen™ (macimorelin). There can be no assurance that our efforts to increase market penetration in our core markets and existing geographic markets will be successful. Our failure to do so could have an adverse effect on our operating results and would likely cause a drop in the share price of our Common Shares.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product or indication and fail to capitalize on other products or indications for which there may be a greater likelihood of success.
We are currently focusing our efforts on Macrilen™ (macimorelin) for specific indications and for our four pre-clinical programs. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities for other potential indications for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), which there may be a greater likelihood of success or may prove to have greater commercial potential. Research programs to identify new product candidates or pursue alternative indications for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) require substantial technical, financial and human resources. These activities – if pursued – may initially show promise in identifying potential product candidates or indications, yet fail to yield product candidates or indications for further clinical development.
We may not achieve our projected development goals in the time-frames we announce and expect.
We may set goals and make public statements regarding the timing of the accomplishment of objectives material to our success, such as the commencement, enrollment and anticipated completion of clinical trials, anticipated regulatory submission and approval dates and time of product launch. The actual timing of these events can vary dramatically due to factors such as delays or failures in any clinical trials, the uncertainties inherent in the regulatory approval process and delays in achieving manufacturing or marketing arrangements sufficient to commercialize any of our products or product candidates. There can be no assurance that we will make regulatory submissions or receive regulatory approvals as planned or that we will be able to adhere to our schedule for launching of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or any of our future product candidates. If we fail to achieve one or more of these milestones as planned, the share price of our Common Shares may decline.
If we fail to obtain acceptable prices or adequate reimbursement for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), our ability to generate revenues will be diminished.
Our ability or that of our licensee(s) to successfully commercialize Macrilen™ (macimorelin) will depend significantly on our or their ability to obtain acceptable prices and the availability of reimbursement to the patient from third-party payers, such as governmental and private insurance plans. These third-party payers frequently require companies to provide predetermined discounts from list prices, and they are increasingly challenging the prices charged for pharmaceuticals and other medical products. Macrilen™ (macimorelin) may not be considered cost-effective, and reimbursement to the patient may not be available or sufficient to allow us or our licensee(s) to sell our products on a competitive basis. It may not be possible to negotiate favorable reimbursement rates for Macrilen™ (macimorelin). Adverse pricing and reimbursement conditions would also likely diminish our ability to induce third parties to in-license Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
In addition, the continuing efforts of third-party payers to contain or reduce the costs of healthcare through various means may limit our commercial opportunity and reduce any associated revenue and profits. We expect that proposals to implement similar government controls will continue. The pricing of pharmaceutical products, in general, and specialty drugs, in particular, has been a topic of concern in the U.S. Congress, where hearings on the topic have been held, and has been a topic of speeches given by political figures, including the President of the U.S. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed bills designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs. Furthermore, there is drug pricing reform taking place at the state level in the U.S. that will impact how pharmaceutical companies can market and sell drug products and at what price. Additionally, third-party payers are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity, and reviewing the cost-effectiveness of medical drug products and medical services, in addition to questioning their safety and efficacy. There can be no assurance as to how this scrutiny on pricing of pharmaceutical products will impact future pricing of a product or orphan drugs or pharmaceutical products generally. In addition, increasing emphasis on managed care will continue to put pressure on the pricing of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical products. Cost control initiatives could decrease the price that we or any current or potential collaborators could receive a product and could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, in the U.S., Canada and many other countries, pricing and/or profitability of some or all prescription pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals are subject to government control.
If we or our licensee(s) fail to obtain acceptable prices or an adequate level of reimbursement for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), the sales of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) would be adversely affected or there may be no commercially viable market for Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
Competition in our targeted markets is intense, and development by other companies could render Macrilen™ (macimorelin), or any of our future products, non-competitive.
The biopharmaceutical field is highly competitive. New products developed by other companies in the industry could render Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or any of our future products uncompetitive or significantly less competitive. Competitors are developing and testing products and technologies that would compete with Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or any of our future products. Some of these competitive products may be more effective or have an entirely different approach or means of accomplishing the desired effect than Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or any of our future products. We expect competition from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies and academic research institutions to continue to increase over time. Many of our competitors and potential competitors have substantially greater product development capabilities and financial, scientific, marketing and human resources than we do.
We may not obtain adequate protection for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) through our intellectual property.
We rely heavily on our proprietary information in developing and manufacturing Macrilen™ (macimorelin). Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to protect our competitive position through patents, trade secrets, trademarks and other intellectual property rights. We have filed and are pursuing applications for patents and trademarks in many countries. Pending patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents, and we may not be able to obtain additional issued patents relating to Macrilen™ (macimorelin).
The laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. and Canada. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. Many countries, including certain countries in Europe, have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of the patent. Moreover, the legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the aggressive enforcement of patent and other intellectual property protection, which makes it difficult to stop and prevent infringement.
Our patents may be challenged, narrowed, invalidated, held to be unenforceable or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing similar products or limit the length of term of patent protection we may have for Macrilen™ (macimorelin). Changes in either patent laws or in interpretations of patent laws in the U.S. and other countries may diminish the value of our intellectual property or narrow the scope of our patent protection for Macrilen™ (macimorelin). The patents issued or to be issued to us for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) may not provide us with any competitive advantage or protect us against competitors with similar technology. In addition, it is possible that third parties with products that are very similar to ours will circumvent our patents by means of alternate designs or processes. We may have to rely on method-of-use, methods of manufacture and/or new-formulation protection for our compounds in development, and any resulting products, which may not confer the same protection as claims to compounds per se.
In addition, our patents may be challenged by third parties in patent litigation, which is becoming widespread in the biopharmaceutical industry. There may be prior art of which we are not aware that may affect the validity or enforceability of a patent claim. There may also be prior art of which we are aware, but which we do not believe affects the validity or enforceability of a claim, which may, nonetheless, ultimately be found to affect the validity or enforceability of a claim. No assurance can be given that our patents would, if challenged, be held by a court to be valid or enforceable, or that a competitor’s technology or product would be found by a court to infringe our patents. Our granted patents could also be challenged and revoked in U.S. post-grant proceedings as well as in opposition or nullity proceedings in certain countries outside the U.S. In addition, we may be required to disclaim part of the term of certain patents. The costs of these proceedings could be substantial, and it is possible that our efforts could be unsuccessful, resulting in a loss of our U.S. patent position.
We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how to protect our intellectual property. If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our proprietary information and know-how, the value of our technology and products could be adversely affected. We seek to protect our unpatented proprietary information in part by requiring our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers and other advisors to enter into confidentiality agreements. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed or made known to the individual during the course of the individual’s relationship with us is to be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties except in specific circumstances. In the case of our employees, the agreements provide that all of the technology that is conceived by the individual during the course of employment is our exclusive property. These agreements may not provide meaningful protection or adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our proprietary information. In addition, it is possible that third parties could independently develop proprietary information and techniques substantially similar to ours or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets. If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our proprietary information and know-how, competitors may be able to use this information to develop products that compete with our products and technologies, which could adversely impact our business.
We currently have the right to use certain patents and technologies under license agreements with third parties. Our failure to comply with the requirements of one or more of our license agreements could result in the termination of such agreements, which could cause us to terminate the related development program and cause a complete loss of our investment in that program or given market. Inventions claimed in certain in-licensed patents may have been made with funding from the U.S. government and may be subject to the rights of the U.S. government, and we may be subject to additional requirements in the event we seek to commercialize or manufacture product candidates incorporating such in-licensed technology.
As a result of the foregoing factors, we may not be able to rely on our intellectual property to protect Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the marketplace.
We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others.
Our commercial success depends significantly on our ability to operate without infringing the patents and other intellectual property rights of third parties. There could be issued patents of which we are not aware that our products or methods may be found to infringe, or patents of which we are aware and believe we do not infringe, but which we may ultimately be found to infringe. Moreover, patent applications and their underlying discoveries are in some cases maintained in secrecy until patents are issued. Because patents can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending applications of which we are unaware that may later result in issued patents that our products or technologies are found to infringe. Moreover, there may be published pending applications that do not currently include a claim covering our products or technologies, but, which nonetheless, provide support for a later drafted claim that, if issued, our products or technologies could be found to infringe.
If we infringe or are alleged to infringe intellectual property rights of third parties, it will adversely affect our business. Third parties may own or control these patents or patent applications in the U.S. and abroad. These third parties could bring claims against us or our collaborators that would cause us to incur substantial expenses and, if successful against us, could cause us to pay substantial damages. Further, if a patent infringement suit were brought against us or our collaborators, we or they could be forced to stop or delay research, development, manufacturing or sales of the product or product candidate that is the subject of the suit.
The biopharmaceutical industry has produced a proliferation of patents, and it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various types of products. The coverage of patents is subject to interpretation by the courts, and the interpretation is not always uniform. In the event of infringement or violation of another party’s patent or other intellectual property rights, we may not be able to enter into licensing arrangements or make other arrangements at a reasonable cost. Any inability to secure licenses or alternative technology could result in delays in the introduction of our products or lead to prohibition of the manufacture or sale of products by us or our partners and collaborators.
Patent litigation is costly and time consuming and may subject us to liabilities.
If we become involved in any patent litigation, interference, opposition, re-examination or other administrative proceedings, we will likely incur substantial expenses in connection therewith, and the efforts of our technical and management personnel will be significantly diverted. In addition, an adverse determination in litigation could subject us to significant liabilities.
We may not obtain trademark registrations for our current or future products.
We have filed applications for trademark registrations, including Macrilen™ (macimorelin), in various jurisdictions, including the U.S. We may file applications for other possible trademarks for macimorelin. No assurance can be given that any of our trademarks will be registered elsewhere, or that the use of any registered or unregistered trademarks will confer a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily.
We rely on third parties such as CROs, medical institutions and clinical investigators to enroll qualified patients and to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical trials. Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities reduces our control over these activities. Our reliance on these third parties, however, does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities, including ensuring that our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with GCP guidelines and the investigational plan and protocols contained in an IND application to the FDA, or a comparable foreign regulatory submission. Furthermore, these third parties may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. In addition, they may not complete activities on schedule, or may not conduct our preclinical studies or clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our trial design. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, our efforts to obtain regulatory approvals for, and to commercialize, our products may be delayed or prevented.
We are dependent on, and rely upon, third parties to perform various functions related to our business, including, but not limited to, development of some of our product candidates. Our reliance on these relationships poses a number of risks.
Any difficulties or delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.
Before we can initiate clinical trials for our product candidates, we must submit the results of preclinical studies to the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities along with other information, including information about product candidate chemistry, manufacturing and controls and our proposed clinical trial protocol, as part of an IND or similar regulatory filing required for authorization to proceed with clinical development. The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to conduct additional preclinical studies for any product candidate before it allows us to initiate clinical trials under any IND or similar regulatory filing, which may lead to delays and increase the costs of our preclinical development programs. Any such delays in the commencement or completion of the DETECT-trial evaluating macimorelin for the diagnosis of CGHD, or any other product candidate, could significantly affect our product development costs.
Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries, as in our ongoing DETECT-trial, presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocol as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks, including war, relevant to such foreign countries. For example, in 2022 our DETECT-trial activities in both Russia and Ukraine were halted due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which represented approximately 25 of the planned total patients in the trial, resulting in a delay in the expected completion of the trial. To replace these countries and ensure the timely completion of the DETECT-trial, the Company engaged a second CRO to establish testing sites in four new countries (Armenia, Slovakia, Greece, and Turkey). Clinical trial applications are ongoing, however, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has impacted our ability to conduct certain trials in the region and caused delays in the trial to date. This could hinder the completion of our clinical trials and/or analyses of clinical results, which could materially harm our business.
We are conducting our DETECT-trial of macimorelin globally and may conduct future clinical trials outside the United States. However, the FDA and other foreign equivalents may not accept data from such trials, in which case our development plans will be delayed, which could materially harm our business.
In particular, we have engaged two CRO’s to conduct our DETECT-trial outside of the United States, including in Russia and Ukraine. As a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, clinical trial sites in Ukraine and the surrounding region were halted. Furthermore, the United States and its European allies have imposed significant new sanctions against Russia, including regional embargoes, full blocking sanctions, and other restrictions targeting major Russian financial institutions. Our ability to conduct clinical trials in Russia, parts of Ukraine and elsewhere in the region were restricted under applicable sanctions laws, which required us to identify alternative trial sites, which increased our development costs and delayed the clinical development of our product candidates. All of the foregoing could impede the execution of our clinical development plans, which could materially harm our business.
In carrying out our operations, we are dependent on a stable and consistent supply of ingredients and raw materials.
There can be no assurance that we, our contract manufacturers or our licensees, will be able, in the future, to continue to purchase products from our current suppliers or any other supplier on terms that are favorable or similar to current terms or at all. An interruption in the availability of certain raw materials or ingredients, or significant increases in the prices we pay for them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and operating results.
The failure to perform satisfactorily by third parties upon which we expect to rely to manufacture and supply products may lead to supply shortfalls.
We rely on third parties to manufacture and supply Macrilen™ (macimorelin). We also have or may have certain supply obligations vis-à-vis our existing and potential licensees, who are or will be responsible for the marketing of Macrilen™ (macimorelin). To be successful, Macrilen™ (macimorelin) has to be manufactured in commercial quantities in compliance with quality controls and regulatory requirements. Even though it is our objective to minimize such risk by introducing alternative suppliers to ensure a constant supply at all times, there are a limited number of contract manufacturers or suppliers that are capable of manufacturing Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or the materials used in its manufacture. If we are unable to do so ourselves or to arrange for third-party manufacturing or supply of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) or materials, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to commercialize Macrilen™ (macimorelin) through our licensees. Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks to which we would not be subject if we manufactured products ourselves, including reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance, the possibility of breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party because of factors beyond our control, and the possibility of termination or non-renewal of the agreement by the third party, based on its own business priorities, at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.
We are subject to intense competition for our skilled personnel, and the loss of key personnel or the inability to attract additional personnel could impair our ability to conduct our operations.
We are highly dependent on our management and our clinical, regulatory and scientific staff, the loss of whose services might adversely impact our ability to achieve our objectives. Recruiting and retaining qualified management and clinical, scientific and regulatory personnel is critical to our success. Reductions in our staffing levels have eliminated redundancies in key capabilities and skill sets among our full-time staff and required us to rely more heavily on outside consultants and third parties. We have been unable to increase the compensation of our associates to the extent required to remain fully competitive for their services, which increased our employee retention risk. The competition for qualified personnel in the biopharmaceutical field is intense, and if we are not able to continue to retain qualified personnel and/or maintain positive relationships with our outside consultants, we may not be able to achieve our strategic and operational objectives.
We may be subject to litigation in the future.
We may, from time to time, be a party to litigation in the normal course of business. Monitoring and defending against legal actions, whether meritorious, is time-consuming for our management and detracts from our ability to fully focus our internal resources on our business activities. In addition, legal fees and costs incurred in connection with such activities may be significant and we could, in the future, be subject to judgments or enter into settlements of claims for significant monetary damages. A decision adverse to our interests could result in the payment of substantial damages and could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations and financial position.
With respect to any litigation, our insurance may not reimburse us, or may not be sufficient to reimburse us, for the expenses or losses we may suffer in contesting and concluding such lawsuit. Substantial litigation costs, including the substantial self-insured retention that we are required to satisfy before any insurance applies to a claim, unreimbursed legal fees or an adverse result in any litigation may adversely impact our business, operating results or financial condition.
We are subject to the risk of product liability claims, for which we may not have or may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage.
The sale and use of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) will involve the risk of product liability claims and associated adverse publicity. Product liability claims might be made against us directly by patients, healthcare providers or pharmaceutical companies, or others selling, buying or using our products. We attempt to manage our liability risks by means of insurance. We maintain insurance covering our liability for our preclinical and clinical studies as well as products liability insurance. However, we may not have or be able to obtain or maintain sufficient and affordable insurance coverage, including coverage for potentially very significant legal expenses, and without sufficient coverage any claim brought against us could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are a holding company, and claims of creditors of our subsidiaries will generally have priority as to the assets of such subsidiaries over our claims and those of our creditors and shareholders. In addition, our principal operating subsidiary, AEZS Germany, may become subject to insolvency proceedings if it is illiquid or “over-indebted” in accordance with German law.
Aeterna Zentaris is a holding company and a substantial portion of our non-cash assets is the share capital of our subsidiaries. AEZS Germany, our principal operating subsidiary, based in Frankfurt, Germany, holds most of our intellectual property rights. Because Aeterna Zentaris is a holding company, our obligations to our creditors are structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities of our subsidiaries, which may incur additional or other liabilities and/or obligations. As a result, our rights and the rights of our creditors to participate in any distribution of the assets of any subsidiary in the event that such subsidiary were to be liquidated or reorganized or in the event of any bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding relating to or involving such subsidiary, and, therefore, the rights of the holders of our securities to participate in those assets, are subject to the prior claims of such subsidiary’s creditors. To the extent that we may be a creditor with recognized claims against any such subsidiary, our claims would still be subject to the prior claims of our subsidiary’s creditors to the extent that they are secured or senior to those held by us.
Holders of our securities are not creditors of our subsidiaries. Claims to the assets of our subsidiaries will derive from our own ownership interest in those operating subsidiaries. Claims of our subsidiaries’ creditors will generally have priority as to the assets of such subsidiaries over our own ownership interest claims and, therefore, will have priority over the holders of our securities. Our subsidiaries’ creditors may from time to time include general creditors, trade creditors, employees, secured creditors, taxing authorities and creditors holding guarantees. Accordingly, in the event of any foreclosure, dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, or a bankruptcy, insolvency or creditor protection proceeding relating to us or our property, or any subsidiary, there can be no assurance as to the value, if any, that would be available to holders of our securities. In addition, any distributions to us by our subsidiaries could be subject to monetary transfer restrictions in the jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries operate.
German law, which governs our principal operating subsidiary AEZS Germany, imposes an obligation on the managing director(s) of AEZS Germany to institute insolvency proceedings of that subsidiary if the managing director(s) concludes that AEZS Germany is insolvent because it is either illiquid or “over-indebted” in accordance with the provisions of German law.
It may be difficult for U.S. investors to obtain and enforce judgments against us because of our Canadian incorporation and German presence.
We are a company existing under the laws of Canada. A number of our directors and officers are residents of Canada or otherwise reside outside the U.S., and all or a substantial portion of their assets, and a substantial portion of our assets, are located outside the U.S. Consequently, although we have appointed an agent for service of process in the U.S., it may be difficult for investors in the U.S. to bring an action against such directors or officers or to enforce against those persons or us a judgment obtained in a U.S. court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of federal securities laws or other laws of the U.S. Investors should not assume that foreign courts (i) would enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained in actions against us or such directors, officers or experts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or the securities or “blue sky” laws of any state within the U.S. or (ii) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against us or such directors, officers or experts predicated upon the U.S. federal securities laws or any such state securities or “blue sky” laws.
We are subject to various internal control reporting requirements under applicable Canadian securities laws and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the U.S. We can provide no assurance that we will, at all times in the future, be able to report that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective.
As a public company, we are required to comply with Section 404 of the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Section 404”) and National Instrument 52-109 - Certification of Disclosure in Issuers’ Annual and Interim Filings of the Canadian securities administrators. In any given year, we cannot be certain as to the time of completion of our internal control evaluation, testing and remediation actions or of their impact on our operations. Upon completion of this process, we may identify control deficiencies of varying degrees of severity under applicable SEC and Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (U.S.) rules and regulations. As a public company, we are required to report, among other things, control deficiencies that constitute material weaknesses or changes in internal controls that, or that are reasonably likely to, materially affect internal controls over financial reporting. A “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. If we fail to comply with the requirements of Section 404 or similar Canadian requirements, or if we report a material weakness, we might be subject to regulatory sanction and investors may lose confidence in our consolidated financial statements, which may be inaccurate if we fail to remedy such material weakness.
We may have material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our Common Shares
Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in reports filed with securities regulatory agencies is recorded, processed, summarized and reported on a timely basis and is accumulated and communicated to a company’s management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company has invested resources to document and analyze its system of disclosure controls and its internal control over financial reporting. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance with respect to the reliability of financial reporting and financial statement preparation.
We are subject to a broad range of environmental laws and regulations and may be subject to environmental remediation obligations under such safety and related laws and regulations. The impact of these obligations and the Company’s ability to respond effectively to them may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our Common Shares to decline.
We are subject to a broad range of federal, state, provincial and local environmental laws and regulations in the U.S., Canada and Germany concerning the environment, safety matters, regulation of chemicals and product safety in the countries where we manufacture and sell our products or otherwise operate our business. These requirements include, among other matters, regulation of the handling, manufacture, transportation, storage, use and disposal of materials, including the discharge of pollutants, hazardous substances and waste into the environment. In the normal course of our business, such substances and waste may be released into the environment, which could cause environmental or property damage or personal injuries, and which could subject us to remediation obligations regarding contaminated soil and groundwater, potential liability for damage claims or to social or reputational harm and other similar adverse impacts. Under certain laws, we may be required to remediate contamination at certain of our properties regardless of whether the contamination was caused by us or by previous occupants of the property, or by others and at third-party sites where we send waste.
In recent years, the operations of all companies have become subject to increasingly stringent legislation and regulation related to environmental protection. Such legislation and regulations are complex and constantly changing. Future events, such as changes in existing laws or regulations or the enforcement thereof, or the discovery of contamination at our facilities may, among other things, require us to install additional controls for certain of our emission sources, undertake changes in our manufacturing processes, remediate soil or groundwater contamination at facilities where such cleanup is not currently required, or to take action to address social expectations or concerns arising from or relating to such changes and our response to such changes. The cost of such additional compliance or remediation obligations or responding to such social expectations or concerns may be significant and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our Common Shares and/or debt securities to decline.
We may incur losses associated with foreign currency fluctuations.
Our operations are, in many instances, conducted in currencies other than our functional currency or the functional currencies of our subsidiaries. Fluctuations in the value of currencies could cause us to incur currency exchange losses. We do not currently employ a hedging strategy against exchange rate risk. We cannot assert with any assurance that we will not suffer losses as a result of unfavorable fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Canadian dollar and other currencies.
Legislative actions, new accounting pronouncements and higher insurance costs may adversely impact our future financial position or results of operations.
Changes in financial accounting standards or implementation of accounting standards may cause adverse, unexpected revenue or expense fluctuations and affect our financial position or results of operations. New pronouncements and varying interpretations of pronouncements have occurred with greater frequency and are expected to occur in the future, and we may make or be required to make changes in our accounting policies in the future. Compliance with changing regulations of corporate governance and public disclosure, notably with respect to internal controls over financial reporting, may result in additional expenses. Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for companies such as ours, and insurance costs are increasing as a result of this uncertainty.
Data security breaches may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
Our network security and data recovery measures and those of third parties with which we contract, may not be adequate to protect against computer viruses, cyber-attacks, breaches, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer systems. The misappropriation, theft, sabotage or any other type of security breach with respect to any of our proprietary and confidential information that is electronically stored, including research or clinical data, could cause interruptions in our operations, could result in a material disruption of our clinical activities and business operations and could expose us to third-party legal claims. Furthermore, we could be required to make substantial expenditures of resources to remedy the cause of cyber-attacks or break-ins. This disruption could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. Additionally, any break-in or trespass of our facilities that results in the misappropriation, theft, sabotage or any other type of security breach with respect to our proprietary and confidential information, including research or clinical data, or that results in damage to our research and development equipment and assets could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our business processes personal information, both in connection with clinical activities and our employees. The use of this information is critical to our operations and innovation, including the development of our products, as well as management of our employees. New and evolving regulations, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation, could bring increased scrutiny of our data management in the future. Any cyber-attacks or other failure to protect critical and sensitive systems and information could damage our reputation, prompt litigation or lead to regulatory sanctions, all of which could materially affect our financial condition and results of operation.
Risks Relating to our Common Shares
Our share price is volatile, which may result from factors outside of our control.
Our valuation and share price since the beginning of trading after our initial listings, first in Canada and then in the U.S., have had no meaningful relationship to current or historical financial results, asset values, book value or many other criteria based on conventional measures of the value of shares.
Between January 1, 2022 and December 31, 2022, the closing price of our Common Shares ranged from $3.02 to $10.50 per share on the NASDAQ and from C$4.05 to C$12.75 per share on the TSX. As of March 22, 2023, the price of our Common Shares on the NASDAQ was $2.60 and C$3.65 on the TSX. Our share price may be affected by developments directly affecting our business and by developments out of our control or unrelated to us. The stock market generally, and the biopharmaceutical sector in particular, are vulnerable to abrupt changes in investor sentiment. Prices of shares and trading volume of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry can swing dramatically in ways unrelated to, or that bear a disproportionate relationship to, operating performance. Our share price and trading volume may fluctuate based on a number of factors including, but not limited to, the following:
|●||developments regarding current or future third-party suppliers and licensee(s);|
|●||clinical trial and regulatory developments regarding Macrilen™ (macimorelin);|
|●||delays in our anticipated clinical trial development or commercialization timelines;|
|●||announcements by us regarding technological, regulatory or other matters;|
|●||arrivals or departures of key personnel;|
|●||governmental or regulatory action affecting our product candidates and our competitors’ products in the U.S., Canada and other countries;|
|●||developments or disputes concerning patent or proprietary rights;|
|●||actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenues or expenses;|
|●||general market conditions and fluctuations for the emerging growth and biopharmaceutical market sectors; and|
|●||economic conditions in the U.S. or abroad, including the instability due to COVID-19.|
Our listing on both the NASDAQ and the TSX may increase price volatility due to various factors, including different ability to buy or sell our Common Shares, different market conditions in different capital markets, and different trading volumes. In addition, low trading volume may increase the price volatility of our Common Shares. A thin trading market could cause the share price of our Common Shares to fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole.
We do not intend to pay dividends in the near future.
To date, we have not declared or paid any dividends on our Common Shares. As a result, the return on an investment in our Common Shares, or any of our other securities, will depend upon any future appreciation in value. There is no guarantee that our Common Shares or any of our other securities will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which shareholders have purchased them.
Future issuances of securities and hedging activities may depress the trading price of our Common Shares.
Any additional or future issuance of securities or convertible securities, including the issuance of securities upon the exercise of stock options and upon the exercise of warrants or other convertible securities or securities pursuant to which Common Shares are issuable, could dilute the interests of our existing shareholders, and could substantially decrease the trading share price of our Common Shares.
We may issue equity securities in the future for a number of reasons, including to finance our operations and business strategy, to satisfy our obligations upon the exercise of options or warrants, or for other reasons. Our stock option plans generally permit us to have outstanding, at any given time, stock options that are exercisable for a maximum number of Common Shares equal to 11.4% of all then issued and outstanding Common Shares.
In addition, the share price of our Common Shares could also be affected by possible sales of securities by investors who view other investment vehicles as more attractive means of equity participation in us and by hedging or arbitrage trading activity that may develop involving our securities. This hedging or arbitrage could, in turn, affect the trading share price of our Common Shares.
In the event we were to lose our foreign private issuer status as of June 30 of a given financial year, we would be required to comply with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 domestic reporting regime, which could cause us to incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses.
In order to maintain our current status as a foreign private issuer, either (1) a majority of our Common Shares must not be either directly or indirectly owned of record by residents of the U.S. or (2) (a) a majority of our executive officers and of our directors must not be U.S. citizens or residents, (b) more than 50 percent of our assets cannot be located in the U.S. and (c) our business must be administered principally outside the U.S.
In 2022, our management conducted its annual assessment of the various facts and circumstances underlying the determination of our status as a foreign private issuer and, based on the foregoing, our management has determined that, as of the date of such determination and as of June 30, 2022, we continued to be a foreign private issuer.
There can be no assurance, however, that we will remain a foreign private issuer either in 2023 or in future financial years.
If we were to lose our foreign private issuer status as of June 30 of any given financial year, we would be required to comply with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers. We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC rules and the NASDAQ listing standards. The regulatory and compliance costs to us of complying with the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer under U.S. securities laws may be higher than the cost we have historically incurred as a foreign private issuer. As a result, we would expect that a potential loss of foreign private issuer status at some future point in time could increase our legal, financial reporting and accounting compliance costs, and it is difficult at this time to estimate by how much our legal, financial reporting and accounting compliance costs may increase in such eventuality.
Our articles of incorporation contain “blank check” preferred share provisions, which could delay or impede an acquisition of our company.
Our articles of incorporation, as amended, authorize the issuance of an unlimited number of “blank check” preferred shares, which could be issued by our Board without shareholder approval and which may contain liquidation, dividend and other rights equivalent or superior to our Common Shares. In addition, we have implemented in our constating documents an advance notice procedure for shareholder approvals to be brought before an annual meeting of our shareholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our Board. These provisions, among others, whether alone or together, could delay or impede hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management. Any provision of our constating documents that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our shareholders to receive a premium for their Common Shares and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Common Shares.
Our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist shareholders.
Proxy contests have been waged against many companies in the biopharmaceutical industry over the last few years. If faced with a proxy contest, we may not be able to successfully respond to the contest, which would be disruptive to our business. Even if we are successful, our business could be adversely affected by a proxy contest because:
|●||responding to proxy contests and other actions by activist shareholders may be costly and time-consuming, and may disrupt our operations and divert the attention of management and our employees;|
|●||perceived uncertainties as to the potential outcome of any proxy contest may result in our inability to consummate potential acquisitions, collaborations or in-licensing opportunities and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners; and|
|●||if individuals that have a specific agenda different from that of our management, or other members of our board of directors are elected to our Board as a result of any proxy contest, such an election may adversely affect our ability to effectively and timely implement our strategic plan and to create value for our shareholders.|
|Item 4.||Information on the Company|
|A.||History and development of the Company|
Aeterna Zentaris Inc. was incorporated on September 12, 1990 under the Canada Business Corporations Act (the “CBCA”) and continues to be governed by the CBCA. Our registered address is located at 222 Bay St., Suite 3000, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5K 1E7 c/o Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP and we operate another office located at 315 Sigma Drive, Summerville, South Carolina 29486; our telephone number is (843) 900-3223 and our website is www.zentaris.com.
In May 2004, we changed our name to Aeterna Zentaris Inc.. On July 15, 2022, we completed a 25-for-1 Share Consolidation (reverse stock split) and previously, on November 17, 2015, we completed 100-to-1 Share Consolidation (reverse stock split). Our Common Shares commenced trading on a consolidated and adjusted basis on both the NASDAQ and the TSX on November 20, 2015.
We currently have three wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries: Aeterna Zentaris GmbH (“AEZS Germany”), based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany and incorporated under the laws of Germany; Zentaris IVF GmbH, a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of AEZS Germany based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany and incorporated under the laws of Germany; and Aeterna Zentaris, Inc., an entity incorporated in the State of Delaware with an office in the Charleston, South Carolina area in the U.S.
Our Common Shares are listed for trading on both the NASDAQ and the TSX under the trading symbol “AEZS”.
Our agent for service of process and SEC matters in the U.S. is our wholly-owned subsidiary, Aeterna Zentaris, Inc., located at 315 Sigma Drive, Summerville, South Carolina 29486.
Please see “Item 4.B. – Business Overview” (below) for a complete description of the recent events and developments relevant to the Company.
Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty biopharmaceutical company commercializing and developing therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The Company’s lead product, Macrilen™ (macimorelin), is the first and only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) approved oral test indicated for the diagnosis of patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (“AGHD”). Macimorelin is currently marketed in the U.S. under the tradename Macrilen™ through the license agreement and the amended license agreement (collectively the “Novo Amendment”) with Novo, who was granted an exclusive license for the development, manufacturing, registration and commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) for the diagnosis of adult and pediatric growth hormone deficiency in the U.S. and Canada, as discussed further below. On August 26, 2022, the Company announced that Novo had exercised its right to terminate the Novo Amendment. Following a 270-day notice period, Aeterna will regain full rights to Macrilen™ in the U.S. and Canada on May 23, 2023.
With respect to other global markets, we entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with Consilient Health Limited (“Consilient Health” or “CH”) for the commercialization of macimorelin in the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom. Commercialization in European countries began in Q2, 2022. On March 15, 2023, with the Company’s consent, Consilient Health entered into an assignment agreement to transfer the current licensing agreement for the commercialization of macimorelin in the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom to Atnahs Pharma UK Limited (“Pharmanovia”) and the Company and Pharmanovia entered into an exclusive supply agreement, pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide the Licensed Product to Pharmanovia. We have entered into a commercialization and supply agreement with MegaPharm Ltd., which is seeking regulatory approval and plans to subsequently commercialize macimorelin in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. We entered into license and supply agreements with NK Meditech Ltd. (“NK”), a subsidiary of PharmBio Korea, effective November 30, 2021, and a distribution and commercialization agreement with ER Kim Pharmaceuticals Bulgaria Eood (“ER-Kim”), effective February 1, 2022. The agreements with NK are related to the development and commercialization of macimorelin for the diagnosis of AGHD and CGHD in the Republic of Korea, while the agreement with ER-Kim is related to the commercialization of macimorelin for the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children and adults in Turkey and some non-European Union Balkan countries. We also are leveraging the clinical success and compelling safety profile of macimorelin to develop the compound for the diagnosis of CGHD, an area of significant unmet need. The Company is actively pursuing business development opportunities for the commercialization of macimorelin in Asia and the rest of the world.
The Company is also dedicated to the development of therapeutic assets and has recently taken steps to establish a pre-clinical pipeline to potentially address unmet medical needs across a number of indications, with a focus on rare or orphan indications and with the potential for pediatric use. To date, we have signed agreements to establish this pipeline across a number of indications, including NMOSD, PD, primary hypoparathyroidism and ALS.
Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is a novel orally available peptidomimetic ghrelin receptor agonist that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone by binding to the ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a) and has potential uses in both endocrinology and oncology indications. Macrilen™ (macimorelin) was granted orphan-drug designation by the FDA for use in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (“GHD”).
Competitors for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) as a product for the diagnosis of AGHD are principally the diagnostic tests currently performed by endocrinologists, although none of these tests are approved by the FDA for this purpose. The most commonly used diagnostic tests for GHD are:
|●||The Insulin Tolerance Test (“ITT”), which has historically been considered the gold standard for the evaluation of AGHD because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the ITT is inconvenient to both patients and physicians, administered intravenously (“IV”), and contra-indicated in certain patients, such as patients with coronary heart disease or seizure disorder, because it requires the patient to experience hypoglycemia to obtain an accurate result. Some physicians will not induce full hypoglycemia, intentionally compromising accuracy to increase safety and comfort for the patient. Furthermore, administration of the ITT includes additional costs associated with the patient being closely monitored by a physician for the two- to four-hour duration of the test, and the test must be administered in a setting where emergency equipment is available and where the patient can be quickly hospitalized. The ITT is not used for patients with co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, seizure disorder or a history of brain cancer, or for patients who are elderly and frail, due to safety concerns.|
|●||The Glucagon Stimulation Test (“GST”) is considered relatively safe by endocrinologists. The mechanism of action for this test is unclear. Also, this test takes up to three to four hours. It produces side effects in up to one-third of the patients with the most common being nausea during and after the test. This test is administered intramuscularly (“IM”).|
|●||The growth hormone releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test (“GHRH + ARG”) is an easier test to perform in an office setting and has a good safety profile, but is considered to be costly to administer compared to the ITT and the GST. GHRH + ARG has been proposed to be the best alternative to ITT, but GHRH + ARG is no longer available in the U.S. This test is administered through an IV.|
Oral administration of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) offers convenience and simplicity over the current GHD tests used, all of which require either IV or IM administration. Additionally, Macrilen™ (macimorelin) may demonstrate a more favorable safety profile than existing diagnostic tests, some of which may be inappropriate for certain patient populations (e.g. patients with diabetes mellitus or coronary heart disease) and have demonstrated a variety of side effects, which Macrilen™ (macimorelin) has not thus far. These factors may be limiting the use of GHD testing and may potentially enable Macrilen™ (macimorelin) to become the product of choice in evaluating AGHD. We believe that Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is well-positioned to displace the ITT as the preferred means by endocrinologists of evaluating AGHD for the following reasons:
|●||it is safer and more convenient than the ITT because it does not require the patient to become hypoglycemic;|
|●||Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is administered orally, while the ITT requires an intravenous injection of insulin;|
|●||Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is a more robust test than the ITT leading to evaluable test results;|
|●||Macrilen™ (macimorelin) results are highly reproducible;|
|●||the evaluation of AGHD using Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is less time-consuming and labor-intensive than the ITT; and|
|●||the evaluation can be conducted in the physician’s office rather than in a hospital-like setting.|
We believe that approximately 15,000 – 20,000 AGHD tests will be conducted annually, in the U.S., after full market introduction of Macrilen™ (macimorelin). In addition, based on published information from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, different scientific publications, Huron, TVG and Navigant Research, we estimate that the total potential U.S. market for AGHD evaluation is in the range of 28,000 to 43,000 tests per year, excluding the evaluation of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (“TBI”). In patients with a TBI, GHD is frequent and may contribute to cognitive sequelae and reduction in quality of life. GHD may develop in approximately 10% to 35% of TBI victims according to published study results. These data support a large upside potential for GHD testing.
Macimorelin Development History
The following is a summary of the history of our development of Macrilen™ (macimorelin):
2017 – present
|●||On January 4, 2017, we announced that, based on an analysis of top-line data, the confirmatory Phase 3 clinical trial of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) failed to achieve one of its co-primary endpoints. Under the study protocol, the evaluation of AGHD with Macrilen™ (macimorelin) would be considered successful, if the lower bound of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the primary efficacy variables was 75% or higher for “percent negative agreement” with the ITT, and 70% or higher for the “percent positive agreement” with the ITT. While the estimated percent negative agreement met the success criteria, the estimated percent positive agreement did not reach the criteria for a successful outcome. Therefore, the results did not meet the pre-defined equivalence criteria which required success for both the percent negative agreement and the percent positive agreement.|
|●||On February 13, 2017, we announced that, after reviewing the raw data on which the top-line data were based, we had concluded that Macrilen™ (macimorelin) had demonstrated performance supportive of achieving FDA registration and that we intended to pursue registration. The announcement set forth the facts on which our conclusion was based. The Company met with the FDA at the end of March 2017 to discuss this position.|
|●||On March 7, 2017, we announced that the Pediatric Committee (“PDCO”) EMA agreed to the Company’s Pediatric Investigation Plan (“PIP”) for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) and agreed that the Company may defer conducting the PIP until after it files a Marketing Authorization Application (“MAA”) seeking marketing authorization for the use of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) for the evaluation of AGHD.|
|●||On July 18, 2017, we were provided a Prescription Drug User Fee Amendment date of December 30, 2017 by the FDA.|
|●||On November 27, 2017, the EMA accepted our MAA submission for Macrilen™ (macimorelin).|
|●||On December 20, 2017, the FDA approved the market authorization for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), to be used in the diagnosis of patients with AGHD.|
|●||On January 16, 2018, the Company, through AEZS Germany, entered into a License Agreement to carry out development, manufacturing, registration, regulatory and supply chain services for the commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the U.S. and Canada as further described below.|
|●||In the August 2018, Volume 103, Issue 8 edition of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the pivotal Phase 3 data from the Macrilen® (macimorelin) confirmatory trial was published by Jose M. Garcia, MD, PhD, et al., titled ‘Macimorelin as a Diagnostic Test for Adult GH Deficiency’.|
|●||On November 19, 2018, we announced the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”) of the EMA adopted a positive opinion recommending a marketing authorization for macimorelin.|
|●||On January 16, 2019, we announced that the EC granted marketing authorization for macimorelin.|
|●||On December 18, 2019, we announced that the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (“AACE”) and the American College of Endocrinology (“ACE”) published new “Guidelines for Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults and Patients Transitioning from Pediatric to Adult Care” (“Guidelines”). The AACE/ACE 2019 Guidelines identify macimorelin as a “shorter and simpler alternative” compared to the traditionally available GHST.|
|●||On January 28, 2020, we announced the successful completion of patient recruitment for the first pediatric study of macimorelin as a growth hormone stimulation test for the evaluation of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children.|
|●||On April 6, 2020, we announced positive results for the first pediatric study of macimorelin as a growth hormone stimulation test for the evaluation of child-onset growth hormone deficiency (CGHD).|
|●||On April 7, 2020, we announced the decision of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to accept a modification request by AEZS of the Company’s Pediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) for macimorelin.|
|●||On June 25, 2020, we announced that we had entered into an exclusive distribution and related quality agreement with MegaPharm Ltd. for the commercialization of Macrilen® in Israel and the Palestinian Authority.|
|●||On July 22, 2020, we filed two patent applications in connection with macimorelin. Both patent applications relate to the invention of macimorelin as a method to diagnose growth hormone deficiency in pediatric patients.|
|●||On November 16, 2020, we announced that, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, we had entered into an amendment of its existing license agreement with Novo Nordisk Biopharm Ltd. (NNBL) related to the development and commercialization of macimorelin. The amendment partly amend the original license agreement on specific terms and conditions to, among others (i) reflect the updated supply agreement, (ii) grant NNBL a joint ownership interest in patents rights, (iii) amend responsibility for the pediatric clinical trial, and (iv) make a payment to AEZS.|
|●||On December 7, 2020, we announced that we had entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with Consilient Health Ltd. for the commercialization in Europe and the United Kingdom of macimorelin.|
|●||On May 13, 2021, we announced the commencement of our pivotal Phase 3 safety and efficacy study AEZS-130-P02 (the DETECT-trial) evaluating macimorelin for the diagnosis of childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CGHD).|
|●||On January 31, 2022, our partner Er-Kim, a regional specialty pharmaceutical company, announced the signature of an exclusive agreement with Aeterna Zentaris for the distribution and sales of Macrilen® in eight countries, including Turkey, Serbia, and Albania.|
|●||On March 21, 2022, we provided an update for our ongoing pivotal Phase 3 safety and efficacy study AEZS-130-P02 (the DETECT-trial) and noted that site activation and patient enrollment continued to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, clinical trial sites originally planned in the Ukraine and Russia were halted due to the Russian invasion.|
|●||On April 19, 2022, we announced that European Patent Office had issued a patent providing intellectual property protection of macimorelin in 27 countries within the European Union as well as additional European non-EU countries.|
|●||On May 25, 2022, we announced that Ghryvelin™ (macimorelin) was now available to healthcare professionals across Europe (subject to reimbursement).|
|●||On August 29, 2022, Aeterna Zentaris announced that Novo Nordisk Healthcare AG had exercised its right to terminate the amended development and commercialization license agreement. Following Novo’s 270-day notice period, Aeterna will regain full U.S. and Canadian rights to the product.|
Macrilen™ (macimorelin) Clinical Program
On January 28, 2020, we announced the successful completion of patient recruitment for the first pediatric study of macimorelin as a growth hormone stimulation test for the evaluation of GHD in children. This study, AEZS-130-P01 (“Study P01”), was the first of two studies as agreed with the EMA in our Pediatric Investigation Plan (the “PIP”) for macimorelin as a GHD diagnostic. Macimorelin, a ghrelin agonist, is an orally active small molecule that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland into the circulatory system. The goal of Study P01 was to establish a dose that can both be safely administered to pediatric patients and cause a clear rise in growth hormone concentration in subjects ultimately diagnosed as not having GHD. The recommended dose derived from Study P01 will be evaluated in the pivotal second study, Study P02, on diagnostic efficacy and safety. Study P01 was an international, multicenter study, which was conducted in Hungary, Poland, Ukraine, Serbia, Belarus and Russia. Study P01 was an open label, group comparison, dose escalation trial designed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (“PK/PD”) of macimorelin acetate after ascending single oral doses of macimorelin at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 milligram per kilogram body weight in pediatric patients from 2 to less than 18 years of age with suspected CGHD. We enrolled a total of 24 pediatric patients across the three cohorts of the study. Per study protocol, all enrolled patients completed four study visits after successful completion of the screening period. At Visit 1 and Visit 3, a provocative growth hormone stimulation test was conducted according to the study sites’ local practices. At Visit 2, the macimorelin test was performed, and following the oral administration of the macimorelin solution, blood samples were taken at predefined times for PK/PD assessment. Visit 4 was a safety follow-up visit at study end.
The final study results from Study P01 were published in the second quarter of 2020 indicating positive safety and tolerability data for use of macimorelin in CGHD, as well as PK/PD data observed in a range as expected from the adult studies.
On April 7, 2020 the Company announced the decision of the EMA to accept our modification request of our PIP as originally approved in March 2017, which covered the conduct of two pediatric studies and defined relevant key elements in the outline of these studies. We believe this EMA decision supports the development of one globally harmonized study protocol for test validation, specifically Study P02, which we expect to be accepted both in Europe and the U.S.
In late 2020, we entered into the start-up phase for the clinical safety and efficacy study, AEZS-130-P02 (“DETECT-trial”), evaluating macimorelin for the diagnosis of CGHD. The DETECT-trial is an open-label, single dose, multicenter and multinational study expected to enroll approximately 100 subjects worldwide, with at least 40 pre-pubertal and 40 pubertal subjects, and a minimum of 25 subjects expected to be enrolled in the U.S. The study design is expected to be suitable to support a claim for potential stand-alone testing, if successful. In addition, under the Novo Amendment, Novo and Aeterna agreed that Novo will fund DETECT-trial costs up to $9.6 million (€9 million), which includes reimbursement of Aeterna’s relevant budgeted internal labor costs. Any additional external jointly approved DETECT-trial costs incurred over $9.6 million (€9 million) will be shared equally between Novo and Aeterna. On April 22, 2021, the U.S. FDA Investigational New Drug Application associated with this clinical trial became active, (see: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04786873), and on May 13, 2021, we announced the opening of the first clinical site in the U.S.
On January 26, 2022, the Company announced that it had experienced unavoidable delays in site initiation and patient enrollment due to the rise of the Omicron variant in the COVID-19 pandemic. Our team has diligently worked to get more clinical sites up and running with the goal of building momentum and bringing this study across the finish line while navigating as best as possible through this challenge. We have engaged a contract research organization (“CRO”) to conduct the DETECT-trial in the United States and in various European countries, including Russia and Ukraine, where, in February 2022, due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the clinical trial activities were halted. Consequently, no patients have been enrolled in either of these countries’ clinical sites to date. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has impacted our ability to conduct our trial in the region.
On August 26, 2022, the Company announced it will regain full rights to Macrilen™ for the U.S. and Canada territories, following Novo’s termination of the development and commercialization license agreement, which triggered a 270-day notice period. Novo will continue to fund DETECT-trial costs up to $9.6 million (€9 million), which includes reimbursement of Aeterna’s relevant budgeted internal labor costs. Any additional DETECT-trial costs incurred over $9.6 million (€9 million) up to $10.5 million (€9.8 million) will be shared equally between Novo and Aeterna. The Company is actively engaged in exploring all options for Macrilen™.
On January 17, 2023, the company provided a business update, highlighting that bolstered enrollment was expected by the replacement of inactive countries/sites and engagement of an additional Clinical Research Organization (CRO). Currently, four new countries (Armenia, Slovakia, Greece, and Turkey) have ongoing DETECT clinical trial application activities, with clinical trial approvals assumed in the first half of 2023. Enrollment completion was announced to be expected by the end of 2023. Management’s current estimated impacts of delays and higher-than-expected costs related to Macrilen’s ™ pediatric clinical development due to both COVID-19 and the Russia invasion of Ukraine are discussed further below.
Macimorelin Pre-clinical Program: Ghrelin agonist in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
On January 13, 2021, we entered into a material transfer agreement with Queensland University to provide macimorelin for the conduct of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating macimorelin as a therapeutic for the treatment of ALS. ALS is a rare progressive neurological disease primarily affecting the neurons controlling voluntary movement, leading to the disability to control movements such as walking, talking, and chewing. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually between 3-5 years after diagnosis. Currently there is no cure for ALS and no effective treatment to halt or reverse the progression of the disease. Ghrelin is a hormone with wide-ranging biological actions, most known for stimulating growth hormone release, which is demonstrating emerging evidence as therapeutic for ALS. As a ghrelin agonist, macimorelin has the potential as a treatment for ALS, which is evaluated in this research collaboration.
The University of Queensland researchers have filed for supportive grants to conduct such clinical studies. In July 2022, the Company entered into a research and option to license agreement with UniQuest Pty Ltd., the commercialization company of The University of Queensland (UQ), Brisbane, Australia, to advance the development of macimorelin as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of ALS. The Company made substantial progress in the development of a suitable, alternative formulation for use in ALS and is continuing to evaluate AEZS-130 in transgenic mouse ALS models to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of macimorelin in this indication. Our next steps include completion of the ongoing toxicology and safety studies to support treatment over prolonged periods, and following potential achievement of proof-of-concept, scientific advice with regulatory authorities to discuss program development next steps.
Macimorelin Commercialization Program
Novo is currently marketing macimorelin in the U.S. under the tradename Macrilen™ for the diagnosis of AGHD and most recently in accordance with the Novo Amendment, pursuant to which the Company agreed to grant to Novo additional rights with respect to ownership of the Aeterna Patent Rights and Trademarks, as defined, and to amend certain responsibilities between Aeterna and Novo with respect to the ongoing development initiatives for the use of Macrilen™ as a diagnostic in the pediatric indication (the “Pediatric Indication”). Additionally, the Novo Amendment: reflected the existence of a supply agreement; established total consideration to be provided by Novo as reimbursements for costs incurred in connection with the development activities related to the Pediatric Indication; provided for a non-refundable upfront payment of $6.1 million (€5.0 million) to be made by Novo to the Company; and modified future payment obligations, including a reduction of royalty rates and a waiver by the Company with respect to the $5 million pediatric milestone from the original agreement with Novo.
As for the reduction in royalties, the Company agreed to reduce the Net Sales Royalties from 15% to 8.5% for annual net sales of Macrilen™ up to $40 million and to establish a royalty of 15% for annual net sales of Macrilen™ over $40 million.
Following the termination of the Novo Amendment, pursuant to the terms of the Novo Amendment, Novo is required to continue to fulfil its obligations during the 270-day notice period which ends on May 23, 2023. The Company plans to engage in efforts to explore all options for Macrilen™.
On December 7, 2020, the Company entered into an exclusive licensing agreement with Consilient Health Limited (“CH” or “Consilient”) for the commercialization of macimorelin in the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom. In December 2021, the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom approved a list price which triggered a $226 (€0.2 million) pricing milestone payment from CH to the Company. In Germany, a list price was approved on June 15, 2022 which triggered a second $226 (€0.2 million) pricing milestone payment from CH to the Company. We shipped initial batches of macimorelin (Ghryvelin®) to Consilient in the first quarter of 2022. Consilient launched the product meanwhile in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Germany and Austria. More EU countries will follow pending re-imbursement negotiations. On April 19, 2022, we announced that European Patent Office had issued a patent providing intellectual property protection of macimorelin in 27 countries within the European Union as well as additional European non-EU countries, such as the UK and Turkey, for macimorelin (Ghryvelin®; Macrilen™) for use to diagnose GHD in adults. On March 15, 2023, with the Company’s consent, Consilient Health entered into an assignment agreement to transfer the current licensing agreement for the commercialization of macimorelin in the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom to Atnahs Pharma UK Limited (“Pharmanovia”). The Company also entered into an exclusive supply agreement with Pharmanovia, pursuant to which the Company agreed to provide the Licensed Product to Pharmanovia.
On June 25, 2020, we announced that we entered into an exclusive distribution and related quality agreement with MegaPharm Ltd., a leading Israel-based biopharmaceutical company, for the commercialization in Israel and in the Palestinian Authority of macimorelin, to be used in the diagnosis of patients with AGHD and in clinical development for the diagnosis of CGHD. Under the terms of the agreement, MegaPharm Ltd. will be responsible for obtaining registration to market macimorelin in Israel and the Palestinian Authority, while the Company will be responsible for manufacturing, product supply, quality assurance and control, regulatory support, and maintenance of the relevant intellectual property. In June 2021, MegaPharm Ltd. filed an application to the Ministry of Health of Israel for regulatory approval of macimorelin in Israel, which was approved in November 2022.
We entered into license and supply agreements with NK Meditech Ltd. (“NK”), a subsidiary of PharmBio Korea, effective November 30, 2021, and a distribution and commercialization agreement with ER Kim Pharmaceuticals Bulgaria Eood (“ER-Kim”), effective February 1, 2022. The agreements with NK are related to the development and commercialization of macimorelin for the diagnosis of AGHD and CGHD in the Republic of Korea, while the agreement with ER-Kim is related to the commercialization of macimorelin for the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children and adults in Turkey and some non-European Union Balkan countries.
Pipeline Expansion Opportunities
Delayed Clearance Parathyroid Hormone (“DC-PTH”) Fusion Polypeptides: Potential treatment for chronic hypoparathyroidism
On March 11, 2021, the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement with The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, for the intellectual property relating to PTH fusion polypeptides covering the field of human use, which will initially be studied by Aeterna for the potential therapeutic treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism (“HypoPT”). Under the terms of the exclusive patent and know-how license agreement entered into with the University of Sheffield, Aeterna obtained worldwide rights to develop, manufacture and commercialize PTH fusion polypeptides covered by the licensed patent applications for all human uses for an up-front cash payment, and milestone payments to be paid upon the achievement of certain development, regulatory and sales milestones, as well as low single digit royalty payments on net sales of those products and certain fees payable in connection with sublicensing. Aeterna will be responsible for the further development, manufacturing, approval, and commercialization of the licensed products. Aeterna has also engaged the University of Sheffield under a research contract to conduct certain research activities to be funded by Aeterna, the results of which will be included within the scope of the license granted to Aeterna.
The researchers at the University of Sheffield have developed a method to increase the serum clearance time of peptides, which the Company is applying to the development of a treatment for HypoPT. HypoPT is an orphan disease where the PTH level is abnormally low or absent, with a prevalence per 100,000 of 37 in the U.S., 22 in Denmark, 9.4 in Norway, and 5.3 to 27 in Italy. Standard treatment is calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In consultation with The University of Sheffield, Aeterna has selected AEZS-150 as the lead candidate in its DC-PTH program. AEZS-150 is being developed to provide a weekly treatment option of chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults. Recent progress includes the successful verification and reproduction of previous in-vivo data from the University of Sheffield, in a rat model of hypoparathyroidism, as well as ongoing development of the manufacturing process for AEZS-150 with the Company’s contract development and manufacturing organization, progressing toward establishment of a master cell bank for a cell line expressing AEZS-150 and a process suitable for larger scale GMP manufacturing. Our next steps include working with The University of Sheffield to conduct in depth characterization of development candidate (in-vitro and in-vivo); the establishment of a master cell bank for a cell line expressing AEZS-150, and formalizing the pre-clinical development of AEZS-150 in preparation for a potential IND filing for conducting the first in-human clinical study.
AIM Biologicals: Targeted, highly specific autoimmunity modifying therapeutics for the potential treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and Parkinson’s disease
In January 2021, Aeterna entered into an exclusive patent license and research agreement with the University of Wuerzburg, Germany, for worldwide rights to develop, manufacture, and commercialize AIM Biologicals for the potential treatment of NMOSD. Additionally, the Company has engaged Prof. Dr. Joerg Wischhusen from the University Hospital in Wuerzburg as well as neuro-immunologist Dr. Michael Levy from the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston as consultants for scientific support and advice in the field of inflammatory central nervous system “CNS” disorders, autoimmune diseases of the nervous system, and NMOSD. In September 2021, the Company entered into an additional exclusive license with the University of Wuerzburg for early pre-clinical development towards the potential treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On May 12, 2022 the Company announced positive pre-clinical results in an innovative mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, where treatment with α-Synuclein specific AIM Biologicals showed a trend towards improved motoric function, as well as significant induction of regulatory T cells and rescue of substantia nigra neurons. The data were presented at IMMUNOLOGY2022™, the annual event of the American Association of Immunologists, held on May 6-10, 2022 in Portland, Oregon. On June 13, 2022 the Company announced that it achieved proof-of-concept for the treatment of NMOSD in both in-vitro and in mouse models. These findings were presented at the 13th International Congress on Autoimmunity on June 10-13, 2022 in Athens, Greece. In October 2022, the Company entered into a research and development agreement with Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston and Dr. Michael Levy, to conduct pre-clinical ex-vivo and in-vivo studies in NMOSD.
AIM Biologicals is based on a natural process during pregnancy, which induces immunogenic tolerance of the maternal immune system to the partially foreign fetal antigens. Fetal proteins are processed and presented on certain immunosuppressive major histocompatibility complex class I molecules to induce this tolerance. In an autoimmune disease is the immune system misdirected and targets the body’s own protein. With AIM Biologicals, we aim to restore the tolerance against such proteins to treat autoimmune diseases.
NMOSD is an autoimmune disease targeting the protein aquaporin 4, primarily found in optic nerves and the spinal cord. The disease leading to blindness and paralysis has a prevalence of 0.7-10 in 100,000, more common in persons with Asian or African compared to European ancestors, and nine times more prevalent among women compared to men. NMOSD progresses in often life-threatening relapses, which are aggressively treated with high-dose steroids and plasmapheresis. Our pre-clinical plans include expanding the already available proof-of-concept data for the treatment of NMOSD in both in-vitro and in-vivo assessments to select an AIM Biologicals-based development candidate; and manufacturing process development for the selected candidate.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disease commonly associated with motoric problems with a slow and fast progression form. It is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 10 million people worldwide. The hallmark of PD is the neuronal inclusion of mainly α-synuclein protein (αSyn) associated with the death of dopamine-producing cells. Dopaminergic medication is the mainstay treatment of PD symptoms, but currently there is no pharmacological therapy to prevent or delay disease progression leading to alternate treatments, such as deep brain stimulation with short electric bursts, being investigated for the treatment of symptoms. For the development of AIM Biologicals as potential PD therapeutics, Aeterna plans utilizes, among others, an innovative animal model on neurodegeneration by α-synuclein-specific T cells in AAV-A53T-α-synuclein Parkinson’s disease mice, which has recently been published by University of Wuerzburg researchers. We are continuing in-vitro and in-vivo testing of antigen-specific AIM Biologics candidate molecules for the potential treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Bacterial Vaccine Platform: Orally active, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine platform with potential application against viruses and bacteria, such as coronaviruses and chlamydia bacteria
The COVID-19 vaccine landscape has continued to evolve profoundly in the past two years. There are highly effective vaccines available, an increasing number of therapeutic options are meanwhile approved or in later stage development and less lethal virus variants are spreading, all of which increase the financial risk associated with any early stage COVID-19 vaccine program. In order to ensure we are prudent with the use of resources, given the early stage of the Company’s vaccine development programs and the changes in the global situation, Aeterna has decided that it will not pursue further development of the vaccine platform for either COVID-19 or Chlamydia (which was based on the same vaccine platform as used in the Company’s COVID-19 program). As a result, the Company has also elected to terminate its existing license agreements with the University of Wuerzburg for that vaccine platform technology.
A description of the principal geographic areas in which we compete, including a geographical and categorical breakdown of our revenues in the past three years, is presented in note 25 (Segment information) to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F at Item 17.
As a specialty biopharmaceutical company, the Company does not consider any of its products or services to be seasonal.
Raw materials and supplies are generally available in quantities adequate to meet the needs of our business. We will be dependent on third-party manufacturers for the pharmaceutical products that we or our licensees will market. An interruption in the availability of certain raw materials or ingredients, or significant increases in the prices paid by us for them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and operating results.
Regulation of Drug Development
Generally. Governmental authorities in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and other countries extensively regulate the preclinical and clinical testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record keeping, advertising, promotion, export, marketing, and distribution, among other things, of pharmaceuticals. Under the laws of the U.S., the countries of the EU, and other countries, we are subject to obligations to ensure that our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”) guidelines and the investigational plan and protocols contained in an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application, or comparable foreign regulatory submission. Set forth below is a brief summary of the material governmental regulations affecting us in the major markets in which we intend to market our products and/or promote products that we acquire or in-license or to which we obtain promotional rights.
The United States. In the U.S., the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (“CDER”) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938, as amended (the “FDCA”), the Public Health Service Act and other federal statutes and regulations, subjects pharmaceutical products to rigorous review. In order to market and sell a new drug product in the U.S., we must first test it and send CDER evidence from these tests to prove that the drug is safe and effective for its intended use. In most cases, these tests include extensive preclinical, clinical, and laboratory tests. A team of CDER physicians, statisticians, chemists, pharmacologists, and other scientists review the company’s data and proposed labeling. If this independent and unbiased review establishes that a drug’s health benefits outweigh its known risks, the drug is approved for sale. CDER does not test the drug itself, but it does conduct limited research in the areas of drug quality, safety, and effectiveness standards. Before approving a new drug or marketing application, the FDA may conduct pre-approval inspections of the developer of the drug (the “sponsor”), its CRO and/or its clinical trial sites to ensure that clinical, safety, quality control, and other regulated activities are compliant with GCP, or Good Laboratory Practices (“GLP”), for specific non-clinical toxicology studies. The manufacturing process, which must be compliant with GMP, and the manufacturing facilities used to produce a product are also subject to ongoing inspection by the FDA. The FDA may also require confirmatory trials, post-marketing testing, and/or extra surveillance to monitor the effects of approved products, or place conditions on any approvals that could restrict the commercial applications of a product. Once approved, the labeling, advertising, promotion, marketing, and distribution of a drug or biologic product must be in compliance with FDA regulatory requirements.
The first stage required for ultimate FDA approval of a new biologic or drug involves completion of preclinical studies whereby a sponsor must test new drugs on animals for toxicity. Multiple species are used to gather basic information on the safety and efficacy of the compound being investigated and/or researched. The FDA regulates preclinical studies under a series of regulations called the current GLP regulations as well as regulatory requirements found in Part 21 subchapter D of the Code of Federal Regulations. If the sponsor violates these regulations, the FDA may require that the sponsor replicates those studies or can subject the sponsor to enforcement actions or penalties as described further below. The sponsor then submits to the FDA an IND application based on the results from the initial testing that include the drug’s composition and manufacturing, along with a plan for testing the drug on humans. The FDA reviews the IND to ensure that the proposed studies (clinical trials) do not place human subjects at unreasonable risk of harm. FDA also verifies that there are adequate informed consent and human subject protections in place.
After a sponsor submits an IND application, it must wait thirty (30) days before starting a clinical trial to allow the FDA time to review the prospective study. If the FDA finds a problem, it can order a clinical hold to delay an investigation, or interrupt a clinical trial if problems occur during the study. After the IND application is in effect, a sponsor may commence human clinical trials. The sponsor typically conducts human clinical trials in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap. In Phase 1 trials, the sponsor tests the product in a small number of patients or healthy volunteers (typically 20-80 healthy volunteers), primarily for safety at one or more doses. The goal in this phase is to determine what the drug’s most frequent side effects are and, often, how the drug is metabolized and excreted. Phase 2 studies begin if Phase 1 studies do not reveal unacceptable toxicity. In Phase 2, in addition to safety, the sponsor evaluates the efficacy of the product in a patient population somewhat larger than Phase 1 trials. The number of subjects in Phase 2 studies typically ranges from a few dozen to about 300. This phase aims to obtain preliminary data on whether a drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition. At the end of Phase 2, the FDA and sponsor try to come to an agreement on how large-scale studies in Phase 3 should be done.
Phase 3 studies begin if evidence of effectiveness is shown in Phase 2. Phase 3 trials typically involve additional testing for safety and clinical efficacy in an expanded population (approx. 300-3,000 volunteers who have the disease or condition) at geographically dispersed test sites. The sponsor must submit to the FDA a clinical plan, or “protocol”, accompanied by the approval of the institutions participating in the trials, prior to commencement of each clinical trial. The FDA may order the temporary or permanent discontinuation of a clinical trial at any time.
In the case of product candidates for cancer, the initial human testing may be done in patients with the disease rather than in healthy volunteers. Because these patients are already afflicted with the target disease, such studies may provide results traditionally obtained in Phase 2 studies. Accordingly, these studies are often referred to as “Phase 1/2” studies as they combine two phases. Even if patients participate in initial human testing and a Phase 1/2 study is carried out, the sponsor is still responsible for obtaining all the data usually obtained in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies.
The sponsor must submit to the FDA the results of the preclinical and clinical testing, together with, among other things, detailed information on the manufacture and composition of the product, in the form of a New Drug Application (an “NDA”) or, in the case of a biologic, a Biologics License Applications (a “BLA”). In a process that can take a year or more, the FDA reviews this application and, when and if it decides that adequate data are available to show that the new compound is both safe and effective for a particular indication and that other applicable requirements have been met, approves the drug or biologic for marketing. The amount of time taken for this approval process is a function of a number of variables, including the quality of the submission and studies presented and the potential contribution that the compound will make in improving the treatment of the disease in question.
FDA provides incentives, such as orphan drug designation or pediatric exclusivity. Orphan-drug designation is granted by the FDA Office of Orphan Drug Products to novel drugs or biologics that are intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases or disorders that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S., or that affect more than 200,000 people but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. The designation provides the sponsor with a seven-year period of U.S. marketing exclusivity if the drug is the first of its type approved for the specified indication, or if it demonstrates superior safety, efficacy, or a major contribution to patient care versus another drug of its type that was previously granted the designation for the same indication. We have been granted orphan drug designations for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) for the evaluation of GHD.
Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the “Hatch-Waxman Act”), newly approved drugs and indications may benefit from a statutory period of non-patent data exclusivity. The Hatch-Waxman Act provides five-year data exclusivity to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity (“NCE”), meaning that the FDA has not previously approved any other drug containing the same active pharmaceutical ingredient, or active moiety. Although protection under the Hatch-Waxman Act will not prevent the submission or approval of another full NDA, such an NDA applicant would be required to conduct its own preclinical and adequate, well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.
The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides three years of data exclusivity for the approval of new and supplemental NDAs, including Section 505(b)(2) applications, for, among other things, new indications, dosage forms, routes of administration, or strengths of an existing drug, or for a new use, if new clinical investigations that were conducted or sponsored by the sponsor are determined by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application. This exclusivity, which is sometimes referred to as clinical investigation exclusivity, would not prevent the approval of another application if the sponsor has conducted its own adequate, well-controlled clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy, nor would it prevent approval of a generic product that did not incorporate the exclusivity-protected changes of the approved drug product.
The labeling, advertising, promotion, marketing, and distribution of a drug or biologic product must be in compliance with FDA regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with applicable requirements can lead to the FDA demanding that production and shipment cease and, in some cases, that the manufacturer recall products, or to enforcement actions that can include seizures, injunctions, and criminal prosecution. These failures can also lead to FDA withdrawal of approval to market a product. As long as the requirements are fulfilled and the fees are paid to FDA the product can stay on the market, there is no renewal procedure.
Canada. In Canada, the Therapeutic Products Directorate of Health Canada is the Canadian federal authority that regulates pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices for human use. Prior to being given market authorization, a sponsor must present substantive scientific evidence of a product’s safety, efficacy, and quality as required by the Food and Drugs Act and other legislation and regulations. The requirements for the development and sale of pharmaceutical drugs in Canada are substantially similar to those in the U.S., which are described above.
The European Union. Medicines can be authorized in the EU by using either the centralized authorization procedure (CP), or national authorization procedures. The EU has implemented a centralized procedure coordinated by the EMA for the approval of human medicines, which results in a single marketing authorization issued by the EC that is valid across the EU, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. The centralized procedure is mandatory for human medicinal products containing a new active substance for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases, other immune dysfunctions, viral diseases, or that are designated as orphan medicinal products. In addition, the CP is required for product types derived, for example, from biotechnological processes or genetic engineering. For medicines that do not fall within these categories, an applicant has the option of submitting an application for a centralized marketing authorization to the EMA, as long as the medicine concerned is a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation, or if its authorization would be in the interest of public health.
There are two national routes to authorize medicinal products in several EU countries, which are available for investigational drug products that fall outside the scope of the centralized procedure and result in a national marketing authorization:
|●||Decentralized procedure. Using the decentralized procedure, a sponsor may apply for simultaneous authorization in more than one EU country of medicinal products that have not yet been authorized in any EU country and that do not fall within the mandatory scope of the centralized procedure. After mutual approval national authorizations will be granted separately by each member state involved. Mutual recognition procedure. In the mutual recognition procedure, a medicine is first authorized in one EU Member State, in accordance with the national procedures of that country. Following this, further marketing authorizations can be sought from other EU countries in a procedure whereby the countries concerned agree to recognize the validity of the original, national marketing authorization.|
|●||National procedure. If approval is sought independently in only one country, the application for marketing authorization is addressed directly to the competent authority of the member state.|
Similar to the U.S., the EMA provides incentives for the development of orphan drugs or for pediatrics. Orphan designation is granted for diseases affecting less than 5 in 10,000 people in the EU. With the designation, the sponsor benefits from prolonged market exclusivity (10 years) and fee reductions.
The pediatric regulation grants pediatric development with a six-month extension of the supplementary protection certificate.
The EU marketing authorization is valid for five years and is renewable upon application by the MAH. After the renewal the approval is permanently valid.
Regulation of Commercial Operations
The marketing, promotional, and pricing practices of human pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as the manner in which manufacturers interact with purchasers and prescribers, are subject to various U.S. federal and state laws, including the federal anti-kickback statute and the False Claims Act, and state laws governing kickbacks, false claims, unfair trade practices, and consumer protection, and to similar laws in other countries. In the U.S., these laws are administered by, among others, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”), the Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Federal Trade Commission, the Office of Personnel Management, and state attorneys general. Over the past several years, the FDA, the DOJ and many other agencies have increased their enforcement activities with respect to pharmaceutical companies and increased the inter-agency coordination of enforcement activities.
In the U. S., biopharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers are required to record any transfers of value made to licensed physicians and teaching hospitals and to disclose such data to the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”). In addition to civil penalties for failure to report transfers of value to physicians or teaching hospitals, there will be criminal penalties if a manufacturer intentionally makes false statements or excludes information in such reports. The payment data across biopharmaceutical and medical device companies is posted by the HHS on a publicly available website. Increased access to such data by fraud and abuse investigators, industry critics and media will draw attention to our collaborations with reported entities and will importantly provide opportunities to underscore the critical nature of our collaborations for developing new medicines and exchanging scientific information. This national payment transparency effort coupled with industry commitment to uphold voluntary codes of conduct (such as the PhRMA Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals and PhRMA Guiding Principles Direct to Consumer Advertisements About Prescription Medicines) and rigorous internal training and compliance efforts will complement existing laws and regulations to help ensure ethical collaboration and truthful product communications.
The Canadian Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (“Rx & D”) has adopted “Guidelines for Transparency in Stakeholder Funding” that require member companies to regularly disclose, by means of websites and annual reports, a list of all stakeholders to which they provide direct funding. The term “stakeholder” is defined in Rx & D’s Code of Ethical Practices to include “Health Care Professionals”. In the EU, the disclosure code of transfers of value to healthcare professionals and organizations adopted by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (“EFPIA”) requires all members of EFPIA to disclose transfers of value to healthcare professionals and healthcare organizations beginning in 2016, covering the relevant transfers in 2015. Each member company will be required to document and disclose: (i) the names of healthcare professionals and associations that have received payments or other transfers of value and (ii) the amounts or value transferred, and the type of relationship.
For more information about the regulatory risks associated with our business operations, see “Item 3D. Risk Factors”.
Intellectual Property - Patents
We seek to protect our compounds, manufacturing processes, compositions and methods of medical use for our lead drugs and drug candidates through a combination of patents, trade secrets and know-how. Our patent portfolio consists of approximately six owned and in-licensed patent families (issued, granted or pending in the U.S., Europe and other jurisdictions). The patent positions of companies in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Therefore, we cannot predict the breadth of claims, if any, that may be allowed under any of our patent applications, or the enforceability of any of our allowed patents. See “Item 3.D. Risk Factors - We may not obtain adequate protection for our products through our intellectual property.”
Patents extend for varying periods according to the date of patent filing or grant and the legal term of patents in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary from country to country, depends on the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies in the country. In the U.S., the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may also be eligible for patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Hatch-Waxman Act permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent, in which the patentee may file an application for yearly interim extensions within five years if the patent will expire and the FDA has not yet approved the NDA. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended.
Similar provisions are available in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. In these jurisdictions, however, no interim extensions exist and the marketing approval must be granted before the patent expires. In the future, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents covering those products, outside the U.S. While we anticipate that any such applications for patent term extensions will likely be granted, we cannot predict the precise length of time for which such patent terms would be extended in the U.S., Europe or other jurisdictions. If we are not able to secure patent term extensions on patents covering our products for meaningful periods of additional time, we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business.
In addition to patent protection, our products may benefit from the market-exclusivity provisions contained in the orphan-drug regulations or the pediatric-exclusivity provisions or other provisions of the FDA Act, such as a NCE exclusivity or new formulation exclusivity. Orphan drug regulations provide incentives to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to develop and manufacture drugs for the treatment of rare diseases, currently defined as diseases that exist in fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S., or diseases that affect more than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. but that the sponsor does not realistically anticipate will generate a net profit. Under these provisions, a manufacturer of a designated orphan drug can seek tax benefits, and the holder of the first FDA approval of a designated orphan product will be granted a seven-year period of marketing exclusivity for such FDA-approved orphan product. In the U.S., the FDA has the authority to grant additional data protection for approved drugs where the sponsor conducts specified testing in pediatric or adolescent populations. If granted, this pediatric exclusivity provides an additional six months which are added to the term of data protection as well as to the term of any relevant patents, to the extent these protections have not already expired. We may also seek to utilize market exclusivities in other territories, such as in the EU. There can be no assurance that any of our drug candidates will obtain such orphan drug designation, pediatric exclusivity, a NCE exclusivity or any other market exclusivity in the U.S., the EU or any other territory, or that we will be the first to receive the regulatory approval in a given country or territory for such drugs so as to be eligible for any market exclusivity protection.
We hold the worldwide rights to macimorelin pursuant to an exclusive license agreement with the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), as licensor, and AEZS Germany, as licensee. The obligation to pay royalties on net sales to CNRS expired in 2022. Macrilen™ is the approved trademark for macimorelin as licensed under the License Agreement for commercialization in the U.S. and Canada.
The following patents and patent applications relate to macimorelin:
|●||U.S. patent 8,192,719 covers a method of assessing pituitary-related GHD in a human or animal subject comprising an oral administration of the compound macimorelin and determination of the level of growth hormone in the sample and assessing whether the level of growth hormone in the sample is indicative of GHD. This patent expires in October 2027.|
|●||European patent 1,984,744 covers a method of assessing pituitary-related GHD by oral administration of macimorelin. This patent expires in February 2027.|
|●||Japanese patent 4,852,728 covers a method of assessing pituitary-related GHD by oral administration of macimorelin. This patent expires in February 2027.|
|●||Based on the European patent 1,289,951 a request for supplementary protection certificate (SPC) of 5 years has been granted for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands and Denmark.|
An invention has been made by inventors of AEZS Germany to use a macimorelin containing composition for the assessment of GHD in adults.
|●||A related U.S. provisional patent applications Serial No. 62/607,866 was filed on December 19, 2017 and Serial No. 62/609,059 was filed on December 21, 2017. Both are identical and are directed to a method of assessing GHD comprising oral administration of a macimorelin containing composition and collecting one or two post-administration samples.|
|●||The non-provisional U.S. application 15/993,507 was filed on May 30, 2018 drawing the priority of both provisional applications. The related U.S. patent 10,288,629 was granted on May 14, 2019, and will expire on May 30, 2038. A Patent Cooperation Treaty (“PCT”) PCT/EP/2018/085622 application was filed December 18, 2018 drawing the priority of both provisional U.S. applications. In addition to the method of assessing GHD comprising oral administration of a macimorelin containing composition and collecting one or two post-administration samples, the PCT application also covers a similar method of assessing GHD using three post-administration samples. On February 24, 2022, following examination of European patent application 18827044.1, a European patent with the title “Method of assessing growth hormone deficiency comprising oral administration of a macimorelin containing composition and collecting one or two post-administration samples” has been granted. The patent will be published in European Patent Bulletin on March 23, 2022. The European patent covers the use of macimorelin according to the label approved by EC to diagnose GHD in adults. The European patent is in the validation process in 12 European countries. In 29 European countries the patent has been nationalized.|
An invention has been made by inventors of AEZS Germany to use a macimorelin containing composition for the assessment of GHD in children. The invention is directed to a method comprises providing at least one blood sample, taken from a subject within a range from about 15 to about 100 minutes following an administration of a sufficient amount of macimorelin to induce growth hormone secretion, measuring the growth hormone level of each blood sample and compare the level with a single threshold value to carry out the diagnosis GHD. The method of the invention is a stand-alone test.
|●||A related U.S. provisional application Serial No. 63/054,889 was filed July 22, 2020 for the use of macimorelin in assessing growth hormone deficiency in children.|
|●||A non-provisional U.S. application named “Use of macimorelin in assessing growth hormone deficiency in children” with docket number 17/375,709 was filed on July 14, 2021, drawing the priority of the provisional application.|
|●||An international PCT application with docket number PCT/EP2020/070691 was filed on July 22, 2020. Based on the PCT application several national applications have been filed in due time.|
Patent applications related to the pipeline expansion opportunities and covered by the individual Patent and License Agreements between AEZS Germany and licensors.
|●||Delayed Clearance Parathyroid Hormone (DC-PTH) Fusion Polypeptide for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism in adults|
|●||A priority patent application with docket number GB 1706781.0 has been filed by our licensor The University of Sheffield on April 27, 2017. The patent application provides long-acting parathyroid hormone like fusion polypeptides comprising a receptor polypeptide and its use in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism and osteoporosis. An international PCT application named “Parathyroid Hormone Fusion Polypeptide” with docket number PCT/GB2018/051120 was filed April 27, 2018. A national U.S. application with docket number 16/608,611 has been filed on October 25, 2019 and was published as US 2020/0164033A1 on May 28, 2020. The related U.S. patent US 11,344,607 has been granted on May 31, 2022.|
AIM Biologicals: Targeted, highly specific autoimmunity modifying therapeutics
|●||Our licensor the University of Wuerzburg has filed a priority patent application with docket number EP 17172444.6 on May 23, 2017. The invention relates to targeted immunomodulatory effects of defined peptides in combination with proteins comprising one or more domains of a non-classical MHC class 1b molecules or in combination with molecules that interfere with the interaction of MHC class 1b molecules and their receptors. An international PCT application named “Combinations of MHC class 1b molecules and peptides for targeted therapeutic immunomodulation” with docket number PCT/EP2018/063100 has been filed on May 18, 2018. The application was published as WO 2018/215340 A1 on November 29, 2018. A national U.S. application with docket number 16/615,188 has been filed on November 20, 2019 and was published as US 2020/0157175A1 on May 21, 2020.|
|●||Our licensor the University of Wuerzburg has filed a priority patent application with docket number EP 22164161.6 on March 24, 2022. The patent application provides therapeutic proteins for MHC Ib-mediated aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific immunosuppression as a novel treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).|
|●||Our licensor the University of Wuerzburg has filed a priority patent application with docket number EP 22164123.6 on March 24, 2022. The invention relates to therapeutic uses of MHC class Ib molecules in combination with peptide antigens for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.|
Our corporate structure, the jurisdiction of incorporation of our direct and indirect subsidiaries and the percentage of shares that we held in those subsidiaries as at December 31, 2022 is depicted in the chart set forth under the caption “Item 4.A. History and development of the Company”.
|D.||Property and equipment|
Our registered address is located in Toronto, Canada. Our largest office is located in Frankfurt, Germany and we have an additional office in Summerville, South Carolina. We do not own any real property. Effective September 30, 2022, the Company and its landlord mutually agreed to a one-year plus 6 months’ notice extension to its existing building lease agreement for its German subsidiary, continuing such terms until March 31, 2024.
The following table sets forth information with respect to our main facilities as at December 31, 2022.
|Location||Use of space||Square Footage||Type of interest|
|315 Sigma Drive, Summerville SC 29486||Occupied for administration||168||Leasehold|
|Occupied for management, R&D, business development and administration||7,319||Leasehold|
We believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our ongoing needs.
|Item 4A||Unresolved Staff Comments|
|Item 5.||Operating and Financial Review and Prospects|
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position Data
|As at December 31,|
|Cash and cash equivalents||50,611||65,300||24,271|
|Trade and other receivables and other current assets||4,648||5,447||3,322|
|Restricted cash equivalents||322||335||338|
|Property and equipment||216||192||179|
|Other non-current assets||—||8,755||8,874|
|Payables and accrued liabilities and income taxes payable||3,936||2,787||2,322|
|Current portion of provisions||45||34||92|
|Current portion of deferred revenues||2,949||4,815||2,193|
|Non-financial non-current liabilities (1)||13,141||19,319||19,003|
|Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity||56,026||80,102||37,005|
(1) Comprised mainly of employee future benefits, deferred gain, non-current portion of deferred revenues and provisions.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
IFRS Pronouncements issued but not yet effective
Certain new accounting standards, amendments to accounting standards and interpretations have been published that are not mandatory for December 31, 2022 reporting periods and have not been early adopted by the Company. These standards, amendments or interpretations are not expected to have a material impact on the entity in the current or future reporting periods and on foreseeable future transactions.
Financial Risk Factors and Other Instruments
The nature and extent of our exposure to risks arising from financial instruments, including credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk and how we manage those risks are described in Note 24 to our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 and for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, which are included in Item 17 – “Financial Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
Results of operations
Consolidated Statements of Loss and Comprehensive Loss Information
Three months ended
|Cost of sales||51||18||157||90||2,317|
|Research and development||4,425||1,863||12,506||6,574||1,506|
|Selling, general and administrative||2,012||2,206||8,230||7,267||5,893|
|Gain on modification of building lease||—||—||—||—||(219||)|
|Impairment of intangible assets||584||—||584||—||—|
|Impairment of goodwill||7,642||—||7,642||—||—|
|(Reversal of) impairment of other assets||124||—||124||—||(139||)|
|Total operating expenses||14,838||4,087||29,243||13,931||9,358|
|Loss from operations||(12,353||)||(3,131||)||(23,603||)||(8,671||)||(5,706||)|
|Gains (loss) due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates||(98||)||257||879||215||572|
|Change in fair value of warrant liability||—||—||—||—||1,147|
|Other finance costs||—||—||(3||)||(21||)||(736||)|
|Net finance income (costs)||(98||)||257||876||194||983|
|Loss before income taxes||(12,451||)||(2,874||)||(22,727||)||(8,477||)||(4,723||)|
|Income tax (expense) recovery||—||(20||)||—||109||(395||)|
|Basic and diluted loss per share||(2.56||)||(0.63||)||(4.68||)||(1.82||)||(3.11||)|
We generate revenue from license and collaboration agreements with customers (license fees, milestone revenue, royalties), the provision of development services, the sale of certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), semi-finished goods and finished goods, and from certain supply chain activities, which are comprised largely of oversight or supervisory support services related to stability studies or development activities carried out with respect to API batch production as specified in underlying contracts with customers.
|Three months ended December 31,|
Our total revenue for the three-month period ended December 31, 2022 was $2.5 million as compared to $1.0 million for the same period in 2021, representing an increase of $1.5 million, primarily due to $0.5 million increase in License fees and $1.0 million increase in Development services with Novo.
|Twelve months ended December 31,|
Our total revenue for the twelve-month period ended December 31, 2022 was $5.6 million as compared to $5.3 million for the same period in 2021, representing an increase of $0.3 million, primarily due to $0.3 million increase in development services with Novo.
Research and development expenses
The following table summarizes our research and development expenses incurred during the periods indicated (amounts in thousands, except percentages):
|QUARTER ENDED DECEMBER 31,|
|Macrilen™ (macimorelin) pediatric trial (DETECT-trial) direct research and development expenses||1,297||526||771||147||%|
|AEZS-130 direct research and development expenses||1,004||143||861||602||%|
|DC-PTH direct research and development expenses||697||63||634||1,006||%|
|Parkinsons direct research and development expenses||155||171||(16||)||-9||%|
|Covid-19 direct research and development expenses||222||137||85||62||%|
|NMOSD direct research and development expenses||320||106||214|