Company Quick10K Filing
Apartment Investment & Mgmt
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 157 $8,116
10-K 2020-02-24 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-11-04 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-08-09 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-05-06 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-02-20 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-11-05 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-08-07 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-05-08 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-03-01 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-11-01 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-08-02 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-05-05 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-02-24 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-10-28 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-07-29 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-04-29 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2016-02-29 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-11-05 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-07-31 Quarter: 2015-07-31
10-Q 2015-05-01 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2015-02-27 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-10-31 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-08-01 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-05-02 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2014-02-21 Annual: 2013-12-31
10-Q 2013-11-01 Quarter: 2013-09-30
10-Q 2013-08-02 Quarter: 2013-06-30
10-Q 2013-05-03 Quarter: 2013-03-31
10-Q 2012-11-02 Quarter: 2012-09-30
10-Q 2012-08-03 Quarter: 2012-06-30
10-Q 2012-05-07 Quarter: 2012-03-31
10-K 2012-02-23 Annual: 2011-12-31
10-Q 2011-10-28 Quarter: 2011-09-30
10-Q 2011-08-01 Quarter: 2011-06-30
10-Q 2011-04-29 Quarter: 2011-03-31
10-K 2011-02-25 Annual: 2010-12-31
10-Q 2010-11-01 Quarter: 2010-09-30
10-Q 2010-07-30 Quarter: 2010-06-30
10-Q 2010-05-03 Quarter: 2010-03-31
10-K 2010-02-26 Annual: 2009-12-31
8-K 2020-03-24 Off-BS Arrangement, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-02-28 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-28
8-K 2019-12-11 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-02 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-12 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-10-31 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-30 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-26 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-03 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-30 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-04-15 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-05 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-22 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-01 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-20 Enter Agreement, Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-13 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-03 Earnings, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-07 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2018-11-06 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-24 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-13 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-07 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-01 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-30 Officers
8-K 2018-04-26 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-16 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-02 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-22 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-01 Earnings, Exhibits
AIV 2019-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Note 1 - Organization
Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Significant Transactions
Note 4 - Leases
Note 5 - Non-Recourse Property Debt and Credit Agreement
Note 6 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 7 - Aimco Equity
Note 8 -Partners' Capital
Note 9 - Share-Based Compensation
Note 10 - Income Taxes
Note 11 - Earnings per Share and per Unit
Note 12 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 13 - Business Segments
Note 14 - Unaudited Summarized Consolidated Quarterly Information
EX-3.1 aiv-ex31_992.htm
EX-4.1 aiv-ex41_466.htm
EX-21.1 aiv-ex211_1145.htm
EX-23.1 aiv-ex231_128.htm
EX-23.2 aiv-ex232_129.htm
EX-31.1 aiv-ex311_127.htm
EX-31.2 aiv-ex312_126.htm
EX-31.3 aiv-ex313_125.htm
EX-31.4 aiv-ex314_124.htm
EX-32.1 aiv-ex321_123.htm
EX-32.2 aiv-ex322_122.htm
EX-32.3 aiv-ex323_121.htm
EX-32.4 aiv-ex324_120.htm
EX-99.1 aiv-ex991_119.htm
EX-99.2 aiv-ex992_118.htm

Apartment Investment & Mgmt Earnings 2019-12-31

AIV 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
NNN 9,564 7,628 3,001 658 0 262 493 9,210 0% 18.7 3%
IRM 9,249 13,577 12,066 4,244 592 390 922 17,767 14% 19.3 3%
LAMR 8,383 5,932 4,764 1,719 855 270 397 11,439 50% 28.8 5%
GLPI 8,355 8,505 6,398 1,168 0 370 802 14,078 0% 17.5 4%
OHI 9,348 8,996 4,913 902 0 356 627 13,925 0% 22.2 4%
AIV 8,129 6,539 4,652 916 0 375 779 12,291 0% 15.8 6%
STOR 8,744 7,813 3,504 639 0 282 564 11,996 0% 21.3 4%
KIM 8,567 11,085 6,087 1,147 0 392 729 8,426 0% 11.6 4%
LPT 8,131 7,339 3,428 663 480 435 646 7,602 73% 11.8 6%
KRC 8,440 8,624 4,084 808 0 304 542 11,471 0% 21.1 4%

aiv-10k_20191231.htm
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Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from            to            

 

Commission file number 1-13232 (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

Commission file number 0-24497 (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company

AIMCO Properties, L.P.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

 

84-1259577

Delaware (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

 

84-1275621

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

 

Identification No.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4582 South Ulster Street, Suite 1700

Denver, Colorado

 

80237

(Zip Code)

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (303) 757-8101

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Class A Common Stock (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

 

AIV

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None (Apartment Investment and Management Company)

Partnership Common Units (AIMCO Properties, L.P.)

(title of each class)

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☐   No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes  ☐   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes  ☒   No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes  ☒   No  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 


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Apartment Investment and Management Company:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Apartment Investment and Management Company:  Yes     No  

AIMCO Properties, L.P.:  Yes     No  

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock of Apartment Investment and Management Company held by non-affiliates of Apartment Investment and Management Company was approximately $7.4 billion based upon the closing price of $50.12 on June 30, 2019.

 

As of February 21, 2020, there were 148,930,402 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Portions of Apartment Investment and Management Company’s definitive proxy statement to be issued in conjunction with Apartment Investment and Management Company’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held April 28, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report.

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This filing combines the Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, of Apartment Investment and Management Company, or Aimco, and AIMCO Properties, L.P., or the Aimco Operating Partnership. Where it is important to distinguish between the two entities, we refer to them specifically. Otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” or “our” mean collectively Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership, and their consolidated entities.

Aimco, a Maryland corporation, is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT. Aimco, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, is the general and special limited partner of and, as of December 31, 2019, owned a 94.0% ownership interest in the common partnership units of the Aimco Operating Partnership. The remaining 6.0% interest is owned by limited partners. As the sole general partner of the Aimco Operating Partnership, Aimco has exclusive control of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s day-to-day management.

The Aimco Operating Partnership holds all of Aimco’s assets and manages the daily operations of Aimco’s business. Pursuant to the Aimco Operating Partnership agreement, Aimco is required to contribute to the Aimco Operating Partnership all proceeds from the offerings of its securities. In exchange for the contribution of such proceeds, Aimco receives additional interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership with similar terms (e.g., if Aimco contributes proceeds of a stock offering, Aimco receives partnership units with terms substantially similar to the stock issued by Aimco).

We believe combining the periodic reports of Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership into this single report provides the following benefits:

 

We present our business as a whole, in the same manner our management views and operates the business;

 

We eliminate duplicative disclosure and provide a more streamlined and readable presentation because a substantial portion of the disclosures apply to both Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership; and

 

We save time and cost through the preparation of a single combined report rather than two separate reports.

We operate Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership as one enterprise, the management of Aimco directs the management and operations of the Aimco Operating Partnership, and the members of the Board of Directors of Aimco are identical to those of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s general partner.

We believe it is important to understand the few differences between Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership in the context of how Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership operate as a consolidated company. Aimco has no assets or liabilities other than its investment in the Aimco Operating Partnership. Also, Aimco is a corporation that issues publicly traded equity from time to time, whereas the Aimco Operating Partnership is a partnership that has no publicly traded equity. Except for the net proceeds from stock offerings by Aimco, which are contributed to the Aimco Operating Partnership in exchange for additional limited partnership interests (of a similar type and in an amount equal to the shares of stock sold in the offering), the Aimco Operating Partnership generates all remaining capital required by its business. These sources include the Aimco Operating Partnership’s working capital, net cash provided by operating activities, borrowings under its revolving credit facility, the issuance of debt and equity securities, including additional partnership units, and proceeds received from the sale of apartment communities.

Equity, partners’ capital, and noncontrolling interests are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of Aimco and those of the Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership held by entities other than Aimco, which we refer to as OP Units, are classified within partners’ capital in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s financial statements and as noncontrolling interests in Aimco’s financial statements.

To help investors understand the differences between Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership, this report provides separate consolidated financial statements for Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership; a single set of consolidated notes to such financial statements that includes separate discussions of each entity’s stockholders’ equity or partners’ capital, and earnings per share or earnings per unit, as applicable; and a combined Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section that includes discrete information related to each entity.

This report also includes separate Part II, Item 9A. Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibits 31 and 32 certifications for Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership in order to establish that the requisite certifications have been made and that Aimco and the Aimco Operating Partnership are both compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

 

 


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APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

AIMCO PROPERTIES, L.P.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

 

 

 

Item

 

Page

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

1.

Business

2

 

 

 

1A.

Risk Factors

7

 

 

 

1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

14

 

 

 

2.

Properties

15

 

 

 

3.

Legal Proceedings

15

 

 

 

4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

15

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

16

 

 

 

6.

Selected Financial Data

19

 

 

 

7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

20

 

 

 

7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

41

 

 

 

8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

42

 

 

 

9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

42

 

 

 

9A.

Controls and Procedures

42

 

 

 

9B.

Other Information

47

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

48

 

 

 

11.

Executive Compensation

48

 

 

 

12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

48

 

 

 

13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

48

 

 

 

14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

48

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

49

 

 

 

16.

Form 10-K Summary

51

 

 

 


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements in certain circumstances. Certain information included in this Annual Report contains or may contain information that is forward-looking, within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including, without limitation, statements regarding: our ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rate and property operating results; the effect of acquisitions, dispositions, redevelopments, and developments; our ability to meet budgeted costs and timelines, and achieve budgeted rental rates related to our redevelopment and development investments; expectations regarding sales of our apartment communities and the use of proceeds thereof; and our ability to comply with debt covenants, including financial coverage ratios.

Actual results may differ materially from those described in these forward-looking statements and, in addition, will be affected by a variety of risks and factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, without limitation:

 

Real estate and operating risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in the markets in which we operate and competition for residents in such markets; national and local economic conditions, including the pace of job growth and the level of unemployment; the amount, location, and quality of competitive new housing supply; the timing of acquisitions, dispositions, redevelopments, and developments; and changes in operating costs, including energy costs;

 

Financing risks, including the availability and cost of capital markets’ financing; the risk that our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; and the risk that our earnings may not be sufficient to maintain compliance with debt covenants;

 

Insurance risks, including the cost of insurance, natural disasters, and severe weather such as hurricanes; and

 

Legal and regulatory risks, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; the terms of governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those regulations; and possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of apartment communities presently or previously owned by us.

In addition, our current and continuing qualification as a real estate investment trust involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Internal Revenue Code, through actual operating results, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership.

Readers should carefully review our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” described in Item 1A of this Annual Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

As used herein and except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Apartment Investment and Management Company (which we refer to as Aimco), AIMCO Properties, L.P. (which we refer to as the Aimco Operating Partnership) and their consolidated entities, collectively.

Certain financial and operating measures found herein and used by management are not defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. These measures are defined and reconciled to the most comparable GAAP measures under the Non-GAAP Measures heading and include: Nareit Funds From Operations, Pro forma Funds From Operations, Adjusted Funds From Operations, Free Cash Flow, Net Asset Value, Economic Income, and the measures used to compute our leverage ratios.

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

The Company

Aimco is a Maryland corporation incorporated on January 10, 1994. Aimco is a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT, focused on the ownership, management, redevelopment, and some development of quality apartment communities located in several of the largest markets in the United States. Those markets include: Atlanta; the San Francisco Bay Area; Boston; Chicago; Denver; Greater New York City; Greater Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles; Miami/Dade County; Philadelphia; San Diego; and Seattle.

Aimco, through its wholly owned subsidiaries, AIMCO-GP, Inc. and AIMCO-LP Trust, owns a majority of the ownership interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership formed on May 16, 1994. Aimco conducts all of its business and owns all of its assets through the Aimco Operating Partnership.

Please refer to Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for discussion regarding our segments.

Business Overview

Our business activities are defined by a commitment to our core values of integrity, respect, collaboration, performance, and a focus on our customers. These values and our corporate mission, “to consistently provide quality apartment homes in a respectful environment delivered by a team of people who care,” shape our culture. In all of our interactions with residents, team members, business partners, lenders, and equity holders, we aim to be the best owner and operator of apartment communities and an outstanding corporate citizen.

Our principal financial objective is to provide predictable and attractive returns to our equity holders. We measure our long- term total return using Economic Income, defined as Net Asset Value, or NAV, growth plus dividends. NAV is used by many investors because the value of company assets can be readily estimated, even for non-earning assets such as land or properties under development. NAV has the advantage of incorporating the investment decisions of thousands of real estate investors, enhancing comparability among companies that have differences in their accounting and avoiding disparity that can result from application of GAAP to investment properties and various ownership structures. Over the past five years as of December 31, 2019, we have generated Economic Income at a compounded annual return of 10%. Some investors focus on multiples of Adjusted Funds From Operations, or AFFO, and Funds From Operations as defined by Nareit, or Nareit FFO. Our disclosure of AFFO, a measure of current return, complements our focus on Economic Income. We also use Pro forma Funds From Operations, or Pro forma FFO, as a secondary measure of operational performance.

Our business plan to achieve our principal financial objective is to:

 

operate our portfolio of desirable apartment homes with a high level of focus on customer selection and customer satisfaction and in an efficient manner that produces predictable and growing Free Cash Flow, or FCF;

 

improve our portfolio of apartment communities, which is diversified both by geography and price point, by selling communities with lower projected FCF internal rates of return and investing the proceeds from such sales through capital enhancements, redevelopment, some development, and acquisitions with greater land value, higher expected rent growth, and projected FCF internal rates of return in excess of those expected from the communities sold;

 

use low levels of financial leverage primarily in the form of non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate property debt and perpetual preferred equity, a combination that reduces our refunding and re-pricing risk and provides a hedge against increases in interest rates; and

 

focus intentionally on a collaborative and productive culture based on respect for others and personal responsibility.

The results from the execution of our business plan are discussed in the Executive Overview in Item 7.

Our business is organized around five areas of strategic focus: operational excellence; redevelopment and development; portfolio management; balance sheet; and team and culture.

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Operational Excellence

We own and operate a portfolio of apartment communities, diversified by both geography and price point. As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio included 124 apartment communities with 32,839 apartment homes in which we held an average ownership of approximately 99%, and approximately 80% of the value of our portfolio, measured by gross asset value (the estimated fair value of our communities), was attributable to Same Store communities.

To manage our property operations efficiently and to increase the benefits from our local management expertise, we give direct responsibility for operations within each area to area operations leaders with regular oversight by senior management. To enable the area operations leaders to focus on sales and service, as well as to improve financial control and budgeting, we have dedicated area financial officers who support the operations leaders. Additionally, with the exception of routine maintenance and purchases and installation of equipment, we have specialized teams that manage capital spending related to larger and more complicated construction.

We seek to improve our property operations by: employing service-oriented, well-trained team members; taking advantage of advances in technology; increasing automation; centralizing operational tasks where efficient to do so; standardizing business processes, operational measurements, and internal reporting; and enhancing financial controls over field operations. We focus on the following areas:

 

Customer Satisfaction. Our operating culture is focused on our residents and providing them with a high level of service in a clean, safe, and respectful living environment. We regularly monitor and evaluate our performance by providing customers with numerous opportunities to grade our work. In 2019, we received 75,000 customer grades averaging 4.3 on a five-point scale. We use this customer feedback as a daily management tool. We also publish these customer evaluations online as important and credible information for prospective customers. We have automated certain aspects of our on-site operations to enable current and future residents to interact with us using methods that are efficient and effective for them, such as making online requests for service work, and executing leases and lease renewals. In addition, we emphasize the quality of our on-site team members through recruiting, training, and retention programs, which, with continuous and real-time customer feedback, contributes to improved customer service. We believe that greater customer satisfaction leads to higher resident retention and increased occupancy rates, which in turn leads to increased revenue and reduced costs.

 

Resident Selection and Retention. In our apartment communities, we believe that one’s neighbors are a meaningful part of the customer experience, together with the location of the community and the physical quality of the apartment homes. Part of our property operations strategy is to focus on attracting and retaining stable, credit-worthy residents who are also good neighbors and are likely to live with us longer. We have explicit criteria for resident selection, which we apply to new and renewal leases, including creditworthiness and behavior in accordance with our apartment community standards and our written “Good Neighbor Commitment.” Our focus on resident selection and retention led to 43% of our apartment homes turning over, an improvement (reduction) of approximately 150 basis points from 2018.

 

Revenue Management and Ancillary Services. We have a centralized revenue management system that leverages people, processes, and technology to work in partnership with our local property management teams to develop rental rate pricing. We seek to increase FCF, which we define as net operating income less Capital Replacements, by optimizing the balance between rental and occupancy rates, as well as taking into consideration costs such as preparing an apartment home for a new resident. We are focused on careful measurements of on-site operations, as we believe that timely and accurate collection of apartment community performance and resident profile data allows us to maximize FCF through better property management and leasing decisions. We seek to maximize profit by performing timely data analysis of new and renewal pricing for each apartment home, thereby enabling us to adjust rents quickly in response to changes in supply and demand and minimize vacancy time. We also generate incremental revenue by providing or facilitating the provision of services to our residents, including, at certain apartment communities, telecommunications services, parking options, package lockers, and storage space rental.

 

Controlling Expenses. Innovation is the foundation of our cost control efforts. Innovative activities we have undertaken include: moving administrative tasks to our shared service center, which reduces costs and allows site teams to focus on sales and service; taking advantage of economies of scale at the corporate level through electronic procurement, which reduces complexity and increases purchasing volume discounts; focusing on life cycle costs by investing in more durable, longer-lived materials, which reduce turn times and costs; and leveraging technology through such items as smart home capabilities, website design, and package lockers, which meet today’s customer preference for self-service. Additionally, our efforts to maximize resident retention through our resident selection process described above has resulted in reduced turn costs. These and other innovations contributed to a growth rate in controllable operating expense, which we define as property expenses less taxes, insurance, and utility expenses, compounding for the past 12 years at an annual rate of negative 0.2%.

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Improving and Maintaining Apartment Community Quality. We believe that the physical condition and amenities of our apartment communities are important factors in our ability to maintain and increase rental rates. We invest in the maintenance and improvement of our communities primarily through: Capital Replacements, which are capital additions made to replace the portion of an apartment community consumed during our ownership; Capital Improvements, which extend the useful life of a community from its condition at our date of purchase; Capital Enhancements, which may include kitchen and bath remodeling, energy conservation projects, and investments in longer-lived materials as described above, all of which are generally lesser in scope than is a redevelopment and do not significantly disrupt property operations; and Initial Capital Expenditures, which are capital additions contemplated in the underwriting of an acquired asset. During 2019, we invested $1,109 per apartment home in Capital Replacements, $374 per apartment home in Capital Improvements, and $2,686 per apartment home in Capital Enhancements. We also invested a total of $22.9 million in Initial Capital Expenditures, which were planned as part of our initial investment in communities acquired in 2019 and 2018.

Redevelopment and Development

Our second line of business is the redevelopment and some development of apartment communities. Through redevelopment activities, we expect to create value by repositioning apartment communities within our portfolio. We undertake ground-up development when warranted by risk-adjusted investment returns, either directly or in connection with the redevelopment of an existing apartment community. When warranted, we rely on the expertise and credit of a third-party developer familiar with the local market to limit our exposure to construction risk. Over the past five years, we have spent approximately $1.0 billion on redevelopment and development, targeting FCF internal rates of return of approximately 9% to 11% on these investments.

We undertake a range of redevelopments, including: those in which buildings or exteriors are renovated without the need to vacate a significant percentage of apartment homes, or short-cycle redevelopments; those in which significant renovation of apartment homes may be accomplished upon lease expiration and turnover; and those in which an entire building or community is vacated, or long-cycle redevelopments. We often execute redevelopment using a phased approach, in which we renovate an apartment community in stages. Redevelopment work may include seeking entitlements from local governments, which enhance the value of our existing portfolio by increasing density; that is, the right to add apartment homes to a site.

We invest to earn risk-adjusted returns in excess of those expected from the communities sold in paired trades to fund the redevelopment or development. Of these two activities, we generally favor redevelopment because it permits adjustment to the scope and timing of spending to align with changing market conditions and customer preferences.

Portfolio Management

Our portfolio management strategy involves the allocation of investment capital to enhance rent growth and increase long-term capital values through portfolio design, emphasizing land value as well as location and submarket. We target geographic diversification in our portfolio in order to reduce the volatility of our rental revenue and to reduce the risk of undue concentration in any particular market. Similarly, we seek price point diversification by owning apartment communities that offer apartment homes at rents below those asked by competitive new building supply.

Our portfolio of apartment communities is diversified across “A,” “B,” and “C+” price points, averaging “B/B+” in quality and is also diversified across several of the largest markets in the United States. Please refer to the Executive Overview section in Item 7 for a description of our portfolio quality ratings. As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio was allocated about one-half to “A” rated properties, and about one-half to “B” and “C+” rated properties.

As part of our portfolio strategy, we seek to sell up to 10% of our portfolio annually and to reinvest the proceeds from such sales in accretive uses such as capital enhancements, redevelopments, some developments, and selective acquisitions with projected FCF internal rates of return higher than expected from the communities being sold. Through this disciplined approach to capital recycling, we increase the quality and expected growth rate of our portfolio.

Balance Sheet

Our leverage strategy seeks to increase financial returns by using leverage with appropriate caution. We limit risk through our balance sheet structure, employing low leverage, primarily non-recourse and long-dated property debt; build financial flexibility by maintaining ample unused and available credit as well as holding properties with substantial value unencumbered by property debt; and use partners’ capital when it enhances financial returns or reduces investment risk.

Our leverage includes our share of long-term, non-recourse, property debt encumbering apartment communities, outstanding borrowings under our revolving credit facility, outstanding preferred equity, and redeemable noncontrolling interests in a consolidated real estate partnership.

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We target a ratio of Proportionate Debt and Preferred Equity to adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization for real estate, or Adjusted EBITDAre, as defined by Nareit, below 7.0x and we target a ratio of Adjusted EBITDAre to Adjusted Interest Expense and Preferred Dividends greater than 2.5x. 

Our ratios as of December 31, 2019, were 7.6x and 3.5x, respectively. We delayed approximately $300 million of sales originally planned for fourth quarter 2019 and January 2020, which increased Proportionate Debt to Adjusted EBITDAre and Proportionate Debt and Preferred Equity to Adjusted EBITDAre by 0.3x as of December 31, 2019. We expect a gradual decline in leverage to EBITDAre ratios throughout 2020, reaching approximately 6.4x and 6.5x, respectively, at year end. In future years, we expect earnings growth from completed redevelopments will increase EBITDAre and further reduce our leverage ratios.

Please refer to the Leverage Ratios subsection to the Non-GAAP Measures section in Item 7 for additional information regarding our leverage ratios.

Our liquidity consists of cash balances and available capacity on our revolving credit facility. As of December 31, 2019, we had cash and restricted cash of $177.7 million and had capacity to borrow $517.8 million under our revolving credit facility.

We manage our financial flexibility by maintaining an investment grade rating and holding apartment communities that are unencumbered by property debt. As of December 31, 2019, we held unencumbered communities with an estimated fair market value of approximately $2.4 billion.

Please refer to the Executive Overview and Liquidity and Capital Resources sections in Item 7 for additional information regarding our balance sheet and liquidity.

Team and Culture

Our team and culture are keys to our success. Our intentional focus on a collaborative and productive culture based on respect for others and personal responsibility is reinforced by a preference for promotion from within. We focus on succession planning and talent development to produce a strong, stable team that is the enduring foundation of our success. We offer benefits reinforcing our value of caring for each other, including paid time for parental leave, paid time annually to volunteer in local communities, college scholarships for the children of team members, an emergency fund to help team members in crisis, financial support for our team members who are becoming United States citizens, and a bonus structure at all levels of the organization. We also pay full compensation and benefits for team members who are actively deployed by the United States military. Out of hundreds of participating companies in 2019, Aimco was one of only seven recognized as a “Top Workplace” in Colorado for each of the past seven years. Aimco was also recognized as a Top Workplace in the Bay Area in 2019. Also in 2019, Aimco was the only real estate company to receive a BEST award from the Association for Talent Development in recognition of our company-wide success in talent development, marking our second consecutive year receiving this award.

Competition

In attracting and retaining residents to occupy our apartment communities we compete with numerous other housing providers. Our apartment communities compete directly with other rental apartments, as well as condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent or purchase in the markets in which our apartment communities are located. Principal factors of competition include rent or price charged, attractiveness of the location and apartment community, and the quality and breadth of services. The number of competitive apartment communities relative to demand in a particular area has a material effect on our ability to lease apartment homes at our apartment communities and on the rents we charge. In certain markets, there exists an oversupply of newly-constructed apartment homes, single-family homes, and condominiums relative to consumer demand, which affects the pricing and occupancy of our rental apartments.

We also compete with other real estate investors, including other apartment REITs, pension and investment funds, partnerships, and investment companies in acquiring, redeveloping, managing, obtaining financing for, and disposing of apartment communities. This competition affects our ability to acquire apartment communities we want to add to our portfolio and the price that we pay in such acquisitions; our ability to finance or refinance communities in our portfolio and the cost of such financing; and our ability to dispose of communities we no longer desire to retain in our portfolio and the timing and price available to us when we seek to dispose of such communities.

Taxation

Aimco

Aimco has elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994, and intends to continue to operate in such a manner. The Code imposes various requirements related to organizational structure, distribution levels, diversity of stock ownership, and

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certain restrictions with regard to owned assets and categories of income that must be met in order to continue to qualify as a REIT. If Aimco continues to qualify for taxation as a REIT, Aimco will generally not be subject to United States federal corporate income tax on its taxable income that is currently distributed to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.

Certain of Aimco’s operations, or a portion thereof, including property management and risk management are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a subsidiary C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and activities to our residents and investment partners that cannot be offered directly by a REIT. We also use TRS entities to hold investments in certain apartment communities.

The Aimco Operating Partnership

The Aimco Operating Partnership is treated as a “pass-through” entity for United States federal income tax purposes and is not subject to United States federal income taxation. Partners in the Aimco Operating Partnership, however, are subject to tax on their allocable share of partnership income, gains, losses, deductions, and credits, regardless of whether the partners receive any actual distributions of cash or other property from the Aimco Operating Partnership during the taxable year. Generally, the characterization of any particular item is determined by the Aimco Operating Partnership, rather than at the partner level, and the amount of a partner’s allocable share of such item is governed by the terms of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement. The Aimco Operating Partnership is subject to tax in certain states.

Regulation

General

Apartment communities and their owners are subject to various laws, ordinances, and regulations, including those related to real estate broker licensing and regulations relating to recreational facilities such as swimming pools, activity centers, and other common areas. Changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on communities or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, as well as changes in laws affecting development, construction, and safety requirements, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which would adversely affect our net income and cash flows from operating activities. In addition, existing rent control laws, as well as future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws, or other laws regulating multifamily housing, may reduce rental revenue or increase operating costs in particular markets.

Environmental

Various federal, state, and local laws subject apartment community owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present at an apartment community. These materials may include lead-based paint, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, and petroleum-based fuels. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such materials. In connection with the ownership, operation, and management of apartment communities, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our current communities, communities we acquire or manage in the future, or communities we previously owned or operated in the past. These and other risks related to environmental matters are described in more detail in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Corporate Responsibility

At Aimco, corporate responsibility is an important part of our business. As with all other aspects of our business, our corporate responsibility program focuses on continuous improvement, to the benefit of our stockholders, our residents, our team members, our communities, and the environment. Highlights of our corporate responsibility program can be found in our proxy statement for Aimco’s 2020 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.

Insurance

Our primary lines of insurance coverage are property, general liability, and workers’ compensation. We believe that our insurance coverages adequately insure our apartment communities against the risk of loss attributable to fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorism, and other perils, and adequately insure us against other risk. Our coverage includes deductibles, retentions, and limits that are customary in the industry. We have established loss prevention, loss mitigation, claims handling, and litigation management procedures to manage our exposure.

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Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 950 team members, of whom about 600 were at the apartment community level performing on-site functions or at our shared service center performing tasks that have been centralized there, with the balance managing corporate and area functions, including investment and debt transactions, legal, finance and accounting, information systems, human resources, and other support functions. As of December 31, 2019, unions represented approximately 50 of our team members. We have never experienced a work stoppage and believe we maintain satisfactory relations with our team members.

Available Information

Our combined Annual Report on Form 10-K, our combined Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K filed by Aimco or the Aimco Operating Partnership, and any amendments to any of those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable through Aimco’s website at www.aimco.com. The information contained on Aimco’s website is not incorporated into this Annual Report.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risk factors noted in this section, and other factors noted throughout this Annual Report, describe certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

Risks Related to Our Real Estate Investments and Our Operations

Redevelopment, development, and construction risks could affect our profitability.

We are currently redeveloping and developing certain of our apartment communities. During 2020, we expect to invest $250 million to $300 million in redevelopment and development activities. Redevelopment and development are subject to numerous risks, including the following:

 

we may be unable to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, occupancy, or other required governmental or third-party permits and authorizations, which could result in increased costs or the delay or abandonment of opportunities;

 

we may incur costs that exceed our original estimates due to increased material, labor, or other costs, such as litigation;

 

we may be unable to complete construction and lease-up of an apartment community on schedule, resulting in increased construction and financing costs and a decrease in expected rental revenues;

 

occupancy rates and rents at an apartment community may fail to meet our expectations for a number of reasons, including changes in market and economic conditions beyond our control and the development of competing communities;

 

we may be unable to obtain financing with favorable terms, or at all, which may cause us to delay or abandon an opportunity;

 

we may abandon opportunities that we have already begun to explore, or stop projects we have already commenced, for a number of reasons, including changes in local market conditions or increases in construction or financing costs, and, as a result, we may fail to recover costs already incurred in exploring those opportunities;

 

we may incur liabilities to third parties during the redevelopment or development process;

 

unexpected events or circumstances may arise during the redevelopment or development process that affect the timing of completion and the cost and profitability of the redevelopment or development; and

 

loss of a key member of a redevelopment or development team could adversely affect our ability to deliver redevelopments and developments on time and within our budget.

Failure to generate sufficient net operating income may adversely affect our liquidity, limit our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures, or adversely affect our ability to pay dividends or distributions.

Our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures on our communities depends on, among other things, our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments. If we are unable to fund capital expenditures on our communities, we may not be able to preserve the competitiveness of our communities, which could adversely affect their net operating income and long-term value.

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Our ability to make payments to our investors depends on our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and capital expenditure requirements. Our net operating income and liquidity may be adversely affected by events or conditions beyond our control, including:

 

the general economic climate;

 

an inflationary environment in which the costs to operate and maintain our communities increase at a rate greater than our ability to increase rents, which we can only do upon renewal of existing leases or at the inception of new leases;

 

competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;

 

local conditions, such as loss of jobs, unemployment rates, or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;

 

changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;

 

changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and

 

changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.

Competition could limit our ability to lease apartment homes or increase or maintain rents.

Our apartment communities compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments and condominiums, and, to a lesser degree, single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing, as well as household formation and job creation in a particular area, could adversely affect our ability to lease apartment homes and to increase or maintain rental rates.

Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we may not be able to sell apartment communities when appropriate.

Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and generally cannot be sold quickly. REIT tax rules also restrict our ability to sell apartment communities. Thus, we may not be able to change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other market conditions. Our ability to dispose of apartment communities in the future will depend on prevailing economic and market conditions, including the cost and availability of financing. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

If we are not successful in our acquisition of apartment communities, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

The selective acquisition of apartment communities is a component of our strategy. However, we may not be able to complete transactions successfully in the future. Although we seek to acquire apartment communities when such acquisitions increase our FCF internal rates of return and are accretive to NAV, such transactions may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations. In particular, following acquisition, the value and operational performance of an apartment community may be diminished if obsolescence or neighborhood changes occur before we are able to redevelop or sell the apartment community. This could have an adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

Potential liability or other expenditures associated with potential environmental contamination may be costly.

Various federal, state, and local laws subject apartment community owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials that may be present in the land or buildings of an apartment community. Potentially hazardous materials may include polychlorinated biphenyls, petroleum-based fuels, lead-based paint, or asbestos, among other materials. Such laws often impose liability without regard to fault or whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such materials. The presence of, or the failure to manage or remediate properly, these materials may adversely affect occupancy at such apartment communities as well as the ability to sell or finance such apartment communities. In addition, governmental agencies may bring claims for costs associated with investigation and remediation actions, damages to natural resources and for potential fines or penalties in connection with such damage or with respect to the improper management of hazardous materials. Moreover, private plaintiffs may potentially make claims for investigation and remediation costs they incur or personal injury, disease, disability, or other infirmities related to the alleged presence of hazardous materials at an apartment community. In addition to potential environmental liabilities or costs associated with our current apartment communities, we may also be responsible for such liabilities or costs associated with communities we acquire or manage in the future, or apartment communities we no longer own or operate.

Laws benefiting disabled persons may result in our incurrence of unanticipated expenses.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or ADA, all places intended to be used by the public are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, or FHAA, requires apartment communities first occupied after March 13, 1991, to comply with design and construction

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requirements for disabled access. For those apartment communities receiving federal funds, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 also has requirements regarding disabled access. These and other federal, state, and local laws may require structural modifications to our apartment communities or changes in policy/practice, or affect renovations of the communities. Noncompliance with these laws could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. Although we believe that our apartment communities are substantially in compliance with present requirements, we may incur unanticipated expenses to comply with the ADA, the FHAA, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 in connection with the ongoing operation or redevelopment of our apartment communities.

Moisture infiltration and resulting mold remediation may be costly.

Although we are proactively engaged in managing moisture intrusion and preventing the presence of mold at our apartment communities, it is not unusual for periodic moisture intrusion to cause mold in isolated locations within an apartment community. We have implemented policies, procedures, and training, and include a detailed moisture intrusion and mold assessment during acquisition due diligence. We believe these measures will manage mold exposure at our apartment communities and will minimize the effects that mold may have on our residents. To date, we have not incurred any material costs or liabilities relating to claims of mold exposure or to abate mold conditions. We have only limited insurance coverage for property damage claims arising from the presence of mold and for personal injury claims related to mold exposure.

Although we are insured for certain risks, the cost of insurance, increased claims activity, or losses resulting from casualty events may affect our operating results and financial condition.

We are insured for a portion of our consolidated apartment communities’ exposure to casualty losses resulting from fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, and other perils, which insurance is subject to deductibles and self-insurance retention. We recognize casualty losses or gains based on the net book value of the affected apartment community and the amount of any related insurance proceeds. In many instances, the actual cost to repair or replace the apartment community may exceed its net book value and any insurance proceeds. We recognize the uninsured portion of losses as casualty losses in the periods in which they are incurred. In addition, we are self-insured for a portion of our exposure to third-party claims related to our employee health insurance plans, workers’ compensation coverage, and general liability exposure. With respect to our exposure to claims of third parties, we establish reserves at levels that reflect our known and estimated losses. The ultimate cost of losses and the impact of unforeseen events may vary materially from recorded reserves, and variances may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. We purchase insurance to reduce our exposure to losses and limit our financial losses on large individual risks. The availability and cost of insurance are determined by market conditions outside our control. No assurance can be made that we will be able to obtain and maintain insurance at the same levels and on the same terms as we do today. If we are not able to obtain or maintain insurance in amounts we consider appropriate for our business, or if the cost of obtaining such insurance increases materially, we may have to retain a larger portion of the potential loss associated with our exposures to risks.

Natural disasters and severe weather may affect our operating results and financial condition.

Natural disasters such as earthquakes and severe weather such as hurricanes may result in significant damage to our apartment communities. The extent of our casualty losses and loss in operating income in connection with such events is a function of the severity of the event and the total amount of exposure in the affected area. When we have geographic concentration of exposures, a single catastrophe (such as an earthquake) or destructive weather event (such as a hurricane) affecting a region may have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot accurately predict natural disasters or severe weather, or the number and type of such events that will affect us. As a result, our operating and financial results may vary significantly from one period to the next. Although we anticipate and plan for losses, there can be no assurance that our financial results will not be adversely affected by our exposure to losses arising from natural disasters or severe weather in the future that exceed our previous experience and assumptions.

We depend on our senior management.

Our success depends upon the retention of our senior management, including Terry Considine, our chief executive officer. We have a succession planning and talent development process that is designed to identify potential replacements and develop our team members to provide depth in the organization and a bench of talent on which to draw. However, there are no assurances that we would be able to find qualified replacements for the individuals who make up our senior management if their services were no longer available. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not currently maintain key-man life insurance for any of our employees.

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Our business and operations would suffer in the event of significant disruptions or cyber attacks of our information technology systems or our failure to comply with laws, rules and regulations related to privacy and data protection.

Information technology, communication networks, and related systems are essential to the operation of our business. We use these systems to manage our resident and vendor relationships, internal communications, accounting and record-keeping systems, and many other key aspects of our business. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks, which also depend on the strength of our procedures and the effectiveness of our internal controls. Information security risks have generally increased in recent years due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber attacks.

 

Despite system redundancy, risk transfer, insurance, indemnification, the implementation of security measures, required employee awareness training, and the existence of a disaster recovery plan for our internal information technology systems, our systems and systems maintained by third party vendors with which we do business are vulnerable to damage from any number of sources. We face risks associated with energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures, and cyber attacks and intrusions, such as computer viruses, malware, attachments to e-mails, intrusion, and unauthorized access, including from persons inside our organization or from persons outside our organization with access to our systems. We may also incur additional costs to remedy damages caused by such disruptions. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Any compromise of our security could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information (which may be confidential, proprietary, and/or commercially sensitive in nature), and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.

 

We also are subject to laws, rules, and regulations in the United States, such as the California Consumer Protection Act, or CCPA (which will become effective on January 1, 2020), relating to the collection, use, and security of employee and other data. Evolving compliance and operational requirements under the CCPA and the privacy laws of other jurisdictions in which we operate impose significant costs that are likely to increase over time. Our failure to comply with laws, rules, and regulations related to privacy and data protection could harm our business or reputation.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness and Financing

Our existing and future debt financing could result in foreclosure of our apartment communities, prevent us from making distributions on our equity, or otherwise adversely affect our liquidity.

We are subject to the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, and the risk that existing indebtedness may not be refinanced or that the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of existing indebtedness. If we fail to make required payments of principal and interest on our non-recourse debt, our lenders could foreclose on the apartment communities and other collateral securing such debt, which would result in the loss to us of income and asset value. As of December 31, 2019, the majority of our apartment communities were encumbered by debt. Our organizational documents do not limit the amount of debt that we may incur, and we have significant amounts of debt outstanding. Payments of principal and interest may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our communities or pay distributions required to be paid in order to maintain Aimco’s qualification as a REIT.

Disruptions in the financial markets could affect our ability to obtain financing and the cost of available financing and could adversely affect our liquidity.

Our ability to obtain financing and the cost of such financing depends on the overall condition of the United States credit markets. During periods of economic uncertainty the United States credit markets may experience significant liquidity disruptions, which may cause the spreads on debt financings to widen considerably and make obtaining financing, both non-recourse property debt and corporate borrowings such as those under our revolving credit agreement, more difficult. In particular, apartment borrowers have benefited from the historic willingness of Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, to make substantial amounts of loans secured by multi-family properties, even in times of economic distress. These two lenders are federally chartered and subject to federal regulation, which is subject to change, making uncertain their prospects and ability to provide liquidity in a future downturn.

If our ability to obtain financing is adversely affected, we may be unable to satisfy scheduled maturities on existing financing through other sources of liquidity, which could result in lender foreclosure on the apartment communities securing such debt and loss of income and asset value, both of which would adversely affect our liquidity.

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Increases in interest rates would increase our interest expense and reduce our profitability.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $445.1 million of variable-rate indebtedness outstanding. We estimate that an increase or decrease in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads would increase or reduce interest expense by approximately $4.5 million on an annual basis.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $177.7 million in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, a portion of which bear interest at variable rates indexed to LIBOR-based rates, which may partially mitigate the effect of an increase in variable rates on our variable-rate indebtedness discussed above.

The potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.

In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In 2018, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as the alternative to LIBOR. Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement remains a question, and the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Due to the broad use of LIBOR as a reference rate, all financial market participants, including us, are impacted by the risks associated with this transition. Any of these proposals or consequences could have a material adverse effect on our financing costs, and as a result, our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

Covenant restrictions may limit our ability to make payments to our investors.

Some of our debt and other securities contain covenants that restrict our ability to make distributions or other payments to our investors unless certain financial tests or other criteria are satisfied. Our revolving credit agreement provides, among other things, that we may not make distributions to our investors during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount greater than 95% of our Nareit FFO for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain Aimco’s REIT status. Our outstanding preferred units prohibit the payment of dividends on our Common Stock or common partnership units if we fail to pay the dividends to which the holders of the preferred units are entitled.

 

Risks Related to Aimco’s Corporate Structure

The Aimco Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries may be prohibited from making distributions and other payments.

All of Aimco’s apartment communities are owned, and all of Aimco’s operations are conducted, by the Aimco Operating Partnership. Further, many of the Aimco Operating Partnership’s apartment communities are owned by subsidiaries of the Aimco Operating Partnership. As a result, Aimco depends on distributions and other payments from the Aimco Operating Partnership, and the Aimco Operating Partnership depends on distributions and payments from its subsidiaries in order to satisfy our financial obligations and make payments to our investors. The ability of the Aimco Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries to make such distributions and other payments depends on their earnings and cash flows and may be subject to statutory or contractual limitations. As an equity investor in the Aimco Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries, our right to receive assets upon their liquidation or reorganization will be effectively subordinated to the claims of their creditors. To the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiaries, our claims may still be subordinate to any security interest in or other lien on their assets and to any of their debt or other obligations that are senior to our claims.

Limits on ownership of shares specified in Aimco’s charter may result in the loss of economic and voting rights by purchasers that violate those limits.

Aimco’s charter limits ownership of Common Stock by any single stockholder (applying certain “beneficial ownership” rules under the federal securities laws) to 8.7% (or up to 12.0% upon a waiver from Aimco’s Board of Directors) of outstanding shares of Common Stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies and Mr. Considine (or up to 20.0% for such pension trusts or registered investment companies upon a waiver from Aimco’s Board of Directors). Aimco’s charter also limits ownership of Aimco’s Common Stock and preferred stock by any single stockholder to 8.7% of the value of the outstanding Common Stock and preferred stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies, and Mr. Considine. The charter also prohibits anyone from buying shares of Aimco’s capital stock if the purchase would result in Aimco losing its REIT status. This could happen if a transaction results in fewer than 100 persons owning all of Aimco’s shares of capital stock or results in five or fewer persons (applying certain attribution rules of the Code) owning 50% or more of the value of all of Aimco’s shares of capital stock. If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limit or in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs:

 

the transfer will be considered null and void;

 

we will not reflect the transaction on Aimco’s books;

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we may institute legal action to enjoin the transaction;

 

we may demand repayment of any dividends received by the affected person on those shares;

 

we may redeem the shares;

 

the affected person will not have any voting rights for those shares; and

 

the shares (and all voting and dividend rights of the shares) will be held in trust for the benefit of one or more charitable organizations designated by Aimco.

Aimco may purchase the shares of capital stock held in trust at a price equal to the lesser of the price paid by the transferee of the shares or the then current market price. If the trust transfers any of the shares of capital stock, the affected person will receive the lesser of the price paid for the shares or the then current market price. An individual who acquires shares of capital stock that violate the above rules bears the risk that the individual:

 

may lose control over the power to dispose of such shares;

 

may not recognize profit from the sale of such shares if the market price of the shares increases;

 

may be required to recognize a loss from the sale of such shares if the market price decreases; and

 

may be required to repay to us any dividends received from us as a result of his or her ownership of the shares.

Aimco’s charter may limit the ability of a third-party to acquire control of Aimco.

The 8.7% and other ownership limits discussed above may have the effect of delaying or precluding acquisition by a third-party of control of Aimco without the consent of Aimco’s Board of Directors. Aimco’s charter authorizes its Board of Directors to issue up to 510,587,500 shares of capital stock. As of December 31, 2019, 500,787,260 shares were classified as Common Stock, of which 148,885,197 were outstanding, and 9,800,240 shares were classified as preferred stock of which no shares were outstanding. Under Aimco’s charter, its Board of Directors has the authority to classify and reclassify any of Aimco’s unissued shares of capital stock into shares of capital stock with such preferences, conversion or other rights, voting power restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, or terms or conditions of redemptions as the Board of Directors may determine. The authorization and issuance of a new class of capital stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of Aimco, where there is a difference of opinion between the Aimco Board of Directors and others as to what is in Aimco’s stockholders’ best interests.

The Maryland General Corporation Law may limit the ability of a third-party to acquire control of Aimco.

As a Maryland corporation, Aimco is subject to various Maryland laws that may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire Aimco and increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, where there is a difference of opinion between the Aimco Board of Directors and others as to what is in Aimco’s stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Business Combination Act, restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between Aimco and any person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of shares of Aimco’s stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without Aimco’s Board of Directors’ prior approval. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 66-2/3% of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, provides generally that a person who acquires shares of Aimco’s capital stock representing 10% or more of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote. Additionally, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides, among other things, that the Board of Directors has broad discretion in adopting stockholders’ rights plans and has the sole power to fix the record date, time, and place for special meetings of the stockholders. To date, Aimco has not adopted a stockholders’ rights plan. In addition, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides that a corporation that:

 

has at least three directors who are not officers or employees of the entity or related to an acquiring person; and

 

has a class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, may elect in its charter or bylaws or by resolution of the board of directors to be subject to all or part of a special subtitle that provides that:

 

the corporation will have a staggered board of directors;

 

any director may be removed only for cause and by the vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors generally, even if a lesser proportion is provided in the charter or bylaws;

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the number of directors may only be set by the board of directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws;

 

vacancies may only be filled by the remaining directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws; and

 

the secretary of the corporation may call a special meeting of stockholders at the request of stockholders only on the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws.

To date, Aimco has not made any of the elections described above.

Risks Related to Tax Laws and Regulations

Aimco may fail to qualify as a REIT.

If Aimco fails to qualify as a REIT, Aimco will not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to its stockholders in computing its taxable income, and will be subject to United States federal income tax at regular corporate rates. This would substantially reduce our funds available for distribution to our investors. Unless entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, Aimco also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to qualify as a REIT. In addition, Aimco’s failure to qualify as a REIT would place us in default under our revolving credit agreement.

We believe that Aimco operates, and has since its taxable year ended December 31, 1994, operated, in a manner that enables it to meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT for United States federal income tax purposes. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Moreover, even a technical or inadvertent mistake could jeopardize our REIT status. Aimco’s continued qualification as a REIT will depend on its satisfaction of certain asset, income, investment, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership, and other requirements on a continuing basis. Aimco’s ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we do not obtain independent appraisals. Aimco’s compliance with the REIT annual income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon our ability to manage successfully the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Moreover, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for United States federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT qualification requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or other issuers constitutes a violation of the REIT requirements. Moreover, future economic, market, legal, tax, or other considerations may cause Aimco to fail to qualify as a REIT, or Aimco’s Board of Directors may determine to revoke its REIT status.

REIT distribution requirements limit our available cash.

As a REIT, Aimco is subject to annual distribution requirements. The Aimco Operating Partnership pays distributions intended to enable Aimco to satisfy its distribution requirements. This limits the amount of cash available for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. Aimco generally must distribute annually at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, in order for its distributed earnings not to be subject to United States federal corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to Aimco’s stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code. However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell apartment communities or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.

Aimco may be subject to federal and state income taxes, in certain circumstances.

Even if Aimco qualifies as a REIT, Aimco may be subject to United States federal income and excise taxes in various situations, such as on its undistributed income. Aimco could also be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income on non-arm’s length transactions between Aimco and a taxable REIT subsidiary and on any net income from sales of apartment communities that were held for sale primarily in the ordinary course. State and local tax laws may not conform to the United States federal income tax treatment, and Aimco may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions in which Aimco transacts business. Any taxes imposed on Aimco would reduce our operating cash flow and net income and could negatively impact our ability to pay dividends and distributions.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

REITs are entitled to a United States federal tax deduction for dividends paid to their stockholders. As compared to other taxable corporations, this ability to reduce or eliminate the REIT’s taxable income by paying dividends to stockholders is a principal benefit of maintaining REIT status, generally resulting in a lower combined tax liability of the REIT and its

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stockholders as compared to that of the combined tax liability of other taxable corporations and their stockholders. Notwithstanding this combined benefit, dividends payable by REITs may result in marginally higher taxes to the stockholder.

C-corporations are generally required to pay United States federal income tax on earnings. After tax earnings are then available for stockholder dividends. The maximum United States federal tax rate applicable to income from “qualified dividends” payable to United States stockholders that are individuals, trusts, and estates is currently 20%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. While dividends payable by REITs are generally not eligible for the qualified dividend reduced rates, stockholders that are individuals, trusts, or estates may deduct 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary dividends from REITs. This deduction is available for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, and will generally cause the maximum tax rate for ordinary dividends from REITs to be 29.6%, plus the 3.8% investment tax surcharge. The more favorable tax rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts, and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the shares of non-REIT corporates that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including Aimco Common Stock.

Complying with the REIT requirements may cause Aimco to forgo otherwise attractive business opportunities.

To qualify as a REIT for United States federal income tax purposes, Aimco must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of its income, the nature and diversification of its assets, the amounts distributed to Aimco stockholders, and the ownership of Aimco stock. As a result of these tests, Aimco may be required to make distributions to stockholders at disadvantageous times or when Aimco does not have funds readily available for distribution, forgo otherwise attractive investment opportunities, liquidate assets in adverse market conditions, or contribute assets to a TRS that is subject to regular corporate federal income tax.

Changes to United States federal income tax laws could materially and adversely affect Aimco and Aimco’s stockholders.

The present United States federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time, which could affect the United States federal income tax treatment of an investment in Aimco Common Stock. The United States federal income tax rules dealing with REITs constantly are under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the IRS, and the United States Treasury Department, which results in statutory changes as well as frequent revisions to regulations and interpretations. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect Aimco or Aimco’s stockholders. Revisions in federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could significantly and negatively affect Aimco’s ability to qualify as a REIT and the tax considerations relevant to an investment in Aimco Common Stock, or could cause Aimco to change its investments and commitments.

Government housing regulations may limit the opportunities at some of our apartment communities and failure to comply with resident qualification requirements may result in financial penalties and/or loss of benefits, such as rental revenues paid by government agencies. Additionally, the government may cease to operate or reduce funding for government housing programs which would result in a loss of benefits from those programs.

We own equity interests in entities that own certain apartment communities that benefit from governmental programs intended to provide housing to people with low or moderate incomes. These programs, which are usually administered by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD, or state housing finance agencies, typically provide one or more of the following: mortgage insurance; favorable financing terms; tax-exempt interest; historic or low-income housing tax credits; or rental assistance payments to the apartment community owners. As a condition of the receipt of assistance under these programs, the apartment communities must comply with various requirements, which typically limit rents to pre-approved amounts and limit our choice of residents to those with incomes at or below certain levels. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits. We are usually required to obtain the approval of HUD in order to acquire or dispose of a significant interest in or manage a HUD-assisted apartment community. We may not always receive such approval.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Additional information about our consolidated real estate, including property debt, is contained in “Schedule III - Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our portfolio is diversified by both price point and geography and consists of market rate apartment communities in which we own a substantial interest. Our portfolio includes garden style, mid-rise, and high-rise apartment communities located in 17 states and the District of Columbia. Our portfolio strategy seeks predictable rent growth from a portfolio of apartment communities diversified among some of the largest markets in the United States, and that is diversified across “A,” “B,” and “C+” price points, averaging “B/B+” in quality. As of December 31, 2019, our portfolio consisted of roughly one-half “A” quality communities and one-half “B” and “C+” quality communities. Please refer to the Executive Overview section in Item 7 for a description of our portfolio quality ratings. The following table sets forth information on the apartment communities in our portfolio as of December 31, 2019:

 

 

Number of

Apartment

Communities

 

 

Number of

Apartment

Homes

 

 

Average

Economic

Ownership

 

 

Average

Quality

Rating (1)

Atlanta

 

 

4

 

 

 

505

 

 

 

100

%

 

A

Bay Area

 

 

12

 

 

 

2,632

 

 

 

100

%

 

B

Boston

 

 

15

 

 

 

4,689

 

 

 

100

%

 

C+

Chicago

 

 

7

 

 

 

1,671

 

 

 

100

%

 

B

Denver

 

 

8

 

 

 

2,151

 

 

 

98

%

 

B

Greater New York

 

 

18

 

 

 

1,039

 

 

 

100

%

 

B

Greater Washington, D.C.

 

 

12

 

 

 

5,457

 

 

 

100

%

 

C+

Los Angeles

 

 

13

 

 

 

4,347

 

 

 

100

%

 

A

Miami

 

 

5

 

 

 

2,448

 

 

 

100

%

 

A

Philadelphia

 

 

9

 

 

 

2,748

 

 

 

97

%

 

A

San Diego

 

 

12

 

 

 

2,423

 

 

 

97

%

 

B

Seattle

 

 

2

 

 

 

239

 

 

 

100

%

 

B

Other markets

 

 

7

 

 

 

2,490

 

 

 

99

%

 

B

   Total portfolio (2)

 

 

124

 

 

 

32,839

 

 

 

99

%

 

B/B+

(1)

Average quality rating is based on REIS market data as of September 30, 2019.

(2)

Total portfolio represents the number of apartment communities we owned an equity interest in. Of our total portfolio, we consolidate 120 apartment communities with 32,697 apartment homes.

Our consolidated apartment communities contained, on average, 272 apartment homes, with the largest community containing 2,113 apartment homes. These apartment communities offer residents a range of amenities, including resort pools with cabanas, grills, clubhouses, spas, fitness centers, package lockers, dog parks, and large open spaces. Many of the apartment homes offer features such as granite countertops, wood flooring, stainless steel appliances, fireplaces, spacious closets, washer and dryer connections, balconies, and patios.

The majority of our consolidated apartment communities are encumbered by property debt. As of December 31, 2019, apartment communities in our portfolio were encumbered by, in aggregate, $4.3 billion of property debt with a weighted-average interest rate of 3.89% and a weighted-average maturity of 7.5 years. The apartment communities collateralizing this non-recourse property debt have an estimated aggregate fair value of $10.9 billion. As of December 31, 2019, we held unencumbered apartment communities with an estimated fair value of approximately $2.4 billion.

On July 2, 2019, we acquired a 95% interest in 1001 Brickell Bay Drive, a 1.8-acre waterfront parcel in Miami, Florida, currently improved with an office building. 1001 Brickell Bay Drive is excluded from our apartment communities table above.

As further discussed in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we are engaged in discussions with regulatory agencies regarding environmental matters at two apartment communities we, or other entities, previously owned. Although the outcome of these matters is uncertain, we do not expect the resolution to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Aimco

Aimco’s Common Stock has been listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “AIV” since July 22, 1994.

On February 21, 2020, there were 148,930,402 shares of Common Stock outstanding, held by 815 stockholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares are held of record by a broker or clearing agency, but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one record holder.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

From time to time, Aimco may issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units, defined under The Aimco Operating Partnership heading below. Such shares are issued based on an exchange ratio of one share for each common OP Unit. Please refer to Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of such exchanges. Aimco may also issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. During the three months ended December 31, 2019, Aimco did not issue any shares of Common Stock in exchange for OP Units or limited partnership interests in consolidated real estate partnerships.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

There were no repurchases by Aimco of its common equity securities during the three months ended December 31, 2019. Aimco’s Board of Directors has, from time to time, authorized Aimco to repurchase shares of its outstanding Common Stock. As of December 31, 2019, Aimco was authorized to repurchase approximately 10.6 million shares. This authorization has no expiration date. These repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.

The Aimco Operating Partnership

Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are referred to as OP Units. OP Units include common partnership units, which we refer to as common OP Units, as well as partnership preferred units, or preferred OP Units. There is no public market for the Aimco Operating Partnership’s common partnership units, including common OP Units, and we have no intention of listing the common partnership units on any securities exchange. In addition, the Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement restricts the transferability of common partnership units, including common OP Units.

On February 21, 2020, there were 159,442,294 common partnership units and equivalents outstanding (148,930,402 of which were held by Aimco) that were held by 2,394 unitholders of record.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

The Aimco Operating Partnership did not issue any unregistered OP units during the three months ended December 31, 2019.

Repurchases of Equity Securities

The Aimco Operating Partnership’s Partnership Agreement generally provides that after holding common OP Units for one year, limited partners other than Aimco have the right to redeem their common OP Units for cash or, at our election, shares of Aimco Common Stock on a one-for-one basis (subject to customary antidilution adjustments). No common OP Units or preferred OP Units held by Limited Partners were redeemed for shares of Aimco Common Stock during the three months ended December 31, 2019.

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The following table summarizes the Aimco Operating Partnership’s repurchases, or redemptions in exchange for cash, of common OP Units for the three months ended December 31, 2019:

Fiscal period

 

Total

Number of

Units

Purchased

 

 

Average

Price Paid

per Unit

 

 

Total Number of

Units Purchased as Part

of Publicly Announced

Plans or Programs

 

Maximum Number

of Units that May Yet

Be Purchased Under

Plans or Programs

October 1 - October 31, 2019

 

 

13,676

 

 

$

51.46

 

 

N/A

 

N/A

November 1 - November 30, 2019

 

 

9,575

 

 

 

54.32

 

 

N/A

 

N/A

December 1 - December 31, 2019