Company Quick10K Filing
Arthur J Gallagher
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 186 $16,682
10-K 2020-02-07 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-10-25 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-07-26 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-04-29 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-02-08 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-10-26 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-07-27 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-05-07 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-02-12 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-10-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-07-28 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-04-28 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-02-13 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-10-28 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-07-29 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-05-02 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2016-02-10 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-10-28 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-07-31 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-04-28 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2015-02-13 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-10-29 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-08-01 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-04-24 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2014-02-07 Annual: 2013-12-31
10-Q 2013-10-30 Quarter: 2013-09-30
10-Q 2013-07-31 Quarter: 2013-06-30
10-Q 2013-05-01 Quarter: 2013-03-31
10-Q 2012-10-31 Quarter: 2012-09-30
10-Q 2012-08-01 Quarter: 2012-06-30
10-Q 2012-05-02 Quarter: 2012-03-31
10-K 2012-02-14 Annual: 2011-12-31
10-Q 2011-10-28 Quarter: 2011-09-30
10-Q 2011-08-03 Quarter: 2011-06-30
10-Q 2011-04-29 Quarter: 2011-03-31
10-K 2011-02-07 Annual: 2010-12-31
10-Q 2010-10-29 Quarter: 2010-09-30
10-Q 2010-07-30 Quarter: 2010-06-30
10-Q 2010-04-26 Quarter: 2010-03-31
10-K 2010-02-05 Annual: 2009-12-31
8-K 2020-01-30 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-29 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-18 Regulation FD, Other Events
8-K 2019-10-24 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-12 Regulation FD
8-K 2019-07-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-12 Regulation FD, Other Events
8-K 2019-06-07 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-14 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-04-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-12 Regulation FD
8-K 2019-01-31 Earnings, Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-11 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-10-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-13 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-07-26 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-13 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-05-15 Amend Bylaw, Shareholder Vote, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-01 Earnings, Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-10 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-03-14 Regulation FD
8-K 2018-01-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
AJG 2019-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16. Form
EX-4.1 d879025dex41.htm
EX-10.18 d879025dex1018.htm
EX-21.1 d879025dex211.htm
EX-23.1 d879025dex231.htm
EX-24.1 d879025dex241.htm
EX-31.1 d879025dex311.htm
EX-31.2 d879025dex312.htm
EX-32.1 d879025dex321.htm
EX-32.2 d879025dex322.htm

Arthur J Gallagher Earnings 2019-12-31

AJG 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
FANH 27,469 3,867 1,120 0 0 0 0 26,621 0%
WLTW 24,564 35,166 24,934 8,591 0 1,103 2,235 28,222 0% 12.6 3%
AJG 16,682 19,200 14,252 7,084 2,974 729 869 17,951 42% 20.7 4%
FNF 10,933 10,189 4,893 6,392 0 757 1,272 10,178 0% 8.0 7%
EQH 10,448 238,597 221,952 11,112 0 1,277 1,466 5,714 0% 3.9 1%
BRO 9,126 7,165 3,984 2,234 0 386 662 10,175 0% 15.4 5%
FAF 6,256 11,443 7,355 5,762 0 542 842 4,844 0% 5.8 5%
ARGO 2,388 10,167 8,238 1,497 0 117 209 2,785 0% 13.3 1%
EHTH 1,788 583 140 310 309 6 11 1,670 100% 151.4 1%
CRVL 1,543 428 224 595 127 48 91 1,439 21% 15.7 11%

10-K
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM
 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019    
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from
                
to
                
Commission file number
1-09761
ARTHUR J. GALLAGHER & CO.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DELAWARE
 
36-2151613
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2850 Golf Road
Rolling Meadows, Illinois
 
60008-4050
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (630)
773-3800
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share
 
AJG
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
            None                
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  
    No  
.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  
    No  
.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  
    No  
.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  
    No  
.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
             
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
 
Smaller reporting company
 
             
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  
    No  
.
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by
non-affiliates
of the registrant, computed by reference to the last reported price at which the registrant’s common equity was sold on June 30, 201
9
(the last day of the registrant’s most recently completed second quarter) was $14,245,000.
The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $1.00 par value, as of January 31,
2020
was
188,247,000
​​​​​​​
.
Documents incorporated by reference:
Portions of Arthur J. Gallagher & Co.’s definitive 20
20
Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference into this Form
 10-K
in response to Part III to the extent described herein.
 

Information Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains certain statements related to future results, or states our intentions, beliefs and expectations or predictions for the future, which are forward-looking statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements relate to expectations or forecasts of future events. Such statements use words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “contemplate,” “forecast,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “potential,” and other similar terms, and future or conditional tense verbs like “could,” “may,” “might,” “see,” “should,” “will” and “would.” You can also identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. For example, we may use forward-looking statements when addressing topics such as: market and industry conditions, including competitive and pricing trends; acquisition strategy; the expected impact of acquisitions and dispositions; the development and performance of our services and products; changes in the composition or level of our revenues or earnings; our cost structure and the outcome of cost-saving or restructuring initiatives; future capital expenditures; future debt levels and anticipated actions to be taken in connection with maturing debt; future debt to earnings ratios; the outcome of contingencies; dividend policy; pension obligations; cash flow and liquidity; capital structure and financial losses; future actions by regulators; the outcome of existing regulatory actions, investigations, reviews or litigation; the impact of changes in accounting rules, including the changed revenue recognition and lease accounting standards; financial markets; interest rates; foreign exchange rates; matters relating to our operations; income taxes, including the impact of tax reform; and expectations regarding our investments, including our clean energy investments; and integrating recent acquisitions. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from either historical or anticipated results depending on a variety of factors.
Potential factors that could impact results include:
  An economic downturn or unstable economic conditions whatever the cause, including pandemics like the coronavirus, Brexit, tariffs, trade wars or climate change and other long-term environmental risks;
 
 
 
 
 
  Volatility or declines in premiums or other adverse trends in the insurance industry;
 
 
 
 
 
  Competitive pressures, including as a result of innovation, in each of our businesses;
 
 
 
 
 
  Risks that could negatively affect the success of our acquisition strategy, including continuing consolidation in our industry and growing interest in acquiring insurance brokers on the part of private equity firms and newly public insurance brokers, which could make it more difficult to identify targets and could make them more expensive, the risk that we may not receive timely regulatory approval of desired transactions, execution risks, integration risks, the risk of post-acquisition deterioration leading to intangible asset impairment charges, and the risk we could incur or assume unanticipated liabilities such as cybersecurity issues or those relating to violations of anti-corruption and sanctions laws;
 
 
 
 
 
  Failure to successfully and cost-effectively integrate recently acquired businesses and their operations or fully realize synergies from such acquisitions in the expected time frame;
 
 
 
 
 
  Cyber attacks or other cybersecurity incidents; improper disclosure of confidential, personal or proprietary data; and changes to laws and regulations governing cybersecurity and data privacy;
 
 
 
 
 
  Risks arising from changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws, including our ability to effectively account for the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (which we refer to as the Tax Act) and related regulations;
 
 
 
 
 
  Uncertainty from the expected discontinuance of LIBOR and transition to any other interest rate benchmark;
 
 
 
 
 
  Our failure to attract and retain experienced and qualified talent, including our senior management team;
 
 
 
 
 
  Risks arising from our substantial international operations, including the risks posed by political and economic uncertainty in certain countries (such as the risks posed by Brexit), risks related to maintaining regulatory and legal compliance across multiple jurisdictions (such as those relating to violations of anti-corruption, sanctions and privacy laws), and risks arising from the complexity of managing businesses across different time zones, languages, geographies, cultures and legal regimes that conflict with one another at times;
 
 
 
 
 
  Risks particular to our risk management segment, including any slowing of the trend toward outsourcing claims administration, and of the concentration of large amounts of revenue with certain clients;
 
 
 
 
 
  The higher level of variability inherent in contingent and supplemental revenues versus standard commission revenues, particularly in light of the changed revenue recognition accounting standard;
 
 
 
 
 
  Sustained increases in the cost of employee benefits;
 
 
 
 
 
  Our failure to apply technology effectively in driving value for our clients through technology-based solutions, or failure to gain internal efficiencies and effective internal controls through the application of technology and related tools;
 
 
 
 
 
  A disaster or other significant disruption to business continuity;
 
 
 
 
 
  Damage to our reputation;
 
 
 
 
 
  Our failure to comply with regulatory requirements, including those related to governance and control requirements in particular jurisdictions, international sanctions, or a change in regulations or enforcement policies that adversely affects our operations (for example, relating to insurance broker compensation methods or the failure of state and local governments to follow through on agreed-upon income tax credits or other tax related incentives, relating to our corporate headquarters);
 
 
 
 
 
1

  Violations or alleged violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (which we refer to as FCPA), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 or other anti-corruption laws and the Foreign Account Tax Compliance provisions of the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act (which we refer to as FATCA);
 
 
 
 
 
  The outcome of any existing or future investigation, review, regulatory action or litigation;
 
 
 
 
 
  Unfavorable determinations related to contingencies and legal proceedings;
 
 
 
 
 
  Significant changes in foreign exchange rates;
 
 
 
 
 
  Changes to our financial presentation from new accounting estimates and assumptions (including as a result of the changed lease and revenue recognition standards or the Tax Act);
 
 
 
 
 
  Changes in healthcare-related laws and regulations with the potential to negatively impact our employee benefits consulting business, including
“Medicare-for-all”
and other proposed laws expanding the role of public programs in healthcare;
 
 
 
 
 
  Risks related to our clean energy investments, including intellectual property claims, utilities switching from coal to natural gas or renewable energy sources, environmental and product liability claims, environmental compliance costs and the risk of disallowance by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) of previously claimed tax credits;
 
 
 
 
 
  The risk that our outstanding debt adversely affects our financial flexibility and restrictions and limitations in the agreements and instruments governing our debt;
 
 
 
 
 
  The risk we may not be able to receive dividends or other distributions from subsidiaries;
 
 
 
 
 
  The risk of share ownership dilution when we issue common stock as consideration for acquisitions and for other reasons; and
 
 
 
 
 
  Volatility of the price of our common stock.
 
 
 
 
 
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance. They involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including the risk factors referred to above. Our future performance and actual results may differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of, and are based on information available to us on, the date of the applicable document. Many of the factors that will determine these results are beyond our ability to control or predict. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date that they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update any such statements or release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this report or to reflect new information, future or unexpected events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law or regulation. Further information about factors that could materially affect us, including our results of operations and financial condition, is contained in the “Risk Factors” section of Part I, Item 1A of this report.
2

Arthur J. Gallagher & Co.
Annual Report on Form
10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
Index
             
 
 
Page No.
 
Part I
.
 
   
 
             
    Item 1.
 
Business
   
4-9
 
             
    Item 1A.
 
Risk Factors
   
10-22
 
             
    Item 1B.
 
Unresolved Staff Comments
   
22
 
             
    Item 2.
 
Properties
   
23
 
             
    Item 3.
 
Legal Proceedings
   
23
 
             
    Item 4.
 
Mine Safety Disclosures
   
23
 
         
Information About Our Executive Officers
   
23
 
         
Part II.
   
 
             
    Item 5.
 
Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
   
23-24
 
             
    Item 6.
 
Selected Financial Data
   
25
 
             
    Item 7.
 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
   
26-56
 
             
    Item 7A.
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk
   
56-57
 
             
    Item 8.
 
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
   
58-112
 
             
    Item 9.
 
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
   
113
 
             
    Item 9A.
 
Controls and Procedures
   
113
 
             
    Item 9B.
 
Other Information
   
113
 
             
Part III.
 
   
 
             
    Item 10.
 
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
   
113
 
             
    Item 11.
 
Executive Compensation
   
113
 
             
    Item 12.
 
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management
and Related Stockholder Matters
   
113
 
             
    Item 13.
 
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
   
113
 
             
    Item 14.
 
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
   
114
 
             
Part IV.
 
   
 
             
    Item 15.
 
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
   
114-116
 
             
    Item 16.
 
Form
 10-K
Summary
   
116
 
         
Signatures
   
117
 
         
Schedule II - Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
   
118
 
 
 
 
 
 
3

Part I
Item 1. Business.
Overview
Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. and its subsidiaries, collectively referred to herein as we, our, us or Gallagher, are engaged in providing insurance brokerage, consulting, and third-party property/casualty claims settlement and administration services to businesses and organizations around the world. We believe that our major strength is our ability to deliver comprehensively structured insurance, insurance and risk management solutions, superior claim outcomes and comprehensive consulting services to our clients.
Our brokerage segment operations provide brokerage and consulting services to businesses and organizations of all types, including commercial,
not-for-profit,
and public entities, and, to a lesser extent, individuals, in the areas of insurance placement, risk of loss management, and management of employer sponsored benefit programs. Our risk management segment operations provide contract claim settlement, claim administration, loss control services and risk management consulting for commercial,
not-for-profit,
captive and public entities, and various other organizations that choose to self-insure property/casualty coverages or choose to use a third-party claims management organization rather than the claim services provided by an underwriting enterprise.
We do not assume underwriting risk on a net basis, other than with respect to de minimis amounts necessary to provide minimum or regulatory capital to organize captives, pools, specialized underwriters or risk-retention groups. Rather, capital necessary for covering events of loss is provided by “underwriting enterprises,” which we define as insurance companies, reinsurance companies and various other risk-taking entities, including intermediaries of underwriting enterprises, that we do not own or control.
Since our founding in 1927, we have grown from a
one-person
insurance agency to the world’s fourth largest insurance broker/risk manager based on revenues, according to
Business Insurance
magazine’s July 2019 edition, and one of the world’s largest property/casualty third party claims administrators, according to
Business Insurance
magazine’s May 2019 edition. We have three reportable segments: brokerage, risk management and corporate, which contributed approximately 68%, 14% and 18%, respectively, to 2019 revenues. We generate approximately 69% of our revenues from the combined brokerage and risk management segments in the United States (U.S.), with the remaining 31% derived internationally, primarily in Australia, Bermuda, Canada, the Caribbean, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (U.K.). All of the revenues of the corporate segment are generated in the U.S.
Shares of our common stock are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AJG”, and we had a market capitalization at December 31, 2019 of approximately $17.9 billion. Information in this report is as of December 31, 2019 unless otherwise noted. We were reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1972. Our executive offices are located at 2850 Golf Road, Rolling Meadows, Illinois 60008-4050, and our telephone number is (630)
 773-3800.
Operating Segments
We report our results in three segments: brokerage, risk management and corporate. The major sources of our operating revenues are commissions, fees and supplemental and contingent revenues from our brokerage operations, and fees, including
performance-based
fees, from our risk management operations. The corporate segment generates revenues from our clean energy investments.
Our business, particularly our brokerage business, is subject to seasonal fluctuations. Commissions, fees, supplemental revenues and contingent revenues, and our costs to obtain and fulfill the service obligations to our clients, can vary from quarter to quarter as a result of the timing of contract-effective dates. On the other hand, salaries and employee benefits, rent, depreciation and amortization expenses generally tend to be more uniform throughout the year. The timing of acquisitions, recognition of books of business gains and losses and the variability in the recognition of tax credits generated by our clean energy investments also impact the trends in our quarterly operating results. See Note 22 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for unaudited quarterly operating results for 2019 and 2018.
Brokerage Segment
The brokerage segment accounted for 68% of our revenues in 2019. We operate our brokerage segment operations through a network of more than 580 sales and service offices located throughout the U.S. and more than 300 sales and service offices in 49 countries, most of which are in Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, New Zealand and the U.K. Most of these offices are fully staffed with sales and service personnel. We also offer client service capabilities in more than 150 countries around the world through a network of correspondent brokers and consultants.
4

Our brokerage segment generates revenues by:
  (i) Identifying, negotiating and placing all forms of insurance or reinsurance coverages, as well as providing risk-shifting, risk-sharing and risk-mitigation consulting services, principally related to property/casualty, life, health, welfare and disability insurance. We also provide these services through, or in conjunction with, other unrelated agents and brokers, consultants and management advisors.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (ii) Acting as an agent or broker for multiple underwriting enterprises by providing services such as sales, marketing, selecting, negotiating, underwriting, servicing and placing insurance coverage on their behalf.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (iii) Providing consulting services related to health and welfare benefits, voluntary benefits, executive benefits, compensation, retirement planning, institutional investment and fiduciary, actuarial, compliance, private insurance exchange, human resource technology, communications and benefit administration.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (iv) Providing management and administrative services to captives, pools, risk-retention groups, healthcare exchanges, small underwriting enterprises, such as accounting, claims and loss processing assistance, feasibility studies, actuarial studies, data analytics and other administrative services.
 
 
 
 
 
 
The vast majority of our brokerage contracts and service understandings are for a period of one year or less.
Commissions and fees
The primary source of brokerage segment revenues is commissions from underwriting enterprises, which are based on a percentage of premiums paid by our clients, or fees received from clients based on an agreed level of service usually in lieu of commissions.
Commissions are fixed at the contract effective date and generally are based on a percentage of premium for insurance coverage or employee headcount for employer sponsored benefit plans. Commissions depend upon a large number of factors, including the type of risk being placed, the particular underwriting enterprise’s demand, the expected loss experience of the particular risk of coverage, and historical benchmarks surrounding the level of effort necessary for us to place and service the insurance contract. Rather than being tied to the amount of premiums, fees are typically based on an expected level of effort to provide our services.
Whether we are paid a commission or a fee, the vast majority of our services are associated with the placement of an insurance (or insurance-like) contract. See Revenue Recognition in Note 1 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements. See Note 2 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for information with respect to the impacts that a new accounting standard, relating to revenue recognition, had on our financial position and operating results.
Supplemental revenues
Certain underwriting enterprises may pay us additional revenues based on the volume of premium we place with them and for insights into our sales pipeline, our sales capabilities or our risk selection knowledge. These amounts are in excess of the commission and fee revenues discussed above, and not all business we place with underwriting enterprises is eligible for supplemental revenues. See Revenue Recognition in Note 1 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements. See Note 2 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for information with respect to the impacts that a new accounting standard, relating to revenue recognition, had on our financial position and operating results.
Contingent revenues
Certain underwriting enterprises may pay us additional revenues for our sales capabilities, our risk selection knowledge, or our administrative efficiencies. These amounts are in excess of the commission revenues discussed above, and not all business we place with participating underwriting enterprises is eligible for contingent revenues. Unlike supplemental revenues, also discussed above, these revenues are variable, generally based on growth, the loss experience of the underlying insurance contracts, and/or our efficiency in processing the business. See Revenue Recognition in Note 1 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements. See Note 2 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for information with respect to the impacts that a new accounting standard, relating to revenue recognition, had on our financial position and operating results.
Sub-brokerage
costs
Sub-brokerage
costs are excluded from our gross revenues in our determination of our total revenues.
 Sub-brokerage
costs represent commissions paid to
sub-brokers
related to the placement of certain business by our brokerage segment operations. We recognize this contra revenue in the same manner as the commission revenue to which it relates.
5

Retail Insurance Brokerage Operations
Our retail insurance brokerage operations accounted for 82% of our brokerage segment revenues in 2019. Our retail brokerage operations place nearly all lines of commercial property/casualty and health and welfare insurance coverage. Significant lines of insurance coverage and consultant capabilities are as follows:
             
Aviation
 
Disability
 
General Liability
 
Products Liability
Casualty
 
Earthquake
 
Health & Welfare
 
Professional Liability
Claims Advocacy
 
Errors & Omissions
 
Healthcare Analytics
 
Property
Commercial Auto
 
Exchange Solutions
 
Human Resources
 
Retirement
Compensation
 
Executive Benefits
 
Institutional Investment
 
Surety Bond
Cyber Liability
 
Fiduciary Services
 
Loss Control
 
Voluntary Benefits
Dental
 
Fine Arts
 
Marine
 
Wind
Directors & Officers Liability
 
Fire
 
Medical
 
Workers’ Compensation
 
 
 
 
 
 
Our retail brokerage operations are organized and operate within certain key niche/practice groups, which account for approximately 67% of our retail brokerage revenues. These specialized teams target areas of business and/or industries in which we have developed a depth of expertise and a large client base. Significant niche/practice groups we serve are as follows:
             
Affinity
 
Equity Advisors
 
Law Firms
 
Real Estate/Hospitality
Automotive
 
Financial Institutions
 
Life Sciences
 
Religious
Aviation
 
Food/Agribusiness
 
Marine
 
Restaurant
Construction
 
Global Risks
 
Not-for-Profit
 
Technology
Energy
 
Healthcare
 
Personal
 
Trade Credit/Political Risk
Entertainment
 
Higher Education
 
Private Client
 
Transportation
Environmental
 
K12 Education
 
Public Entity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Our specialized focus on these niche/practice groups allows for highly-focused marketing efforts and facilitates the development of value-added products and services specific to those industries. We believe that our detailed understanding and broad client contacts within these niche/practice groups provide us with a competitive advantage.
We anticipate that our retail brokerage operations’ greatest revenue growth over the next several years will continue to come from:
  Mergers and acquisitions;
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Our niche/practice groups and middle-market accounts;
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Cross-selling other brokerage products to existing clients; and
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Developing and managing alternative market mechanisms such as captives,
rent-a-captives
and deductible plans/
self-insurance.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wholesale Insurance Brokerage Operations
Our wholesale insurance brokerage operations accounted for 18% of our brokerage segment revenues in 2019. Our wholesale brokers assist our retail brokers and other
non-affiliated
brokers in the placement of specialized and
hard-to-place
insurance. These brokers operate through approximately 300 offices primarily located across the U.S., Bermuda and through our approved Lloyd’s of London brokerage operation. In certain cases we act as a brokerage wholesaler, and in other cases we act as a managing general agent or managing general underwriter distributing specialized insurance coverages for underwriting enterprises. Managing general agents and managing general underwriters are agents authorized by an underwriting enterprise to manage all or a part of its business in a specific geographic territory. Activities they perform on behalf of the underwriting enterprise may include marketing, underwriting (although we do not assume any underwriting risk), issuing policies, collecting premiums, appointing and supervising other agents, paying claims and negotiating reinsurance.
More than 79% of our wholesale brokerage revenues comes from
non-affiliated
brokerage clients. Based on revenues, our domestic wholesale brokerage operation ranked the largest managing general agents/underwriting managers/ Lloyds coverholders according to
Business Insurance
magazine’s September 2019 edition.
We anticipate growing our wholesale brokerage operations by increasing the number of broker-clients, developing new managing general agency and underwriter programs, and through mergers and acquisitions.
6

Risk Management Segment
Our risk management segment accounted for 14% of our revenues in 2019. Approximately 63% of our risk management segment’s revenues are from workers’ compensation-related claims, 28% are from general and commercial auto liability-related claims and 9% are from property-related claims in 2019.
Risk management services are primarily marketed directly to Fortune 1000 companies, larger middle-market companies, not for profit organizations and public entities on an independent basis from our brokerage operations. We manage our third party claims adjusting operations through a network of more than 70 offices located throughout the U.S., Australia, New Zealand and the U.K. Most of these offices are fully staffed with claims adjusters and other service personnel. Our adjusters and service personnel act solely on behalf and under the instruction of our clients.
While this segment complements our brokerage and consulting offerings, approximately 90% of our risk management segment’s revenues come from clients not affiliated with our brokerage operations, such as underwriting enterprises and clients of other insurance brokers. Based on revenues, our risk management operation ranked as one of the world’s largest property/casualty third party claims administrators according to
Business Insurance
magazine’s May 2019 edition.
Revenues for our risk management segment are comprised of fees generally negotiated (i) on a
per-claim
basis, (ii) on a cost-plus basis, or (iii) as performance-based fees. We also provide risk management consulting services that are recognized as the services are delivered.
Per-claim
fees
Where we operate under a contract with our fee established on a
per-claim
basis, our obligation is to process claims for a term specified within the contract. Because it is impractical to recognize our revenues on an individual
claim-by-claim
basis, we recognize revenue plus an appropriate estimate of our profit margin on a portfolio basis by grouping claims with similar characteristics (a practical expedient as defined in ASU No.
2014-09,
Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which we refer to as Topic 606). We apply actuarially-determined, historical-based patterns to determine our future service obligations, without applying a present value discount.
Cost-plus fees
Where we provide services and generate revenues on a cost-plus basis, we recognize revenue over the contract period consistent with the performance of our obligations.
Performance-based fees
Certain clients pay us additional fee revenues for our efficiency in managing claims or on the basis of claim outcome effectiveness. These amounts are in excess of the fee revenues discussed above. These revenues are variable, generally based on various performance metrics of the underlying contracts. We generally operate under multi-year contracts with fiscal year measurement periods. We do not receive these fees, if earned, until the following year after verification of the performance metrics outlined in the contracts. Each period we base our estimates on a
contract-by-contract
basis. We make our best estimate of amounts we have earned using historical averages and other factors to project such revenues. Variable consideration is recognized when we conclude that is it probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur in future periods.
We expect that the risk management segment’s most significant growth prospects through the next several years will come from:
  Program business and the outsourcing of portions of underwriting enterprise claims departments;
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Increased levels of business with Fortune 1000 companies;
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Larger middle-market companies and captives; and
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Mergers and acquisitions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate Segment
The corporate segment accounted for 18% of our revenues in 2019. The corporate segment reports the financial information related to our debt, clean energy investments, external acquisition-related expenses, other corporate costs and the impact of foreign currency translation. The revenues reported by this segment result almost solely from our consolidated clean energy investments.
Clean-Energy Investments
We own 34 commercial clean coal production facilities that are qualified to produce refined coal using
Chem-Mod
 LLC’s proprietary technologies. These operations produce refined coal that we believe qualifies for tax credits under Internal Revenue Code (which we refer to as IRC) Section 45. The law that provides for IRC Section 45 tax credits expired as of December 31, 2019 for 14 of our plants and will expire on or before December 31, 2021 for the other 20 plants.
Chem-Mod
 LLC (described below) is a privately-held enterprise that has commercialized multi-pollutant reduction technologies to reduce mercury, sulfur dioxide and other emissions at coal-fired power plants. We own 46.5% of
Chem-Mod
 LLC and are its controlling managing member. We also have a 12.0% noncontrolling interest in dormant, privately-held, enterprises,
C-Quest
Technology LLC and
C-Quest
Technologies International LLC (which we refer to as together,
C-Quest),
which owns technologies that reduce carbon dioxide emissions created by burning fossil fuels. At this time, it is unclear if
C-Quest
will ever become commercially viable.
7

International and Other Brokerage Related Operations
We operate as a retail commercial property and casualty broker throughout 45 locations in Australia, 42 locations in Canada and 37 locations in New Zealand. In the U.K., we operate as a retail broker from approximately 135 locations. We also have specialty, wholesale, underwriting and reinsurance intermediary operations in London for clients to access Lloyd’s of London and other international underwriting enterprises, and a program operation offering customized risk management products and services to U.K. public entities.
In Bermuda, we act principally as a wholesale broker for clients looking to access Bermuda-based underwriting enterprises and we also provide management and administrative services for captive insurance entities.
We also have strategic brokerage alliances with a variety of independent brokers in countries where we do not have a local office presence. Through this global network of correspondent insurance brokers and consultants, we are able to serve our clients’ coverage and service needs in more than 150 countries around the world.
Captive underwriting enterprises
- We have ownership interests in several underwriting enterprises based in the U.S., Bermuda, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man and Malta, that primarily operate segregated account
“rent-a-captive”
facilities. These
“rent-a-captive”
facilities enable our clients to receive the benefits of participating in a captive underwriting enterprise without incurring certain disadvantages of ownership. Captive underwriting enterprises, or
“rent-a-captive”
facilities, are created for clients to insure their risks and capture any underwriting profit and investment income, which would then be available for use by the insureds, generally to reduce future costs of their insurance programs. In general, these companies are set up as protected cell companies that are comprised of separate cell business units (which we refer to as Captive Cells) and the core regulated company (which we refer to as the Core Company). The Core Company is owned and operated by us and no insurance policies are assumed by the Core Company. All insurance is assumed or written within individual Captive Cells. Only the activity of the supporting Core Company of the
rent-a-captive
facility is recorded in our consolidated financial statements, including cash and stockholder’s equity of the legal entity, and any expenses incurred to operate the
rent-a-captive
facility. Most Captive Cells reinsure individual lines of insurance coverage from external underwriting enterprises. In addition, some Captive Cells offer individual lines of insurance coverage from one of our underwriting enterprise subsidiaries. The different types of insurance coverage include special property, general liability, products liability, medical professional liability, other liability and medical stop loss. The policies are generally claims-made. Insurance policies are written by an underwriting enterprise and the risk is assumed by each of the Captive Cells. In general, we structure these operations to have no underwriting risk on a net written basis. In situations where we have assumed underwriting risk on a net written basis, we have managed that exposure by obtaining full collateral for the underwriting risk we have assumed from our clients. We typically require pledged assets including cash and/or investment accounts, or letters of credit to limit our risk.
We also have a wholly owned underwriting enterprise subsidiary based in the U.S. that cedes all of its insurance risk of loss to reinsurers or captives under facultative and quota-share treaty reinsurance agreements. While we believe these ceding reinsurance agreements displace all of our risk of loss, they do not discharge us of our primary liability to our clients. For example, in the event that all or any of the reinsuring companies or captives are unable to meet their obligations, we would be liable for such defaulted amounts. Therefore, we are subject to credit risk with respect to the obligations of our reinsurers or captives. In order to minimize our exposure to losses from reinsurer credit risk and insolvencies, we believe we have managed that exposure by obtaining full collateral, typically requiring pledged assets, including cash and/or investment accounts or letters of credit to offset the risk. See Note 18 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for additional financial information related to the insurance activity of our wholly owned underwriting enterprise subsidiary for 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Competition
Brokerage Segment
According to
Business Insurance
magazine’s July 2019 edition, we were the world’s fourth largest insurance broker based on revenues. The insurance brokerage and consulting business is highly competitive and there are many organizations and individuals throughout the world who actively compete with us in every area of our business.
Our retail and wholesale brokerage operations compete globally with Aon plc, Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. and Willis Towers Watson Public Limited Company, each of which has greater worldwide revenues than us. In addition, various other competing firms, such as Brown & Brown Inc., Hub International Ltd., Lockton Companies, Inc., USI Holdings Corporation and McGriff Insurance Services (f/k/a BB&T Insurance Services) operate globally or nationally or are strong in a particular region or locality and may have, in that region or locality, an office with revenues as large as or larger than those of our corresponding local office. Our wholesale brokerage and binding operations compete with large wholesalers such as CRC Insurance Services, Inc., RT Specialty, AmWINS Group, Inc., Burns & Wilcox, Ltd. and All Risks Ltd., as well as a vast number of local and regional wholesalers. We also compete with certain underwriting enterprises that offer insurance and risk management products and solutions directly to clients. In addition, for our employee benefit consulting services, we compete with larger firms such as Aon plc, Mercer (a subsidiary of Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc.) and Willis Towers Watson Public Limited Company,
mid-market
firms such as Lockton Companies, Inc. and USI Holdings Corporation, specialized consulting firms such as Pearl Meyer, and the benefits consulting divisions of the national public accounting firms, as well as a vast number of local and regional brokerages and agencies. Government benefits relating to health, disability and retirement are also alternatives to private insurance, and indirectly compete with us.
8

We believe that the primary factors determining our competitive position with other organizations in our industry are the quality of the services we render, the personalized attention we provide, the individual and corporate expertise providing the actual service to the client, and the overall cost to our clients.
Risk Management Segment
Our risk management operation currently ranks as one of the world’s largest property/casualty third party claims administrators based on revenues, according to
Business Insurance
magazine’s May 2019 edition. While many global and regional claims administrators operate within this space, we compete directly with Sedgwick Claims Management Services, Inc., and Broadspire Services, Inc. (a subsidiary of Crawford & Company). Several large underwriting enterprises, such as Chubb Limited, Travelers Companies, Inc. and Liberty Mutual Holding Co, Inc. also maintain their own claims administration units, which can be strong competitors. In addition, we compete with various smaller third party claims administrators on a regional level. We believe that the primary factors determining our competitive position are our ability to deliver better claim outcomes, reputation for outstanding service, cost-efficient service and financial strength.
Business Combinations
We completed and integrated 556 acquisitions from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2019, most of which were within our brokerage segment. The majority of these acquisitions have been smaller regional or local brokerages, agencies, or employee benefit consulting operations with a middle or small client focus and/or significant expertise in one of our niche/practice groups. The total purchase price for individual acquisitions has typically ranged from $1.0 million to $50.0 million.
Through acquisitions, we seek to expand our talent pool, enhance our geographic presence and service capabilities, and/or broaden and further diversify our business mix. We also focus on identifying:
  A corporate culture that matches our sales-oriented and ethics-based culture;
 
 
 
 
 
  A profitable, growing business whose ability to compete would be enhanced by gaining access to our greater resources; and
 
 
 
 
 
  Clearly defined financial criteria.
 
 
 
 
 
See Note 3 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for a summary of our 2019 acquisitions, the amount and form of the consideration paid and the dates of acquisitions.
Clients
Our client base is highly diversified and includes commercial, industrial, public entity, religious and
not-for-profit
entities. No material part of our business depends upon a single client or on a few clients. The loss of any one client would not have a material adverse effect on our operations. In 2019, our largest single client represented approximately 1.0% and our ten largest clients together represented approximately 2.0% of our combined brokerage and risk management segment revenues.
Employees
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 33,300 employees.
We enter into agreements with many of our brokerage salespersons and significant client-facing employees, plus all of our executive officers, which prohibit them from disclosing confidential information and/or soliciting our clients, prospects and employees upon their termination of employment. The confidentiality and
non-solicitation
provisions of such agreements terminate in the event of a hostile change in control, as defined in the agreements. We pursue legal actions for alleged breaches of
non-compete
or other restrictive covenants, theft of trade secrets, breaches of fiduciary duties, intellectual property infringement and related causes of action.
Available Information
Our annual reports on Form
 10-K,
quarterly reports on Form
 10-Q,
current reports on Form
 8-K,
and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are available free of charge on our website at http://
investor.ajg.com/sec-filings
as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing such material to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Securities and Exchange Commission also maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that includes our reports, proxy statements and other information. Unless expressly noted, the information on our website, including our investor relations website, or any other website is not incorporated by reference in this Form
10-K
and should not be considered part of this Form
 10-K
or any other filing we make with the SEC.
9

Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Please carefully consider the following discussion of significant factors, events, and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky. The events and consequences discussed in these risk factors could, in circumstances we may not be able to accurately predict, recognize, or control, have a material adverse effect on our business, growth, reputation, prospects, financial condition, operating results (including components of our financial results such as revenues and net earnings), cash flows, liquidity, and stock price. These risk factors do not identify all risks that we face; our operations could also be affected by factors, events, or uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations. In addition, the global economic climate amplifies many of these risks.
Risks Relating to our Business Generally
An economic downturn, as well as unstable economic conditions in the countries and regions in which we operate, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
A decline in economic activity could adversely impact us in future years as a result of reductions in the amount of insurance coverage and consulting services that our clients purchase due to reductions in their headcount, payroll, properties, and the market values of assets, among other factors. In addition, specific industries or sectors of the economy could experience declines in ways that impact our business. For example, if climate change and environmental risks harm certain industries like oil and gas, our clients in those industries could go out of business or have reduced needs for insurance coverage or consulting services. To cite another example, if an increase in consumer preference for
car-
and ride-sharing services results in a long-term reduction in vehicle use, the automobile insurance industry could decline. Any such reduction or decline (whether caused by an overall economic decline or declines in certain industries) could adversely impact our commission revenues, consulting revenues or revenues from managing third-party insurance claims. Some of our clients may experience liquidity problems or other financial difficulties in the event of a prolonged deterioration in the economy, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. If our clients become financially less stable, enter bankruptcy, liquidate their operations or consolidate, our revenues and collectability of receivables could be adversely affected.
The exit of the U.K. from the European Union (Brexit) could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations in the U.K., which contributed approximately 19% of our brokerage segment and approximately 4% of our risk management segment revenues in 2019, expose us to risk in the event of an economic downturn in the U.K. due to Brexit. Such a downturn could adversely affect our U.K. operations through a decline in the insurance coverage and consulting services our clients purchase as they face reductions in their headcount, payroll, properties or the market value of their assets. Following approval by the European Union and the U.K. parliaments, the U.K. formally left the European Union on January 31, 2020. The U.K. is now expected to be in an implementation period until December 31, 2020 (any further extension would require U.K. legislation to be changed). During this period, the U.K. will still follow all the European Union’s rules and regulations, will remain in the single market and the customs union, and will permit the free movement of people. There is no formal stated intent by the U.K. or European Economic Area (EEA) authorities to put in place, at the end of the implementation period, an arrangement under which U.K.-based insurance brokers will continue to be able to exercise “passporting rights” to provide services to clients in the EEA. Accordingly, while our EEA client base is a small part of our U.K. operations, our expectation is that EEA clients will need to be serviced by a subsidiary authorized in the EEA. While we have a plan in place to transfer those clients to a Swedish subsidiary, such a transition could be a distraction to both clients and our management. In addition, under our business model in the U.K. some services will be provided through staff working in a U.K. branch of the subsidiary. There can be no assurance that applicable EU regulations will not change, potentially requiring us to adjust our plans and causing further management distraction and cost. In addition, the uncertainty surrounding Brexit has and may continue to result in substantial volatility in foreign exchange markets, which could cause volatility in our quarterly financial results, and may lead to a sustained weakness in the British pound’s exchange rate against the U.S. dollar. Any significant weakening of the British pound to the U.S. dollar will have an adverse impact on our brokerage and risk management segments’ net earnings as reported in U.S. dollars.
Economic conditions that result in financial difficulties for underwriting enterprises or lead to reduced risk-taking capital capacity could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We have a significant amount of trade accounts receivable from some of the underwriting enterprises with which we place insurance. If those companies experience liquidity problems or other financial difficulties, we could encounter delays or defaults in payments owed to us, which could have a significant adverse impact on our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. The failure of an underwriting enterprise with which we place business could result in errors and omissions claims against us by our clients, and the failure of errors and omissions underwriting enterprises could make the errors and omissions insurance we rely upon cost prohibitive or unavailable, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, if underwriting enterprises merge or if a large underwriting enterprise fails or withdraws from offering certain lines of coverage, for example, because of large payouts related to climate change or other emerging risk areas, overall risk-taking capital capacity could be negatively affected, which could reduce our ability to place certain lines of coverage and, as a result, reduce our revenues and profitability.
10

We have historically acquired large numbers of insurance brokers, benefit consulting firms and, to a lesser extent, claim and risk management firms. We may not be able to continue such an acquisition strategy in the future and there are risks associated with such acquisitions, which could adversely affect our growth and results of operations.
Our acquisition program has been an important part of our historical growth, particularly in our brokerage segment, and we believe that similar acquisition activity will be important to maintaining comparable growth in the future. Failure to successfully identify and complete acquisitions likely would result in us achieving slower growth. Continuing consolidation in our industry and growing interest in acquiring insurance brokers on the part of private equity firms, private equity-backed consolidators and newly public insurance brokers (one of which has a partnership tax structure that gives it an advantage in pricing acquisitions) could make it more difficult for us to identify appropriate targets and could make them more expensive. Even if we are able to identify appropriate acquisition targets, we may not have sufficient capital to fund acquisitions, be able to execute transactions on favorable terms or integrate targets in a manner that allows us to realize the benefits we have historically experienced from acquisitions. When regulatory approval of acquisitions is required, our ability to complete acquisitions may be limited by an ongoing regulatory review or other issues with the relevant regulator. Our ability to finance and integrate acquisitions may also decrease if we complete a greater number of large acquisitions than we have historically.
Post-acquisition risks include those relating to retention of personnel, retention of clients, entry into unfamiliar markets or lines of business, contingencies or liabilities, such as violations of sanctions laws or anti-corruption laws including the FCPA and U.K. Bribery Act, risks relating to ensuring compliance with licensing and regulatory requirements, tax and accounting issues, the risk that the acquisition distracts management and personnel from our existing business, and integration difficulties relating to accounting, information technology, pay equity, human resources, employee attrition or poor organizational culture and fit, some or all of which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and growth. The failure of acquisition targets to achieve anticipated revenue and earnings levels could also result in goodwill impairment charges.
We own interests in firms where we do not exercise management control (such as Casanueva Perez S.A.P. de C.V. in Mexico) and are therefore unable to direct or manage the business to realize the anticipated benefits, including mitigation of risks, that could be achieved through full integration.
We face significant competitive pressures in each of our businesses.
The insurance brokerage and employee benefit consulting businesses are highly competitive and many insurance brokerage and employee benefit consulting organizations actively compete with us in one or more areas of our business around the world. Three of the firms we compete with in the global risk management and brokerage markets have revenues significantly larger than ours. In addition, many other smaller firms that operate nationally or that are strong in a particular country, region or locality may have, in that country, region or locality, an office with revenues as large as or larger than those of our corresponding local office. Our third party claims administration operation also faces significant competition from stand-alone firms as well as divisions of larger firms. Over the past decade or more, private equity sponsors have invested heavily in the insurance brokerage and third party claims administration industries, creating new competitors and strengthening existing ones.
We believe that the primary factors determining our competitive position with other organizations in our industry are the quality of the services we render, the personalized attention we provide, the individual and corporate expertise of the brokers and consultants providing the actual service to the client and our ability to help our clients manage their overall insurance costs. Losing business to competitors offering similar services or products at a lower cost or having other competitive advantages would adversely affect our business.
Consolidation among our existing competitors could create additional competitive pressure on us as such firms grow their market share, take advantage of strategic and operational synergies and develop lower cost structures. In addition, any increase in competition due to new legislative or industry developments could adversely affect us.
These developments include:
  Increased capital-raising by underwriting enterprises, which could result in new risk-taking capital in the industry, which in turn may lead to lower insurance premiums and commissions;
 
 
 
 
 
  Underwriting enterprises selling insurance directly to insureds without the involvement of a broker or other intermediary;
 
 
 
 
 
  Changes in our business compensation model as a result of regulatory developments;
 
 
 
 
 
  Federal and state governments establishing programs to provide health insurance or, in certain cases, property insurance in catastrophe-prone areas or other alternative market types of coverage, that compete with, or completely replace, insurance products currently offered by underwriting enterprises;
 
 
 
 
 
  Continued consolidation in the financial services industry, leading to larger financial services institutions offering a wider variety of services including insurance brokerage and risk management services; and
 
 
 
 
 
11

  Increased competition from new market participants such as banks, accounting firms, consulting firms and Internet or other technology firms offering risk management or insurance brokerage services, or new distribution channels for insurance such as payroll firms and professional employer organizations.
 
 
 
 
 
New competition as a result of these or other legislative or industry developments could cause the demand for our products and services to decrease, which could in turn adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Volatility or declines in premiums or other adverse trends in the insurance industry may seriously undermine our profitability.
We derive much of our revenue from commissions and fees for our brokerage services. We do not determine the insurance premiums on which our commissions are generally based. Moreover, insurance premiums are cyclical in nature and may vary widely based on market conditions. Because of market cycles for insurance product pricing, which we cannot predict or control, our brokerage revenues and profitability can be volatile or remain depressed for significant periods of time.
As underwriting enterprises continue to outsource the production of premium revenue to
non-affiliated
brokers or agents such as us, those companies may seek to further minimize their expenses by reducing the commission rates payable to insurance agents or brokers. The reduction of these commission rates, along with general volatility and/or declines in premiums, may significantly affect our profitability. Because we do not determine the timing or extent of premium pricing changes, it is difficult to forecast our commission revenues precisely, including whether they will significantly decline. As a result, we may have to adjust our budgets for future acquisitions, capital expenditures, dividend payments, debt repayments and other expenditures to account for unexpected changes in revenues, and any decreases in premium rates may adversely affect the results of our operations.
In addition, there have been and may continue to be various trends in the insurance industry toward alternative insurance markets including, among other things, greater levels of self-insurance, captives,
rent-a-captives,
risk retention groups and
non-insurance
capital markets-based solutions to traditional insurance. While historically we have been able to participate in certain of these activities on behalf of our clients and obtain fee revenue for such services, there can be no assurance that we will realize revenues and profitability as favorable as those realized from our traditional brokerage activities. Our ability to generate premium-based commission revenue may also be challenged by the growing desire of some clients to compensate brokers based upon flat fees rather than variable commission rates. This could negatively impact us because fees are generally not indexed for inflation and might not increase with premiums as commissions do or with the level of service provided.
Contingent and supplemental revenues we receive from underwriting enterprises are less predictable than standard commission revenues, and any decrease in the amount of these forms of revenue could adversely affect our results of operations.
A significant portion of our revenues consists of contingent and supplemental revenues from underwriting enterprises. Contingent revenues are paid after the insurance contract period, generally in the first or second quarter, based on the growth and/or profitability of business we placed with an underwriting enterprise during the prior year. On the other hand, supplemental revenues are paid up front, on an annual or quarterly basis, generally based on our historical premium volumes with the underwriting enterprise and additional capabilities or services we bring to the engagement. If, due to the current economic environment or for any other reason, we are unable to meet an underwriting enterprise’s particular profitability, volume or growth thresholds, as the case may be, or such companies increase their estimate of loss reserves (over which we have no control), actual contingent revenues or supplemental revenues could be less than anticipated, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In the case of contingent revenues, under the changed revenue recognition accounting standard, effective January 1, 2018, this could lead to the reversal of revenues in future periods that were recognized in prior periods (See Note 2 to our 2019 consolidated financial statements for more information).
If we are unable to apply technology effectively in driving value for our clients through technology-based solutions or gain internal efficiencies and effective internal controls through the application of technology and related tools, our operating results, client relationships, growth and compliance programs could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate and respond effectively to the threat and opportunity presented by digital disruption and developments in technology. These may include new applications or insurance-related services based on artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotics, blockchain or new approaches to data mining. We may be exposed to competitive risks related to the adoption and application of new technologies by established market participants (for example, through disintermediation) or new entrants such as technology companies, “Insurtech”
start-up
companies and others. These new entrants are focused on using technology and innovation, including artificial intelligence and blockchain, to simplify and improve the client experience, increase efficiencies, alter business models and effect other potentially disruptive changes in the industries in which we operate. We must also develop and implement technology solutions and technical expertise among our employees that anticipate and keep pace with rapid and continuing changes in technology, industry standards, client preferences and internal control standards. We may not be successful in anticipating or responding to these developments on a timely and cost-effective basis and our ideas may not be accepted in the marketplace. Additionally, the effort to gain technological expertise and develop new technologies in our business requires us to incur significant expenses. If we cannot offer new technologies as quickly as our competitors, or if our competitors develop more cost-effective technologies or product offerings, we could experience a material adverse effect on our operating results, client relationships, growth and compliance programs.
12

In some cases, we depend on key third-party vendors and partners to provide technology and other support for our strategic initiatives. If these third parties fail to perform their obligations or cease to work with us, our ability to execute on our strategic initiatives could be adversely affected.
Damage to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our reputation is one of our key assets. We advise our clients on and provide services related to a wide range of subjects and our ability to attract and retain clients is highly dependent upon the external perceptions of our level of service, ability to protect client information, trustworthiness, business practices, financial condition and other subjective qualities such as culture and values. Our success is also dependent on maintaining a good reputation with existing and potential employees, investors and regulators. Negative perceptions or publicity regarding the matters noted above, including our association with clients or business partners who themselves have a damaged reputation, or from actual or alleged conduct by us or our employees, could damage our reputation. Our reputation could also be impacted by negative perceptions or publicity regarding environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues or cybersecurity and data privacy concerns. Any resulting erosion of trust and confidence could make it difficult for us to attract and retain clients, employees and investors or harm our relationships with regulators, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain experienced and qualified talent, including our senior management team.
We depend upon members of our senior management team, who possess extensive knowledge and a deep understanding of our business and strategy. We could be adversely affected if we fail to plan adequately for the succession of these leaders, including our chief executive officer. We could also be adversely affected if we fail to attract and retain talent throughout our organization. Competition for talent in rapidly developing fields such as artificial intelligence and data engineering is particularly intense. In addition, our industry has experienced competition for leading brokers and in the past we have lost key brokers and groups of brokers, along with their clients, business relationships and intellectual property directly to our competition. Our failure to adequately address any of these issues could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our substantial operations outside the U.S. expose us to risks different than those we face in the U.S.
In 2019, we generated approximately 31% of our combined brokerage and risk management revenues outside the U.S. The global nature of our business creates operational and economic risks. Adverse geopolitical or economic conditions may temporarily or permanently disrupt our operations outside the U.S. or create difficulties in staffing and managing such operations. For example, we have substantial operations in India that provide important services for other parts of our global organization. To date, the dispute between India and Pakistan involving the Kashmir region, incidents of terrorism in India and general geopolitical uncertainties have not adversely affected our operations in India. However, such factors could potentially affect our operations there in the future. Should our access to these services be disrupted, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Operating outside the U.S. may also present other risks that are different from, or greater than, the risks we face doing comparable business in the U.S. These include, among others, risks relating to:
  Maintaining awareness of and complying with a wide variety of labor practices and foreign laws, including those relating to export and import duties, environmental policies and privacy issues, as well as laws and regulations applicable to U.S. business operations abroad. These and other international regulatory risks are described below under “Regulatory, Legal and Accounting Risks;”
 
 
 
  The potential costs, difficulties and risks associated with local regulations across the globe, including the risk of personal liability for directors and officers and “piercing the corporate veil” risks under the corporate law regimes of certain countries;
 
 
 
  Difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations. For example, we are building our Latin American operations (which contributed $37.4 million in revenue from 18 locations in 2019) through acquisitions of local family-owned insurance brokerage firms. If we lose a local leader, recruiting a replacement locally or finding an internal candidate qualified to transfer to such location could be difficult;
 
 
 
  Less flexible employee relationships, which in certain circumstances has limited our ability to prohibit employees from competing with us after they are no longer employed with us or recovering damages, and made it more difficult and expensive to terminate their employment;
 
 
 
  Some of our foreign subsidiaries receive revenues or incur obligations in currencies that differ from their functional currencies. We must also translate the financial results of our foreign subsidiaries into U.S. dollars. Although we have used foreign currency hedging strategies in the past and currently have some in place, such risks cannot be eliminated entirely, and significant changes in exchange rates may adversely affect our results of operations;
 
 
 
13

  Conflicting regulations in the countries in which we do business;
 
 
 
  Political and economic instability (including risks relating to undeveloped or evolving legal systems, unstable governments, acts of terrorism and outbreaks of war);
 
 
 
  Coordinating our communications and logistics across geographic distances, multiple time zones and in different languages, including during times of crisis management;
 
 
 
  Adverse trade policies, and adverse changes to any of the policies of the U.S. or any of the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate;
 
 
 
  The transition away from LIBOR to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate as a benchmark reference for short-term interest rates;
 
 
 
  Unfavorable audits and exposure to additional liabilities relating to various
non-income
taxes (such as payroll, sales, use, value-added, net worth, property and goods and services taxes) in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, our future effective tax rates could be unfavorably affected by changes in tax rates, discriminatory or confiscatory taxation, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets or liabilities, changes in tax laws or their interpretation and the financial results of our international subsidiaries. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development issued reports and recommendations as part of its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project (which we refer to as BEPS), and in response many countries in which we do business are expected to adopt rules which may change various aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined. For example, in response to BEPS, the U.K., Australia and New Zealand adopted rules that affect the deductibility of interest paid on intercompany debt, and other jurisdictions where we operate may do so as well in the near future;
 
 
 
  Legal or political constraints on our ability to maintain or increase prices;
 
 
 
  Cash balances held in foreign banks and institutions where governments have not specifically enacted formal guarantee programs;
 
 
 
  Pandemics such as coronavirus;
 
 
 
  Lost business or other financial harm due to governmental actions affecting the flow of goods, services and currency, including protectionist policies that discriminate in favor of local competitors; and
 
 
 
  Governmental restrictions on the transfer of funds to us from our operations outside the U.S.
 
 
 
The trade and military policies of the U.S. government could further develop in ways that exacerbate the risks described above, or introduce new risks for our international operations. If any of these risks materialize, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We face a variety of risks in our risk management third-party claims administration operations that are distinct from those we face in our insurance brokerage and benefit consulting operations.
Our third party claims administration operations face a variety of risks distinct from those faced by our brokerage operations, including the risks that:
  The favorable trend among both underwriting enterprises and self-insured entities toward outsourcing various types of claims administration and risk management services will reverse or slow, causing our revenues or revenue growth to decline;
 
 
 
  Concentration of large amounts of revenue with certain clients results in greater exposure to the potential negative effects of lost business due to changes in management at such clients or changes in state government policies, in the case of our government-entity clients, or for other reasons;
 
 
 
  Contracting terms will become less favorable or the margins on our services will decrease due to increased competition, regulatory constraints or other developments;
 
 
 
  We will not be able to satisfy regulatory requirements related to third party administrators or regulatory developments (including those relating to security and data privacy) will impose additional burdens, costs or business restrictions that make our business less profitable;
 
 
 
  Volatility in our case volumes, which are dependent upon a number of factors and difficult to forecast accurately, could impact our revenues;
 
 
 
  Economic weakness or a slow-down in economic activity could lead to a reduction in the number of claims we process;
 
 
 
  If we do not control our labor and technology costs, we may be unable to remain competitive in the marketplace and profitably fulfill our existing contracts (other than those that provide cost-plus or other margin protection);
 
 
 
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  We may be unable to develop further efficiencies in our claims-handling business and may be unable to obtain or retain certain clients if we fail to make adequate improvements in technology or operations; and
 
 
 
  Underwriting enterprises or certain large self-insured entities may create
in-house
servicing capabilities that compete with our third party administration and other administration, servicing and risk management products.
 
 
 
If any of these risks materialize, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Sustained increases in the cost of employee benefits could reduce our profitability.
The cost of current employees’ medical and other benefits, as well as pension retirement benefits and postretirement medical benefits under our legacy defined benefit plans, substantially affects our profitability. In the past, we have occasionally experienced significant increases in these costs as a result of macro-economic factors beyond our control, including increases in health care costs, declines in investment returns on pension assets and changes in discount rates and actuarial assumptions used to calculate pension and related liabilities. A significant decrease in the value of our defined benefit pension plan assets, changes to actuarial assumptions used to determine pension plan liabilities, or decreases in the interest rates used to discount the pension plans’ liabilities could cause an increase in pension plan costs in future years. Although we have actively sought to control increases in these costs, we can make no assurance that we will succeed in limiting future cost increases, and continued upward pressure in these costs could reduce our profitability.
Business disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our operations, damage our reputation and impact client relationships.
Our ability to conduct business may be adversely affected by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our business. Such a disruption could be caused by human error, capacity constraints, hardware failure or defect, natural disasters, fire, power loss, telecommunication failures,
break-ins,
sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, acts of terrorism, political unrest, or war. Our disaster recovery procedures may not be effective and insurance may not continue to be available at reasonable prices and may not address all such losses or compensate us for the possible loss of clients or increase in claims and lawsuits directed against us.
For example, our third party claims administration operation is highly dependent on the continued and efficient functioning of RISX-FACS
®
, our proprietary risk management information system, to provide clients with insurance claim settlement and administration services. In addition, we are increasing our use of cloud storage and cloud computing application services supported, upgraded and maintained by third-party vendors. A disruption affecting RISX-FACS
®
, third-party cloud services or any other infrastructure supporting our business could have a material adverse effect on our operations, cause reputational harm and damage our employee and client relationships.
Regulatory, Legal and Accounting Risks
Improper disclosure of confidential, personal or proprietary information and cybersecurity attacks could result in regulatory scrutiny, legal liability or reputational harm, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and reputation.
We maintain confidential, personal and proprietary information relating to our company, our employees and our clients. This information includes personally identifiable information, protected health information, financial information and intellectual property.
We rely on information technology and third party vendors to support our business activities, including our secure processing of confidential, sensitive, proprietary and other types of information. Cybersecurity or data breaches of any of the systems on which we rely may result from circumvention of security systems,
denial-of-service
attacks or other cyber-attacks, hacking, “phishing” attacks, computer viruses, ransomware, malware, employee or insider error, malfeasance, social engineering, physical breaches or other actions.
We have from time to time experienced cybersecurity incidents, such as computer viruses or unauthorized parties gaining access to our information technology systems, and privacy incidents, such as loss or inadvertent transmission of data, which to date have not had a material impact on our business.
Additionally, we are an acquisitive organization and the process of integrating the information systems of the businesses we acquire is complex and exposes us to additional risk as we might not adequately identify weaknesses in the targets’ information systems or information handling, privacy and security policies and protocols, which could expose us to unexpected liabilities or make our own systems and data more vulnerable to attack. In the future, any material cybersecurity or data incidents, or media reports of the same, even if untrue, could cause us to experience reputational harm, loss of clients and revenue, loss of proprietary data, regulatory actions and scrutiny, sanctions or other statutory penalties, litigation, liability for failure to safeguard clients’ information or financial losses. Such incidents could result in confidential, personal or proprietary information being lost or stolen, used to perpetuate fraud, maliciously made public, surreptitiously modified, or rendered inaccessible for a period of time. During a cyber-attack we might have to take our systems offline, which could interfere with services to our clients or damage our reputation. Such losses may not be insured against or not fully covered through insurance we maintain.
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We maintain policies, procedures and technical safeguards designed to protect the security and privacy of confidential, personal and proprietary information. Nonetheless, we cannot eliminate the risk of human error or malfeasance. It is possible that our security controls and employee training may not be effective.
We have invested and continue to invest in technology security initiatives, policies and resources and employee training. The cost and operational consequences of implementing, maintaining and enhancing further system protections measures could increase significantly as cybersecurity threats increase and as technology changes. As these threats evolve, cybersecurity and data incidents will be more difficult to detect, defend against and remediate. If we are unable to effectively maintain and upgrade our system safeguards, including in connection with the integration of acquisitions, we may incur unexpected costs and certain of our systems may become more vulnerable to unauthorized access.
Any of the foregoing may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and reputation.
With respect to our commercial arrangements with third party vendors, we have processes designed to require third party IT outsourcing, offsite storage and other vendors to agree to maintain certain standards with respect to the storage, protection and transfer of confidential, personal and proprietary information. However, we remain at risk of a data breach due to the intentional or unintentional
non-compliance
by a vendor’s employee or agent, the breakdown of a vendor’s data protection processes, or a cyber attack on a vendor’s information systems.
Changes in data privacy and protection laws and regulations, or any failure to comply with such laws and regulations, could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We are subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations globally regarding privacy, data protection, and data security, including those related to the collection, storage, handling, use, disclosure, transfer, and security of personal data. These laws apply to transfers of information among our affiliates, as well as to transactions we enter into with third party vendors. Significant uncertainty exists as privacy and data protection laws may be interpreted and applied differently from country to country, which may create inconsistent or conflicting requirements. Some of these laws provide rights to individuals to access, correct, and delete their personal information and to obtain copies at the expense of the business entities that process their data. Some of these laws carry heavy penalties for violations, e.g., fines of up to 4% of worldwide revenue under the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and to $7,500 per intentional violation under the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA). In the U.S., several states have proposed their own comprehensive data privacy bills similar to the GDPR and CCPA.
In addition, in the U.S., legislators are continuing to enact comprehensive cybersecurity laws. For example, we are subject to the New York State Department of Financial Services Cybersecurity Regulation for Financial Services Companies and CCPA. India has also proposed sweeping new data protection laws, in some cases including data localization laws that may require that personal data stay within their borders.
Complying with enhanced obligations imposed by various new and emerging laws is resulting in significant costs of developing, implementing or securing our servers and is requiring us to allocate more resources to new privacy compliance processes and to improved technologies, adding to our IT and compliance costs. In addition, enforcement actions and investigations by regulatory authorities related to data security incidents and privacy violations continue to increase. The enactment of more restrictive laws, rules, regulations, or future enforcement actions or investigations could impact us through increased costs or restrictions on our business, and noncompliance could result in regulatory penalties and significant legal liability.
We are subject to regulation worldwide. If we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if regulations change in a way that adversely affects our operations, we may not be able to conduct our business, or we may be less profitable.
Many of our activities throughout the world are subject to regulatory supervision and regulations promulgated by bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Department of Justice, the IRS, the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Federal Trade Commission in the U.S., the Financial Conduct Authority in the U.K., the Australian Securities and Investments Commission in Australia and insurance regulators in nearly every jurisdiction in which we operate. Our activities are also subject to a variety of other laws, rules and regulations addressing licensing, data privacy,
wage-and-hour
standards, employment and labor relations, anti-competition, anti-corruption, currency, reserves and the amount of local investment with respect to our operations in certain countries. This regulatory supervision could reduce our profitability or growth by increasing the costs of compliance, restricting the products or services we sell, the markets we enter, the methods by which we sell our products and services, or the prices we can charge for our services and the form of compensation we can accept from our clients, underwriting enterprises and third parties. As our operations grow around the world, it is increasingly difficult to monitor and enforce regulatory compliance across the organization. A compliance failure by even one of our smallest branches could lead to litigation and/or disciplinary actions that may include compensating clients for loss, the imposition of penalties and the revocation of our authorization to operate. In all such cases, we would also likely incur significant internal investigation costs and legal fees.
The global nature of our operations increases the complexity and cost of compliance with laws and regulations, including increased staffing needs, the development of new policies, procedures and internal controls and providing training to employees in multiple locations, adding to our cost of doing business. Many of these laws and regulations may have differing or conflicting
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legal standards across jurisdictions, increasing further the complexity and cost of compliance. In emerging markets and other jurisdictions with less developed legal systems, local laws and regulations may not be established with sufficiently clear and reliable guidance to provide us with adequate assurance that we are aware of all necessary licenses to operate our business, that we are operating our business in a compliant manner, or that our rights are otherwise protected. In addition, major political and legal developments in jurisdictions in which we do business may lead to new regulatory costs and challenges. See “The exit of the U.K. from the European Union (Brexit) could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.”
Changes in legislation or regulations and actions by regulators, including changes in administration and enforcement policies, could from time to time require operational changes that could result in lost revenues or higher costs or hinder our ability to operate our business.
For example, the method by which insurance brokers are compensated has received substantial scrutiny in the past because of the potential for conflicts of interest. The potential for conflicts of interest arises when a broker is compensated by two parties in connection with the same or similar transactions. The vast majority of the compensation we receive for our work as insurance brokers is in the form of retail commissions and fees. We receive additional revenue from underwriting enterprises, separate from retail commissions and fees, including, among other things, contingent and supplemental revenues and payments for consulting and analytics services we provide them. Future changes in the regulatory environment may impact our ability to collect these amounts. Adverse regulatory, legal or other developments regarding these revenues could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition, expose us to negative publicity and reputational damage and harm our relationships with clients, underwriting enterprises or other business partners.
In addition, we have made significant investments in product and knowledge development to assist clients as they navigate the complex regulatory requirements relating to employer sponsored healthcare. Depending on future changes to health legislation, these investments may not yield returns. Certain presidential candidates and key members of Congress have expressed a desire to establish alternatives to employer-sponsored health insurance or replace it with government-sponsored health insurance, including
“Medicare-for-all”
and related proposals. If we are unable to adapt our services to future changes in the legal and regulatory landscape around employer sponsored healthcare, our ability to grow our business or provide effective services, particularly in our employee benefits consulting business, will be negatively impacted. If our clients reduce the role or extent of employer sponsored healthcare in response to any future law or regulation, our results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We could be adversely affected by violations or alleged violations of laws that impose requirements for the conduct of our overseas operations, including the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act or other anti-corruption laws, sanctioned parties restrictions, and FATCA.
In foreign countries where we operate, a risk exists that our employees, third party partners or agents could engage in business practices prohibited by applicable laws and regulations, such as the FCPA and the U.K. Bribery Act. Such anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies from making improper payments to foreign officials and require companies to keep accurate books and records and maintain appropriate internal controls. Our policies mandate strict compliance with such laws and we devote substantial resources to programs to ensure compliance. However, we operate in some parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption, and, in certain circumstances, local customs and practice might not be consistent with the requirements of anti-corruption laws. In addition, in recent years, two of the five publicly traded insurance brokerage firms were investigated in the U.S. and the U.K. for improper payments to foreign officials. These firms undertook internal investigations and paid significant settlements.
We remain subject to the risk that our employees, third party partners or agents will engage in business practices that are prohibited by our policies and violate such laws and regulations. Violations by us or a third party acting on our behalf could result in significant internal investigation costs and legal fees, civil and criminal penalties, including prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and reputational harm.
We may also be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we violate trade sanctions laws of the U.S., the European Union and other jurisdictions in which we operate. In addition, FATCA requires certain of our subsidiaries, affiliates and other entities to obtain valid FATCA documentation from payees prior to remitting certain payments to such payees. In the event we do not obtain valid FATCA documents, we may be obliged to withhold a portion of such payments. This obligation is shared with our clients who may fail to comply, in whole or in part. In such circumstances, we may incur FATCA compliance costs including withholding taxes, interest and penalties. Recent regulatory developments related to FATCA could also cause short-term increases in our costs related to systems and process updates needed for us to be able to take advantage of such changes. In addition, the impact of Brexit on FATCA reporting for EU placements may further increase our compliance burden and cost of operations and could adversely affect the market for our services as intermediaries, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act may have an adverse effect on us, and such effect may be material.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which significantly revised the U.S. tax code by, among other things, lowering the corporate income tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0%; limiting the deductibility of interest expense; implementing a territorial tax system and imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries. Some aspects of the Tax Act are still unclear and will continue to be clarified over time. While we have updated estimates of the tax impacts based on guidance released to date or interpretations under such guidance, other guidance could be issued in the future, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
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We are subject to a number of contingencies and legal proceedings which, if determined unfavorably to us, would adversely affect our financial results.
We are or have been subject to numerous claims, tax assessments, lawsuits and proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. Such claims, lawsuits and other proceedings include claims for dama