10-K 1 alg-20231231.htm 10-K alg-20231231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
 OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 0-21220

ALAMO GROUP INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware74-1621248
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification Number)
 1627 East Walnut, Seguin, Texas 78155
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
 
830-379-1480
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange
Common Stock, par value
$.10 per share
ALGon which registered
New York Stock Exchange
 SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:  None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirement for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and an "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer                        
Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company        
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
 
The aggregate market value of the voting stock (which consists solely of shares of common stock) held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 (based upon the last reported sale price of $183.91 per share) was approximately $1,864,808,595 on such date.
 



The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $.10 per share, outstanding as of February 16, 2024 was 12,015,281 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement relating to the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders have been incorporated by reference herein in response to Part III. 



ALAMO GROUP INC. AND CONSOLIDATED SUBSIDIARIES
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                 
 PART IPage
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 PART II 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
 PART III 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 PART IV 
Item 15.
 Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 16.
2


PART I
Item 1. Business

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “the Company,” "Alamo Group," “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Alamo Group Inc. and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.
 
General
 
The Company is a leader in the design, manufacture and servicing of high quality vegetation management and infrastructure maintenance equipment for governmental, industrial and agricultural use. The Company’s products include tractor mounted and self-propelled mowers, zero-turn mowers, agricultural implements, tree and branch chippers, forestry/wood recycling equipment, street and parking lot sweepers, leaf and debris collection equipment, truck mounted highway attenuator trucks, vacuum trucks, hydro-excavation equipment, telescopic boom excavators, and snow removal equipment. The Company emphasizes high quality, cost-effective products for its customers and strives to develop and market innovative products while constantly monitoring and controlling its manufacturing and overhead costs. The Company has a long-standing strategy of supplementing its internal growth through acquisitions of businesses or product lines that currently complement, command, or have the potential to achieve a meaningful share of their niche markets.

The Company has approximately 4,350 employees and manages a total of 29 plants with business operations in North America, South America, Europe, and Australia. The Company sells its products primarily through a network of independent dealers and distributors to governmental end-users and related independent contractors, as well as to other commercial customers. The primary markets for our products are North America, South America, Europe and Australia.
  
The predecessor corporation to Alamo Group Inc. was incorporated in the State of Texas in 1969, as a successor to a business that began selling mowing equipment in 1955, and Alamo Group Inc. was reincorporated in the State of Delaware in 1987.

History

Since its founding in 1969, the Company has focused on satisfying customer needs through geographic market expansion, product development and refinement, and selected acquisitions. The Company’s first products were based on rotary cutting technology. Through acquisitions, the Company added flail cutting technology in 1983 and sickle-bar cutting technology in 1984.

The Company entered the agricultural mowing markets in 1986 with the acquisition of Rhino Products Inc. (“Rhino”), a leading manufacturer in this field. With this acquisition, the Company embarked on a strategy to increase the Rhino dealer distribution network during a period of industry contraction. The addition of M&W Gear Company (“M&W”) in early 1995 allowed the Company to enter into the manufacturing and distribution of tillage equipment, which complements the Rhino distribution network. M&W is part of the vegetation management marketing group.

In 1991, the Company began its international expansion with the acquisition of McConnel Ltd. (“McConnel”), a United Kingdom (“U.K.”) manufacturer of vegetation maintenance equipment, principally hydraulic boom-mounted hedge and grass cutters and related parts. Bomford-Turner Ltd. (“Bomford”), also a U.K. company, was acquired in 1993. Bomford is a manufacturer of heavy-duty, tractor-mounted grass and hedge mowing equipment. McConnel and Bomford sell their products to dealers and distributors through their respective sales forces.

The Company added to its presence in the industrial and governmental vegetation markets with the acquisition of Tiger Corporation (“Tiger”) in 1994. Tiger manufactures a wide variety of durable rotary and flail boom mowers, side mowers and rear mowing equipment, along with truck mounted boom mowers and a full line of specialty mowing equipment and attachments.

In 1994, the Company acquired Signalisation Moderne Autoroutiere S.A. (“SMA”) located in Orleans, France. SMA manufactures and sells principally a line of heavy-duty, tractor-mounted grass and hedge mowing-equipment and associated replacement parts primarily to departments of the French government. This acquisition, along with the acquisitions of Forges Gorce ("Forges Gorce"), a flail blade manufacturer in France, in 1996 and Rousseau Holdings S.A. (“Rousseau”), a leading French manufacturer of hedge and verge mowers, in 2004, when combined
3


with McConnel and Bomford, has made the Company one of the largest manufacturers in the European market for the kind of vegetation management equipment sold by the Company.

In 1995, the Company expanded its business in the agricultural market with the acquisition of Herschel Corporation (“Herschel”), a manufacturer and distributor of aftermarket farm equipment replacement and wear parts. 

In 2000, the Company acquired Schwarze Industries, Inc. (“Schwarze”). Schwarze is a manufacturer of a broad range of street sweeping equipment which is sold to governmental agencies and contractors. The Company believes the Schwarze sweeper products fit the Company’s strategy of identifying product offerings with brand recognition in the industrial markets the Company serves. In 2004, the Company purchased the pothole patcher product line from Wildcat Manufacturing, Inc. This product line was merged into the Schwarze operation and, in 2023, the product line assets were sold.

In 2000, the Company purchased the product line and associated assets of Twose of Tiverton Ltd. (“Twose”) a small regional manufacturer of power arm flail mowers and parts, as well as harrows and rollers, in the U.K. Twose consolidated its operations into the existing facilities at McConnel and Bomford and its brand name has been merged into the McConnel product line.

In 2000, the Company acquired Schulte Industries Ltd. and its related entities (“Schulte”). Schulte is a Canadian manufacturer of mechanical rotary mowers, snow blowers, and rock removal equipment. Schulte strengthened the Company’s Canadian presence in both marketing and manufacturing. It also expanded the Company’s range of large, heavy-duty rotary mowers.

In 2002, the Company purchased inventory, fixed assets and certain other assets of Valu-Bilt Tractor Parts (“Valu-Bilt”), a subsidiary of Quality Stores, Inc., located in Des Moines, Iowa. Valu-Bilt is a distributor of new, used and rebuilt tractor parts and other agricultural spare and wear parts sold directly to customers through its catalog and the internet and on a wholesale basis to dealers. Subsequent to the purchase, the operations of Valu-Bilt in Des Moines, Iowa, were consolidated into the Company’s Herschel facility in Indianola, Iowa.

In 2005, the Company acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding stock of Spearhead Machinery Limited (“Spearhead”) and subsequently merged its manufacturing operations into Bomfords facility. Spearhead manufactures a range of tractor-mounted vegetation maintenance equipment, including reach mowers, flail mowers and rotary cutters. This acquisition extended our product lines and market coverage in Europe.

In 2006, the Company purchased substantially all of the assets of the Gradall excavator business (“Gradall”) from JLG Industries, Inc., including their manufacturing plant in New Philadelphia, Ohio. Gradall is a leading manufacturer of both wheeled and crawler telescopic excavators in North America. This acquisition enhanced our Industrial Equipment Division product offering sold to governmental and commercial buyers for digging/grading along roadways, maintenance along right-of-ways, and other applications.

In 2006, the Company purchased the vacuum truck and sweeper lines of Clean Earth Environmental Group, LLC and Clean Earth Kentucky, LLC (collectively referred to as “VacAll”). This included the product lines, inventory and certain other assets that relate to this business. The production of the vacuum truck and sweeper lines was moved to the Gradall facility in New Philadelphia, Ohio.

In 2006, the Company acquired 100% of the ownership interests in Nite-Hawk Sweepers LLC (“Nite-Hawk”), a manufacturer of truck mounted sweeping equipment primarily for the contract sweeping market, which expanded our presence in that market and which complements our Schwarze sweeper line. In 2023, the Kent, Washington facility was sold and leased back.
 
In 2007, the Company purchased Henke Manufacturing Corporation (“Henke”), a manufacturer of specialty snow removal attachments. Henke’s products are mounted on both heavy industrial equipment and medium to heavy-duty trucks. The primary end-users are governmental agencies, related contractors and other industrial users. In 2022, the Henke manufacturing operations were consolidated into our Wausau snow equipment facility in New Berlin, Wisconsin. In 2023, the Henke Leavenworth, Kansas facility was sold.
4


In 2008, the Company acquired Rivard Developpement S.A.S. (“Rivard”), a leading French manufacturer of vacuum trucks, high pressure cleaning systems and trenchers. The acquisition broadened the Company’s product offering to our customers in Europe and other markets we serve.

In 2009, the Company acquired substantially all the assets of Bush Hog, LLC (“Bush Hog”), a leading manufacturer of rotary cutters, finishing mowers, zero turn radius mowers, front-end loaders, backhoes, landscape equipment and a variety of other implements. This acquisition, combined with the Company’s existing range of rotary mowers, established the Company as one of the largest manufacturers of rotary mowers in the world.

In 2011, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets and assumed certain specified liabilities of Tenco Group, Inc. ("Tenco") and its subsidiaries. Tenco is a Canadian-based manufacturer of snow removal equipment including snow blades, blowers, dump bodies, spreaders and associated parts and service. Tenco has operations in Quebec and New York. The equipment is sold primarily through dealers to governmental end-users as well as snow removal contractors.

In 2013, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets and assumed certain specified liabilities of Superior Equipment Australia Pty Ltd ("Superior"). Superior is a small Australian-based manufacturer of agricultural mowing equipment and other attachments, parts, and services. The equipment is sold through dealers primarily to agricultural end-users with some sold to governmental entities in Australia. The Superior operations have been consolidated with the Company's Fieldquip location.

In 2014, the Company acquired Kellands Agricultural Ltd. and its subsidiary Multidrive Tractors Ltd. ("Kellands"). Kellands is a U.K.-based manufacturer of self-propelled sprayers and a range of multi-purpose load-carrying tractor vehicles. This acquisition enhanced our manufacture and distribution of our agricultural machinery in Europe and allowed the Company to enter into the self-propelled sprayer market. The Kellands operations were consolidated into the Company's Salford Priors facility and its products are sold under the McConnel brand name.

In 2014, the Company acquired Fieldquip Australia Pty Ltd ("Fieldquip"), a manufacturer of rotary cutters as well as a distributor of various lifestyle products. This acquisition allowed the Company to broaden its presence in both the manufacturing and distribution of vegetation management machinery in Australia.

In 2014, the Company acquired all of the operating units of Specialized Industries LP.  The purchase included the businesses of Super Products LLC ("Super Products"), Wausau-Everest LP ("Wausau" & "Everest") and Howard P. Fairfield LLC ("H.P. Fairfield") as well as several related entities ("Specialized"), including all brand names and related product names and trademarks. The primary reason for the Specialized acquisition was to broaden the Company's existing equipment lines. This acquisition increased our product offering and enhanced our market position both in vacuum trucks and snow removal equipment primarily in North America.

In 2015, the Company acquired Herder Implementos e Maquinas Agricolas Ltda. ("Herder"). Herder is a manufacturer of flail mowers which are sold direct and through dealers to a wide variety of agricultural markets as well as the roadside maintenance market. This acquisition established a presence for the Company in Brazil, one of the largest agricultural markets in the world. The Herder manufacturing operations have been consolidated into our Santa Izabel facility and the Herder Matao facility was subsequently sold in 2023.

In 2017, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding shares of Santa Izabel Agro Industria Ltda. ("Santa Izabel"). Santa Izabel designs, manufactures and markets a variety of agricultural implements, sugar cane trailers and other vegetation management products sold throughout Brazil. This acquisition, along with Herder, augmented our product portfolio and improved our manufacturing capabilities in one of the world's largest agricultural markets.

In 2017, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets and assumed certain specified liabilities of Old Dominion Brush Company, Inc. ("ODB"). ODB manufactures leaf collection equipment as well as replacement brooms for street sweepers, both of which are sold to municipalities, contractors and commercial landscape markets in North America. ODB is based in Richmond, Virginia. This acquisition provided new and complementary products to our existing range of infrastructure maintenance equipment and parts.

In 2017, the Company acquired R.P.M. Tech Inc. ("RPM"), a manufacturer of heavy duty snow removal equipment and associated parts. RPM primarily sells to governmental agencies, related contractors, airports and other industrial users. This acquisition complemented our existing range of snow removal products with RPM's
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range of heavy duty snow removal equipment, including their line of mechanical snow blowers. In 2020, RPM's operations were consolidated into the Company's nearby Tenco facility and the former RPM facility in Drummondville was sold.

In 2019, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding capital shares of Dutch Power B.V. ("Dutch Power") in the Netherlands. Dutch Power designs and manufactures a variety of landscape and vegetation management machines and attachments. This acquisition expanded our existing platform and increased our capabilities in the European market. Dutch Power changed its legal name to Alamo Group The Netherlands in 2021.

In 2019, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets of the Dixie Chopper ("Dixie Chopper") business. Dixie Chopper manufactures a wide range of commercial and high end residential Zero Turn ("ZT") mowers. This acquisition provided a new channel and increased the Company's exposure in the outdoor power equipment market. Dixie Chopper was consolidated into our Rhino business operations.

In 2019, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding capital shares of Morbark, LLC ("Morbark") which included its subsidiaries Rayco Manufacturing LLC ("Rayco") and Denis Cimaf Inc. ("Denis Cimaf"). Morbark is a leading manufacturer of equipment and aftermarket parts for forestry, tree care, biomass, land management and recycling markets. This acquisition expanded the Company's product line and complemented its range of vegetation maintenance equipment in an adjacent market. Morbark is based in Winn, Michigan with subsidiary locations in Wooster, Ohio and Roxton Falls, Quebec. At the end of 2020, the Denis Cimaf manufacturing operations based in Roxton Falls were consolidated into the Rayco facility in Wooster, Ohio. In 2023, the Morbark Roxton Falls, Quebec location was sold.

In 2021, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding capital shares of Timberwolf Limited ("Timberwolf") in the U.K. Timberwolf is a leading manufacturer of a broad range of commercial wood chippers primarily serving markets in the U.K. and the European Union. This acquisition complemented the Company's existing range of tree care products and strengthened the Company's presence in the U.K. and European forestry and tree care markets.

In 2023, the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding equity capital of Royal Truck & Equipment, Inc. ("Royal Truck"), a leading manufacturer of truck mounted highway attenuator trucks and other specialty trucks and equipment for the highway infrastructure and traffic control market. The primary reason for the Royal Truck acquisition was to acquire business operations in an adjacent market, highway safety and equipment, where the Company sees compelling future opportunities. Royal Truck is based in Shoemakersville, Pennsylvania.

Sales and Marketing Strategy
 
The Company believes that within the U.S. it is a leading supplier to governmental markets, a leading supplier in the U.S. agricultural market, and one of the largest suppliers in the European market for its key niche product offerings. The Company’s products are sold through the Company’s various marketing organizations and extensive worldwide dealer and distributor networks under the Gradall®, VacAll®, Super Products®, Rivard®, Alamo Industrial®, Terrain King®, Tiger®, Herder®, Conver®, Roberine®, Votex®, Schwarze®, NiteHawk®, ODB®, Henke®, Tenco®, Wausau®, Everest®, H.P. Fairfield™, R.P.M. Tech™, Morbark®, Rayco®,Denis Cimaf®, Boxer®, Bush Hog®, Rhino®, RhinoAg®, M&W®, Dixie Chopper®, Herschel®, Schulte®, Fieldquip®, Santa Izabel™, McConnel®, Bomford®, Spearhead™, Twose™, SMA®, Forges Gorce™, Rousseau® , Royal Truck & Equipment™, Timberwolf™ , and Wolftrack™ trademarks (some with related designs) as well as other trademarks and trade names.

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Products and Distribution Channels

At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company began reporting operating results on the basis of two new segments, namely, the Vegetation Management Division and the Industrial Equipment Division. Prior to the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company had been reporting its operating results on the basis of two segments which were the Industrial Division and Agricultural Division. The Vegetation Management Division includes all of the operations of the former Agricultural Division plus the mowing and forestry/tree care operations that were previously part of the former Industrial Division. The Industrial Equipment Division includes the Company’s vocational truck business and other industrial operations such as excavators, vacuum trucks, street sweepers, snow removal equipment, and the recently acquired Royal Truck business. We believe the realignment of our two divisions provides greater potential to capture synergies in cross-branding, distribution, product development, supply chain management and logistics. The two divisions are also more balanced in scale and scope, giving the Company two strong platforms for ongoing development through a mix of organic growth and acquisitions.

Vegetation Management Division

Bush Hog and Rhino equipment is generally sold to farmers, ranchers and other end-users to clear brush, mow grass, maintain pastures and unused farmland, shred crops, till fields, and for haymaking and other applications. Bush Hog and Rhino equipment consists principally of a comprehensive line of tractor-powered equipment, including rotary mowers, finishing mowers, flail mowers, disc mowers, front-end loaders, backhoes, rotary tillers, posthole diggers, scraper blades and replacement parts.

Dixie Chopper produces a wide range of commercial and high end residential zero turn ("ZT") mowers. It sells its products through its independent dealers in the outdoor power equipment channel throughout the U.S.
Schulte equipment includes heavy-duty mechanical rotary mowers, snow blowers, rock removal equipment and related replacement parts. Schulte serves both the agricultural and governmental markets primarily in Canada and the U.S. It also sells some of the Company’s other product lines in its markets and some of its products through independent distributors throughout the world.

McConnel equipment principally includes a broad line of hydraulic, boom-mounted hedge and grass cutters, remote control mowers as well as other tractor attachments and implements such as cultivators, subsoilers and other implements and related replacement parts. McConnel equipment is sold primarily in the U.K., Ireland, France and in other parts of Europe through independent dealers and distributors. McConnel also sells a range of self-propelled sprayers and a variety of multi-drive load-carrying vehicles. These products are sold through its existing dealer network as well as various marketing groups within the European region of the Vegetation Management Division.
Bomford equipment includes hydraulic boom-mounted hedge and hedgerow cutters, industrial grass mowers, agricultural seedbed preparation cultivators and related replacement parts. Bomford equipment is sold to governmental agencies, contractors and agricultural end-users in the U.K., Ireland, France and other parts of Europe, North America, Australia and Asia. Bomford’s sales network is similar to that of McConnel in the U.K.

Spearhead manufactures a range of tractor-mounted vegetation maintenance equipment, including reach mowers, flail mowers and rotary cutters. These products are manufactured in the Company's Bomford facility.
Fieldquip broadens the Company's presence in Australia. The company sells a variety of vegetation maintenance equipment, specifically rotary mowers and tractor attachments. Fieldquip sells to customers ranging from large agricultural and commercial operators to small farm hobbyist and residential users, as well as agricultural dealers who serve owners and operators in the turf, golf, park and airport industries and growers with orchards, vineyards and plantations in Australia and the South Pacific.
Rousseau sells hydraulic and mechanical boom mowers, primarily in France, through its own sales force and its dealer distribution network mainly to agricultural and governmental markets. These products have also been introduced into other markets outside of France. These products are manufactured at our facility near Lyon, France.

SMA equipment includes hydraulic boom-mounted hedge and hedgerow cutters and related replacement parts. SMA’s principal customers are French local authorities. SMA’s product offerings include certain quick-attach boom
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mowers manufactured by the Company in the U.K. to expand its presence in agricultural dealerships. The SMA product line is manufactured at our facility near Lyon, France.

Forges Gorce manufactures cutting blades which are sold to some of the Company’s subsidiaries as well as to other third party customers and distributors.

Morbark manufactures a broad range of tree chippers, stump grinders, mulchers, brush cutters, flails and debarkers sold under the Morbark, Rayco, Denis Cimaf and Boxer brand names. Its products are sold to industrial and commercial contractors mainly through a network of independent dealers and distributors and, to a lesser extent, direct sales to end-users.

Timberwolf produces a variety of commercial tree care and forestry equipment and attachments under several brand names including Timberwolf and Wolftrack. Timberwolf sells its products primarily to commercial customers through a comprehensive network of dealers.

Alamo Industrial equipment is principally sold through independent dealers to governmental end-users, related independent contractors and utility and other dealers serving infrastructure maintenance operators and other applications in the U.S. and other countries. Governmental agencies and contractors that perform services for such agencies purchase primarily hydraulically-powered, tractor - and off-road chassis mounted mowers, including boom-mounted mowers, other types of cutters and replacement parts for heavy-duty, intensive use applications, including maintenance around highway, airport, recreational and other public areas. A portion of Alamo Industrial’s sales includes tractors, which are not manufactured by Alamo Industrial.

Tiger equipment includes heavy duty, tractor- and truck-mounted mowing and vegetation maintenance equipment and replacement parts. Tiger sells to state, county and local governmental entities and related contractors, primarily through a network of independent dealers. Tiger’s dealer distribution network is independent of Alamo Industrial’s dealer distribution network. A portion of Tiger’s sales includes tractors, which are not manufactured by Tiger.

Alamo Group The Netherlands produces a variety of landscape and vegetation maintenance equipment and attachments under several brand names including Herder, Conver, Roberine, and Votex. Alamo Group The Netherlands primarily sells to contractors who perform infrastructure maintenance for governmental agencies and private landowners.

Herder and Santa Izabel give the Company a presence in the Brazilian agricultural market. Herder manufactures and distributes flail and rotary mowers and various other agricultural equipment, direct and through dealers. Its products are used in a wide variety of agricultural and governmental markets. Santa Izabel designs, manufactures and markets a variety of agricultural implements, including sugar cane trailers sold throughout Brazil.

Herschel aftermarket replacement parts are sold for many types of farm equipment and tractors and certain types of mowing and construction equipment. Herschel products include a wide range of cutting parts, plain and hard-faced replacement tillage tools, disc blades and fertilizer application components. Herschel replacement tools and parts are sold throughout the United States, Canada and Mexico to five major customer groups: farm equipment dealers; fleet stores; wholesale distributors; OEMs; and construction equipment dealers. Valu-Bilt complements the Herschel product lines while also expanding the Company’s offering of aftermarket agricultural parts and added catalog and internet sales direct to end-users.
Industrial Equipment Division

Gradall produces a range of excavators based on high-pressure hydraulic telescoping booms which are sold through dealers primarily to governmental agencies and, to a lesser extent, the mining industry, steel mills and other specialty applications in the U.S. and other countries. Many of these products are designed for excavation, grading, shaping and similar tasks involved in land clearing, road building, grading or maintenance. These products are available mounted on various types of undercarriages: wheels for full-speed highway travel, wheels for on/off road use, and crawlers. A portion of Gradall’s sales includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by Gradall.

VacAll produces catch basin cleaners and roadway debris vacuum systems. These units are powerful and versatile with uses including, but not limited to, removal of wet and dry debris, spill elimination, and cleaning of
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sludge beds. VacAll also offers a line of sewer cleaners. Its products are primarily sold through dealers to industrial and commercial contractors as well as governmental agencies. A portion of VacAll’s sales includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by the Company.

Super Products produces truck-mounted vacuum machines, combination sewer cleaners and hydro excavators. Its products are sold to municipalities, utilities and contractors through a nationwide distributor network. Super Products also operates a network of rental stores that provides short and long-term rental contracts for its products. Rental customers are primarily contractors serving the petrochemical, petroleum production and refining industries. A portion of the sales of Super Products includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by the Company.
Rivard manufactures vacuum trucks, high pressure cleaning systems and trenchers. Rivard’s equipment is sold primarily in France and certain other markets, mainly in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, and to governmental entities and related contractors. This business also complements our product offerings in North America. The majority of Rivard's customers provide their own truck chassis.

Tenco and RPM both design and manufacture a heavy-duty line of snow removal equipment, including truck-mounted snow plows, snow blowers, dump bodies and spreaders. Their products are primarily sold through independent dealers. End-users are governmental agencies, contractors, airports and other industrial users.

Wausau designs and manufactures a comprehensive range of snow removal and ice control products. Products include snowplows, snow blowers, snow throwers, brooms, deicers, brine sprayers and other related accessories and parts. Wausau sells its products through its established dealer network to both governmental and non-governmental end-users and sells directly to airports and fixed-base operators.
Everest designs and manufactures a range of snow removal and ice control products including snowplows, wing systems, spreader bodies, and other related accessories and parts. Everest also manufactures custom-engineered underground construction forms for tunnels.
Henke designs and manufactures snow plows and heavy duty snow removal equipment, hitches and attachments for trucks, loaders and graders sold primarily through independent truck and industrial equipment dealers. Henke’s primary end-users are governmental agencies, related contractors and other industrial users.
H.P. Fairfield is a full-service distributor of public works and runway maintenance products, parts and service, whose sales and service outlets are located in the northeastern part of the U.S. H.P. Fairfield’s offerings include custom municipal snow and ice removal equipment, a range of salt spreaders and truck bodies, street sweepers, a line of industrial rotary, flail and boom mowers, solid waste and recycling equipment, water and sewer maintenance equipment, municipal tractors and attachments, and asphalt maintenance patchers, some of which are sourced from other Alamo Group companies. H.P. Fairfield also provides truck up-fitting services as part of its business.
Schwarze equipment includes truck-mounted air vacuum, mechanical broom, and regenerative air sweepers, pothole patchers and replacement parts. Schwarze sells its products primarily to governmental agencies and independent contractors, either directly or through its independent dealer network. A portion of Schwarze’s sales includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by Schwarze.

ODB manufactures and sells leaf and debris collection equipment and replacement brooms for street sweepers, both of which are sold to municipalities, contractors and commercial landscape markets in North America.

Nite-Hawk manufactures parking lot sweepers with unique and innovative hydraulic designs. By eliminating the auxiliary engine, Nite-Hawk sweepers have proven to be fuel-efficient, environmentally conscious, and cost-effective to operate. Nite-Hawk focuses mainly on and sells direct to parking lot contractors. A portion of Nite-Hawk’s sales includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by Nite-Hawk.
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Royal Truck manufactures and sells truck mounted highway crash attenuator trucks, cone safety and traffic control trucks, and a broad range of other equipment focused on highway safety. Royal Truck sells its products directly to a diverse base of customers in the traffic control services, equipment rental, and construction businesses, as well as to governmental agencies. A portion of Royal Truck's sales includes truck chassis which are not manufactured by Royal Truck.

Replacement Parts

The Company derives a significant portion of its revenues from sales of replacement parts for each of its wholegoods lines. Replacement parts represented approximately 17%, 19% and 20% of the Company’s total sales for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Product Development

The Company’s ability to provide innovative responses to customer needs, to develop and manufacture new products, and to enhance existing product lines is important to its success. The Company continually conducts research and development activities in an effort to improve existing products and develop new products. As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed 269 people in its various engineering departments, 164 of whom are degreed engineers and the balance of whom are support staff. Amounts expended on research and development activities were approximately $13.4 million in 2023, $14.3 million in 2022 and $11.7 million in 2021. As a percentage of sales, research & development was approximately 0.8% in 2023, 0.9% in 2022 and 0.9% in 2021, and is expected to continue at similar levels in 2024.

Seasonality

The Company’s unit sales are fairly constant quarter to quarter. However, replacement part sales are generally higher in the second and third quarters of the year, because a substantial number of the Company’s products are used for maintenance activities such as vegetation maintenance, highway right-of-way maintenance, construction, and street and parking lot sweeping. Usage of this equipment is typically lower in harsh weather. The Company utilizes an annual twelve-month sales forecast provided by the Company’s marketing departments which is updated quarterly in order to develop a production plan for its manufacturing facilities. In addition, many of the Company’s marketing departments attempt to equalize demand for products throughout the calendar year by offering seasonal sales programs which may provide additional incentives, including discounts and extended payment terms.

Competition

The Company’s products are sold in highly competitive markets throughout the world. The principal competitive factors are price, quality, availability, service and reputation. The Company competes with several large national and international companies that offer a broad range of equipment and replacement parts, as well as with numerous small, privately-held manufacturers and suppliers of a limited number of products, mainly on a regional basis. Some of the Company’s competitors are significantly larger than the Company and have substantially greater financial and other resources at their disposal. The Company believes that it is able to compete successfully in its markets by effectively managing its manufacturing costs, offering high quality products, developing and designing innovative products and, to some extent, avoiding direct competition with significantly larger potential competitors. There can be no assurance that the Company’s competitors will not substantially increase the resources devoted to the development and marketing of products competitive with the Company’s products or that new competitors with greater resources will not enter the Company’s markets.

Unfilled Orders

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had unfilled customer orders of $859.8 million compared to $1.0 billion at December 31, 2022. Management expects that substantially all of the Company’s unfilled orders as of December 31, 2023 will be shipped during fiscal year 2024. The amount of unfilled orders at a particular time is affected by a number of factors, including manufacturing and shipping schedules which, in most instances, are dependent on the Company’s seasonal sales programs and the requirements of its customers. It is possible that supply chain disruptions, labor constraints, and other new and/or unanticipated effects, could cause delays in delivery or an inability to complete unfilled customer orders. The Company’s orders are subject to cancellation at
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any time before shipment; therefore, a comparison of unfilled orders from period to period is not necessarily meaningful and may not be indicative of future actual shipments. No single customer or group of customers is responsible for 10% or more of the aggregate revenue of the Company or of a segment of the Company.

Sources of Supply

The principal raw materials used by the Company include steel, other metal components, hydraulic hoses, paint and tires. During 2023, the raw materials needed by the Company were available from a variety of sources in adequate quantities and at prevailing market prices. While supply chain issues have improved compared to prior years, we remain affected by inflationary impacts for many of the raw materials we purchase. We expect pricing to remain elevated in 2024 but anticipate a slowing of the rate of inflation.
 
While the Company manufactures many of the parts for its products, a significant percentage of parts, including most drivelines, gearboxes, industrial engines, and hydraulic components, are purchased from outside suppliers which manufacture to the Company’s specifications. In addition, the Company, through its subsidiaries, purchases tractors and truck chassis as a number of the Company’s products are mounted and shipped with a tractor or truck chassis. Tractors and truck chassis are generally available, but during 2023 we experienced delays in receiving truck chassis which caused us to delay shipments of some of our products and created operational inefficiencies in some of our facilities, particularly within our Industrial Equipment Division. The Company sources its purchased goods from international and domestic suppliers. No one supplier is responsible for supplying more than 10% of the principal raw materials or purchased goods used by the Company.
 
Patents, Trademarks and Trade Names
 
The Company owns various U.S. and international patents, trademarks and trade names. While the Company considers its patents, trademarks and trade names to be advantageous to its business, it is not dependent on any single patent, trademark, trade name or group of patents, trademarks, or trade names. The net book value of patents, trademarks and trade names was $77.1 million and $78.9 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Environmental and Other Governmental Regulations

Like other manufacturers, the Company is subject to a broad range of federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules and regulations including those relating to climate change; emissions to air, including Tier 4 or similar engine emission regulations; discharges to water; restrictions placed on water usage and water availability; product and associated packaging; use of certain chemicals; restricted substances, including "conflict minerals" disclosure rules; import and export compliance, including country of origin certification requirements; worker and product user health and safety; energy efficiency; product life-cycles; outdoor noise laws; and the generation, use, handling, labeling, collection, management, storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of hazardous substances, wastes, and other regulated materials.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"), the California Air Resources Board ("CARB"), and similar regulators in other U.S. states and foreign jurisdictions in which we sell our products have emission requirements setting maximum emission standards for certain equipment. In addition to the EPA's implementation of Tier 4 emission requirements applicable to diesel engines, China, the European Union ("EU") and the United Kingdom also have adopted similar regulations, and similar emission regulations are also being considered in other markets in which we sell our products. CARB continues to propose new regulations, including Tier 5 off-road diesel engine emissions standards that are in development. In addition, CARB has started to implement on-road zero emissions equipment regulations that will likely create increasingly stringent requirements on exhaust and other emissions from some of the products we manufacture. These new on-road zero emissions regulations have started to limit the availability of some on-road vehicle chassis that use diesel engines in California and possibly in other states that plan to adopt these CARB regulations.

The U.S. federal government, several U.S. states, and certain international markets where we sell our products, including the EU and some EU member countries have introduced product life-cycle laws, rules, or regulations, which are intended to reduce waste and environmental and human health impact, and require manufacturers to label, collect, dispose, and recycle certain products, including some of our products, at the end of their useful life. These include, among other laws and regulations: (i) the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of
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Chemicals ("REACH") directive, U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act ("TSCA"), or similar substance level laws, rules, or regulations that require notification of use of certain chemicals, or ban or restrict the use of certain chemicals; (ii) California Proposition 65 and other product substance restriction laws, some of which require certain labeling of products; (iii) energy efficiency laws, rules, or regulations, which are intended to reduce the use and inefficiencies associated with energy and natural resource consumption and require specified efficiency ratings and capabilities for certain products; (iv) conflict minerals laws, such as those contained in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the rules promulgated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), which require specific procedures for the determination and disclosure of the use of certain minerals, known as "conflict minerals," which are mined from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries; and (v) supply chain transparency laws and regulations addressing modern slavery and human trafficking.

The Company is also subject to various other federal, state, and local laws affecting its business, as well as a variety of regulations relating to such matters as working conditions, equal employment opportunities, and product safety, including National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reporting. In addition, a variety of laws regulate the Company’s contractual relationships with its dealers, some of which impose restrictive standards on the relationship between the Company and its dealers, including events of default, grounds for termination, non-renewal of dealer contracts, and equipment repurchase requirements.

We believe we have maintained compliance with existing laws, rules and regulations applicable to our business and will continue to do so. We believe there will be some additional costs to our business as a result of the increasing level of regulation applicable to our business activities, and there can be no assurance that the Company will not incur material costs or other liabilities as a result thereof.

Human Capital Resources and Management

The success of our Company depends on the talents and dedication of our people, and we are committed to investing in their success. Our Vice-President of Corporate Human Resources ("VPHR") is responsible for developing and executing our human resources strategy together with our President and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and the other members of the Company's management team. Our CEO and VPHR regularly update our Board of Directors regarding the status of our human resources initiatives, which include:

Focus on Health and Safety: Maintaining a safe and healthy workplace in each of our locations is a priority, and we focus on continuous improvement by embedding proactive and preventative safety into every level of the organization as one of our core values. Every location offers frequent safety meetings and training programs to all employees. Our safety committees conduct audits to identify and remove potential issues. Safety performance is tracked, aggregated, reviewed timely and reported to management for appropriate action by our corporate technical affairs and safety team, who conducts root cause analysis with corrective action plans to prevent future occurrences. Safety performance data is reviewed by the executive leadership team and the Company's Board of Directors.

Employee Engagement and Talent Development: Alamo Group's culture aims to promote a diverse, inclusive, and respectful workplace. Attracting, developing, and retaining our team of highly talented and motivated employees is key to Alamo Group's success in meeting our customers' needs and sustaining the Company's growth. In addition to developing internal candidates, so they are "ready now" when opportunities arise, we also recruit external candidates with future stretch potential. Employees are provided a wide range of professional development experiences, at all stages in their careers. We offer tuition reimbursement, a broad range of leadership development experiences, vocational and trade skills training, and external partnerships with educational institutions across the globe. Welder training, apprenticeships, and local partnerships with various educational programs and high schools enable our operating companies to hire and grow critical manufacturing skills. The Alamo Group Learning & Development Academy builds leadership capabilities and offers technical skills training for our production floor employees. Programs are available on-demand and training is easily accessible to employees. Virtual, in-person and on-campus programs are offered to encourage cross-location and cross-functional networking that foster and support our culture of continuous improvement.

Commitment to Diversity and Inclusion: We recognize, value, and respect the individual differences of our employees and believe that a diverse set of backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives is crucial to our ability to continue to innovate, collaborate, and meet the needs of our global workforce and customers. We promote an inclusive environment through policies and training, so that employees feel empowered to contribute to the Company's ongoing success. Career opportunities are marketed internally and externally to a wide network of organizations and job boards, such as Women in Manufacturing, so we can source diverse candidate pools. We
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actively volunteer and engage in local community projects and contribute donations to charitable organizations to positively impact the communities and markets in which our employees live and work.

Compensation and Benefits: We regularly assess our pay and benefit practices to ensure our people are compensated fairly and competitively. Our compensation programs vary by country and region, and may include annual bonus and incentive plans, profit sharing, stock-based compensation awards, company-sponsored retirement savings plans with employee matching opportunities (or similar local retirement benefits), healthcare and insurance benefits, dependent care and flexible savings accounts, paid time off such as vacation and holidays, sick pay, disability pay and family leave, flexible work schedules, wellness and employee assistance programs for mental health, self-improvement, legal and financial services, service anniversary awards, tuition assistance and dependent college scholarships, and discounts on products and services.

Labor Agreements: As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 4,350 employees. In the U.S., the Company has a collective bargaining agreement at its Gradall plant which covers 215 employees and will expire on April 14, 2024. In Canada the Tenco bargaining agreement covers 115 employees and expires on December 31, 2025; RPM has an agreement covering 4 employees which expires on February 1, 2025; and Everest has a collective bargaining agreement covering 67 employees which expired on November 30, 2023 and with respect to which negotiations are ongoing. In the Company’s European locations, all employees are covered by the European Works Council agreements. McConnel, Bomford, Spearhead, AMS-UK, SMA, Faucheux, Forges Gorce, Rousseau, Rivard, and Alamo Group The Netherlands have various collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 1,010 employees. In addition, 219 employees in Brazil are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, which is renegotiated every calendar year. The Company considers its employee relations to be satisfactory.

Available Information

The Company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC maintains a website that contains annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that issuers (including the Company) file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.

The Company’s website is www.alamo-group.com. The Company makes available free of charge through its website, via a link to the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov, its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company also makes available through its website, via a link to the SEC’s website, statements of beneficial ownership of the Company’s equity securities filed by its directors, officers, 10% or greater shareholders, and others required to file under Section 16 of the Exchange Act.

The Company also makes available free of charge on its website its most recent annual report on Form 10-K, its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the current fiscal year, its most recent proxy statement and its most recent annual report to stockholders, although in some cases these documents are not available on our site as soon as they are available on the SEC’s site. You will need to have on your computer the Adobe Acrobat Reader® software to view the documents, which are in PDF format. In addition, the Company posts on its website its Charters for its Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee, as well as its Corporate Governance Policies and its Code of Conduct and Ethics for its directors, officers and employees. You can obtain a written copy of these documents, excluding exhibits, at no cost, by sending your request to the Corporate Secretary, Alamo Group Inc., 1627 E. Walnut Street, Seguin, Texas 78155, which is the principal corporate office of the Company. The telephone number is 830-379-1480. The information on the Company’s website is not incorporated by reference into this report.

Forward-Looking Information

Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Part II of this Annual Report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. In addition, forward-looking statements may be made in other documents filed or furnished with the SEC, or by management orally or in press releases, conferences, reports or otherwise to analysts, investors, representatives of the media and others, in the future by or on behalf of the Company. Generally, forward-looking statements are
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not based on historical facts but instead represent the Company's and its management's beliefs regarding future events.

Statements that are not historical are forward-looking. When used by us or on our behalf, the words "expect," “will,” “estimate,” “believe,” “intend,” "would," “could,” "predict," “should,” “anticipate,” "continue," “project,” “forecast,” “plan,” “may” and similar expressions generally identify forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. These uncertainties include factors that affect all businesses operating in a global market, as well as matters specific to the Company and the markets we serve. Certain particular risks and uncertainties that continually face us include the following:

budget constraints and revenue shortfalls which could affect the purchases of our type of equipment by governmental customers and related contractors in both domestic and international markets;
market acceptance of new and existing products;
our ability to hire suitable employees for our business and maintain good relations with employees;
our ability to develop and manufacture new and existing products profitably;
the inability of our suppliers, creditors, public utility providers and financial and other service organizations to deliver or provide their products or services to us;
legal actions and litigation;
impairment in the carrying value of goodwill;
our ability to successfully integrate acquisitions and operate acquired businesses or assets;
current and changing tax laws in the U.S. and internationally;
our ability to hire and retain quality skilled employees; and
changes in the prices of agricultural commodities, which could affect our customers’ income
levels.

In addition, we are subject to risks and uncertainties facing the industry in general, including the following:

changes in business and political conditions and the economy in general in both domestic and international markets;
the price and availability of energy and critical raw materials, particularly steel and steel products;
increased competition;
increases in input costs on items we use in the manufacturing of our products;
adverse weather conditions such as droughts, floods, snowstorms, etc., which can affect the buying patterns of our customers and end-users;
increased costs of complying with governmental regulations which affect corporations including related fines and penalties (such as the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the California Consumer Privacy Act);
an increase in unfunded pension plan liability due to financial market deterioration;
the potential effects on the buying habits of our customers due to animal disease outbreaks and other epidemics;
adverse market conditions and credit constraints which could affect our customers and end-users, such as cutbacks on dealer stocking levels;
changes in market demand;
climate related incidents and other sustainability risks, global pandemics, acts of war or aggression and terrorist activities or military actions;
cyber security risks including the potential loss of proprietary data or data security breaches and related fines, penalties and other liabilities;
financial market changes including changes in interest rates and fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;
abnormal seasonal factors in our industry;
changes in domestic and foreign governmental policies and laws, including increased levels of government regulation and changes in agricultural policies, including the amount of farm subsidies and farm payments as well as changes in trade policy that may have an adverse impact on our business;
government actions, including but not limited to budget levels, and changes in tax laws, regulations and legislation, relating to the environment, commerce, infrastructure spending, health and safety; and
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risk of governmental defaults and resulting impact on the global economy and particularly financial institutions.

We wish to caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement and to recognize that the statements are not predictions of actual future results. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements and from historical results, due to the risks and uncertainties described above and under “Risk Factors,” as well as others not now anticipated. The foregoing statements are not exclusive and further information concerning us and our businesses, including factors that could potentially materially affect our financial results, may emerge from time to time. It is not possible for management to predict all risk factors or to assess the impact of such risk factors on the Company’s businesses. Any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of the Company speak only to the date they are made and we do not undertake to update forward-looking statements to reflect the impact of circumstances or events that arise after the forward-looking statements were made.

Information About our Executive Officers
 
Certain information is set forth below concerning the executive officers of the Company (the "Executives"), each of whom has been appointed to serve until the 2024 annual meeting of directors or until their successor is duly appointed and qualified.
NameAgePosition
Jeffery A. Leonard64President and Chief Executive Officer
Richard J. Wehrle67Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Edward T. Rizzuti54Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Dan E. Malone63Executive Vice President, Chief Sustainability Officer
Richard H. Raborn58Executive Vice President, Alamo Vegetation Management Division
Michael A. Haberman65Executive Vice President, Alamo Industrial Equipment Division
Ian M. Eckert36Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer
Janet S. Pollock65Vice President, Human Resources
Lori L. Sullivan54Vice President, Internal Audit

Jeffery A. Leonard was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company in May of 2021. Mr. Leonard was also appointed as a director of the Company in June of 2021. Mr. Leonard joined the Company in 2011, and served as Executive Vice President of the Company's former Industrial Division from 2011 to 2021. Mr. Leonard previously was Senior Vice President of Metso Minerals Industries Inc., a supplier of technology and services for mining, construction, power generation, automation, recycling, and pulp and paper industries.

Richard J. Wehrle was appointed Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company in July of 2021. Prior to that, Mr. Wehrle served as Vice President, Controller and Treasurer of the Company from May 2001 to July 2021. He assumed Treasury responsibilities in May of 2018. Previously, Mr. Wehrle served in various accounting management capacities within the Company from 1988 to 2001.

Edward T. Rizzuti was appointed Vice President, General Counsel of Alamo Group Inc. in July of 2015, assumed the Secretary role in May of 2018 and was promoted to Executive Vice-President in November of 2021. Prior to joining the Company, from 2010 to 2015, Mr. Rizzuti served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary for Erickson Incorporated, a publicly traded aircraft manufacturing and operating company based in Portland, Oregon.

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Dan E. Malone was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Sustainability Officer in July of 2021. Mr. Malone joined the Company in 2007 and served as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer from 2007 to 2021. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Malone held the position of Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Corporate Secretary at Igloo Products Corporation, a manufacturer of insulated consumer goods, from 2002 to January 2007. Mr. Malone was Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of The York Group, Inc. from 2000 to 2002, and held various financial positions from 1987 to 2000 with Cooper Industries, Inc. and its various subsidiaries.

Richard H. Raborn was appointed Executive Vice President the Company's Vegetation Management Division in July of 2021. Mr. Raborn joined the Company in 2015 and served as Executive Vice-President of the Company's former Agricultural Division from 2015 to 2021. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Raborn was Vice President and General Manager of the Powertrain Metal Division for Illinois Tool Works (ITW) from 2009 to 2015. ITW is one of the world's leading diversified manufacturers of specialized industrial equipment, consumables and related service business.

Michael A. Haberman was appointed Executive Vice-President of the Company's Industrial Equipment Division in July of 2021. Prior to his role as Executive Vice-President, Mr. Haberman served as the Company's Excavation/Vacuum Truck group Vice-President from January 2020 to July 2021. Previously, Mr. Haberman served as President of the Company's Gradall Industries company from February of 2006 until January of 2020.

Ian M. Eckert was appointed Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of Alamo Group Inc. in June 2023. Prior to joining the Company, from 2020 to 2023, Mr. Eckert served as Vice President, Finance for AMETEK Inc's Electron Microscopy Technologies business based in Pleasanton, California. Prior to 2020, Mr. Eckert held controllership, FP&A, and strategy roles progressing in responsibility at Howmet Aerospace Inc. (formerly Alcoa Inc.).

Janet S. Pollock was appointed Vice President, Human Resources of Alamo Group Inc. in May of 2018. Ms. Pollock joined Alamo Group in June of 2013 as Vice President of Human Resources for U.S. Operations. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Pollock was Vice President of Human Resources with CPS Energy in San Antonio, Texas and Vice President of Strategic Initiatives for Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc.

Lori L. Sullivan was appointed Vice President, Internal Audit of Alamo Group Inc. in May of 2019. Prior to this appointment, Ms. Sullivan was Vice President of Internal Audit for U.S. Operations and Director of Internal Audit for Alamo Group Inc. Ms. Sullivan has held audit positions within various industries including research and development, public utilities, and public accounting prior to joining Alamo Group in July of 2011.
 
Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider each of the risks described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision with respect to the Company’s securities. If any of the following risks develop into actual events, the Company’s business, financial condition or results from operations could be materially and adversely affected and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Risks related to our business
 
A downturn in general economic conditions and outlook in the United States and around the world could adversely affect our net sales and earnings.
 
The strength and profitability of our business depends on the overall demand for our products and upon economic conditions and outlook, including but not limited to economic growth rates, consumer spending levels, financing availability, pricing and terms for our dealers and end-users, employment rates, interest rates, inflation, consumer confidence and general economic and political conditions and expectations in the United States and the other economies in which we conduct business. Slow or negative growth rates, inflationary/deflationary pressures, higher commodity costs and energy prices, reduced credit availability or unfavorable credit terms for our dealers and end-user customers, increased unemployment rates, and recessionary economic conditions and outlook could cause consumers to reduce spending, which may cause them to delay or forgo purchases of our products and could have an adverse effect on our net sales and earnings.

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Deterioration of industry conditions could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
Our business depends to a large extent upon the prospects for the infrastructure maintenance, vegetation management and agricultural markets in general. Future prospects of the industry depend largely on factors outside of our control. Any of those factors could adversely impact demand for our products, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. These factors include the following:

weakness in the worldwide economy;
the price and availability of raw materials, purchased components and energy;
budget constraints and revenue shortfalls for our governmental customers;
changes in domestic and foreign governmental policies and laws, including increased levels of governmental regulation and associated liabilities;
the levels of interest rates;
the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the foreign currencies in countries where we sell our products but don’t have a manufacturing presence;
impact of tighter credit markets on the Company, its dealers and end-users;
impairment in the carrying value of goodwill; and
increase in unfunded pension plan liability due to financial market deterioration.

In addition, our business is susceptible to a number of factors that specifically affect agricultural customer spending patterns, including the following:

animal disease outbreaks, epidemics and crop pests;
weather conditions, such as droughts, floods and snowstorms;
changes in farm incomes;
cattle and agricultural commodity prices;
changes in governmental agricultural policies worldwide;
the level of worldwide farm output and demand for farm products; and
limits on agricultural imports/exports.

Our dependence on, and the price and availability of, raw materials as well as purchased components may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We purchase commodities, components, parts, accessories and other goods, such as steel, truck chassis, engines, transmissions, hydraulics, electrification components, and other items necessary for the manufacture of our end-products. The lack of availability or the increased cost of these purchased materials and components due to supply chain disruptions, inflation, increased tariffs, and/or other uncontrollable events have negatively affected our business operations and profitability and may continue to do so in the future. Historically, we have mitigated commodity, component, parts, and other input cost increases, in part, by increasing prices on our products and executing on our strategic productivity initiatives. However, we may not be able to fully offset increased input costs in the future. If our price increases are not accepted by our customers and the market or we are not able to realize anticipated manufacturing efficiencies, our net sales, profit margins, earnings, and market share could be adversely affected. Further, if we are unable to timely source items such as truck chassis, engines, hydraulics and other critical components our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Skilled labor shortages or our inability to retain qualified employees could adversely affect our operations.

Our ability to maintain our productivity at competitive levels may be limited by our ability to employ, compensate, train and retain personnel necessary to meet our requirements. We may experience shortages of qualified personnel such as engineers, project managers, supervisors, and select skilled trades. We cannot be certain that we will be able to maintain an adequate skilled or unskilled labor force or key technical personnel necessary to operate efficiently and to support our growth strategy and operations. Shortages of skilled labor, such as welders and machine operators, are ongoing and could negatively affect our production capabilities, lead to production inefficiencies, or increase our cost of operating. Labor shortages or increased labor costs could impair our ability to
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operate our business, meet customer commitments or grow our revenues, and could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial results.

We depend on governmental sales, and a decrease in such sales could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
A substantial portion of our revenues is derived from sales to federal, state, provincial and local governmental entities and related contractors, both in the U.S. and in other countries in which we sell our products. These sales depend primarily on the levels of budgeted and appropriated expenditures for highway, airport, roadside and parks maintenance by various governmental entities and are affected by changes in local and national economic conditions. Federal, state, provincial and local government budgets were negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and its resurgence or a similar pandemic or event could have a material negative impact on our business and financial condition.

Significant changes in trade policy and related trade wars could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

The U.S. has made significant changes in its trade policy and has taken certain actions that have impacted U.S. trade and relationships with China and other trading partners, including imposing tariffs on certain goods imported into the U.S. Any continued actions or further changes in U.S. trade policy could trigger additional retaliatory actions by affected countries, resulting in "trade wars." Trade wars may lead to reduced economic activity, increased costs, reduced demand and changes in purchasing behaviors for some or all of our products, or other potentially adverse economic outcomes. These or other consequences from any trade wars could have a material adverse impact on our sales volumes, prices and our consolidated financial results.
 
Impairment in the carrying value of goodwill could negatively impact our consolidated results of operations and net worth.

The Company has conducted for the last three years an analysis for estimating the fair value of the Company's business enterprise. We have utilized the discounted cash flow income approach and market approach for which we chose to heavily weigh more on the discounted cash flow approach. This analysis requires the Company to make significant assumptions and estimates about the extent and timing of future cash flows, discount rates and growth rates. The cash flows are estimated over a significant future period of time, which makes those estimates and assumptions subject to an even higher degree of uncertainty. The Company also utilizes market valuation models and other financial ratios, which require the Company to make certain assumptions and estimates regarding the applicability of those models to its assets and businesses. As of December 31, 2023, goodwill was $206.5 million, which represents approximately 15% of total assets. The Company recognized no goodwill impairment in 2023, 2022 or 2021. If we were to have a significant goodwill impairment it could impact our results of operations as well as our net worth.

We are significantly dependent on information technology and our business may suffer from disruptions associated with information technology, cyber-attacks or other catastrophic losses affecting our IT infrastructure.

We rely on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit, and store electronic and financial information, to manage a variety of business processes and activities, including our accounting and financial functions, and to comply with regulatory, legal, and tax requirements. We also depend on our information technology infrastructure for digital marketing activities and for electronic communications among our locations, personnel, customers, and suppliers. These information technology systems (some of which are provided and maintained by third parties) may be susceptible to damage, disruptions, or shutdowns due to hardware failures, computer viruses, hacker attacks, telecommunication failures, user errors, catastrophic events or other factors. In addition, a number of our salaried employees are working remotely at various times. This remote working environment may pose a heightened risk for security breaches or other disruptions of our information technology systems. If our information technology systems suffer severe damage, disruption or shutdown, and our business continuity plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, we could experience business disruptions, a loss of critical company records, transaction errors, processing inefficiencies, and the loss of customers and sales, causing our product sales, financial condition, and operating results to be adversely affected and the reporting of our financial results to be delayed.

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In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including our intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, and personally identifiable information or other sensitive information of our customers and employees. The secure use, processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite the information security measures we have taken, our information technology and infrastructure may be subjected to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee malfeasance, employee errors, or other disruptions. Cybersecurity threats and sophisticated computer crime pose a potential risk to the security of the Company’s information technology systems, networks, and services, as well as the confidentiality and integrity of the Company’s data and intellectual property. Cyber-attacks, unauthorized access or security breaches, and other cyber incidents could include, among other things, computer viruses, malicious or destructive code, ransomware, social engineering attacks (including phishing and impersonation), hacking, denial-of-service attacks, and other similar attacks. These threats are constantly evolving, which increases the difficulty of defending against them or implementing adequate preventive measures. Sensitive information is also stored by our vendors and on the platforms and networks of third-party providers. Cyber-attacks on the Company, our vendors, or our third-party providers could result in inappropriate access to our intellectual property, Company data, or personally identifiable information of our global workforce, suppliers, or customers. Potential consequences of a successful cyber-attack or other cybersecurity breach or incident include remediation costs, legal costs, increased cybersecurity protection costs, lost revenues resulting from the unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract customers following an attack, litigation and legal risks including governmental or regulatory enforcement actions, increased insurance premiums, reputational damage that adversely affects customer or investor confidence, and damage to the Company’s competitiveness, stock price, and long-term shareholder value.

While we have taken steps to address these risks by implementing enhanced security technologies, internal controls, and business continuity plans, these measures may not be adequate. We cannot assure that the steps we have taken will be sufficient to protect our systems, information or other property. Our systems and information may be vulnerable to theft, loss, damage and interruption from a number of potential threats and events.

Changes in the regulatory environment regarding privacy and data protection regulations could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Federal, state, provincial and local governments have been moving to adopt privacy rules and regulations that may impact us in the future. In 2018, the EU adopted a comprehensive overhaul of its data protection regime in the form of the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) which imposes a strict data protection compliance regime with severe penalties of 4% of worldwide turnover or €20.0 million, whichever is greater, and includes new rights such as the right of erasure of personal data. Although the GDPR applies across the EU, as has been the case under the current data protection regime, EU Member States have some national derogations and local data protection authorities (“DPAs”) will still have the ability to interpret the GDPR, which has the potential to create inconsistencies on a country-by-country basis. In addition, certain U.S. states have enacted privacy and data protection laws. For example, the State of California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA") which became effective in 2020 and was further amended and extended by the California Privacy Rights Act ("CPRA") which became effective in 2023. Implementation of, and compliance with, the GDPR, CCPA, CPRA, and other similar laws could increase our cost of doing business and/or force us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business. In addition, violations of the GDPR, CCPA, CPRA, and other laws may result in significant fines, penalties and damage to our brand and business which could, individually or in the aggregate, materially harm our business and reputation. Privacy legislation, enforcement and policy activity in this area continues to rapidly expand. Compliance costs and costs related with implementing privacy-related and data protection measures could be significant. Further, noncompliance could expose us to significant monetary penalties, damage to our reputation, and even possible criminal sanctions. Even our inadvertent failure to comply with privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

We operate in a highly competitive industry, and some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater resources than we do.

Our products are sold in highly competitive markets throughout the world. We compete with several large national and international companies that offer a broad range of equipment and replacement parts that compete with our products, as well as with numerous small, privately-held manufacturers and suppliers of a limited number of products mainly on a regional basis. Some of our competitors are significantly larger than we are and have substantially greater financial and other resources at their disposal. We believe that we are able to compete
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successfully in our markets by, to some extent, avoiding direct competition with significantly larger potential competitors. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not substantially increase the resources devoted to the development and marketing of products competitive with our products or that new competitors with greater resources will not enter our markets. Any failure to effectively compete could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Failure to develop new products or keep pace with technological developments may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Our industry is affected by future technological developments. The introduction of new products or processes with innovative technologies could render our existing products or processes obsolete or unmarketable. Our success depends, to some extent, upon our ability to develop, market and sell cost-effective new products and applications that keep pace with technological developments in the markets we serve. We may not be successful in identifying, developing and marketing new products and applications or we may experience difficulties that could delay or prevent the successful development, introduction and marketing of such new products and applications, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

We operate and source internationally, which exposes us to the political, economic and other risks of doing business abroad.
 
We have operations in a number of countries outside of the United States and we source raw materials and components globally. Our international operations are subject to the risks normally associated with conducting business in foreign countries, including but not limited to the following:

limitations on ownership and on repatriation of earnings;
import and export restrictions, tariffs and quotas;
potentially adverse effects including negative economic conditions resulting from war or the threat of war, including the ongoing war between Ukraine and Russia;
additional expenses relating to the difficulties and costs of staffing and managing international operations;
labor disputes and uncertain political and economic environments and the impact of foreign business cycles;
changes in laws or policies;
changes in any international trade agreements, such as any changes in European Union membership;
delays in obtaining or the inability to obtain necessary governmental permits;
potentially adverse consequences resulting from the applicability of foreign tax laws;
cultural differences;
increased expenses due to inflation;
weak economic conditions in foreign markets where our subsidiaries distribute their products;
changes in currency exchange rates;
disruptions in transportation and port authorities; and
regulations involving international freight shipments.

Operating in the international marketplace exposes us to a number of risks, including the need to comply with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations applicable to our foreign operations, including anti-corruption laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, United States export control laws, and data privacy laws such as the European GDPR. The costs of compliance with these various laws, regulations and policies can be significant and penalties for noncompliance could significantly and adversely impact our business. Our international operations may also be adversely affected by laws and policies affecting foreign trade, investment, taxation, and our ability to effectively source components and raw materials internationally. For example, any significant changes in U.S. trade policy, including the introduction of any new or expanded tariffs, could increase the cost of critical materials and supplies that we source internationally or negatively impact international sales of our products, which would have an adverse effect on our net sales and earnings.

 In addition, political developments and governmental regulations and policies in the countries in which we operate directly affect the demand for our products. For example, decreases or delays in farm subsidies to our agricultural customers, or changes in environmental policies aimed at limiting mowing activities, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Our acquisition strategy may not be successful, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We intend to grow internally and through the acquisition of businesses and assets that will complement our current businesses. To date, a material portion of our growth has come through acquisitions. We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify attractive acquisition targets, obtain financing for acquisitions on satisfactory terms or successfully acquire identified targets. Competition for acquisition opportunities may also increase our costs of making acquisitions or prevent us from making certain acquisitions. These and other acquisition-related factors may adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may not be able to realize the potential or strategic benefits of the acquisitions we complete, and the businesses we have acquired, or may acquire in the future, may not perform as expected.

Acquisitions are an important part of our growth strategy and we have completed a number of acquisitions over the past several years. We acquired Timberwolf in 2021 and Royal Truck in 2023. Acquisitions can be difficult, time-consuming, and pose a number of risks, including:

potential negative impact on our earnings per share as a result of acquisition costs and related financing costs, among other things;
the assumption of liabilities that are unknown to us at the time of closing;
failure of acquired products to achieve projected sales;
potential downward pressure on operating margins due to lower operating margins of acquired businesses, increased headcount costs and other expenses associated with adding and supporting new products;
disruption of ongoing business operations, including diversion of management’s attention and uncertainty for employees and customers, particularly during the post-acquisition integration process; and
potential negative impact on our relationships with customers, distributors and vendors.

If we do not manage these risks, the acquisitions that we complete may have an adverse effect on our business, our results of operations or financial condition. In addition, we may not be successful in integrating acquired businesses into our existing operations and achieving projected synergies. We could face many risks in integrating acquired businesses, including but not limited to the following:

we may incur substantial costs, delays or other operational or financial challenges in integrating acquired businesses, including integrating each company's accounting, information technology, human resource and other administrative systems to facilitate effective management;
we may be unable to achieve expected cost reductions, to take advantage of cross-selling opportunities, or to eliminate redundant operations, facilities and systems;
we may encounter problems in integrating the acquired products with our existing and/or new products;
we may need to implement or improve controls, procedures and policies appropriate for a public company which could take a significant amount of time and expense;
acquisitions may divert our management’s attention from the operation of our existing businesses;
we may not be able to retain key personnel of acquired businesses;
there may be cultural challenges associated with integrating management and employees from the acquired businesses into our organization; and
we may encounter unanticipated events, circumstances and legal risk and associated liabilities.

Our integration of acquired businesses requires significant efforts from the management of each entity, including coordinating existing business plans and research and development efforts. Integrating operations may distract management’s attention from the day-to-day operation of the combined companies. Ultimately, our attempts to integrate the operations, technology and personnel of acquired businesses may not be successful. If we are unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses, our future results may be negatively impacted.

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The agricultural industry and the infrastructure maintenance industry are seasonal, and seasonal fluctuations may cause our results of operations and working capital to fluctuate from quarter to quarter.

In general, agricultural and governmental end-users typically purchase new equipment during the first and second calendar quarters. Other products such as street sweepers, excavators, snow removal equipment, front-end loaders and pothole patchers have different seasonal patterns, as do replacement parts in general. In attempting to achieve efficient utilization of manpower and facilities throughout the year, we estimate seasonal demand months in advance and manufacturing capacity is scheduled in anticipation of such demand. We utilize an annual plan with updated quarterly sales forecasts provided by our marketing divisions and order backlog in order to develop a production plan for our manufacturing facilities. In addition, many of our marketing departments attempt to equalize demand for their products throughout the calendar year by offering seasonal sales programs which may provide additional incentives, including discounts and extended payment terms, on equipment that is ordered during off-season periods. Because we spread our production and wholesale shipments throughout the year to take into account the factors described above, sales in any given period may not reflect the timing of dealer orders and retail demand.

Weather conditions and general economic conditions may affect the timing of purchases and actual industry conditions might differ from our forecasts. In addition to seasonal factors, the agricultural industry is cyclical in nature with sales largely dependent on the state of the farm economy and, in particular, agriculture commodity prices and farm income. Consequently, sudden or significant declines in industry demand could adversely affect our working capital or results of operations.

Extreme weather conditions may impact demand for some of our products and impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Extreme weather conditions such as droughts or flooding may adversely affect sales of some of our products including our mowing equipment and other agricultural equipment and related parts. Milder winter conditions with lower snowfall accumulations can have an adverse impact on sales of our snow removal equipment and related parts business in the key markets we serve. In the event unfavorable weather conditions are worsened as a result of global climate change, our business may be adversely affected to a more significant extent.

Our business and operations are subject to risks related to climate change.

The long-term effects of global climate change present both physical risks (such as weather catastrophes) and transition risks (such as regulatory changes), which are expected to be widespread and unpredictable. Unusual weather conditions, including drought and flood conditions, may affect the purchasing decisions of some of our customers, particularly customers of our agriculture products which could lead to lower sales volumes of those products. In addition, changes in climate could affect the availability and cost of products, commodities and energy, which may impact our ability to procure goods or services required for the operation of our business at the quantities and levels we require. Our facilities may also be directly impacted by significant weather events brought on by climate change, and we face the risk of losses incurred as a result of physical damage to our facilities, loss or spoilage of inventory and business interruption caused by such events. New legal and regulatory requirements have been, and may continue to be, implemented to address the concern over climate change in an effort to reduce or mitigate the effects of it, and such regulatory requirements dealing with the environmental aspects of our operations and the products we manufacture could result in significant expenditures in upgrading our facilities and/or designing and manufacturing new forms of equipment that satisfy such requirements. We cannot currently predict the specific terms of any new climate change legislation or regulation, but any such new legislation or regulation may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.

If we do not retain key personnel and attract and retain other highly skilled employees, our business may suffer.

Our continued success will depend on, among other things, the efforts and skills of our executive officers, including our president and chief executive officer, and our ability to attract and retain additional highly qualified managerial, technical, manufacturing, and sales and marketing personnel. We do not maintain “key man” life insurance for any of our employees, and all of our senior management are employed at will. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and hire suitable replacements for any of our key employees. We believe the loss of a key executive officer or other key employee could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
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Increasingly stringent engine emission regulations could impact our ability to sell certain of our products into the market and appropriately price certain of our products, which could negatively affect our competitive position and financial results.

The products we manufacture or sell, particularly engines, are subject to increasingly stringent environmental emission regulations. For instance, the EPA adopted increasingly stringent engine emission regulations, including Tier 4 emission requirements applicable to diesel engines in specified horsepower ranges that are used in some of our products. State agencies, including the California Air Resources Board ("CARB"), are also adopting emission regulations that apply to products we sell. Requirements have expanded to additional horsepower categories and, accordingly, apply to more of the products we sell. Our ability to meet the Tier 4 and CARB requirements is subject to many variables, some of which are beyond our direct control. If we fail to meet the Tier 4 or CARB requirements and any other EPA or state emission standards that are currently in place or that may be introduced in the future, our ability to sell our products into the market may be limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position and financial results.

We are subject to environmental, health and safety and employment laws and regulations and related compliance expenditures and liabilities.

Like other manufacturers, the Company is subject to a broad range of federal, state, local and foreign laws and requirements, including those concerning air emissions, discharges into waterways, and the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of hazardous substances and waste materials, as well as the remediation of contamination associated with releases of hazardous substances at the Company’s facilities and offsite disposal locations, workplace safety and equal employment opportunities. These laws and regulations are constantly changing, and it is impossible to predict with accuracy the effect that changes to such laws and regulations may have on the Company in the future. Like other industrial concerns, the Company’s manufacturing operations entail the risk of noncompliance, and there can be no assurance that the Company will not incur material costs or other liabilities as a result thereof.

Changes in environmental laws or new laws relating to the emission of greenhouse gases ("GHG") or the emission of other gases may cause us to make additional investment in new product designs or could increase our environmental compliance expenditures. The regulation of GHG emissions could result in other additional costs to the Company in the form of tax or emissions allowances, facility improvement costs, and higher input costs. Increased input costs and other costs associated with GHG emissions regulation and related compliance may also negatively impact customer demand. Because the timing and extent of GHG emission regulations or climate change regulations are unknown at this time, we are unable to predict the impact this may have on our overall business.
 
The Company is subject to various other federal, state, and local laws affecting its business, as well as a variety of regulations relating to such matters as working conditions, equal employment opportunities, and product safety. A variety of state laws regulate the Company’s contractual relationships with its dealers, some of which impose restrictive standards on the relationship between the Company and its dealers, including events of default, grounds for termination, non-renewal of dealer contracts, and equipment repurchase requirements.

We are subject on an ongoing basis to the risk of product liability claims and other litigation arising in the ordinary course of business.

Like other manufacturers, we are subject to various claims, including product liability claims, arising in the ordinary course of business, and we are a party to various legal proceedings that constitute routine litigation incidental to our business. We may be exposed to product liability claims in the event that the use of our products results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury, property damage, or both. We cannot assure you that we will not experience any material product liability losses in the future or that we will not incur significant costs to defend the Company against such claims. We cannot assure you that our product liability insurance coverage will be adequate for any liabilities that may ultimately be incurred or that it will continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A successful claim brought against us in excess of available insurance coverage or a requirement to participate in a product recall may have a materially adverse effect on our business.

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If we are unable to comply with the terms of our credit arrangements, especially the financial covenants, our credit arrangements could be terminated.
 
We cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with all of the terms of our credit arrangements, especially the financial covenants. Our ability to comply with such terms depends on the success of our business and our operating results. Various risks, uncertainties, and events beyond our control could affect our ability to comply with the terms of our credit arrangements. If we were out of compliance with any covenant required by our credit arrangements following any applicable cure periods, the banks could terminate their commitments unless we could negotiate a covenant waiver. The banks could condition such waiver on amendments to the terms of our credit arrangements that may be unfavorable to us, including a potential increase to the interest rate we currently pay on outstanding debt under our credit arrangements, which could adversely affect our operating results.
 
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may adversely affect our financial results.
 
Our earnings are affected by fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to foreign currencies, predominantly in European countries, Canada and Australia, as a result of the sale of our products in international markets. While we do enter into foreign exchange contracts to protect against such fluctuations to an extent (primarily in the U.K. market), we cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage these risks. Significant long-term fluctuations in relative currency values, such as a devaluation of the Euro against the U.S. dollar, could have an adverse effect on our future results of operations or financial condition.

Risks related to investing in our common stock
 
Because the price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, it may be difficult for you to resell our common stock when desired or at attractive prices.
 
The trading price of our common stock has and may continue to fluctuate. The closing prices of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange during 2023 ranged from $140.27 to $213.25 per share, and during 2022 from $109.83 to $159.75 per share. Our stock price may fluctuate in response to the risk factors set forth herein and to a number of events and factors, such as quarterly variations in operating and financial results, litigation, changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts, the operating and stock performance of other companies that investors may deem comparable to us, news reports relating to us or trends in our industry or general economic conditions. The stock price volatility and trading volume may make it difficult for you to resell your shares of our common stock when desired or at attractive prices.

You may experience dilution of your ownership interests due to the future issuance of additional shares of our common stock.

We may issue shares of our previously authorized and unissued securities, which will result in the dilution of the ownership interests of our present stockholders. We are currently authorized to issue 20,000,000 shares of common stock. On December 31, 2023, 12,013,481 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding, and there were outstanding options and restricted stock awards totaling an additional 169,840 shares of our common stock. We also have additional shares available for grant under our 2015 Incentive Stock Option Plan and our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan. Additional stock option or other compensation plans or amendments to existing plans for employees and directors may be adopted. Issuance of these shares of common stock may dilute the ownership interests of our then existing stockholders. We may also issue additional shares of our common stock in connection with the hiring of personnel, future acquisitions, such as the 1,700,000 shares issued as consideration for the acquisition of Bush Hog in 2009, future private placements of our securities for capital raising purposes, or for other business purposes. This would further dilute the interests of our existing stockholders.
 
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There is no assurance that we will continue declaring dividends or have the available cash to make dividend payments.
 
On January 2, 2024, the Board of Directors of the Company increased its quarterly dividend from $0.22 per share to $0.26 per share. Although we have paid a cash dividend in each quarter since becoming a public company in 1993, there can be no assurance that we will continue to declare dividends or that funds will continue to be available for this purpose in the future. The declaration and payment of dividends are restricted by the terms of our credit facility, are subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors, are not cumulative, and will depend upon our profitability, financial condition, capital needs, future prospects, and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors.

Provisions of our corporate documents may have anti-takeover effects that could prevent a change in control.
 
Provisions of our charter, bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would be beneficial to our stockholders. These provisions include prohibiting stockholders from calling stockholder meetings and prohibiting stockholder actions by written consent. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws state that any amendment to certain provisions, including those provisions regarding limitations on action by written consent discussed above, be approved by the holders of at least two-thirds of our common stock. We are also afforded the protections of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which would prevent us from engaging in a business combination with a person who becomes a 15% or greater stockholder for a period of three years from the date such person acquired such status unless certain board or stockholder approvals were obtained.

Future sales, or the possibility of future sales, of a substantial amount of our common stock may depress the price of the shares of our common stock.
 
Future sales, or the availability for sale in the public market, of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities. If we or our existing stockholders sell substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or if there is a perception that these sales may occur, the market price of our common stock could decline.
 
Certain stockholders own a significant amount of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.
 
As of December 31, 2023, four investors - Henry Crown and Company, BlackRock, Inc., Dimensional Fund Advisors LP, and The Vanguard Group - beneficially owned approximately 40% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, the major stockholders combined could be able to significantly influence the direction of the Company, the election of our Board of Directors, and the outcome of any other matter requiring stockholder approval, including mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, and together with other beneficially owned investors, to prevent or cause a change in control of the Company. Also, pursuant to contractual obligations, affiliates of Henry Crown and Company were entitled to certain rights with respect to the registration of the common stock owned by them under the Securities Act. Pursuant to such registration rights, on March 12, 2012, we filed a registration statement related to the common stock owned by such entities and such registration statement was declared effective by the SEC. The interests of the major stockholders may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 

The Company has no unresolved staff comments to report pursuant to Item 1B.

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Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy

Our cybersecurity program framework is based on the Center for Internet Security's ("CIS") Critical Security Controls. We have policies and procedures in place based on best practices and guidelines from the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"), an agency of the United States Department of Commerce, and the Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency, an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security. Our Information Technology ("IT") team works to protect not only our information, but also the information of third parties we may hold or control, including by implementing physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of Company computer systems. We also limit physical access to server, storage, and network equipment to necessary staff.

We assess the security of our networks, websites, and systems with automated vulnerability detection services from a provider that is validated by the NIST, based on the Security Content Automation Protocol ("SCAP") standard. We perform an annual review of our efforts to manage risk with controls that align with and map to key compliance frameworks, such as NIST and the ISO 27000 series of regulations. We perform quarterly IT risk assessments that include cybersecurity risk assessments focused on action plans developed through annual reviews. We also respond to risks as they are discovered real-time. We are guided by an Information Security Incident Response Policy and corresponding Information Security Incident Response Procedure we implement when handling IT security incidents.

Our process of assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats is integrated into our overall enterprise risk management system. Our process of managing risks from cybersecurity threats includes monitoring information channels from trusted security information sources. We review third-party service providers that manage sensitive Company information prior to engaging any such provider. Our reviews align with relevant government compliance requirements and review of System and Organization Controls reports. We establish governance, processes, and tools for managing various third-party related risks, including information security. As a condition of working with the Company, third-party service providers who access sensitive business or customer information are expected to meet certain information security requirements. Our processes for assessing, classifying, and managing cybersecurity risks were created in collaboration with consultants and auditors. We maintain consulting relationships that provide guidance for responding to evolving cybersecurity risks. We require employees to undertake data protection, cybersecurity training, and compliance programs annually. Internal and external auditors also review our adherence to established IT and cybersecurity controls.

Despite our efforts, cyber attacks, unauthorized access or security breaches, or other cyber incidents such as computer viruses, malicious or destructive code, ransomware, social engineering attacks, hacking, denial-of-service attacks, and other similar attacks could materially affect us and disrupt our business. To date, we have not identified any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, that have, or are likely to, materially affect us, our business strategy, results of operation or financial condition. Potential consequences of a successful cyber attack or cybersecurity breaches or incidents could, however, include remediation costs, disruption of manufacturing capabilities, legal costs, increased cybersecurity protection costs, lost revenues resulting from the unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract customers following an attack, litigation and legal risks including governmental or regulatory enforcement actions, increased insurance premiums, reputational damage that adversely affects customer or investor confidence, and damage to the Company's competitiveness, stock price, and long-term shareholder value. For more information about the cybersecurity risks we face, see the risk factor titled “We are significantly dependent on information technology and our business may suffer from disruptions associated with information technology, cyber-attacks or other catastrophic losses affecting our IT infrastructure” in Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Governance

Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and has delegated responsibility for the periodic review and evaluation of the Company’s policies and programs for identifying cybersecurity risks to the Audit Committee. In addition, the entire Board receives quarterly updates on the Company's cybersecurity action plans and annual reports containing full cybersecurity control assessments and action plans from senior management, and periodically reviews information regarding the Company's cybersecurity risks. We have an Information Technology Steering Committee ("ITSC"), comprised of the Company President and Chief Executive Officer, the Executive Vice Presidents of our Vegetation Management and Industrial Equipment Divisions, the Chief
26


Financial Officer, and the Chief Sustainability Officer, that determines the priority of cybersecurity initiatives. The ITSC also reviews the Board's and Audit Committee’s feedback and incorporates it into ongoing cybersecurity management efforts.

Our IT team, led by the Vice President of IT and the Director of Network and Information Systems, is responsible for day-to-day assessment and management of cybersecurity risks. Members of our IT team have undergraduate and graduate degrees in relevant fields, including information systems, information assurance, and information technology with a concentration in cybersecurity. Members of our IT team have also obtained relevant certifications, including the Director of Network and Information Systems being a Certified Information Systems Security Professional.

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Item 2. Properties
      As of February 16, 2024, the Company utilized twenty-nine principal manufacturing plants with seventeen located in the United States, eight in Europe, three in Canada, and one in Brazil. The facilities are listed below:
Facility
Square
Footage
 
Principal Types of Products
Manufactured And Assembled
Winn, Michigan*1,100,000 Owned
Tree chippers, Grinders, Brush Cutters, and Debarkers for Morbark
Selma, Alabama*744,000 Owned
Mechanical Rotary Mowers, Finishing Mowers, Backhoes, Front-End Loaders for Bush Hog
New Philadelphia, Ohio*430,000 Owned
Telescopic Excavators for Gradall and Vacuum Trucks for VacAll
Wooster, Ohio*400,000 Leased
Stump Cutters, Aerial Trimmers, Mulchers, Crawler Trucks for Rayco and Denis Cimaf
Gibson City, Illinois*275,000 Owned
Mechanical Mowers, Blades, Deep Tillage Equipment, and other implements for Rhino, Bush Hog and OEMs
Seguin, Texas*230,000 Owned
Hydraulic and Mechanical Rotary and Flail Mowers, Sickle-Bar Mowers, and Boom-Mounted Equipment for Alamo Industrial
Indianola, Iowa*200,000 Owned
Distribution and Manufacturing of Aftermarket Farm Equipment Replacement and Wear Parts for Herschel/Valu-Bilt
Neuville, France*195,000 Owned
Hydraulic and Mechanical Boom-Mounted Hedge and Grass Cutters for Rousseau and SMA
Mukwonago, Wisconsin*171,000 Owned
Truck-Mounted Vacuum Trucks for Super Products
Richmond, Virginia*160,000 Leased
Leaf Collection Equipment and Street Sweeper Replacement Brooms for ODB
Ludlow, England*160,000 Owned
Hydraulic Boom-Mounted Hedge and Grass Cutters and other Equipment for McConnel and Twose
Salford Priors, England*157,000 Owned
Tractor-Mounted Power Arm Flails and other Equipment for Bomford and Twose and Spearhead
Sao Joao da Boa Vista, Brazil*138,000 Owned
Mowing Equipment, Sugar Cane Trailers and other equipment for Santa Izabel
Huntsville, Alabama*135,000 Owned
Air and Mechanical Street Sweeping Equipment for Schwarze
New Berlin, Wisconsin*120,000 Owned
Municipal Snow Removal and Ice Control Equipment for Wausau
Coatesville, Indiana*120,000 Owned
Zero Turn Radius Mowers for Dixie Chopper
Middelburg, the Netherlands*110,000 Owned
Boom Mowers, Flail Mowers and Stump Grinders for Dutch Power
Englefeld, Saskatchewan, Canada*105,000 Owned
Mechanical Rotary Mowers, Snow Blowers, and Rock Removal Equipment for Schulte
St. Valerien, Quebec, Canada*100,000 Owned
Snow and Ice Removal Equipment for Tenco
Daumeray, France*100,000 Owned
Vacuum Trucks, High Pressure Cleaning Systems and Trenchers for Rivard
Giessen, the Netherlands*70,000 Owned
Aquatic Harvesting Boats and Remote Control Mowing Equipment for Alamo Group The Netherlands
Sioux Falls, South Dakota*66,000 Owned
Hydraulic and Mechanical Mowing Equipment for Tiger
Shoemakersville, Pennsylvania*65,000 Leased
Truck Mounted Highway Attenuator Trucks and Other Specialty Trucks and Equipment for Royal Truck and Equipment
Hopkinton, New Hampshire*55,000 Owned
Distributor of Public Works and Runway Maintenance Products for H.P. Fairfield
Skowhegan, Maine*47,000 Owned
Distributor of Public Works and Runway Maintenance Products for H.P. Fairfield
Kent, Washington*43,000 Leased
Truck-Mounted Sweeping Equipment for the contractor market branded NiteHawk
Ayer's Cliff, Quebec, Canada*41,000 Owned
Municipal Snow Removal and Ice Control Equipment for Everest
Suffolk, England*35,000 Leased
Commercial wood chippers and other forestry equipment for Timberwolf
Peschadoires, France*22,000 Owned
Replacement Parts for Blades, Knives and Shackles for Forges Gorce
Oakey, Australia18,000 Leased
Agriculture Mowing Equipment and other Attachments for Fieldquip
Installation & Rental Facilities, Warehouses & Sales503,200 Leased / OwnedServices Parts Distribution, Installation Facilities and Sales and After Market Office
Offices, Seguin & New Braunfels, Texas29,000 Leased /OwnedCorporate Office
Total6,144,200 82%
     * Principal manufacturing plants
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Approximately 82% of the manufacturing, warehouse and office space is owned. The Company considers each of these facilities to be well maintained, in good operating condition and adequate for its present level of operations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The Company is subject to various legal actions which have arisen in the ordinary course of its business. The most prevalent of such actions relate to product liability, which is generally covered by insurance after various self-insured retention amounts. While amounts claimed might be substantial and the ultimate liability with respect to such litigation cannot be determined at this time, the Company believes that the ultimate outcome of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations; however, the ultimate resolution cannot be determined at this time.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company’s common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol: ALG. On February 16, 2024, there were 12,015,281 shares of common stock outstanding, held by approximately 78 holders of record, but the total number of beneficial owners of the Company’s common stock exceeds this number. On February 16, 2024, the closing price of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $217.33 per share.

On January 2, 2024, the Board of Directors of the Company declared a quarterly dividend of $0.26 per share which was paid on January 29, 2024 to holders of record as of January 16, 2024. The Company expects to continue its policy of paying regular cash dividends, although there is no assurance as to future dividends as they depend on future earnings, capital requirements and financial condition. In addition, the payment of dividends is subject to restrictions under the Company’s bank revolving credit agreement. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a further description of the bank revolving credit agreement.
 
Information relating to compensation plans under which equity securities of the Company are authorized for issuance is set forth in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Stock Price Performance Graph

The information contained in this Stock Performance Graph section shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that Alamo Group Inc. specifically incorporates it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
  
The following graph and table set forth the cumulative total return to the Company's stockholders of our Common Stock during a five-year period ended December 31, 2023, as well as the performance of an overall stock market index (the S&P SmallCap 600 Index) and a published industry or line-of-business index (the S&P 500 Industrials Index) for the same period.
2460
*$100 invested on 12/31/18 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright© 2024 Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
 12/1812/1912/2012/2112/2212/23
Alamo Group Inc.100.00163.18180.16192.93186.60278.40
S&P SmallCap 600100.00122.78136.64173.29145.39168.73
S&P 500 Industrials100.00129.37143.68174.02164.49194.31


Purchase of Equity Securities

The Company has suspended its share repurchase program but the program may be reinstated in the future.

Item 6. Reserved

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Executive Summary and Outlook
 
This report contains forward-looking statements that are based on Alamo Group’s current expectations. Actual results in future periods may differ materially from those expressed or implied because of a number of risks and uncertainties which are discussed below and in the Forward-Looking Information section beginning on page 13.

We experienced strong demand for our products in 2023 together with improving supply chain conditions which facilitated higher throughput and better operating efficiency, leading to record net sales and income for the full year. Market conditions are mixed; governmental and industrial product demand is robust while vegetation product demand has been hampered by higher interest rates and elevated channel inventories. While our supply chain has improved, there are lingering supply chain issues and we continue to face labor challenges in some of our locations.

2023 Performance

In 2023, the Company's net sales increased by 12% and net income increased by 34% compared to 2022. The increase in both net sales and net income was primarily due to a strong demand for our products and improving operating conditions, particularly in the later part of the year. Margins improved due to the increase in demand along with pricing actions which helped mitigate inflation cost pressures. However, our full-year results were constrained to some extent by higher input costs, ongoing supply chain disruptions, and skilled labor shortages, all of which had a greater impact on our results earlier in the year.

The Company's Vegetation Management Division experienced a 4% increase in net sales for the full year of 2023 compared to the full year of 2022. The increase in net sales was primarily due to continued strong customer demand for our products and positive pricing actions. The division's income from operations for 2023 was up 13% versus the full year of 2022, due to improved sales, positive pricing actions,and better productivity, but offset by higher input costs, lingering supply chain disruptions, labor constraints, and higher marketing costs.

The Company's Industrial Equipment Division net sales were up 23% for the full year of 2023 compared to the full year of 2022. The division's net sales were strong in each of the product lines: excavator and vacuum trucks, street sweepers, debris collectors, and snow removal equipment. The division's income from operations for 2023 was up 89% versus the full year of 2022, driven by significant sales growth and improved operating efficiencies, but offset by higher input costs and certain key supplier issues, most notably, a shortage of truck chassis earlier in the year.

Consolidated income from operations was $198.0 million for the full year of 2023 compared to $148.6 million in 2022, an increase of 33%. The Company's backlog decreased 15% to $859.8 million at the end of 2023 versus the backlog of $1.0 billion at the end of 2022. The decrease in the Company's backlog was primarily attributable to a decline in Vegetation Management Division product orders which returned to normal levels from a historical perspective.

Inflationary Impacts

In 2023, the cost of commodities, components, parts, and accessories was higher compared to the cost of those items purchased in 2022, mainly as a result of inflationary pressure. Inflation moderated in the second half of 2023 and we anticipate that trend will continue in 2024 with the average cost of commodities, components, parts, and accessories increasing slightly when compared to the average costs in 2023.











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The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of the Company and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following tables set forth, for the periods indicated, certain financial data:
 Fiscal Year Ended December 31,
Net sales (data in thousands):202320222021
Vegetation Management$979,040 $937,065 $812,676 
Industrial Equipment710,611 576,551 521,547 
   Total net sales$1,689,651 $1,513,616 $1,334,223 
Cost and profit margins, as percentages of net sales:   
Cost of sales73.2 %75.1 %74.9 %
Gross profit26.8 %24.9 %25.1 %
Selling, general, administrative, and amortization expenses15.1 %15.1 %16.3 %
Income from operations11.7 %9.8 %8.8 %
Income before income taxes10.4 %8.9 %8.2 %
Net income8.1 %6.7 %6.0 %
                                                              
Results of Operations
 
Fiscal 2023 compared to Fiscal 2022
 
The Company’s net sales in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (“2023”) were $1,689.7 million, an increase of $176.1 million or 11.6% compared to $1,513.6 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 (“2022”). The increase in sales was attributable to continued strong customer demand for our products in both the Vegetation Management and Industrial Equipment Divisions, improved pricing, and higher throughput due to gradually improving supply chain conditions. Supply chain disruptions and a shortage of skilled labor negatively impacted net sales, especially in the first half of the year earlier.

Net Vegetation Management sales were $979.0 million in 2023 compared to $937.1 million in 2022, an increase of $41.9 million or 4.5%, coming from a strong performance in European agricultural and governmental mowing, forestry and tree care, and North American governmental mowing equipment. Skilled labor shortages and certain supplier issues constrained this division during 2023.

Net Industrial Equipment sales were $710.6 million in 2023 compared to $576.6 million in 2022, representing an increase of $134.0 million or 23.3%. The increase was a result of strong performance in all product lines including excavator and vacuum trucks, sweepers and debris collection, and snow removal equipment further supported by the acquisition of Royal Truck. This division was negatively impacted by a shortage of skilled labor and disruptions in parts of its supply chain, predominantly causing delays in receiving truck chassis.

Gross profit for 2023 was $453.6 million (26.8% of net sales) compared to $376.5 million (24.9% of net sales) in 2022, an increase of $77.1 million. The increase in gross profit was mainly attributable to higher sales volume and better operational performance during 2023 compared to 2022 as well as improved pricing which led to higher profitability as a percentage of sales in 2023 compared to 2022, though these results were partially offset by the negative impacts of supply chain disruptions and material inflation previously mentioned.

Selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”) were $240.2 million (14.2% of net sales) in 2023 compared to $212.6 million (14.0% of net sales) in 2022, an increase of $27.6 million. The increase in SG&A expenses in 2023 was largely attributable to higher marketing expenses related to trade shows, sales promotions and commissions and to a lesser extent, sales volume-driven administration expense. Amortization expense in 2023 was $15.5 million compared to $15.3 million in 2022, an increase of $0.2 million.
 
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Interest expense for 2023 was $26.1 million compared to $14.4 million in 2022, an increase of $11.7 million or 81.7%. The increase in interest expense in 2023 primarily came from higher interest rates compared to 2022.

Other income (expense), net was income of $1.8 million during 2023 compared to expense of $0.7 million in 2022. The increase in 2023 was primarily the result of a gain on fixed assets relating to the sale of a manufacturing facility located in Kent, Washington partially offset by loss on currency exchange. The expense in 2022 was primarily the result of an excise tax audit and to a lesser extent, changes in exchange rates.

Provision for income taxes was $39.0 million (22.2% of income before income taxes) for 2023 compared to $32.4 million (24.1% of income before income taxes) in 2022.

Net income for 2023 was $136.2 million compared to $101.9 million in 2022, with the increase in 2023 net income resulting from the factors described above.

Fiscal 2022 compared to Fiscal 2021
 
The Company’s net sales in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 (“2022”) were $1,513.6 million, an increase of $179.4 million or 13.4% compared to $1,334.2 million for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (“2021”). The increase in sales was attributable to continued strong customer demand for our products in both the Vegetation Management and Industrial Equipment Divisions and improved pricing. Negatively impacting net sales were higher costs for materials and inbound freight, supply chain disruptions and a shortage of skilled labor. Also, currency translation negatively affected sales as the U.S. dollar strengthened against the currencies of international countries where we operate.

Net Vegetation Management sales were $937.1 million in 2022 compared to $812.7 million in 2021, an increase of $124.4 million or 15.3%, coming from a strong performance in all product lines, particularly forestry and tree care and agricultural and governmental mowing equipment in both North America and Europe. Supply chain disruptions, labor constraints and unfavorable input cost changes constrained this division during 2022. Currency translation effects also negatively impacted net sales in this division.

Net Industrial Equipment sales were $576.6 million in 2022 compared to $521.5 million in 2021, representing an increase of $55.1 million or 10.5%. The increase was mainly due to continued solid results in our excavator and vacuum truck product lines with modest support from other product lines. This division was also negatively impacted by ongoing supply chain disruptions and logistics issues in 2022, including delays in receiving truck chassis and component parts from supply chain partners.

Gross profit for 2022 was $376.5 million (24.9% of net sales) compared to $334.5 million (25.1% of net sales) in 2021, an increase of $42.0 million. The increase in gross profit was mainly attributable to higher sales volume during 2022 compared to 2021 as well as improved pricing. Profitability was negatively impacted by supply chain disruptions, shortages of component parts, along with higher costs of materials and inbound freight. These factors led to lower profitability as a percentage of sales in 2022 as compared to the same period in 2021.

Selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”) were $212.6 million (14.0% of net sales) in 2022 compared to $202.9 million (15.2% of net sales) in 2021, an increase of $9.7 million. The increase in SG&A expenses in 2022 was attributable to higher administrative, marketing and engineering expenses as the Company returned to pre-pandemic expense levels. Amortization expense in 2022 was $15.3 million compared to $14.6 million in 2021, an increase of $0.7 million.

Interest expense for 2022 was $14.4 million compared to $10.5 million in 2021, an increase of $3.9 million or 36.3%. The increase in interest expense in 2022 primarily came from higher interest rates and increased borrowing levels. Borrowing levels rose in 2022 primarily because of the need for the Company to increase its inventory levels to accommodate stronger market demand and to mitigate supply chain challenges. We anticipate borrowing levels will continue to be pressured by higher inventory requirements unless and until the supply chain situation improves.

Other income (expense), net was expense of $0.7 million during 2022 compared to income of $1.9 million in 2021. The expense in 2022 was primarily the result of an excise tax audit and to a lesser extent, changes in exchange rates. The income in 2021 was primarily due to changes in exchange rates and the sale of a facility in the Netherlands for $3.4 million.

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Provision for income taxes was $32.4 million (24.1% of income before income taxes) for 2022 compared to $29.3 million (26.7% of income before income taxes) in 2021.

Net income for 2022 was $101.9 million compared to $80.2 million in 2021, with the increase in 2022 net income resulting from the factors described above.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
In addition to normal operating expenses, the Company has ongoing cash requirements which are necessary to conduct the Company’s business, including inventory purchases and capital expenditures. The Company’s accounts receivable, inventory and accounts payable levels, particularly in its Vegetation Management Division, build in the first quarter and early spring and, to a lesser extent, in the fourth quarter in anticipation of the spring and fall selling seasons. Accounts receivable historically build in the first and fourth quarters of each year as a result of pre-season sales and year-round sales programs. These sales, primarily in the Vegetation Management Division, help balance the Company’s production during the first and fourth quarters.
 
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had working capital of $590.0 million, which represents an increase of $53.3 million from working capital of $536.7 million as of December 31, 2022. The increase in working capital was primarily a result of volume-driven and inflation-driven increases in accounts receivable as well as a volume driven increase in inventory to support the Company's backlog.
 
Capital expenditures were $37.7 million for 2023, compared to $31.1 million for 2022. The Company will fund any future expenditures from operating cash flows or through our revolving credit facility, described below.

Net cash provided by operating activities was $131.2 million for 2023, compared to $14.5 million for 2022. The increase of cash from operating activities is primarily the result of stronger net income driven by sales growth and a significantly lower year-on-year change in operating assets compared to 2022.
 
Net cash used in investing activities was $52.6 million for 2023, compared to $31.7 million for 2022. The increase in investing activities is driven by the acquisition of Royal Truck. Net cash used by financing activities was $76.9 million for 2023, compared to net cash provided of $24.5 million for 2022. This reduction in cash provided by financing activities is due to repayment of revolving credit.

The Company had $42.5 million in cash and cash equivalents held by its foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2023. The majority of these funds are held at our European and Canadian facilities. The Company will continue to repatriate European and Canadian cash and cash equivalents in excess of amounts needed to fund operating and investing activities, but will need to monitor exchange rates to determine the appropriate timing of such repatriation given the current relative strength of the U.S. dollar. Repatriated funds will initially be used to reduce funded debt levels under the Company's current credit facility and subsequently used to fund working capital, capital investments and acquisitions company-wide.

On October 28, 2022, the Company, as the borrower, and each of its domestic subsidiaries as guarantors, entered into a Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (the “2022 Credit Agreement”) with Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent. The 2022 Credit Agreement provides the Company with the ability to request loans and other financial obligations in an aggregate amount of up to $655.0 million. Under the 2022 Credit Agreement, the Company has borrowed $255.0 million pursuant to a Term Facility, while up to $400.0 million is available to the Company pursuant to a Revolver Facility which terminates in five years. The Term Facility requires the Company to make equal quarterly principal payments of $3.75 million over the term of the loan, with the final payment of any outstanding principal amount, plus interest, due at the end of the five year term. Borrowings under the 2022 Credit Agreement bear interest, at the Company’s option, at a Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) or a Base Rate (each as defined in the 2022 Credit Agreement), plus, in each case, an applicable margin. The applicable margin ranges from 1.25% to 2.50% for Term SOFR borrowings and from .25% to 1.50% for Base Rate borrowings with the margin percentage based upon the Company's consolidated leverage ratio. The Company must also pay a commitment fee to the lenders ranging between 0.15% to 0.30% on any unused portion of the $400.0 million Revolver Facility. The 2022 Credit Agreement requires the Company to maintain two financial covenants, namely, a maximum consolidated leverage ratio and a minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio. The Agreement also contains various covenants relating to limitations on indebtedness, limitations on investments and acquisitions, limitations on the sale of properties and limitations on liens and capital expenditures. The Agreement also contains
34


other customary covenants, representations and events of defaults. The expiration date of the 2022 Credit Agreement, including the Term Facility and the Revolver Facility, is October 28, 2027.

As of December 31, 2023, $235.2 million was outstanding under the Credit Agreement, $235.2 million on the Term Facility and zero on the Revolver Facility. On December 31, 2023, $2.6 million of the revolver capacity was committed to irrevocable standby letters of credit issued in the ordinary course of business as required by vendors' contracts resulting in $397.4 million in available borrowings. The Company is in compliance with the covenants under the Agreement.

Management believes the Agreement and the Company’s ability to internally generate funds from operations should be sufficient to meet the Company’s cash requirements for the foreseeable future. However, future challenges affecting the banking industry and credit markets in general could potentially cause changes to credit availability, which creates a level of uncertainty.

Inflation
 
The Company is exposed to the risk that the price of energy, steel and other purchased components may increase and the Company may not be able to increase the price of its products correspondingly. If this occurs, the Company’s results of operations would be adversely impacted. In 2023, the cost of commodities, components, parts, and accessories was higher compared to the cost of those items purchased in 2022, mainly as a result of inflationary pressure. In 2023, we worked to mitigate some of the effects of cost increases through pricing actions. Inflation moderated in the second half of 2023 and we anticipate that trend will continue in 2024 with the average cost of commodities, components, parts, and accessories increasing slightly when compared to the average costs in 2023. However, cost inflation is an ongoing challenge that could have a material impact on the Company's business and financial results, particularly if the current inflationary environment materially worsens.

New Accounting Pronouncements

As discussed in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, certain new financial accounting pronouncements became effective January 1, 2023, or will become effective in the future. The effect on our financial statements upon adoption of these pronouncements is discussed in the above-referenced note.
 Payment due by period
Critical Accounting Estimates

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations are based upon our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Critical Accounting Policies

An accounting policy is deemed to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimates that are reasonably likely to occur periodically, could materially impact the financial statements. Management believes the following critical accounting policy reflects its more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements. For further information on the critical accounting policies, see Note 1 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

35


Business Combinations

We account for the acquisition of a business in accordance with the accounting standards codification guidance for business combinations, whereby the total consideration transferred is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including amounts attributable to intangible assets based on their respective estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. Goodwill represents the excess of consideration transferred over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired in a business combination.

Assigning estimated fair values to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires the use of significant estimates, judgments, inputs, and assumptions regarding the fair value of intangible assets that are separately identifiable from goodwill, inventory step-up, and property, plant, and equipment, and are based on available historical information, future expectations, and assumptions determined to be reasonable but are inherently uncertain with respect to future events, including economic conditions, competition, the useful life of the acquired assets and other factors. Such significant estimates, judgments, inputs, and assumptions include, when applicable, the selection of an appropriate valuation method depending on the nature of the respective asset, such as the income approach, the market or sales comparison approach, or the cost approach; estimating future cash flows based on projected revenues and/or margins that we expect to generate subsequent to an acquisition; applying an appropriate discount rate to estimate the present value of those projected cash flows we expect to generate subsequent to an acquisition; selecting an appropriate royalty rate or estimating a customer attrition or technological obsolescence factor where necessary and appropriate given the nature of the respective asset; assigning the appropriate contributory asset charge where needed; determining an appropriate useful life and the related depreciation or amortization method for the respective asset; and assessing the accuracy and completeness of other historical financial metrics of the acquiree used as standalone inputs or as the basis for determining estimated projected inputs such as margins, customer attrition, and costs to hold and sell product.

In determining the estimated fair value of intangible assets that are separately identifiable from goodwill, we typically utilize the income approach, which discounts the projected future cash flows using an appropriate discount rate that reflects the risks associated with the projected cash flows. However, in certain instances, particularly in relation to developed technology or patents, we may utilize the cost approach depending on the nature of the respective intangible asset and the recency of the development or procurement of such technology. In determining the estimated fair value of acquired inventory, we typically utilize the cost approach for raw materials and the sales comparison approach for finished goods, work in process and component parts. In determining the estimated fair value of acquired property, plant, and equipment, we typically utilize the sales comparison approach or the cost approach depending on the nature of the respective asset and the recency of the construction or procurement of such asset.

We may refine the estimated fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, if necessary, over a period not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition by taking into consideration new information that, if known at the date of acquisition, would have affected the estimated fair values ascribed to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The judgments made in determining the estimated fair value assigned to assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as well as the estimated useful life and depreciation or amortization method of each asset, can materially impact the net earnings of the periods subsequent to an acquisition through depreciation and amortization, and in certain instances through impairment charges, if the asset becomes impaired in the future. During the measurement period, any purchase price allocation changes that impact the carrying value of goodwill will affect any measurement of goodwill impairment taken during the measurement period, if applicable.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
The Company is exposed to various financial market risks. Market risk is the potential loss arising from adverse changes in market prices and rates. The Company does not enter into derivative or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
 
Foreign Currency Risk
 
International Sales

A portion of the Company’s operations consists of manufacturing and sales activities in international jurisdictions. The Company manufactures its products primarily in the U.S., the U.K., France, the Netherlands, Canada, Brazil and Australia. The Company sells its products primarily within the markets where the products are
36


produced, but some of the Company’s sales from its U.K. and Canadian operations are denominated in other currencies. As a result, the Company’s financials, specifically the value of its foreign assets, could be affected by factors such as changes in foreign currency exchange rates in the U.K. and Canada or weak economic conditions in the other markets in which the subsidiaries of the Company distribute their products.
 
Exposure to Exchange Rates

The Company’s earnings are affected by fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to foreign currencies, predominantly in European countries and Canada and, to a lesser extent, Australia and Brazil, as a result of the sale of its products in international markets. Foreign currency forward exchange contracts in the U.K. are used to offset the earnings effects of such fluctuations. On December 31, 2023, the result of a uniform 10% strengthening in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the currencies in which the Company’s sales are denominated would have been a decrease in gross profit of $12.5 million. Comparatively, on December 31, 2022, the result of a uniform 10% strengthening in the value of the dollar relative to the currencies in which the Company’s sales are denominated would have been a decrease in gross profit of approximately $10.9 million. This calculation assumes that each exchange rate would change in the same direction relative to the U.S. dollar. In addition to the direct effects of changes in exchange rates, which are a changed dollar value of the resulting sales, changes in exchange rates may also affect the volume of sales or the foreign currency sales price as competitors’ products become more or less attractive. The Company’s sensitivity analysis of the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates does not factor in a potential change in sales levels or local currency prices. The translation adjustment during 2023 was a gain of $13.6 million. On December 31, 2023, the British pound closed at 0.7854 relative to the U.S. dollar, and the Euro closed at 0.9060 relative to the U.S. dollar. By comparison, on December 31, 2022, the British pound closed at 0.8266 relative to the U.S. dollar, and the Euro closed at 0.9344 relative to the U.S. dollar. No assurance can be given as to future valuation of the British pound or Euro or how further movements in those or other currencies could affect future earnings or the financial position of the Company.
 
Interest Rate Risk

The majority of the Company’s long-term debt bears interest at variable rates. Accordingly, the Company’s net income is affected by changes in interest rates. Assuming the average level of borrowings at variable rates and a two hundred basis point change in the 2023 average interest rate under these borrowings, the Company’s 2023 interest expense would have changed by approximately $7.0 million. In the event of an adverse change in interest rates, management could take actions to mitigate its exposure. Further, this analysis does not consider the effects of the change in the level of overall economic activity that could exist in such an environment. However, challenges affecting the banking industry and credit markets in general can potentially cause changes to credit availability and cost of borrowing, which creates a level of uncertainty.
 
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
The financial statements and supplementary data described in Item 15 of this report and included on pages 49 through 79 of this report are incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

Disclosure Controls and Procedures. An evaluation was carried out, under the supervision and with the participation of the Company's management, including our President & Chief Executive Officer, Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer), and Vice President & Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer), of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Based upon the evaluation, the President & Chief Executive Officer and Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer), and Vice President & Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer), concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the end of the period covered by this report.
 
37


Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Management’s report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is included on page 44 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated by reference herein. The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm has audited and issued a report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting which is included on page 45 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated by reference herein.

The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, and the firm’s report on this matter is included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Changes in Internal Controls over Financial Reporting. There have not been any changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined by paragraph (d) of Rule 13a-15 under the Securities Exchange Act) during the fourth fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
 
Item 9B. Other Information

During the period covered by this report, none of the Company's directors or executive officers has adopted or terminated a Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement or a non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement (each as defined in Item 408 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended).

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

None.

PART III
 
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
There are incorporated in this Item 10, by reference, those portions of the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders which appear therein under the captions “Proposal 1 -  Election of Directors,” “Nominees for Election to the Board of Directors,” “Information Concerning Directors,” “Meetings and Committees of the Board,” “The Audit Committee,” and “The Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee."  See also the information under the caption “Information About Our Executive Officers” in Part I of this Report.

The Board of Directors has delegated certain responsibilities to three Committees of the Board. The Committees are the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee. The Board of Directors has also adopted Corporate Governance guidelines and a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for all employees, including the Chief Executive Officer, Principal Financial Officer, Principal Accounting Officer and those individuals performing similar functions.

The Committee Charters, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, and Corporate Governance Guidelines may be found on the Company’s website (www.alamo-group.com) under the “Corporate Governance” tab at https://www.alamo-group.com/corporate-governance/ and are also available in printed form at no charge by sending a request to the Corporate Secretary, Alamo Group Inc., 1627 E. Walnut Street, Seguin, Texas 78155, which is the principal executive office of the Company. The telephone number is (830) 379-1480. The Company will post any amendments to the Code of Conduct and Ethics, and any waivers that are required to be disclosed by the rules of either the SEC or the New York Stock Exchange, on the Company’s website.

Item 11. Executive Compensation

There are incorporated in this Item 11, by reference, those portions of the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders which appear therein under the captions "Executive Compensation," “The Compensation Committee,” “Compensation Discussion and Analysis,” "Compensation Committee Report” and “Director Compensation during 2023.”

38


Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

There is incorporated in this Item 12, by reference, that portion of the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders which appears under the caption “Beneficial Ownership of our Common Stock.”

Information on Alamo Group Inc.’s Equity Compensation Plans
 
The following table provides information on the shares that are available under the Company’s stock compensation plans and, in the case of plans where stock options may be granted, the number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of those stock options. The Company currently does not have an Equity Compensation Plan that is not approved by the Stockholders.
 
The numbers in the table are as of December 31, 2023, the last day of Alamo Group Inc.’s 2023 fiscal year.
 
 ABC
 
 
 
                
 
 
Equity Compensation
Plan Category
 
 
 
Number of Securities to be issued upon
exercise of outstanding
options, warrants and rights
 
 
 
Weighted-average exercise
price of outstanding
options, warrants and
rights
Number of Securities
that remain
available for future
issuance
 under equity
compensation plans
(excluding securities
reflected in column A) 
Plans approved by stockholders   
2005 Incentive Stock Option Plan550$53.51
2015 Incentive Stock Option Plan75,312$129.19273,558
2019 Equity Incentive Plan93,978$158.99356,156
Plans not approved by stockholders
       Total                     
169,840629,714

Item 13. Certain Relationships, Related Transactions and Director Independence

Information regarding certain relationships and related transactions is set forth under the caption “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, and such information is incorporated by reference herein. There were no such reportable relationships or related party transactions in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

Information regarding director independence is set forth under the caption “Information Concerning Directors” in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, and such information is incorporated by reference herein.

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

Our independent registered public accounting firm is KPMG LLP, San Antonio, TX, Auditor Firm ID: 185.

Information regarding principal accountant fees and services is set forth under the caption “Proposal 3 – Ratification of Appointment of Independent Auditors” in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, and such information is incorporated by reference herein.

39


PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

Financial Statement Schedules

All schedules for which a provision is made in the applicable accounting regulation of the Securities and Exchange Commission are omitted because they are not required or because the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
 
Item 16. Summary

None.

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Exhibits

Exhibits – The following exhibits are incorporated by reference to the filing indicated or are included following the index to Exhibits.

INDEX TO EXHIBITS
 
    Incorporated by Reference
    From the Following
Exhibits Exhibit Title Documents
3.1Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, of Alamo Group Inc. Filed as Exhibit 3.1 to Form S-1, February 5, 1993
3.2Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation of Alamo Group Inc.
3.3By-Laws of Alamo Group Inc. as amended
4.1Description of Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
10.1Form of indemnification agreements with Directors of Alamo Group Inc. 
10.2Form of indemnification agreements with certain executive officers of Alamo Group Inc. 
*10.3401(k) Restoration Plan for Highly Compensated Employees, adopted on December 9, 1997 
*10.42005 Incentive Stock Option Plan, adopted by the Board of Directors on May 4, 2005 
10.5Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of October 28, 2022, by and among Alamo Group Inc., Bank of America, N.A. as administrative agent, Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., and PNC Bank, N.A. as co-syndication agents, TD Bank, N.A. as documentation agent, and the other lenders party thereto.
*10.6Form of Restricted Stock Award Agreement under the 2009 Equity Incentive Plan 
*10.7Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan 
*10.8Amended and Restated Executive Incentive Plan
*10.92015 Incentive Stock Option Plan, adopted by the Board of Directors on May 7, 2015 
*10.10Alamo Group Inc. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan
*10.11Form of Restricted Stock Award Agreement under the Alamo Group Inc. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan
*10.12Form of Restricted Stock Unit Agreement under the Alamo Group Inc. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan
*10.13Form of Performance Share Unit Agreement under the Alamo Group Inc. 2019 Equity Incentive Plan
10.14Form of Executive Change in Control Agreement
10.15Amendment to Executive Change in Control Agreement by and between Alamo Group Inc. and Dan Malone
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10.16Amendment to Executive Change in Control Agreement by and between Alamo Group Inc. and Edward Rizzuti
10.17Amendment to Executive Change in Control Agreement by and between Alamo Group Inc. and Richard Wehrle
21.1Subsidiaries of the Registrant 
23.1Consent of KPMG LLP 
31.1Certification by Jeffery A. Leonard under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
31.2Certification by Richard J. Wehrle under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
31.3Certification by Ian M. Eckert under Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
32.1Certification by Jeffery A. Leonard under Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
32.2Certification by Richard J. Wehrle under Section 906 of the  Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 
32.3Certification by Ian M. Eckert under Section 906 of the  Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
97.0Recoupment Policy
101.INSXBRL Instance Document Filed Herewith
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document Filed Herewith
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document Filed Herewith
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document Filed Herewith
101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document Filed Herewith
101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document Filed Herewith
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)Filed Herewith
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
*Compensatory Plan
42


SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 ALAMO GROUP INC.
Date: February 22, 2024 
 /s/ Jeffery A. Leonard
 Jeffery A. Leonard
 President & Chief Executive Officer
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in their capacities and on the 22nd day of February 2024.
Signature Title
   
/s/RODERICK R. BATY
Roderick R. Baty
Independent Board Chair & Director
/s/JEFFERY A. LEONARD
Jeffery A. Leonard
 President & Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
   
/s/RICHARD J. WEHRLE
Richard J. Wehrle
 Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)
   
/s/IAN M. ECKERT
Ian M. Eckert
Vice President, Corporate Controller & Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer)
/s/ROBERT P. BAUER
Robert P. Bauer
 Director
/s/ERIC P. ETCHART
Eric P. Etchart
 Director
/s/NINA C. GROOMS
Nina C. Grooms
 Director
  
/s/TRACY C. JOKINEN
Tracy C. Jokinen
 Director
/s/RICHARD W. PAROD
Richard W. Parod
 Director
/s/LORIE L. TEKORIUS
Lorie L. Tekorius
Director

43


Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
The Company’s management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
The Company’s management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 using the criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, the Company’s management concludes that, as of December 31, 2023, the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting were effective based on these criteria.

KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, has issued an attestation report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, which is included herein.
  
Date:February 22, 2024
/s/Jeffery A. Leonard
Jeffery A. Leonard
 President, Chief Executive Officer & Director (Principal Executive Officer)
  
 /s/Richard J. Wehrle
Richard J. Wehrle
 Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)
/s/Ian M. Eckert
Ian M. Eckert
Vice President, Corporate Controller & Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer)
 



















44


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors
Alamo Group Inc.:

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Alamo Group Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 22, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Sufficiency of evidence over the existence of inventory
As discussed in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements, the value of inventory was $377 million as of December 31, 2023. To facilitate the global delivery of goods to customers, the Company operates across North America, South America, Europe and Australia. Within these locations, the Company has 29 principal manufacturing plants located in six countries.

We identified the assessment of the sufficiency of evidence over the existence of inventory as a critical audit matter. The geographical dispersion of inventory required especially subjective auditor judgment in determining the sufficiency of audit evidence obtained over the existence of inventory.

The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We applied auditor judgment to determine the nature and extent of procedures to be performed over the existence of inventory including determining where we would perform procedures. We evaluated the design and tested
45


the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s inventory process at certain manufacturing plants. This included controls related to the physical inspection of inventories at certain plants. We performed independent test counts for a sample of items and compared them to the Company’s records to evaluate the inventory at those specific plants. We evaluated the sufficiency of audit evidence obtained by assessing the results of the procedures performed.

 /s/ KPMG LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2009.
San Antonio, Texas
February 22, 2024 


















46


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors
Alamo Group Inc.:

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Alamo Group Inc. and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 22, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 /s/ KPMG LLP
San Antonio, Texas
February 22, 2024

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Alamo Group Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 Year Ended December 31,
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
20232022
ASSETS  
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$51,919 $47,016 
Accounts receivable, net362,007 317,581 
Inventories, net377,480 352,553 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets12,497 9,144 
Income tax receivable 54 916 
Total current assets803,957 727,210 
Rental equipment, net39,264 33,723 
Property, plant and equipment365,960 335,078 
Less:  Accumulated depreciation(199,300)(180,071)
Total property, plant and equipment, net166,660 155,007 
Goodwill206,536 195,858 
Intangible assets, net168,296 171,341 
Deferred income taxes1,375 969 
Other non-current assets23,298 24,400 
Total assets$1,409,386 $1,308,508 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
Current liabilities:  
Trade accounts payable$99,678 $97,537 
Income taxes payable12,529 6,592 
Accrued liabilities86,711 71,368 
Current maturities of long-term debt and finance lease obligations15,008 15,009 
Total current liabilities213,926 190,506 
Long-term debt and finance lease obligations, net of current maturities220,269 286,943 
Long-term tax liability2,634 3,781 
Other long-term liabilities23,694 23,668 
Deferred income taxes16,100 18,250 
Stockholders’ equity:  
Common stock, $.10 par value, 20,000,000 shares authorized; 11,964,181 and 11,913,890 outstanding at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
1,196 1,191 
Additional paid-in capital137,791 129,820 
Treasury stock, at cost; 82,600 shares at December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022
(4,566)(4,566)
Retained earnings852,859 727,183 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(54,517)(68,268)
Total stockholders’ equity932,763 785,360 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,409,386 $1,308,508 


See accompanying notes.



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Alamo Group Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Income
Year Ended December 31,
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
202320222021
Net sales:   
Vegetation Management$979,040 $937,065 $812,676 
Industrial Equipment710,611 576,551 521,547 
Total net sales1,689,651 1,513,616 1,334,223 
Cost of sales1,236,007 1,137,098 999,709 
Gross profit453,644 376,518 334,514 
Selling, general and administrative expenses240,158 212,649 202,939 
Amortization expense15,519 15,277 14,637 
Income from operations197,967 148,592 116,938 
Interest expense(26,093)(14,361)(10,533)
Interest income1,485 752 1,149 
Other income (expense)1,761 (673)1,944 
Income before income taxes175,120 134,310 109,498 
Provision for income taxes38,959 32,382 29,253 
Net income$136,161 $101,928 $80,245 
Net income per common share:   
Basic$11.42 $8.58 $6.78 
Diluted$11.36 $8.54 $6.75 
Average common shares:
Basic11,920 11,877 11,837 
Diluted11,987 11,934 11,896 

See accompanying notes.
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Alamo Group Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)202320222021
Net income$136,161 $101,928 $80,245 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax (expense) benefit of $(949), $1,069, and $(344)
13,644 (23,032)(15,800)
Unrealized (loss) income on derivative instruments, net of tax benefit (expense) of $282, $(497), and $(1,405), respectively
(1,231)2,047 5,298 
Recognition of deferred pension and other post-retirement benefits, net of tax expense of $(391), $(194), and $(356), respectively
1,338 1,707 1,838 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax$13,751 $(19,278)$(8,664)
Comprehensive income $149,912 $82,650 $71,581 


See accompanying notes.
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Alamo Group Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
 
 Common Stock
Additional
Paid-in Capital
Treasury StockRetained Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive Income
Total Stock-
holders’ Equity
(in thousands)SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202011,727 $1,181 $118,528 $(4,566)$560,186 $(40,326)$635,003 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 80,245 (8,664)71,581 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 5,987 — — — 5,987 
Stock-based compensation transactions64 6 (287)— — — (281)
Dividends paid ($0.56 per share)
— — — — (6,627)— (6,627)
Balance at December 31, 202111,791 $1,187 $124,228 $(4,566)$633,804 $(48,990)$705,663 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 101,928 (19,278)82,650 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 5,561 — — — 5,561 
Stock-based compensation transactions40 4 31 — — — 35 
Dividends paid ($0.72 per share)
— — — — (8,549)— (8,549)
Balance at December 31, 202211,831 $1,191 $129,820 $(4,566)$727,183 $(68,268)$785,360 
Other comprehensive income— — — — 136,161 13,751 149,912 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 7,424 — — — 7,424 
Stock-based compensation transactions51 5 547 — — — 552 
Dividends paid ($0.88 per share)
— — — — (10,485)— (10,485)
Balance at December 31, 202311,882 $1,196 $137,791 $(4,566)