10-K 1 alrm-20231231.htm 10-K ALARM.COM HOLDINGS, INC. DECEMBER 31, 2023 alrm-20231231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-37461
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ALARM.COM HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
     
Delaware 26-4247032
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
8281 Greensboro DriveSuite 100TysonsVirginia 22102
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Tel: (877) 389-4033
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareALRMThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. þ Yes ¨ No
    
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ¨ Yes þ No
    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. þ Yes ¨ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). þ Yes ¨ No
    



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerþAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).     ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    ¨ Yes þ No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 was $1.5 billion, based on a closing price of $51.68 per share of the registrant's common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. For purposes of this computation, all officers, directors, and 10% beneficial owners of the registrant are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination should not be deemed to be an admission that such officers, directors or 10% beneficial owners are, in fact, affiliates of the registrant.
As of February 15, 2024, there were 49,945,156 outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock, $0.01 par value per share.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days following the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.



ALARM.COM HOLDINGS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
1


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or this Annual Report, contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that reflect our current expectations regarding future events, our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in Part I, Item 1. "Business," Part I, Item 1A. "Risk Factors," and Part II, Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," but are also contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. Forward-looking statements include any statement that does not directly relate to a current or historical fact. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "might," "objective," "ongoing," "plan," "predict," "project," "potential," "should," "will," "would," or the negative or plural of these words or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future. The events described in these forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that these statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known to us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain. Forward-looking statements include statements about:

the anticipated impact of the global economic uncertainty and financial market conditions caused by significant worldwide events, including public health crises, and geopolitical upheaval, such as Russia’s incursion into Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas, disruptions to global supply chains, rising interest rates, risk of recession and inflation (collectively, the Macroeconomic Conditions) on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including on our hardware sales and our Software-as-a-Service, or SaaS, and license revenue growth rate; our business strategy, plans and objectives for future operations; continued enhancements of our platform and offerings; and our future financial and business performance;
our ability to continue to increase revenue, maintain existing subscribers and sell new services to new and existing subscribers;
our ability to add new service provider partners, maintain existing service provider partner relationships and increase the productivity of our service provider partners;
the potential impact of trade policies and related tariffs on our cost of hardware revenue and hardware revenue margins;
the effects of increased competition as well as innovations by new and existing competitors in our market;
our ability to adapt to technological change and effectively enhance, innovate and scale our solution;
our ability to effectively manage or sustain our growth;
our expected uses for the proceeds from the offering of our convertible senior notes;
potential acquisitions and integration of complementary business and technologies;
our ability to maintain, or strengthen awareness of, our brand;
perceived or actual security, integrity, reliability, quality or compatibility problems with our solutions, including related to security breaches in our systems, our subscribers’ systems, unscheduled downtime, or outages;
our future revenue, hiring plans, expenses, capital expenditures, capital requirements and stock performance;
our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel and further expand our overall headcount;
our ability to develop relationships with service provider partners in order to expand internationally;
our ability to stay abreast of new or modified laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business both in the United States and internationally;
our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property;
costs associated with defending intellectual property infringement and other claims; and
other risks detailed below in Item 1A. "Risk Factors."

You should refer to the “Summary of Risks Affecting Our Business” below and Item 1A. "Risk Factors" section of this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this Annual Report.

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report to "Alarm.com," the "company," "we," "us," "our" and similar references refer to Alarm.com Holdings, Inc. and, where appropriate, our consolidated subsidiaries.
2


Summary of Risks Affecting Our Business

The following summary highlights some of the principal risks you should consider with respect to our business and prospects. This summary is not complete and the risks included in the summary below are not the only risks we face. You should review and consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which includes a more complete discussion of the risks summarized below as well as a discussion of other risks related to our business and an investment in our common stock, as well as our other public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC.

Any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline:
Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated and are likely to continue to fluctuate and may be negatively affected by the Macroeconomic Conditions.
Our actual operating results may differ significantly from any guidance provided. If our actual results of operations fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially.
We may not sustain our growth rate and we may not be able to manage any future growth effectively.
We sell security and life safety solutions and if these solutions fail for any reason, we could be subject to liability and our business, reputation and results of operations could suffer.
Failure to maintain the security of our information and technology networks, including information relating to our service provider partners, subscribers and employees, could expose us to liability and adversely affect us.
The markets in which we participate are highly competitive and many companies, including large technology companies, broadband and security service providers and other managed service providers, are actively targeting the home and business automation, security monitoring, video monitoring and energy management markets.
We rely on our service provider network to acquire additional subscribers, and the inability of our service providers to attract additional subscribers or retain their current subscribers could adversely affect our operating results.
We receive a substantial portion of our revenue from a limited number of service provider partners, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in, orders from one or more of our major service provider partners would result in decreased revenue and profitability.
We have relatively limited visibility regarding the consumers that ultimately purchase our solutions, and we often rely on information from third-party service providers to help us manage our business. We operate in an evolving connected home market. If the connected property market does not grow as we expect or if a significant number of our target consumers choose to adopt point products that control discrete functions rather than our connected property solutions, we may not be able to achieve sustained growth or our business may decline.
We benefit from integration of our solutions with third-party platform providers. If developers of third-party platform providers choose not to partner with us, or are acquired by our competitors, our integrated solutions platform, business and results of operations may be harmed.
Our strategy includes pursuing acquisitions, and our potential inability to successfully consummate acquisitions or integrate newly-acquired technologies, assets or businesses may harm our financial results.
If we are unable to adapt to technological change, including maintaining compatibility with a wide range of devices, as well as changes in access to wireless networks through which we provide our wireless alarm, notification and intelligent automation services, our ability to remain competitive could be impaired and we may need to incur significant capital expenditures to update our technology.
We operate in a regulated industry and our business, operations and service provider partners are subject to various foreign, U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations, including relating to consumer protection, licensing, Internet and data privacy, tax, tariff, import/export restrictions or other trade barriers. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could harm our business and we may incur significant expenditures related to compliance efforts.
We are involved from time to time in legal proceedings where a negative outcome could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Assertions by third parties that we are infringing their intellectual property subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses that could harm our business and results of operations.
We depend on our suppliers. The loss of any key supplier or the inability of a key supplier to deliver their products to us on time or at the contracted price would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
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PART I.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

Alarm.com is the leading platform for the intelligently connected property. Our cloud-based platform offers an expansive suite of Internet of Things, or IoT, solutions addressing opportunities in the residential, multi-family, small business and enterprise commercial markets. Alarm.com’s solutions include security, video and video analytics, energy management, access control, electric utility grid management, indoor gunshot detection, water management, health and wellness and data-rich emergency response. During 2023, our platforms processed more than 325 billion data points generated by over 150 million connected devices. We believe this scale of subscribers, connected devices and data operations makes us the leader in the connected property market.

Our solutions are delivered through an established network of trusted service providers, who are experts at selling, installing and supporting our solutions. We primarily generate SaaS and license revenue through our service provider partners, who resell these services and pay us monthly fees. These service provider contracts typically have an initial term of one year, with subsequent renewal terms of one year. Our service provider partners have indicated that they typically have three to five-year service contracts with residential and commercial property owners who use our solutions. We also generate hardware and other revenue, primarily from our service provider partners and distributors. Our hardware sales include connected devices that enable our services, such as video cameras, video recorders, gunshot detection sensors, gateway modules and smart thermostats. We believe our network of service providers and the length of our service relationships with residential and commercial property owners, combined with our robust SaaS platforms and over 20 years of operating experience, contribute to a compelling business model.

We have experienced significant growth since our company's inception in 2000. We generated total revenue of $881.7 million, $842.6 million and $749.0 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our SaaS and license revenue was $569.2 million, $520.4 million and $460.4 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, representing a compound annual growth rate of 11.2%. We also generated net income attributable to common stockholders of $81.0 million, $56.3 million and $52.3 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, as well as non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA of $154.0 million, $146.8 million and $142.5 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. See the "Non-GAAP Measures" section of Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for a discussion of the limitations of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA from net income, the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Our Solutions and Integrated Platforms

Our solutions are designed to make both residential and commercial properties safer, smarter and more efficient. Our technology platforms support property owners who subscribe to our services, the hardware partners who manufacture devices that integrate with our platforms and the service provider partners who install and maintain our solutions.

The Alarm.com platform enables our service provider partners to deploy our interactive security, video monitoring, intelligent automation, access control, energy management and wellness solutions as stand-alone offerings or as combined solutions to address the needs of a broad range of customers.

Subscriber Solutions

Interactive Security

Interactive security is the entry point for most of our smart home and business subscribers. Our dedicated, two-way cellular connection between the property and our platforms is designed to be tamper resistant and to meet the high reliability standards for life safety services. Our platform integrates with monitoring stations used by our service providers to monitor the system 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and coordinate emergency response as needed. Subscribers can seamlessly connect to our services to control and monitor their security systems, as well as to IoT devices including door locks, garage doors, thermostats and video cameras, through our family of mobile apps, websites and engagement platforms like voice control through Siri Shortcuts, Amazon Echo and Google Home, wearable devices like the Apple Watch and TV applications such as Apple TV and Amazon Fire TV.

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The capabilities associated with this solution include:

Real-Time Alerts and Always-On Monitoring. Whether the security system is armed or disarmed, we continuously monitor sensors in the property and can keep subscribers aware of system events in all kinds of situations. Notifications for any type of system event are delivered through push notifications, short message service, or SMS, or email, based on the subscriber's preference. Our proprietary algorithms help safeguard connected properties by continuously monitoring devices and sensors and learning the unique activity patterns in a property. When unexpected activity is detected, the subscriber is automatically notified.

Alarm Transmission. We transmit alarm signals from monitored properties through our cloud platforms to approximately 1,000 third-party central monitoring stations staffed 24 hours a day, seven days a week with live operators ready to initiate emergency response.

Smart Signal. With a single button push in the Alarm.com mobile app, subscribers can quickly verify an alarm to help expedite emergency response or easily cancel a false alarm. By communicating critical information directly to the monitoring station, Smart Signal can help enhance the overall value of the professional monitoring services associated with Alarm.com systems and reduce false alarm dispatches. In addition, home or business owners who need emergency assistance at their property can send a one-touch panic signal directly from their mobile app to their monitoring station.

Smart Arming. Smart arming provides intelligent, automatic system arming and disarming that dynamically adjusts based on activity in the home. Subscribers select periods when they want their system to monitor activity in their property and then either automatically arm or disarm the system. Intelligently automating the security system enhances customer security and drives further user engagement with our smart home systems.

Wellness. Our technology intelligently monitors quality of life through a suite of connected sensors and devices, and delivers proactive insights into activities of daily living. With alerts about changes in behavior that can indicate emerging quality of life issues, family members and homecare and senior living providers can address issues before they escalate and deliver more efficient care.

Video Monitoring and Video Analytics

Our video monitoring solution can provide a direct live-view into a property, identify and capture footage of critical events and provide visual peace of mind. We offer indoor and outdoor video cameras for residential and commercial properties at varying price points so our service providers can engage a range of consumers with our services. We also provide a doorbell video camera solution that supports two-way audio with guests at the door, as well as video management software and cameras for enterprise commercial applications through our OpenEye business.

The capabilities associated with our video monitoring solution include:

Video Analytics. Our video analytics engine provides object classification and object tracking technology that can distinguish between people, vehicles and animals, determine an object's direction of movement and measure the duration of activity. Subscribers can selectively control and manage notifications and assign virtual zones and multi-directional "tripwires" so they can monitor their home or business for highly specific activity. Perimeter Guard can proactively identify and engage would-be intruders before they can threaten physical property.

Escalated Events. Our Escalated Events enables monitoring stations to receive and respond to events generated by our suite of video analytics capabilities. For example, our video monitoring solution can detect a person in a customer's backyard or in the parking lot of a business after hours and alert a central monitoring station. A monitoring agent can then access video clips and live feeds to evaluate the situation quickly and dispatch first responders as needed. Escalated Events adds a new layer of proactive security protection for property owners and creates new opportunities and applications for the professional monitoring services provided by our partners.

Video Doorbell. Alarm.com offers a full line of video doorbell options with a diversity of price points. From a single screen on the Alarm.com mobile app, subscribers can see and speak with visitors and control their door locks. The Alarm.com 750 video doorbell is a battery-free video doorbell that has a wide operating temperature range and includes Alarm.com’s video analytics software package and delivers advance performance specifications, including an expansive field of view and two-megapixel resolution. The Alarm.com 770 video doorbell operates proprietary video analytics software that can quickly and accurately detect visitors while reducing unwanted alerts, such as those caused by passing vehicle traffic or swaying branches. A touch-free capability immediately activates the doorbell chime when a visitor is detected, eliminating the need to physically press a doorbell button. Alarm.com’s battery-powered 780 video doorbell gives service providers a more flexible installation option for challenging installations, particularly in
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international markets where regional wiring standards do not always support wired video doorbells. An on-board neural network rapidly identifies people while optimizing energy usage for extended battery life.

Intelligent Integration. Alarm.com’s video surveillance solution works intelligently with other devices and sensors in the property. Subscribers can create intelligent rules to capture video clips of important events to enhance security and privacy.

Live Streaming. Subscribers can securely access live video feeds through the web and mobile apps at any time.

Secure Cloud Storage. Video clips are uploaded to our cloud-based storage system for secure storage and remote viewing.

Video Alerts. Smart clips can be automatically sent via SMS, push notifications or email as soon as they are recorded.

Intelligent Automation and Energy Management

Our solution provides enhanced monitoring and control for a large ecosystem of connected devices, including thermostats, lights, locks, power meters, shades and other devices. Increasing awareness of energy usage and providing intelligent control over connected devices enables subscribers to create personalized automation rules and schedules. We believe our solutions can reduce energy waste as well as increase comfort and convenience for our subscribers. The capabilities associated with this solution include:

Scenes. A customizable scenes button in the Alarm.com app can adjust multiple devices in the property with a single command. For example, a homeowner leaving the house can arm the security system, lock the front door, close the garage door and adjust the thermostat with a single command.

Video Analytics Triggers. A robust set of automation rules allows our subscribers to customize automations to respond when certain activity is detected by their video monitoring solution. For example, subscribers can create a rule that if a person is detected in their backyard at night, certain lights should turn on.

Smart Thermostat Schedules. Advanced algorithms can learn the unique activity patterns in a property by analyzing sensor and device data. Our solution can then recommend thermostat schedules that have the potential to increase energy efficiency when the property is not likely to be occupied.

Responsive Savings. Smart thermostats connected to our platforms can automatically respond to sensors and other devices in the property to conserve energy. For example, when the security system is armed away, an arming state used when the property is not occupied, the thermostat can automatically adjust to save energy. Additionally, if a window is open for a period of time, the smart thermostat can adjust to an efficiency setting and alert the property owners.

Precision Comfort. Remote temperature sensors enable a subscriber to manage comfort in a specific area within their property. For example, a homeowner can set a desired temperature for a child's nursery to improve the child’s comfort. Subscribers can easily customize detailed schedules and rules to have the right temperature in the right location at the right time.

Energy Usage Monitoring. Real-time and historical energy usage and solar energy production data for the entire property and individual devices can give subscribers greater insight into the property’s energy profile and encourage more efficient use of energy-consuming devices.

HVAC Monitoring Service. Our Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, or HVAC, monitoring service works with select high-efficiency heating and cooling systems and allows HVAC contractors to remotely monitor and manage sophisticated residential and light commercial heating and cooling systems.

Places Feature. The Places feature uses a phone’s geo-location to determine when to notify a subscriber of specific system conditions, or to automatically adjust system settings. Subscribers who enable the Places feature can be notified if they leave home and forgot to lock a door, close the garage door, arm their security system or close a window. Additionally, smart thermostats and lights can be automatically adjusted based on the subscriber's location. Subscribers can create multiple geo-fences and customize the opt-in feature to meet their specific needs.

Whole Home Water Safety Solution. Our comprehensive whole home water safety solution helps subscribers conserve water and proactively protect their property from a full range of water-related damage. Integrated with Alarm.com’s Smart Water Valve + Meter and Water Dragon devices, our solution can monitor water usage, detect both low- and high-volume leaks, alert the subscriber about conditions that can lead to frozen and burst pipes, intelligently manage
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humidity levels and notify homeowners if a sump pump fails. The Smart Water Valve + Meter can also automatically shut off the property's water supply when it detects a leak. Water Dragon is an easy-to-install option that clamps onto the main water line and uses ultrasonic technology to detect unexpected water activity.

Solar Monitoring Solution. Our integrated solar monitoring solution allows subscribers to track solar panel energy production as well as energy consumption in their property by day, week, month and year. With the Alarm.com mobile app, our subscribers can monitor the property’s solar data alongside security and other energy-saving devices so they can easily leverage intelligent automation capabilities that can help lower power bills and reduce their environmental footprint. As part of a comprehensive smart energy management solution, solar monitoring gives subscribers the information and insights to reduce overall energy consumption and manage a broad ecosystem of automation devices to compensate when solar production is low, such as automatically raising the thermostat setpoint or turning off lights.

Demand Response and Virtual Power Plant Programs

Our EnergyHub subsidiary provides software that utilities can use to reduce or shift power consumption out of peak demand periods or when intermittent renewable energy sources operate below capacity. By accessing and intelligently managing connected thermostats and other connected devices and appliances at scale, utilities can significantly reduce costs, transition to renewable energy sources and support the electrification of transportation. The EnergyHub SaaS platform provides a comprehensive solution that enables utility customers to voluntarily participate in these programs, aggregates a diverse set of smart thermostats, connected water heaters, residential batteries, electric vehicles and charging equipment, and delivers virtual power plants that utilities can leverage as an enterprise-grade grid resource.

Commercial Solutions

In addition to our residential solutions, we offer a full range of commercial security services that uniquely address the requirements of small, medium and enterprise scale businesses.

Alarm.com for Business, our security solution for small and medium businesses that range from single-site to multi-location businesses, combines intelligent intrusion detection, video surveillance, access control and energy management into a single solution through Alarm.com's app and online interfaces. Our solution streamlines business operations, enhances property security and awareness, saves energy and provides insights into employee and customer activity. Additionally, business insights reporting provides actionable intelligence, including open and close trends by location, peak periods of activity and customer traffic and energy savings opportunities. Key benefits of the commercial offering include:

Commercial Grade Video Solutions. Connected commercial cameras deeply integrate with the security and access control systems, enabling them to capture video clips of important activity such as personnel entering and exiting a property or secure area or disarming the security system. Video clips are uploaded to our cloud-based platform for secure storage and remote viewing through the web or our mobile app. Subscribers can receive real-time alerts and video clips if the alarm goes off, a door is unlocked, or unexpected activity occurs outside of normal business hours. Our commercial video solution operates with a diverse array of third-party commercial video cameras. Supporting third-party cameras facilitates adoption of our commercial video solution by reducing the barriers to entry for small and medium-sized businesses that want to benefit from our intelligently integrated solutions without the cost of replacing existing installed cameras.

Commercial Video Analytics. Business Activity Analytics can help improve and optimize business operations. Commercial subscribers can intelligently monitor customer and employee activity, including occupancy tracking, people counting, queue monitoring, crowd gathering and heat mapping. Real-time notifications and activity reporting can help streamline customer flows, reduce wait times, measure the effectiveness of marketing campaigns and enforce occupancy limits. Perimeter Guard enhances our Business Activity Analytics solution with a layer of proactive deterrence against would-be intruders. Perimeter Guard can identify a person and automatically respond with audible alerts and flashing LED lights that inform the person that they are being monitored. We believe our 2023 acquisition of certain assets of Vintra, Inc., or Vintra, will help to expand our learning program and accelerate deployment of advanced video analytics commercial solutions for the Alarm.com and OpenEye platforms.

Smarter Access Control. Our Smarter Access Control solution streamlines access management and helps solve many of the challenges faced by small business owners with an array of always-on operational tools that can improve property control, security and awareness. From a single web view, subscribers can add and delete users, manage access points and user permissions and define schedules across multiple locations and security partitions. Leveraging advanced algorithms, our Smarter Access Control solution intelligently learns the activity patterns of users and access points for single or multiple property installations, detects unexpected events and alerts the subscriber of the irregular activity.

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Cell Connector. Our Cell Connector for Access Control eliminates the need to have a wired network connection, enabling the ability to install our Access Control solution using cellular 4G LTE in customer locations where network connectivity or reliability is hindered.

Enterprise Dashboard and Multi-site Management. Commercial subscribers can easily view and manage multiple business locations from a unified enterprise dashboard optimized for the web or mobile app. They can quickly access and customize video feeds to monitor multiple properties, view information from access control and security systems, and monitor property temperature, smart thermostat set points and the temperature of refrigeration units. Sophisticated rules, user permissions and schedules streamline access management across multiple locations and security partitions.

Energy Savings. Our smarter thermostats help subscribers reduce energy costs automatically, even if someone forgets to adjust the temperature when they are closing up at the end of the day, generating a return on investment.

Proactive Protection for Valuables and Inventory. Unexpected activity alerts provide business owners and managers with the early identification of activity such as unexpected entry after hours, or doors propped open that could cause energy waste or safety concerns, and help business owners quickly respond to problematic situations. Notifications keep business owners in the know about individuals entering or exiting the back office, the supply room, or any other specific rooms or doors. Alarm.com provides a time stamped log of which users armed or disarmed the system or entered the property using their keycard.

Temperature Monitoring. Our new temperature monitoring solution provides monitoring 24 hours a day, seven days a week, real-time alerts and historical temperature reporting to support the temperature control needs of restaurants, grocery stores, pharmacies and other single-system and multi-location commercial customers. Business owners receive alerts for out-of-range temperatures so they can quickly prevent unsafe conditions, reduce spoilage and repair malfunctioning equipment.

Daily Safeguards. Smarter business security intelligently keeps business locations secure while minimizing false alarms. Subscribers can specify a time for the security system to automatically adjust to an armed state each day. The system will arm itself only after a certain period of inactivity in the property.

Professionally Supported and Low Cost of Ownership. Unlike traditional commercial security services, Alarm.com’s connected solutions are cloud-based and do not require additional IT resources. Smarter business security powered by Alarm.com is supported by our authorized service provider partners from start to finish, with installation, configuration and technical support included.

Our OpenEye subsidiary offers enterprise commercial video management solutions that complement the Alarm.com for Business platform. OpenEye expands our market opportunity to address the unique requirements of large, enterprise commercial and national account customers such as universities, banks, national retail chains and property management companies. OpenEye software offers Video Surveillance as a Service, or VSaaS, as well as cameras, recorders and other peripherals designed for video applications, and supports enterprise-level requirements such as advanced forensic video search, point of sale system integration and customer site mapping, as well as large-scale camera deployments. Key benefits of the OpenEye solution include:

Intelligent Cloud Architecture. OpenEye’s hybrid architecture intelligently combines local recording with managed cloud services. It provides long-term storage of high-resolution video, low bandwidth consumption and a full suite of centralized management capabilities that include remote viewing, administration and health reporting for deployments that can include thousands of video cameras.

Video Analytics Platform. OpenEye’s video analytics platform is optimized to support the requirements of its large-scale enterprise commercial customers. It can identify people and reduce false motion events caused by background movement and other image noise to provide highly accurate activity detection. Subscribers can create more actionable activity alerts to respond to incidents and quickly find associated video recordings. OpenEye's software also works with a wide variety of devices to enable unique solutions. For example, environmental sensors can trigger OpenEye alerts and video recording based on events of interest, including new Vaping Alerts for school settings. Additionally, OpenEye's Sales Connect solution combines point-of-sale system data with video so subscribers can create custom alerts and conduct forensic searches on detailed transaction data to deliver a more robust solution for significant verticals such as retail, grocery and quick-serve restaurants.

Enterprise-Level Capabilities. Capabilities such as advanced forensic video search, point of sale system integration and customer site mapping address the specific needs of enterprise-level subscribers and allow loss prevention officers, business analysts and other IT resources to employ video as a key operational and management tool.

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Large-Scale Video Deployments. Centrally managed recorder firmware, system diagnostics and configuration capabilities allow enterprise commercial customers to actively manage large-scale camera deployments. OpenEye’s user interface is optimized for guard or command stations and other settings where video from multiple cameras is viewed and searched simultaneously on secure workstations or video walls.

CloudConnect. CloudConnect is a two-way integration between the OpenEye Cloud Video Platform and the Alarm.com for Business platform that directly associates event data from intrusion sensors and access control readers with OpenEye’s VSaaS offering. Based on criteria such as system arming status or badge scans by specific users, subscribers can customize event-based rules to record video clips, tag videos and generate alerts, or they can directly navigate to video recordings associated with a particular event. The integration further unifies intrusion, access control and video solutions to offer a more intelligent and convenient way to manage and secure commercial properties.

Shooter Detection Systems, or SDS, expands the platform capabilities we provide to the commercial security market. Our multi-sensor solution provides highly accurate indoor gunshot detection to help alert employees, the public and emergency services about active shooter threats. The solution uses a dual-mode detection technology that combines acoustic sensors with specialized infrared flash detectors, in tandem with proprietary gunshot detection software algorithms to maximize detection without driving false positives. Through an integration with Alarm.com's Noonlight subsidiary, SDS provides an advanced emergency response solution that enhances situational awareness for first responders during active shooter incidents. The solution enables the 911 operators, responding officers, onsite security and building managers to communicate and share information in real-time and view critical contextual data, including the building, room and floor location of gunshot events. Beginning in 2023, SDS indoor gunshot detection became available as a SaaS solution integrated with Alarm.com for commercial properties. The integrated solution is designed to enable Alarm.com’s service provider partners to bring the SDS solution to market as a SaaS offering with a more accessible price point.

Service Provider Solutions

We also offer a comprehensive suite of enterprise-grade business management solutions for our service provider partners. We are committed to helping our service provider partners grow their businesses, efficiently manage their customer bases and maximize the value of their Alarm.com accounts. We believe these services strengthen our partnerships with service providers as they build their businesses on our platforms. Capabilities associated with these solutions include:

Service Provider Portal. Our permission-based online portal provides account management, sales, marketing, training and support tools. Through this portal, our service provider partners can activate and manage their Alarm.com customer accounts, order equipment, access invoices and billing, remotely program customer systems, obtain sales and marketing services and engage in training.

Service Dashboard. The Partner Services Platform provides a unified interface that displays key operational and customer experience indicators, including technician performance, system reliability and customer engagement metrics. Service managers can identify opportunities for implementing efficiencies that they can then operationalize through the suite of Alarm.com’s service provider solutions.

Installation and Support. The ease of installation and cost of supporting connected property solutions are critical considerations for our service provider partners. We support the end-to-end process for deploying and managing our solutions with tools that make installation and support more efficient.

MobileTech Application and Remote Toolkit. Our installation and troubleshooting mobile app, designed for service provider technicians, facilitates the successful installation, programming and support of equipment while either on-site at subscribers’ properties or while working remotely. Service provider technicians and customer service personnel can access a collection of remote system management tools and panel settings through the Remote Toolkit using the MobileTech application and our service provider portal, including service appointment reminders, device notes, quick links and MobileTech Podcasts. These features help to increase accuracy of installations, decrease time spent on-site and reduce support calls and return visits, which saves subscribers and service providers money while increasing subscriber satisfaction.

Gopher Info. The Gopher Info feature is an artificial intelligence-powered chat bot assistant for technicians and service providers that leverages large language models to improve service provider efficiency and operations, including training, sales, installation and support. In response to a question, Gopher Info contextualizes, processes and summarizes information from Alarm.com's extensive database of support content, including installation guides, product summaries, specification sheets, troubleshooting best practices and training materials. This resource is accessible through the Alarm.com Partner Portal and the MobileTech application.

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On-Site Wrap Up. The On-Site Wrap Up feature within the MobileTech application helps technicians keep track of and record the tasks they are required to complete during a service call to a customer property. Service providers can establish standard actions for technicians and monitor implementation. On-Site Wrap Up helps Alarm.com’s service provider partners ensure that their field technicians deliver consistent, high-quality service that reduces support costs and customer attrition.

On My Way. The On My Way feature within the MobileTech application modernizes the management of service appointments and customer expectations. It uses technicians’ mobile devices to provide useful navigation to service and installation appointments, sends more accurate arrival time email notifications to customers and helps service providers gauge the efficiency of their workforce.

Device Sync. Our integrations with monitoring stations allow operators to proactively address trouble conditions associated with a subscriber's video cameras and connected devices. Participating monitoring stations can receive alerts when a device malfunctions or its batteries are low, and operators can then communicate to subscribers to remotely address the issue or schedule a service appointment with a technician, if needed.

Video Health Reports: Video Health Reports give Alarm.com’s service provider partners and their commercial video customers a monthly snapshot of the condition of video cameras and stream video recorders. System summaries and device-by-device information provide awareness of potential issues to ensure continuous, uninterrupted video coverage, reduce maintenance and support calls, and eliminate the need for manual checks by the customer.

Smart Gateway. The Smart Gateway allows service provider partners to create a private and secure Wi-Fi network infrastructure specifically for a subscriber's property that is dedicated to Alarm.com video cameras. It is designed to streamline camera installation and reduce common support issues caused by a subscriber's unmanaged Wi-Fi network. With Smart Gateway, Alarm.com's service provider partners can also more efficiently deploy video cameras and services with better connectivity and leverage wireless spectrum maximized for performance.

AI-powered Enhancements to Professional Monitoring and False Alarm Reduction. We apply our advanced, AI architecture to provide our third-party monitoring station partners with powerful insights. We designed these capabilities to streamline their operations, empower them to provide critical information to public safety dispatchers and first responders, enhance the value of the monitoring services they provide to subscribers and reduce false alarm dispatches.

Ambient Insights for Alarm Response. Ambient Insights for Alarm Response provides third-party monitoring stations with a real-time determination as to the likelihood that the property owner will cancel an alarm. Monitoring operators can access contextual information and intelligent insights about alarm-related events so they can quickly assess the situation and make more informed decisions about the appropriate level of response. The capabilities leverage activity data associated with the alarm event, such as incorrect panel code entries, unlocked doors and video of any person detected at the property. The alarm assessments are designed to help operators prioritize multiple alarm events. Monitoring stations can rapidly dispatch emergency services to the highest priority alarms, while also reducing the likelihood of false alarm dispatches.

Visual Verification. Our Visual Verification solution empowers monitoring station operators to make more informed decisions and expedite emergency response while supporting service providers. With our Visual Verification interface, operators have contextual indicators, live video feeds and Video Analytics tools to help identify if there is a person or a perceived threat at a given location. By leveraging multiple data sources to understand the activity surrounding an alarm event, the solution creates a Person On-Site Likelihood Indicator so that the operator may relay this critical information to first responders dispatched to the location.

Business Management. Our services deeply integrate with our service provider partners’ offerings and provide increased business insight into their customer base and key business health metrics.

Web Services. Our web services allow our service provider partners to integrate their existing customer management software and tools with our platforms. This creates a unified interface for our service provider partners to seamlessly perform functions like creating a new customer account or upgrading a service plan.

Business Intelligence. Our powerful business intelligence tools provide service providers with crucial insights into the performance of their Alarm.com subscriber account base. Business Intelligence provides key operational metrics related to account plan adoption, attrition and service quality to help service provider partners grow their business and improve customer retention.
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Sales, Marketing & Training. Our comprehensive customer lifecycle sales and marketing services are available to help our service provider partners effectively market and sell our solutions.

Marketing Portal. We provide a broad suite of marketing and sales tools and resources for our service provider partners, including our MobileSales app, co-brandable landing pages, mobile optimized websites with integrated lead capture, social media, videos, images, collateral, direct mail and event materials.

Alarm.com Academy. We offer comprehensive in-person training programs to our service provider partners. Additionally, we offer online courses through a learning management system, enabling our service provider partners to access training on the full suite of Alarm.com solutions anytime.

System Upgrades. Our Customer Connections solution is designed to maximize the value of existing accounts by offering targeted in-app and e-mail-based upgrade offers to existing subscribers. These campaigns are designed to increase engagement, drive upsell opportunities and enable referrals for our service provider partners.

Home Builder Program. Our home builder program includes hardware and service plans designed to facilitate partnerships between home builders and our service provider partners. Home builders can rapidly deploy a full-range of our smart home solutions in new communities and model homes, while minimizing risks and costs by depending on our nationwide network of service provider partners for hardware installation and ongoing support.

Benefits of Our Solutions

The intersection of significant technology trends, like the broad adoption of mobile devices, the emergence of the IoT, the power of big data and the extensibility of the cloud, makes the connected property possible. Security systems, thermostats, door locks, video cameras, lights, garage doors and other devices that were once inert can now be intelligent and connected. Our intelligently connected property solutions provide a wealth of benefits to our subscribers and our service provider partners.

Benefits to Subscribers:

Single Connected Platform. Our cloud-based platforms provide subscribers with a single point of integrated control across a diverse ecosystem of IoT devices. Solutions are easily personalized to suit the individual subscriber’s needs.

Reliable Network Communications. Our platforms utilize a highly secure, highly reliable, dedicated cellular connection which mitigates common vulnerabilities of security systems that are connected via a wired network, such as cut lines or broadband connectivity issues.

Intelligent and Actionable. Our platforms aggregate real-time, multi-point data about property activity and system status. We have developed a highly scalable data analytics engine to deliver unique features and capabilities based on insights derived from this growing set of data. For example, learning detailed activity patterns in a property enables our platforms to proactively alert the subscriber about unexpected events. Our platforms continue to learn and adapt to become more personalized over time.

Broad Device Compatibility. Our platforms support a wide variety of connected devices and communications protocols, allowing seamless integration and automation of many devices, as well as the addition of new devices in the future.

Accessible and Affordable. Our platforms offer an affordable alternative to expensive automation systems, legacy residential and commercial control products and disparate point product solutions.

Trusted Provider. We have established a reputation and brand as a trusted and reliable technology provider. We respect the privacy of our subscribers and do not sell their data. Our reputation is strengthened through our network of service provider partners, who have significant expertise in the delivery of our SaaS platforms and suite of solutions.

Benefits to Service Provider Partners:

New Revenue Generation Opportunities. Our solutions help broaden our service provider partners' offerings beyond traditional security to also include comprehensive smart residential and commercial solutions like intelligent automation, video monitoring and energy management. They can access new market opportunities and drive incremental recurring monthly revenue by expanding their offerings with our solutions. We offer training, tools and other resources to help our service provider partners fully leverage the breadth and depth of our platforms.

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Expanded Set of Value-Added Services. We provide value-added services to our service provider partners, including training, marketing, installation and support tools and business intelligence analytics. This support helps our service provider partners more efficiently acquire, install and support their customers on our platforms.

Improved Service Provider Economics. Our cloud-based platforms can help reduce our service provider partners’ service delivery and support costs. Remote Toolkit enables our service provider partners to remotely configure, support and upgrade their customers' hardware or software, eliminating the cost of an in-person service call for many routine support issues. In addition, we believe our service provider partners can generate more revenue from each subscriber by providing services beyond traditional security.

Broad Device Interoperability. We have an open platform which allows service provider partners to respond to market innovation and consumer demands for connected devices. Device hardware is deeply integrated into our platforms to provide a more cohesive experience than stand-alone products deliver. For example, we released the Alarm.com 750 video doorbell, which is a battery-free video doorbell that delivers advance performance specifications, including an expansive field of view and two-megapixel resolution. Our platforms also support various broadly adopted communications protocols commonly used in many automation devices, including Z-Wave, Wi-Fi and cellular. Our open platforms and interoperability give our service provider partners a wide selection of devices to suit their customers' needs now and in the future.

Dedicated Service Provider Support. We operate support centers focused on providing timely support to our service providers and their technicians. We are focused on ensuring our service providers receive fast and reliable service to address the broad needs of subscribers across a wide range of devices and solutions.

Competitive Advantages

We believe the benefits we can deliver to our subscribers and our service provider partners create a significant competitive advantage in the connected property market.

Market Leader. Alarm.com is a pioneer in the intelligently connected property market. In 2023, our platforms processed more than 325 billion data points generated by over 150 million connected devices. We believe the combination of the size of our subscriber base, service provider network and the volume of data generated by the integrated devices on our platforms creates a competitive advantage for us.

Security Grade, Cloud-Based Architecture. We built our platforms with a cloud-based, multi-tenant architecture that allows for real-time updates and upgrades. Our platforms were purpose-built from the ground up with life safety standards at the core.

Highly Scalable Data Analytics Engine. We processed more than 325 billion data points in 2023. As consumer preferences shift towards more proactive, intelligence-based features, we believe our investments in proprietary analytics, machine learning and artificial intelligence give us a competitive advantage.

Trusted Brand. We believe our leading position in our space is an indicator that we have developed a trusted brand with service providers and consumers for innovative and reliable technology and service. Our iOS and Android mobile apps have each been downloaded millions of times and both apps consistently have impressive user ratings.

Commitment to Innovation. We continue to make significant investments in innovative research and development. Our investment resulted in hundreds of issued patents as of December 31, 2023 and numerous patent applications pending which we believe can help ensure our technology remains competitively differentiated and legally protected.

Growth Strategy

We intend to maintain our leadership position and expand into new market opportunities by continuing to develop and deploy innovative technologies and by expanding our ecosystem of partners. Our key growth strategies include:

Drive SaaS and license revenue growth by expanding the solutions our service providers deploy. We will continue to focus on helping our service provider partners succeed in driving the adoption of our full suite of residential and commercial services. We provide sales and marketing resources to help our service provider partners become more effective in selling our expanding range of solutions and we will continue to make significant investments to support our service provider network.

Upgrade traditional security customers to our solutions. We believe there is a significant opportunity for our service provider partners to expand adoption of our connected solutions within their customer base. We intend to leverage our
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status as a trusted provider to drive consumer interest in our offerings and enable our service provider partners to upgrade their legacy security customers to our connected property solutions.

Continue to invest in our platforms. As a pioneer in connected home and business solutions, we have made significant investments in building our platforms for over 20 years. We intend to continue to invest heavily to add additional innovative offerings and broaden our suite of solutions and opportunities in residential, commercial and global markets. As the market for IoT grows and more devices become connected, we are building technology and partnerships to connect these devices to our platforms.

Expand international presence. We are investing in international expansion because we believe there is a significant global market opportunity for our products and services. Today, our products are currently localized and available in over 50 countries outside of North America, including Argentina, Australia, Chile, Colombia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Uruguay. We intend to continue to grow our number of international subscribers by strengthening our presence in existing markets and expanding to additional markets. In 2023, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of EBS Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością, or EBS, an international producer of universal smart communicator devices, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. When fully integrated with the Alarm.com platform, EBS communicators are expected to enable Alarm.com’s services to work with a wide range of legacy security control panels commonly deployed in international markets.

Expand into the commercial market segment. We continue to see significant opportunity to expand our products and services into the commercial market, including small and medium businesses, national accounts and enterprises. We intend to leverage many of our existing solutions, including our Alarm.com for Business solution, to provide such businesses with visibility into their key operational activities, keep businesses secure, provide facility access to employees and vendors remotely and manage their energy costs.

Channel expansion. Today, many consumers purchase connected devices through a security service provider. Continued growth in the connected property market has invited new participants into the space that can complement our current partner ecosystem. We intend to continue to develop partnerships with heating, ventilation and air conditioning installers, property management companies, utility companies, insurance providers and other services companies to expand avenues into residential and commercial properties.

Pursue selective strategic acquisitions. We may selectively pursue future acquisitions of businesses, technologies, or products that complement our platforms or align with our overall growth strategy. Such acquisitions could expand our team and/or technology portfolio to help us add new features to our platforms, accelerate the pace of our innovation or help us access attractive markets.

Market Opportunity

Our addressable market consists of both residential and commercial properties. Our residential subscribers are typically owners of single-family homes and our commercial subscribers include retail businesses, restaurants, schools and universities, commercial facilities, national chains and professional offices.

We believe there is an opportunity to significantly increase the adoption of our solutions as more residential and commercial property owners adopt intelligently connected property solutions and as the major technology trends of mobile access, the IoT, cloud technology and artificial intelligence continue to create opportunities to connect people with their properties in new ways.

Our Technology

Cloud Services Platform

Our internal engineering teams have designed and developed our core technology. As an industry leader, we believe we have robust cloud service platforms for the intelligently connected property. Our cloud services platforms manage communication with the system at the property, intelligently direct alerts and notifications, learn patterns and identify anomalies and manage video processing and storage. Additionally, our platforms enable device integrations through application program interfaces, or APIs, and offer our service provider partners extensive workflow efficiency services.

Since our inception, we have utilized a multi-tenant SaaS platform architecture to enable rapid innovation in a scalable environment. Our platforms are architected to scale and our technology team has developed proprietary cloud-based applications to support our service provider partners and subscribers. Security and life safety are mission critical components of our service offering; thus, we are committed to high reliability standards. We operate our Alarm.com cloud services platform through two redundant network operations centers located in Phoenix, Arizona and Ashburn, Virginia. Each center is designed to run the entire Alarm.com platform independent of the other. Alarm.com also relies on third-party technology providers to process
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certain information, such as video. In addition, certain of our acquired companies maintain their own technology platform distinct from Alarm.com’s platform.

Hardware and Manufacturing

We are involved in designing and manufacturing various types of hardware that enable our solutions, including:

Cellular Communication Modules and Gateways. We offer cellular communications modules that are tightly integrated with security system control panels, sensors and other devices. We also offer fully integrated cellular gateways. We regularly pioneer technical advances in this space, including the expansion of our deployment of security services hardware with 4G LTE and LTE CAT-M cellular network connections. All of our modules and gateways, designed by our device engineering team and manufactured in the United States by a contract manufacturing partner, provide a dedicated and fully managed two-way cellular connection between the monitored property and our cloud platforms. The modules run our proprietary firmware and enable:

Real-time analysis of system events reported by security sensors and other devices.

Local automation rule execution.

The management of message transmissions to our cloud platforms for further processing.

Flex IO. A versatile, completely wireless device that extends awareness across a property and to assets in any location. It can easily install on a backyard gate, detached garage, remote storage unit, or it can be tethered to other assets like a boat, tractor or lawn mower, and triggers activity notifications to subscribers as well as video recordings when activity is detected, or an asset is moved.

Shooter Detection Systems. The Guardian system from Shooter Detection Systems includes proprietary, dual-mode gunshot sensors that are installed inside the subscriber's property to help protect people against active shooter threats. Each gunshot sensor uses a dual-mode detection technology that combines acoustic sensors with specialized infrared flash detectors. Proprietary gunshot detection software algorithms maximize detection and minimize false positives. Gunshot sensors communicate to the Guardian Gateway Software, which provides notification pathways to first responders and building occupants, and enables cloud-based capabilities such as the Guardian situational awareness application that tracks and maps gunshot events. Beginning in 2023, Shooter Detection Systems indoor gunshot detection became available as a SaaS solution integrated with Alarm.com for commercial properties. The integrated solution allows subscribers to monitor and track the location of gunshots, quickly view videos of the time and place that gunshots occurred and share critical situational awareness information with first responders with no onsite software installation required.

Video Cameras and Doorbells. We offer a full range of high-definition video cameras and video doorbells enabled for Internet Protocol-based video monitoring services. Our indoor, outdoor, and video doorbell cameras include options for night vision capabilities as well as wireless or Power over Ethernet communication features. We also offer a network video recording device, the SVR, for on-premise, continuous video recording seamlessly connected to our cloud platforms for remote playback through our user interfaces. All of these video products and SVRs are specified to our platforms through proprietary software.

Alarm.com Smart Thermostats. Our Smart Thermostats combine elegant design, sophisticated cloud services and advanced energy management features. They were designed by our Building36 and device engineering teams to work in concert with other devices in the connected property. Our Smart Thermostats communicate with the Alarm.com communications module via Z-wave and support both battery power and common wire power installation.

Remote temperature sensors can pair with our Smart Thermostats to enable temperature set points for any room in the property, not just the room where the thermostats are installed. Our Smart Thermostats support multiple remote temperature sensors for precise temperature control for a residential or commercial property.

We designed our Smart Thermostats to be easy to install and support remotely. The MobileTech app assists in proper wiring and installation and Remote Toolkit enables remote access to the thermostat settings for easy troubleshooting and support.

Smart Water Valve + Meter and Water Dragon. Our Smart Water Valve + Meter and Water Dragon devices enable Alarm.com’s Whole Home Water Management solution. Both devices can identify low and high-volume water leaks and constantly monitor overall water use and current usage rates in homes and businesses. Deep integration with the Alarm.com platform leverages intelligence and insights to help reduce the risk of losses from water emergencies, while also improving water conservation efforts. The Smart Water Valve + Meter can automatically shut off the property’s
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water supply when a leak is detected. Water Dragon is an easy-to-install option that clamps onto the main water line and uses ultrasonic technology to detect unexpected water activity.

Research and Development

We invest substantial resources in research and development to enhance our platforms and applications, support our technology infrastructure, develop new capabilities and conduct quality assurance testing. We expect to invest significantly in continued research and development efforts to expand the capabilities of our technology. Our research and development of new products and services is a multidisciplinary effort across our product management, program management, software engineering, device engineering, quality engineering, configuration management and network operations teams.

Service Provider Network

Our trusted service provider partner network is key in driving the adoption of connected home and commercial solutions. Our solutions are sold, installed, and serviced by a network of independent licensed, professional service provider partners. Our channel network of active service provider partners includes smaller local providers, larger regional providers and national service providers. We have also seen growth in other areas of our channel network, including new providers in the intelligent automation, HVAC, property management and insurance markets.

We believe this highly trusted, established network is a core strength that enables an efficient and scalable customer acquisition model, allowing us to focus on technology innovation. We also believe that the combination of our solutions and our service provider partners’ expertise is the most effective way to drive mass market adoption of the intelligently connected property.

The traditional security and home automation market is highly fragmented. According to the Barnes Buchanan 2024 Security Alarm Industry Overview and Update report, the top 5 dealers represented approximately 35% of all industry recurring monthly revenue in 2022. The distribution of revenue among our service provider partners is reflective of the industry overall. ADT LLC represented greater than 15% but not more than 20% of our revenue in each of 2021, 2022 and 2023.

Subscribers

We define subscribers as residential or commercial properties to which we are delivering at least one of our solutions. A single property for which we are providing one of our service level packages as well as one or more of our a la carte add-ons is counted as one subscriber. Our subscribers do not include the customers of our service provider partners to whom we license our intellectual property, as they do not utilize one of our SaaS platforms. Our subscriber acquisition cost payback period has historically been one year or less.

Sales and Marketing

The goal of our sales team is to help our service provider partners succeed in selling, installing and supporting our full suite of solutions. Our sales team is also responsible for recruiting new service provider partners to Alarm.com. We also have a global business development team dedicated to establishing new service provider and distribution relationships in international markets.

Our marketing team is focused on empowering our service provider partners to effectively promote and sell our solutions. We design, develop and provide end-to-end marketing services including tools and content for lifecycle marketing to help our service providers build awareness, create interest, activate subscribers, develop and maintain the ongoing customer relationship, increase customer engagement, and generate upsell and referral opportunities. While we offer tools and services to assist our service providers when they are marketing to potential subscribers, we do not control or influence the marketing activities performed by our service providers, as they are free to select the marketing tools they believe will be the most effective. Our contracts with our service providers require that they comply with all applicable rules and laws when engaging in marketing activities. We also offer comprehensive training opportunities through our Alarm.com Academy, including in-person training courses and an online learning management system.

We believe our sales and marketing approach enables us to expand our breadth of service providers, provide highly customized services and scale quickly.

Service Provider Support

We support the full suite of software and hardware products on the Alarm.com platform through a highly trained and experienced team of professionals based in the United States. We primarily support our service provider partners. Our service provider partners, in turn, support their customers, who are our subscribers. To that end, subscribers occasionally reach us directly with support needs and we either assist the subscriber directly or, when appropriate, route the subscriber to the appropriate service provider partner for additional assistance.
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We offer high-quality support to our service providers via phone, chat, web ticketing and email. With every interaction, our team is committed to exceptional customer satisfaction and industry-leading response times. We use a tiered structure to efficiently escalate and resolve issues of varying complexity and to scale our support organization as we grow. Our staff is multilingual and we continue to grow our language capabilities to support our international expansion.

Our Competition

The market in which we participate for connected property solutions is fragmented, highly competitive and constantly evolving. We expect competition to continue from existing competitors as well as potential new market entrants in the interactive security, video monitoring, intelligent automation and energy management markets. Our current competitors include providers of other technology platforms for the connected property with interactive security, including Alula (formed following the merger of ipDatatel, LLC and Resolution Products, LLC), Avigilon Corporation, Brivo Inc., Digital Monitoring Products Inc., Eagle Eye Networks Inc., Honeywell International Inc., Resideo Technologies Inc., SecureNet Technologies, LLC, Telular Corporation (acquired by AMETEK, Inc.), United Technologies Corporation, and Verkada Inc., which sell solutions to service providers, cable operators, technology retailers and other residential and commercial automation providers. We also compete with interactive, monitored security solutions sold directly to subscribers and may also be sold through our partners, including companies like Abode Systems, Inc., Arlo Technologies, Inc., Cove Smart, LLC, Scout Security, Inc. and SimpliSafe, Inc. In addition, our service provider partners compete with security solutions sold directly to subscribers, as well as managed service providers, such as cable television, telephone and broadband companies like Comcast Cable Communications, LLC and Rogers Communications, Inc., and providers of point products, including Google Inc.'s Nest Labs, Inc. Amazon.com offers Amazon Home Services security packages with bundled equipment and professional installation, and Amazon Key, a security camera and smart lock integration feature. Ring Inc., owned by Amazon.com, offers a connected video doorbell, video cameras and an integrated security system, Ring Alarm. Samsung's SmartThings offers a security system and a home automation and awareness hub. Arlo Technologies, Inc. and Wyze Labs, Inc. offers connected video cameras, a connected video doorbell, and smart security devices. Apple Inc. offers a feature that allows some manufacturers’ connected devices and accessories, including video cameras and doorbells, to be controlled through its HomeKit service available in Apple’s iOS operating system. Additionally, Canary and other companies offer all in one video monitoring and awareness devices. In addition, we may compete with other large and small technology companies that offer control capabilities among their products, applications and services, and have ongoing development efforts to address the broader connected home market.

Many of our competitors have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger customer bases and significantly greater financial, technical, sales, marketing, distribution and other resources than we have. We expect to encounter new competitors as we enter new markets as well as increased competition, both domestically and internationally, from other established and emerging home automation, security monitoring, video monitoring and automation, wellness, and energy management companies as well as large technology companies. In addition, there may be new technologies that are introduced that reduce demand for our solutions or make them obsolete. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties and rapidly acquire significant market share. Increased competition could also result in price reductions and loss of market share, any of which could result in lower revenue and negatively affect our ability to grow our business. We believe the principal competitive factors in the connected property market include the following:

simplicity and ease of use;

ability to offer persistent awareness, control, and intelligent automation;

breadth of features and functionality provided;

flexibility of the solutions and ability to personalize for the individual consumer;

compatibility with a wide selection of third-party devices;

pricing, affordability, and accessibility;

sales reach and local installation and support capabilities; and

brand awareness and reputation.

We believe we compete favorably with respect to each of these factors. Additionally, we believe our cloud-based software platforms, intelligently connected property solutions, and proven scalability help further differentiate us from competitors. Nevertheless, our competitors may have substantially greater financial, technical and other resources, greater brand recognition, larger sales and marketing budgets and broader distribution channels than we do.

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Our Intellectual Property

Our success and ability to compete effectively depend in part on our ability to protect our proprietary technology and to establish and adequately protect our intellectual property rights. To accomplish these objectives, we rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality agreements and other contractual protections.

As of December 31, 2023, we owned 761 issued United States utility patents, one issued United States design patent and 152 issued international patents. We continue to broaden our intellectual property portfolio and file patent applications and as of December 31, 2023, we had 210 pending utility patent applications and six pending provisional patent applications filed in the United States. We also had 152 pending international patent applications and 17 international patent applications pending under the Patent Cooperation Treaty. The claims for which we have sought patent protection apply to a wide array of our products and services, including those of our subsidiaries and acquired businesses. Our portfolio of patents and patent applications applies broadly to the features and functionality of the various technology platforms we maintain as well as potential new products, services and offerings. We also have, and may be required to seek in the future, licenses under patents or intellectual property rights owned by third parties, including open-source software and other commercially available software.

We also rely on several registered and unregistered trademarks to protect our brand. We have 39 registered trademarks in the United States, including Alarm.com and the Alarm.com logo and design, 11 registered trademarks in Canada, nine in the United Kingdom and seven in the European Union.

We seek to protect our intellectual property rights by requiring our employees and independent contractors involved in development to enter into agreements acknowledging that all inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, concepts, processes, improvements and other works generated by them on our behalf are our intellectual property, and assigning to us any rights, including intellectual property rights, that they may claim in those works.

We expect that products in our industry may be subject to third-party infringement lawsuits as the number of competitors grows and the functionality of products in different industry segments overlaps. We have brought infringement claims against third parties in the past and may do so in the future to defend our intellectual property position. In addition, from time to time, we may face claims by third parties that we infringe upon or misappropriate their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing upon or to have misappropriated such rights. In the future, we, or our service providers or subscribers, may be the subject of legal proceedings alleging our solutions or underlying technology infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others.

Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Matters

Environmental

To operate long-term, we need to ensure our local communities and the natural environment are thriving. To help meet these goals we intend to continue promoting, providing and investing in the further development of solutions that can help reduce energy waste and facilitate water conservation. These include demand response programs, smart thermostats, energy management solutions, solar monitoring solutions, Smart Water Valve + Meter device and advanced functionality within the Alarm.com app.

Our demand response programs manage over 1.2 million connected devices for more than 60 energy utilities in North America. These programs support energy utilities as they pursue aggressive clean energy goals.

Our lineup of smart thermostats and intelligent energy management solutions can automatically adjust to reduce energy waste in residential and commercial properties. These solutions can change a thermostat’s temperature set-point based on subscriber location, property occupancy and activity patterns, and if a door or window is left open for too long. To facilitate wide-spread adoption of energy management technology, we developed many of these capabilities to also work with smart thermostats manufactured by third-party companies.

The Alarm.com mobile app includes customizable scenes buttons that can assist in increasing the potential for energy efficiency by adjusting multiple devices in the property with a single command. For example, a homeowner can turn on the fan, raise or lower shades, turn on or off lights and adjust the thermostat with a single command. Commercial users can create automated schedules to secure a property and automatically adjust the thermostat at a specified time.

Our Smart Water Valve + Meter and Water Dragon devices are part of a comprehensive water management solution. Two on-board flow sensors monitor water usage to facilitate water conservation behavior. The device can also detect burst pipes, major leaks, and wasteful slow persistent drips, and can respond by informing the property owners of opportunities to reduce water waste, or as needed, by automatically shutting off the water supply to quickly protect properties from damage.

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Our commitment extends to the buildings in which our employees work. Many of our offices use LED lighting with sensors that turn off the lights when motion is not detected and several of our offices are Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED, certified or Energy Star® certified, which indicates that the buildings help conserve energy and limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, several of our offices have building recycling programs, including programs specific to batteries and electronics.

Our Sustainability Team is focused on integrating sustainability throughout our organization. Through the efforts of the Sustainability Team and others throughout our organization, we have improved the packaging for some of our hardware by switching to recyclable materials and eliminating polyethylene bags from our user guides. We have also replaced many of our paper manuals with online guides. The Sustainability Team has also helped establish a composting program and a community garden for employees at our headquarters in Tysons, Virginia, and has promoted community events to help increase awareness about sustainability and the environment, including tree planting and park cleanup events.

Social

We are committed to providing an equal opportunity for all employees regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, religion or other differences. We want every employee to feel valued, respected and heard. We believe recruiting from the widest available talent pool, and then facilitating collaboration among people of all experiences and backgrounds enhances our ability to innovate. To help achieve this objective, our suite of employee community groups offers identity- and interest-based outlets where employees can come together over shared interests, seek support and professional mentorship, and develop the relationships that help them thrive on their teams and in the broader workplace. In 2022, we launched Belonging, an employee-led community group that fosters inclusivity and offers community events and learning opportunities centered around promoting diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging in the workplace. Belonging also partners with corporate communications to highlight and recognize important cultural and diverse observances. We continued our Women in Tech group, aimed at empowering women to grow their technical and professional skillsets and expertise. Last year, Women in Tech launched its Allyship arm, which strives to promote greater allyship towards women and other underrepresented people in tech through education. We also developed an Apprenticeship Program to help break down traditional barriers to entry into the technology industry that provides hands on training that can be applied in the real world.

We continue to prioritize the health and safety of our employees. We partner with a company that helps support mental health in the workplace through trainings and information sessions. We also provide additional healthcare benefits to employees, making it safer and more convenient to get the care they need remotely. In addition to primary care, these additional remote healthcare benefits include physical therapy, access to mental health services and health coaching treatment for acute and chronic pain. We also provide free access to an app that promotes wellness through meditation and provides employees with hundreds of guided exercises for meditation, sleep, focus and movement. We also partnered with a company that provides various family care benefits, including access to a self-service, searchable database of providers for family care needs, including care for children, adult dependents, pets and tutoring.

Governance

Our corporate behavior and leadership practices are based on integrity and ethical decision-making. Employees are informed about our governance expectations through our Code of Business Conduct, compliance training programs and ongoing communications. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of our Board of Directors oversees our corporate governance objectives, strategies, goals, compliance and risk mitigation.

Our Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2023, we had 1,989 full-time employees, including 565 in sales and marketing, 1,118 in research and development, 229 in a general and administrative capacity and 77 who manufacture hardware for our suite of IoT solutions. As of December 31, 2023, we had 1,776 employees in our Alarm.com segment and 213 employees in our Other segment. We also engage consultants and temporary employees from time to time. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

We believe attracting, motivating and retaining talent at all levels is critical to continuing our success. By improving employee retention and engagement, we believe we are also improving our ability to support our service provider partners and protect the long-term interests of our stockholders. We invest in our employees through high-quality benefits and various health and wellness initiatives and offer competitive compensation packages, ensuring fairness in internal compensation practices.

To further engage and incentivize our workforce, we offer a wide range of programs and avenues for support, motivation, and professional recognition. We utilize both instructor-led training and online learning to provide custom training courses to ensure our sales and services teams stay up-to-date on our products and service offerings. For our talent pipeline development, we work closely with individual departments to provide training and hands-on support for managers and leaders, to assess talent,
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identify development opportunities and discuss succession planning. In addition, we regularly conduct employee surveys to gauge employee engagement and identify areas of focus.

Government Regulations

Our business, operations and service provider partners are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local consumer protection laws, licensing regulation and other laws and regulations, and to similar laws and regulations in the other countries in which we operate. Compliance with these laws, rules, and regulations has not had a material effect upon our capital expenditures, results of operations or competitive position. Nevertheless, compliance with existing or future governmental regulations, including, but not limited to, those pertaining to global trade, business acquisitions, consumer protection, and taxes, could have a material impact on our business in subsequent periods. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a discussion of these potential impacts.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 8281 Greensboro Drive, Suite 100, Tysons, Virginia 22102. Our telephone number is (877) 389-4033. We completed our initial public offering in July 2015 and our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "ALRM."

Historically, we have completed acquisitions of complementary companies or their technologies. Some of our prior acquisitions of companies include:

On October 21, 2019, we acquired 85% of the issued and outstanding capital stock of PC Open Incorporated, a Washington corporation, doing business as OpenEye. OpenEye provides cloud-managed video surveillance solutions for the enterprise commercial market.

On December 14, 2020, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding ownership interest units of Shooter Detection Systems, LLC, or SDS. SDS is a provider of an indoor gunshot detection solution that helps alert employees and the public against active shooter threats.

On September 23, 2022, we acquired 85% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of Noonlight, Inc., or Noonlight. Noonlight provides a connected safety and event management software and services platform that enables new applications and provides enhanced emergency response capabilities. We believe the acquisition of Noonlight will enhance our comprehensive suite of interactive cloud-based services and allow us to expand markets for emergency response services as well as accelerate innovation in those services.

On January 18, 2023, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of EBS, an international producer of universal smart communicator devices, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. We believe this acquisition will assist in the continued expansion of our international operations as well as benefit our supply chain operations.

Some of our prior asset acquisitions include:

On January 1, 2017, we acquired certain assets of ObjectVideo, Inc., or ObjectVideo, that constituted a business now called ObjectVideo Labs, LLC, or ObjectVideo Labs, including products, technology portfolio and engineering team. ObjectVideo was a pioneer in the fields of video analytics and computer vision with technology that extracts meaning and intelligence from video streams in real-time to enable object tracking, pattern recognition and activity identification.

On March 8, 2017, we acquired certain assets related to the Connect business unit of Icontrol Networks, Inc., or Icontrol, and all of the outstanding equity interests of the two subsidiaries through which Icontrol conducted its Piper business. Connect provides a custom, on-premise interactive security and home automation platform for ADT Pulse® and several other service providers. Piper provides an all-in-one video and home automation hub.

In September 2019, we acquired certain assets from an unrelated third party. In March of 2020, we acquired certain additional assets from two separate unrelated parties. Substantially all of the assets acquired in September 2019 and March 2020 consisted of in-process research and development, or IPR&D. We believe the acquisitions of the IPR&D will further our commitment to make significant investments in innovative research and development in the intelligently connected property market to broaden our suite of solutions as well as strengthen our smart intercom capability.

In December of 2021, we acquired certain assets from an unrelated party. Substantially all of the assets acquired consisted of developed technology. We believe the acquisition of the developed technology will continue to advance our load-shaping energy management solution allowing additional devices to participate in utility programs that reduce or shift power consumption during peak demand periods.

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On April 21, 2023, we acquired certain assets of Vintra, Inc., or Vintra. Substantially all of the acquired assets consisted of developed technology. We believe the acquisition of the developed technology will expand Alarm.com's learning program and accelerate deployment of advanced video analytics solutions for the Alarm.com and OpenEye platforms.

Available Information

Our website is located at www.alarm.com and our investor relations website is located at http://investors.alarm.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, are available free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.

Webcasts of our earnings calls and certain events we participate in or host with members of the investment community are on our investor relations website. Additionally, we provide notifications of news or announcements regarding our business and financial performance, SEC filings, investor events, and our press and earnings releases, as part of our investor relations website. Investors and others can receive real-time notifications of new information posted on our investor relations website by signing up for email alerts and RSS feeds. Further corporate governance information, including our corporate governance guidelines and board committee charters, is also available on our investor relations website under the heading "Corporate Governance." The contents of our websites are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our actual operating results may differ significantly from any guidance provided.

Our guidance, including forward-looking statements, is prepared by management and is qualified by, and subject to, a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies. Many of these uncertainties and contingencies are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. We generally state possible outcomes as high and low ranges which are intended to provide a sensitivity analysis as variables are changed but are not intended to represent that actual results could not fall outside of the suggested ranges.

Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions of the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. In particular, guidance relating to the anticipated results of operations of an acquired business is inherently more speculative in nature than other guidance as management will, necessarily, be less familiar with the business, procedures and operations of the acquired business. Similarly, guidance offered in periods of extreme uncertainty, such as the uncertainty caused by the Macroeconomic Conditions, is inherently more speculative in nature than guidance offered in periods of relative stability. Accordingly, any guidance with respect to our projected financial performance is necessarily only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date the guidance is given. Actual results will vary from the guidance and the variations may be material. Investors should also recognize that the reliability of any forecasted financial data will diminish the farther in the future that the data is forecasted.

Actual operating results may be different from our guidance, and such differences may be adverse and material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged to put the guidance in context and not to place undue reliance on it. In addition, the market price of our common stock may reflect various market assumptions as to the accuracy of our guidance. If our actual results of operations fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially.

Our quarterly results of operations have fluctuated and are likely to continue to fluctuate. As a result, we may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of investors or securities analysts, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Our quarterly operating results, including the levels of our revenue, gross margin, cash flow and deferred revenue, may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, including adverse Macroeconomic Conditions, the product mix that we sell, the relative sales related to our platforms and solutions and other factors which are outside of our control. If our quarterly revenue or results of operations fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Fluctuations in our results of operations may be due to a number of factors, including:

the portion of our revenue attributable to SaaS and license versus hardware and other sales;

our ability to manage the businesses we have acquired, and to integrate and manage any future acquisitions of businesses;

fluctuations in demand, including due to seasonality or broader economic factors, for our platforms and solutions;

changes in pricing by us in response to competitive pricing actions;

our ability to increase, retain and incentivize the service provider partners that market, sell, install and support our platforms and solutions;

the ability of our hardware vendors to continue to manufacture high-quality products and to supply sufficient components and products to meet our demands;

the timing and success of introductions of new solutions, products or upgrades by us or our competitors and the entrance of new competitors;

changes in our business and pricing policies or those of our competitors;

the ability to accurately forecast revenue as we generally rely upon our service provider partner network to generate new revenue;

our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses and the costs of the hardware we purchase;

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changes in U.S. trade policies, including new or potential tariffs or penalties on imported products;

competition, including entry into the industry by new competitors and new offerings by existing competitors;

issues related to introductions of new or improved products such as supply chain disruptions or shortages of prior generation products or short-term decreased demand for next generation products;

perceived or actual problems with the security, privacy, integrity, reliability, quality or compatibility of our solutions, including those related to security breaches in our systems, our subscribers’ systems, unscheduled downtime, or outages;

the amount and timing of expenditures, including those related to expanding our operations, including through acquisitions, increasing research and development, introducing new solutions or paying litigation expenses;

the ability to effectively manage growth within existing and new markets domestically and abroad;

changes in the payment terms for our platforms and solutions;

collectibility of receivables due from service provider partners and other third parties;

the strength of regional, national and global economies; and

the impact of natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, power outages, floods, epidemics, pandemics and public health crises, and other catastrophic events or man-made problems such as terrorism, civil unrest and actual or threatened armed conflict, or global or regional economic, political and social conditions.

Further, as disclosed under “Item 3 – Legal Proceedings,” Vivint, Inc., or Vivint, had stopped paying license fees to Alarm.com under its Patent Cross License Agreement with us, which had a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations and caused our results of operations to fluctuate through December 31, 2023. On December 21, 2023, Alarm.com and Vivint agreed to settle all outstanding litigation between the parties and to enter into a long-term intellectual property license agreement under which Alarm.com will license to Vivint its intellectual property portfolio. Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results may be particularly pronounced in the current economic environment. Due to the foregoing factors and the other risks discussed in this Annual Report, you should not rely on quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our results of operations as an indication of our future performance. For the same reason, you should not consider our recent revenue growth and changes in non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA or results of one quarter as indicative of our future performance. See the "Non-GAAP Measures" section of Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" for a discussion of the limitations of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA from net income, the most directly comparable GAAP measurement, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Downturns in general economic and market conditions and reductions in spending may reduce demand for our platforms and solutions, which could harm our revenue, results of operations and cash flows.

Our revenue, results of operations and cash flows depend on the overall demand for our platforms and solutions. Negative Macroeconomic Conditions in the general economy both in the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from inflation, changes in gross domestic product growth, financial and credit market fluctuations, energy costs, international trade relations and other geopolitical tensions, the availability and cost of credit, rising interest rates and the global housing and mortgage markets could cause a decrease in consumer discretionary spending and business investment and diminish growth expectations in the U.S. economy and abroad.

During weak economic times, the available pool of service providers may decline as the prospects for home building and home renovation projects diminish, which may have a corresponding impact on our growth prospects. In addition, there is an increased risk during these periods that an increased percentage of our service provider partners will file for bankruptcy protection, which may harm our reputation, revenue, profitability and results of operations. In addition, we may determine that the cost of pursuing any claim may outweigh the recovery potential of such claim. Likewise, consumer bankruptcies can detrimentally affect the business stability of our service provider partners.

The current Macroeconomic Conditions have caused significant uncertainty and volatility in global markets, which has and may continue to cause consumer discretionary spending to decline for an unknown period of time. A prolonged economic slowdown and a material reduction in new home construction and renovation projects may result in diminished sales of our platforms and solutions. Further worsening, broadening or protracted extension of the economic downturn could have a negative impact on our business, revenue, results of operations and cash flows.

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We sell security and life safety solutions and if our solutions fail for any reason, we could be subject to liability and our business could suffer.

We sell security and life safety solutions, which are designed to secure the safety of our subscribers and their residences or commercial properties. If these solutions fail for any reason, including due to defects in our software, a carrier outage, a failure of our network operations centers, a failure on the part of one of our service provider partners or user error, some of which have happened from time to time, we could be subject to liability for such failures and our business could suffer.

Our platforms and solutions may contain undetected defects in the software, infrastructure, third-party components or processes. We continue to follow our previously implemented hybrid return to office plan that includes mandatory in-office workdays and voluntary remote workdays, which may make us more vulnerable to cyber-attacks and may create operational or other challenges, any of which could harm our systems or our business. Although we have taken precautionary measures to prepare for these threats and challenges, there is no guarantee our precautions will fully protect our systems. We continue to monitor the situation and may adjust our current policies as more information and guidance become available. If our platforms or solutions suffer from defects, we could experience harm to our branded reputation, claims by our subscribers or service provider partners or lost revenue during the period required to address the cause of the defects. We have found and may find defects in new, acquired or upgraded solutions, resulting in loss of, or delay in, market acceptance of our platforms and solutions, which could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

Since solutions that enable our platforms are installed by our service provider partners, if they do not install or maintain such solutions correctly, our platforms and solutions may not function properly. If the improper installation or maintenance of our platforms and solutions leads to service or equipment failures after introduction of, or an upgrade to, our platforms or a solution, we could experience harm to our branded reputation, claims by our subscribers or service provider partners or lost revenue during the period required to address the cause of the problem. Further, we rely on our service provider partners to provide the primary source of support and ongoing service to our subscribers and, if our service provider partners fail to provide an adequate level of support and services to our subscribers, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

Any defect in, or disruption to, our platforms and solutions could cause consumers not to purchase additional solutions from us, prevent potential consumers from purchasing our platforms and solutions or harm our reputation. Although our contracts with our service provider partners limit our liability to our service provider partners for these defects, disruptions or errors, we nonetheless could be subject to litigation for actual or alleged losses to our service provider partners or our subscribers, which may require us to spend significant time and money in litigation or arbitration, or to pay significant settlements or damages. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management's attention and affect our ability to obtain or maintain liability insurance on acceptable terms and could harm our business. Although we currently maintain some warranty reserves, we cannot assure you that these warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover future liabilities.

Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, power outages, floods, pandemics and public health crises, natural disasters and other catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as terrorism, civil unrest and actual or threatened armed conflict, or global or regional economic, political and social conditions.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, hurricane, fire, flood, pandemic, or a public health crisis, or a significant power outage could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. The impact of climate change may increase these risks due to changes in weather patterns, such as increases in storm intensity and frequency, sea-level rise, melting of permafrost and temperature extremes in areas where we conduct our business. Natural disasters could affect our hardware vendors, our wireless carriers or our network operations centers. Further, if a natural disaster occurs in a region from which we derive a significant portion of our revenue, such as metropolitan areas in North America, consumers in that region may delay or forego purchases of our platforms and solutions from service providers in the region, which may harm our results of operations for a particular period. In addition, terrorist acts or acts of war could cause disruptions in our business or the business of our hardware vendors, service providers, subscribers or the economy as a whole. More generally, these and other geopolitical, social and economic conditions could result in increased volatility in worldwide financial markets and economies that could harm our sales. Given our concentration of sales during the second and third quarters, any disruption in the business of our hardware vendors, service provider partners or subscribers that impacts sales during the second or third quarter of each year could have a greater impact on our annual results. All of the aforementioned risks may be augmented if the disaster recovery plans for us, our service provider partners and our suppliers prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above results in delays or cancellations of orders, or delays in the manufacture, deployment or shipment of our platforms and solutions, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations would be harmed.

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Geopolitical conditions, including trade disputes and direct or indirect acts of war or terrorism, could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.

Since we operate on a global basis, our operations could be disrupted by geopolitical conditions, trade disputes, international boycotts and sanctions, political and social instability, acts of war, terrorist activity or other similar events. From time to time, we could have a large investment in a particular asset type, a large revenue stream associated with a particular customer or industry, or a large number of customers located in a particular geographic region. A discrete event impacting a specific asset type, customer, industry, or region in which we have a concentrated exposure could negatively impact our results of operations.

For example, in February 2022 Russia initiated military action against Ukraine. In response, the U.S. and certain other countries imposed sanctions and export controls against Russia, Belarus and certain individuals and entities connected to Russian or Belarusian political, business, and financial organizations, and the U.S. and certain other countries could impose further sanctions, trade restrictions, and other retaliatory actions should the conflict continue or worsen. It is not possible to predict the broader consequences of the conflict, including related geopolitical tensions, the movement of refugees, and the measures and retaliatory actions taken by the U.S. and other countries in respect thereof as well as any counter measures or retaliatory actions by Russia or Belarus in response, including, for example, potential cyberattacks or the disruption of energy exports, is likely to cause regional instability, geopolitical shifts, and could materially adversely affect global trade, currency exchange rates, regional economies and the global economy. In addition, in October 2023, the war between Israel and Hamas began, which has resulted in significant military activities in the region and may further escalate regional instability. The situations remain uncertain, and while it is difficult to predict the full impact of any of the foregoing, the conflicts and actions taken in response to the conflicts could increase our costs, disrupt our supply chain, reduce our sales and earnings, impair our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not sustain our growth rate and we may not be able to manage any future growth effectively.

We have experienced significant growth and also have substantially expanded our operations in a short period of time. Our revenue increased from $618.0 million in 2020 to $881.7 million in 2023. We do not expect to achieve similar growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our operating results for any prior quarterly or annual periods as an indication of our future operating performance. If we are unable to maintain expected revenue growth in both absolute dollars and as a percentage of prior period revenue, our financial results could suffer and our stock price could decline.

Our future operating results depend, to a large extent, on our ability to successfully manage any future expansion and growth. To successfully manage our growth and obligations as a public company, we believe we must effectively, among other things:

maintain our relationships with existing service provider partners and add new service provider partners;

increase our subscriber base and help our service provider partners maintain and improve their revenue retention rates, while also expanding their cross-sell effectiveness;

manage our relationships with our hardware vendors and other key suppliers;

add, train and integrate sales and marketing personnel;

expand our international operations; and

continue to implement and improve our administrative, financial and operational systems, procedures and controls.

We intend to continue to invest in research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative functions and other areas to grow our business. We are likely to recognize the costs associated with these increased investments earlier than some of the anticipated benefits and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect, which could adversely affect our operating results.

If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to take advantage of market opportunities or develop new solutions or enhancements to our existing solutions and we may fail to satisfy subscriber and service provider partner requirements, maintain the quality of our solutions, execute on our business plan or respond to competitive pressures, which could result in our financial results suffering and a decline in our stock price.

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We have expanded our business rapidly in recent periods. If we fail to manage the expansion of our operations and infrastructure effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service or address competitive challenges adequately.

We increased our number of full-time employees from 1,404 as of December 31, 2020 to 1,989 as of December 31, 2023. Our growth has placed, and may continue to place, a significant strain on our managerial, administrative, operational, financial and other resources. We intend to further expand our overall business, service provider partner network, subscriber base, headcount and operations, including by acquiring other businesses. Creating and maintaining a global organization and managing a geographically dispersed workforce requires substantial management effort and significant additional investment in our infrastructure. We will be required to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting procedures to ensure timely and accurate reporting of our operational and financial results and we may not be able to do so effectively. As such, we may be unable to manage our expenses effectively in the future, which may negatively impact our gross profit or operating expenses in any particular quarter. If we fail to manage our anticipated growth and change in a manner that preserves the key aspects of our corporate culture, the quality of our solutions may suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to retain and attract service provider partners and consumers.

From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings where a negative outcome, including an adverse litigation judgment or settlement, could expose us to monetary damages or limit our ability to operate our business, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We are involved and have been involved in the past in legal proceedings from time to time, including claims directly against us or claims against certain of our service provider partners that we have agreed to indemnify. For example, on January 10, 2022, EcoFactor, Inc., or EcoFactor, filed a lawsuit against us alleging Alarm.com’s products and services directly and indirectly infringe five U.S. patents owned by EcoFactor. On July 22, 2021, Causam Enterprises, Inc., or Causam, filed a lawsuit against us alleging that Alarm.com’s smart thermostats infringe four U.S. patents owned by Causam. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information regarding each of these matters and the other legal proceedings we are involved in. We may not be able to accurately assess the risks related to any of these suits, and we may be unable to accurately assess our level of exposure as the results of any litigation, investigations and other legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, damage our reputation, require significant amounts of management time and divert significant resource. Companies in our industry have been subject to claims related to patent infringement, regulatory matters, and product liability, as well as contract and employment-related claims. As a result of patent infringement and other intellectual property proceedings, we have, and may be required to seek in the future, licenses under patents or intellectual property rights owned by third parties, including open-source software and other commercially available software, which can be costly, or cross-license agreements relating to our and third-party intellectual property. The outcome of legal claims and proceedings against us cannot be predicted with certainty, and a negative outcome could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our business operates in a regulated industry.

Our business, operations and service provider partners are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local consumer protection laws, licensing regulation and other laws and regulations, and to similar laws and regulations in the other countries in which we operate. Our advertising and sales practices and that of our U.S. service provider partner network are subject to regulation by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, in addition to state consumer protection laws. The FTC and the Federal Communications Commission have issued regulations that place restrictions on, among other things, unsolicited automated telephone calls to residential and wireless telephone subscribers by means of automatic telephone dialing systems and the use of prerecorded or artificial voice messages. If our service provider partners were to take actions in violation of these regulations, such as telemarketing to individuals on the "Do Not Call" registry or using automatic telephone dialing systems and prerecorded or artificial voice messages, we could be subject to fines, penalties, private actions or enforcement actions by government regulators. Although we have taken steps to insulate ourselves from any such wrongful conduct by our service provider partners, and to contractually require our service provider partners to comply with these laws and regulations, we have in the past incurred costs to settle alleged violations of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, or TCPA, and no assurance can be given that we will not be exposed to future liability as result of our service provider partners’ conduct. Further, to the extent that any changes in law or regulation further restrict the lead generation activity of our service provider partners, these restrictions could result in a material reduction in subscriber acquisition opportunities, reducing the growth prospects of our business and adversely affecting our financial condition and future cash flows. In addition, most states in which we operate have licensing laws directed specifically toward the monitored security services industry. Our business relies heavily upon cellular telephone service to communicate signals. Cellular telephone companies are currently regulated by both federal and state governments. State-level privacy and data security laws in California and various other U.S. states regulate our, and our service provider partners’, use, collection, and disclosure of subscribers’ personal information. A number of proposed privacy bills in other U.S. states could place restrictions on how we and our service provider partners use personal information and market to consumers in those states. Other laws and regulations, including consumer protection laws, laws and regulations governing advertising and sales practices, as well as privacy and data security laws and regulations apply in the other countries in which we operate. See “Evolving government and industry regulation and changes in applicable laws relating to the Internet and data
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privacy may increase our expenditures related to compliance efforts or otherwise limit the solutions we can offer, which may harm our business and adversely affect our financial condition” below. Furthermore, the SEC proposed expansive rules requiring public companies to disclose information about the material impact of climate change on their business, as well as information about companies’ governance, risk management and strategy related to climate risk. Changes in laws or regulations could require us to change the way we operate, which could increase costs or otherwise disrupt operations. In addition, failure to comply with any such applicable laws or regulations could result in substantial fines or revocation of our operating permits and licenses, including in geographic areas where our services have substantial penetration, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. Further, if these laws and regulations were to change or if we fail to comply with such laws and regulations as they exist today or in the future, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The markets in which we participate are highly competitive and many companies, including large technology companies, broadband and security service providers and other managed service providers, are actively targeting the home and business automation, security monitoring, video monitoring and energy management markets. If we are unable to compete effectively with these companies, our sales and profitability could be adversely affected.

We compete in several markets, including security, video, automation, energy management and wellness solutions. The markets in which we participate are highly competitive and competition may intensify in the future.

Our ability to compete depends on a number of factors, including:

our platforms and solutions’ functionality, performance, ease of use and installation, reliability, availability and cost effectiveness relative to that of our competitors’ products;

our success in utilizing new and proprietary technologies to offer solutions and features previously not available in the marketplace;

our success in identifying new markets, applications and technologies;

our ability to attract and retain service provider partners;

our name recognition and reputation;

our ability to recruit software engineers and sales and marketing personnel; and

our ability to protect our intellectual property.

Consumers may prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. In the event a consumer decides to evaluate a new home automation, security monitoring, video monitoring, energy management, or wellness solution, the consumer may be more inclined to select one of our competitors whose product offerings are broader than those that we offer. In addition, consumers may prefer to purchase products that they can install themselves. If there are continuing restrictions on our service providers’ ability to meet with residential and commercial property owners in person, our ability to compete will depend on our ability to make our products available for remote installation or to make certain of our products easily installable by consumers rather than solely by our service providers.

Our current competitors include providers of other technology platforms for the connected property with interactive security, including Alula (formed following the merger of ipDatatel, LLC and Resolution Products, LLC), Avigilon Corporation, Brivo Inc., Digital Monitoring Products Inc., Eagle Eye Networks Inc., Honeywell International Inc., Resideo Technologies Inc., SecureNet Technologies, LLC, Telular Corporation (acquired by AMETEK, Inc.), United Technologies Corporation, and Verkada Inc., which sell solutions to service providers, cable operators, technology retailers and other residential and commercial automation providers. We also compete with interactive, monitored security solutions sold directly to subscribers and may also be sold through our partners, including companies like Abode Systems, Inc., Arlo Technologies, Inc., Cove Smart, LLC, Scout Security, Inc. and SimpliSafe, Inc. In addition, our service provider partners compete with security solutions sold directly to subscribers, as well as managed service providers, such as cable television, telephone and broadband companies like Comcast Cable Communications, LLC and Rogers Communications, Inc., and providers of point products, including Google Inc.'s Nest Labs, Inc. Amazon.com offers Amazon Home Services security packages with bundled equipment and professional installation, and Amazon Key, a security camera and smart lock integration feature. Ring Inc., owned by Amazon.com, offers a connected video doorbell, video cameras and an integrated security system, Ring Alarm. Samsung's SmartThings offers a security system and a home automation and awareness hub. Arlo Technologies, Inc. and Wyze Labs, Inc. offers connected video cameras, a connected video doorbell, and smart security devices. Apple Inc. offers a feature that allows some manufacturers’ connected devices and accessories, including video cameras and doorbells, to be controlled through its HomeKit service available in Apple’s iOS operating system. Additionally, Canary and other companies offer all in one video monitoring and awareness devices. In addition,
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we may compete with other large and small technology companies that offer control capabilities among their products, applications and services, and have ongoing development efforts to address the broader connected home market.

Many of our competitors have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, larger customer bases and significantly greater financial, technical, sales, marketing, distribution and other resources than we have. We expect to encounter new competitors as we enter new markets as well as increased competition, both domestically and internationally, from other established and emerging home automation, security monitoring, video monitoring and automation, wellness, and energy management companies as well as large technology companies. In addition, there may be new technologies that are introduced that reduce demand for our solutions or make them obsolete. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties and rapidly acquire significant market share. Increased competition could also result in price reductions and loss of market share, any of which could result in lower revenue and negatively affect our ability to grow our business.

Aggressive business tactics by our competitors may reduce our revenue.

Increased competition in the markets in which we compete may result in aggressive business tactics by our competitors, including:

selling at a discount;

offering products similar to our platforms and solutions on a bundled basis at no charge;

announcing competing products combined with extensive marketing efforts;

providing financing incentives to consumers; and

asserting intellectual property rights irrespective of the validity of the claims.

Our service provider partners may switch and offer the products and services of competing companies, which would adversely affect our sales and profitability. Competition from other companies may also adversely affect our negotiations with service provider partners and suppliers, including, in some cases, requiring us to lower our prices. Opportunities to take market share using innovative products, services and sales approaches may also attract new entrants to the field. We may not be able to compete successfully with the offerings and sales tactics of other companies, which could result in the loss of service provider partners offering our platforms and solutions and, as a result, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.

If we fail to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, or if our current or future competitors employ aggressive business tactics, including those described above, demand for our platforms and solutions could decline, we could experience cancellations of our services to consumers, or we could be required to reduce our prices or increase our expenses.

The proper and efficient functioning of our network operations centers and data back-up systems is central to our solutions.

Our solutions operate with a hosted architecture and we update our solutions regularly while our solutions are operating. If our solutions and/or upgrades fail to operate properly, our solutions could stop functioning for a period of time, which could put our users at risk. Our ability to keep our business operating is highly dependent on the proper and efficient operation of our network operations centers and data back-up systems, as well as the systems of the third-party technology providers we use to process certain information, such as video. Although our network operations centers have back-up computer and power systems, if there is a catastrophic event, natural disaster, terrorist attack, security breach or other extraordinary event, we may be unable to provide our subscribers with uninterrupted monitoring service or may be unable to adequately protect confidential information and data from unauthorized access or loss. Furthermore, because data back-up systems are susceptible to malfunctions and interruptions (including those due to equipment damage, power outages, human error, computer viruses, computer hacking, data corruption and a range of other hardware, software and network problems), we cannot guarantee that we will not experience data back-up failures in the future. A significant or large-scale security breach, malfunction or interruption of our network operations centers or data back-up systems could adversely affect our ability to keep our operations running efficiently or could result in unauthorized access to or loss of data. If such an event results in unauthorized access to or loss of service provider partner, subscriber, employee or other personally identifiable data subject to data privacy and security laws and regulations, then it could result in substantial fines by U.S. federal and state authorities, foreign data privacy authorities in the European Union, or the EU, Canada, and other countries, and/or private claims by companies or individuals. If a malfunction or security breach results in a wider or sustained disruption, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

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Failure to maintain the security of our information and technology networks, including information relating to our service provider partners, subscribers and employees, could adversely affect us.

We are dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information and, in the normal course of our business, we collect and retain certain information pertaining to our service provider partners, subscribers and employees, including credit card information for many of our service provider partners and certain of our subscribers. If security breaches in connection with the delivery of our solutions allow unauthorized third parties to access any of this data or obtain control of our subscribers’ systems, our reputation, business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed.

The legal, regulatory and contractual environment surrounding information security, privacy and credit card fraud is constantly evolving and companies that collect and retain such information are under increasing attack by cyber-criminals around the world. Further, as the regulatory focus on privacy issues continues to increase and worldwide laws and regulations concerning the protection of data and personal information expand and become more complex, these potential risks to our business will intensify. A significant actual or potential theft, loss, fraudulent use or misuse of service provider partner, subscriber, employee or other personally identifiable data, whether by third parties or as a result of employee malfeasance or otherwise, non-compliance with our contractual or other legal obligations regarding such data or a violation of our privacy and security policies with respect to such data could result in loss of confidential information, damage to our reputation, early termination of our service provider partner contracts, litigation, regulatory investigations or actions and other liabilities or actions against us, including significant fines by U.S. federal and state authorities, foreign data privacy authorities in the EU, Canada, and other countries and private claims by companies and individuals for violation of data privacy and security regulations. To the extent that any such exposure leads to credit card fraud or identity theft, we may experience a general decline in consumer confidence in our business, which may lead to an increase in attrition rates or may make it more difficult to attract new subscribers. If any one of these risks materializes our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

If our security measures are breached, including any breaches caused by cyber-attacks, our reputation may be damaged, we may be exposed to significant liabilities under U.S. and foreign laws, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Cyber-attacks from computer hackers and cyber criminals and other malicious Internet-based activity continue to increase generally, and perpetrators of cyber-attacks may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, ransomware, malware, DNS attacks, wireless network attacks, attacks on our cloud networks, phishing attempts, social engineering attempts, distributed denial of service attacks and other advanced persistent threats or malicious software programs that attack our products and services, our networks and network endpoints or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our products, services and networks. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. We cannot be certain that advances in cyber-capabilities or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting the networks that access our platforms and solutions, and we can make no assurance that we will be able to detect, prevent, timely and adequately address or mitigate the negative effects of cyber-attacks or other security breaches. We continue to follow our previously implemented hybrid return to office plan that includes mandatory in-office workdays and voluntary remote workdays, which may make us more vulnerable to cyber-attacks or other security breaches.

Security breaches of, or sustained attacks against, our networks and infrastructure could create system disruptions and shutdowns that could result in disruptions to our operations or unauthorized access to or loss of our data. If such an event results in unauthorized access to or loss of any data subject to data privacy and security laws and regulations, then we could be subject to substantial fines by U.S. federal and state authorities, foreign data privacy authorities in the EU, Canada, and other countries, and private claims by companies or individuals. A system disruption, shutdown, or loss of data may result in adverse publicity and therefore adversely affect the market's perception of the security and reliability of our services. A cyber-attack may cause additional costs, such as investigative and remediation costs, and the costs of providing individuals and/or data owners with notice of the breach, legal fees and the costs of any additional fraud detection activities required by law, a court or a third-party. Additionally, some of our customer contracts require us to indemnify customers from damages they may incur as a result of a breach of our networks and systems. There can be no assurance that the limitation of liability provisions in our contracts for a security breach would be enforceable or would otherwise protect us from any such liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim. While we maintain general liability insurance coverage and coverage for technology errors or omissions, we cannot assure you that such coverage will be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims related to a breach, will continue to be available on acceptable terms or at all. If any one of these risks materializes, our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition to the core operating environment of Alarm.com, we also have acquired businesses and subsidiaries that in some cases operate data infrastructure that is distinct from the Alarm.com operating environment, and therefore have distinct data security vulnerabilities. The overall management of cybersecurity risk involves coordination between Alarm.com and our acquired
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businesses and subsidiaries, and data security risks in these entities may be heightened where the technology platform is less mature than the Alarm.com core platform.

We rely on our service provider partner network to acquire additional subscribers, and the inability of our service provider partners to attract additional subscribers or retain their current subscribers could adversely affect our operating results.

Substantially all of our revenue is generated through the sales of our platforms and solutions by our service provider partners, who incorporate our solutions in certain of the products and packages they sell to their customers, and our service provider partners are responsible for subscriber acquisition, as well as providing customer service and technical support for our platforms and solutions to the subscribers. We provide our service provider partners with specific training and programs to assist them in selling and providing support for our platforms and solutions, but we cannot assure you that these steps will be effective. In addition, we rely on our service provider partners to sell our platforms and solutions into new markets in the intelligent and connected property space. If our service provider partners are unsuccessful in marketing, selling and supporting our platforms and solutions, our operating results could be adversely affected.

In order for us to maintain our current revenue sources and grow our revenues, we must effectively manage and grow relationships with our service provider partners. Recruiting and retaining qualified service provider partners and training them in our technology and solutions requires significant time and resources and has been made more challenging by the Macroeconomic Conditions. If we fail to maintain our relationships with existing service provider partners or develop relationships with new service provider partners, our revenue and operating results would be adversely affected. In addition, to execute on our strategy to expand our sales internationally, we must develop, manage and grow relationships with service provider partners that sell into these markets.

Any of our service provider partners may choose to offer a product from one of our competitors instead of our platforms and solutions, elect to develop their own competing solutions or simply discontinue their operations with us. For example, we entered into a Patent Cross License Agreement in November 2013 with Vivint, pursuant to which we granted a license to use the intellectual property associated with our connected home solutions. Under the terms of this and subsequent arrangements, Vivint has transitioned from selling our solutions directly to its customers to selling its own home automation product to its new customers. We now generate revenue from a monthly fee charged to Vivint on a per customer basis from sales of this service provider partner’s product; however, these monthly fees are less on a per customer basis than fees we receive from our SaaS solutions. Therefore, we receive less revenue on a per customer basis from Vivint compared to our SaaS subscriber base, which may result in a lower revenue growth rate. Similarly, we entered into a patent license agreement with ADT pursuant to which we granted a license to use certain Alarm.com intellectual property following the termination or expiration of the initial term of our master service agreement with ADT. Under the terms of the license, ADT will pay us a monthly royalty for each subscriber to its branded residential interactive security, automation and video service offerings that is covered by any of our licensed patents and not supported on our platforms. We must also work to expand our network of service provider partners to ensure that we have sufficient geographic coverage and technical expertise to address new markets and technologies. While it is difficult to estimate the total number of available service provider partners in our markets, there are a finite number of service provider partners that are able to perform the types of technical installations required for our platforms and solutions. In the event that we saturate the available service provider pool, or if market or other forces cause the available pool of service providers to decline, it may be increasingly difficult to grow our business. If we are unable to expand our network of service provider partners, our business could be harmed.

As consumers’ product and service options grow, it is important that we enhance our service provider partner footprint by broadening the expertise of our service provider partners, working with larger and more sophisticated service provider partners and expanding the mainstream solutions our service provider partners offer. If we do not succeed in this effort, our current and potential future service provider partners may be unable or unwilling to broaden their offerings to include our connected property solutions, resulting in harm to our business.

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We receive a substantial portion of our revenue from a limited number of service provider partners, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in, orders from one or more of our major service provider partners would result in decreased revenue and profitability.

Our success is highly dependent upon establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a variety of service provider partners. We market and sell our platforms and solutions through a channel assisted sales model and we derive substantially all of our revenue from these service provider partners. We generally enter into agreements with our service provider partners outlining the terms of our relationship, including service provider pricing commitments, installation, maintenance and support requirements, and our sales registration process for registering potential sales to subscribers. These service provider contracts typically have an initial term of one year, with subsequent renewal terms of one year, and are terminable at the end of the initial term or renewal terms without cause upon written notice to the other party. In some cases, these contracts provide the service provider partner with the right to terminate prior to the expiration of the term without cause upon 30 days written notice, or, in the case of certain termination events, the right to terminate the contract immediately. While we have developed a network of service provider partners to sell, install and support our platforms and solutions, we receive a substantial portion of our revenue from a limited number of channel partners and significant customers. During the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, our 10 largest revenue service provider partners or distributors accounted for 50%, 49% and 47% of our revenue, respectively. ADT LLC, or ADT, represented greater than 15% but not more than 20% of our revenue in 2023, 2022 and 2021. ADT also represented more than 10% of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2023.

We amended our master service agreement with ADT, or MSA, to extend the initial term through January 1, 2023, which also includes subsequent renewal terms of one year unless either party provides written notice of non-renewal. The amendment to the MSA also provides for the integration of certain third-party products into the ADT Command and Control software platform which we operate. In connection with the amendment to the MSA, we agreed to provide ADT a license to use certain Alarm.com intellectual property following the termination or expiration of the initial term of the MSA for which ADT will pay us a monthly royalty for each subscriber to its ADT branded residential interactive security, automation and video service offerings that is covered by any of our licensed patents and not enabled by one of our software platforms. We cannot assure you that we will be able to meet the conditions set forth in the amended agreement. We continue to generate revenue from each subscriber that is already installed on one of our platforms for the life of that subscriber account but the number of such subscribers would likely decline over time. While we would generate revenue from ADT subscribers not on our platform using service offerings covered by any of our licensed patents from the per subscriber royalty fee charged to ADT under the patent license, these monthly fees will be less on a per subscriber basis than fees we receive from our SaaS solutions. In addition, even if ADT continues to use other services that we offer, we cannot assure you that the revenue from ADT or new accounts added by ADT will reach or exceed historical levels in any future period. We may not be able to offset any unanticipated decline in revenue from ADT with revenues from new customers or other existing customers. Any negative developments in ADT’s business, or any significant decrease in revenue from or loss of ADT as a customer could materially and adversely harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We anticipate that we will continue to be dependent upon a limited number of service provider partners for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future and, in some cases, a portion of our revenue attributable to individual service provider partners may increase in the future. The loss of one or more key service provider partners, a reduction in sales through any major service provider partners or the inability or unwillingness of any of our major service provider partners to pay for our platforms and solutions would reduce our revenue and could impair our profitability.

Substantially all of the revenues associated with the non-hosted software platform are from a single customer and the loss of this customer could harm our operating results.

In March 2017, we acquired certain assets related to the Connect business unit of Icontrol Networks, Inc., or Icontrol, and all of the outstanding equity interests of the two subsidiaries through which Icontrol conducted its Piper business, which we refer to in this report as the Acquisition. Historically, ADT has accounted for, and continues to account for, substantially all of the revenue of the Connect business unit. In connection with the Acquisition we amended our MSA with ADT to cover services provided with respect to the non-hosted software platform, or Software platform. We cannot assure you that ADT will use the Software platform for its new customers or keep existing customers on the Software platform. In addition, even if ADT continues to use the Software platform, we cannot assure you that the revenue from ADT or new accounts added by ADT will reach or exceed historical levels of revenue for the Connect business unit in any future period. Any negative developments in ADT’s business, or any significant decrease in revenue from or loss of ADT as a customer could materially and adversely harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

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We have relatively limited visibility regarding the consumers that ultimately purchase our solutions, and we often rely on information from third-party service providers to help us manage our business. If these service providers fail to provide timely or accurate information, our ability to quickly react to market changes and effectively manage our business may be harmed.

We sell our solutions through service provider partners. These service provider partners work with consumers to design, install, update and maintain their connected home and commercial installations and manage the relationship with our subscribers. While we are able to track orders from service provider partners and have access to certain information about the configurations of their Alarm.com systems that we receive through our platforms, we also rely on service provider partners to provide us with information about consumer behavior, product and system feedback, consumer demographics and buying patterns. We use this channel sell-through data, along with other metrics, to forecast our revenue, assess consumer demand for our solution, develop new solutions, adjust pricing and make other strategic business decisions. Channel sell-through data is subject to limitations due to collection methods and the third-party nature of the data and thus may not be complete or accurate. If we do not receive consumer information on a timely or accurate basis, or if we do not properly interpret this information, our ability to quickly react to market changes and effectively manage our business may be harmed.

Consumers may choose to adopt point products that provide control of discrete functions rather than adopting our connected property solutions. If we are unable to increase market awareness of the benefits of our unified solutions, our revenue may not continue to grow, or it may decline.

Many vendors have emerged, and may continue to emerge, to provide point products with advanced functionality for use in connected properties, such as a video doorbell or thermostat that can be controlled by an application on a smartphone. We expect more and more consumer electronic and consumer appliance products to be network-aware and connected — each very likely to have its own smart device (phone or tablet) application. Consumers may be attracted to the relatively low costs of these point products and the ability to expand their connected property control solution over time with minimal upfront costs, despite some of the disadvantages of this approach, which may reduce demand for our connected property solutions. If so, our service provider partners may switch and offer the point products and services of competing companies, which would adversely affect our sales and profitability. If a significant number of consumers in our target market choose to adopt point products rather than our connected property solutions, then our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations will be harmed, and we may not be able to achieve sustained growth or our business may decline.

Mergers or other strategic transactions involving our competitors could weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and harm our results of operations.

Our industry is highly fragmented, and we believe it is likely that some of our existing competitors will consolidate or be acquired. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with systems integrators, third-party consulting firms or other parties. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and lead to pricing pressure and our loss of market share and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We are dependent on our connected property solutions, and the lack of continued market acceptance of our connected property solutions would result in lower revenue.

Our connected property solutions account for substantially all of our revenue and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. As a result, our revenue could be reduced by:

any decline in demand for our connected property solutions;

the failure of our connected property solutions to achieve continued market acceptance;

the introduction of products and technologies that serve as a replacement or substitute for, or represent an improvement over, our connected property solutions;

technological innovations or new communications standards our connected property solutions do not address; and

our inability to release enhanced versions of our connected property solutions on a timely basis.

We are vulnerable to fluctuations in demand for Internet-connected devices in general and interactive security systems in particular. If the market for connected home and commercial solutions grows more slowly than anticipated or if demand for connected home and commercial solutions does not grow as quickly as anticipated, whether as a result of competition, product obsolescence, technological change, unfavorable economic conditions, uncertain geopolitical environments, budgetary
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constraints of our consumers or other factors, we may not be able to continue to increase our revenue and earnings and our stock price would decline.

A significant decline in our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We generally bill our service provider partners based on the number of subscribers they have on our platforms and the features being utilized by subscribers on a monthly basis in advance. Subscribers could elect to terminate our services in any given month. If our efforts and our service provider partners’ efforts to satisfy our existing subscribers are not successful, we may not be able to retain them or sell additional functionality to them and, as a result, our revenue and ability to grow could be adversely affected. We track our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate on an annualized basis, as reflected in the section of this Annual Report titled "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Other Business Metrics — SaaS and License Revenue Renewal Rate." However, our service provider partners, who resell our services to our subscribers, have indicated that they typically have three to five-year service contracts with residential and commercial property owners who use our solutions. Our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate is calculated across our entire subscriber base, including subscribers whose contract with their service provider reached the end of its contractual term during the measurement period, as well as subscribers whose contract with their service provider has not reached the end of its contractual term during the measurement period, and is not intended to estimate the rate at which our subscribers renew their contracts with our service provider partners. As a result, we may not be able to accurately predict future trends in renewals and the resulting churn. Subscribers may choose not to renew their contracts for many reasons, including the belief our service is not required for their needs or is otherwise not cost-effective, a desire to reduce discretionary spending, or a belief our competitors’ services provide better value. Additionally, our subscribers may not renew for reasons entirely out of our control, such as moving a residence or the dissolution of their business, which is particularly common for small to mid-sized businesses. A significant increase in our churn would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

If we are unable to develop new solutions, sell our platforms and solutions into new markets or further penetrate our existing markets, our revenue may not grow as expected.

Our ability to increase sales will depend, in large part, on our ability to enhance and improve our platforms and solutions, introduce new solutions in a timely manner, sell into new markets and further penetrate our existing markets. The success of any enhancement or new solution or service depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of enhanced or new solutions, the ability to maintain and develop relationships with service providers, the ability to attract, retain and effectively train sales and marketing personnel and the effectiveness of our marketing programs. Any new product or service we develop or acquire may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner, and may not achieve the broad market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. Any new markets into which we attempt to sell our platforms and solutions, including new vertical markets and new countries or regions, may not be receptive. Our ability to further penetrate our existing markets depends on the quality, availability and reliability of our platforms and solutions and our ability to design our platforms and solutions to meet consumer demand.

We benefit from integration of our solutions with third-party platform providers. If these developers choose not to partner with us, or are acquired by our competitors, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

Our solutions are incorporated into the hardware of our third-party platform providers. For example, our hardware platform partners produce control devices that deliver our platform services to subscribers. It may be necessary in the future to renegotiate agreements relating to various aspects of these solutions or other third-party solutions. The inability to easily integrate with, or any defects in or disruption in the supply or availability of, any third-party solutions could result in increased costs, or in delays in new product releases or updates to our existing solutions until such issues have been resolved, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and future prospects and could damage our reputation. In addition, if these third-party solution providers choose not to partner with us, choose to integrate their solutions with our competitors’ platforms, or are unable or unwilling to update their solutions, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed. Further, if third-party solution providers that we partner with or that we would benefit from partnering with are acquired by our competitors, they may choose not to offer their solutions on our platforms, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
 
We rely on wireless carriers to provide access to wireless networks through which we provide our wireless alarm, notification and intelligent automation services, and any interruption of such access and any significant costs related to such interruption could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operation and reputation.

We rely on wireless carriers to provide access to wireless networks for machine-to-machine data transmissions, which are an integral part of our services. Our wireless carriers may suspend wireless service to expand, maintain or improve their networks, or may discontinue or sunset older wireless networks as new technology evolves. For example, certain cellular carriers shut down their 3G and CDMA wireless networks in 2022 which required our subscribers to upgrade to alternative and potentially
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more expensive technologies. See “The technology we employ may become obsolete and we may need to incur significant capital expenditures to update our technology” below. Further, wireless carriers from time to time suffer service outages which range from local to national in scale during which security control panels may be unable to transmit life safety signals to emergency responders. Any such wireless carrier service disruptions could materially and adversely impact our ability to provide services to our service provider partners and subscribers and result in significant costs, which could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and reputation. In addition, product changes by wireless carriers, price increases or changes to existing contract terms or termination of our agreements could also have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

If we are unable to adapt to technological change, including maintaining compatibility with a wide range of devices, our ability to remain competitive could be impaired.

The market for connected home and commercial solutions is characterized by rapid technological change, frequent introductions of new products and evolving industry standards. Our ability to attract new subscribers and increase revenue from existing subscribers will depend in significant part on our ability to anticipate changes in industry standards, to continue to enhance our existing solutions or introduce new solutions on a timely basis to keep pace with technological developments, and to maintain compatibility with a wide range of connected devices in residential and commercial properties. We may change aspects of our platforms and may utilize open source technology in the future, which may cause difficulties including compatibility, stability and time to market. The success of any enhanced or new product or solution will depend on several factors, including the timely completion and market acceptance of the enhanced or new product or solution. Similarly, if any of our competitors implement new technologies before we are able to implement them, those competitors may be able to provide more effective products than ours, possibly at lower prices. Any delay or failure in the introduction of new or enhanced solutions could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

The technology we employ may become obsolete and we may need to incur significant capital expenditures to update our technology.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological innovation. Our platforms and solutions interact with the hardware and software technology of systems and devices located at our subscribers’ properties and we depend upon cellular, broadband and other telecommunications providers to provide communication paths to our subscribers in a timely and efficient manner. We may be required to implement new technologies or adapt existing technologies in response to changing market conditions, consumer preferences or industry standards, which could require significant capital expenditures. The discontinuation of cellular communication technology, cellular networks or other services by telecommunications service providers can affect our services and require our subscribers to upgrade to alternative and potentially more expensive, technologies. For example, certain cellular carriers shut down their 3G and CDMA wireless networks in 2022. We worked with our service providers to convert or upgrade the equipment of end user accounts reliant upon 3G or CDMA networks, and we incurred costs and may continue to incur costs related to the 3G and CDMA network shutdown. If our service providers are not able to convert or upgrade the equipment of their customers who are currently using 3G or CDMA network technology, then those accounts may be terminated with us or we may not be able to bill for such accounts when such networks are no longer available which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

It is also possible that one or more of our competitors could develop a significant technical advantage that allows them to provide additional or superior quality products or services, or to lower their price for similar products or services, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Our inability to adapt to changing technologies, market conditions or consumer preferences in a timely manner could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

We depend on our suppliers. The loss of any key supplier or the inability of a key supplier to deliver their products to us on time or at the contracted price would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our hardware products depend on the availability and quality of components that we procure from third-party suppliers, some of which are supplied by single or limited source suppliers. Reliance on suppliers generally involves several risks, including increased costs, the possibility of defective parts, and loss of a supplier due to their ability to effectively manage their own supply chain, ability to obtain a contract on commercially reasonable terms, bankruptcy, or other events, which can adversely affect the reliability and reputation of our platforms and solutions and our profitability. In addition, from time to time we provide advance payments or loans to our vendors to, for example, secure procurement of long lead time parts or to provide bridge financing to ensure continuity of operations. We are also dependent on industry supply conditions and subject to supply chain risks, including a shortage of components and reduced control over delivery schedules and increases in component costs, which can also adversely affect the reliability and reputation of our platforms and solutions and our profitability. These supply chain risks would be heightened in the event health precautions such as travel restrictions and shelter-in-place orders are implemented. In addition, limitations on factory capacity, including labor shortages, and delays in shipping times due to the Macroeconomic Conditions have in the past and may in the future adversely affect production of and the timing of delivery of components. While the global shortage of semiconductors used in our video, cellular communicator, and other products has eased, shortages of
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essential components of our products or significantly increased lead times for obtaining such components may lead to delays in our production, and we may be unable to fulfill orders for our hardware products on a timely basis or at all. Even if we are able to procure components from alternative sources, we may be required to pay more for them, which could adversely affect our profitability. We are working with our suppliers to secure components and materials to account for the continued longer lead times and limited availability, but we cannot assure you our efforts will be successful or that demand for our hardware products will continue at the same level. In addition, global transportation disruptions have led to slower shipping times generally, while fluctuations in passenger air travel have also led to reduced capacity and increased costs for air freight shipments, which may continue to adversely affect the timing and cost of delivery of components, materials and products. Any of these disruptions to our inventory and supply chain could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. We have several large hardware suppliers from which we procure hardware on a purchase order basis, including three key suppliers that supplied products and components of our inventory which collectively represented 45% of our hardware revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 (21%, 13% and 11% of hardware revenue, respectively). The failure of any of these key suppliers or their subcomponent suppliers to deliver product on time or at the contracted price would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. We are working with any impacted suppliers and their subcomponent provider to determine the amount and timing of any shortfall and to mitigate risks in this part of our supply chain, but we may not be successful. In addition, we rely on third-party technology providers for certain critical functions, such as processing and storing video. If our suppliers or technology providers are unable to continue to provide agreed upon supply or services, we could experience interruptions in delivery of our platforms and solutions to our service provider partners, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. If we were required to find alternative sources of supply, qualification of alternative suppliers and the establishment of reliable supplies could result in delays, loss of sales and/or less profitable sales, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Growth of our business will depend on market awareness and a strong brand, and any failure to develop, maintain, protect and enhance our brand would hurt our ability to retain or attract subscribers.

We believe that building and maintaining market awareness, brand recognition and goodwill in a cost-effective manner is important to our overall success in achieving widespread acceptance of our existing and future solutions and is an important element in attracting new service provider partners and subscribers. An important part of our business strategy is to increase service provider and consumer awareness of our brand and to provide marketing leadership, services and support to our service provider partner network. This will depend largely on our ability to continue to provide high-quality solutions, and we may not be able to do so effectively. While we may choose to engage in a broader marketing campaign to further promote our brand, this effort may not be successful. Our efforts in developing our brand may be hindered by the marketing efforts of our competitors and our reliance on our service provider partners and strategic partners to promote our brand. If we are unable to cost-effectively maintain and increase awareness of our brand, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed.

We operate in the emerging and evolving connected property market, which may develop more slowly or differently than we expect. If the connected property market does not grow as we expect, or if we cannot expand our platforms and solutions to meet the demands of this market, our revenue may decline, fail to grow or fail to grow at an accelerated rate, and we may incur operating losses.

The market for solutions that bring objects and systems not typically connected to the Internet, such as home automation, security monitoring, video monitoring, energy management and wellness solutions, into an Internet-like structure is still developing, and it is uncertain how rapidly or how consistently this market will continue to develop and the degree to which our platforms and solutions will be accepted into the markets in which we operate. Some consumers may be reluctant or unwilling to use our platforms and solutions for a number of reasons, including satisfaction with traditional solutions, concerns about additional costs, concerns about data privacy and lack of awareness of the benefits of our platforms and solutions. Our ability to expand the sales of our platforms and solutions into new markets depends on several factors, including the awareness of our platforms and solutions, the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of our platforms and solutions, the ability to attract, retain and effectively train sales and marketing personnel, the ability to develop relationships with service providers, the effectiveness of our marketing programs, the costs of our platforms and solutions and the success of our competitors. If we are unsuccessful in developing and marketing our platforms and solutions into new markets, or if consumers do not perceive or value the benefits of our platforms and solutions, the market for our platforms and solutions might not continue to develop or might develop more slowly than we expect, either of which would harm our revenue and growth prospects.

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Risks of liability from our operations are significant.

The nature of the solutions we provide, including our interactive security solutions, and new technologies and companies we may acquire, potentially exposes us to greater risks of liability for data privacy and security, employee acts or omissions, or technology or system failure than may be inherent in other businesses. Substantially all of our service provider partner agreements contain provisions limiting our liability to service provider partners and our subscribers in an attempt to reduce this risk. However, in the event of litigation with respect to these matters, we cannot assure you that these limitations will be enforced, and the costs of such litigation could have a material adverse effect on us. Moreover, in the event of any regulatory investigations or actions against us related to these matters, we could be subject to additional risks and liabilities, including significant fines by U.S. federal and state authorities, foreign data privacy authorities in the EU, Canada, and other countries, in addition to the costs of such investigations, all of which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, there can be no assurance that we are adequately insured for these risks. Certain of our insurance policies and the laws of some states may limit or prohibit insurance coverage for punitive or certain other types of damages or liability arising from gross negligence.

Our strategy includes pursuing acquisitions, and our potential inability to successfully integrate newly-acquired technologies, assets or businesses may harm our financial results. Future acquisitions of technologies, assets or businesses which are paid for partially or entirely through the issuance of stock or stock rights could dilute the ownership of our existing stockholders.

We believe part of our growth will continue to be driven by acquisitions of other companies or their technologies, assets and businesses. For example, on April 21, 2023, we acquired certain assets of Vintra, on January 18, 2023, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of EBS, on September 23, 2022, we acquired 85% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of Noonlight, Inc., on October 21, 2019, we acquired 85% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of PC Open Incorporated, doing business as OpenEye, and on December 14, 2020, we acquired Shooter Detection Systems, LLC. Additionally, on December 16, 2021, our EnergyHub subsidiary acquired certain assets of an unrelated third party. Substantially all of the acquired assets consisted of developed technology. These acquisitions and any other acquisitions we may complete in the future will give rise to certain risks, including:

incurring higher than anticipated capital expenditures and operating expenses;

failing to assimilate and integrate the operations and personnel or failing to retain the key personnel of the acquired company or business;

failing to retain customers and service providers and other third-party business partners seeking to terminate or renegotiate their relationships with us;

failing to integrate the acquired technologies, or incurring significant expense to integrate acquired technologies into our platforms and solutions;

disrupting our ongoing business;

encountering complexities associated with managing a larger, more complex and growing business;

diverting our management’s attention and other company resources;

failing to maintain uniform standards, controls and policies;

incurring significant accounting charges;

impairing relationships with employees, service provider partners or subscribers;

finding that the acquired technology, asset or business does not further our business strategy, that we overpaid for the technology, asset or business or that we may be required to write off acquired assets or investments partially or entirely;

failing to realize the expected synergies of the transaction;

being exposed to unforeseen liabilities and contingencies that were not identified prior to acquiring the company; and

being unable to generate sufficient revenue and profits from acquisitions to offset the associated acquisition costs.

Fully integrating an acquired technology, asset or business into our operations may take a significant amount of time. We may not be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered with acquisitions. To the extent we do not successfully avoid or overcome the risks or problems related to any such acquisitions, or fail to manage the acquired business or
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execute our integration and growth strategy in an efficient and effective manner, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed. Acquisitions also could impact our financial position and capital requirements, or could cause fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations. Acquisitions could include significant goodwill and intangible assets, which may result in future impairment charges that would reduce our stated earnings. We may incur significant costs in our efforts to engage in strategic transactions and these expenditures may not result in successful acquisitions.

We expect that the consideration we might pay for any future acquisitions of technologies, assets or businesses could include stock, rights to purchase stock, cash or some combination of the foregoing. If we issue stock or rights to purchase stock in connection with future acquisitions, net income per share and then-existing holders of our common stock may experience dilution.

We may pursue business opportunities that diverge from our current business model, which may cause our business to suffer.

We may pursue business opportunities that diverge from our current business model, including but not limited to expanding our platforms and solutions and investing in new and unproven technologies. We can offer no assurance that any such new business opportunities will prove to be successful. Among other negative effects, our pursuit of such business opportunities could reduce operating margins and require more working capital, subject us to additional federal state, and local laws and regulations, materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

Evolving government and industry regulation and changes in applicable laws relating to the Internet and data privacy may increase our expenditures related to compliance efforts or otherwise limit the solutions we can offer, which may harm our business and adversely affect our financial condition.

As Internet commerce continues to evolve, federal, state or foreign agencies have adopted and could in the future adopt regulations covering issues such as user privacy and content. We are particularly sensitive to these risks because the Internet is a critical component of our SaaS business model. In addition, taxation of products or services provided over the Internet or other charges imposed by government agencies or by private organizations for accessing the Internet may be imposed. Any regulation imposing greater fees for Internet use or restricting information exchange over the Internet could result in a decline in the use of the Internet and the viability of Internet-based services, which could harm our business.

Our platforms and solutions enable us to collect, manage and store a wide range of data related to our subscribers’ interactive security, intelligent automation, video monitoring, energy management and wellness systems. A valuable component of our platforms and solutions is our ability to analyze this data to present the user with actionable business intelligence. We obtain our data from a variety of sources, including our service provider partners, our subscribers and third-party providers. We cannot assure that the data we require for our proprietary data sets will be available from these sources in the future or that the cost of such data will not increase. The United States federal government and various state governments have adopted or proposed limitations on the collection, distribution, storage and use of personal information. Several foreign jurisdictions in which we do business, including the European Union, the United Kingdom, Canada and Argentina, among others, have adopted legislation (including directives or regulations) that is more rigorous governing data collection and storage than in the United States.

On June 28, 2018, the State of California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA governs the collection, sale and use of California residents’ personal information, and significantly impacts businesses’ handling of personal information and privacy policies and procedures. The CCPA, as well as data privacy laws that have been adopted or proposed in over a dozen other states such as Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, Texas and Utah, may limit our ability to use, process and store certain data, which may decrease adoption of our platforms and solutions, affect our relationships with service provider partners and our suppliers, increase our costs for compliance, and harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. Specifically, the CCPA may subject us to regulatory fines by the State of California, individual claims, class actions, and increased commercial liabilities. In addition, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or CPRA, was approved by California voters and became effective as of January 1, 2023. The CPRA, among other things, amended the CCPA by creating additional privacy rights for California consumers and additional obligations on businesses, which could subject us to additional compliance costs as well as potential fines, individual claims, class actions and commercial liabilities. The CPRA also extended the CCPA’s scope to include employees’ and business contacts’ personal information, which may increase our compliance costs, legal costs and other costs of doing business.

European data protection laws, including the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, generally restrict the transfer of personal data from Europe, including the European Economic Area, or EEA, UK and Switzerland, to the United States and most other countries unless the parties to the transfer have implemented specific safeguards to protect the transferred personal data. On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or CJEU, invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, a program for transferring personal data from the EEA to the United States. The ruling also raised questions about whether one of the primary alternatives to the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, namely the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, or SCCs, can lawfully be used for transfers from the EEA to the United States or most other countries. While the CJEU did not
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invalidate the use of SCCs as a valid mechanism for transferring personal data from the EEA to the United States, the CJEU required entities relying on SCCs to, among other things, verify on a case-by-case basis that the SCCs provide adequate protection of personal data under European Union, or EU, law by providing, where necessary, additional safeguards to those offered by the existing SCCs. For data transfers to the United States, these additional safeguards must be added to the SCCs in order for entities to use SCCs as a valid data transfer mechanism. Furthermore, the CJEU and the European Data Protection Board advised European data protection authorities that they would need to closely examine the laws and practices of countries outside of the EEA where EEA personal data is transferred, with a particular focus on the United States, so data transfers to the United States from the EEA are subject to increasing regulatory scrutiny following the CJEU decision.

We have historically relied on both the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and SCCs for transferring personal data from the EEA, and as a result of the CJEU ruling, we have transitioned our data transfers covered under the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield to be covered under SCCs. In June 2021, the European Commission adopted a new version of the SCCs, which we began using on September 27, 2021. Moreover, the UK data protection regulator developed new SCCs for transferring personal data from the UK that were finalized in March 2022, and we use the new UK SCCs with our current and future customers in the UK. In July 2023, the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield was replaced by the Data Privacy Framework, or DPF, and we have been automatically enrolled in this program given our existing EU-U.S. Privacy Shield enrollment. We are also enrolled in the UK Extension to the EU-U.S. DPF. Effective October 12, 2023, organizations participating in the UK Extension to the EU-U.S. DPF may receive personal data from the UK and Gibraltar in reliance on the UK Extension to the EU-U.S. DPF.

Our work adopting, implementing and complying with the changing legal landscape governing international data transfers slows down our contracting process and increases our legal and compliance costs (including an increase in exposure to substantial fines under EEA data protection laws, increasing requests from our customers for compliance-related product changes, as well as injunctions against processing or transferring personal data from the EEA), which could adversely affect our cash flows and financial condition. SCCs with additional safeguards and obligations put in place by EEA data protection authorities or customers may impose new restrictions on our business and could affect our operations in the EEA.

In September 2020, the Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner, or FDPIC, determined that the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework does not provide an adequate level of data protection for data transfers from Switzerland to the U.S. While the FDPIC does not have the authority to invalidate the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield, the FDPIC’s announcement casts serious doubt on the viability of the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield as a valid mechanism for Swiss-U.S. data transfers. As a result of the FDPIC decision, we will need to transition any data transfers covered under the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield to be covered under SCCs or the Swiss-U.S. DPF once Switzerland adopts an adequacy decision. For data transfers from Switzerland, Alarm.com will continue to rely upon the SCCs adopted by the European Commission in August 2021 with any necessary modifications required by the regulatory authorities in Switzerland.

As a result of these ongoing changes, there will continue to be significant regulatory uncertainty surrounding the validity of data transfers from the EEA, UK and Switzerland to the United States. The inability to import personal data from the EEA, UK or Switzerland may require us to increase our data processing capabilities in those jurisdictions at significant expense. Various other non-EU jurisdictions may also choose to impose data localization laws limiting the transfer of personal data out of their respective jurisdictions, or our EEA, UK or Swiss service provider partners may require similar contractual restrictions regarding data localization. Such laws or contractual restrictions may increase our costs for compliance, and harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

The EU's General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, went into effect on May 25, 2018. Prior to May 25, 2018, we updated our existing privacy and data security measures to comply with GDPR. As guidance on compliance with GDPR from the EU data protection authorities evolves over time, our privacy or data security measures may be deemed or perceived to be in noncompliance with current or future laws and regulations, which may subject us to litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities and could limit the products and services we can offer in certain jurisdictions. Further, in the event of a breach of personal information that we hold, we may be subject to governmental fines, individual claims, remediation expenses and/or harm to our reputation. Moreover, if future laws, regulations, or court rulings, such as the CJEU’s decision invalidating the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield, limit our ability to use and share this data or our ability to store, process and share data over the Internet, demand for our platforms and solutions could decrease, our costs could increase, and our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed.

Furthermore, Brazil’s comprehensive privacy law, the General Data Protection Law, or LGPD, took effect on September 18, 2020 and federal regulatory enforcement began on August 1, 2021. However, private and state-level enforcement of the law began in September 2020. The LGPD creates a new legal framework for the use, processing and storage of Brazilians’ personal data, and it adds significant privacy and security obligations for companies processing personal data in Brazil. The LGPD may limit our and our service providers’ ability to use, process and store certain data, which may decrease adoption of our platforms and solutions, affect our relationships with our service provider partners and suppliers, increase our costs for compliance, and harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition, the LGPD may subject us to regulatory fines by the Brazilian Data Protection Authority and increased commercial liabilities.

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Since April 2018 we have offered a solution for certain service provider partners who may be subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, and its implementing regulations, or HIPAA, which regulates the use and disclosure of Protected Health Information, or PHI. As a result, we are subject to HIPAA when PHI is accessed, created, maintained or transmitted through our solution by these service provider partners. We have implemented additional privacy and security policies and procedures, as well as administrative, physical and technical safeguards to enable our solution to be HIPAA-compliant. Additionally, HIPAA compliance has required us to put in place certain agreements with contracting partners and to appoint a Privacy Officer and Security Officer. If our privacy and security policies or other safeguards for PHI are deemed to be in noncompliance by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities. In the event of a breach of PHI that we hold, we may be subject to governmental fines, individual claims under state privacy laws governing personal health information, remediation expenses and/or harm to our reputation. The use of health-related data is coming under increasing regulatory scrutiny in other ways. Several U.S. states, such as Washington, Nevada, and Connecticut, have passed health privacy laws, which may increase the risk of regulatory actions or consumer class actions being brought against Alarm.com. These laws may also increase our costs of doing business as well as legal costs, and slow down our contracting process. Moreover, the FTC has brought a series of regulatory enforcement actions relating to companies’ use of health-related data, which may increase our regulatory risk. Furthermore, if future changes to HIPAA or state privacy laws governing PHI expand the definition of PHI or put more restrictions on our ability to use, process and store PHI, then HIPAA compliance for our solutions as currently constituted may be costly both financially and in terms of administrative resources. Ongoing compliance efforts may take substantial time and require the assistance of external resources, such as attorneys, information technology, and/or other consultants and advisors.

Laws and regulations relating to the use of certain video data for training and analytics purposes continue to change. Specifically, the use of facial images and other biometric data in the training of video models has been subject to increased scrutiny and in some cases regulatory review. The FTC as well as certain states and individuals have brought legal actions against companies regarding the collection and use of facial and biometric information for product development and other purposes. We account for these laws and regulations in our product development cycle, which may impact the scope and timing of the products we make available.

Use of artificial intelligence in our operations and product offerings could result in reputational or competitive harm, legal or regulatory liability and adverse impacts on our results of operations.

We have incorporated, and expect to continue to incorporate in the future, artificial intelligence, or AI, solutions into our operations and product offerings, and the use of AI involves various risks and challenges that could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. We currently use AI to help improve our business management solutions for service provider partners and advance our data analytics engine. For example, we leverage large language models for the Gopher Info feature of our service provider solutions, an AI-powered chat bot assistant for technicians and service providers designed to improve service provider efficiency and operations. The development and deployment of AI systems involve inherent technical complexities and uncertainties, and our AI systems may encounter unexpected technical difficulties, limitations or errors, including inaccuracies in data processing or flawed algorithms, which could compromise the reliability and effectiveness of our products and services based on AI. In addition, our competitors or other third parties may incorporate AI into their products more quickly or more successfully than us, which could impair our ability to compete effectively.

The use of AI applications, including large language models, has resulted in, and may in the future result in, cybersecurity incidents that implicate the personal data of end users of such applications. Any such cybersecurity incidents related to our use of AI applications could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations. AI also presents emerging ethical issues, and if our use of AI becomes controversial, we may experience brand or reputational harm, competitive harm, regulatory scrutiny or legal liability.

The introduction of AI technologies into our products and services may result in new or enhanced governmental or regulatory scrutiny, litigation, confidentiality or security risks or other complications that could adversely affect our business, reputation or financial results. The regulatory landscape governing AI technologies is evolving rapidly, and changes in laws, regulations or enforcement practices may impose new compliance requirements, restrict certain AI applications or increase our regulatory obligations, which could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

We rely on the performance of our senior management and highly skilled personnel, and if we are unable to attract, retain and motivate well-qualified employees, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

We believe our success has depended, and continues to depend, on the efforts and talents of senior management and key personnel, including Stephen Trundle, our Chief Executive Officer, and our senior information technology managers. Our future success depends on our continuing ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees. Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract them. In addition, the loss of any of our senior management or key personnel could interrupt our ability to execute our business plan, as such individuals may be difficult to replace. If we do not succeed in attracting well-qualified employees or retaining and motivating existing employees, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
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We provide minimum service level commitments to certain of our service provider partners, and our failure to meet them could cause us to issue credits for future services or pay penalties, which could harm our results of operations.

Certain of our service provider partner agreements currently, and may in the future, provide minimum service level commitments regarding items such as uptime, functionality or performance. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments for these service provider partners or suffer extended periods of service unavailability, we are or may be contractually obligated to provide these service provider partners with credits for future services, provide services at no cost or pay other penalties, which could adversely impact our revenue. We have incurred such penalties in the past, which have reduced our revenue. We do not currently have any reserves on our balance sheet for these commitments.

We have indemnity obligations to certain of our service provider partners for certain expenses and liabilities, which could force us to incur substantial costs.

We have indemnity obligations to certain of our service provider partners for certain claims regarding our platforms and solutions, including security breach, product recall, epidemic failure, and product liability claims. As a result, in the case of any such claims against these service provider partners, we could be required to indemnify them for losses resulting from such claims or to refund amounts they have paid to us. We expect that some of our service provider partners may seek indemnification from us in the event that such claims are brought against them. In addition, we may elect to indemnify service provider partners where we have no contractual obligation to do so and we will evaluate each such request on a case-by-case basis. If a service provider partner elects to invest resources in enforcing a claim for indemnification against us, we could incur significant costs disputing it. If we do not succeed in disputing it, we could face substantial liability. See "We have indemnity obligations to certain of our service provider partners for certain expenses and liabilities resulting from intellectual property infringement claims regarding our platforms and solutions, which could force us to incur substantial costs" below for details on indemnity obligations resulting from intellectual property.

The incurrence or issuance of debt may impact our financial position and subject us to additional financial and operating restrictions.

On January 20, 2021, we issued $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due January 15, 2026 in a private placement to qualified institutional buyers, or the 2026 Notes. We received proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes of $484.3 million, net of $15.7 million of transaction fees and other debt issuance costs. We used some of the proceeds to repay the $110.0 million outstanding principal balance under our credit facility and also used some of the proceeds to pay accrued interest, fees and expenses related to our credit facility, which was terminated effective January 20, 2021. We currently intend to invest a portion of the proceeds in a portfolio of securities and other investments and although we plan to follow an established investment policy and seek to minimize the credit risk associated with investments by limiting exposure to any one issuer depending on credit quality, we cannot give assurances that the assets in our investment portfolio will not lose value, become impaired or suffer from illiquidity.

Our overall leverage and certain obligations contained in the related documentation could adversely affect our financial health and business and future operations by, among other things:

making it more difficult to satisfy our obligations, including under the terms of the 2026 Notes;

limiting our ability to refinance our debt on terms acceptable to us or at all;

limiting our flexibility to plan for and adjust to changing business and market conditions and increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

limiting our ability to use our available cash flow to fund future acquisitions, working capital, business activities, and other general corporate requirements; and

limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, to fund growth or for general corporate purposes, even when necessary to maintain adequate liquidity.

Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.

We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.

In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons. For example, on January 20, 2021, we issued the 2026 Notes. We received proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes of $484.3
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million, net of $15.7 million of transaction fees and other debt issuance costs. We may require additional capital to respond to the significant uncertainty arising from the Macroeconomic Conditions and we may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms or at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be limited. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution in their percentage ownership of our company, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be limited. See “Risks Related to our Outstanding Convertible Senior Notes” below for further details on risks related to the 2026 Notes.

Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets represent a significant portion of our total assets, and we may never realize the full value of our intangible assets.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $233.1 million of goodwill and identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets are recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition. We review such assets for impairment at least annually. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in performance, adverse market conditions, including adverse market conditions arising from the Macroeconomic Conditions, adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations, including changes that restrict the activities of or affect the solutions we offer, challenges to the validity of certain registered intellectual property, reduced sales of certain products or services incorporating registered intellectual property, increased attrition and a variety of other factors. The amount of any quantified impairment must be expensed immediately as a charge to results of operations. Depending on future circumstances, it is possible that we may never realize the full value of our intangible assets. Any future determination of impairment of goodwill or other identifiable intangible assets could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

Comprehensive tax reform bills could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Legislative changes in the U.S. and other countries could increase our tax liability and adversely affect our after-tax profitability. For example, in August 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 was enacted in the United States which, among other provisions, includes a minimum 15.0% tax on companies that have a three-year average annual adjusted financial statement income of more than $1.0 billion and a 1.0% excise tax on the value of net corporate stock repurchases. Both provisions became effective on January 1, 2023. Current economic and political considerations make additional tax rules in the United States and other applicable jurisdictions subject to significant change, and changes in applicable tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including the possibility of retroactive effect, could affect our income tax expense and profitability.

In addition, there is a continued interest within the European Union, Canada and other jurisdictions to apply new taxes on companies participating in the digital economy. Such tax rule changes could materially and adversely affect our cash flows, deferred tax assets and financial results.

We may be subject to additional tax liabilities, which would harm our results of operations.

We are subject to income, sales, use, value added and other taxes in the United States and other countries in which we conduct business, which laws and rates vary greatly by jurisdiction. Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect sales, use, value added or other taxes on our sales may assert that such taxes are applicable, which could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest, and we may be required to collect and remit such taxes in the future. Additionally, longstanding international tax norms that determine each country’s jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade are subject to potential evolution. An outgrowth of the original Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project is a project undertaken by the more than 130 member countries of the expanded Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, Inclusive Framework focused on "Addressing the Challenges of the Digitalization of the Economy." Furthermore, the OECD, announced a consensus around further changes in traditional international tax principles to address, among other things, perceived challenges presented by global digital commerce, or Pillar One, and the perceived need for a minimum global effective tax rate of 15%, or Pillar Two. On December 20, 2021, the OECD released Pillar Two Model Rules defining the global minimum tax rate of 15% on companies with revenues of at least 750.0 million Euros, which would go into effect in 2024, subject to certain transition rules. While it is uncertain whether the U.S. will enact legislation to adopt the minimum tax directive, certain countries in which we operate have adopted such legislation, and other countries are in the process of introducing legislation to implement the minimum tax directive. Under a transitional safe harbor released on July 17, 2023, the undertaxed profits rule top-up tax will be zero for each year of the transition period if that jurisdiction has a corporate tax rate of at least 20%. This undertaxed profits safe harbor transition rule will apply to us through our year ending December 31, 2025.

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While we do not currently expect the Pillar Two minimum tax directive to have a material impact on our effective tax rate or operations, our analysis is ongoing as the OECD (and many countries) continue to release additional guidance and implement legislation. To the extent additional changes take place in the countries in which we operate, it is possible that these legislative changes and efforts may increase uncertainty and have an adverse impact on our effective tax rates or operations. We will continue to monitor and evaluate new legislation and guidance, which could change our current assessment.

Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. These determinations are highly complex and require detailed analysis of the available information and applicable statutes and regulatory materials. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be different from our historical tax practices, provisions and accruals. If we receive an adverse ruling as a result of an audit, or we unilaterally determine that we have misinterpreted provisions of the tax regulations to which we are subject, our tax provision, results of operations or cash flows could be harmed. In addition, liabilities associated with taxes are often subject to an extended or indefinite statute of limitations period. Therefore, we may be subject to additional tax liability (including penalties and interest) for a particular year for extended periods of time.

If the U.S. insurance industry were to change its practice of providing incentives to homeowners for the use of alarm monitoring services, we could experience a reduction in new subscriber growth or an increase in our subscriber attrition rate.

It has been common practice in the U.S. insurance industry to provide a reduction in rates for policies written on residences that have monitored alarm systems. There can be no assurance that insurance companies will continue to offer these rate reductions. If these incentives were reduced or eliminated, new homeowners who otherwise may not feel the need for alarm monitoring services would be removed from our potential subscriber pool, which could hinder the growth of our business, and existing subscribers may choose to disconnect or not renew their service contracts, which could increase our attrition rates. In either case, our results of operations and growth prospects could be adversely affected.

Failure to comply with laws and regulations could harm our business.

We conduct our business in the United States and in various other countries. We are subject to regulation by various federal, state, local and foreign governmental agencies, including, but not limited to, agencies and regulatory bodies or authorities responsible for monitoring and enforcing product safety and consumer protection laws, data privacy and security laws and regulations, employment and labor laws, workplace safety laws and regulations, environmental laws and regulations, antitrust laws, federal securities laws and tax laws and regulations.

We are subject to the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.S. Travel Act, and possibly other anti-bribery laws, including those that comply with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and other international conventions. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit our company from authorizing, offering, or providing directly or indirectly improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private-sector. Certain laws also prohibit us from soliciting or accepting bribes or kickbacks. Our company has direct government interactions and in several cases uses third-party representatives, including dealers, for regulatory compliance, sales and other purposes in a variety of countries. These factors increase our anti-corruption risk profile. We can be held liable for the corrupt activities of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners and agents, even if we did not explicitly authorize such activity. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with anti-corruption laws, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents will comply with these laws and policies.

Our global operations require us to import from and export to several countries, which geographically stretches our compliance obligations. We are also subject to anti-money laundering laws such as the USA PATRIOT Act and may be subject to similar laws in other jurisdictions. Our platforms and solutions are subject to export control and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations, and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of our platforms and solutions must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. We may also be subject to import/export laws and regulations in other jurisdictions in which we conduct business. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges; fines, which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers. In addition, if our service provider partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or authorizations, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm and penalties. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular sale may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. In addition, changes in our platforms or solutions or changes in applicable export or import laws and regulations may create delays in the introduction and sale of our platforms and solutions in international markets, prevent our service provider partners with international operations from deploying our platforms and
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solutions or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our platforms and solutions to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import laws and regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing laws and regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such laws and regulations, could also result in decreased use of our platforms and solutions, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our platforms and solutions to existing or potential service provider partners with international operations. Any decreased use of our platforms and solutions or limitation on our ability to export or sell our platforms and solutions would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

In addition, our software contains encryption technologies, certain types of which are subject to U.S. and foreign export control regulations and, in some foreign countries, restrictions on importation and/or use. Any failure on our part to comply with encryption or other applicable export control requirements could result in financial penalties or other sanctions under the U.S. export regulations, including restrictions on future export activities, which could harm our business and operating results. Regulatory restrictions could impair our access to technologies needed to improve our platforms and solutions and may also limit or reduce the demand for our platforms and solutions outside of the United States.

Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions programs prohibit the shipment of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons that are subject to U.S. economic embargoes and trade sanctions. Even though we take precautions to prevent our platforms and solutions from being shipped or provided to U.S. sanctions targets, our platforms and solutions could be shipped to those targets or provided by third-parties despite such precautions. Any such shipment could have negative consequences, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm. Furthermore, any new embargo or sanctions program, or any change in the countries, governments, persons or activities targeted by such programs, could result in decreased use of our platforms and solutions, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our platforms and solutions to existing or potential service provider partners, which would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Changes in laws that apply to us could result in increased regulatory requirements and compliance costs which could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. For example, the SEC has proposed expansive rules requiring public companies to disclose information about the material impact of climate on their businesses, as well as information about companies’ governance, risk management and strategy related to climate risk. In certain jurisdictions, regulatory requirements may be more stringent than in the United States. Noncompliance with applicable regulations or requirements could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, mandatory product recalls, enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, fines, damages, civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain governments or other customers, the loss of export privileges, multi-jurisdictional liability, reputational harm, and other collateral consequences. If any governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and an increase in defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We face many risks associated with our international business operations and our plans to expand internationally, which could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We anticipate our efforts to operate and continue to expand our business internationally will entail additional costs and risks as we establish our international offerings and develop relationships with service provider partners to market, sell, install, and support our platforms, solutions and brand in other countries. Revenue in countries outside of North America accounted for 4%, 4% and 3% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. We have limited experience in selling our platforms and solutions in international markets outside of North America or in conforming to the local cultures, standards, or policies necessary to successfully compete in those markets, and we may be required to invest significant resources in order to do so. We may not succeed in these efforts or achieve our consumer acquisition, service provider expansion or other goals. In some international markets, consumer preferences and buying behaviors may be different, and we may use business or pricing models that are different from our traditional model to provide our platforms and solutions to consumers in those markets or we may be unsuccessful in implementing the appropriate business model. Our revenue from new foreign markets may not exceed the costs of establishing, marketing, and maintaining our international offerings. In addition, current global instability could have many adverse consequences on our international expansion. These could include sovereign default, liquidity and capital pressures on financial institutions in other parts of the world including the eurozone, reducing the availability of credit and increasing the risk of financial sector failures and the risk of one or more eurozone member states leaving the euro, resulting in the possibility of capital and exchange controls and uncertainty about the impact of contracts and currency exchange rates.

In addition, conducting expanded international operations subjects us to additional risks that we do not generally face in our North American markets. These risks include:

localization of our solutions, including the addition of foreign languages and adaptation to new local practices, as well as certification, registration and other regulatory requirements;
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lack of experience in other geographic markets;

strong local competitors;

the cost and burden of complying with, lack of familiarity with, and unexpected changes in, foreign legal and regulatory requirements, including the development of policies and procedures for different countries when requirements under privacy regulations in such countries may conflict or be inconsistent with one another;

difficulties in managing and staffing international operations;

increased costs due to new or potential tariffs, penalties, trade restrictions and other trade barriers, which may increase our cost of hardware revenue and reduce our hardware revenue margins in the future;

fluctuations in currency exchange rates or restrictions on foreign currency;

potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of transfer pricing, value added or other tax systems, double taxation and restrictions and/or taxes on the repatriation of earnings;

dependence on third parties, including commercial partners with whom we do not have extensive experience;

increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;

political, social, and economic instability, such as the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas, terrorist attacks, and security concerns in general; and

reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries.
 
Operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. The investment and additional resources required to establish operations and manage growth in other countries may not produce desired levels of revenue or profitability.

Our software contains encryption technologies, certain types of which are subject to U.S. and foreign export control regulations and, in some foreign countries, restrictions on importation and/or use. Any failure on our part to comply with encryption or other applicable export control requirements could result in financial penalties or other sanctions under the U.S. export regulations, including restrictions on future export activities, which could harm our business and operating results. Regulatory restrictions could impair our access to technologies needed to improve our platforms and solutions and may also limit or reduce the demand for our platforms and solutions outside of the United States.

Enhanced United States tax, tariff, import/export restrictions, or other trade barriers may have an adverse impact on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.

There is currently significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and various other countries, including China, the European Union, Canada, and Mexico, with respect to trade policies, treaties, tariffs and customs duties, and taxes. Since 2019, the U.S. government has implemented significant changes to U.S. trade policy with respect to China. Tariffs have subjected certain Alarm.com products manufactured overseas to additional import duties of up to 25%. The amount of the import tariff and the number of products subject to tariffs have changed numerous times based on action by the U.S. government. We are addressing the risks related to these imposed and announced tariffs, which have affected, or have the potential to affect, at least some of our imports from China.

Between one-fifth to one-half of the hardware products that we sell to our customers are imported from China and could be subject to increased tariffs. Other Alarm.com hardware products that are not manufactured in China may contain subcomponents made in China that could also be subject to increased tariffs. While the additional import duties have resulted in an increase to our cost of hardware revenue, these import duties had a modest impact on hardware revenue margins. If tariffs, trade restrictions, or trade barriers are expanded or interpreted by a court or governmental agency to apply to more of our products, then our exposure to future taxes and duties on such imported products and components could be significant and could have a material effect on our financial results. If our products are deemed to be subject to additional duties and taxes as determined by a court or governmental agency, we may suffer additional hardware revenue margin erosion or be required to raise our prices on certain imported products. There can be no assurance that we will not experience a disruption in our business or harm to our financial condition related to these or other changes in trade practices, and any changes to our operations or our sourcing strategy in order to mitigate any such tariff costs could be complicated, time-consuming, and costly. Furthermore, our business may be adversely affected by retaliatory trade measures taken by China and other countries, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Trade barriers, or the perception that any of them could be imposed, may
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have a negative effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global trade and, in particular, trade between these nations and the United States. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, or the FCC, adopted a proposed rule that would effectively ban in the United States all communications equipment provided by entities identified on a “Covered List” that it maintains pursuant to the Secure and Trusted Communications Networks Act of 2019. The Covered List currently consists of video surveillance and telecommunications equipment produced by five Chinese electronics companies, including one of our suppliers. Although the proposed rule does not include language regarding retroactive application of the proposed ban, the FCC has asked for comment on whether and under what circumstances it should revoke existing authorizations of communications equipment from companies on the Covered List. On November 11, 2021, President Biden signed into law the Secure Equipment Act of 2021 which requires the FCC to adopt rules clarifying that it will no longer review or approve any authorization application for equipment that poses an unacceptable risk to national security. On November 25, 2022, the FCC implemented this directive and adopted rules that prohibit future authorizations of equipment identified on the Covered List. Although the rules apply to future authorizations of equipment, the FCC also adopted a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking seeking comment on future action related to existing authorizations. If the FCC adopts rules that apply retroactively to products already sold, this would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles applicable to us.

Our accounting policies are critical to the manner in which we present our results of operations and financial condition. Many of these policies are highly complex and involve many assumptions, estimates and judgments. A change in accounting standards or practices, in particular with respect to revenue recognition, could harm our operating results and may even affect our reporting of transactions completed before the change is effective. GAAP rules are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC and other various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for new accounting pronouncements. Implementation of new accounting standards could have a significant effect on our financial results, and any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.

Our accounting is becoming more complex, and relies upon estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies. If our accounting is erroneous or based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our operating results could fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes, and also to comply with many complex requirements and standards. Because of the use of estimates inherent in the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material. We devote substantial resources to compliance with accounting requirements and we base our estimates on our best judgment, historical experience, information derived from third parties, and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. However, various factors are causing our accounting to become complex. Ongoing evolution of our business, and the Macroeconomic Conditions and resulting uncertainty have, and any future acquisitions may, compound these complexities. Our operating results may be adversely affected if we make accounting errors or our judgments prove to be wrong, assumptions change or actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors or guidance we may have provided, resulting in a decline in our stock price and potential legal claims. Significant judgments, assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, business combinations, and income taxes.

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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we fail to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights adequately, our business could be harmed.

We believe our proprietary technology is essential to establishing and maintaining our leadership position. We seek to protect our intellectual property through trade secrets, copyrights, confidentiality, non-compete and nondisclosure agreements, patents, trademarks, domain names and other measures, some of which afford only limited protection. We also rely on patent, trademark, trade secret and copyright laws to protect our intellectual property. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our technology or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate or our competitors may independently develop similar or superior technology, or design around our intellectual property. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as the laws of the United States. Intellectual property protections may also be unavailable, limited or difficult to enforce in some countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture market share. Our failure or inability to adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

To prevent substantial unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement and/or misappropriation of our proprietary rights against third parties. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information on related intellectual property litigation matters. Any such action could result in significant costs and diversion of our resources and management's attention, and we cannot assure you that we will be successful in such action. Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property.

Assertions by third parties that we are infringing their intellectual property subject us to costly and time-consuming litigation or expensive licenses that could harm our business and results of operations.

The industries in which we compete are characterized by the existence of a large number of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, and by frequent litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have been involved with patent litigation suits in the past and we may be involved with and subject to similar litigation in the future to defend our intellectual property position. For example, on January 10, 2022, EcoFactor filed a lawsuit against us in U.S. District Court, District of Oregon, alleging Alarm.com’s products and services directly and indirectly infringe five U.S. patents owned by EcoFactor. EcoFactor is seeking permanent injunctions, enhanced damages and attorneys' fees. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information on this matter. Should EcoFactor prevail in either of its district court lawsuits we could be required to pay damages in the amount of EcoFactor’s lost profits and/or a reasonable royalty for sales of our solution, we could be enjoined from making, using and selling our solution if a license or other right to continue selling such elements is not made available to us or we are unable to design around such patents, and we could be required to pay ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. While we believe we have valid defenses to EcoFactor’s claims, any of these outcomes could result in a material adverse effect on our business.

On July 22, 2021, Causam filed a lawsuit against us in U.S. District Court, Western District of Texas, alleging that Alarm.com’s smart thermostats infringe four U.S. patents owned by Causam. Causam is seeking preliminary and permanent injunctions, enhanced damages and attorneys’ fees. On July 28, 2021, Causam filed a complaint with the ITC alleging infringement of the same four patents. Causam is seeking a permanent limited exclusion order and permanent cease and desist order. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information on each of these matters. Should Causam prevail in its district court lawsuit we could be required to pay damages and/or a reasonable royalty for sales of our solution, we could be enjoined from making, using and selling our solution if a license or other right to continue selling such elements is not made available to us, and we could be required to pay ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. While we believe we have valid defenses to Causam’s claims, the outcome of these legal claims cannot be predicted with certainty, and any of these outcomes could result in an adverse effect on our business.

Even if we were to prevail in any of these matters, ongoing litigation could continue to be costly and time-consuming, divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations and dissuade potential customers from purchasing our solution, which would also materially harm our business. During the course of each of these litigation matters, we anticipate announcements of the results of hearings and motions, and other interim developments related to the litigation matters at hand. If securities analysts or investors regard these announcements as negative, the market price of our common stock may decline.

We might not prevail in any intellectual property infringement litigation given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in such litigation and our service provider partner contracts may require us to indemnify them against certain liabilities they may incur as a result of our infringement or alleged infringement of any third-party intellectual property. Defending such claims, regardless of their merit, could be time-consuming and distracting to management, result in costly litigation or settlement, cause development delays or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. In addition, we currently have a
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limited portfolio of issued patents compared to our larger competitors, and therefore may not be able to effectively utilize our intellectual property portfolio to assert defenses or counterclaims in response to patent infringement claims or litigation brought against us by third parties. Further, litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant products or revenues and against which our potential patents provide no deterrence, and many other potential litigants have the capability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property rights and to defend claims that may be brought against them. Given our platforms and solutions integrate with many aspects of a property, the risk our platforms and solutions may be subject to these allegations is exacerbated. As we seek to extend our platforms and solutions, we could be constrained by the intellectual property rights of others. If our platforms and solutions exceed the scope of in-bound licenses or violate any third-party proprietary rights, we could be required to withdraw those solutions from the market, re-develop those solutions or seek to obtain licenses from third parties, which might not be available on reasonable terms or at all. Any efforts to re-develop our platforms and solutions, obtain licenses from third parties on favorable terms or license a substitute technology might not be successful and, in any case, might substantially increase our costs and harm our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. If we were compelled to withdraw any of our platforms and solutions from the market, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed.

We have indemnity obligations to certain of our service provider partners for certain expenses and liabilities resulting from intellectual property infringement claims regarding our platforms and solutions, which could force us to incur substantial costs.

We have indemnity obligations to certain of our service provider partners for intellectual property infringement claims regarding our platforms and solutions. As a result, in the case of infringement claims against these service provider partners, we could be required to indemnify them for losses resulting from such claims or to refund amounts they have paid to us. We expect that some of our service provider partners may seek indemnification from us in connection with infringement claims brought against them. In addition, we may elect to indemnify service provider partners where we have no contractual obligation to indemnify them and we will evaluate each such request on a case-by-case basis. If a service provider partner elects to invest resources in enforcing a claim for indemnification against us, we could incur significant costs disputing it. If we do not succeed in disputing it, we could face substantial liability. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information regarding this matter and the other legal proceedings we are involved in.

The use of open source software in our platforms and solutions may expose us to additional risks and harm our intellectual property.

Some of our platforms and solutions use or incorporate software that is subject to one or more open source licenses and we may incorporate open source software in the future. Open source software is typically freely accessible, usable and modifiable. Certain open source software licenses require a user who intends to distribute the open source software as a component of the user's software to disclose publicly part or all of the source code to the user's software. In addition, certain open source software licenses require the user of such software to make any derivative works of the open source code available to others on potentially unfavorable terms to us or at no cost.

The terms of many open source licenses to which we are subject have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts, and accordingly there is a risk that those licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our platforms and solutions. In that event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our platforms and solutions, to re-develop our platforms and solutions, to discontinue sales of our platforms and solutions or to release our proprietary software code under the terms of an open source license, any of which could harm our business. Further, given the nature of open source software, it may be more likely that third parties might assert copyright and other intellectual property infringement claims against us based on our use of these open source software programs. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our solutions.

Although we are not aware of any use of open source software in our platforms and solutions that would require us to disclose all or a portion of the source code underlying our core solutions, it is possible that such use may have inadvertently occurred in deploying our platforms and solutions. Additionally, if a third-party software provider has incorporated certain types of open source software into software we license from such third party for our platforms and solutions without our knowledge, we could, under certain circumstances, be required to disclose the source code to our platforms and solutions. This could harm our intellectual property position as well as our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock has been and will likely continue to be volatile.

The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate substantially as a result of a variety of factors, some of which are related in complex ways. The market price of our common stock may decline regardless of our operating performance, resulting in the potential for substantial losses for our stockholders, and may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the factors listed below and other factors described in this "Risk Factors" section:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;

failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our company, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

ratings changes by any securities analysts who follow our company;

variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, technical innovations, acquisitions or new solutions;

changes in the prices of our platforms and solutions;

changes in our projected operating and financial results;

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our platforms and solutions or marketing techniques, or our industry in general;

our involvement in any litigation, including any lawsuits threatened or filed against us;

repurchases of our common stock under the stock repurchase program authorized by our board of directors or our sale of our common stock or other securities in the future;

changes in senior management or key personnel;

trading volume of our common stock;

changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market; and

general economic, regulatory and market conditions in the United States and abroad as well as the uncertainty resulting from the current Macroeconomic Conditions.

The stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory and market conditions, may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our market price to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that sales, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders, may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. Additionally, the shares of common stock subject to outstanding options under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans, as well as shares issuable upon vesting of restricted stock awards, will become eligible for sale in the public market in the future, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. Moreover, some holders of shares of our common
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stock have rights, subject to certain conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders. We have also registered shares of common stock that we may issue under our employee equity incentive plans. Accordingly, these shares may be able to be sold freely in the public market upon issuance as permitted by any applicable vesting requirements. See “Conversion of the 2026 Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock” below for further details on the risks related to the dilutive impact of the 2026 Notes.

We are obligated to develop and maintain a system of effective internal control over financial reporting. These internal controls may be determined to be not effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

We have been and are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. This assessment includes disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert our internal controls are effective and would be required to disclose any material weaknesses identified in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. While we have established certain procedures and control over our financial reporting processes, we cannot assure you that these efforts will prevent restatements of our financial statements in the future.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is also required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. For future reporting periods, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating. We may not be able to remediate any future material weaknesses, or to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.

If we are unable to conclude our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion our internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could cause the price of our common stock to decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, including the SEC and Nasdaq. Failure to remediate any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

If securities or industry analysts publish negative reports about our business, or cease coverage of our company, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our shares or change their opinion of our shares, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the development of our business and for general corporate purposes. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and may be subject to any restrictions on paying dividends in any future indebtedness. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

authorize our board of directors to issue preferred stock, without further stockholder action and with voting liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock;

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require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent, and limit the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings;

establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for director nominees; and

provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the vote of a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any "interested" stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an "interested" stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you would receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States of America as the exclusive forums for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

Pursuant to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this choice of forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our common stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provision. Furthermore, our amended and restated bylaws provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any claims arising under the Securities Act. The forum selection clause in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

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Risks Related to our Outstanding Convertible Senior Notes

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle cash conversions of the 2026 Notes or to repurchase the 2026 Notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the 2026 Notes.

On January 20, 2021, we issued the 2026 Notes. The terms of the 2026 Notes are governed by an Indenture, or the Indenture, by and between Alarm.com Holdings, Inc. and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. The 2026 Notes are senior unsecured obligations that do not bear regular interest and the principal amount of the 2026 Notes will not accrete. The 2026 Notes may bear special interest under specified circumstances related to our failure to comply with our reporting obligations under the Indenture. Special interest, if any, will be payable semiannually in arrears on January 15 and July 15 of each year, beginning on July 15, 2021. We received proceeds from the issuance of the 2026 Notes of $484.3 million, net of $15.7 million of transaction fees and other debt issuance costs. Holders of the 2026 Notes will have the right, subject to certain conditions and limited exceptions, to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid special interest, if any, as defined in the Indenture. In addition, upon conversion of the 2026 Notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the 2026 Notes being converted as defined in the Indenture. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of 2026 Notes surrendered therefor or pay cash with respect to 2026 Notes being converted. In addition, our ability to repurchase the 2026 Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the 2026 Notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase the 2026 Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the Indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the 2026 Notes as required by the Indenture would constitute a default under the Indenture. A default under the Indenture governing the 2026 Notes or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the 2026 Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

The conditional conversion feature of the 2026 Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the 2026 Notes is triggered, holders of 2026 Notes will be entitled to convert the 2026 Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their 2026 Notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

Conversion of the 2026 Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the 2026 Notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of the 2026 Notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the 2026 Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the 2026 Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the 2026 Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.
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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Our business is highly dependent on the processing and storage of significant amounts of data, and we have invested and will continue to invest in measures to secure this data. We have implemented and maintain a comprehensive information security program consisting of policies, procedures, and technology designed to maintain the privacy, security and integrity of our data, intellectual property, confidential information, systems and networks. Our information security program is informed by externally established sets of standards, such as those of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Center for Internet Security. Among other things, the program includes controls designed to limit and monitor access to our systems, networks and data, prevent inappropriate or unauthorized access or modification, and monitor for threats or vulnerability. We maintain disaster recovery solutions and implement enhancements as necessary and also use technologies that assist in preventing theft and abuse of credentials and sensitive data. We also have third parties perform penetration tests as well as security assessments of mobile applications. Our information security program also includes third-party risk management processes that help us oversee and identify risks from our use of third-party service providers. Additionally, we focus our efforts on education and training for employees regarding cybersecurity and implementing security controls for contractors. We also engage consultants to conduct cybersecurity assessments and preparedness analysis. We primarily conduct our business in the United States and are expanding internationally in various other countries. Conducting expanded international operations subjects us to additional risks, including our exposure to cybersecurity incidents.

The risks related to cybersecurity change rapidly, and we aim to update our information security program as frequently as reasonably possible to achieve commercially accepted levels of preparedness. In addition to the core operating environment of Alarm.com, we also have acquired businesses and subsidiaries that in some cases operate data infrastructure that is distinct from the Alarm.com operating environment, and therefore have distinct data security vulnerabilities. The overall management of cybersecurity risk involves coordination between Alarm.com and our acquired businesses and subsidiaries, and data security risks in these entities may be heightened where the technology platform is less mature than the Alarm.com core platform.

We have established an Information Security team led by our Chief Information Officer, which is responsible for assessing, identifying and managing risks from cybersecurity threats. Managing cybersecurity risk has been integrated into our overall risk management system and is a priority that we monitor and review regularly with our Board of Directors. The Information Security team works closely with our Legal team to make determinations whether a cybersecurity incident has occurred and whether the incident has materially impacted or is reasonably likely to materially impact us. If a cybersecurity incident is deemed material, the incident is communicated to various members of the Alarm.com leadership team and with the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors oversees our overall risk management system, including cybersecurity risks. A member of the Information Security team presents at quarterly Board meetings and discusses specific risk areas, including those relating to cybersecurity.

To date, there have not been any cybersecurity threats or incidents that have materially impacted or are reasonably likely to materially impact our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. In the ordinary course of business, we have experienced and will continue to experience cyber threats and incidents of varying degrees. Refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for a discussion of risks related to data security and the associated risks to our business.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our Facilities

Our principal office is located in Tysons, Virginia and is used by our Alarm.com segment for sales and marketing, research and development, customer service and administrative purposes. As of December 31, 2023, we occupied 189,058 square feet of commercial space in our principal office under a lease we entered into in August 2014 that is scheduled to expire in 2026. This lease agreement has been periodically amended to expand our square footage as we have continued to grow.

Our Alarm.com segment also leases offices in Bloomington, Minnesota; Boston, Massachusetts; and Redwood City, California as well as in other locations. Our Other segment leases an office in Brooklyn, New York as well as in other locations. Our Alarm.com segment owns a commercial building located in Liberty Lake, Washington as well as buildings in other locations. These facilities are used for sales and training, research and development, technical support, warehousing and administrative purposes.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

On June 2, 2015, Vivint, Inc., or Vivint, filed a lawsuit against us in U.S. District Court, District of Utah, alleging that our technology directly and indirectly infringes six patents that Vivint purchased. On October 27, 2022, we filed a demand for arbitration of a dispute arising under the Patent Cross License Agreement between Alarm.com and Vivint executed in November 2013. Vivint had stopped paying license fees to Alarm.com under the agreement. As a result of Vivint’s refusal to pay license fees under the agreement, which began during the fourth quarter of 2022, SaaS and license revenue and total revenue through December 31, 2023 were lower by approximately $6.0 million on a quarterly basis. Quarterly earnings and cash flow through December 31, 2023 were also impacted by the aforementioned $6.0 million, plus additional legal fees.

We also filed a lawsuit against Vivint on January 4, 2023 in U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Texas, alleging that Vivint infringed 15 of our patents. On March 8, 2023, Vivint filed counterclaims in the action alleging that Alarm.com’s products and services directly and indirectly infringed 14 patents owned by Vivint. Most of Vivint’s counterclaims also named our service provider ADT LLC as a defendant.

On December 21, 2023, Alarm.com and Vivint agreed to settle all outstanding litigation between the parties and to enter into a long-term intellectual property license agreement under which Alarm.com will license to Vivint its intellectual property portfolio.

On January 10, 2022, EcoFactor, Inc., or EcoFactor, filed a lawsuit against us in U.S. District Court, District of Oregon, alleging Alarm.com’s products and services directly and indirectly infringe five U.S. patents owned by EcoFactor. EcoFactor is seeking a permanent injunction, enhanced damages and attorneys' fees. EcoFactor had previously asserted two of the same patents against us in an October 2019 complaint with the U.S. International Trade Commission, or ITC. In July 2021, the ITC found in favor of Alarm.com. EcoFactor appealed the decision but withdrew its appeal in December 2021. We moved to dismiss the Oregon case for failure to state a claim on March 28, 2022. Three of the asserted patents are in ex parte reexamination proceedings at the PTO, and ex parte reexamination of a fourth patent concluded on August 23, 2023 after the claims were amended. On April 18, 2022, all claims of a fifth patent were found unpatentable by the U.S. Patent Trial and Appeal Board, or PTAB, in an inter partes review, and the parties expect that all claims of that patent will be canceled because EcoFactor's appeal of that PTAB decision was dismissed. On April 18, 2022, the district court stayed the case at the request of the parties pending the disposition of PTAB and other proceedings involving the asserted patents, and the parties filed a joint status report on January 2, 2024.

Should EcoFactor prevail in its lawsuit we could be required to pay damages and/or a reasonable royalty for sales of our solution, we could be enjoined from making, using and selling our solution if a license or other right to continue selling such elements is not made available to us, and we could be required to pay ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. While we believe we have valid defenses to EcoFactor’s claims, the outcome of these legal claims cannot be predicted with certainty and any of these outcomes could result in an adverse effect on our business.

On July 22, 2021, Causam Enterprises, Inc., or Causam, filed a lawsuit against us in U.S. District Court, Western District of Texas, alleging that Alarm.com’s smart thermostats infringe four U.S. patents owned by Causam. Causam is seeking preliminary and permanent injunctions, enhanced damages and attorneys’ fees. We have not yet responded to the complaint. On September 3, 2021, the court issued an order staying the lawsuit until the ITC investigation described below is finally resolved.

On July 28, 2021, Causam filed a complaint with the ITC naming Alarm.com Incorporated, Alarm.com Holdings, Inc., and EnergyHub, Inc., among others, as proposed respondents. The complaint alleges infringement of the same four patents Causam asserted in district court. Causam is seeking a permanent limited exclusion order and permanent cease and desist order. On August 27, 2021, the ITC instituted an investigation into Causam’s allegations naming Alarm.com Incorporated, Alarm.com Holdings, Inc., EnergyHub Inc. and others as respondents. We answered the complaint on October 4, 2021. Among other things,
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we asserted defenses based on non-infringement and invalidity of the patents in question. An evidentiary hearing in the investigation was held from June 28, 2022 through July 1, 2022. On February 16, 2023, the ITC issued a final decision in favor of Alarm.com and EnergyHub. Causam filed an appeal of the ITC decision on April 14, 2023. Causam did not appeal the ITC decision with respect to Alarm.com and EnergyHub.

Should Causam prevail in its district court lawsuit we could be required to pay damages and/or a reasonable royalty for sales of our solution, we could be enjoined from making, using and selling our solution if a license or other right to continue selling such elements is not made available to us, and we could be required to pay ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. While we believe we have valid defenses to Causam’s claims, the outcome of these legal claims cannot be predicted with certainty, and any of these outcomes could result in an adverse effect on our business.

In addition to the matters described above, we may be required to provide indemnification to certain of our service provider partners for certain claims regarding our solutions. For example, we incurred costs associated with the indemnification of our service provider ADT, LLC.

On February 25, 2021, Vivint filed a lawsuit against ADT LLC a/k/a ADT LLC of Delaware d/b/a ADT Security Services in U.S. District Court, District of Utah, alleging that ADT Pulse, Control, and Blue each infringe one or more patents owned by Vivint. Vivint is seeking damages and attorneys’ fees. Vivint filed a second amended complaint on March 8, 2022. Pursuant to the December 21, 2023 settlement agreement between Alarm.com and Vivint, the allegations regarding ADT Pulse and Control will be dismissed, ending Alarm.com’s indemnification obligations in this matter.

We also incurred costs associated with the indemnification of our service provider Monitronics International, Inc. d/b/a Brinks in patent infringement suits. On November 4, 2022, January 13, 2023 and April 18, 2023, IOT Innovations LLC, or IOT, sued Monitronics in U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Texas, alleging patent infringement of certain products and services sold by Monitronics. Together, IOT asserted infringement of 26 patents and sought permanent injunctions, enhanced damages and attorneys' fees. On October 3, 2023, IOT filed a stipulation of dismissal of all three cases, ending the cases and the Company's involvement therein.

We also incur costs associated with the indemnification of our service provider, Central Security Group – Nationwide, Inc. (d/b/a Alert 360), or CSG, in an ongoing patent litigation. In 2018, Ubiquitous Connectivity, LP, or Ubiquitous, brought suit against CSG in U.S. District Court, Northern District of Oklahoma, alleging infringement of two US patents. The case was stayed by agreement of the parties for several years while the patents in suit were challenged before the PTAB. In January 2021, the PTAB deemed 42 out of 46 claims of the two asserted patents unpatentable. Ubiquitous appealed a portion of the PTAB’s findings to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The Federal Circuit affirmed the PTAB’s ruling on August 8, 2023. As a result, only four patent claims remain at issue and the Northern District of Oklahoma case is no longer stayed. A claim construction hearing is scheduled for December 12, 2024. A hearing on dispositive motions, including for summary judgment, is scheduled for April 15, 2026. A trial is scheduled for June 22, 2026.

Should Ubiquitous prevail on its infringement claims, we could be required to indemnify CSG for damages in the form of a reasonable royalty or of Ubiquitous’s lost profits. CSG could be enjoined from making, using, and selling our solution if a license or other right to continue selling our technology is not made available or if we are unable to design around such patents, and we could be required to pay ongoing royalties and comply with unfavorable terms if such a license is made available to us. The outcome of these legal claims cannot be predicted with certainty.

We may also be a party to litigation and subject to claims incident to the ordinary course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we currently believe that the final outcome of these ordinary course matters will not have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. For a description of our legal proceedings, see Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.
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PART II.

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock commenced trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 26, 2015 and trades under the symbol “ALRM.” Prior to June 26, 2015, there was no public market for our common stock. On February 15, 2024, the closing price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was $71.00 per share.

Holders

As of February 15, 2024, there were 19 stockholders of record of our common stock, one of which is Cede & Co., a nominee for Depository Trust Company, or DTC. All of the shares of common stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners are deposited into participant accounts at DTC, and are considered to be held of record by Cede & Co. as one stockholder.

Dividends

We cannot provide any assurance that we will declare or pay cash dividends on our common stock in the future. We currently anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and we do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of the board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, the requirements of current or then-existing debt instruments and other factors the board of directors deems relevant.

Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act.

The following graph shows a comparison for the period from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023 of the cumulative total return for (i) our common stock, (ii) the Nasdaq Composite Index and (iii) Standard & Poor's 500 Index, or S&P 500 Index, assuming an initial investment of $100 on the last trading day for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 and reinvestment of all dividends. The returns in the graph are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.

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2332
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

In January 2021, we issued $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due January 15, 2026, or the 2026 Notes, in a private offering pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The offer and sale of the 2026 Notes to the initial purchasers for the 2026 Notes was made in reliance on the exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act. We relied on this exemption from registration based in part on representations made by the initial purchasers, including that such initial purchasers would only offer, sell or deliver the 2026 Notes to persons whom they reasonably believe to be qualified institutional buyers within the meaning of Rule 144A under the Securities Act.

For more information related to the 2026 Notes, see Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Use of Proceeds

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On February 15, 2023, our board of directors authorized a stock repurchase program, effective February 23, 2023, under which we are authorized to purchase up to an aggregate of $100.0 million of our outstanding common stock during the two-year period ending February 23, 2025. We utilize our stock repurchase program in an effort to return surplus cash to stockholders efficiently. Our board of directors determines repurchase program amounts through an analysis of projected capital needs to sustain growth as well as to meet other investing and financing criteria. In determining whether to authorize repurchases and the size of the repurchase program, our board of directors considers whether we have funds legally available to repurchase shares of common stock and various alternative uses for our cash and cash equivalents.

The stock repurchase program is designed to enable us to make both opportunistic repurchases based on market conditions at management’s discretion and consistent repurchases over time. Stock repurchases may be made through a variety of methods, including open-market transactions (including pursuant to a trading plan adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act), privately negotiated transactions, block trades, tender offers and by any combination of the foregoing.

Our Insider Trading and Trading Window Policy prohibits our directors, officers and other employees from trading in Alarm.com securities while they are aware of material nonpublic information about Alarm.com, which would include unannounced material stock repurchase plans. The prohibition does not apply to trades made pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 trading plan.
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During the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased 487,918 shares of our common stock under our stock repurchase program for $27.3 million, which includes applicable commissions and fees. The following table contains information relating to the repurchases of our common stock made by us in the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as a Part of a Publicly Announced Program
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
October 1 to October 31, 2023— $— — $87,145,286 
November 1 to November 30, 2023248,378 58.15 248,378 72,701,660 
December 1 to December 31, 2023— — — 72,701,660 
Total248,378 $58.15 248,378 

We withhold shares of common stock in connection with the vesting of restricted stock unit awards issued to employees to satisfy applicable tax withholding requirements. These withheld shares are not issued or considered common stock repurchases under our stock repurchase program and therefore, are excluded from our repurchase activity.

As of January 1, 2023, we are subject to a 1.0% excise tax on the value of net corporate stock repurchases under the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022. When applicable, the excise tax will be included as part of the cost basis of shares acquired and is presented within stockholders’ equity in the consolidated balance sheets and will be excluded from amounts presented above.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" in this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

Alarm.com is the leading platform for the intelligently connected property. Our cloud-based platform offers an expansive suite of IoT solutions addressing opportunities in the residential, multi-family, small business and enterprise commercial markets. Alarm.com’s solutions include security, video and video analytics, energy management, access control, electric utility grid management, indoor gunshot detection, water management, health and wellness and data-rich emergency response. During 2023, our platforms processed more than 325 billion data points generated by over 150 million connected devices. We believe this scale of subscribers, connected devices and data operations makes us the leader in the connected property market.

Our solutions are delivered through an established network of trusted service providers, who are experts at selling, installing and supporting our solutions. We primarily generate SaaS and license revenue through our service provider partners, who resell these services and pay us monthly fees. These service provider contracts typically have an initial term of one year, with subsequent renewal terms of one year. Our service provider partners have indicated that they typically have three to five-year service contracts with residential and commercial property owners who use our solutions. We also generate hardware and other revenue, primarily from our service provider partners and distributors. Our hardware sales include connected devices that enable our services, such as video cameras, video recorders, gunshot detection sensors, gateway modules and smart thermostats. We believe our network of service providers and the length of our service relationships with residential and commercial property owners, combined with our robust SaaS platforms and over 20 years of operating experience, contribute to a compelling business model.

Our solutions are designed to make both residential and commercial properties safer, smarter and more efficient. Our technology platforms support property owners who subscribe to our services, the hardware partners who manufacture devices that integrate with our platforms and the service provider partners who install and maintain our solutions.

The Alarm.com platform enables our service provider partners to deploy our interactive security, video monitoring, intelligent automation, access control, energy management and wellness solutions as stand-alone offerings or as combined solutions to address the needs of a broad range of customers.

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Executive Overview and Highlights of 2023 and 2022 Results

We primarily generate SaaS and license revenue, our largest source of revenue, through our service provider partners who resell our services and pay us monthly fees. Our service provider partners sell, install and support Alarm.com solutions that enable residential and commercial property owners to intelligently secure, connect, control and automate their properties. Our subscribers consist of all of the properties maintained by those residential and commercial property owners to which we are delivering at least one of our solutions. We derive a portion of our revenue from licensing our intellectual property to third parties on a per customer basis. SaaS and license revenue represented 65%, 62% and 61% of our revenue in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

We also generate SaaS and license revenue from monthly fees charged to service providers on a per subscriber basis for access to our non-hosted software platform, or Software platform. The non-hosted software for interactive security, automation and related solutions is typically deployed and operated by the service provider in its own network operations center. Software license revenue represented 3%, 3% and 4% of our revenue in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

We also generate revenue from the sale of many types of hardware, including video cameras, video recorders, cellular radio modules, smart thermostats, image sensors, gunshot detection sensors and other peripherals, that enable our solutions. Our hardware and other revenue also includes our revenue from the sale of perpetual licenses that provide our customers in the commercial market the right to use our video surveillance software for an indefinite period of time in exchange for a one-time license fee. Additionally, our hardware and other revenue includes our revenue from the sale of licenses that provide our customers the right to use our gunshot detection solution in exchange for license fees. Hardware and other revenue represented 35%, 38% and 39% of our revenue in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We typically expect hardware and other revenue to fluctuate as a percentage of total revenue.

Highlights of our financial performance for the periods covered in this Annual Report include:

SaaS and license revenue increased 9% to $569.2 million in 2023 from $520.4 million in 2022. SaaS and license revenue increased 13% to $520.4 million in 2022 from $460.4 million in 2021. Software license revenue decreased to $23.2 million in 2023 from $26.8 million in 2022. Software license revenue decreased to $26.8 million in 2022 from $32.3 million in 2021.

Total revenue increased 5% to $881.7 million in 2023 from $842.6 million in 2022. Total revenue increased 12% to $842.6 million in 2022 from $749.0 million in 2021.

Net income increased 44% to $80.3 million in 2023 from $55.6 million in 2022. Net income increased 9% to $55.6 million in 2022 from $51.2 million in 2021. Net income attributable to common stockholders increased 44% to $81.0 million in 2023 from $56.3 million in 2022. Net income attributable to common stockholders increased 8% to $56.3 million in 2022 from $52.3 million in 2021.

Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP measurement of operating performance, increased to $154.0 million in 2023 from $146.8 million in 2022. Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA increased to $146.8 million in 2022 from $142.5 million in 2021.

Please see Non-GAAP Measures below in this section of this Annual Report for a discussion of the limitations of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA (a non-GAAP measure) and a reconciliation of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA from net income, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Historical Trends within the Financial Results

Information about current period and prior period acquisitions that may affect the comparability of our historical financial information is included in Item 1. Business – Governance – Corporate Information. Information about the 2026 Notes issued in January 2021 and the related interest expense as well as changes in costs for freight shipments and inventory component costs, which may affect the comparability of historical financial information, is disclosed in the Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 to December 31, 2022 section below within Item 7. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."

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Geographic Areas

We believe there is significant opportunity to expand our international business, as 4% of our total revenue during the year ended December 31, 2023 originated from customers located outside of North America. Our products are currently localized and available in over 50 countries outside of North America. On January 18, 2023, we acquired 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of EBS, an international producer of universal smart communicator devices, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. We believe this acquisition will assist in the continued expansion of our international operations as well as benefit our supply chain operations.

Recent Developments

The global economy, credit markets and financial markets have and may continue to experience significant volatility as a result of the Macroeconomic Conditions. These Macroeconomic Conditions have and may continue to create supply chain disruptions, inventory disruptions, and fluctuations in economic growth, including fluctuations in employment rates, inflation, energy prices and consumer sentiment. It remains difficult to assess or predict the ultimate duration and economic impact of the Macroeconomic Conditions. Prolonged uncertainty with respect to the Macroeconomic Conditions could cause further economic slowdown or cause other unpredictable events, each of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Other Business Metrics

We regularly monitor a number of financial and operating metrics in order to measure our current performance and estimate our future performance. Our other business metrics may be calculated in a manner different from the way similar business metrics used by other companies are calculated and include the following (dollars in thousands):
    
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
SaaS and license revenue$569,200 $520,377 $460,372 
Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA
153,967 146,848 142,472 
SaaS and license revenue renewal rate94 %94 %94 %

SaaS and License Revenue

SaaS and license revenue is a GAAP measure that we use to measure our current performance and estimate our future performance. We believe SaaS and license revenue is an indicator of the productivity of our existing service provider partners and their ability to activate and maintain subscribers using our intelligently connected property solutions, our ability to add new service provider partners reselling our solutions, the demand for our intelligently connected property solutions and the pace at which the market for these solutions is growing.

Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA

Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure that represents our net income before interest expense, interest income, certain activity within other income / (expense), net, provision for / (benefit from) income taxes, amortization and depreciation expense, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition-related expense, legal costs and settlement fees incurred and received in connection with non-ordinary course litigation and other disputes, particularly costs involved in ongoing intellectual property litigation. We do not consider these items to be indicative of our core operating performance. The non-cash items include amortization and depreciation expense, amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs for the 2026 Notes included in interest expense and stock-based compensation expense related to restricted stock units and other forms of equity compensation, including, but not limited to, the sale of common stock. We do not adjust for ordinary course legal expenses resulting from maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property portfolio and license agreements.

We record interest expense primarily related to our 2026 Notes. We exclude interest expense in calculating non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we believe the exclusion of interest expense will provide for more meaningful information about our financial performance. We exclude interest income and certain activity within other income / (expense), net including gains, losses or impairments on investments and other assets, gains on settlement fees and losses on the early extinguishment of debt, when applicable, from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we do not consider it part of our ongoing results of operations. We exclude the impact related to our provision for / (benefit from) income taxes from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we do not consider this tax adjustment to be part of our ongoing results of operations.

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GAAP requires that operating expenses include the amortization of acquired intangible assets, which principally include acquired customer relationships, developed technology and trade names. We exclude amortization of intangibles from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we do not consider amortization expense when we evaluate our ongoing business operations, nor do we factor amortization expense into our evaluation of potential acquisitions, or our measurement of the performance of those acquisitions. We believe the exclusion of amortization expense enables the comparison of our performance to other companies in our industry as other companies may be more or less acquisitive than we are, and therefore, amortization expense may vary significantly by company based on their acquisition history. Although we exclude amortization of acquired intangible assets from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA, management believes that it is important for investors to understand that such intangible assets were recorded as part of purchase accounting and contribute to revenue generation.

We record depreciation primarily for investments in property and equipment. We exclude depreciation in calculating non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we do not consider depreciation when we evaluate our ongoing business operations.

We exclude stock-based compensation expense, which relates to restricted stock units and other forms of equity incentives primarily awarded to employees of Alarm.com, because they are non-cash charges that we do not consider when assessing the operating performance of our business. Additionally, the determination of stock-based compensation expense can be calculated using various methodologies and is dependent upon subjective assumptions and other factors that vary on a company-by-company basis. Therefore, we believe excluding stock-based compensation expense from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA improves the comparability of our results to the results of other companies in our industry.

Included in operating expenses are incremental costs directly related to business and asset acquisitions as well as changes in the fair value of contingent consideration liabilities, when applicable. We exclude acquisition-related expense from non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA because we believe the exclusion of this expense allows us to better provide meaningful information about our operating performance, facilitates comparisons to our historical operating results, improves the comparability of our results to the results of other companies in our industry, and ultimately, we believe helps investors better understand the acquisition-related expense and the effects of the transaction on our results of operations.

We exclude non-ordinary course litigation expense because we do not consider legal costs and settlement fees incurred and received in litigation and litigation-related matters of non-ordinary course lawsuits and other disputes, particularly costs incurred in ongoing intellectual property litigation, to be indicative of our core operating performance. We do not adjust for ordinary course legal expenses, including those expenses resulting from maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property portfolio and license agreements.

Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA is a key measure our management uses to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends to generate future operating plans, to make strategic decisions regarding the allocation of capital, and to make investments in initiatives that are focused on cultivating new markets for our solutions. In particular, the exclusion of certain expenses in calculating non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA facilitates comparisons of our operating performance on a period-to-period basis and, in the case of exclusion of acquisition-related adjustments and certain historical legal expenses, excludes items that we do not consider to be indicative of our core operating performance. Non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA is not a measure calculated in accordance with GAAP and should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. Please see Non-GAAP Measures in this section for a discussion of the limitations of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of non-GAAP adjusted EBITDA from net income, the most directly comparable GAAP measurement, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

SaaS and License Revenue Renewal Rate

Our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate is an operating metric. We measure our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate on a trailing 12-month basis by dividing (a) the total SaaS and license revenue recognized during the trailing 12-month period from our subscribers on our Alarm.com platform who were subscribers on the first day of the period, by (b) total SaaS and license revenue we would have recognized during the period from those same subscribers assuming no terminations, or service level upgrades or downgrades. The SaaS and license revenue renewal rate represents both residential and commercial properties. Our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate is expressed as an annualized percentage and it is calculated across our entire subscriber base on the Alarm.com platform excluding subscribers of service providers that may use one of our other platforms as a substitute for the Alarm.com platform. Our service provider partners have indicated that they typically have three to five-year service contracts with residential and commercial property owners who use our solutions. Our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate includes subscribers whose contract with their service provider reached the end of its contractual term during the measurement period, as well as subscribers whose contract with their service provider has not reached the end of its contractual term during the measurement period, and is not intended to estimate the rate at which our subscribers renew their contracts with our service provider partners. We believe our SaaS and license revenue renewal rate allows us to measure our ability to retain and grow our SaaS and license revenue and serves as an indicator of the lifetime value of our subscriber base.
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Components of Operating Results

Our fiscal year ends on December 31. The key elements of our operating results include:

Revenue

We derive our revenue from three primary sources: the sale of cloud-based SaaS services on our integrated Alarm.com platform, the sale of licenses and services on the Software platform and the sale of hardware products. We sell our platform and hardware solutions to service provider partners that resell our solutions and hardware to residential and commercial property owners, who are the service provider partners’ customers.

SaaS and License Revenue. We generate the majority of our SaaS and license revenue primarily from monthly fees charged to our service provider partners on a per subscriber basis for access to our cloud-based intelligently connected property platform and related solutions. Our fees per subscriber vary based upon the service plan and features utilized.

We offer multiple service level packages for our platform solutions including a range of solutions and a range of a la carte add-ons for additional features. The fee paid by our service provider partners each month for the delivery of our solutions is based on the combination of packages and add-ons enabled for each subscriber. We utilize tiered pricing plans where our service provider partners may receive prospective pricing discounts driven by volume.

We also generate SaaS and license revenue from the fees paid to us when we license our intellectual property to third parties for use of our patents. In addition, in certain markets, our EnergyHub subsidiary sells its demand response service for an annual service fee, with pricing based on the number of subscribers or amount of aggregate electricity demand made available for a utility’s or market’s control.

On October 27, 2022, we filed a demand for arbitration of a dispute arising under the Patent Cross License Agreement between Alarm.com and Vivint executed in November 2013. Vivint had stopped paying license fees to Alarm.com under the agreement. Vivint had been paying the required license fees to Alarm.com since the agreement was executed in November 2013. As a result of Vivint’s refusal to pay license fees under the agreement, which began during the fourth quarter of 2022, SaaS and license revenue and total revenue through December 31, 2023 were lower by approximately $6.0 million on a quarterly basis. Quarterly earnings and cash flow through December 31, 2023 were also impacted by the aforementioned $6.0 million, plus additional legal fees. On December 21, 2023, Alarm.com and Vivint agreed to settle all outstanding litigation between the parties and to enter into a long-term intellectual property license agreement under which Alarm.com will license to Vivint its intellectual property portfolio.

Software License Revenue. Our SaaS and license revenue also includes our software license revenue from monthly fees charged to service providers on a per subscriber basis for access to our Software platform. The non-hosted software for interactive security, automation and related solutions is typically deployed and operated by the service provider in its own network operations center. Our agreements for the Software platform solution typically include software and services, such as post-contract customer support, or PCS. Software license revenue included in SaaS and license revenue is expected to continue to decline over time as we transition subscribers to our cloud-based hosted platform.

Hardware and Other Revenue. We generate hardware and other revenue primarily from the sale of video cameras, video recorders, smart thermostats and cellular radio modules that provide access to our cloud-based platforms and, to a lesser extent, the sale of other devices, including image sensors, gunshot detection sensors and peripherals. We primarily transfer hardware to our customers upon delivery to the customer, which corresponds with the time at which the customer obtains control of the hardware. We record a reserve against revenue for hardware returns based on historical returns.

Our hardware and other revenue also includes our revenue from the sale of perpetual licenses that provide our customers in the commercial market the right to use our video surveillance software for an indefinite period of time in exchange for a one-time license fee. Additionally, our hardware and other revenue includes our revenue from the sale of licenses that provide our customers the right to use our indoor gunshot detection solution in exchange for license fees. Hardware and other revenue may also include activation fees charged to some of our service provider partners for activation of a new subscriber account on our platforms, as well as fees paid by service provider partners for our marketing services. The decision whether to charge an activation fee is based in part on the expected number of subscribers to be added by our service provider partners and as a result, many of our largest service provider partners do not pay an activation fee.

Our revenue, and in particular our hardware revenue, has in the past and may in the future be negatively affected by the Macroeconomic Conditions and their related impacts. It remains difficult to assess or predict the ultimate duration and economic impact of the Macroeconomic Conditions.

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Cost of Revenue

Our cost of SaaS and license revenue primarily includes the amounts paid to wireless network providers and, to a lesser extent, the costs of running our network operations centers which are expensed as incurred, as well as patent and royalty costs in connection with technology licensed from third-party providers and amounts paid to distributed energy resource providers. Our cost of SaaS and license revenue also includes our cost of software license revenue, which primarily includes the payroll and payroll-related costs of the department dedicated to providing service exclusively to those service providers that host the Software platform. Our cost of hardware and other revenue primarily includes cost of raw materials, tooling, freight shipments and amounts paid to our third-party manufacturer for production and fulfillment of our cellular radio modules and image sensors, and procurement costs for our video cameras, video recorders, smart thermostats and gunshot detection sensors, which we purchase from an original equipment manufacturer, and other devices. Cost of hardware and other revenue also includes material costs and labor cost related to our employees who manufacture hardware for our suite of IoT solutions. Additionally, our cost of hardware and other revenue includes royalty costs in connection with technology licensed from third-party providers.

We record the cost of SaaS and license revenue as expenses are incurred, which corresponds to the delivery period of our services to our subscribers. We record the cost of hardware and other revenue primarily when the hardware and other services are delivered to the service provider partner, which occurs when control of the hardware and other services transfers to the service provider partner. Our cost of revenue excludes amortization and depreciation shown in operating expenses.

Since 2019, the U.S. government has implemented and imposed significant changes to U.S. trade policy with respect to China. Tariffs have subjected certain Alarm.com products manufactured overseas to additional import duties of up to 25%. The amount of the import tariff and the number of products subject to tariffs have changed numerous times based on action by the U.S. government. Approximately one-fifth to one-half of the hardware products that we sell to our service provider partners are imported from China and could be subject to increased tariffs. While the additional import duties resulted in an increase to our cost of hardware revenue, these import duties had a modest impact on hardware revenue margins. If tariffs are increased or are expanded to apply to more of our products, such actions may increase our cost of hardware revenue and reduce our hardware revenue margins in the future. We continue to monitor the changes in tariffs.

Our costs of hardware revenue increased during the second half of 2021 primarily due to an increase in costs for freight shipments, including expedited shipping costs, as well as an increase in inventory component costs. We currently expect our hardware revenue margins in 2024 to approximate the hardware revenue margins experienced during 2023.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, general and administrative, research and development and amortization and depreciation expenses. Salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, benefits and other personnel related costs are the most significant components of each of these expense categories, excluding amortization and depreciation. We include stock-based compensation expense in connection with the grant of restricted stock units and other forms of equity compensation, including equity compensation with performance conditions, in the applicable operating expense category based on the respective equity award recipient’s function (sales and marketing, general and administrative or research and development). We grew from 1,733 employees as of January 1, 2023 to 1,989 employees as of December 31, 2023, including 77 employees who manufacture hardware for our suite of IoT solutions. We expect to continue to hire new employees to support the projected future growth of our business.

Sales and Marketing Expense. Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of personnel and related expenses for our sales and marketing teams, including salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, benefits, travel, and commissions. Our sales and marketing teams engage in sales, account management, service provider partner support, advertising, promotion of our products and services and marketing.

The number of employees in sales and marketing functions increased from 511 as of January 1, 2023 to 565 as of December 31, 2023. We expect to continue to invest in our sales and marketing activities to expand our business both domestically and internationally and we expect to increase our marketing expense in 2024 as compared to 2023. We intend to increase the size of our sales force and our service provider partner support team to provide additional support to our existing service provider partner base to drive their productivity in selling our solutions as well as to enroll new service provider partners in North America and in international markets.

General and Administrative Expense. General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel and related expenses for our administrative, legal, human resources, finance and accounting personnel, including salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, benefits and other personnel costs. Additional expenses included in this category are legal costs, including those that are incurred to defend and license our intellectual property, as well as non-personnel costs, such as travel related expenses, rent, subcontracting and professional fees, audit fees, tax services, and insurance expenses. Also included in general and administrative expenses are credit losses and acquisition-related expenses, which consist primarily of legal, accounting and professional service fees directly related to acquisitions and valuation gains or losses on acquisition-related contingent liabilities.
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The number of employees in general and administrative functions increased from 218 as of January 1, 2023 to 229 as of December 31, 2023. Excluding intellectual property litigation and acquisition-related expense, we expect general and administrative costs to increase prospectively as our business grows. This includes cost increases related to human resources, accounting, finance, and legal personnel, additional external legal, audit fees and other expenses associated with regulations governing public companies. While somewhat unpredictable, we also expect to continue to incur costs related to litigation involving intellectual property. See the section of this Annual Report titled "Legal Proceedings" for additional information regarding litigation matters.

Research and Development Expense. Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel and related expenses for our employees working on our product development and software and device engineering teams, including salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, benefits and other personnel costs. Also included are non-personnel costs such as consulting and professional fees paid to third-party development resources.

The number of employees in research and development functions increased from 1,004 as of January 1, 2023 to 1,118 as of December 31, 2023. Our research and development efforts are focused on innovating new features and enhancing the functionality of our platforms and the solutions we offer to our service provider partners and subscribers. We will also continue to invest in efforts to extend our platforms to adjacent markets and internationally to maintain our leadership position in the development of intelligently connected property technology, and continued enhancement of our Partner Services Platform, a comprehensive suite of enterprise-grade business management solutions for our service provider partners.

Amortization and Depreciation. Amortization and depreciation consists of amortization of intangible assets originating from our acquisitions as well as our internally-developed capitalized software. Our depreciation expense is related to investments in property and equipment. Acquired intangible assets include developed technology, customer related intangibles, trademarks and trade names. We expect in the near term that amortization and depreciation may fluctuate based on our acquisition activity, development of our platforms and capitalized expenditures.

Interest Expense

We record interest expense associated with our 2026 Notes and acquired debt. Interest expense in 2024 is expected to remain relatively consistent with the interest expense in 2023.

Interest Income

Interest income consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents, our notes receivable and our restricted cash. Interest income in 2024 will depend, in part, on our use of cash and fluctuations in interest rates.

Other Income / (Expense), Net

Other income / (expense), net primarily consists of non-operating and miscellaneous expense and income.

Provision for / (Benefit from) Income Taxes

We are subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes as well as foreign income taxes. During the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. As a result, we recognize tax liabilities based on estimates of whether additional taxes will be due. Our effective tax rates were below the 21.0% statutory rate primarily due to research and development tax credits claimed and the foreign derived intangible income deduction, partially offset by the impact of state taxes, foreign withholding taxes, federal estimated tax payment interest expense, other nondeductible expenses and, for 2023, a stock-based compensation tax shortfall. We recognize stock-based compensation tax shortfalls and excess tax windfall benefits on a discrete basis during the quarter in which they occur, and we anticipate our effective tax rate will vary from quarter to quarter depending on our stock price as well as the vesting and exercises of various forms of equity compensation under our equity incentive plans each period, including restricted stock units and stock options.

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our selected consolidated statements of operations (in thousands) and data as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented:
Consolidated Statements of Operations
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Revenue:
SaaS and license revenue$569,200 65 %$520,377 62 %$460,372 61 %
Hardware and other revenue312,482 35 322,182 38 288,597 39 
Total revenue881,682 100 842,559 100 748,969 100 
Cost of revenue(1):
Cost of SaaS and license revenue85,898 10 73,897 66,758 
Cost of hardware and other revenue239,261 27 268,684 32 239,141 32 
Total cost of revenue325,159 37 342,581 41 305,899 41 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing (2)
100,226 11 92,748 11 86,664 11 
General and administrative (2)
112,930 13 106,688 13 87,406 12 
Research and development (2)
245,114 28 218,635 26 177,713 24 
Amortization and depreciation31,424 30,870 29,715 
Total operating expenses489,694 56 448,941 53 381,498 51 
Operating income66,829 51,037 61,572 
Interest expense(3,429)— (3,144)— (15,956)(2)
Interest income29,801 8,759 587 — 
Other income / (expense), net4,624 (59)— (134)— 
Income before income taxes97,825 11 56,593 46,069 
Provision for / (benefit from) income taxes17,485 962 — (5,106)(1)
Net income$80,340 %$55,631 %$51,175 %
_______________
(1)Excludes amortization and depreciation shown in operating expenses below.
(2)Operating expenses include stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):
    
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Stock-based compensation expense data:
Cost of hardware and other revenue
$$— $— 
Sales and marketing3,522 4,342 4,432 
General and administrative13,028 15,037 9,941 
Research and development30,728 33,275 24,321 
Total stock-based compensation expense$47,283 $52,654 $38,694 
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The following table sets forth the components of cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Components of cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue:
Cost of SaaS and license revenue as a percentage of SaaS and license revenue15 %14 %15 %
Cost of hardware and other revenue as a percentage of hardware and other revenue77 83 83 
Total cost of revenue as a percentage of total revenue37 %41 %41 %

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 to December 31, 2022

The following tables in this section set forth our selected consolidated statements of operations (in thousands), data for the percentage change and data as a percentage of revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

Revenue
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
Revenue:202320222023 vs. 2022
SaaS and license revenue$569,200 $520,377 %
Hardware and other revenue312,482 322,182 (3)
Total revenue$881,682 $842,559 %

The $39.1 million increase in total revenue in 2023 as compared to 2022 was the result of a $48.8 million, or 9%, increase in our SaaS and license revenue and a $9.7 million, or 3%, decrease in our hardware and other revenue. Our software license revenue included within SaaS and license revenue decreased $3.6 million to $23.2 million in 2023 as compared to $26.8 million during 2022, primarily due to the result of the continuing transition of customers from non-hosted software to our cloud based hosted platform. The SaaS and license revenue for the Alarm.com segment increased $36.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to growth in our subscriber base, including the revenue impact from subscribers we added in 2022. The increase in SaaS and license revenue for the Alarm.com segment includes the impact from Vivint license revenue of $16.6 million in 2022 that did not occur in 2023. The SaaS and license revenue for our Other segment increased $12.3 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to an increase in sales of our energy management and demand response solutions as well as our property management solution. The decrease in hardware and other revenue in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily from the $7.3 million decrease in hardware and other revenue, net of intersegment eliminations, for the Alarm.com segment arising from a decrease in the volume of cellular radio modules sold due to the shut down of 3G and CDMA wireless networks in 2022 by certain cellular carriers, as well as a decrease in the volume of thermostats and video cameras sold. Hardware and other revenue, net of intersegment eliminations, in our Other segment decreased $2.4 million, in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to an decreased sales related to our property management and Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning solutions.

Cost of Revenue
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Cost of revenue(1):
Cost of SaaS and license revenue$85,898 $73,897 16 %
Cost of hardware and other revenue239,261 268,684 (11)
Total cost of revenue$325,159 $342,581 (5)%
  % of total revenue37 %41 %
_______________
(1) Excludes amortization and depreciation shown in operating expenses.

The $17.4 million decrease in cost of revenue in 2023 as compared to 2022 was the result of a $29.4 million, or 11%, decrease in cost of hardware and other revenue and a $12.0 million, or 16%, increase in cost of SaaS and license revenue. Our cost of software license revenue included within cost of SaaS and license revenue increased $0.1 million to $0.6 million during 2023 as compared to $0.5 million during 2022. The cost of hardware and other revenue for the Alarm.com segment decreased $27.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to a decrease in the number of hardware units shipped, a decrease in inventory component costs and a decrease in costs for freight shipments. The cost of SaaS and license revenue for the
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Alarm.com segment increased $8.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to the growth in our subscriber base, which drove a corresponding increase in amounts paid to wireless network providers. The cost of hardware and other revenue for the Other segment decreased $1.9 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to a decrease in the number of hardware units shipped, a decrease in inventory component costs and a decrease in costs for freight shipments. The cost of SaaS and license revenue for the Other segment increased $3.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to an increase in sales of our energy management and demand response solutions, which drove a corresponding increase in amounts paid to distributed energy resource providers.

Cost of hardware and other revenue as a percentage of hardware and other revenue was 77% in 2023 and 83% in 2022. The decrease in cost of hardware and other revenue as a percentage of hardware and other revenue in 2023 as compared to 2022 is primarily due to a decrease in inventory component and freight shipment costs, price increases we have implemented on some of our products as well as a reflection of the mix of product sales during the periods. Cost of SaaS and license revenue as a percentage of SaaS and license revenue was 15% and 14% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase in cost of SaaS and license revenue as a percentage of SaaS and license revenue in 2023 as compared to 2022 is a reflection of the mix of sales of services during the periods. Cost of software license revenue as a percentage of software license revenue was 3% and 2% in 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Sales and Marketing Expense
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
202320222023 vs. 2022
Sales and marketing$100,226 $92,748 %
% of total revenue11 %11 %

The $7.5 million increase in sales and marketing expense in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to a $7.2 million increase in personnel and related costs for our Alarm.com segment, attributable in part to increases in the headcount for our sales team to support our growth, partially offset by a $3.1 million decrease in marketing expense, including advertising cost. Personnel and related costs includes salary, benefits, stock-based compensation and travel expenses. Sales and marketing expense for our Alarm.com segment also increased by $1.0 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 due to an increase in our expenses for external consultants. Sales and marketing expense from our Other segment increased $1.7 million in 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to increases in personnel and related costs, attributable in part to increases in the headcount for our sales team. The overall number of employees in our sales and marketing teams increased from 511 as of December 31, 2022 to 565 as of December 31, 2023.

General and Administrative Expense
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
General and administrative$112,930 $106,688 %
% of total revenue13 %13 %

The $6.2 million increase in general and administrative expense in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to a $2.4 million increase in personnel and related costs for our Alarm.com segment and a $2.0 million increase in our expenses for external consultants. Additionally, the provision for credit losses increased $1.6 million, rent expense increased $0.9 million and insurance-related costs increased $0.4 million for our Alarm.com segment in 2023 as compared to 2022. General and administrative expenses from our Other segment decreased by $2.1 million during 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to a $1.3 million decrease in the provision for credit losses and a $0.7 million decrease in personnel and related costs. The overall number of employees in general and administrative functions increased from 218 as of December 31, 2022 to 229 as of December 31, 2023.

Research and Development Expense
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Research and development$245,114 $218,635 12 %
% of total revenue28 %26 %
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The $26.5 million increase in research and development expense in 2023 as compared to 2022 was primarily due to a $20.2 million increase in personnel and related costs for our Alarm.com segment, attributable in part to an increase in headcount of employees in research and development functions as well as a $1.8 million increase in our expenses for external consultants. Research and development expense from our Other segment increased by $4.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily due to an increase in our personnel and related costs. The overall number of employees in research and development functions increased from 1,004 as of December 31, 2022 to 1,118 as of December 31, 2023.

Amortization and Depreciation
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Amortization and depreciation$31,424 $30,870 %
% of total revenue%%

Amortization and depreciation increased $0.6 million in 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to the intangible assets that were acquired in connection with the purchase of EBS on January 18, 2023.

Interest Expense
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Interest expense$(3,429)$(3,144)%
% of total revenue— %— %

Interest expense increased $0.3 million in 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to the interest expense incurred on the assumed debt from the acquisition of EBS on January 18, 2023.

Interest Income
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Interest income$29,801 $8,759 240 %
% of total revenue%%

Interest income increased $21.0 million in 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to an increase in interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents from higher interest rates during the year ended December 31, 2023.

Other Income / (Expense), Net
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Other income / (expense), net$4,624 $(59)(7,937)%
% of total revenue%— %

Other income / (expense), net increased $4.7 million in 2023 as compared to 2022, primarily due to a gain recorded from the settlement of a legal matter, partially offset by an increase in non-operating and miscellaneous expenses.

Provision for / (Benefit from) Income Taxes
 Year Ended December 31,% Change
 202320222023 vs. 2022
Provision for / (benefit from) income taxes$17,485 $962 1,718 %
% of total revenue%— %

The provision for / (benefit from) income taxes increased $16.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022. Our effective tax rate was 17.9% in 2023 as compared to 1.7% in 2022. The increase in the provision for / (benefit from) income taxes was primarily
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due to an increase in income before income taxes, foreign withholding taxes, a stock-based compensation tax shortfall and a decrease in research and development tax credits.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2021

A comparison of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2023.

Segment Information

We have two reportable segments: Alarm.com and Other. Our Alarm.com segment represents our cloud-based and Software platforms for the intelligently connected property and related solutions that contributed 93%, 94% and 95% of our revenue, net of intersegment eliminations, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our Other segment is focused on researching, developing and offering residential and commercial automation solutions and energy management products and services in adjacent markets. The consolidated subsidiaries that make up our Other segment are in the investment stage and have incurred significant operating expenses relative to their revenue.

Our Alarm.com segment increased from 1,563 employees as of January 1, 2023 to 1,776 employees as of December 31, 2023. Our Other segment increased from 170 employees as of January 1, 2023 to 213 employees as of December 31, 2023. Inter-segment revenue includes sales of hardware between our segments.

The following table presents our revenue, inter-segment revenue and operating expenses by segment (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
SaaS and License RevenueHardware and Other RevenueOperating ExpensesSaaS and License RevenueHardware and Other RevenueOperating ExpensesSaaS and License RevenueHardware and Other RevenueOperating Expenses
Alarm.com$514,673 $309,778 $440,590 $478,134 $317,937 $403,774 $426,823 $284,721 $348,700 
Other54,527 6,501 49,584 42,243 9,097 45,647 33,549 9,275 33,214 
Intersegment Alarm.com— (3,201)(480)— (4,067)(480)—