Company Quick10K Filing
Alexanders
Price341.71 EPS11
Shares5 P/E31
MCap1,749 P/FCF34
Net Debt-314 EBIT56
TEV1,435 TEV/EBIT26
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-16
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-02
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-03
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-04
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-18
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-10-28
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-07-29
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-04-29
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-11
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-10-29
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-07-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-04-30
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-12
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-10-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-07-31
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-01
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-13
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-10-31
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-01
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-02
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-02-16
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-02
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-03
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-04
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-02-17
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-11-03
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-08-04
10-Q 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-05
10-K 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-02-24
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-11-04
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-05
10-Q 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-06
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-11-01
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-06
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-07
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-27
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-11-03
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-01
10-Q 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-05-02
10-K 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-02-22
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-11-01
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-02
10-Q 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-05-03
10-K 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-02-22
8-K 2020-09-14
8-K 2020-08-19
8-K 2020-05-14
8-K 2020-03-25
8-K 2019-05-16
8-K 2018-12-12
8-K 2018-05-17
8-K 2018-03-02

ALX 10K Annual Report

Part Iii: Portions of The Proxy Statement for The Annual Meeting of Stockholders To Be Held on May 20, 2021.
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary
EX-4 exhibit4-10k12312020.htm
EX-10.53 exhibit1053.htm
EX-21 exhibit21-10k12312020.htm
EX-23 exhibit23-10k12312020.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311-10k12312020.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312-10k12312020.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321-10k12312020.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322-10k12312020.htm

Alexanders Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
1.71.41.00.70.30.02012201420172020
Assets, Equity
0.10.10.10.00.00.02018201820192020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.80.40.1-0.3-0.6-1.02012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
 
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended:December 31, 2020
 
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period fromto 
Commission File Number:001-06064 
 ALEXANDERS INC 
 (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
 
 
Delaware51-0100517
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (IRS Employer Identification No.)
210 Route 4 East, Paramus,New Jersey07652
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
    
 
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code(201)587-8541
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par value per shareALX New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ☐ No   
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act.
Yes ☐  No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No ☐   




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  
Yes ☐  No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a
smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated Filer ☑ Accelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Yes No ☐  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting shares of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, (i.e., by persons other than officers and directors of Alexander’s, Inc.) was $511,231,000 at June 30, 2020.
 
 
As of January 31, 2021, there were 5,107,290 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.  
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III: Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 20, 2021.




INDEX
 ItemFinancial Information:Page Number
Part I.1.Business
 1A.Risk Factors  
 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments  
 2.Properties  
 3.Legal Proceedings  
 4.Mine Safety Disclosures  
Part II.5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
6.Selected Financial Data
 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 9.Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 9A.Controls and Procedures
 9B.Other Information
Part III.10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance(1)
 11.
Executive Compensation(1)
 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters(1)
  
 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence(1)
 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services(1)
Part IV.15.Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules  
16.Form 10-K Summary
Signatures  
 
__________________________
 
(1)    These items are omitted in part or in whole because the registrant will file a definitive Proxy Statement pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after December 31, 2020, portions of which are incorporated by reference herein. 
3


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Certain statements contained herein constitute forward-looking statements as such term is defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance.  They represent our intentions, plans, expectations and beliefs and are subject to numerous assumptions, risks and uncertainties.  Our future results, financial condition and business may differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements.  You can find many of these statements by looking for words such as “approximates,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “would,” “may” or other similar expressions in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.  We also note the following forward-looking statements: in the case of our development projects, the estimated completion date, estimated project costs and costs to complete; and estimates of dividends on shares of our common stock.  Many of the factors that will determine the outcome of these and our other forward-looking statements are beyond our ability to control or predict.  For a further discussion of factors that could materially affect the outcome of our forward-looking statements, see “Item 1A - Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. 
 
Currently, one of the most significant factors is the ongoing adverse effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, operating performance and the effect it has had and may continue to have on our tenants, the global, national, regional and local economies and financial markets and the real estate market in general. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic, which are highly uncertain at this time, but that impact could be material. Moreover, you are cautioned that the COVID-19 pandemic will heighten many of the risks identified in “Item 1A. – Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

For these statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or the date of any document incorporated by reference.  All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.  We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly, any revisions to our forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
4


PART I

ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
General
Alexander’s, Inc. (NYSE: ALX) is a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) incorporated in Delaware, engaged in leasing, managing, developing and redeveloping its properties.  All references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Company” and “Alexander’s” refer to Alexander’s, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.  We are managed by, and our properties are leased and developed by, Vornado Realty Trust (“Vornado”) (NYSE: VNO).
 
We have seven properties in the greater New York City metropolitan area consisting of:
 
Operating properties
731 Lexington Avenue, a 1,323,000 square foot multi-use building, comprising the entire block bounded by Lexington Avenue, East 59th Street, Third Avenue and East 58th Street in Manhattan.  The building contains 920,000 and 155,000 of net rentable square feet of office and retail space, respectively, which we own, and 248,000 square feet of residential space consisting of 105 condominium units, which we sold.  Bloomberg L.P. (“Bloomberg”) occupies all of the office space.  The Home Depot (83,000 square feet) is the principal retail tenant;
 
Rego Park I, a 338,000 square foot shopping center, located on Queens Boulevard and 63rd Road in Queens. The center is anchored by a 112,000 square foot IKEA, a 50,000 square foot Burlington, a 46,000 square foot Bed Bath & Beyond and a 36,000 square foot Marshalls;

Rego Park II, a 609,000 square foot shopping center, adjacent to the Rego Park I shopping center in Queens. The center is anchored by a 145,000 square foot Costco and a 133,000 square foot Kohl’s, which has been subleased. On September 10, 2020, Century 21 ($6,400,000 of annual revenue) filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its 135,000 square foot store on December 7, 2020;

The Alexander apartment tower, located above our Rego Park II shopping center, contains 312 units aggregating 255,000 square feet;
 
Paramus, located at the intersection of Routes 4 and 17 in Paramus, New Jersey, consists of 30.3 acres of land that is ground leased to IKEA; and

Flushing, a 167,000 square foot building, located on Roosevelt Avenue and Main Street in Queens, that is sub-leased to New World Mall LLC for the remainder of our ground lease term.
 
Property to be developed
Rego Park III, a 140,000 square foot land parcel adjacent to the Rego Park II shopping center in Queens, at the intersection of Junction Boulevard and the Horace Harding Service Road.
 
Relationship with Vornado
We are managed by, and our properties are leased and developed by, Vornado, pursuant to various agreements which expire in March of each year and are automatically renewable.  Vornado is a fully-integrated REIT with significant experience in managing, leasing, developing, and operating office and retail properties.

As of December 31, 2020, Vornado owned 32.4% of our outstanding common stock.  Steven Roth is the Chairman of our Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, the Managing General Partner of Interstate Properties (“Interstate”), a New Jersey general partnership, and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado.  As of December 31, 2020, Mr. Roth, Interstate and its other two general partners, David Mandelbaum and Russell B. Wight, Jr. (who are also directors of the Company and trustees of Vornado) owned, in the aggregate, 26.1% of our outstanding common stock, in addition to the 2.3% they indirectly own through Vornado. Matthew Iocco, our Chief Financial Officer, is the Executive Vice President - Chief Accounting Officer of Vornado. 


5


Significant Tenant
Bloomberg accounted for revenue of $109,066,000, $109,113,000 and $107,356,000 in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively, representing approximately 55%, 48% and 46% of our total revenues in each year, respectively.  No other tenant accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues.  If we were to lose Bloomberg as a tenant, or if Bloomberg were to be unable to fulfill its obligations under its lease, it would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.  In order to assist us in our continuing assessment of Bloomberg’s creditworthiness, we receive certain confidential financial information and metrics from Bloomberg.  In addition, we access and evaluate financial information regarding Bloomberg from other private sources, as well as publicly available data.
 
Competition
We operate in a highly competitive environment.  All of our properties are located in the greater New York City metropolitan area.  We compete with a large number of real estate investors, property owners and developers.  Principal factors of competition are rents charged, attractiveness of location, the quality of the property and the breadth and the quality of services provided.  Our success depends upon, among other factors, trends of the global, national and local economies, the financial condition and operating results of current and prospective tenants and customers, the availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, taxes, governmental regulations, legislation, population and employment trends, zoning laws, and our ability to lease, sublease or sell our properties, at profitable levels.  Our success is also subject to our ability to refinance existing debt on acceptable terms as it comes due.
 
Human Capital Resources
Since we are externally managed by Vornado, we do not have separate employees that provide management, leasing and development services. We currently have 70 property-level employees who provide cleaning, engineering and security services. Our employees are managed by Vornado in accordance with its employee policies and they have access to Vornado’s benefits, training and other programs.
 
Executive Office
Our executive office is located at 210 Route 4 East, Paramus, New Jersey, 07652 and our telephone number is (201) 587-8541.
 
Available Information
Copies of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, as well as Reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 regarding officers, directors, and 10% beneficial owners filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a), 15(d) or 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are available free of charge on our website (www.alx-inc.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).  Also available on our website are copies of our Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Corporate Governance Guidelines.  In the event of any changes to these items, revised copies will be made available on our website.  Copies of these documents are also available directly from us, free of charge. 
 
In May 2009, Vornado and Interstate each filed with the SEC an amendment to their respective Schedule 13D indicating that they, as a group, own 47.2% of our common stock.  This ownership level, together with the shares owned by Messrs. Roth, Mandelbaum and Wight, makes us a “controlled” company for the purposes of the New York Stock Exchange, Inc.’s Corporate Governance Standards (the “NYSE Rules”).  This means that we are not required to, among other things, have a majority of the members of our Board of Directors be independent under the NYSE Rules, have all of the members of our Compensation Committee be independent under the NYSE Rules or to have a Nominating Committee.  While we have voluntarily complied with a majority of the independence requirements of the NYSE Rules, we are under no obligation to do so and this situation may change at any time.
6


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Material factors that may adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition are summarized below.  The risks and uncertainties described herein may not be the only ones we face.  Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition. See “Forward-Looking Statements” contained herein on page 4.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR PROPERTIES AND INDUSTRY

Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows have been and are expected to continue to be adversely affected by the recent COVID-19 pandemic and the impact could be material to us.
Our business has been adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, our “non-essential” retail tenants were ordered to temporarily close and although substantially all re-opened in the latter part of June 2020, there are limitations on occupancy and other restrictions that affect their ability to resume full operations and impact their financial health. In limited circumstances, we have agreed to and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants.
Numerous Federal, state, local and industry-initiated efforts may also affect our ability to collect rent or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent. Certain of our tenants may incur significant costs or losses as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and/or incur other liabilities related to shelter-in-place orders, quarantines, infection or other related factors. Tenants that experience deteriorating financial conditions may be unwilling or unable to pay rent on a timely basis, or at all. Specifically, on September 10, 2020, Century 21, which leased 135,000 square feet at our Rego Park II shopping center, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused, and is likely to continue to cause, severe economic, market or other disruptions worldwide. Conditions in the bank lending, capital and other financial markets may deteriorate as a result of the pandemic, our access to capital and other sources of funding may become constrained and the ratios of our debt to asset values may deteriorate, which could adversely affect the availability and terms of future borrowings, renewals or refinancings. In addition, the deterioration of global, national, regional and local economic conditions as a result of the pandemic may ultimately decrease occupancy and/or rent levels across our portfolio as tenants reduce or defer their spending, which may result in less cash flow available for operating costs, to pay our indebtedness and for distribution to our stockholders and the impact could be material. In addition, the value of our real estate assets may decline, which may result in non-cash impairment charges in future periods and the impact could be material. The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak and governmental responses thereto, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict. Due to the speed with which the situation is developing, we are not able at this time to estimate the ultimate effect of these factors on our business, but the adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.


7


All of our properties are in the greater New York City metropolitan area and are affected by the economic cycles and risks inherent in that area.
All of our revenues come from properties located in the greater New York City metropolitan area. Real estate markets are subject to economic downturns and we cannot predict how economic conditions will impact this market in either the short or long term.  Recent declines in the economy and declines in the real estate market in this area, have hurt and could continue to hurt, our financial performance and the value of our properties.  In addition to the factors affecting the national economic condition generally, the factors affecting economic conditions in this area include:
 
financial performance and productivity of the media, advertising, professional services, financial, technology, retail, insurance and real estate industries;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
business layoffs or downsizing;
industry slowdowns;
relocations of businesses;
changing demographics;
increased telecommuting and use of alternative work places;
changes in the number of domestic and international tourists to our markets (including as a result of changes in the relative strengths of world currencies);
infrastructure quality;
changes in the rates or treatment of the deductibility of state and local taxes; and
any oversupply of, or reduced demand for, real estate.

It is impossible for us to predict the future or the effect of trends in the economic and investment climates of the greater New York City metropolitan region, and more generally of the United States, on the real estate market in this area.  Local, national or global economic downturns could negatively affect our business and profitability.

We may be adversely affected by trends in office real estate.
Work from home, flexible work schedules, open workplaces and teleconferencing are becoming more common and are expected to accelerate as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. These practices may enable businesses to reduce their office space requirements. There is also an increasing trend among some businesses to utilize shared office spaces and co-working spaces. A continuation of these trends could, over time, erode the overall demand for office space and, in turn, place downward pressure on occupancy, rental rates and property valuations.

We are subject to risks that affect the general and New York City retail environments.
Certain of our properties are New York City retail properties.  As such, these properties are affected by the general and New York City retail environments, including the level of consumer spending and consumer confidence, New York City tourism, the threat of terrorism, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing competition from on-line retailers, other retailers and outlet malls and the impact of technological change upon the retail environment generally. For a number of our tenants that operate retail businesses involving high contact interactions with their customers, the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their business has been particularly severe and the recovery more difficult, with customer traffic down significantly. Furthermore, it is unknowable whether consumers’ retail habits will return to norms that existed prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors could adversely affect the financial condition of our retail tenants, or result in the bankruptcy of such tenants, and the willingness of retailers to lease space in our retail locations, which could have an adverse effect on our business and profitability.
 
Terrorist attacks may adversely affect the value of our properties and our ability to generate cash flow.
All of our properties are located in the greater New York City metropolitan area, and our most significant property, 731 Lexington Avenue, is located on Lexington Avenue and 59th Street in Manhattan.  In response to a terrorist attack or the perceived threat of terrorism, tenants in this area may choose to relocate their businesses to less populated, lower-profile areas of the United States that may be perceived to be less likely targets of future terrorist activity and fewer customers may choose to patronize businesses in this area. This, in turn, could trigger a decrease in the demand for space in these markets, which could increase vacancies in our properties and force us to lease our properties on less favorable terms. Furthermore, we may experience increased costs for security, equipment and personnel. As a result, the value of our properties and the level of our revenues could decline materially.
 
8


Natural disasters and the effects of climate change could have a concentrated impact on the area which we operate and could adversely impact our results.
Our investments are in the greater New York City metropolitan area and since they are concentrated along the Eastern Seaboard, natural disasters, including hurricanes, could cause significant damage to our properties and the surrounding environment or area.  Potentially adverse consequences of “global warming,” including rising sea levels, could similarly have an impact on our properties and the economy of the greater New York City metropolitan area in which we operate. Government efforts to combat climate change may impact the cost of operating our properties and real estate in the New York City metropolitan area.  Over time, these conditions could result in declining demand for office space in our buildings or the inability of us to operate the buildings at all. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable, increasing the cost of energy at our properties and requiring us to expend funds as we seek to repair and protect our properties against such risks. The incurrence of these losses, costs or business interruptions may adversely affect our operating and financial results.

Our performance and the value of an investment in us are subject to risks associated with our real estate assets and with the real estate industry.
The value of our real estate and the value of an investment in us fluctuates depending on conditions in the general economy and the real estate business.  These conditions may also adversely impact our revenues and cash flows.
 
The factors that affect the value of our real estate include, among other things:
 
global, national, regional and local economic conditions;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
competition from other available space;
local conditions such as an oversupply of space or a reduction in demand for real estate in the area;
how well we manage our properties;
the development and/or redevelopment of our properties;
changes in market rental rates;
the timing and costs associated with property improvements and rentals;
whether we are able to pass all or portions of any increases in operating costs through to tenants;
political and regulatory conditions;
changes in real estate taxes and other expenses;  
the ability of state and local governments to operate within their budgets;
whether tenants and users such as customers and shoppers consider a property attractive;
changes in consumer preferences adversely affecting retailers and retail store values;
changes in space utilization by our tenants due to technology, economic conditions and business environment;
the financial condition of our tenants, including the extent of tenant bankruptcies or defaults;
consequences of any armed conflict involving, or terrorist attack against, the United States or individual acts of violence in public spaces;
trends in office real estate;
the impact on our retail tenants and demand for retail space at our properties due to increased competition from online shopping;
availability of financing on acceptable terms or at all;
inflation or deflation;
fluctuations in interest rates;
our ability to obtain adequate insurance;
changes in zoning laws and taxation;
government regulation;
potential liability under environmental or other laws or regulations;
natural disasters;
general competitive factors; and
climate changes.
 
The rents we receive and the occupancy levels at our properties may decline as a result of adverse changes in any of these factors.  If our rental revenues and/or occupancy levels decline, we generally would expect to have less cash available for operating costs, to pay our indebtedness and for distribution to our stockholders.  In addition, some of our major expenses, including mortgage payments, real estate taxes and maintenance costs generally do not decline when the related rents decline.
9


Real estate is a competitive business and that competition may adversely impact us.
We compete with a large number of real estate investors, property owners and developers, some of which may be willing to accept lower returns on their investments.  Principal factors of competition are rents charged, attractiveness of location, the quality of the property and the breadth and the quality of services provided.  Substantially all of our properties face competition from similar properties in the same market, which may adversely impact the rents we can charge at those properties and our results of operations.
 
We depend on leasing space to tenants on economically favorable terms and collecting rent from tenants who may not be able to pay.
Our financial results depend significantly on leasing space in our properties to tenants on economically favorable terms.  In addition, because a majority of our income is derived from renting real property, our income, funds available to pay indebtedness and for distributions to stockholders will decrease if certain of our tenants cannot pay their rent or if we are not able to maintain our occupancy levels on favorable terms.  If a tenant does not pay its rent, we might not be able to enforce our rights as landlord without delays and might incur substantial legal and other costs. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, Federal, state and local regulations and economic conditions have affected our ability to collect rent or enforce remedies for the failure to pay rent. Even if we are able to enforce our rights, a tenant may not have recoverable assets. Additionally, in limited circumstances, we have agreed and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants.

Bankruptcy or insolvency of tenants may decrease our revenues, net income and available cash.
From time to time, some of our tenants have declared bankruptcy, and other tenants may declare bankruptcy or become insolvent in the future. On September 10, 2020, Century 21, which leased 135,000 square feet at our Rego Park II shopping center ($6,400,000 of annual revenue), filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020. The bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant could cause us to suffer lower revenues and operational difficulties, including leasing the remainder of the property.  As a result, the bankruptcy or insolvency of a major tenant or multiple tenants could result in decreased revenues, net income and funds available to pay our indebtedness or make distributions to stockholders.

We depend upon anchor tenants to attract shoppers at our Rego Park I and II retail properties and decisions made by these tenants, or adverse developments in the businesses of these tenants, could materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Rego Park I and II retail properties are anchored by well-known department stores and other tenants who generate shopping traffic.  The value of these properties would be adversely affected if our anchor tenants failed to meet their contractual obligations, sought concessions in order to continue operations or ceased their operations, including as a result of bankruptcy.  If the level of sales of stores operating in our properties were to decline significantly due to economic conditions, increased competition from online shopping, closing of anchors or for other reasons, tenants may be unable to pay their minimum rents or expense recovery charges.  In the event of a default by a tenant or anchor, we may experience delays and costs in enforcing our rights as landlord. Additionally, closure of an anchor or major tenant could result in lease terminations by, or reductions of rent from, other tenants if the other tenants’ leases have co-tenancy clauses. On September 10, 2020, Century 21, which leased 135,000 square feet at our Rego Park II shopping center ($6,400,000 of annual revenue), filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020.

We may be unable to renew leases or relet space as leases expire.
When our tenants decide not to renew their leases upon their expiration, we may not be able to relet the space. Even if tenants do renew or we can relet the space, the terms of renewal or reletting, considering among other things, the cost of improvements to the property and leasing commissions, may be less favorable than the terms in the expired leases. In addition, changes in space utilization by our tenants may impact our ability to renew or relet space without the need to incur substantial costs in renovating or redesigning the internal configuration of the relevant property. If we are unable to promptly renew the leases or relet the space at similar rates or if we incur substantial costs in renewing or reletting the space, our cash flow and ability to service debt obligations and pay dividends and distributions to stockholders could be adversely affected.
  
731 Lexington Avenue accounts for a substantial portion of our revenues.  Loss of or damage to the building would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
731 Lexington Avenue accounted for revenue of $137,718,000, $153,797,000 and $151,834,000 in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively, representing approximately 69%, 68% and 65% of our total revenues in each year, respectively.  Loss of or damage to the building in excess of our insurance coverage, including as a result of a terrorist attack, would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
10


Bloomberg represents a significant portion of our revenues.  Loss of Bloomberg as a tenant or deterioration in Bloomberg’s credit quality could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Bloomberg accounted for revenue of $109,066,000, $109,113,000 and $107,356,000 in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively, representing approximately 55%, 48% and 46% of our total revenues in each year, respectively.  No other tenant accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues.  If we were to lose Bloomberg as a tenant, or if Bloomberg were to be unable to fulfill its obligations under its lease, it would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR OPERATIONS AND STRATEGIES

We may acquire, develop, or redevelop properties and this may create risks.
Although our stated business strategy is not to engage in acquisitions, we may acquire, develop or redevelop properties when we believe that an acquisition, development or redevelopment project is otherwise consistent with our business strategy.  We may not succeed in (i) developing, redeveloping or acquiring properties; (ii) completing these activities on time or within budget; and (iii) leasing or selling developed, redeveloped or acquired properties at amounts sufficient to cover our costs.  Competition in these activities could also significantly increase our costs. Difficulties in integrating acquisitions may prove costly or time-consuming and could divert management’s attention. Acquisitions, developments or redevelopments in new markets or types of properties where we do not have the same level of market knowledge may result in weaker than anticipated performance. We may also abandon acquisition, development or redevelopment opportunities that we have begun pursuing and consequently fail to recover expenses already incurred.  Furthermore, we may be exposed to the liabilities of properties acquired, some of which we may not be aware of at the time of acquisition.
 
We are exposed to risks associated with property redevelopment and repositioning that could adversely affect us, including our financial condition and results of operations.
We continue to engage in redevelopment and repositioning activities with respect to our properties, and, accordingly, we are subject to certain risks, which could adversely affect us, including our financial condition and results of operations. These risks include, without limitation, (i) the availability and pricing of financing on favorable terms or at all; (ii) the availability and timely receipt of zoning and other regulatory approvals; (iii) the potential for the fluctuation of occupancy rates and rents at redeveloped properties, which may result in our investment not being profitable; (iv) start up, repositioning and redevelopment costs may be higher than anticipated; (v) cost overruns and untimely completion of construction (including risks beyond our control, such as weather or labor conditions, or material shortages); (vi) the potential that we may fail to recover expenses already incurred if we abandon development or redevelopment opportunities after we begin to explore them; (vii) the potential that we may expend funds on and devote management time to projects which we do not complete; (viii) the inability to lease a property on schedule or at all, resulting in increased construction or redevelopment costs; and (ix) the possibility that properties will be leased at below expected rental rates. These risks could result in substantial unanticipated delays or expenses and could prevent the initiation or the completion of redevelopment activities, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, the market value of our common shares and ability to satisfy our principal and interest obligations and to make distributions to our stockholders.

It may be difficult to sell real estate timely, which may limit our flexibility.
Real estate investments are relatively illiquid. Consequently, we may have limited ability to dispose of assets in our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions which could have an adverse effect on our sources of working capital and our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.
 
We have an investment in marketable equity securities.  The value of this investment may decline as a result of operating performance or economic or market conditions.
We have an investment in The Macerich Company (“Macerich”), a retail shopping center company.  As of December 31, 2020, this investment had a carrying amount of $6,024,000. A decline in the value of this investment due to, among other reasons, Macerich’s operating performance or economic or market conditions, would result in recognized GAAP losses, which could be material.

11


RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDEBTEDNESS AND ACCESS TO CAPITAL

Substantially all of our assets are owned by subsidiaries.  We depend on dividends and distributions from these subsidiaries.  The creditors of these subsidiaries are entitled to amounts payable to them by the subsidiaries before the subsidiaries may pay any dividends or distributions to us.
Substantially all of our properties and assets are held through our subsidiaries.  We depend on cash distributions and dividends from our subsidiaries for substantially all of our cash flow.  The creditors of each of our direct and indirect subsidiaries are entitled to payment of that subsidiary’s obligations to them when due and payable before that subsidiary may make distributions or dividends to us.  Thus, our ability to pay dividends, if any, to our security holders depends on our subsidiaries’ ability to first satisfy their obligations to their creditors and our ability to satisfy our obligations, if any, to our creditors.
 
In addition, our participation in any distribution of the assets of any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries upon the liquidation, reorganization or insolvency of the subsidiary, is only after the claims of the creditors, including trade creditors, and preferred security holders, if any, of the applicable direct or indirect subsidiaries are satisfied. 

Our existing financing documents contain covenants and restrictions that may restrict our operational and financial flexibility.
As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding mortgage indebtedness of $1,164,544,000, secured by four of our properties.  These mortgages contain covenants that limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness on these properties, provide for lender approval of tenants’ leases in certain circumstances, and provide for yield maintenance or defeasance premiums to prepay them.  These mortgages may significantly restrict our operational and financial flexibility. In addition, if we were to fail to perform our obligations under existing indebtedness or become insolvent or were liquidated, secured creditors would be entitled to payment in full from the proceeds of the sale of the pledged assets prior to any proceeds being paid to other creditors or to any holders of our securities.  In such an event, it is possible that we would have insufficient assets remaining to make payments to other creditors or to any holders of our securities. 

We have a substantial amount of indebtedness that could affect our future operations.
As of December 31, 2020, total debt outstanding was $1,164,544,000. We are subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to meet required debt service. Our debt service costs generally will not be reduced if developments in the market or at our properties, such as the entry of new competitors or the loss of major tenants, cause a reduction in the income from our properties. Should such events occur, our operations may be adversely affected. If a property is mortgaged to secure payment of indebtedness and income from such property is insufficient to pay that indebtedness, the property could be foreclosed upon by the mortgagee resulting in a loss of income and a decline in our total asset value.
 
We have outstanding debt, and the amount of debt and its cost may increase and refinancing may not be available on acceptable terms.
As of December 31, 2020, total debt outstanding was $1,164,544,000 and our ratio of total debt to total enterprise value was 54.1%.  “Enterprise value” means the market equity value of our common stock, plus debt, less cash and cash equivalents at such date.  In addition, we have significant debt service obligations.  For the year ended December 31, 2020, our cash payments for principal and interest were $72,476,000.  In the future, we may incur additional debt, and thus increase the ratio of total debt to total enterprise value.  If our level of indebtedness increases, there may be an increased risk of default which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.  In addition, in a rising interest rate environment, the cost of refinancing our existing debt and any new debt or market rate security or instrument may increase.  Continued uncertainty in the equity and credit markets may negatively impact our ability to obtain financing on reasonable terms or at all, which may negatively affect our ability to refinance our debt.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE

Loss of our key personnel could harm our operations and adversely affect the value of our common stock.
We are dependent on the efforts of Steven Roth, our Chief Executive Officer.  Although we believe that we could find a replacement, the loss of his services could harm our operations and adversely affect the value of our common stock.


12


Alexander’s charter documents and applicable law may hinder any attempt to acquire us.
Provisions in Alexander’s certificate of incorporation and by laws, as well as provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) and Delaware corporate law, may delay or prevent a change in control of the Company or a tender offer, even if such action might be beneficial to stockholders, and limit the stockholders’ opportunity to receive a potential premium for their shares of common stock over then prevailing market prices.
 
Primarily to facilitate maintenance of its qualification as a REIT, Alexander’s certificate of incorporation generally prohibits ownership, directly, indirectly or beneficially, by any single stockholder of more than 9.9% of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any class or 4.9% of outstanding common stock of any class.  The Board of Directors may waive or modify these ownership limits with respect to one or more persons if it is satisfied that ownership in excess of these limits will not jeopardize Alexander’s status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.  In addition, the Board of Directors has, subject to certain conditions and limitations, exempted Vornado and certain of its affiliates from these ownership limitations.  Stock owned in violation of these ownership limits will be subject to the loss of rights and other restrictions.  These ownership limits may have the effect of inhibiting or impeding a change in control.
 
Alexander’s Board of Directors is divided into three classes of directors.  Directors of each class are chosen for three-year staggered terms.  Staggered terms of directors may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or management, even though changes in management or a change in control might be in the best interest of our stockholders.
 
In addition, Alexander’s charter documents authorize the Board of Directors to:
 
cause Alexander’s to issue additional authorized but unissued common stock or preferred stock;
classify or reclassify, in one or more series, any unissued preferred stock; and
set the preferences, rights and other terms of any classified or reclassified stock that Alexander’s issues.
 
The Board of Directors could establish a series of preferred stock with terms that could delay, deter or prevent a change in control of Alexander’s or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders, although the Board of Directors does not, at present, intend to establish a series of preferred stock of this kind.  Alexander’s charter documents contain other provisions that may delay, deter or prevent a change in control of the Company or other transaction that might involve a premium price or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
 
In addition, Vornado, Interstate and its three general partners (each of whom are both trustees of Vornado and Directors of Alexander’s) together beneficially own approximately 58.5% of our outstanding shares of common stock.  This degree of ownership is likely to reduce the possibility of a tender offer or an attempt to change control of the Company by a third party.
 
We may change our policies without obtaining the approval of our stockholders.
Our operating and financial policies, including our policies with respect to acquisitions of real estate or other assets, growth, operations, indebtedness, capitalization and dividends, are exclusively determined by our Board of Directors.  Accordingly, our stockholders do not control these policies.


13


Steven Roth, Vornado and Interstate may exercise substantial influence over us.  They and some of our other directors and officers have interests or positions in other entities that may compete with us.
As of December 31, 2020, Interstate and its partners owned approximately 7.0% of the common shares of beneficial interest of Vornado and approximately 26.1% of our outstanding common stock.  Steven Roth, David Mandelbaum and Russell B. Wight, Jr. are the partners of Interstate.  Mr. Roth is the Chairman of our Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado and the Managing General Partner of Interstate.  Mr. Wight and Mr. Mandelbaum are both trustees of Vornado and members of our Board of Directors.  In addition, Vornado manages and leases the real estate assets of Interstate.
 
As of December 31, 2020, Vornado owned 32.4% of our outstanding common stock, in addition to the 26.1% owned by Interstate and its partners.  In addition to the relationships described in the immediately preceding paragraph, Dr. Richard West and Mandakini Puri are both trustees of Vornado and members of our Board of Directors and Matthew Iocco, our Chief Financial Officer, is the Executive Vice President - Chief Accounting Officer of Vornado. 
 
Because of their overlapping interests, Vornado, Mr. Roth, Interstate and the other individuals noted in the preceding paragraphs may have substantial influence over Alexander’s, and on the outcome of any matters submitted to Alexander’s stockholders for approval.  In addition, certain decisions concerning our operations or financial structure may present conflicts of interest among Vornado, Messrs. Roth, Mandelbaum and Wight and Interstate and other security holders.  Vornado, Mr. Roth and Interstate may, in the future, engage in a wide variety of activities in the real estate business which may result in conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting us, such as, which of these entities or persons, if any, may take advantage of potential business opportunities, the business focus of these entities, the types of properties and geographic locations in which these entities make investments, potential competition between business activities conducted, or sought to be conducted, by us, competition for properties and tenants, possible corporate transactions such as acquisitions, and other strategic decisions affecting the future of these entities.
 
There may be conflicts of interest between Vornado, its affiliates and us.
Vornado manages, develops and leases our properties under agreements that have one-year terms expiring in March of each year, which are automatically renewable.  Because we share common senior management with Vornado and because five of the trustees of Vornado are on our Board of Directors, the terms of the foregoing agreements and any future agreements may not be comparable to those we could have negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.
 
For a description of Interstate’s ownership of Vornado and Alexander’s, see “Steven Roth, Vornado and Interstate may exercise substantial influence over us.  They and some of our other directors and officers have interests or positions in other entities that may compete with us.” above.

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RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON SHARES

The trading price of our common shares has been volatile and may continue to fluctuate.
The trading price of our common shares has been volatile and may continue to fluctuate widely as a result of several factors, many of which are outside of our control.  In addition, the stock market is subject to fluctuations in the share prices and trading volumes that affect the market prices of the shares of many companies.  These broad market fluctuations have in the past and may in the future adversely affect the market price of our common shares.  Among the factors that could affect the price of our common shares are:
our financial condition and performance;
the financial condition of our tenants, including the extent of tenant bankruptcies or defaults;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;
our dividend policy;
the reputation of REITs and real estate investments generally and the attractiveness of REIT equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate companies, and fixed income securities;
uncertainty and volatility in the equity and credit markets;
fluctuations in interest rates;
changes in revenue or earnings estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to our securities or those of other REITs;
failure to meet analysts’ revenue or earnings estimates;
speculation in the press or investment community;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;
the extent of institutional investor interest in us;
the extent of short-selling of our common shares and the shares of our competitors;
fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;
general financial and economic market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for REITs and other real estate related companies;
domestic and international economic factors unrelated to our performance;
changes in tax laws and rules; and
all other risk factors addressed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
A significant decline in our stock price could result in substantial losses for stockholders.
Alexander’s has additional shares of its common stock available for future issuance, which could decrease the market price of the common stock currently outstanding.
The interest of our current stockholders could be diluted if we issue additional equity securities.  As of December 31, 2020, we had authorized but unissued 4,826,550 shares of common stock, par value of $1.00 per share and 3,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $1.00 per share; of which 14,916 shares of common stock are reserved for issuance upon redemption of the deferred stock units previously granted to our Board of Directors.  In addition, 490,871 shares are available for future grant under the terms of our 2016 Omnibus Stock Plan.  These awards may be granted in the form of options, restricted stock, stock appreciation rights, deferred stock units, or other equity-based interests, and if granted, would reduce that number of shares available for future grants, provided however that an award that may be settled only in cash, would not reduce the number of shares available under the plan.  We cannot predict the impact that future issuances of common or preferred stock or any exercise of outstanding options or grants of additional equity-based interests would have on the market price of our common stock.


15


RISKS RELATED TO REGULATORY COMPLIANCE

We might fail to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT, and may be required to pay federal income taxes at corporate rates.
Although we believe that we will remain organized and will continue to operate so as to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we might fail to remain qualified.  Qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes is governed by highly technical and complex provisions of the Code for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations and depends on various facts and circumstances that are not entirely within our control.  In addition, legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions may significantly change the relevant tax laws and/or the federal income tax consequences of qualifying as a REIT. If, with respect to any taxable year, we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT and do not qualify under statutory relief provisions, we could not deduct distributions to stockholders in computing our taxable income and would have to pay federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. The federal income tax payable would include any applicable alternative minimum tax. If we had to pay federal income tax, the amount of money available to distribute to stockholders and pay our indebtedness would be reduced for the year or years involved, and we would no longer be required to make distributions to stockholders in that taxable year and in future years until we were able to qualify as a REIT and did so. In addition, we would also be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost, unless we were entitled to relief under the relevant statutory provisions.
 
We may face possible adverse changes in federal tax laws, which may result in an increase in our tax liability.
At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended. We cannot predict if or when any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, Treasury regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation, or interpretation may take effect retroactively. Alexander’s, its taxable REIT subsidiaries, and our security holders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, Treasury regulation or administrative interpretation.

We may incur significant costs to comply with environmental laws and environmental contamination may impair our ability to lease and/or sell real estate.
Our operations and properties are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations concerning the protection of the environment, including air and water quality, hazardous or toxic substances and health and safety.  Under some environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances released at a property.  The owner or operator may also be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage or personal injuries and for investigation and clean-up costs incurred by those parties because of the contamination.  These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of the release of the substances or caused the release.  The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination may also impair our ability to sell or lease real estate or to borrow using the real estate as collateral.  Other laws and regulations govern indoor and outdoor air quality including those that can require the abatement or removal of asbestos-containing materials in the event of damage, demolition, renovation or remodeling and govern emissions of and exposure to asbestos fibers in the air.  The maintenance and removal of lead paint and certain electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also regulated by federal and state laws.  We are also subject to risks associated with human exposure to chemical or biological contaminants such as molds, pollens, viruses and bacteria which, above certain levels, can be alleged to be connected to allergic or other health effects and symptoms in susceptible individuals.  We could incur fines for environmental compliance and be held liable for the costs of remedial action with respect to the foregoing regulated substances or related claims arising out of environmental contamination or human exposure to contamination at or from our properties.
 
Each of our properties has been subjected to varying degrees of environmental assessment.  To date, these environmental assessments have not revealed any environmental condition material to our business.  However, identification of new compliance concerns or undiscovered areas of contamination, changes in the extent or known scope of contamination, human exposure to contamination or changes in clean-up or compliance requirements could result in significant costs to us.
 
In addition, we may become subject to costs or taxes, or increases therein, associated with natural resource or energy usage (such as a “carbon tax”).  These costs or taxes could increase our operating costs and decrease the cash available to pay our obligations or distribute to stockholders.


16


We face risks associated with our tenants being designated “Prohibited Persons” by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and similar requirements. 
Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 and other laws, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the United States Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”) maintains a list of persons designated as terrorists or who are otherwise blocked or banned (“Prohibited Persons”) from conducting business or engaging in transactions in the United States and thereby restricts our doing business with such persons. In addition, our leases, loans and other agreements may require us to comply with OFAC and related requirements, and any failure to do so may result in a breach of such agreements.  If a tenant or other party with whom we conduct business is placed on the OFAC list or is otherwise a party with whom we are prohibited from doing business, we may be required to terminate the lease or other agreement or face other penalties.  Any such termination could result in a loss of revenue or otherwise negatively affect our financial results and cash flows.

We may face possible adverse state and local tax audits and changes in state and local tax law.
Because we are organized and qualify as a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income taxes, but we are subject to certain state and local taxes. In the normal course of business, certain entities through which we own real estate have undergone tax audits. There can be no assurance that future audits will not occur with increased frequency or that the ultimate result of such audits will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

From time to time changes in state and local tax laws or regulations are enacted, which may result in an increase in our tax liability. A shortfall in tax revenues for states and municipalities in which we operate may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional taxes on our assets or income. These increased tax costs could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and the amount of cash available for the payment of dividends and distributions to our stockholders.

Compliance or failure to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) or other safety regulations and requirements could result in substantial costs.

The ADA generally requires that public buildings, including our properties, meet certain Federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons.  Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by the Federal government or the award of damages to private litigants and/or legal fees to their counsel.  If, under the ADA, we are required to make substantial alterations and capital expenditures in one or more of our properties, including the removal of access barriers, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the amount of cash available for distribution to stockholders.

Our properties are subject to various federal, state and local regulatory requirements, such as state and local fire and life safety requirements.  If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could incur fines or private damage awards.  We do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether compliance with future requirements will require significant unanticipated expenditures that will affect our cash flow and results of operations.


17


GENERAL RISKS

The occurrence of cyber incidents, or a deficiency in our cyber security, as well as other disruptions of our IT networks and related systems, could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships or reputation, all of which could negatively impact our financial results.
We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber attacks or cyber intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, persons who access our systems from inside or outside our organization, and other significant disruptions of our IT networks and related systems. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Although we have not experienced cyber incidents that are individually, or in the aggregate, material, we have experienced cyber attacks in the past, which have thus far been mitigated by preventative, detective, and responsive measures that we have put in place. Our IT networks and related systems are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations (including managing our building systems) and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of IT networks and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Unauthorized parties, whether within or outside our company, may disrupt or gain access to our systems, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through human error, misfeasance, fraud, trickery, or other forms of deceit, including break-ins, use of stolen credentials, social engineering, phishing, computer viruses or other malicious codes, and similar means of unauthorized and destructive tampering. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed to not be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.
 
A security breach or other significant disruption involving our IT networks and related systems could disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our operations and/or those of certain of our tenants; result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or others, which others could use to compete against us or which could expose us to damage claims by third-parties for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes; result in our inability to maintain the building systems relied upon by our tenants for the efficient use of their leased space; require significant management attention and resources to remedy any damages that result; subject us to litigation claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, fines, penalties, governmental investigations and enforcement actions or termination of leases or other agreements; or damage our reputation among our tenants and investors generally. Any or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A cyber attack or systems failure could interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting requirements, which could adversely affect us. A cyber attack could also compromise the confidential information of our employees, tenants, customers and vendors. A successful attack could disrupt and materially affect our business operations, including damaging relationships with tenants, customers and vendors. Any compromise of our information security systems could also result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation, loss or misuse of the information (which may be confidential, proprietary and/or commercially sensitive in nature) and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could harm our business.


18


Capital markets and economic conditions can materially affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations as well as the value of an investment in our debt and equity securities.

There are many factors that can affect the value of our equity securities and any debt securities we may issue in the future, including the state of the capital markets and economy.  Demand for office and retail space typically declines nationwide due to an economic downturn, bankruptcies, downsizing, layoffs and cost cutting.  Government action or inaction may adversely affect the state of the capital markets.  The cost and availability of credit may be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads, which may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, including our results of operations, and the liquidity and financial condition of our tenants.  Our inability or the inability of our tenants to timely refinance maturing liabilities and access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs may materially affect our financial condition and results of operations and the value of our equity securities and any debt securities we may issue in the future.
 
Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance.
We maintain general liability insurance with limits of $300,000,000 per occurrence and per property, of which the first $1,000,000 includes communicable disease coverage, and all-risk property and rental value insurance coverage with limits of $1.7 billion per occurrence, including coverage for acts of terrorism, with sub-limits for certain perils such as floods and earthquakes on each of our properties and excluding communicable disease coverage.
Fifty Ninth Street Insurance Company, LLC (“FNSIC”), our wholly owned consolidated subsidiary, acts as a direct insurer for coverage for acts of terrorism, including nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological (“NBCR”) acts, as defined by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, as amended to date and which has been extended through December 2027. Coverage for acts of terrorism (including NBCR acts) is up to $1.7 billion per occurrence and in the aggregate. Coverage for acts of terrorism (excluding NBCR acts) is fully reinsured by third party insurance companies and the Federal government with no exposure to FNSIC. For NBCR acts, FNSIC is responsible for a $275,000 deductible and 20% of the balance of a covered loss, and the Federal government is responsible for the remaining 80% of a covered loss. We are ultimately responsible for any loss incurred by FNSIC.
We continue to monitor the state of the insurance market and the scope and costs of coverage for acts of terrorism or other events. However, we cannot anticipate what coverage will be available on commercially reasonable terms in the future. We are responsible for uninsured losses and for deductibles and losses in excess of our insurance coverage, which could be material.
The principal amounts of our mortgage loans are non-recourse to us and the loans contain customary covenants requiring us to maintain insurance. Although we believe that we have adequate insurance coverage for purposes of these agreements, we may not be able to obtain an equivalent amount of coverage at reasonable costs in the future. If lenders insist on greater coverage than we are able to obtain, it could adversely affect our ability to finance or refinance our properties.
 

19


Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may affect our financial results.
The chief executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), announced that the FCA intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. In response, the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York organized the Alternative Reference Rates Committee which identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as its preferred alternative to USD-LIBOR in derivatives and other financial contracts. In November 2020, the ICE Benchmark Administration Limited, the benchmark administrator for USD LIBOR rates, proposed extending the publication of certain commonly used USD LIBOR settings until June 30, 2023 and the FCA issued a statement supporting such proposal. In connection with this proposal, certain U.S. banking regulators issued guidance strongly encouraging banks to generally cease entering into new contracts referencing USD LIBOR as soon as practicable and in any event by December 31, 2021. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, including when LIBOR will cease to be available or when there will be sufficient liquidity in the SOFR markets.

We have outstanding debt with variable rates based on LIBOR. In the transition from the use of LIBOR to SOFR or other alternatives, the level of interest payments we incur may change. In addition, although certain of our LIBOR based obligations provide for alternative methods of calculating the related interest rate payable (including transition to an alternative benchmark rate) if LIBOR is not reported, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher than, lower than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the interest rates and/or payments that would have been made on our obligations if LIBOR was available in its current form. Use of alternative interest rates or other LIBOR reforms could result in increased volatility or a tightening of credit markets which could adversely affect our ability to obtain cost-effective financing. In addition, the transition of our existing LIBOR financing agreements to alternative benchmarks may result in unanticipated changes to the overall interest rate paid on our liabilities.

ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
There are no unresolved comments from the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 
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ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
The following table shows the location, ownership, approximate size (excluding parking garages) and occupancy of each of our properties as of December 31, 2020.
   Square Feet Weighted     
UnderAverage
    Development OrIn ServiceEscalated   Lease Expiration(s) 
  LandTotal Not AvailableOccupancyAnnual  OriginalOption 
PropertyAcreagePropertyIn ServiceFor LeaseRate
Rent PSF (1)
Tenants
Term (2)
Term (3)
Operating Properties:         
731 Lexington Avenue         
 New York, NY         
 Office 920,000 920,000 — 100%$130.00 Bloomberg L.P.20292039 
 Retail 83,000 83,000 —    The Home Depot20252035 
   34,000 34,000 —    The Container Store2021N/A 
   38,000 38,000 —    VariousVariousVarious 
   155,000 155,000 — 93%278.46     
  1.91,075,000 1,075,000 —        
Rego Park I         
 Queens, NY         
112,000 112,000 — IKEA 2025(4)2030
   50,000 50,000 —    Burlington 2027N/A 
   46,000 46,000 —    Bed Bath & Beyond2026N/A 
   36,000 36,000 —    Marshalls2032N/A 
   16,000 16,000 —    Old Navy2022N/A 
78,000 — 78,000 (5)N/AN/A
  4.8338,000 260,000 78,000 100%53.58     
Rego Park II         
 Queens, NY         
   145,000 145,000 —    Costco20342059 
   135,000 135,000 —    
      Century 21 (6)
20312051 
   133,000 133,000 —    
        Kohl’s (7)
20312051 
   196,000 196,000 —    VariousVariousVarious 
  6.6609,000 609,000 — 96%59.73    
The Alexander apartment tower, 312 units         
 Queens, NY255,000 255,000 — 82%
     46.26 (8)
Residential(9)N/A 
Paramus         
 Paramus, NJ 30.3— — — 100% IKEA (ground lessee)2041(10)N/A 
Flushing         
 
Queens, NY (11)
1167,000 167,000 — 100%32.09 New World Mall LLC20272037 
Property to be Developed:        
Rego Park III, adjacent to Rego Park II
         
 Queens, NY3.2— — —   
   2,444,000 2,366,000 78,000        
(1)Represents the weighted average escalated annual rent per square foot, which includes tenant reimbursements and excludes the impact of tenant concessions (such as free rent), as of December 31, 2020.  For a discussion of our leasing activity, see Item 7 - Overview - Square Footage, Occupancy and Leasing Activity.
(2)Represents the year in which the tenant’s lease expires, without consideration of any renewal or extension options. Lease expiration dates are based on non-cancelable lease terms and do not extend beyond any early termination rights that the tenant may have under its lease.
(3)Represents the year in which the tenant’s lease expires if all renewal or extension options are exercised.
(4)IKEA has the option to terminate its lease after the fifth year of the lease term subject to payment to us of the lesser of $10,000,000 or the amount of rent due under the remaining term.
(5)Formerly occupied by Sears. Currently out of service due to redevelopment.
(6)
On September 10, 2020, Century 21 filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020.
(7)Subleased through remaining original lease term.
(8)Average monthly rent per unit is $3,212.
(9)Residential tenants have one or two year leases.
(10)IKEA’s lease has a purchase option in October 2021.
(11)Ground leased through January 2027 with one 10-year extension option.
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Operating Properties
 731 Lexington Avenue
731 Lexington Avenue, a 1,323,000 square foot multi-use building, comprises the entire block bounded by Lexington Avenue, East 59th Street, Third Avenue and East 58th Street in Manhattan, New York, and is situated in the heart of one of Manhattan’s busiest business and shopping districts, with convenient access to several subway and bus lines. The property is located across the street from Bloomingdale’s flagship store and only a few blocks away from Fifth Avenue and 57th Street.  The building contains 920,000 and 155,000 of net rentable square feet of office and retail space, respectively, which we own, and 248,000 square feet of residential space consisting of 105 condominium units, which we sold.  Bloomberg occupies all of the office space.  The Home Depot (83,000 square feet) is the principal retail tenant.
 
The office portion of 731 Lexington Avenue is encumbered by a mortgage loan with a balance of $500,000,000 which matures in June 2021, with three one-year unilateral extension options.  The interest-only loan is at LIBOR plus 0.90% (1.06% as of December 31, 2020). In connection therewith, we purchased an interest rate cap with a notional amount of $500,000,000 that caps LIBOR at a rate of 6.0%. 
 
The retail portion of 731 Lexington Avenue is encumbered by a mortgage loan with a balance of $300,000,000 which matures in August 2025. The interest-only loan is at LIBOR plus 1.40% (1.55% as of December 31, 2020) which is subject to an interest rate swap with a fixed rate of 1.72%.
 
Rego Park I
Rego Park I, a 338,000 square foot shopping center, located on Queens Boulevard and 63rd Road in Queens, New York. The center is anchored by a 112,000 square foot IKEA, a 50,000 square foot Burlington, a 46,000 square foot Bed Bath & Beyond and a 36,000 square foot Marshalls. The center contains a parking deck (1,241 spaces) that provides for paid parking.
  
Rego Park II
Rego Park II, a 609,000 square foot shopping center, adjacent to the Rego Park I shopping center in Queens, New York. The center is anchored by a 145,000 square foot Costco and a 133,000 square foot Kohl’s, which has been subleased. On September 10, 2020, Century 21 ($6,400,000 of annual revenue) filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its 135,000 square foot store on December 7, 2020. The center contains a parking deck (1,326 spaces) that provides for paid parking.

This center is encumbered by a mortgage loan in the amount of $252,544,000 which matures in December 2025. The interest-only loan is at LIBOR plus 1.35% (1.50% as of December 31, 2020). As of December 31, 2020, we have a participation in the mortgage in the amount of $50,000,000 which for GAAP purposes is netted against the mortgage balance. Therefore, the balance sheet amount of the mortgage loan is $202,544,000.

The Alexander Apartment Tower

The Alexander apartment tower, located above our Rego Park II shopping center, contains 312 units aggregating 255,000 square feet.
 
The property is encumbered by a mortgage loan in the amount of $94,000,000 which matures in November 2027. The interest-only loan has a fixed rate of 2.63%.
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Operating Properties - continued

Paramus

We own 30.3 acres of land located at the intersection of Routes 4 and 17 in Paramus, New Jersey.  The land is located directly across from the Garden State Plaza regional shopping mall and is within two miles of three other regional shopping malls and ten miles of New York City.  The land has been ground leased to IKEA since 2001.  The lease expires in 2041, with a purchase option in October 2021 for $75,000,000.  The property is encumbered by a $68,000,000 interest-only mortgage loan with a fixed rate of 4.72%, which matures in October 2021.  The annual triple-net rent is the sum of $700,000 plus the amount of interest on the mortgage loan. If the purchase option is exercised, we will receive net cash proceeds of approximately $7,000,000 and recognize a gain on sale of land of approximately $60,000,000.  If the purchase option is not exercised, the triple-net rent for the last 20 years would include debt service sufficient to fully amortize $68,000,000 over the remaining 20-year lease term.
 
Flushing
Our Flushing property is located on Roosevelt Avenue and Main Street in the downtown, commercial section of Flushing, Queens, New York.  Roosevelt Avenue and Main Street are active shopping districts and there are many national retailers located in the area.  A subway entrance is located directly in front of the property with bus service across the street.  The property comprises a four-floor building containing 167,000 square feet and a parking garage, which is sub-leased to New World Mall LLC for the remainder of our ground lease term, which expires in January 2027 and has one 10-year extension option.
 
Property to be Developed
 
Rego Park III
We own a 140,000 square foot land parcel adjacent to the Rego Park II shopping center in Queens, New York, at the intersection of Junction Boulevard and the Horace Harding Service Road.  The land is currently being used for paid public parking. In 2016, the Company started the entitlement process.


23


ITEM 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are from time to time involved in legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business.  In our opinion, after consultation with our legal counsel, the outcome of such matters will not have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. 
 
In June 2014, Sears Roebuck and Co. (“Sears”) filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court of the State of New York against Vornado and us (and certain of our subsidiaries) with regard to the 195,000 square foot store that Sears formerly leased at our Rego Park I property alleging that the defendants are liable for harm that Sears has suffered as a result of (a) water intrusions into the premises, (b) two fires in February 2014 that caused damages to those premises, and (c) alleged violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act in the premises’ parking garage. Sears asserted various causes of actions for damages and sought to compel compliance with landlord’s obligations to repair the premises and to provide security, and to compel us to abate a nuisance that Sears claims was a cause of the water intrusions into its premises. In addition to injunctive relief, Sears sought, among other things, damages of not less than $4,000,000 and future damages it estimated would not be less than $25,000,000. In March 2016, Sears withdrew its claim for future damages leaving a remaining claim for property damages, which we estimate to be approximately $650,000 based on information provided by Sears. We intend to defend the remaining claim vigorously. The amount or range of reasonably possible losses, if any, is not expected to be greater than $650,000. On October 15, 2018, Sears filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy relief resulting in an automatic stay of this case.

ITEM 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
24


PART II
 
ITEM 5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “ALX.” 
  
As of January 31, 2021, there were 206 holders of record of our common stock. 

 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
None.
 
Information relating to compensation plans under which our equity securities are authorized for issuance is set forth under Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and such information is incorporated by reference herein.
 
 
Recent Purchases of Equity Securities
 
None.

25


Performance Graph
 
The following graph is a comparison of the five-year cumulative return of our common stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index (the “S&P 500 Index”) and the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts’ (“NAREIT”) All Equity Index, a peer group index.  The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2015 in our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the NAREIT All Equity Index and that all dividends were reinvested without the payment of any commissions.  There can be no assurance that the performance of our stock will continue in line with the same or similar trends depicted in the graph below.

alx-20201231_g1.jpg  

  201520162017201820192020
Alexander’s$100 $116 $112 $90 $103 $92 
S&P 500 Index100 112 136 130 171 203 
The NAREIT All Equity Index100 109 118 113 146 138 

ITEM 6.   SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

None.

26


ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview

Alexander’s, Inc. (NYSE: ALX) is a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), incorporated in Delaware, engaged in leasing, managing, developing and redeveloping its properties.  All references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Company” and “Alexander’s” refer to Alexander’s, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.  We are managed by, and our properties are leased and developed by, Vornado Realty Trust (“Vornado”) (NYSE: VNO).  We have seven properties in the greater New York City metropolitan area.
 
We compete with a large number of property owners and developers.  Our success depends upon, among other factors, trends of the global, national and local economies, the financial condition and operating results of current and prospective tenants and customers, the availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, taxes, governmental regulations, legislation, population and employment trends, zoning laws, and our ability to lease, sublease or sell our properties, at profitable levels.  Our success is also subject to our ability to refinance existing debt on acceptable terms as it comes due.

In January 2021, the SEC issued Final Rule Release No. 33-10890, Management’s Discussion and Analysis, Selected Financial Data, and Supplementary Financial Information. This rule, which became effective on February 10, 2021, adopts amendments to modernize, simplify and enhance certain financial disclosure requirements in Regulation S-K. Specifically, the amendments eliminate the requirement for Selected Financial Data, streamline the requirement to disclose Supplementary Financial Information, and amend our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”). We early adopted the amendments to two items resulting in the elimination of Item 301, Selected Financial Data, and the omission of Item 302(a), Supplementary Financial Information. The amendments to Item 303(a)(b) MD&A, will be adopted in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.

COVID-19 Pandemic
Our business has been adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, our “non-essential” retail tenants were ordered to temporarily close and although substantially all re-opened in the latter part of June 2020, there are limitations on occupancy and other restrictions that affect their ability to resume full operations.
In limited circumstances, we have agreed to and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants. We have made the policy election available to us based on the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) guidance for leases during the COVID-19 pandemic, which allows us to continue recognizing rental revenue for rent deferral agreements and to recognize rent abatements as a reduction to rental revenue in the period granted. See Note 3 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Overall, we have collected approximately 95% of rent billed for the quarter ended December 31, 2020 (96% including rent deferrals under agreements which generally require repayment in monthly installments over a period of time not to exceed twelve months), including 100% for our office tenant, approximately 90% for our retail tenants (91% including rent deferrals) and approximately 98% for our residential tenants.
On September 10, 2020, Century 21, which leased 135,000 square feet at our Rego Park II shopping center ($6,400,000 of annual revenue), filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020.
Based on our assessment of the probability of collecting rent from certain tenants, we have written off as uncollectible tenant receivables of $4,122,000 during the year ended December 31, 2020, resulting in a reduction of rental revenues. Of this amount, $2,716,000 is attributable to Century 21. In addition, we have written off receivables arising from the straight-lining of rents related to these tenants of $10,837,000 during the year ended December 31 2020, resulting in a reduction of rental revenues. Of this amount, $5,919,000 is attributable to Century 21. Prospectively, revenue recognition for these tenants will be based on actual amounts received.
 

27


Overview - continued
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Financial Results Summary
Net income for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $41,939,000 or $8.19 per diluted share, compared to $60,075,000, or $11.74 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Funds from operations (“FFO”) (non-GAAP) for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $82,509,000, or $16.11 per diluted share, compared to $99,670,000, or $19.47 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Quarter Ended December 31, 2020 Financial Results Summary
Net income for the quarter ended December 31, 2020 was $18,432,000, or $3.60 per diluted share, compared to $14,434,000, or $2.82 per diluted share for the quarter ended December 31, 2019.

FFO (non-GAAP) for the quarter ended December 31, 2020 was $25,407,000, or $4.96 per diluted share, compared to $24,626,000, or $4.81 per diluted share for the quarter ended December 31, 2019.

Square Footage, Occupancy and Leasing Activity
 
As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio was comprised of seven properties aggregating 2,444,000 square feet, of which 2,366,000 square feet was in service and 78,000 square feet (a portion of our Rego Park I shopping center) was out of service due to redevelopment. The in service square feet was 97% occupied as of December 31, 2020.
Financing Activity
On February 14, 2020, we reduced our participation in our Rego Park II shopping center loan to $50,000,000 and received cash proceeds of approximately $145,000,000.
On September 14, 2020, we amended and extended the $350,000,000 mortgage loan on the retail condominium of our 731 Lexington Avenue property. Under the terms of the amendment, we paid down the loan by $50,000,000 to $300,000,000, extended the maturity date to August 2025 and guaranteed the interest payments and certain leasing costs. The principal of the loan is non-recourse to us. The interest-only loan is at LIBOR plus 1.40% (1.55% as of December 31, 2020) which is subject to an interest rate swap with a fixed rate of 1.72%.
On October 23, 2020, we completed a financing of The Alexander apartment tower in the amount of $94,000,000. The interest-only loan has a fixed rate of 2.63% and matures in November 2027.

Significant Tenant

Bloomberg accounted for revenue of $109,066,000, $109,113,000, and $107,356,000 in the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, representing approximately 55%, 48% and 46% of our total revenues in each year, respectively.  No other tenant accounted for more than 10% of our total revenues.  If we were to lose Bloomberg as a tenant, or if Bloomberg were to be unable to fulfill its obligations under its lease, it would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.  In order to assist us in our continuing assessment of Bloomberg’s creditworthiness, we receive certain confidential financial information and metrics from Bloomberg.  In addition, we access and evaluate financial information regarding Bloomberg from other private sources, as well as publicly available data.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.  Set forth below is a summary of our accounting policies that we believe are critical to the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.  This summary should be read in conjunction with a more complete discussion of our accounting policies included in Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates - continued

Real Estate
 
Real estate is carried at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization.  As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the carrying amount of our real estate, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization, was $720,921,000 and $716,843,000, respectively.  Maintenance and repairs are generally expensed as incurred.  Depreciation requires an estimate by management of the useful life of each property and improvement as well as an allocation of the costs associated with a property to its various components. If we do not allocate these costs appropriately or incorrectly estimate the useful lives of our real estate, depreciation expense may be misstated. We capitalize all property operating expenses directly associated with and attributable to, the development and construction of a project, including interest expense. The capitalization period begins when development activities are underway and ends when it is determined that the asset is substantially complete and ready for its intended use, which is typically evidenced by the receipt of a temporary certificate of occupancy. General and administrative costs are expensed as incurred.

Our properties, including properties to be developed in the future, are individually reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable.  An impairment exists when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset, including an estimated terminal value calculated using an appropriate capitalization rate.  Estimates of future cash flows are based on our current plans, intended holding periods and available market information at the time the analyses are prepared.  For our development properties, estimates of future cash flows also include all future expenditures necessary to develop the asset, including interest payments that will be capitalized as part of the cost of the asset.  An impairment loss is recognized only if the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable and is measured based on the excess of the property’s carrying amount over its estimated fair value.  If our estimates of future cash flows, anticipated holding periods, or fair values change, based on market conditions or otherwise, our evaluation of impairment charges may be different and such differences could be material to our consolidated financial statements.  Estimates of future cash flows are subjective and are based, in part, on assumptions regarding future occupancy, rental rates and capital requirements that could differ materially from actual results.  Plans to hold properties over longer periods decrease the likelihood of recording impairment losses.
Revenue Recognition
Our rental revenues include revenues from the leasing of space to tenants at our properties and revenues from parking and tenant services. We have the following revenue recognition policies:
• Lease revenues from the leasing of space to tenants at our properties. Revenues derived from base rent are recognized over the non-cancelable term of the related leases on a straight-line basis which includes the effects of rent steps and rent abatements. We commence rental revenue recognition when the underlying asset is available for use by the lessee. In addition, in circumstances where we provide a tenant improvement allowance for improvements that are owned by the tenant, we recognize the allowance as a reduction of rental revenue on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Revenues derived from the reimbursement of real estate taxes, insurance expenses and common area maintenance expenses are generally recognized in the same period as the related expenses are incurred. As lessor, we have elected to combine the lease components (base and variable rent), non-lease components (reimbursements of common area maintenance expenses) and reimbursement of real estate taxes and insurance expenses from our operating lease agreements and account for the components as a single lease component in accordance with ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”).
• Parking revenue arising from the rental of parking spaces at our properties. This income is recognized as the services are transferred in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”).
•     Tenant services is revenue arising from sub-metered electric, elevator and other services provided to tenants at their request. This revenue is recognized as the services are transferred in accordance with ASC 606.
 
Under ASC 842, we must assess on an individual lease basis whether it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the future lease payments. We consider the tenant’s payment history and current credit status when assessing collectability. When collectability is not deemed probable, we write-off the tenant’s receivables, including straight-line rent receivable, and limit lease income to cash received. We recognize changes in the collectability assessment of our operating leases as adjustments to rental revenues.

29


Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates - continued
Income Taxes
We operate in a manner intended to enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT under Sections 856 – 860 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).  In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code, we must distribute at least 90% of our taxable income to stockholders each year.  We distribute to our stockholders 100% of our taxable income and therefore, no provision for Federal income taxes is required.  If we fail to distribute the required amount of income to our stockholders, or fail to meet other REIT requirements, we may fail to qualify as a REIT, which may result in substantial adverse tax consequences.

30


Results of Operations – Year Ended December 31, 2020 compared to December 31, 2019
 
Rental Revenues
Rental revenues were $199,142,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $226,350,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $27,208,000.  This decrease was primarily due to (i) $10,837,000 from the write-off of receivables arising from the straight-lining of rents from certain of our retail tenants, of which $5,919,000 is attributable to Century 21, (ii) $10,512,000 from retail tenant vacancies at our 731 Lexington Avenue property and (iii) $5,590,000 of lower rental income from certain of our retail tenants which were deemed uncollectible, of which $3,036,000 is attributable to Century 21.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses were $88,403,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $89,738,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $1,335,000.  This decrease was primarily due to lower operating expenses subject to recovery, including utilities and common area maintenance.
 
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization was $32,357,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $31,351,000 in the prior year, an increase of $1,006,000. This increase is primarily due to the acceleration of amortization of deferred leasing costs related to Century 21 at our Rego Park II property.
 
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses were $6,307,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $5,772,000 in the prior year, an increase of $535,000. This increase was primarily due to higher stock-based compensation expense in connection with the fair value of deferred stock units granted to a newly appointed member of our Board of Directors during the second quarter of 2020, comprised of an initial award of $150,000 and a $56,000 annual award and $245,000 due to higher professional fees.
 
Interest and Other Income, net
Interest and other income, net was $2,667,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $8,244,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $5,577,000. This decrease was primarily due to $5,216,000 of lower interest income due to a decrease in interest rates.
 
Interest and Debt Expense
Interest and debt expense was $24,204,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $38,901,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $14,697,000. This decrease was primarily due to $15,149,000 of lower interest expense due to a decrease in LIBOR.
  
Change in Fair Value of Marketable Securities
Change in fair value of marketable securities was an expense of $8,599,000 in the year ended December 31, 2020, consisting of $8,698,000 resulting from a decrease in Macerich’s share price of $16.25 on 535,265 shares owned, partially offset by $99,000 resulting from an increase in Macerich’s share price of $3.37 on 29,347 shares owned. Change in fair value of marketable securities was an expense of $8,757,000 in the prior year, resulting from a decrease in Macerich’s share prices of $16.36 on 535,265 shares owned.

31


Results of Operations – Year Ended December 31, 2019 compared to December 31, 2018
 
Rental Revenues
Rental revenues were $226,350,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $232,825,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $6,475,000.  This decrease was primarily due to the Sears vacancy effective October 2018 at our Rego Park I property. 
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses were $89,738,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $93,775,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $4,037,000.  This decrease was primarily due to bad debt expense in 2018 of $4,459,000, primarily due to the Sears bankruptcy and lease termination.
 
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization was $31,351,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $33,089,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $1,738,000. This decrease was primarily due to acceleration of depreciation and amortization in 2018 related to the Toys “R” Us, Inc. bankruptcy and lease termination at our Rego Park II property.
 
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses were $5,772,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $5,343,000 in the prior year, an increase of $429,000. This increase was primarily due to higher professional fees.
 
Interest and Other Income, net
Interest and other income, net was $8,244,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $12,546,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $4,302,000. This decrease was primarily due to (i) $7,126,000 of interest income in 2018 from our Rego Park II loan participation (on December 12, 2018, we refinanced our $252,544,000 Rego Park II shopping center mortgage loan and GAAP required that our loan participation be treated as an extinguishment of debt), partially offset by (ii) $1,364,000 of higher interest income due to an increase in average interest rates and (iii) $1,600,000 of expense in 2018 from a litigation settlement.
 
Interest and Debt Expense
Interest and debt expense was $38,901,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $44,533,000 in the prior year, a decrease of $5,632,000. This decrease was primarily due to $7,178,000 of lower interest expense due to the refinancing of our Rego Park II shopping center loan, partially offset by $1,810,000 of higher interest expense resulting from an increase in average interest rates.
  
Change in Fair Value of Marketable Securities
Change in fair value of marketable securities was an expense of $8,757,000 in the year ended December 31, 2019, resulting from Macerich’s closing share prices of $26.92 and $43.28 as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, on 535,265 shares owned. Change in fair value of marketable securities was an expense of $11,990,000 in the prior year, resulting from Macerich’s closing share prices of $43.28 and $65.68 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
 
Loss from Discontinued Operations
Loss from discontinued operations was $23,797,000 in the year ended December 31, 2018. The loss was due to an expense for potential additional real property transfer taxes from the 2012 sale of the Kings Plaza Regional Shopping Center (“Kings Plaza”). See Note 7 – Discontinued Operations, to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
32


Related Party Transactions
 
Vornado
As of December 31, 2020, Vornado owned 32.4% of our outstanding common stock.  We are managed by, and our properties are leased and developed by, Vornado, pursuant to various agreements, which expire in March of each year and are automatically renewable.  These agreements are described in Note 5 – Related Party Transactions, to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Steven Roth is the Chairman of our Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, the Managing General Partner of Interstate Properties (“Interstate”), a New Jersey general partnership, and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer of Vornado.  As of December 31, 2020, Mr. Roth, Interstate and its other two general partners, David Mandelbaum and Russell B. Wight, Jr. (who are also directors of the Company and trustees of Vornado) owned, in the aggregate, 26.1% of our outstanding common stock, in addition to the 2.3% they indirectly own through Vornado. Matthew Iocco, our Chief Financial Officer, is the Executive Vice President - Chief Accounting Officer of Vornado. 

Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Rental revenue is our primary source of cash flow and is dependent on a number of factors, including the occupancy level and rental rates of our properties, as well as our tenants’ ability to pay their rents. Our properties provide us with a relatively consistent stream of cash flow that enables us to pay our operating expenses, interest expense, recurring capital expenditures and cash dividends to stockholders. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in limited circumstances, we have agreed to and may continue to agree to rent deferrals and abatements for certain of our tenants. Overall, we have collected approximately 95% of rent billed for the quarter ended December 31, 2020 (96% including rent deferrals under agreements which generally require repayment in monthly installments over a period of time not to exceed twelve months), including 100% for our office tenant, approximately 90% for our retail tenants (91% including rent deferrals) and approximately 98% for our residential tenants. On September 10, 2020, Century 21, which leased 135,000 square feet at our Rego Park II shopping center ($6,400,000 of annual revenue), filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and closed its store on December 7, 2020. Other sources of liquidity to fund cash requirements include our existing cash, proceeds from financings, including mortgage or construction loans secured by our properties and proceeds from asset sales.

As of December 31, 2020, we had $455,901,000 of liquidity comprised of $449,877,000 of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and $6,024,000 of marketable securities. We anticipate that cash flows from continuing operations over the next twelve months, together with existing cash balances, will be adequate to fund our business operations, cash dividends to stockholders, debt amortization and capital expenditures. We may refinance our maturing debt as it comes due or choose to pay it down. However, there can be no assurance that additional financing or capital will be available to refinance our debt, or that the terms will be acceptable or advantageous to us. The challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on our business and cash flows are evolving rapidly and cannot be predicted at this time but that impact could be material. Consequently, we will continue to evaluate our liquidity and financial position on an ongoing basis.
 
Dividends
 
On January 20, 2021, our Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly dividend to $4.50 per share (an indicated annual rate of $18.00 per share).  The dividend, if declared by the Board of Directors at the same rate for all of 2021, would require us to pay out approximately $92,200,000.
 
Financing Activity and Contractual Obligations

On February 14, 2020, we reduced our participation in our Rego Park II shopping center loan to $50,000,000 and received cash proceeds of approximately $145,000,000.
On September 14, 2020, we amended and extended the $350,000,000 mortgage loan on the retail condominium of our 731 Lexington Avenue property. Under the terms of the amendment, we paid down the loan by $50,000,000 to $300,000,000, extended the maturity date to August 2025 and guaranteed the interest payments and certain leasing costs. The principal of the loan is non-recourse to us. The interest-only loan is at LIBOR plus 1.40% (1.55% as of December 31, 2020) which is subject to an interest rate swap with a fixed rate of 1.72%.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources - continued
On October 23, 2020, we completed a financing of The Alexander apartment tower in the amount of $94,000,000. The interest-only loan has a fixed rate of 2.63% and matures in November 2027.

Below is a summary of our outstanding debt and maturities as of December 31, 2020.  We may refinance our maturing debt as it comes due or choose to repay it.
 
  BalanceInterest RateMaturity
(Amounts in thousands)
Paramus$68,000 4.72 %Oct. 04, 2021
731 Lexington Avenue, office condominium(1)
500,000 1.06 %Jun. 11, 2024
731 Lexington Avenue, retail condominium(2)
300,000 1.55 %Aug. 05, 2025
Rego Park II shopping center(3)
202,544 1.50 %Dec. 12, 2025
The Alexander apartment tower94,000 2.63 %Nov. 01, 2027
Total1,164,544   
Deferred debt issuance costs, net of accumulated amortization of $13,034(8,374)  
Total, net$1,156,170   
(1)   Interest at LIBOR plus 0.90%. Maturity date represents the extended maturity based on our unilateral right to extend.
(2)   Interest at LIBOR plus 1.40% which is subject to an interest rate swap with a fixed rate of 1.72%.
(3)   Interest at LIBOR plus 1.35%. The amount of this loan is net of our $50,000 loan participation.
Below is a summary of our contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2020.
   Less thanOne toThree toMore than
(Amounts in thousands)TotalOne YearThree YearsFive YearsFive Years
Contractual obligations(1) (principal and interest)(2):
     
 
Long-term debt obligations(3)
$1,241,929 $86,617 $32,384 $1,024,327 $98,601 
 Operating lease obligations4,800 800 1,600 1,600 800 
Purchase obligations, primarily construction commitments4,523 4,523 — — — 
  $1,251,252 $91,940 $33,984 $1,025,927 $99,401 
Commitments:     
 Standby letters of credit$960 $950 $10 $— $— 
(1)Excludes committed tenant-related obligations as timing and amounts of payments are uncertain and may only be due upon satisfactory performance of certain conditions.
(2)Principal repayments based on extended loan maturity dates. Interest on variable rate debt is computed using rates in effect as of December 31, 2020.
(3)Net of loan participation and related interest.


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Liquidity and Capital Resources - continued

Commitments and Contingencies
 
Insurance  
We maintain general liability insurance with limits of $300,000,000 per occurrence and per property, of which the first $1,000,000 includes communicable disease coverage, and all-risk property and rental value insurance coverage with limits of $1.7 billion per occurrence, including coverage for acts of terrorism, with sub-limits for certain perils such as floods and earthquakes on each of our properties and excluding communicable disease coverage.
Fifty Ninth Street Insurance Company, LLC (“FNSIC”), our wholly owned consolidated subsidiary, acts as a direct insurer for coverage for acts of terrorism, including nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological (“NBCR”) acts, as defined by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, as amended to date and which has been extended through December 2027. Coverage for acts of terrorism (including NBCR acts) is up to $1.7 billion per occurrence and in the aggregate. Coverage for acts of terrorism (excluding NBCR acts) is fully reinsured by third party insurance companies and the Federal government with no exposure to FNSIC. For NBCR acts, FNSIC is responsible for a $275,000 deductible and 20% of the balance of a covered loss, and the Federal government is responsible for the remaining 80% of a covered loss. We are ultimately responsible for any loss incurred by FNSIC.
We continue to monitor the state of the insurance market and the scope and costs of coverage for acts of terrorism or other events. However, we cannot anticipate what coverage will be available on commercially reasonable terms in the future. We are responsible for uninsured losses and for deductibles and losses in excess of our insurance coverage, which could be material.
The principal amounts of our mortgage loans are non-recourse to us and the loans contain customary covenants requiring us to maintain insurance. Although we believe that we have adequate insurance coverage for purposes of these agreements, we may not be able to obtain an equivalent amount of coverage at reasonable costs in the future. If lenders insist on greater coverage than we are able to obtain, it could adversely affect our ability to finance or refinance our properties.

Paramus
In 2001, we leased 30.3 acres of land located in Paramus, New Jersey to IKEA. The lease expires in 2041, with a purchase option in October 2021 for $75,000,000. The property is encumbered by a $68,000,000 interest-only mortgage loan with a fixed rate of 4.72%, which matures in October 2021. The annual triple-net rent is the sum of $700,000 plus the amount of interest on the mortgage loan. If the purchase option is exercised, we will receive net cash proceeds of approximately $7,000,000 and recognize a gain on sale of land of approximately $60,000,000. If the purchase option is not exercised, the triple-net rent for the last 20 years would include debt service sufficient to fully amortize $68,000,000 over the remaining 20-year lease term.

Rego Park I Litigation
In June 2014, Sears Roebuck and Co. (“Sears”) filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court of the State of New York against Vornado and us (and certain of our subsidiaries) with regard to the 195,000 square foot store that Sears formerly leased at our Rego Park I property alleging that the defendants are liable for harm that Sears has suffered as a result of (a) water intrusions into the premises, (b) two fires in February 2014 that caused damages to those premises, and (c) alleged violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act in the premises’ parking garage. Sears asserted various causes of actions for damages and sought to compel compliance with landlord’s obligations to repair the premises and to provide security, and to compel us to abate a nuisance that Sears claims was a cause of the water intrusions into its premises. In addition to injunctive relief, Sears sought, among other things, damages of not less than $4,000,000 and future damages it estimated would not be less than $25,000,000. In March 2016, Sears withdrew its claim for future damages leaving a remaining claim for property damages, which we estimate to be approximately $650,000 based on information provided by Sears. We intend to defend the remaining claim vigorously. The amount or range of reasonably possible losses, if any, is not expected to be greater than $650,000. On October 15, 2018, Sears filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy relief resulting in an automatic stay of this case.
 

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Liquidity and Capital Resources - continued

Kings Plaza Transfer Tax
In 2012, we sold Kings Plaza and paid real property transfer taxes to New York City in connection with the sale. In 2015, the New York City Department of Finance (“NYC DOF”) issued a Notice of Determination to us assessing an additional New York City real property transfer tax amount, including interest.
In 2014, in a case with similar facts, the NYC DOF issued a Notice of Determination to a Vornado joint venture assessing an additional New York City real property transfer tax amount, including interest. In January 2017, a New York City administrative law judge made a determination upholding the Vornado joint venture’s position that such additional real property transfer taxes were not due. On February 16, 2018, the New York City Tax Appeals Tribunal (the “Tribunal”) overturned the January 2017 determination. The Vornado joint venture appealed the Tribunal’s decision to the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of the State of New York and on April 25, 2019, the Tribunal’s decision was unanimously upheld. The Vornado joint venture filed a motion to reargue the Appellate Division’s decision or for leave to appeal to the New York State Court of Appeals. On December 12, 2019, that motion was denied and the case can no longer be appealed. Based on the precedent of the Tribunal’s decision, we paid the additional real property transfer taxes of $23,797,000 ($15,874,000 of real property transfer tax and $7,923,000 of interest) on April 5, 2018. On January 12, 2021, we decided not to further contest the additional real property transfer taxes paid in connection with the sale of Kings Plaza.
Letters of Credit
Approximately $960,000 of standby letters of credit were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020.

Other
There are various other legal actions against us in the ordinary course of business. In our opinion, the outcome of such matters in the aggregate will not have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash were $449,877,000 at December 31, 2020, compared to $313,977,000 at December 31, 2019, an increase of $135,900,000. This increase resulted from (i) $78,066,000 of net cash provided by operating activities and (ii) $90,294,000 of net cash provided by financing activities, partially offset by (iii) $32,460,000 of net cash used in investing activities.
Net cash provided by operating activities of $78,066,000 was comprised of (i) net income of $41,939,000 and (ii) adjustments for non-cash items of $69,330,000, partially offset by (iii) the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $33,203,000. The adjustments for non-cash items were comprised of (i) depreciation and amortization (including amortization of debt issuance costs) of $35,121,000, (ii) straight-lining of rental income of $21,102,000, (iii) the change in fair value of marketable securities of $8,599,000, (iv) write-off of tenant receivables of $4,122,000 and (v) stock-based compensation expense of $600,000, partially offset by (vi) $214,000 of dividends received in stock from Macerich.
Net cash provided by financing activities was primarily comprised of (i) proceeds from the reduction of our participation in our Rego Park II mortgage loan of $145,708,000 and (ii) proceeds from the financing of The Alexander apartment tower of $94,000,000, partially offset by (iii) dividends paid of $92,168,000 and (iv) debt repayments of $50,000,000.
Net cash used in investing activities was comprised of construction in progress, real estate additions and other of $32,460,000.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources - continued
Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash were $313,977,000 at December 31, 2019, compared to $289,495,000 at December 31, 2018, an increase of $24,482,000. This increase resulted from (i) $126,070,000 of net cash provided by operating activities, partially offset by (ii) $92,139,000 of net cash used in financing activities and (iii) $9,449,000 of net cash used in investing activities.
Net cash provided by operating activities of $126,070,000 was comprised of (i) net income of $60,075,000, (ii) adjustments for non-cash items of $48,079,000 and (iii) the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $17,916,000. The adjustments for non-cash items were comprised of (i) depreciation and amortization (including amortization of debt issuance costs) of $36,515,000, (ii) the change in fair value of marketable securities of $8,757,000, (iii) straight-lining of rental income of $2,413,000 and (iv) stock-based compensation expense of $394,000.
Net cash used in financing activities was primarily comprised of dividends paid of $92,124,000.
Net cash used in investing activities was comprised of construction in progress and real estate additions of $9,449,000.
Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash were $289,495,000 at December 31, 2018, compared to $393,279,000 at December 31, 2017, a decrease of $103,784,000. This decrease resulted from (i) $176,185,000 of net cash used in financing activities and (ii) $1,137,000 of net cash used in investing activities, partially offset by (iii) $73,538,000 of net cash provided by operating activities.
Net cash used in financing activities of $176,185,000 was primarily comprised of net debt repayments of $81,896,000 (primarily the refinancing and subsequent repayment of the mortgage loan on our Rego Park I shopping center) and dividends paid of $92,100,000.
Net cash used in investing activities of $1,137,000 was comprised of construction in progress and real estate additions of $3,966,000, partially offset by repayment of Rego Park II loan participation of $2,829,000.
Net cash provided by operating activities of $73,538,000 was comprised of (i) net income of $32,844,000 and (ii) adjustments for non-cash items of $56,807,000, partially offset by (iii) the net change in operating assets and liabilities of $16,113,000. The adjustments for non-cash items were comprised of (i) depreciation and amortization (including amortization of debt issuance costs) of $38,499,000, (ii) the change in fair value of marketable securities of $11,990,000, (iii) straight-lining of rental income of $5,924,000 and (iv) stock-based compensation expense of $394,000.
Funds from Operations (“FFO”) (non-GAAP)
 
FFO is computed in accordance with the definition adopted by the Board of Governors of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”). NAREIT defines FFO as GAAP net income or loss adjusted to exclude net gains from sales of depreciable real estate assets, real estate impairment losses, depreciation and amortization expense from real estate assets and other specified items, including the pro rata share of such adjustments of unconsolidated subsidiaries. FFO and FFO per diluted share are used by management, investors and analysts to facilitate meaningful comparisons of operating performance between periods and among our peers because it excludes the effect of real estate depreciation and amortization and net gains on sales, which are based on historical costs and implicitly assume that the value of real estate diminishes predictably over time, rather than fluctuating based on existing market conditions. FFO does not represent cash generated from operating activities and is not necessarily indicative of cash available to fund cash requirements and should not be considered as an alternative to net income as a performance measure or cash flow as a liquidity measure. FFO may not be comparable to similarly titled measures employed by other companies. A reconciliation of our net income to FFO is provided below.

FFO (non-GAAP) for the years and quarters ended December 31, 2020 and 2019

FFO (non-GAAP) for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $82,509,000, or $16.11 per diluted share, compared to $99,670,000, or $19.47 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2019.

FFO (non-GAAP) for the quarter ended December 31, 2020 was $25,407,000, or $4.96 per diluted share, compared to $24,626,000, or $4.81 per diluted share for the quarter ended December 31, 2019.

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Funds from Operations (“FFO”) (non-GAAP) - continued

The following table reconciles our net income to FFO (non-GAAP):
 For the Year EndedFor the Three Months Ended
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)December 31,December 31,
 2020201920202019
Net income$41,939 $60,075 $18,432 $14,434 
Depreciation and amortization of real property31,971 30,838 9,165 7,692 
Change in fair value of marketable securities8,599 8,757 (2,190)2,500 
FFO (non-GAAP)$82,509 $99,670 $25,407 $24,626 
FFO per diluted share (non-GAAP)$16.11 $19.47 $4.96 $4.81 
Weighted average shares used in computing FFO per diluted share
5,120,922 5,118,198 5,122,206 5,118,698 

ITEM 7A.     QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We have exposure to fluctuations in interest rates, which are sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control.  Our exposure to a change in interest rates is summarized in the table below.
 
 20202019
 December 31, BalanceWeighted Average Interest RateEffect of 1% Change in Base RatesDecember 31, BalanceWeighted Average Interest Rate
 
(Amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
Variable rate$1,002,544 1.30%$10,025 $906,836 2.85%
Fixed rate162,000 3.51%— 68,000 4.72%
 $1,164,544 1.60%$10,025 $974,836 2.98%
Total effect on diluted earnings per share  $1.96   
 
We have an interest rate cap relating to the mortgage loan on the office condominium of our 731 Lexington Avenue property with a notional amount of $500,000,000 that caps LIBOR at a rate of 6.0%.

We have an interest rate swap relating to the mortgage loan on the retail condominium of our 731 Lexington Avenue property with a notional amount of $300,000,000 that swaps LIBOR plus 1.40% for a fixed rate of 1.72%.
  
Fair Value of Debt
 
The fair value of our consolidated debt is calculated by discounting the future contractual cash flows of these instruments using current risk-adjusted rates available to borrowers with similar credit ratings, which are provided by a third-party specialist.  As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the estimated fair value of our consolidated debt was $1,130,000,000 and $974,000,000, respectively.  Our fair value estimates, which are made at the end of the reporting period, may be different from the amounts that may ultimately be realized upon the disposition of our financial instruments.
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ITEM 8.        FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Index to Consolidated Financial StatementsPage
Number
  
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
  
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019
  
Consolidated Statements of Income for the 
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
  
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
  
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the 
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
  
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the 
Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
  
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Alexander’s, Inc.


Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Alexander’s, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the schedules listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 16, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Real Estate - Refer to Note 3 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company’s real estate assets are individually evaluated for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company’s evaluation of the recoverability of real estate assets involves the comparison of undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by each real estate asset over the Company’s estimated holding period to the respective carrying amount. The Company’s undiscounted future cash flow analyses require management to make significant estimates, including estimated terminal values determined using appropriate capitalization rates.

40


Given the Company’s estimated capitalization rates used in the evaluation of impairment of real estate assets is a significant assumption made by management, performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s undiscounted future cash flow analyses required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the Company’s estimated capitalization rates used in the evaluation of impairment of real estate assets included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s evaluation of the recoverability of real estate, including controls over management’s determination of the reasonableness of the applicable capitalization rates.
Inquired with management regarding their determination of the capitalization rates, including considerations related to the impact of COVID-19 and evaluating the consistency of the capitalization rates used with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the Company’s estimated capitalization rates by:
Testing the source information underlying the determination of the capitalization rates by evaluating the reasonableness of the capitalization rates used by management with independent market data, focusing on key factors, including the impact of COVID-19, geographical location, tenant composition, and property type.
Developing a range of independent estimates of capitalization rates and comparing those to the capitalization rates utilized by management.


/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP


New York, New York
February 16, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1969.

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ALEXANDER’S, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 December 31,
ASSETS20202019
Real estate, at cost:  
Land$44,971 $44,971 
Buildings and leasehold improvements1,014,311 984,053 
Development and construction in progress11,761 12,318 
Total1,071,043 1,041,342 
Accumulated depreciation and amortization(350,122)(324,499)
Real estate, net720,921 716,843 
Cash and cash equivalents428,710 298,063 
Restricted cash21,167 15,914 
Marketable securities6,024 14,409 
Tenant and other receivables8,116 6,092 
Receivable arising from the straight-lining of rents145,274 166,376 
Deferred lease costs, net, including unamortized leasing fees to Vornado of
$27,851 and $32,374, respectively
36,524 41,123 
Other assets37,402 6,691 
 $1,404,138 $1,265,511 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Mortgages payable, net of deferred debt issuance costs$1,156,170 $970,961 
Amounts due to Vornado1,516 1,426 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses35,342 31,756 
Other liabilities7,882 7,853 
Total liabilities1,200,910 1,011,996 
Commitments and contingencies
Preferred stock: $1.00 par value per share; authorized, 3,000,000 shares;
issued and outstanding, none
  
Common stock: $1.00 par value per share; authorized, 10,000,000 shares;
 issued, 5,173,450 shares; outstanding, 5,107,290 shares
5,173 5,173 
Additional capital32,965 32,365 
Retained earnings166,165 216,394 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (707)(49)
 203,596 253,883 
Treasury stock: 66,160 shares, at cost
(368)(368)
Total equity203,228 253,515 
 $1,404,138 $1,265,511 

See notes to consolidated financial statements.
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ALEXANDER’S, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
REVENUES   
Rental revenues$199,142 $226,350 $232,825 
EXPENSES
Operating, including fees to Vornado of $5,429, $5,386 and $4,700, respectively
(88,403)(89,738)(93,775)
Depreciation and amortization(32,357)(31,351)(33,089)
General and administrative, including management fees to Vornado of $2,380
in each year(6,307)(5,772)(5,343)
Total expenses(127,067)(126,861)(132,207)
Interest and other income, net2,667 8,244 12,546 
Intere