UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the fiscal year ended
Commission File Number
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Southeast Airport Group
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(Address of principal executive offices)
Grupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, S.A.B. de C.V.
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Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3.Key Information
Risks Related to Our Operations
The COVID-19 pandemic has had and could continue to have a negative impact on our operations.
The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”) began in December 2019, and on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (“WHO”) designated the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. Travel advisories and restrictions were issued for people traveling to and from certain areas and countries, including, in some cases, the closure of international borders. Airlines, in many cases, temporarily suspended or reduced flights to and from those areas and countries.
On March 20, 2020, the United States closed its land border with Mexico, except to permit essential travel as well as trade and commerce. As of November 8, 2021, the land border between Mexico and the United States remains open to nonessential travel. Beginning June 12, 2022, the CDC guidelines no longer require persons to show a negative COVID-19 test result or documentation of recovery from COVID-19 before boarding a flight to the United States. However, international travelers that are neither U.S. citizens nor permanent residents must still present proof of vaccination.
On March 23, 2020, the United States Federal Aviation Authority (“FAA”) approved a request by the Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (“Puerto Rico”) to redirect all commercial flights bound for Puerto Rico through LMM Airport and that all passengers be screened by representatives of the Puerto Rico Health Department. As of March 10, 2022 domestic travelers are not required to present proof of vaccination or a negative COVID-19 test prior to arrival, and beginning June 12, 2022 travelers arriving from international flights are no longer required to present a negative COVID-19 test prior to traveling, regardless of vaccination status or citizenship, in accordance with CDC guidelines. However, international travelers that are neither U.S. citizens nor permanent residents must still present proof of vaccination.The LMM Airport remains open and operating, and as of December 31, 2022, our total passenger traffic volume increased 6.5% compared to the same period in 2021.
There are currently no travel restrictions from the United States related to COVID-19 specific to Colombia. Colombia temporarily barred entry of passengers into its territory in March, 2020, and suspended domestic air travel. Consequently, our commercial aviation operations in Colombia were suspended as of such date. Starting September 1, 2020, several of our Colombian airports reestablished passenger commercial flights under the initial phase of the gradual connectivity plan announced by the Civil Aviation Authority in Colombia, and by October 2, 2020, all of our Colombian airports had reestablished passenger commercial flights. International flights to Colombia resumed on September 21, 2020, albeit on a limited basis, as part of the country’s gradual reactivation. As of May 1, 2022, passengers traveling to Colombia must provide proof of complete vaccination. Our Colombian airports remain open and operating, and as of December 31, 2022, our total passenger traffic volume increased in 56.8% compared to the same period in 2021.
The Mexican government implemented various measures to control the spread of COVID-19, including extraordinary actions during 2020 and part of 2021, such as school closures and the suspension of non-essential activities in the most affected regions of the country. Airports were considered essential for purposes of these measures and our Mexican airports have remained operational.
We took a number of actions in response to the decrease in demand for air travel and passenger traffic, including (a) the temporary closure of terminals 2 and 3 in our Cancún airport (which were reopened on July 14, 2020 and October 1, 2020, respectively), (b) cost reduction initiatives, although most of our cost structure is fixed and (c) new agreements with several airline and commercial clients in Mexico and Colombia to extend their payment terms by signing promissory notes, including for any past due amounts, maturing within one year, which amounts were fully paid, as of December 31, 2022. Most of our cost structure is fixed, and the impact from these cost reduction measures is not expected to be significant vis à vis the potential decline in revenues resulting from the disruption in passenger traffic across the Company’s operations.
Due to the economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic in the countries in which we operate, the total passenger traffic in our airports recovered for 2022, increasing by 35.6% as compared to 2021. Further our total passengers traffic increased 19.2% in the first quarter of 2023 as compared to the first quarter of 2022. However, the full extent of the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s longer-term operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including those outside our control related to the efficacy and speed of vaccination programs in curbing the spread of the virus, the introduction and spread of new variants of the virus which may be resistant to currently approved vaccines, passenger testing requirements, mask mandates or other restrictions on travel, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material impact on the Company during 2020 and part of 2021, and the potential spread or resurgence of COVID-19 could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition and liquidity.
International events, including acts of terrorism, wars, armed conflicts and global epidemics, could have a negative impact on international air travel.
International events such as the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, wars, armed conflicts, and public health crises such as the Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009-2010 and the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted the frequency and pattern of air travel worldwide in recent years. The COVID-19 outbreak has had and could continue to have a negative impact on our operations. See “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors— Risks Related to Our Operations—The COVID-19 pandemic has had and could continue to have a negative impact on our operations.
Historically, a majority of our revenues have been from aeronautical services, and our principal source of aeronautical revenues is passenger charges. Passenger charges are payable for each passenger (other than diplomats, infants, transfer and transit passengers) departing from the airport terminals we operate, collected by the airlines and paid to us. In 2021 and 2022, passenger charges represented 36.7% and 42.8% of our consolidated revenues, respectively.
On January 2, 2022, violent confrontations broke out at the Arauca department in Colombia, as members of the National Liberation Army (Éjercito de Liberación Nacional or “ELN”), fought with dissidents of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia or “FARC”). The conflict arose over control of illegal economies, including drug trafficking to Venezuela, and led to deaths, illegal detentions, mass displacements and risk of forced displacement in border municipalities, specifically in Tame, Fortul, Saravena and Arauquita. The conflict continued to escalate over the following months, and the feasibility of a potential agreement between the ELN and FARC remains uncertain. While our overall business operations in Colombia were not impacted by these events, El Caraño airport, which has been historically affected by guerrilla conflicts, has experienced an increase in passenger traffic to 379,948 passengers in 2022 as compared to 302,900 passengers in 2021.
On February 24, 2022, Russian forces launched significant military action against Ukraine, and sustained conflict and disruption in the region has continued as of the date of this report. The miliary conflict has since caused significant volatility in commodity prices, credit and capital markets, as well as supply chain interruptions. The impact to Ukraine as well as actions taken by other countries could have a material adverse effect on our operations. The extent and duration of the military action, sactions and resulting market and supply chain disruptions are highly unpredictable but could be substantial. Any general increase of hostilities in Ukraine, even if not made on or targeted directly at the air travel industry, or the fear of or the precautions taken in anticipation of any potential military attacks such as elevated national threat warnings, travel restrictions, selective cancellation or redirection of flights and new security regulations, among others, (and any related economic impact of such events) could result in decreased passenger traffic and increased costs to the air travel industry as a result of new security requirements, and could cause a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
In addition, in response to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the U.S. and other countries have imposed sanctions or other restrictive actions against Russia. Various of Russia’s actions have led to sanctions and other penalties being levied by the United States, the European Union, and other countries, as well as other public and private actors and companies, againt Russia and certain other geographic areas, including agreement to remove certain Russian financial institutions from the Society Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications payment system and restrictions on imports of Russian oil, liquified natural gas and coal. Additional potential sanctions and penalties have also been proposed and/ or threatened. The santions have had, and are expected to continue to have, a significant disruptive effect on global markets, including oil and gas markets, accessibility of airports and associated travel routes, as well as supply chains, including aircraft components.
Because our revenues are largely dependent on the level of passenger traffic in our airports, any general increase of hostilities relating to reprisals against terrorist organizations, armed groups, further conflict in the Middle East or Ukraine, pandemics or outbreaks of health epidemics such as Influenza A/H1N1, SARS, avian influenza, COVID-19 or other events of general international concern (and any related economic impact of such events) could result in decreased passenger traffic and increased costs to the air travel industry and, as a result, could cause a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
Hurricanes and other natural disasters have adversely affected our business in the past and could do so again in the future.
The southeast region of Mexico and Puerto Rico, like other Caribbean destinations, experience hurricanes, particularly during the third quarter of each year. Portions of the southeast region of Mexico, the Caribbean region of Colombia and Puerto Rico also experience earthquakes from time to time. Natural disasters may impede operations, damage infrastructure necessary to our operations and/or adversely affect the destinations served by our airports. Any of these events could reduce our passenger traffic volume. The occurrence of natural disasters in the destinations we serve has adversely affected, and could in the future adversely affect, our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Some experts believe that climate change due to global warming could increase the frequency and severity of hurricanes in the future. We have insured the physical facilities at our airports against damage caused by natural disasters, accidents or other similar events, but do not have insurance covering losses due to resulting business interruption. Moreover, should losses occur, there can be no assurance that losses caused by damages to the physical facilities will not exceed the pre-established limits on the policies.
On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico, damaging LMM Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico and causing significant damage to the entire island. Operations at LMM Airport were suspended at 7:30 pm on September 19, 2017 and resumed on a limited basis on September 21, 2017 with 10 flights, increasing progressively to 41 daily flights by the end of September 2017. Operations at LMM Airport returned to a regular schedule during the fourth quarter of 2017. Terminal buildings of LMM Airport suffered minor damage in sections that were out of operation before the airport was closed. Airport infrastructure was insured against these events. The hurricane inflicted extensive damage on the hotel and tourist infrastructure in Puerto Rico, which led to sharply reduced air passenger traffic at LMM Airport. During the third and fourth quarters of 2017, our passenger traffic in Puerto Rico decreased 15.8% relative to the same period in 2016. Our passenger traffic in Puerto Rico also decreased 0.4% in 2018 relative to 2017.
In September 2017, a series of earthquakes shook central and southern Mexico. On September 7, 2017, an 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck Chiapas, Oaxaca, killing at least 98 people, injuring over 300 persons, causing the issuance of a tsunami warning for the entire Pacific coast of Central America by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, and damaging buildings and roads in Mexico City. On September 19, 2017, a 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the states of Puebla and Morelos as well as the Greater Mexico City area, killing 370 people and injuring over 6,000 people. The earthquake caused at least 44 buildings in Mexico City to collapse and temporarily shut down Mexico City International Airport. Finally, on September 23, 2017, a 6.1 magnitude earthquake hit Oaxaca, causing six deaths and injuring seven others, resulting in total damage of Ps.9.4 billion. Neither the Mexico City earthquake nor the earthquake in Oaxaca caused substantial damage to our facilities or resulted in material interruptions to our operations.
Between December 2019 and February 2020, a series of earthquakes shook Puerto Rico. The first earthquake in the series, a 4.7 magnitude earthquake, struck on December 28, 2019. The last earthquake in the series, a 5.0 magnitude earthquake, struck on February 4, 2020. The largest earthquake in the series was a 6.4 magnitude earthquake that struck on January 7, 2020. The Governor of Puerto Rico declared a state of emergency in response on January 7, 2020. The series of earthquakes caused power and water outages across Puerto Rico and estimates of financial losses exceed U.S. $3 billion. LMM Airport remained open throughout the series of earthquakes. The series of earthquakes did not cause substantial damage to LMM Airport and did not result in material interruptions to our operations.
On September 20, 2022, Hurricane Fiona struck Puerto Rico, causing landslides, floodings and a total blackout by damaging the power transmission and distribution lines in Puerto Rico. While Hurricaine Fiona did not cause significant damages to the LMM Airport, air travel was suspended starting September 17, 2022 at 10pm and reinstated on September 19, 2022. The hurracaine brought approximately 30 inches of rain and damaged 50% of power transmission and distribution lines across Puerto Rico.
The effects of oil spills could adversely affect our business.
The Gulf of Mexico is the site of widespread deep-water oil drilling and extraction. Deep-water oil drilling inherently carries a number of significant risks. On April 21, 2010, there was an explosion on the “Deepwater Horizon” drilling platform operated by BP in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil-drilling platform was located 41 miles from the coast of Louisiana. The explosion and sinking of the platform caused a huge oil spill that spread along the U.S. coast in the Gulf of Mexico, and reached parts of Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Texas. BP made several attempts to try to contain the spill and capture the oil. On September 19, 2010, the well was successfully plugged and declared “effectively dead.”
The oil spill did not affect the destinations served by our Mexican airports. However, if oil spills or similar disasters occur in the future, these destinations could be adversely affected, thereby reducing our volume of passenger traffic. Oil spills or other similar disasters in or around the destinations served by our airports could adversely affect our business, operating results, prospects and financial condition.
Our business could be adversely affected by a downturn in the economies of the United States, Mexico or Colombia.
The air travel industry, and consequently, our results of operations, are substantially influenced by economic conditions in Mexico, Colombia and the United States. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 66.2%, 76.4% and 63.4%, respectively, of the international passengers in our Mexican airports arrived or departed on flights originating in or departing to the United States. 45.5%, 49.1% and 53.1% of our revenues from Mexican passenger charges in 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively, were derived from charges imposed on international passengers. Similarly, in 2020, 2021 and 2022, 55.9%, 51.7% and 47.3%, respectively, of passengers in our Mexican airports traveled on Mexican domestic flights. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 54.5%, 50.9% and 46.9%, respectively, of our revenues from Mexican passenger were derived from Mexican domestic passenger charges. When the economies of either the United States or Mexico are in recession, the number of international passengers in our Mexican airports that arrive or depart on flights originating in or departing to the United States have been adversely affected. Similarly, a recession of the Colombian economy could cause the number of Colombian domestic passengers in our Colombian airports to decline. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 41.1%, 38.3% and 31.9%, respectively, of our revenues from Colombian passenger charges were derived from Colombian domestic passenger charges.
The outbreak of COVID-19 has adversely affected the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the United States, Mexico and Colombia. Although recent vaccination rollout have raised hopes of a turnaround in the COVID-19 pandemic during 2022 and during the first quarter of 2023, renewed waves and new variants could lead to new measures implemented by governmental authorities to contain and mitigate the effects of COVID-19, including shutdowns of non-essential infrastructure businesses, stricter border controls, stringent quarantines and social distancing, triggered significant economic downturn in Mexico, Colombia and the United States (including Puerto Rico). The extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak continues to impact these economies will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
We cannot predict how economic conditions in the United States may develop in the future or how these conditions will affect tourism and travel decisions. In addition, whether destinations served by our airports will be viewed as adequate substitutes for other tourist destinations depends on a number of factors, including the perceived violence and security, attractiveness, affordability and accessibility of Cancún, Cozumel and the Mayan Riviera as desirable vacation destinations. We are unable to control many of these factors and, therefore, we cannot assure you that this substitution effect would occur again if the United States were to experience another recession. Except for Cancún, among Mexican leisure travelers, destinations served by our airports are generally not perceived as economical vacation destinations, and as a result, they did not benefit, and are unlikely to benefit in the future, from the substitution effect that we believe occurred with respect to passengers traveling to and from the United States. In addition, a portion of our Mexican domestic passengers are business travelers, whose demand for travel was adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Further, Mexican, Colombian and U.S. political and social developments, over which we have no control, may affect the economic environment in Mexico, Colombia and the United States, and consequently, may contribute to economic uncertainty. Such conditions may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The Colombian Government and the Colombian Central Bank can intervene in Colombia’s economy and make significant changes in monetary, fiscal and regulatory policy, which could result in currency devaluation and changes in international reserves. Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in government or fiscal policies, and other political, diplomatic, social and economic developments that may affect Colombia or the international markets. Possible factors include fluctuations in exchange rates and exchange rate controls, inflation, price instability, changes in interest rates, liquidity of domestic capital and debt markets, deposit requirements on foreign borrowings, controls on capital flows, and restrictions to foreign trade.
The economy of Puerto Rico has been in a recession since 2006 and conditions have worsened in recent years, particularly as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017, the COVID-19 pandemic, and Hurracaine Fiona in 2022 which damages were concentrated at the south of the island. Following the failure of several Puerto Rico government instrumentalities to make debt service payments on their outstanding debt obligations, on June 30, 2016, the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act (“PROMESA”) was enacted into law. PROMESA provided Puerto Rico with access to bankruptcy-like tools and created a fiscal oversight framework containing measures that include, among others, the establishment of a seven-member Oversight Board to oversee the development of budgets and fiscal plans for Puerto Rico’s government and instrumentalities. In particular, PROMESA allowed the Oversight Board to petition U.S. courts to restructure debt on behalf of Puerto Rico’s central government.
In September of 2019, the Oversight Board submitted a joint plan of adjustment to the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. However, in late December 2019 and January 2020, a series of earthquakes and their aftershocks caused extensive damage to parts of Puerto Rico’s infrastructure. In addition, Puerto Rico was significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020, which has had a substantially adverse effect on the health of its population and economic activity. The combined impact of Hurricanes Irma, Maria and Fiona, the earthquakes and aftershocks, and the pandemic significantly hampered the Oversight Board’s timeline and efforts to restructure Puerto Rico’s debt and could continue to have substantially adverse effects on Puerto Rico’s economy. On January 18, 2022, following several modifications and amendments, the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico entered an order confirming the Oversight Board’s revised joint plan of adjustment. On February 23, 2022, the Oversight Board announced its certification of a revised fiscal plan for Puerto Rico which funds the revised joint plan of adjustment and reflects increased federal funding and the effect of federal stimulus funding on economic growth. On March 15, 2022, the revised joint plan of adjustment became effective. Several parties have appealed the District Court’s order confirming the revised joint plan of adjustment to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, and the court confirmed the effectiveness of the plan on April 26, 2022. However, it is uncertain what impact the foregoing developments will have on the future business and economic conditions of Puerto Rico. Further, a prolongation of Puerto Rico’s fiscal crisis, or a worsening of the crisis, could have an adverse effect on the Puerto Rico economy. Aerostar Airport Holdings, LLC, our joint venture with the Public Sector Pension Investment Board (“PSP Investments”), in which we possess a 60% ownership interest and whose results we have consolidated into our financial statements, has operated the LMM Airport in Puerto Rico since February 27, 2013. The worsening economic conditions in Puerto Rico may adversely affect the LMM Airport’s business and results of operations.
Changes in U.S. immigration and border policy could adversely affect passenger traffic to and from Mexico and Colombia.
The results of presidential and congressional action in the United States could result in significant changes in, and uncertainty with respect to, immigration and border policy. Immigration reform, especially with respect to Mexico, continues to attract significant attention in the public arena and U.S. Congress. If new federal immigration legislation is enacted, such laws may contain provisions that could make it more difficult for Mexican and Colombian citizens to travel between Mexico and Colombia, respectively, and the United States. In addition, new immigration, border and trade legislation could lead to uncertain economic conditions in Mexico that may affect leisure or business travel, including travel to and from Mexico. Such restrictions could have a material adverse effect on our passenger traffic results.
Fluctuations in international petroleum prices could reduce demand for air travel.
Fuel represents a significant cost for airlines. International prices of fuel have experienced significant volatility in recent years. Most of our airline customers use kerosene-based jet fuel, the price of which is normally based upon the U.S. spot prices for that fuel plus the cost of transportation to each airport. Although the U.S. Gulf Coast spot price for jet fuel has decreased from its high of U.S.$4.81 per gallon on September 12, 2008, it has continued to fluctuate in 2022, with a high of U.S.$5.06 per gallon on April 28, 2022 and a low of U.S.$2.19 per gallon on January 3, 2022, according to the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. As of April 10, 2023, the U.S. Gulf Coast spot price for jet fuel was U.S.$2.53 per gallon. The price of fuel may be subject to further fluctuations resulting from a reduction or increase in output of petroleum, voluntary or otherwise, by oil-producing countries, other market forces, a general increase in international hostilities or any future terrorist attacks. Our business could be negatively impacted by hydrocarbon price volatility as a result of, or as a result of the threat of, Russian activities in Ukraine, including Russia expanding its production of oil and gas to finance its activities in Ukraine and destabilize world energy markets. Oil prices are particularly sensitive to actual and perceived threats to global political stability and to changes in production from member states of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Additionally, the recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine has caused shortages in the availability of aircraft fuel, including as a result of targeted sanctions and export control measures imposed by the United States and foreign government bodies. Although, for the year ended December 31, 2022, any such shortages have not been material, there is no assurance that the shortages will not become more severe, and we canot predict the continued impact of these sanctions and export measures, or the impact of any further retaliatory actions that may be taken by Russia and the United States and foreign government bodies. Shortages in the availability of, or increase in demand for, crude oil in general, other crude oil based derivatives and aircraft fuel in particular have resulted, and could continue to result, in increased fuel prices and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, a number of airlines have engaged in hedging strategies with respect to fuel prices. Because of the decline in fuel prices, there have been reports suggesting that these hedging strategies have resulted in those airlines incurring derivative-related liabilities. Increases in airlines’ costs may result in higher airline ticket prices and may decrease demand for air travel generally, thereby having an adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations.
The loss or suspension of operations by one or more of our key customers could result in a loss of a significant amount of our revenues.
The global airline industry has recently experienced and continues to experience significant financial difficulties, marked by the filing for bankruptcy protection of several carriers and recent warnings regarding industry profitability. In October 2021, the International Air Transport Association, or IATA, issued its 2021 financial forecast for the global commercial airline industry, estimating a net post-tax loss of about U.S.$51.8 billion, due to the effects of COVID-19. The IATA announced that the airline industry net losses are expected to reduce to $11.6 billion in 2022. The economic shock from the COVID-19 outbreak, which has been felt more acutely by airlines, has and may continue to trigger additional insolvencies within the global airline industry. With respect to 2023 forecasts, IATA estimates that the airline industry will have a global net profit of $4.7 billion on revenues of $779 billion.
Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if we do not continue to generate comparable portions of our Mexican regulated revenue from our key customers, including Volaris (which accounted for 10.3% of our revenues in 2020, 12.2% in 2021, and 12.0% in 2022), Viva Aerobus (which accounted for 11.1% of our revenues in 2020, 11.6% in 2021, and 11.9% in 2022), Aeromexico (which accounted for 11.9% of our revenues in 2020, 11.5% in 2021, and 10.1% in 2022), American Airlines (which accounted for 11.8% of our revenues in 2020, 12.1% in 2021, and 10.4% in 2022), United Airlines (which accounted for 8.6% of our revenues in 2020, 10.05% in 2021 and 8.8% in 2022) and Interjet(which accounted for 5.0% of our revenues in 2020). As of December 11, 2020, Interjet has stopped all flights, and it is not clear whether Interjet will resume operations.
During 2020, Avianca Holdings, S.A. and certain of its subsidiaries and affiliates (on May 12, 2020), LATAM Airlines Group, S.A. and certain of its subsidiaries and affiliates (on May 26, 2020) and Grupo Aeromexico, S.A.B. de C.V. and certain of its subsidiaries and affiliates (on June 30, 2020) filed for bankruptcy protection in the United States, and all cited the pressure on their respective businesses from the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the LATAM proceedings, LATAM scheduled a contingent, unliquidated, and disputed claim on behalf of Aeropuerto de Cancún, S.A. de C.V. (“Aeropuerto de Cancún”) for an unknown amount, with no current claim value. Following the effective date of LATAM’s plan of reorganization on November 3, 2022, any liabilities asserted prior to the effective date were fully discharged, including ASUR’s claims. In the Avianca proceedings, Avianca did not schedule any claims with respect to airports we operate, and we have continued to be paid by the company for amounts due until its emergence from Chapter 11 on December 1, 2021.
With respect to the Aeromexico chapter 11 proceedings (the “Chapter 11 Cases”), we entered into two agreements, one in April 2020 and the other in July 2020, deferring the remittance of Ps.213.4 million in passenger charges due to us, and requiring Aeromexico to remit those amounts in installments through April 2021. In connection with these passenger charges, the airport terminals we operate filed proofs of claim in the Chapter 11 Cases. On May 19, 2021, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York authorized Aeromexico to assume these agreements, such that Aeromexico was bound and required to continue performing under such contracts and leases and obligated to pay all amounts due and cure all defaults under such contracts and leases. As of the date of this report, Aeromexico has paid all amounts due under these agreements.
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act was signed into law in the United States, which provided, among others, financial assistance to United States based airlines and airports. Several of our customers participated in the relief provided by the CARES Act. Despite the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on airlines, additional relief may not be provided in the future, nor may similar government relief be made available to our customers based outside of the United States.
On February 28, 2023, Fast Colombia, S.A.S.’s low-cost airline (Viva Air) stopped all flights due to financial distress, and has not resumed operations since. As of March 31, 2023, we are owed Ps. 12.5 million from Viva Air, which is not included in our allowance for doubtful accounts, and we might not be able to recover the full amount owed to us. On March 29, 2023, Ultra Airlines, a low-cost airline, stopped all flights due to financial distress, and has not resumed operations since. As of March 31, 2023, we are owed Ps. 9.2 million from Ultra Airlines, which is not included in our allowance for doubtful accounts, and we might not be able to recover the full amount owed to us.
None of our contracts with our principal airline customers obligate them to continue providing service to our airports and we can offer no assurance that competing airlines would seek to increase their flight schedules if any of our key customers reduced their use of our airports. Our current agreements with our principal airline customers at our Mexican airports have been renewed, except for our agreement with Interjet. We do not have any contracts that will expire before April 8, 2022. With respect to our Colombian airports, our subsidiary Airplan, charges airlines various fees (relating to domestic routes, international routes and development). The tariffs are established by the Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics (Unidad Administrativa Especial de Aeronáutica Civil), or Aerocivil, through Resolution 04530 of 2007. As of December 31, 2021, the following airlines at our Colombian airports were subject to such tariffs: Avianca, Aerorepública (COPA), Viva Air, LATAM, American Airlines, Tampa Cargo, LAN Cargo, Sky Lease, among others.
We expect that we will continue to generate a significant portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of airlines in the foreseeable future. Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if we do not continue to generate comparable portions of our revenue from our key customers.
In addition, Mexican law prohibits an international airline from transporting passengers from one Mexican location to another (unless the flight originated outside Mexico), which limits the number of airlines providing domestic service in Mexico. Accordingly, we expect to continue to generate a significant portion of our revenues from Mexican domestic travel from a limited number of airlines.
Moreover, some of our commercial clients may face difficulties making their payments to our airports, including during the COVID-19 outbreak and the resulting decrease in air traffic. Any such difficulties could result in attempts to renegotiate our commercial clients’ lease and payment terms, but we cannot guarantee that any attempted renegotiations would be successful. In the event of unsuccessful renegotiations, some commercial clients may choose to vacate our commercial spaces. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to re-lease any vacated commercial spaces. Any renegotiation process, cancellation of commercial leases or attempt to re-lease vacant space could lead us to incur costs and have a negative effect on our revenues.
We could be subject to fines, penalties and other adverse consequences pending the outcome of our appeal against the Mexican government’s tax treatment of airport concessions at Cancún Airport.
When bidding was concluded for the shares of the Mexican airport group that became ASUR, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation agreed that the concessionaire could amortize the value of the concession at an annual rate of 15.0% for tax purposes. Contrary to this decision, in February 2012, the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit determined that this agreement was invalid and that the rate should instead be 2.0%. We filed an appeal in April 2012 to reverse this determination. In May 2013, while our appeal was pending, the Mexican federal government implemented a tax amnesty program for federal taxes, which we participated in by paying Ps.128.3 million to settle the claim with the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit solely with respect to income taxes. Our participation in the tax amnesty program, however, had no impact on our separate appeal of the amount of distributions owed by the Company under the mandatory employee statutory profit sharing regime established by Mexican federal labor laws. As of April 17, 2023, the judge’s order is still pending with respect to such distributions. If we were to lose the appeal, we estimate we would be required to pay an additional amount equivalent to Ps.116.0 million.
The FAA could downgrade Mexico’s air safety rating again, which could result in a decrease in air traffic between the United States and our airports.
The FAA evaluates the legal framework for civil aviation and issues related to the monitoring, staff training and inspection processes related to regulations issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization (“ICAO”). On May 25, 2021, the FAA downgraded Mexico’s aviation safety rating from an ICAO Category 1 rating to an ICAO Category 2 rating, as a result of the FAA’s visit to the Mexican Federal Agency for Civil Aviation (“AFAC”) between October, 2020 and February, 2021. The downgrade was attributable to 24 safety-related issues in Mexico’s aviation, which were identified as areas of non-compliance with minimum ICAO safety standards.
The FAA had already downgraded Mexico’s aviation safety rating from a Category 1 rating to a Category 2 rating on July 30, 2010, as a result of the FAA’s visit to the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently AFAC) between January and July 2010. The downgrade was attributable to an insufficient number of flight inspectors and administrative and organizational elements in the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently AFAC).
The consequences of the above-mentioned downgrades were the suspension of the right to operate code-shared flights and the restriction of Mexican airlines’ ability to increase the frequency of, or add new routes to, the United States. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.8%, respectively, of the passengers that traveled through our airports traveled on flights to or from the United States operated by Mexican airlines. The Mexican government expected to carry out an audit to intend to restore Mexico’s Category 1 air safety status during the first half of 2023. Following the audit, the FAA would have 40 days to inform Mexico if it recovers its Category 1 status or continues as Category 2. We cannot be certain of how long this rating will be maintained, and we cannot predict what impact such a downgrade would have on our passenger traffic or results of operations, or on the public perception of the safety of our airports.
As an attempt to recover its Category 1 status, on December 15, 2022, the Mexican government submitted to congress an aviation sector reform bill. If approved, the bill would result in amendments to the Civil Aviation Law and the Airports Law, including (i) allowing foreign airlines to operate domestic flights (vuelos de cabotaje) within certain routes that are of strategic interest for the development of the country’s airport infrastructure, as long as the airport complies with certain technical and operational capacity requirements; (ii) enhancing regulatory and supervisory responsibilities of the AFAC over civil aviation matters; (iii) armonizing security regulations for purposes of restoring Mexico’s FAA safety rating to Category 1; and (iv) establishing the applicable sanctions for concessionaries not complying with flight schedules and timetables or any other requirements set forth in the bill. As of the date of this report, we cannot assure you how such bill, if passed, would affect our operations and competitiveness in the Mexican market.
Our business is highly dependent upon revenues from Cancún International Airport.
In 2022, Ps.14,280.8 million (including construction services) or 56.4% of our revenues were derived from operations at Cancún International Airport. During 2020, 2021 and 2022, Cancún International Airport represented 74.2%, 76.6%, and 76.8%, respectively, of our passenger traffic in Mexico and 51.9%, 58.2% and 59.5%, respectively, of our air traffic movements in Mexico. The desirability of Cancún as a tourist destination and the level of tourism to the area are dependent on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, some media outlets continue to report an increase in the level of drug-related violence in Mexico. Although these reports generally indicate that this increase in violence affects mostly cities in northern Mexico and the west coast of Mexico, and is generally not directed at tourists, the reports may have created a perception that Mexico has become a less safe and secure place to visit. In turn, we believe that it is possible that this perception has adversely affected the desirability of Cancún as a tourist destination. This perception may have been fueled further by travel advisories issued by the U.S. State Department on August 22, 2017, January 10, 2018 and December 17, 2019 that listed Cancún as a place in Mexico where visiting tourists must be cautious. In addition, in March 2018, the U.S. State Department issued a security alert for Playa del Carmen, a popular destination that attracts U.S. citizens and is served by Cancún Airport. Additionally, during 2018 and 2019, the presence of gulfweed on beaches in the state of Quintana Roo reduced tourism to the area and caused a reduction in passengers during certain seasons, principally summer. The Presidential Commission on the Arrival of Gulfweed in the Mexican Caribbean estimated that gulfweed caused Ps.5,286 million in economic damage in 2018. In 2019, the presence of gulfweed caused an almost 30% reduction in tourism to beaches on the Yucatan Peninsula. The reasons behind the record amount of gulfweed and its sharp decline after September 2019 have not been determined. On September 8, 2020, December 8, 2021 and March 14, 2022, the U.S. State Department issued a Level 3 travel advisory to reconsider travel to Mexico due to COVID-19, and recommended exercising increased caution in Mexico due to crime and kidnapping, as some areas have increased risk. None of the Mexican states in which we operate were cited as “do not travel to” or “reconsider travel to” zones in the travel advisory. On January 23, 2023, the United States Department of State issued a press release warning U.S. citizens of certain violent outbreaks between Uber drivers and local taxi unions in Quintana Roo, which often resulted in U.S. citizens being injured. Further, on March 13, 2023, the United States Department of State issued a press release advising U.S. citizens to exercise increased caution in certain touristic areas such as Cancun, Playa Del Carmen, and Tulum. We cannot assure you that tourism in Cancún will not decline in the future, which could in turn affect passenger traffic in our Cancún Airport. Any event or condition affecting Cancún Airport or the areas that it serves could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
Increases in prevailing interest rates could adversely affect our financial condition.
An increase in prevailing interest rates could adversely affect our financial condition. As of December 31, 2022, we had U.S.$779.9 million in outstanding indebtedness, U.S.$253.2 million of which was floating rate. Any increased interest expense associated with increases in interest rates affects our ability to service our debt absent the benefit from any hedging arrangements. Accordingly, an increase in the prevailing interest rates applicable to our loans would increase our debt service costs, which in turn would negatively affect our results of operations. For further details regarding our indebtedness, see “Item 5—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness.”
Security enhancements have resulted in increased costs and may expose us to greater liability.
The air travel business is susceptible to increased costs resulting from enhanced security and higher insurance and fuel costs. Following the events of September 11, 2001, we reinforced security at our airports. For a description of the security measures that we adopted, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Non-Aeronautical Services—Airport Security.” While enhanced security at our airports has not resulted in a significant increase in our operating costs to date, we may be required to adopt additional security measures in the future. Since 2014, we carry an insurance policy covering damages to property resulting from terrorist acts for our Puerto Rico airport, which in 2022 amounted to U.S.$160 million. The insurance premiums we pay may be increased in the future, which would increase our costs of operation and affect our business results. Further, because our insurance policies do not cover losses resulting from war in any amount or from terrorism for amounts greater than U.S.$160 million, we could incur significant costs if we were to be directly affected by events of this nature. While governments in other countries have agreed to indemnify airlines for liabilities they might incur resulting from terrorist attacks, the Mexican government has not done so and has given no indication of any intention to do the same. In addition, fuel prices and supplies, which constitute a significant cost for airlines using our airports, may be subject to increases resulting from any future terrorist attacks, a general increase in international hostilities or a reduction in output of fuel, voluntary or otherwise, by oil producing countries. Such increases in airlines’ costs have resulted in higher airline ticket prices and decreased demand for air travel generally, thereby having an adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations. In addition, because a substantial majority of our international flights involve travel to the United States, we may be required to comply with security directives of the FAA, in addition to the directives of Mexican and Colombian aviation authorities.
On May 1, 2014, the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation published mandatory circular CO SA-17.2/10 R3, which requires that all airlines screen checked baggage and that all airports have screening equipment that complies with specified guidelines. Each of our airports is outfitted with appropriate screening equipment, but compliance with CO SA-17.2/10 R3 could require us to purchase, install and operate additional equipment, if, among other possibilities, the specified guidelines are modified or if the new screening procedures were to fail to detect or intercept any attempted terrorist act occurring or originating at our airports. We cannot estimate the cost to us of any such liability, if any were to arise. In addition, because a substantial percentage of our international flights involve travel to and from the United States, we may be required to comply with security directives of the FAA in addition to the directives of Mexican aviation authorities. Security measures taken to comply with future security directives of the FAA or the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation or in response to a terrorist attack or threat could reduce passenger capacity at our airports due to increased passenger screening and slower security checkpoints and increase our operating costs, which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
Furthermore, under the Mexican Airport Law, we are currently responsible for inspecting passengers and their carry-on luggage before they board any aircraft. Under Mexican law, we may be liable to third parties for personal injury or property damage resulting from the performance of such inspection. In addition, we may be required to adopt additional security measures in the future or undertake capital expenditures if security measures for carry-on luggage are required to be enhanced, which could increase our liability or adversely affect our operating results.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, airlines and airports have had to implement additional security and compliance measures to comply with local health and safety regulations, which could increase costs. We have, among other things, installed disinfectant gel dispensers and air purifiers, mandated facemasks, installed preventative barriers, instituted spacing and flow of movement measures, and provided training to our employees. While these enhanced measures have not resulted in a significant increase in our operating costs to date, we may be required to adopt additional safety measures in the future.
Interruptions in the proper functioning of information systems or other technologies could disrupt operations and cause unanticipated increases in costs and/or decreases in revenues.
The proper functioning of our information systems is important to the successful operation of our business. If critical information systems fail or are otherwise unavailable, our ability to provide airport services at our airports, collect accounts receivable, pay expenses and maintain our security and customer data, could be adversely affected. In addition, incidents such as cyber-attacks, viruses, other destructive or disruptive software or activities, process breakdowns, outages or accidental release of information could adversely affect our technological systems and result in a disruption to our operations, the improper disclosure of personal, privileged or confidential information, or unauthorized access to our digital content or any other type of intellectual property. Currently, our information systems are protected with backup systems, including physical and software safeguards and a cold site to recover information technology operations. These safety components reduce the risk of disruptions, failures or security breaches of
our information technology infrastructure and are reviewed periodically by external advisors. Nonetheless, any such disruption, failure or security breach of our information technology infrastructure, including our back-up systems, could have a negative impact on our operations.
To date we have not experienced any major incidents related to cybersecurity or our information systems. Any such incident could cause damage to our reputation and may require us to expend substantial resources to remedy the situation, and could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, there can be no assurance that any efforts we make to prevent these incidents will be successful in avoiding harm to our business.
Our revenues are highly dependent upon levels of passenger and cargo traffic volumes and air traffic, which depend in part on factors beyond our control.
Our revenues are closely linked to passenger and cargo traffic volumes and the number of air traffic movements at our airports. These factors directly determine our revenues from aeronautical services and indirectly determine our revenues from non-aeronautical services. Passenger and cargo traffic volumes and air traffic movements depend in part on many factors beyond our control, including economic conditions in Mexico, Colombia and the United States, the political situation in Mexico, Colombia and elsewhere in the world, the attractiveness of our airports relative to that of other competing airports, fluctuations in petroleum prices (which can have a negative impact on traffic as a result of fuel surcharges or other measures adopted by airlines in response to increased fuel costs) and changes in regulatory policies applicable to the aviation industry. Reports suggesting an increase in the level of violent crime in Mexico may have had an adverse impact on passenger traffic to our Mexican airports, even though such airports serve areas of Mexico that have been less affected by violent crime. Similarly, reports suggesting an increase in the level of violence or political instability in Colombia may have an adverse impact on passenger traffic to our Colombian airports. Any decreases in air traffic to or from our airports as a result of factors such as these could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
Our business is highly dependent upon the operations of certain airports, including Mexico City and Bogotá Area airports.
In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 56.8%, 55.6%, and 52.6%, respectively, of our Mexican domestic passengers flew to or from our airports via Mexico City International Airport. As a result, our Mexican domestic traffic is highly dependent upon the operations of Mexico City International Airport. We cannot assure you that the operations of the Mexico City International Airport will not decrease or be adversely affected by construction of additional airports in the future. In 2022, overall Mexican domestic passenger traffic to and from Mexico City increased 17.6% compared to 2021.
In 2022, 37.5% of our Colombian domestic passengers flew to or from our airports via El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, Colombia. As a result, our Colombian domestic traffic is highly dependent upon the operations of El Dorado International Airport. Any event or condition that adversely affects Mexico City and Bogotá area airports could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
Competition from other tourist destinations could adversely affect our business.
One of the principal factors affecting our results of operations and business is the number of passengers using our airports. The number of passengers using our airports may vary as a result of factors beyond our control, including the level of tourism in Mexico, Colombia and Puerto Rico. In addition, the passenger traffic volume at our Mexican airports and LMM Airport may be adversely affected by the attractiveness, affordability and accessibility of competing tourist destinations in Mexico, such as Acapulco, Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos, or elsewhere, such as Florida, Cuba, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and other Caribbean islands and Central American destinations. The attractiveness of the destinations we serve is also likely to be affected by perceptions of travelers as to the safety and political and social stability of Mexico, Colombia and Puerto Rico. There can be no assurance that tourism levels in the future will match or exceed current levels.
Revenues from Mexican passenger charges are not secured, and we may not be able to collect amounts invoiced in the event of the insolvency of one of our principal airline customers.
In recent years, many airlines have reported substantial losses. Our revenues from passenger charges from our principal airline customers are not secured by a bond or any other collateral. Furthermore, Mexican passenger charges, which accounted for
15.6% of our revenues in 2022, are collected by airlines from passengers on our behalf and are later paid to us 30 to 115 days following the date of each flight. If any of our key customers were to become insolvent or seek bankruptcy protection, we might not be able to recover the full amount of such charges. For example, as a result of the Grupo Mexicana bankruptcy, we estimate that Ps.128.0 million in accounts receivable could be at risk of not being recovered, which represented 5.8% of our total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2021. With respect to the Avianca proceedings, Avianca has treated unpaid prepetition passenger charges as taxes and fees, which, pursuant to an order entered by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, Avianca has the authority (but not the obligation) to pay.
In terms of the Aeromexico proceedings, pursuant to an order entered by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, Aeromexico was permitted (but not directed), to pay the prepetition passenger charges. On July 22, 2020, we filed an objection and reservation of rights, asserting that passenger charges are a trust fund fee collected and held for the benefit of the airport, are not property of Aeromexico’s estate, and we reserved our right to take any action should Aeromexico attempt to cap remittance of the passenger charges to us. The Official Committee of Unsecured Creditors also filed a statement and reservation of rights, which reserved the committee’s right to argue that the passenger charges are property of Aeromexico’s estate. Aeromexico took no formal position on the status of the passenger charges. The bankruptcy court, in authorizing Aeromexico to pay the prepetition passenger charges, expressly declined to make any finding or conclusion of law with respect to the status of the passenger charges at that time. In addition, the airport terminals we operate filed proofs of claims with respect to the agreements between the airlines and the airports, including agreements related to the passenger charges. On May 19, 2021, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York authorized Aeromexico to assume these agreements, such that Aeromexico was bound and required to continue performing under such contracts and leases and obligated to cure all defaults under such contracts and leases. As of the date of this report, Aeromexico has paid all amounts due under these agreements. On January 28, 2022, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York confirmed Aeromexico’s plan of reorganization, and the restructuring was successfully completed on March 17, 2022.
On December 11, 2020, Interjet stopped all flights and has not resumed operations. As of December 31, 2021, we are owed Ps.75.1 million from Interjet, which is included in our allowance for doubtful accounts, and we might not be able to recover the full amount owed to us.
If a change in relations with our labor force should occur, such a change could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Although we currently believe we maintain good relations with our labor force, if any conflicts with our employees were to arise in the future, including with our unionized employees (which accounted for 22.1% of our total employees as of December 31, 2022), resulting events such as strikes or other disruptions that could arise with respect to our workforce could have a negative impact on our business or results of operations.
The operations of our airports may be disrupted due to the actions of third parties beyond our control.
As is the case with most airports, the operation of our airports is largely dependent on the services of third parties, such as air traffic control authorities, airlines, energy suppliers and suppliers of fuel to aircraft at our airports.
On September 20, 2017, 730 of Colombian flagship airline carrier Avianca’s 1,300 pilots walked off the job, demanding higher wages and benefits. The strike lasted 51 days and caused Avianca to ground hundreds of flights and contract foreign-based crews to serve its important long-haul routes to the United States and Europe. As a result, our passenger traffic in our Colombian airports decreased 13.0% in October 2017, 13.7% in November 2017, and 12.3% in December 2017 relative to the same monthly periods in 2016.
We are also dependent upon the Mexican government or entities of the government for provision of services such as immigration services for our international passengers. We are not responsible for and cannot control the services provided by these parties. Additionally, under the Mexican Airport Law, we are required to provide complementary services at each of our airports if there is no third party providing such services. As a result, any disruption in or adverse consequence resulting from the services of third parties, including a work stoppage or other similar event, may require us to provide these services personally or find a third party to provide them, and either event may have a material adverse effect on the operation of our airports and on our results of operations.
Fernando Chico Pardo and Grupo ADO, S.A. de C.V., through their own investment vehicles and their interests in Inversiones y Técnicas Aeroportuarias, S.A.P.I. de C.V., (“ITA”), have a significant influence as stockholders and over our management, and their interests may differ from those of other stockholders.
CHPAF Holdings, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (“CHPAF”), an entity directly or indirectly owned and controlled by Fernando Chico Pardo, who is also the chairman of our Board of Directors, owns 19.41% of our total capital stock. In addition, Inversiones Productivas Kierke, S.A. de C.V. (“Inversiones Kierke”), an entity owned and controlled by Grupo ADO, S.A. de C.V. (“Grupo ADO”), owns 12.31% of our total capital stock. Further, ITA, an entity which is owned 50.0% by entities directly owned and controlled by Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo and 50.0% by Inversiones Kierke, holds Series BB shares representing 7.65% of our capital stock. These Series BB shares provide it with special management rights. For example, pursuant to our bylaws, ITA is entitled to present to the Board of Directors the name or names of the candidates for appointment as chief executive officer, to remove our chief executive officer and to appoint and remove one half of the executive officers, and to elect two members of our Board of Directors. Our bylaws also provide ITA veto rights with respect to certain corporate actions (including some requiring approval of our shareholders) so long as its Series BB shares represent at least 7.65% of our capital stock. Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo and Grupo ADO have entered into a shareholders’ agreement that requires their unanimous consent to cause ITA to exercise certain of these rights. Special rights granted to ITA are more fully discussed in “Item 10. Additional Information” and “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.”
Therefore, Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo and Grupo ADO are each able to exert a significant influence over our management and matters requiring the approval of our stockholders. The interests of Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo, Grupo ADO and ITA may differ from those of our other stockholders, and there can be no assurance that any of Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo, Grupo ADO or ITA will exercise its rights in ways that favor the interests of our other stockholders. In particular, Grupo ADO is a Mexican bus company that may directly or indirectly compete with our key airline customers in the Mexican transportation market. Furthermore, the concentration of ownership by Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo, Grupo ADO and the special rights granted to ITA may have the effect of impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving ASUR.
Some of our board members and stockholders may have business relationships that may generate conflicts of interest.
Some of our board members or stockholders may have outside business relationships that generate conflicts of interest. For example, Fernando Chico Pardo, the chairman of our Board of Directors and one of our principal indirect stockholders, is a member of a number of other boards of directors that from time to time may have interests that diverge from our own. In addition, Grupo ADO, whose executives sit on our Board of Directors and which is one of our principal stockholders, operates a bus transportation business and has other interests that may be different than ours. Conflicts may arise between the interests of these or other individuals in their capacities as our shareholders and/or directors, on the one hand, and their outside business interests on the other. There can be no assurance that any conflicts of interest will not have an adverse effect on our shareholders.
Our operations are at greater risk of disruption due to the dependence of most of our airports on a single commercial runway.
As is the case with many other domestic and international airports around the world, all of our airports (except for our Cancún and Mérida Airports) have only one commercial aviation runway. While we seek to keep our runways in good working order and to conduct scheduled maintenance during off-peak hours, we cannot assure you that the operation of our runways will not be disrupted due to required maintenance or repairs. In addition, our runways may require unscheduled repair or maintenance due to natural disasters, aircraft accidents and other factors that are beyond our control. The closure of any runway for a significant period of time could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
We are exposed to risks related to construction projects.
The building requirements under our master development programs in Mexico could encounter delays or cause us to exceed our budgeted costs for such projects, which could limit our ability to expand capacity at our Mexican airports, increase our operating or capital expenses and adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Such delays or budgetary overruns also could limit our ability to comply with our Mexican master development programs. If we do not comply with our Mexican master development programs, we may be subject to fines or the loss of our Mexican concessions. Our current master development programs in Mexico are in effect until December 31, 2023. Renegotiation of our Mexican master development programs could lead to uncertainty regarding construction projects at our Mexican airports.
In addition, in November 2008, as part of our purchase of 130 hectares of land in the bay of Huatulco for Ps.286.3 million from the National Tourism Fund, or FONATUR, we agreed to construct at least 450 and up to 1,300 hotel rooms. In connection with the construction of these hotel rooms, we had agreed to meet a series of construction milestones, including presentation of a master development plan, submission of architectural plans, application for environmental permits, commencement of construction and substantial completion of construction. We had completed and presented a master development plan and FONATUR had granted us an extension of time to submit architectural plans, which were due on May 15, 2013. However, on March 26, 2013, FONATUR relieved us of the obligation to submit the architectural plans and complete the construction projects within a specific timeframe. On October 28, 2020, FONATUR agreed to terminate the Ps.286.3 million land agreement. On March 1, 2021, we received the initial payment of Ps.50 million from FONATUR, at which time the obligations under the purchase agreement no longer had legal effect. On June 28, 2021 FONATUR paid the remaining Ps.236.3 million and consequently we delivered the land on such date. For more information on the development in the bay of Huatulco, please see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Other Properties.”
In 2014 and 2016, our subsidiary Airplan reached agreements with the Colombian government with respect to investment commitments for certain airports, including José María Córdova International Airport, Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport, Los Garzones Airport and El Caraño Airport. Under the 2014 and 2016 agreements, Airplan committed to completing the modules connecting the terminal building with the parking lot at José María Córdova Airport. As of March 6, 2020, all projects under the 2014 and 2016 agreements have been completed.
We are exposed to risks related to other business opportunities.
In the spring of 2017, we, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, entered into agreements to acquire a controlling interest in Airplan and Aeropuertos de Oriente S.A.S. (“Oriente”). In October 2017, we received the necessary approvals from the Colombian regulatory authorities to conclude the acquisition of a 92.42% stake in Airplan. Airplan has concessions to operate the following airports in Colombia: the Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport in Medellín, the José María Córdova International Airport in Rionegro, the Los Garzones Airport in Montería, the Antonio Roldán Betancourt Airport in Carepa, the El Caraño Airport in Quibdó and the Las Brujas Airport in Corozal. On May 25, 2018, we increased our ownership stake in Airplan to 100% by acquiring an additional 7.58% of Airplan’s capital stock. We terminated our agreement to purchase Oriente in 2018.
We purchased the initial 92.42% interest in Airplan for an aggregate price of approximately U.S.$201.6 million, subject to pricing adjustments and pursuant to a series of agreements with the respective shareholders of Airplan. We paid U.S.$69.6 million of the purchase price with cash on hand, and obtained an unsecured loan of Ps.4,000.0 million from BBVA in April 2017 to pay the balance of the purchase price. The loan had a term of one year and an interest rate calculated on the basis of the 28-day Tasa de Interés Intercambiaria de Equilibrio, or Interbank Equilibrium Interest Rate (“TIIE”) plus 0.60% from July 31 to October 31, 2017; TIIE plus 0.85% from October 31, 2017 to January 31, 2018; TIIE plus 1.10% from January 31 to April 30, 2018 and TIIE plus 1.60% from April 30 to July 31, 2018. This loan was paid in October 2017, and we, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, concurrently obtained two loans of Ps.2,000 million each, one with BBVA and the other with Banco Santander. The remaining balance on the BBVA loan was repaid on October 13, 2021, and on October 18, 2021, we, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, entered into a seven-year loan agreement with BBVA for a principal amount of Ps. 2,000 maturing October 2028, with an annual TIIE rate plus an applicable margin. On September 29, 2021, we prepaid the remaining Ps. 2,000 million balance on the Santander loan and concurrently, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, we obtained a three-year term loan from Santander for a principal amount of Ps.2,650 million maturing on September 28, 2024 at a 28-day TIIE rate plus 150 basis points. In November 2022, our Cancun airport repaid a portion of the Santander loan in an amount of Ps. 650 million. In July 2022, Aerostar issued U.S.$200 million principal amount of 4.92% senior secured notes due March 22, 2035. In May 2022, Aerostar renegotiated the terms of its U.S.$50 million principal amount of 6.75% senior secured notes to mature in 2035. All long-term debt is collateralized by Aerostar's assets.
We may also explore other business opportunities from time to time, which may result in risks and uncertainties similar to those described above. Our inability to successfully manage the risks and uncertainties related to such business opportunities could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, expenses and net income.
In July 2012, the Puerto Rico Ports Authority (“PRPA”) granted Aerostar, our Puerto Rican subsidiary, a concession to operate the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport under the United States FAA’s Airport Privatization Pilot Program. On February 27, 2013, the transaction was finalized and Aerostar began operating the LMM Airport. Aeropuerto de Cancún pledged its membership interests in Aerostar, as collateral for debt incurred by Aerostar to fund a portion of the concession fee and contingent liabilities related to the concession. Aeropuerto de Cancún’s incurrence of debt and pledge of assets may limit our ability to obtain financing for future acquisitions or transactions. Other risks and uncertainties relate to our 2017 acquisition of a majority interest in Aerostar. We may be unable to fully implement our business plans and strategies for the integration of Aerostar’s business into ours. The business growth opportunities, revenue benefits and other benefits expected to result from this acquisition may be delayed or not achieved as expected. To the extent that we incur higher integration costs or achieve lower revenue benefits or fewer cost savings than expected, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We may also explore other business opportunities from time to time, which may result in risks and uncertainties similar to those described above. Our inability to successfully manage the risks and uncertainties related to such business opportunities could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, expenses and net income.
Our LMM Airport business is conducted through Aerostar, which has a minority shareholder.
On May 26, 2017 we acquired an additional 10% interest in Aerostar from our former joint venture partner, Oaktree Capital Management, L.P. (“Oaktree Capital”), increasing our total interest to 60.0%. The minority shareholder in Aerostar is PSP Investments, which acquired a 40.0% ownership interest in Aerostar from Oaktree Capital. We received all regulatory approvals for this transaction and, starting June 1, 2017, began to consolidate Aerostar’s results into our financial statements. All operating and management decisions relating to Aerostar, except for major decisions, require the approval of the majority of the votes of the managers. However, major decisions, including requiring the members to make additional capital contributions, setting Aerostar’s annual budget and approving distributions to Aerostar’s members, require a supermajority vote of Aerostar’s managers (a supermajority defined as a majority consisting of at least one manager designated by each member). Due to our 60% interest in Aerostar, we are entitled to designate a majority of members to the board of managers.
Our interest and strategies in Aerostar’s operation of the LMM Airport may differ from those of PSP Investments given that Aeropuerto de Cancún made a subordinated shareholder loan to Aerostar in addition to its equity investment, because of the different nature of our respective businesses and for other reasons. These diverging interests may impair our ability to reach agreement with PSP Investments on certain major decisions. In the event that the managers appointed by each Aeropuerto de Cancún and PSP Investments cannot reach an agreement on certain major decisions and there is a deadlock, any manager may refer the deadlock to the Chief Executive Officers of ASUR or AviAlliance Canada Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of PSP Investments (“AviAlliance”). If the Chief Executive Officers are unable to resolve the deadlock, then the matter will be referred to a non-binding mediation process. Finally, if the matter is not resolved through mediation, then either member can submit the dispute to final and binding arbitration. In the event that we do not reach an agreement with PSP Investments on an issue that requires the supermajority approval of the managers, the delay and cost resulting from a deadlock could adversely affect the operations of the LMM Airport and in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, prospects and/or the market prices of our membership interests in Aerostar.
For a discussion of Aerostar’s operating agreement and how it governs our involvement in Aerostar, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Aerostar’s Operating Agreement.”
We are exposed to risks inherent to the operation of airports.
We are obligated to protect the public at our airports and to reduce the risk of accidents. As with any company dealing with members of the public, we must implement certain measures for the protection of the public, such as fire safety in public spaces, design and maintenance of car parking facilities and access routes to meet road safety rules. We are also obligated to take certain measures related to aviation activities, such as maintenance, management and supervision of aviation facilities, rescue and fire-fighting services for aircraft, measurement of runway friction coefficients and measures to control the threat from birds and other wildlife on airport sites. These obligations could increase our exposure to liability to third parties for personal injury or property damage resulting from our operations.
Our insurance policies may not provide sufficient coverage against all liabilities.
While we seek to insure all reasonable risks, we can offer no assurance that our insurance policies would cover all of our liabilities in the event of an accident, terrorist attack or other incident. The markets for airport insurance and construction insurance are limited, and a change in coverage policy by the insurance companies involved could reduce our ability to obtain and maintain adequate or cost-effective coverage. A certain number of our assets cannot, by their nature, be covered by property insurance (notably aircraft movement areas, and certain civil engineering works and infrastructure). In addition, we do not currently carry business interruption insurance.
Our sustainability targets and objectives included in our sustainability report and other public statements may expose us to numerous risks.
We have developed, and will continue to develop, targets and objectives related to sustainability initiatives, including our corporate governance goals, emissions reduction targets and energy efficiency strategies.
On April 17, 2023, we published our Sustainability Report for the year 2022 (the “Sustainability Report”), describing the measures we implemented towards achieving our environmental, social and governance goals, and to set new strategic objectives to the benefit of the company and our stakeholders. In the short and medium terms (2023-2026), our main sustainability objectives are to work towards emissions reductions and energy efficiency through both on-site and off-site generation of solar power, adopt measures to supplement our water consumption with systems to capture and use rainwater; promote diversity in our workforce and on the company’s Board, aim to achieve equitable pay, and create succession plans for our independent Board members and key executives. In the long term, we intend to make our operations carbon neutral, promote gender equity, align our corporate governance with best practice and increase our participation in and support for local communities. We cannot assure that the objectives set forth in our Sustainability Report will be achieved or achieved on the stated timelines. Further, our ability to achieve our stated objectives, including emissions reductions, energy efficiency and sustainable goals towards local communities, is subject to numerous factors and conditions, some of which are outside of our control.
Our efforts to research, establish, accomplish, and accurately report on our sustainable objectives may expose us to operational, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks. Our business may face increased scrutiny from investors and other stakeholders related to our sustainability initiatives, including our publicly announced objectives and those set forth in our Sustainability Report, as well as our methodologies and timelines for pursuing those initiatives. If our sustainability initiatives do not meet evolving investor or other stakeholder expectations and standards, our reputation, ability to attract or retain employees, and attractiveness as an investment or business partner may be negatively impacted. Similarly, our failure to achieve our announced objectives or comply with ethical, environmental, or other standards, including reporting standards, may adversely impact our business. Furthermore, failure to achieve these objectives within the announced timelines, or at all, may adversely affect our business or reputation, or may expose us to government enforcement actions or private litigation.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Business
The price regulatory system applicable to our Mexican airports imposes maximum rates for each airport.
The price regulatory system does not guarantee that our consolidated results of operations, or that the results of operations of any Mexican airport, will be profitable.
The system of price regulation applicable to our Mexican airports establishes an annual maximum rate for each airport, which is the maximum annual amount of revenues per workload unit (which is equal to one passenger or 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of cargo) that we may earn at that airport from services subject to price regulation. The maximum rates for our Mexican airports have been determined for each year through December 31, 2023. For a discussion of the framework for establishing our maximum rates and the application of these rates, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Price Regulation” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—Puerto Rican Regulatory Framework—Price Regulation. Under the terms of our Mexican concessions, there is no guarantee that the results of operations of any airport will be profitable.
Our Mexican concessions provide that an airport’s maximum rates will be adjusted periodically for inflation. Although we are entitled to request additional adjustments to an airport’s maximum rates under certain circumstances, including the amendment of certain provisions of the Mexican Airport Law, our concessions provide that such a request will be approved only if the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation determines that certain events specified in our Mexican concessions have occurred. The circumstances under which we are entitled to an adjustment are described under “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Price Regulation—Special Adjustments to Maximum Rates.” There can be no assurance that any such request would be made or granted. If our request is not submitted in a timely manner, or if the adjustment is not approved by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by required efficiency adjustments to our Mexican maximum rates.
In addition, our Mexican maximum rates are subject to annual efficiency adjustments, which have the effect of reducing the maximum rates for each year to reflect projected efficiency improvements. For the five-year term ending December 31, 2023, an annual efficiency adjustment factor of 0.70% was established by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation. Future annual efficiency adjustments will be determined by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation in connection with the setting of each airport’s maximum rates every five years. For a description of these efficiency adjustments, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Price Regulation—Methodology for Determining Future Maximum Rates.” We cannot assure you that we will achieve efficiency improvements sufficient to allow us to maintain or increase our operating income as a result of the progressive decrease in each airport’s maximum rate. Additionally, on October 29, 2020, we filed a request with the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for an extraordinary review of the Mexican maximum rates, which was approved on April 7, 2021, and resulted in a reduction in committed investments and an increase in the Mexican maximum rates in the master development plans for the years 2021 to 2023.
Changes to Mexican laws, regulations and decrees applicable to us could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
The Mexican government has in the past implemented changes, and may in the future implement additional reforms, to the tax laws applicable to Mexican companies including ASUR. In addition, changes to the Mexican constitution or to any other Mexican laws could also have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows. For example, on May 23, 2014, Mexico’s Federal Economic Competition Law (Ley Federal de Competencia Económica) (“LFCE”) was enacted. The LFCE grants broad powers to the Mexican Federal Economic Competition Commission (Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica) (“COFECE”), including the abilities to regulate essential facilities, investigate companies, and eliminate barriers to competition in order to promote access to the market and order the divestment of assets. The LFCE also entrusts COFECE with the ability to conduct merger-control review and investigate anti-competitive behavior, and sets forth significant liabilities that may be incurred for violations of the law, including fines. COFECE’s decisions may only be challenged through indirect appeal (amparo indirecto).
Moreover, if the COFECE determines that a specific service or product is an essential facility, it has the ability to regulate access conditions, prices, tariffs or technical conditions for or in connection with the specific service or product. The COFECE has previously determined that certain elements of the infrastructure at Mexico City International Airport may be considered essential facilities. Should the COFECE determine that all or part of the services we render in our Mexican airports are considered an essential facility, we may be required to implement significant changes to the way we currently do our business, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
On March 24, 2023, the Mexican President submitted to the Mexican Congress an initiative to reform several federal laws, including the Federal Law of Contentious Administrative Procedure (Ley Federal de Procedimiento Contencioso Administrativo), the Organic Law of the Federal Court of Administrative Justice (Ley Orgánica del Tribunal Federal de Justicia Administrativa), the Federal Law of Administrative Procedures (Ley Federal de Procedimiento Administrativo), the Public Sector Acquisitions, Leasing and Services Law (Ley de Adquisiciones, Arrendamientos y Servicios del Sector Público), the Public Works and Related Services Law (Ley de Obras Públicas y Servicios Relacionados con las Mismas), the Expropriation Federal Law (Ley de Expropiación), the Federal Law on National Assets (Ley General de Bienes Nacionales) and the Federal Law of Patrimonial Responsibility of the State (Ley Federal de Responsabilidad Patrimonial del Estado). The bill would provide, among other things, additional gounds for the Mexican Government to revoke concessions and permits, as well as a mechanism to expedite expropriation of private property by the state. On the same day, the Mexican President submitted to the Mexican Congress another initiative to reform the Federal Public Administration Law (Ley Orgánica de la Administración Pública Federal), the Mexican Army and Airforce Law (Ley Orgánica del Ejército y Fuerza Aérea Mexicanos), the Airports Law (Ley de Aeropuertos) and the Civil Aviation Law (Ley de Aviacion Civil). The bill seeks to increase the regulation of airspace protection in Mexico, and specifically, the initiative to amend the Airports Law includes, among other things, (i) causes for revocation of permits granted to aerodromes, and (ii) the obligation for permit holders and concessionaires of civil aerodromes to allow the use and provide airport services to military aircraft for search and rescue activities, for providing support in case of disasters and emergencies. As of the date of this filing, we cannot determine whether these bills could affect the Mexican economy or our operations in Mexico.
On November 12, 2020, the Mexican President submitted to the Mexican Congress an initiative to reform the current subcontracting regime, which included amendments to labor, social security and tax laws (the “Labor Subcontracting Reform”). The reform became effective on April 24, 2021 with respect to the restrictions for personnel subcontracting through both outsourcing and insourcing schemes. The rest of the employment, social security and tax related obligations that emanated from the Labor Subcontracting Reform, including the transfer of previously outsourced personnel, became effective on September 1, 2021. The amended legislation allows the subcontracting of specialized services subject to certain conditions, including that such services cannot relate to the entity’s core business activity and that the contractor is registered before the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social) as a specialized service provider. On the tax front, the reform provides for the non-deductibility of considerations paid for the subcontracting of personnel and for non-specialized services. In addition, the new regime established a cap for the Statutory Employee Profit Sharing (Participación de los Trabajadores en las Utilidades de la Empresa or “PTU”), equal to the employee’s three monthly salaries or the average of the profit sharing received by the employee in the last three years, whichever is higher.
In particular, our current provision for profit sharing (recognized by contract or past practice) is calculated based on the profit attributable to our shareholders (after certain adjustments) or the amount equivalent to three months of salary, whichever is lesser. While the PTU increase required us to adjust our profit sharing mechanism, the implementation following these increases did not materially impact our financial condition during 2021.
In connection with tax matters, the terms of our concessions do not exempt us from any changes to the Mexican tax laws. Should the Mexican government implement changes to the tax laws that result in our having significantly higher income tax liability, we will be required to pay the higher amounts due pursuant to any such changes, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
On December 31, 2021, the State of Yucatán where the Mérida International Airport is located amended its state fiscal law (Ley General de Hacienda del Estado de Yucatán or the “GFL”) including (i) a specific tax on the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (Impuesto a la Emisión de Gases a la Atmósfera or the “Emissions Tax”), which applies to any legal entity in the State of Yucatán carrying out activities which produce gas emissions, and (ii) an additional tax on the emission of soil, subsoil and water pollutants (Impuesto a la Emisión de Contaminantes al Suelo, Subsuelo y Agua or the “Pollutants Tax”) which applies to any legal entity in the State of Yucatán carrying out activities which, directly or through intermediaries, emits polluting substances generated by industrial activities that are disposed, discharged, or injected into the soil, subsoil, or water. The Emissions Tax and the Pollutants Tax became effective on January 1, 2022, and any entities obligated thereunder are eligible to receive fiscal incentives (as established in article 47-AQ and 47-BB of the GFL) in the form of a 15% reduction in the payable Emission Tax or Pollutant Tax, as applicable, provided such entities decrease their pollutant emissions by at least 20% during the fiscal year prior to receiving the incentives.
Although we do not currently expect that compliance with these new environmental taxes will have a material effect on our financial condition or on the results of our operations, we cannot assure that complying with such taxes will not have a material adverse effect in our business in the future.
For more information on this and other changes to Mexican tax law, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Taxation.”
Our Mexican concessions may be terminated under various circumstances, some of which are beyond our control.
We operate each of our Mexican airports under 50-year concessions granted as of 1998 by the Mexican government. Any of the Mexican concessions may be terminated for a variety of reasons. For example, a concession may be terminated if we fail to make the committed investments required by the terms of that concession. In addition, in the event that we exceed the applicable maximum rate at an airport in any year, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation is entitled to reduce the applicable maximum rate at that airport for the subsequent year and assess a penalty. Violations of certain terms of a concession (including violations for exceeding the applicable maximum rate) can result in termination only if sanctions have been imposed for violation of the relevant term at least three times. Violations of other terms of a concession can result in the immediate termination of the concession. We would face similar sanctions for violations of the Mexican Airport Law or its regulations. Although we believe we are currently complying with the principal requirements of the Mexican Airport Law and its regulations, we may not be in compliance with certain requirements under the regulations. These violations could result in fines or other sanctions being assessed by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation, and are among the violations that could result in termination of a concession if they occur three or more times. For a description of the consequences that may result from the violation of various terms of our Mexican concessions, the Mexican Airport Law or its regulations, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Penalties and Termination and Revocation of Concessions and Concession Assets.” Under applicable Mexican law and the terms of our concessions, our concessions may also be subject to additional conditions, which we may be unable to meet. Failure to meet these conditions may also result in fines, other sanctions and the termination of the Mexican concessions.
In addition, the Mexican government may terminate one or more of our concessions at any time through reversion (rescate), if, in accordance with applicable Mexican law, it determines that it is required by national security or in the public interest to do so. In the event of a reversion (rescate) of the public domain assets that are the subject of our concessions, such assets would revert to the Mexican government and the Mexican government under Mexican law would be required to compensate us, taking into consideration investments made and depreciation of the relevant assets, but not the value of the assets subject to the concessions, based on the methodology set forth in a reversion (rescate) resolution issued by the Mexican Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation. There can be no assurance that we will receive compensation equivalent to the value of our investment in our concessions and related assets in the event of such a reversion (rescate).
In the event of war, natural disaster, grave disruption of the public order or an imminent threat to national security, internal peace or the economy, the Mexican government may carry out a requisition (requisa — step-in rights) with respect to our airports. The step-in rights may be exercised by the Mexican government as long as the circumstances warrant. In all cases, except international war, the Mexican government is required to indemnify us for damages and lost profits (daños y perjuicios) caused by such requisition, calculated at their real value (valor real); provided that if we were to contest the amount of such indemnification, the amount of the indemnity with respect to damages (daños) shall be fixed by expert appraisers appointed by us and the Mexican government, and the amount of the indemnity with respect to lost profits (perjuicios) shall be calculated taking into consideration the average net income during the year immediately prior to the requisition. In the event of requisition due to international war, the Mexican government would not be obligated to indemnify us.
In the event that any one of our Mexican concessions is terminated, whether through reversion (rescate), requisition (requisa) or otherwise, our other Mexican concessions may also be terminated. Thus, the loss of any of our concessions would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. For a discussion of events which may lead to a termination of a Mexican concession, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Penalties and Termination and Revocation of Concessions and Concession Assets.” Moreover, we are required to continue operating each of our nine Mexican airports for the duration of our concessions, even if one or more of them are unprofitable.
The Mexican government could grant new concessions that compete with our airports, including the Cancún International Airport.
The Mexican government could grant additional concessions to operate existing government managed airports, or authorize the construction of new airports, that could compete directly with our airports. We may be denied the right to participate in the bidding processes to win these concessions.
Currently, the Mayan Riviera is served primarily by Cancún International Airport. We are unable to predict the effect that a new Mayan Riviera airport would have on our passenger traffic or operating results if the Mexican government decides to move forward with the project.
In October 2020, the Mexican President announced that as part of an effort to develop the southeast of Mexico, the Mexican Army will build and operate a new airport in the City of Tulum, State of Quintana Roo (the “Felipe Carrillo Puerto International Airport”). The Mexican government had previously secured a piece of land measuring approximately 1,200 hectares where it will build the new airport, located 130 km south of the Cancun airport and has announced that the airport’s inauguration will be concurrent with the inauguration of the Mayan Train. The Mayan Train is a proposed intercity railway project that is set to connect airports and historic Mayan tourist sites in Mexico, with rail coverage in the States of Chiapas, Yucatán and Quintana Roo. According to Lopez Obrador, construction of the new airport in Tulum is set to be finalized in 2023, and, the Felipe Carrillo Puerto International Airport is expected to start operations in 2024. We cannot assure you that the construction of the airport in Tulum will not impact the passenger traffic at Cancún airport.
In addition, in certain circumstances, the Mexican government can grant concessions without conducting a public bidding process. Furthermore, the COFECE has the power, under certain circumstances, to reject awards of concessions granted by the government and/or object to the participation of certain bidders in biding process. Please see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Grants of New Concessions” below. Grants of new concessions could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.
We provide a public service regulated by the Mexican government and our flexibility in managing our aeronautical activities is limited by the regulatory environment in which we operate.
Our aeronautical fees charged to airlines and passengers are, like most airports in other countries, regulated. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 34.9%, 46.0% and 53.7%, respectively, of our total revenues were earned from aeronautical services at our Mexican airports, which were subject to price regulation under our maximum rates in Mexico. In 2022, 55.6% of our total revenues were earned from aeronautical services at all of our airports. These Mexican maximum rate regulations may limit our flexibility in operating our aeronautical activities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. In addition, several of the regulations applicable to our operations that affect our profitability are authorized (as in the case of our master development programs in Mexico) or established (as in the case of our maximum rates in Mexico) by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for five-year terms. Except under limited circumstances, we generally do not have the ability unilaterally to change our obligations (such as the investment obligations under our Mexican master development programs or the obligation under Mexican concessions to provide a public service) or increase our maximum rates applicable under those regulations should our passenger traffic or other assumptions on which the regulations were based change during the applicable term. In addition, there can be no assurance that this price regulation system will not be amended in a manner that would cause additional sources of our revenues to be regulated. On October 29, 2020, we filed a request with the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for an extraordinary review of the Mexican maximum rates, which was approved on April 7, 2021 and resulted in a reduction in committed investments and an increase in the Mexican maximum rates in the master development plans for the years 2021 to 2023.
We cannot predict how the Mexican regulations governing our business will be applied.
Although Mexican law establishes ranges of sanctions that might be imposed should we fail to comply with the terms of one of our Mexican concessions, the Mexican Airport Law and its regulations or other applicable law, we cannot predict the sanctions that are likely to be assessed for a given violation within these ranges. We cannot assure you that we will not encounter difficulties in complying with these laws, regulations and instruments. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the laws and regulations governing our business will not change.
If we exceed the maximum rate at any Mexican airport at the end of any year, we could be subject to sanctions.
Historically, we have set the prices we charge for regulated services at each Mexican airport as close as possible to the prices we are allowed to charge under the maximum rate for that airport. We expect to continue to pursue this pricing strategy in the future. For example, in 2022, our revenues subject to maximum rate regulation represented 96.6% of the amount we were entitled to earn under the maximum rates for all of our Mexican airports. There can be no assurance that we will be able to establish prices in the future that allow us to collect virtually all of the revenue we are entitled to earn from services subject to price regulation.
The specific prices we charge for regulated services are determined based on various factors, including projections of passenger traffic volumes, the Mexican producer price index (excluding petroleum) and the value of the peso relative to the U.S. dollar. These variables are outside of our control. Our projections could differ from the applicable actual data, and, if these differences occur at the end of any year, they could cause us to exceed the maximum rate at any one or more of our Mexican airports during that year.
If we exceed the maximum rate at any airport at the end of any year, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation may assess a fine and may reduce the maximum rate at that airport in the subsequent year. The imposition of sanctions for violations of certain terms of a concession, including for exceeding the airport’s maximum rates, can result in termination of the concession if the relevant term has been violated and sanctions have been imposed at least three times. In the event that any one of our Mexican concessions is terminated, our other concessions may also be terminated.
Depreciation of the Mexican peso may cause us to exceed our maximum rates.
We aim to charge prices that are as close as possible to our maximum chargeable rates, and we are entitled to adjust our specific prices only once every six months (or earlier upon a cumulative increase of 5.0% in the Mexican producer price index (excluding petroleum)). However, we generally collect passenger charges from airlines 30 to 115 days following the date of each flight. Such tariffs for the services that we provide to international flights or international passengers in our Mexican airports are generally denominated in U.S. dollars but are paid in Mexican pesos based on the average exchange rate for the month prior to each flight. Accordingly, depreciation of the peso, particularly late in the year, could cause us to exceed the maximum rates at one or more of our airports, which could lead to the imposition of fines and the termination of one or more of our concessions. From December 31, 2021 to December 31, 2022, the peso appreciated by 5.0%, from Ps.20.51 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2021, to Ps.19.49 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2022, and experienced intra-year volatility. In the event that any one of our Mexican concessions is terminated, our other concessions may also be terminated.
The price regulatory system applicable to our Colombian airports does not guarantee that our consolidated results of operations, or that the results of operations of any Colombian airport, will be profitable.
Our Colombian airports receive two kinds of remuneration for their operations, depending on the types of activities carried out in each airport. First, as a result of aeronautical operations at each airport (excluding fuel supply), Airplan charges airlines regulated tariffs for activities such as aircraft parking rights, subject to annual caps set by Aerocivil. These regulated tariffs are adjusted on an annual basis based on the Colombian consumer price index (Índice de Precios al Consumidor), or the IPC. Airplan also charges non-regulated tariffs for commercial activities, including leases and vehicle parking services, that may be set by the concession holder based upon supply and demand.
Although we are entitled to request additional adjustments to the regulated tariffs, any modification or amendment is subject to the approval of Aerocivil. If our request is not submitted in a timely manner, or if the adjustment is not approved by Aerocivil, our business, financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected. For additional information, see “Item 4—Business Overview—Our Colombian Airports—Aeronautical Revenues.”
Our Colombian concessions may be terminated under various circumstances, some of which are beyond our control, and such termination could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In the event of noncompliance with the terms of the Colombian concession agreement, the National Infrastructure Agency (Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura), or ANI may rescind the agreement and assess a penalty, the amount of which varies depending on the stage of the concession. Airplan was subject to a maximum penalty of U.S.$20 million during the adaptation and modernization stage of the Colombian concession. Airplan completed the adaptation and modernization stage on March 6, 2020 and is currently in the maintenance stage which it expects to end in April 2032. During the maintenance stage of the concession, this maximum penalty may be reduced by 30.0%, 50.0% or 70.0%, depending on when the breach occurs.
Under applicable Colombian laws and the terms of the concession, a concession may be terminated upon certain events, including but not limited to: reaching the expected revenues set forth in the concession agreement; dissolution or bankruptcy of our subsidiary Airplan; and a failure to pay fines imposed due to noncompliance with the concession agreement. In addition, the Colombian government may terminate one or more of our concessions if it determines that it is required by national security or in the public interest to do so. The loss of our Colombian concessions could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. For additional information, see “Item 4—Colombian Regulatory Framework—Penalties and Termination of Colombian Concession.”
Changes in existing or new laws and regulations in Mexico, Colombia, the United States and Puerto Rico, including tax laws, or regulatory enforcement priorities could adversely affect our businesses or investments.
Laws and regulations at the local, regional and national levels, in Mexico, Colombia, the United States and Puerto Rico, change frequently, and the changes can impose significant costs and other burdens of compliance on our businesses or investments. Any changes in regulations, the interpretation of existing regulations, the internal criteria of the governmental institutions executing such regulations, the imposition of additional regulations or the enactment of any new legislations that affect the airport sector in matters of employment/labor, transportation/logistics, energy costs, tax or environmental issues, could have an adverse impact, directly or indirectly, on our financial condition and results of operations.
The technical and specialization level of the environmental regulations in Mexico has significantly deepened and increased in recent years, and the enforcement of environmental laws is becoming substantially more stringent. Considering the global context, we would expect this trend to continue and to be stimulated by international agreements between Mexico and the United States, and other countries or international organizations. In any case, there can be no assurances that environmental regulations or their enforcement will not change in a manner that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects or financial conditions.
In addition, our subsidiary Aerostar as operator of the LMM Airport is subject to the United States’ federal aviation laws and regulations issued by the FAA and by the Transportation Security Administration, or TSA. However, because the LMM Airport is the first airport to be privatized under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program, it is unclear how the FAA will apply to Aerostar and the LMM Airport existing and future laws and regulations applicable to airport operators in the United States. If Aerostar fails to comply with existing or future laws and regulations, it could be subject to fines or be required to incur expenses in order to bring the LMM Airport into compliance. This and any other future changes in existing laws and changes in enforcement priorities by the governmental agencies charged with enforcing existing laws and regulations, as well as changes in the interpretation of these laws and regulations, can increase our businesses and investments’ compliance costs.
Risks Related to Mexico
Appreciation, depreciation or fluctuation of the peso relative to the U.S. dollar could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
In 2022, the peso appreciated by 5.0% against the U.S. dollar. If a depreciation were to resume, it could (notwithstanding other factors) lead to a decrease in Mexican domestic passenger traffic that may not be offset by any increase in international passenger traffic. Any future significant appreciation of the peso could impact our aggregate passenger volume by increasing the cost of travel for international passengers. Depreciation of the peso could impact our aggregate passenger traffic volume by increasing the cost of travel for Mexican domestic passengers, which may adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, there can be no assurance that any depreciation of the peso in the future will result in an increase to international passenger traffic.
In addition, depreciation of the peso against the U.S. dollar may adversely affect the dollar value of an investment in the ADSs and the Series B shares, as well as the dollar value of any dividend or other distributions that we may make.
Although we currently intend to fund the investments required by our business strategy through cash flow from operations and from peso-denominated borrowings and as of December 31, 2022, our Mexican airports did not have dollar-denominated liabilities, we may incur dollar-denominated debt to finance all or a portion of these investments. A devaluation of the peso would increase the debt service cost of any dollar-denominated indebtedness that we may incur and result in foreign exchange losses.
Severe devaluation or depreciation of the peso, or government imposition of exchange controls, may also result in the disruption of the international foreign exchange markets and may limit our ability to transfer or to convert pesos into U.S. dollars and other currencies.
Economic developments in Mexico may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Although a substantial portion of our revenues is derived from foreign tourism, Mexican domestic passengers in recent years have represented approximately half of the passenger traffic volume in our Mexican airports. In addition, a significant amount of our assets are located, and a significant segment of our operations are conducted, in Mexico. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be adversely affected by the general condition of the Mexican economy, by a devaluation of the peso, by inflation and high interest rates in Mexico, or by political developments in Mexico.
Mexico has experienced, and may in the future experience, adverse economic conditions.
In the past, Mexico has experienced economic crises, caused by internal and external factors, characterized by exchange rate instability (including large devaluations), high inflation, high domestic interest rates, economic contraction, a reduction of international capital flows, a reduction of liquidity in the banking sector and high unemployment rates. We cannot assume that such conditions will not return or that such conditions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
In 2020, Mexican GDP decreased 8.5% and inflation increased to 3.2%. In 2021, Mexican GDP increased 5.9% and inflation increased to 7.36%. In 2022, Mexican GDP decreased 0.1% and inflation decreased to 2.8%. In 2020, 2021, and 2022 the outbreak of COVID-19 adversely affected the economy and financial markets of Mexico and its trading partners. While Mexican GDP did increase quarter-over-quarter in both the third and fourth quarters of 2021, the extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak will continue to impact the Mexican economy is uncertain, as is the extent of further Mexican economic recovery, if any.
If the Mexican economy does not continue to recover, if inflation or interest rates increase significantly or if the Mexican economy is otherwise adversely impacted, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Political developments in Mexico could adversely affect our operations.
Our financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected by changes in Mexico’s political climate to the extent that such changes affect the nation’s economic policies, growth, stability, outlook or regulatory environment.
The Mexican government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Mexican economy. Mexican governmental actions concerning the economy and state-owned enterprises could have a significant effect on Mexican private-sector entities in general, and us in particular, as well as on market conditions, prices and returns on securities, including our ADSs.
The most recent presidential election took place in July 2018. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, presidential candidate for the National Regeneration Movement Party (Movimiento de Regeneración Nacional) (“Morena”), was elected President and took office on December 1, 2018, ending the Institutional Revolutionary Party’s (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) (“PRI”) hold on the presidency. Before taking office, López Obrador submitted to a national referendum the question of whether to continue construction of a new international airport in Mexico City, one of Mexico’s most important infrastructure projects. Construction of the new international airport to replace Mexico City International Airport began in 2015. The referendum was carried out by a private company contracted by Morena and through mechanisms not necessarily envisioned in the Constitution. The result of the referendum, announced on October 28, 2018, was to discontinue construction on the new international airport and, in its stead, build a new airport network consisting of three airports near the Mexico City metropolitan area. On December 27, 2018, the López Obrador administration formally terminated work at the new international airport in Mexico City. The López Obrador administration instead decided to add additional runways to the military air base at Santa Lucia and build the Felipe Ángeles International Airport (“AIFA”) to handle Mexico City air traffic. AIFA started operating on March 21, 2022. Our Mexican domestic passenger traffic is highly dependent upon the operations of the Mexico City International Airport, and we cannot assure you that AIFA’s operations will not adversely affect the operations of the Mexico City International Airport.
On November 24 and 25, 2018, López Obrador and Morena held another referendum. During this second referendum, voters approved the construction of a railway, labeled the Mayan Train, that would link Mayan archaeological and tourist sites in five southeastern states—Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Yucatan. The Mayan Train was envisaged to be a four-year project costing U.S.$7.4 billion which will connect Palenque with Cancún. A series of protests and legal challenges have slowed the completion of the Mayan train, which the Mexican government now expects to complete in 2023. We cannot assure you that the construction of the Mayan Train or any uncertainty around its construction will not impact the passenger traffic at our Mexican airports.
In his statements after the announcement of the referendum results, López Obrador expressed his intention to, during his term as president, to carry out more such referendums on matters, that in his judgment and that of his administration, are of national interest, and that the results of such referendums will be adopted without taking into account the economic impact they could have on financial markets. We cannot predict if and to what degree such a policy could generate economic instability in Mexico, nor if our operations or the legal framework under which we operate could be affected.
After mid-term elections on June 6, 2021, Morena lost the absolute majority in the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies) that it had held since 2018. However, it remains the party that individually holds the most seats relative to any other party in Mexico. We cannot predict the impact that political developments in Mexico will have on the Mexican economy nor can provide any assurances that these events, over which we have no control, will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations,cash flows, prospects and/or the market price of our ADSs.
The Mexican government could implement significant changes in laws, policies and regulations, which could affect the economic and political situation in Mexico. On December 15, 2022, the Mexican government submitted to congress an aviation sector reform bill as part of its strategy to restore Mexico’s rating to a Category 1. If approved, the bill would result in amendments to the Civil Aviation Law and the Airports Law, including to enhance regulator supervision of FAA over civil aviation matters, and allow foreign airlines to upon request to the Mexican authorities, and provided the following conditions are met: (i) there must be a public use or interest for the request; (ii) the domestic route must be of strategic interest for purposes of Mexican infrastructure, (iii) the airline must have obtained a favorable opinion from the National Security Committee, (iii) the airport must comply with certain operative and capacity criteria, and (iv) any other condition as set forth in the bill,operate domestic flights. On February 2, 2023, López Obrador issued a presidential decree pursuant to which all cargo and freight flights departing from the Mexico City International Airport would be relocated to depart from the AIFA airport. While we do not believe that these leglislative reforms will have a negative impact in the short term, we cannot predict how these regulatory changes will affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, prospects, and/ or the market price of our ADSs.
Developments in other countries may affect the prices of securities issued by Mexican companies.
The Mexican economy may be, to varying degrees, affected by economic and market conditions in other countries. Although economic conditions in other countries may differ significantly from economic conditions in Mexico, investors’ reactions to adverse developments in other countries may have an adverse effect on the market value of securities of Mexican issuers. In October 1997, prices of both Mexican debt and equity securities decreased substantially as a result of the sharp drop in Asian securities markets. Similarly, in the second half of 1998 and in early 1999, prices of Mexican securities were adversely affected by the economic crises in Russia and Brazil. The Mexican debt and equities markets also have been adversely affected by ongoing developments in the global credit markets.
In addition, in recent years, economic conditions in Mexico have become increasingly correlated with economic conditions in the United States as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA (further replaced by the United States - Mexico - Canada Agreement, or USMCA), and increased economic activity between the two countries.
The United States is Mexico’s primary trading partner, and receives over 80 percent of Mexico’s total exports. Weakened trading ties between Mexico and the United States could hurt industrial growth in the Mexican economy.
On October 1, 2018, Mexico announced that it had reached an agreement with Canada and the United States to modernize their free trade relationship and replace NAFTA. The new agreement, which is known as the USMCA, was formally signed on November 30, 2018, was ratified by the United States, Mexico and Canada, and entered into force on July 1, 2020. The modifications include, among others, minimum wages rules for the automotive sector, greater access to Canadian dairy markets, and extension of copyright protections to 70 years beyond the life of the author. In addition, the USMCA updates (for US and Mexico only) NAFTA’s Chapter 11 investor-state dispute settlement procedures. The USMCA includes a 16-year “sunset” clause, meaning the terms of the agreement expire after a set period of time, as well as being subject to a review every six years, at which point the United States, Mexico, and Canada can decide to extend the USMCA or not. If the USMCA is terminated or otherwise modified, such termination or modification could materially impact Mexico’s aviation sector. While it is difficult to predict their scope and effect, such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, prospects and/or the market price of our ADSs.
The termination of USMCA or other related events could have a material adverse effect on the Mexican economy. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that any policies adopted by the Biden U.S. administration will not have an impact in the market value of its securities, or that the market value of its securities will not be adversely affected by events elsewhere. We cannot assure you that events in other emerging market countries, in the United States or elsewhere will not materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Differences between the corporate disclosure requirements of Mexico and the United States may not adequately reflect our business and results of operations.
A principal objective of the securities laws of the United States, Mexico, and other countries is to promote full and fair disclosure of all material corporate information, including accounting information. However, there may be different or less publicly available information about issuers of securities in Mexico than is regularly made available by public companies in countries with highly developed capital markets, including the United States.
In addition, accounting standards and disclosure requirements in Mexico differ from those of the United States. In particular, our financial statements are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) which differs from United States GAAP in a number of respects. Items on the financial statements of a company prepared in accordance with IFRS may not reflect its financial position or results of operations in the way they would be reflected had such financial statements been prepared in accordance with United States GAAP.
Mexican law and our bylaws restrict the ability of non-Mexican shareholders to invoke the protection of their governments with respect to their rights as shareholders.
As required by Mexican law, our bylaws provide that non-Mexican shareholders shall be considered as Mexicans in respect of their ownership interests in ASUR and shall be deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of their governments in certain circumstances. Under this provision, a non-Mexican shareholder is deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of his own government by asking such government to interpose a diplomatic claim against the Mexican government with respect to the shareholder’s rights as a shareholder, but is not deemed to have waived any other rights it may have, including any rights under the United States securities laws, with respect to its investment in ASUR. If you invoke such governmental protection in violation of this agreement, your shares could be forfeited to the Mexican government.
It may be difficult to enforce civil liabilities against us or our directors, officers and controlling persons.
ASUR is organized under the laws of Mexico, with its principal place of business (domicilio social) in Mexico City, and most of our directors, officers and controlling persons reside outside the United States. In addition, all or a substantial portion of our assets and their assets are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States on such persons or to enforce judgments against them, including in any action based on civil liabilities under the United States federal securities laws. There is doubt as to the enforceability against such persons in Mexico, whether in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of United States courts, of liabilities based solely on the United States federal securities laws.
The protections afforded to minority shareholders in Mexico are different from those in the United States.
Under Mexican law, the protections afforded to minority shareholders are different from those in the United States. In particular, the law concerning fiduciary duties of directors is not as fully developed as in other jurisdictions and there are different procedural requirements for bringing shareholder lawsuits. As a result, in practice it may be more difficult for minority shareholders of ASUR to enforce their rights against us or our directors or controlling shareholders than it would be for shareholders of a company incorporated in another jurisdiction, such as the United States.
Security risks in Mexico could increase, which could adversely affect our operations.
In recent years, Mexico has experienced a period of increased criminal activity and violence, primarily due to organized crime. Increasing violence among criminal organizations, particularly drug traffickers, and clashes between these and Mexican civilian and military personnel, or increases in other types of crime, are a risk to our business and could negatively impact our performance. In addition, perceptions about crime in Mexico and violence related to drug trafficking may also have an adverse effect on our business as they may decrease the international passenger traffic directed to Mexico or the domestic passenger travel using our airports in affected states.
On December 8, 2021, the U.S. State Department issued a Level 3 travel advisory to reconsider travel to Mexico due to COVID-19, and recommended exercising increased caution in Mexico due to crime and kidnapping, as some areas have increased risk. Historicallly, the regions in which we operate have not experienced the violence experienced in other parts of Mexico and none of the Mexican states in which we operate were cited as “do not travel to” or “reconsider travel to” zones in the December 8, 2021 travel advisory. However, we cannot guarantee that violence will not increase in, or that the U.S. State Department will not issue travel advisories for, the Mexican states in which we operate. On January 23, 2023, the United States Department of State issued a press release warning U.S. citizens of certain violent outbreakes between Uber drivers and local taxi unions in Quintana Roo, which often resulted in U.S. citizens being injured.
Risks Related to Colombia
Colombian government policies may significantly affect the economy, and, as a result, our business and operations in Colombia.
Our business and results of operations at our Colombian airports are dependent on the economic conditions prevailing in Colombia. The Colombian government has historically exercised substantial influence on its economy, and is likely to continue to implement policies that will have an impact on the business and results of operations of entities in the country. Potential changes in laws, public policies and regulations may cause instability and volatility in Colombia, which could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
The Colombian Peso (“COP”) has fallen by over 19.2% against the U.S. dollar during the twelve month period ended December 31, 2022. A depreciation of the COP could affect the Company’s business in the following ways: (i) international passengers and international flights pay tariffs reported in U.S. dollars; while these tariffs are generally collected in COP, any depreciation of the COP has a positive impact on the Company’s results from operations, which are reported in COP; (ii) as the Company has cash balances denominated in U.S. dollars; a depreciation in the Mexican peso would result in higher cash balances when converted to COP, thus causing foreign exchange gains; and (iii) the Company has financial liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars; a depreciation in the COP results in higher debt balances when converted to COP, thus causing foreign exchange losses.
On August 7, 2022, Gustavo Petro, candidate for the left-wing “Pacto Histórico” party, was elected President of Colombia. Although throughout history elected governments (and the Colombian Congress) have pursued free market economic policies, with almost no economic interventions, we cannot predict which policies will be adopted by the new government or congress and whether those policies would have a negative impact on the Colombian economy or our business operations and financial performance. On August 8, 2022, the Ministry of Finance submitted a tax reform bill to the Colombian Congress proposing several changes to the Colombian tax regime. The tax reform bill was passed as Law 2277 on December 13, 2022, and became effective starting January 1, 2023. This new law includes, among others: (i) a new permanent equity tax applicable to Colombian individuals and non-residents, which rates may vary from 0.5% to 1.5% based on the individual’s net equity as of the first day of January of each year, (ii) an increase in the dividend tax rate for local and foreign shareholders (0% to 39% progressive marginal rates for Colombian individuals, and 20% flat withholding rate for non-resident shareholders), (iii) an increase in the long-term capital gains tax rate, from 10% to 15%, (iv) the elimination of specific tax benefits and exemptions, such as the exempt income applicable for entities that are part of the technological and creative sector (“Economía Naranja”), the tax incentive for the development of the Colombian farming sector, and the 27% preferential income tax rate applicable to large infrastructure investments (“Megainversiones”), among others, (v) a 3% tax benefit on the taxpayer’s net income determined pursuant to Section 259-1 f the Colombian Tax Code, in connection with environmental-related, deductions related to employee trainings, expenses incurred in the conservation of cultural property, among others, (vi) a minimum corporate income tax of at least 15% based on effective tax rate (calculated on book profit with certain adjustments), (vii) taxes based on significant economic presence of certain commercial activities (primarily for non-resident persons and entities that provide digital services), and (viii) the elimination of the possibility to use 50% of the Industry and Commerce Tax (i.e., local tax levied on gross revenue derived from the provision of services, or the performance of commercial and industrial activities in Colombian municipalities) as an income tax credit.
Additionally, the Colombian executive branch has recently presented bills to reform the federal pension plan (which would contemplate, among other things, a pillar system based on age and condition of the affiliated, and changes to pension schemes applicable to women), as well as reforms to labor laws (which include amendments to the regulation of outsourcing and subcontracting schemes, service contracts, minimum daily working hours, digital work, informal and migrant work, among others) and the National Development Plan bill, which seeks to regulate, among other things, territorial planning around watercourses, human safety, access to food, and climate change. As of the date of this annual report, it is unclear how these bills could affect the Colombian economy or our business.
If the perception of improved overall stability in Colombia deteriorates or if foreign direct investment declines, the Colombian economy may face a downturn, which could impact international and domestic traffic at our Colombian airports, and negatively affect our results of operations.
Colombia has experienced several periods of violence and political instability, which could affect the economy and our operations.
Colombia has experienced several periods of criminal violence over the past four decades, primarily due to the activities of guerilla, paramilitary groups and drug cartels. In remote regions of the country, where governmental presence is minimal, these groups have exerted influence over the local population and funded their activities by protecting and rendering services to drug traffickers. In response, the Colombian government has implemented security measures and has strengthened its military and police forces, including the creation of specialized units. Despite these efforts, drug-related crime and guerrilla and paramilitary activity continue to exist in Colombia. Any possible escalation in the violence associated with these activities may have a negative impact on the Colombian economy in the future.
In the context of any political instability, allegations have been made against members of the Colombian government concerning possible ties with paramilitary groups. These allegations may undermine the Colombian government’s credibility, which could in turn negatively impact the Colombian economy and tourism and our operations there in the future. In November 2016, the Colombian government signed a revised peace agreement with the FARC guerillas that sought their demobilization and the end of the decades-long armed conflict. That same month, the revised peace agreement was ratified by both houses of Colombian Congress and the Colombian government formally entered into the peace agreement with FARC without submitting the agreement to the voters for their approval. On January 18, 2019, President Ivan Duque announced the end of negotiations for a peace agreement with the ELN, the second-largest guerilla group in the country. This decision was the result of a terrorist attack on a police station based in Bogotá, perpetrated by the ELN. The Colombian government has had military confrontations with the ELN and with dissident groups that a peace agreement had been signed with. Conflicts between guerrilla and paramilitary fighters for control of the territory vacated by former groups who reintegrated into civil society has caused outbreaks of violence in the country, which have also been met with responses by the Colombian government. In addition, some ex-guerrilla members continue to carry out illegal activities, including micro-drug trafficking and robbery, leading to the establishment of criminal bands in the Antioquia, Cauca and Valle del Cauca regions.
On January 2, 2022, violent confrontations broke out at the Arauca department in Colombia, as members of the ELN fought with dissidents of the FARC. The conflict arose over control of illegal economies, including drug trafficking to Venezuela, and led to deaths, illegal detentions, mass displacements and risk of forced displacement in border municipalities, specifically in Tame, Fortul, Saravena and Arauquita. The conflict continued to escalate over the following months, and the feasibility of a potential agreement between the ELN and FARC remains uncertain.
On November 4, 2022, the Colombian Congress approved Law 418 establishing the “Paz Total” program, pursuant to which the government will establish political dialogues with armed groups in different regions of the country, in furtherance of achieving peace.
On December 31 of 2022, President Gustavo Petro announced a bilateral ceasefire, starting on January 1, 2023 until June 30, 2023, which would open a round of dialogue between the government and ELN, Segunda Marquetalia, Estado Mayor Central, Autodefensas Gaitanistas de Colombia (AGC) and the Sierra Nevada armed group. The second round of the dialogue between the Colombian Government and the ELN ended in March 2023, and the third round is expected to take place in the upcoming months in Havana, Cuba. As of the date of this annual report, peace dialogues are being held with the different armed groups to reinforce security. Furthermore, in March 2023, President Gustavo Petro announced the commencement of a peace process with the FARC dissidents who did not sign the peace agreement in 2016.
In addition, Colombia has recently experienced substantial migration from Venezuela, leading to strained relations between the nations, including with respect to commercial relations. Air transport between Colombia and Venezuela has slowed in part due to political and economic instability in Venezuela. Recently, the Colombian and Venezuelan governments have declared their intention to expand air routes between the two countries.
On August 7, 2022, Gustavo Petro, candidate for the left-wing “Pacto Histórico” party, was elected President of Colombia. Although throughout history elected governments (and the Colombian Congress) have pursued free market economic policies, with almost no economic interventions, we cannot predict which policies will be adopted by the new government or congress and whether those policies would have a negative impact on the Colombian economy or our business operations and financial performance. Our Colombian operations could be adversely impacted by rapidly changing economic, political and social conditions in Colombia and by the Colombian government’s response to such economic and social conditions. Additionally, any changes in the ruling government, regulations or policies relating to aeronautical services or investment, or shifts in political attitudes in Colombia are beyond our control.
Risks Related to Our ADSs
You may not be entitled to participate in future preemptive rights offerings.
Under Mexican law, if we issue new shares for cash as part of a capital increase, we generally must grant our shareholders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage in ASUR. Rights to purchase shares in these circumstances are known as preemptive rights. We may not legally be permitted to allow holders of ADSs in the United States to exercise any preemptive rights in any future capital increase unless we file a registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, with respect to that future issuance of shares, or the offering qualifies for an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
At the time of any future capital increase, we will evaluate the costs and potential liabilities associated with filing a registration statement with the SEC and any other factors that we consider important to determine whether we will file such a registration statement.
We cannot assure you that we will file a registration statement with the SEC to allow holders of ADSs or shares in the United States to participate in a preemptive rights offering. In addition, under current Mexican law, sales by the depository of preemptive rights and distribution of the proceeds from such sales to you, the ADS holders, is not possible. As a result, your equity interest in ASUR may be diluted proportionately.
Holders of ADSs are not entitled to attend shareholders’ meetings, and they may only vote through the depositary.
Under Mexican law, a shareholder is required to deposit its shares with the Secretary of the Company, the S.D. Indeval Institución para el Depósito de Valores, S.A. de C.V. (“Indeval”), a Mexican or foreign credit institution or a brokerage house in order to attend a shareholders’ meeting. A holder of ADSs will not be able to meet this requirement, and accordingly is not entitled to attend shareholders’ meetings. A holder of ADSs is entitled to instruct the depositary as to how to vote the shares represented by ADSs, in accordance with the procedures provided for in the deposit agreement and in accordance with Mexican law, but a holder of ADSs will not be able to vote its shares directly at a shareholders’ meeting or to appoint a proxy to do so.
Future sales of shares by us and our stockholders may depress the price of our Series B shares and ADSs.
On August 17, 2010, JMEX B.V., which held 16.1% of our capital stock, disposed of 100.0% of its holdings or 47,974,228 Series B shares, in an underwritten public offering at a price of U.S.$4.48 per Series B share. On January 4, 2012, Fernando Chico Pardo consummated the sale of 49.0% of ITA and 37,746,290 of his Series B shares to Grupo ADO for an aggregate purchase price of U.S.$196.6 million.
Future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock or the perception that such future sales may occur, may depress the price of our ADSs and Series B shares. Although we and JMEX B.V. were subject to a lock-up in connection with the August 2010 sale, our other stockholders, directors and officers were not subject to any lock-up agreements, and as a result, they were able to freely transfer their Series B shares immediately following the offering. We, our stockholders, directors and officers may not be subject to lock-up agreements in future offerings of our common stock. Any such sale may lead to a decline in the price of our ADSs and Series B shares. We cannot assure you that the price of our ADSs and Series B shares would recover from any such decline in value.
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could subject U.S. investors in shares of our common stock or ADSs to adverse tax consequences, which may be significant.
We will be classified as a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) in any taxable year in which, after taking into account our income and gross assets (and the income and assets of our subsidiaries pursuant to applicable “look-through rules”) either (i) 75% or more of our gross income for the taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets is attributable to “passive assets” (assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income). We believe that we were not a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in 2022 and do not expect to be a PFIC in the current year or the reasonably foreseeable future. PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year on the basis of the composition of our income and the value of our active versus passive assets. Because our belief is based in part on the expected market value of our equity, a decrease in the trading price of our common stock and ADSs may result in our becoming a PFIC.
If we were to be or become classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder, as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—Taxation—Passive Foreign Investment Company Status,” that does not make a “mark-to-market” election may incur significantly increased U.S. income tax on gain at ordinary income tax rates recognized on the sale or other disposition of shares of our common stock or ADSs and on the receipt of distributions on the shares of our common stock or ADSs to the extent such distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the U.S. federal income tax rules. We do not intend to provide holders with the information necessary to make a “QEF election” (as described in “Item 10. Additional Information—Taxation—Passive Foreign Investment Company Status”). Thus, a U.S. Holder seeking to mitigate the potential adverse effects of the PFIC rules should consider making a mark-to-market election. Additionally, if we were to be or become classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder of shares of our common stock or ADSs will be subject to additional U.S. tax form filing requirements, and the statute of limitations for collections may be suspended if the U.S. Holder does not file the appropriate form. See “Item 10. Additional Information— Taxation— Passive Foreign Investment Company Status,”.
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements. We may from time to time make forward-looking statements in our periodic reports to the SEC on Forms 20-F and 6-K, in our annual report to shareholders, in offering circulars and prospectuses, in press releases and other written materials and in oral statements made by our officers, directors or employees to analysts, institutional investors, representatives of the media and others. Examples of such forward-looking statements include:
|●||projections of operating revenues, operating income, net income (loss), net income (loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items or ratios,|
|●||statements of our plans, objectives or goals,|
|●||statements about our future economic performance or that of Mexico or other countries in which we operate, and|
|●||statements of assumptions underlying such statements.|
Words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “target,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “forecast,” “guideline,” “should” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties. We caution you that a number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from the plans, objectives, expectations, estimates and intentions expressed in such forward-looking statements. These factors, some of which are discussed above under “Risk Factors,” include material changes in the performance or terms of our Mexican, Colombian and Puerto Rican concessions, developments in legal proceedings, economic and political conditions and government policies in Mexico, Colombia, Puerto Rico or elsewhere, inflation rates, exchange rates, regulatory developments, customer demand and competition. We caution you that the foregoing list of factors is not exclusive and that other risks and uncertainties may cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments.
Item 4.Information on the Company
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY
Grupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, S.A.B. de C.V., or ASUR, is a corporation (sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable) organized under the laws of Mexico. We were incorporated in 1998 as part of the Mexican government’s program for the opening of Mexico’s airports to private-sector investment. The duration of our corporate existence is indefinite. We are a holding company and conduct all of our operations through our subsidiaries. The terms “ASUR,” “we” and “our” in this annual report refer both to Grupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, S.A.B. de C.V. as well as Grupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, S.A.B. de C.V. together with its subsidiaries. Our registered office is located at Bosque de Alisos No. 47ª-4th Floor, Bosques de las Lomas, 05120 México, D.F., México, telephone (5255) 5284 0408.
Investment by ITA
As part of the opening of Mexico’s airports to investment, in 1998, the Mexican government sold a 15.0% equity interest in us in the form of 45,000,000 Series BB shares to ITA pursuant to a public bidding process.
ITA paid the Mexican government a total of Ps.1,165.1 million (nominal pesos, excluding interest) (U.S.$120.0 million based on the exchange rates in effect on the dates of payment) in exchange for:
|●||45,000,000 Series BB shares representing 15.0% of our outstanding capital stock (as of the date hereof, Series BB shares represent 7.65% of our outstanding capital stock following the conversion described below),|
|●||three options to subscribe for newly issued Series B shares, all of which have expired unexercised, and|
|●||the right and obligation to enter into various agreements with us and the Mexican government, including a participation agreement, a technical assistance agreement and a shareholders’ agreement under terms established during the public bidding process. These agreements are described in greater detail under “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.”|
Under the technical assistance agreement, ITA provides management and consulting services and transfers industry “know-how” and technology to ASUR in exchange for a technical assistance fee. This agreement is more fully described in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.” The agreement provides us a perpetual and exclusive license in Mexico to use all technical assistance and “know-how” transferred to us by ITA or its stockholders during the term of the agreement. The agreement had an initial 15-year term which expired in 2013, and is automatically renewed for successive five-year terms, unless one party provides the other a notice of termination within a specified period prior to a scheduled expiration date. The agreement was renewed on June 29, 2018. Although Copenhagen Airports A/S (“Copenhagen Airports”) sold its stake in ITA to Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo in October 2010, this technical assistance agreement continues in force. ITA provides us assistance in various areas, including strategic planning, financial analysis and control, development of our commercial activities, preparation of marketing studies focusing on increasing passenger traffic volume at our airports, political and regulatory issues, assistance with the preparation of the master development plans that we are required to submit to the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation with respect to each of our airports, construction programming, exploring and analyzing new business opportunities, and the improvement of our airport operations.
The technical assistance fee is equal to the greater of U.S.$2.0 million, adjusted for United States inflation, or 5.0% of our annual consolidated earnings before comprehensive financing cost, income taxes and depreciation and amortization (determined in accordance with financial reporting standards applicable in Mexico and calculated prior to deducting the technical assistance fee under this agreement). The agreement was amended in 2012 to provide for quarterly payments of the fee. The fixed dollar amount decreased during the agreement’s initial five years. The fixed dollar amount was U.S.$5.0 million in 1999 and 2000, and U.S.$3.0 million in 2001 and 2002. Since 2003, the fixed dollar amount is U.S.$2.0 million before the annual adjustment for inflation (measured by the United States consumer price index) as from the first anniversary of the technical assistance agreement. In 2022, the fixed amount was U.S.$3.6 million. We believe that this structure creates an incentive for ITA to increase our annual consolidated earnings before net comprehensive financing cost, income and asset taxes and depreciation and amortization. ITA is also entitled to reimbursement for the out-of-pocket expenses it incurs in its provision of services under the agreement. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, the technical assistance costs were Ps. 175.6 million, Ps.391.7 million and Ps. 643.9 million, respectively, greater than the fixed costs of Ps. 62.4 million, Ps.68.9 million and Ps. 69.7 million, respectively, for the same periods.
The technical assistance agreement allows ITA, its stockholders and their affiliates to render additional services to ASUR only if the Acquisitions and Contracts Committee of our Board of Directors determines that these related persons have submitted the most favorable bid in a public bidding process involving at least three unrelated parties. For a description of this committee, see “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Committees.”
Under our bylaws and the technical assistance agreement, ITA has the right to elect two members of our Board of Directors (which currently consists of eleven members) and their alternates, and to present the Board of Directors the name or names of the candidates for appointment as our chief executive officer, to remove our chief executive officer and to appoint and remove half of our executive officers. As the holder of the Series BB shares, ITA’s consent is also required to approve certain corporate matters so long as ITA’s Series BB shares represent at least 7.65% of our capital stock. In addition, our bylaws and the technical assistance agreement contain certain provisions designed to avoid conflicts of interest between ASUR and ITA. The rights of ITA in our management are explained in “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Committees.”
The remaining 85.0% of our outstanding capital stock, which at that time (prior to the conversion in June 2007 by ITA of 22,050,000 Series BB shares into 22,050,000 Series B shares) consisted of 255,000,000 Series B shares, was sold by the Mexican government to a Mexican trust established by NAFIN. This trust subsequently sold the shares it held in us to the public. To our knowledge, the Mexican government no longer holds any of our shares.
ITA was restricted from transferring any of its remaining Series BB shares until December 18, 2008. From December 18, 2008 until December 17, 2013, ITA could sell in any year up to 20.0% of its remaining ownership interest in us represented by Series BB shares. These selling restrictions ended when the participation agreement expired on December 17, 2013. Our bylaws provide that Series BB shares must be converted into Series B shares prior to transfer. For a more detailed discussion of ITA’s rights to transfer its stock, see “Item 10. Additional Information—Registration and Transfer.”
As required under the participation agreement entered into in connection with the Mexican government’s sale of the Series BB shares to ITA, ITA transferred its Series BB shares to a trust, the trustee of which is Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior, S.N.C (“Bancomext”). Under the terms of the participation agreement and the trust agreement, ITA’s majority shareholder, currently Fernando Chico Pardo, was required to, directly or indirectly, maintain an ownership interest in ITA of a minimum of 51.0% unless otherwise approved by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation. To the extent that Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo acquired shares of ITA in excess of a 51.0% interest, this additional interest could be sold without restriction. This ownership requirement expired on December 18, 2013. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders—ITA Trust” for a further description of these provisions. If ITA or its stockholders default on any obligation contained in the trust agreement, or if ITA defaults on any obligation contained in the technical assistance agreement, after specified notice and cure provisions, the trust agreement provides that the trustee may sell 5.0% of the shares held in the trust and pay the proceeds of such sale to ASUR as liquidated damages.
Pursuant to the terms of the trust, ITA may direct the trustee to vote the Series BB shares, currently representing 7.65% of our capital stock, regarding all matters other than capital reductions, payment of dividends, amortization of shares and similar distributions to our shareholders, which are voted by the trustee in accordance with the vote of the majority of Series B shares. The trust does not affect the veto and other special rights granted to the holders of Series BB shares described in “Item 10. Additional Information.”
Currently, Fernando Chico Pardo, our Chairman, directly holds 50.0% of ITA’s shares. The other 50.0% is held by Inversiones Kierke, an entity owned and controlled by Grupo ADO. Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo became a stockholder in ITA in April 2004 when he acquired the 24.5% ownership stake of the French group Vinci, S.A. in ITA and a 13.5% ownership stake of the Spanish group Ferrovial Aeropuertos, S.A. in ITA. At the same time, Copenhagen Airports acquired Ferrovial Aeropuertos, S.A.’s 11.0% ownership interest in ITA, thereby increasing its participation in ITA from 25.5% to 36.5%. Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo acquired an additional 25.5% ownership stake in ITA through the exercise of his right of first refusal following the auction of such shares by NAFIN, a Mexican national credit institution and development bank controlled by the Mexican government. On April 29, 2005, Copenhagen Airports increased its participation in ITA from 36.5% to 49.0% through the purchase of shares from Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo.
In connection with the tender offers and other transactions undertaken by Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo in June 2007, ITA converted 22,050,000 Series BB shares representing 7.35% of our total outstanding capital stock into Series B shares and transferred such shares to Agrupación Aeroportuaria Internacional, S.A. de C.V. by means of a spin-off. As a result of this transaction, ITA currently holds 22,950,000 Series BB shares representing 7.65% of our total outstanding capital stock. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders—Capital Stock Structure.”
On October 13, 2010, Copenhagen Airports consummated the sale of its 49.0% stake in ITA to Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo. As a result of this transaction, Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo became the direct or indirect owner of 100% of the shares of ITA. On January 4, 2012, Fernando Chico Pardo consummated the sale of an entity that owns and controls 49.0% of the shares of ITA, Corporativo Galajafe, S.A. de C.V. (“Corporativo Galajafe”) (formerly Remer Soluciones), to Grupo ADO. On November 11, 2013, Corporativo Galajafe merged into Remer Soluciones, the total capital stock of which is 99% owned by Grupo ADO. On April 27, 2015, Remer Soluciones exercised its option to acquire an additional 1.0% interest in the outstanding shares of ITA for a purchase price of U.S.$4.6 million. On June 4, 2018, Remer Soluciones merged into Consorcio SAFIJ, S.A. de C.V. (“Consorcio SAFIJ”) the total capital stock of which was 99% owned by Grupo ADO. Then, on August 7, 2018, Consorcio SAFIJ merged into Compañía Inmobiliaria y de Inversiones del Noroeste, S.A. de C.V. (“Noroeste”) the total capital stock of which was 99% owned by Grupo ADO. On October 15, 2018, Noroeste merged into Inversiones Kierke the total capital stock of which is 99% owned by Grupo ADO. Finally, on December 3, 2018, Servicios de Estrategia Patrimonial, S.A. de C.V. and Agrupación Aeroportuaria Internacional III, S.A. de C.V. merged into CHPAF, the total capital stock of which is 99% owned by Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo. In light of the foregoing, Inversiones Kierke and Fernando Chico Pardo, through CHPAF, each own 50.0% of ITA. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders—ITA Trust.”
Mr. Fernando Chico Pardo is the founder and President of Promecap, S.C. since 1997. He was appointed by ITA as a member of our Board of Directors and has been Chairman of the Board since April 28, 2005. He has also served as a board member of, among others, Grupo Financiero Inbursa, Condumex, Grupo Carso, Sanborns Hermanos, Sears Roebuck de México, Grupo Posadas de México and Grupo Saltillo.
Investment in Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport
On July 11, 2012, Aerostar, a joint venture between Aeropuerto de Cancún and Oaktree Capital, submitted a successful bid for a concession to operate the LMM Airport. On February 27, 2013, the transaction was completed and Aerostar began operating the LMM Airport. On May 26, 2017, we acquired an additional 10% membership interest in Aerostar, pursuant to a Membership Interest Purchase Agreement, giving us a majority stake in the joint venture. In addition, Oaktree Capital sold its remaining 40.0% interest in Aerostar to PSP Investments, through its wholly-owned subsidiary AviAlliance, pursuant to a separate Membership Interest Purchase Agreement. Aeropuerto de Cancún owns 60.0% of Aerostar’s outstanding membership interests, which it has pledged on a non-recourse basis to secure up to U.S.$410.0 million of indebtedness incurred by Aerostar to pay the upfront leasehold fee, fund capital expenditures and for working capital purposes. As member of Aerostar, Aeropuerto de Cancún is entitled to distributions. However, pursuant to the terms of Aerostar’s debt, distributions are permitted only when Aerostar is in compliance with certain conditions. Additionally, Aeropuerto de Cancún made a U.S.$100.0 million subordinated shareholder loan to Aerostar on February 22, 2013 to partially fund the cost of acquiring the concession to operate the LMM Airport and it is entitled to cash interest payments on this loan whenever certain conditions are met, including that dividends are permitted to be paid. Cash interest on the shareholder loan is paid in preference to any dividends that may be payable. When cash interest payments are not permitted, interest on this loan is capitalized. In April 2021, the remaining balance of principal amount and interest on this loan was paid.
Acquisition of Colombian Airports
In the spring of 2017, we, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, entered into agreements to acquire a controlling interest in Airplan and Oriente. In October 2017, we received the necessary approvals from the Colombian regulatory authorities to conclude the acquisition of a 92.42% stake in Airplan. Airplan has concessions to operate the following airports in Colombia: the Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport in Medellín, the José María Córdova International Airport in Rionegro, the Los Garzones Airport in Montería, the Antonio Roldán Betancourt Airport in Carepa, the El Caraño Airport in Quibdó and the Las Brujas Airport in Corozal. On May 25, 2018, we increased our ownership stake in Airplan to 100% by acquiring an additional 7.58% of Airplan’s capital stock. We terminated our agreement to purchase Oriente in 2018.
We purchased the initial 92.42% interest in Airplan for an aggregate price of approximately U.S.$201.6 million, subject to pricing adjustments and pursuant to a series of agreements with the respective shareholders of Airplan. We paid U.S.$69.6 million of the purchase price with cash on hand, and obtained an unsecured loan from BBVA in April 2017 to pay the balance of the purchase price. The loan had a term of one year and an interest rate calculated on the basis of the 28-day TIIE plus 0.60% from July 31 to October 31, 2017; TIIE plus 0.85% from October 31, 2017 to January 31, 2018; TIIE plus 1.10% from January 31 to April 30, 2018 and TIIE plus 1.60% from April 30 to July 31, 2018. This loan was paid in October 2017.
Concurrently, in October 2017, we, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, obtained two loans of Ps.2,000.0 million each, one with BBVA and the other with Banco Santander. We guaranteed Aeropuerto de Cancún’s obligations under these loans. While the BBVA and Banco Santander loans were outstanding, we and our subsidiaries were not permitted to create any liens upon any of our property, make any fundamental change to our corporate structure or sell any of our assets that exceed more than 10.0% of our consolidated total assets as of the most recent fiscal quarter prior to the sale. These loans further required that we and our subsidiaries maintain a consolidated leverage ratio equal to or less than 3.50:1.00 and a consolidated interest coverage ratio equal to or greater than 3.00:1.00 as of the last day of each fiscal quarter. As of December 31, 2021 and 2022, the consolidated leverage ratio calculated under this agreement was 3.00:1.00 and 1.20:1.00, respectively. Failure to comply with these covenants would have restricted our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders. The remaining balance on the BBVA loan was repaid on October 13, 2021, and on October 18, 2021, we, Aeropuerto de Cancún, entered into a seven-year loan agreement with BBVA for a principal amount of Ps. 2,000 maturing October 2028, with an annual TIIE rate plus an applicable margin. On September 29, 2021, we prepaid the remaining Ps. 2,000 million balance on the Santander loan and concurrently, through Aeropuerto de Cancún, we obtained a three-year term loan from this bank for a principal amount of Ps.2,650 million maturing on September 28, 2024 at a 28-day TIIE rate plus 150 basis points. On November 29, 2022, we prepaid Ps. 650 million of the principal amount outstanding under the Santander loan, resulting in a outstanding balance of Ps. 2,000 million.
Master Development Programs in Mexico
Under the terms of our Mexican concessions, each of our subsidiary concession holders is required to submit an updated master development plan for approval by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation every five years. Each master development plan covers a 15-year period and includes investment commitments for the regulated part of our business (including certain capital expenditures and improvements) for the succeeding five-year period and investment projections for the regulated part of our business (including certain capital expenditures and improvements) for the remaining 10 years (indicative investments). Once approved by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation, these commitments become binding obligations under the terms of our Mexican concessions. Committed investments are minimum requirements, and our capital expenditures may exceed our investment commitments in any period. In June 2018, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation approved each of our current updated master development plans. These plans are in effect from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2023. In August, 19 2020, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation approved the deferral of Ps.2,292.4 million of committed investments for projects contained in the master development plans and authorized for 2020 to the year 2021, due to the health emergency generated by COVID-19. Additionally, on October 29, 2020, we filed a request with the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for an extraordinary review of the Mexican maximum rates, which was approved on April 7, 2021, and resulted in a reduction in committed investments and an increase in the Mexican maximum rates in the master development plans for the years 2021 to 2023.
The following table sets forth our committed investments for the regulated part of our business for each Mexican airport pursuant to the terms of our current master development plans for the periods presented. Even though we have committed to invest the amounts in the table, those amounts could be lower or higher depending on the cost of each project.
Year ended December 31,
(millions of constant Mexican pesos as of December 31, 2022)(1)
Based on the Mexican construction price index in accordance with the terms of our master development plan.
As of December 31, 2022, we have invested Ps.2,245.8 million (which is included in the investment commitments for this period shown above).
The following table sets forth our committed and indicative investments for the regulated part of our business for each Mexican airport pursuant to the terms of our current master development plans for the periods presented.
January 1, 2019-
January 1, 2024-
January 1, 2029-
December 31, 2023
December 31, 2028
December 31, 2033
(millions of constant Mexican pesos as of December 31,2022)(1)
Based on the Mexican construction price index in accordance with the terms of our master development plan.
As of December 31, 2022, we have invested Ps. 2,245.8 million (which is included in the investment commitments for this period shown above).
We hold concessions to operate, maintain and develop nine airports in the southeast region of Mexico for fifty years from November 1, 1998. As operators of these airports, we charge airlines, passengers and other users fees for the use of the airports’ facilities. We also derive rental and other income from commercial activities conducted at our airports, such as the leasing of space to restaurants and retailers. Our Mexican concessions include the concession for Cancún Airport, which was the second busiest airport in Mexico in 2021 in terms of passenger traffic, and the busiest in terms of international passengers in regular service, according to the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil, or General Office of Civil Aviation, Mexico’s federal authority on aviation We also hold concessions to operate the airports in Cozumel, Huatulco, Mérida, Minatitlán, Oaxaca, Tapachula, Veracruz and Villahermosa.
We own a controlling interest in Airplan. Airplan has concessions to operate the following airports in Colombia: the Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport in Medellín, the José María Córdova International Airport in Rionegro, the Los Garzones Airport in Montería, the Antonio Roldán Betancourt Airport in Carepa, the El Caraño Airport in Quibdó and the Las Brujas Airport in Corozal. For more information on the concessions in Colombia, see “Item 4. Information on the Company-Colombian Regulatory Framework-Scope of Colombian Concessions and General Obligations.”
In addition, our subsidiary Aerostar holds a lease to operate, maintain and develop the LMM Airport, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, for an initial term of forty (40) years from February 27, 2013 (the “LMM Lease”).
On April 17, 2023, we published our Sustainability Report for the year 2022 (the “Sustainability Report”). The purpose of this report is to describe the measures we implemented towards achieving our environmental, social and governance goals, and to set new strategic objectives to the benefit of the company and our stakeholders. The Sustainability Report covers our and our subsidiaries’ operations from January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022, with a particular focus on human rights, working conditions, environment and anticorruption matters. In 2022, we established a Sustainability Committee that reports to our Board of Directors, in line with our 2021 Sustainability Report. In the short and medium terms (2023-2026), our main sustainability objectives are to work towards emissions reductions and energy efficiency through both on-site and off-site generation of solar power, adopt measures to supplement our water consumption with systems to capture and use rainwater, promote diversity in our workforce and on the company’s Board, aim to achieve equitable pay, and create succession plans for our independent Board members and key executives. In the long term, we intend to make our operations carbon neutral, promote gender equity, align our corporate governance with best practice and increase our participation in and support for local communities. Our Sustainability Report is available on our website at www.asur.com.mx. For the avoidance of doubt, our Sustainability Report is not incorporated in, and should not be viewed as part of, this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
Mexico is one of the main tourist destinations in the world. Mexico has historically ranked in the top 10 countries worldwide in terms of foreign visitors, with approximately 24.8 million visitors in 2020, 31 million visitors in 2021 and 38.3 million visitors in 2022, according to the Mexican Ministry of Tourism. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico ranked first in 2020, 2021, and 2022 in terms of number of foreign visitors and income from tourism, according to the World Tourism Organization. The tourism industry is one of the largest generators of foreign exchange in the Mexican economy. Within Mexico, the southeast region (where our airports are located) is a principal tourist destination due to its beaches and cultural and archeological sites, which are served by numerous hotels and resorts.
Cancún and its surroundings were the most frequently visited international tourism destination in Mexico in 2022, according to the Mexican Ministry of Tourism. Cancún Airport represented 74.2%, 76.6%, and 76.8% of our Mexican passenger traffic volume and 70.8%, 73.3%, and 77.1% of our Mexican revenues in 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, Cancún had 34,303 hotel rooms, according to the Mexican Ministry of Tourism. We believe that Cancún Airport benefits from its proximity to the Mayan Riviera, a 129-kilometer (80-mile) stretch of coastal resorts and hotels that is among Mexico’s most rapidly developing tourism areas. According to Mexican Ministry of Tourism, the Mayan Riviera had 46,773 hotel rooms as of December 31, 2022.
Our Mexican airports served approximately 16.5 million passengers in 2020, approximately 29.1 million passengers in 2021 and approximately 39.5 million passengers in 2022. For year-by-year passenger figures, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Our Mexican Airports.”
The United States currently is a significant source of passenger traffic volume in our Mexican airports. In 2020, 2021 and 2022 international passengers represented 44.1%, 48.3% and 52.7% respectively, of the total passenger traffic volume in our Mexican airports. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 66.2%, 76.4% and 63.4%, respectively, of the international passengers in our Mexican airports traveled on flights originating in or departing to the United States. As of December 31, 2022, 2 Mexican and 16 international airlines, including United States-based airlines such as American Airlines and United Airlines, operated flights, directly or through code-sharing arrangements (where one aircraft has two or more flight numbers of different, allied airlines), that originated from or departed for the United States at our Mexican airports.
The following table sets forth our revenues from our Mexican operations for the period presented.
Year ended December 31,
(thousands of Mexican pesos)
Aeronautical services represent the most significant source of our revenues at our Mexican airports. All of our revenues from aeronautical services are regulated under the “dual-till” price regulation system applicable to our Mexican airports. For more information on the “dual-till” price regulation system, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Mexican Regulatory Framework—Price Regulation—Regulated Revenues.”
Our revenues from aeronautical services are derived from: passenger charges, landing charges, aircraft parking charges, charges for the use of passenger walkways and charges for the provision of airport security services. Charges for aeronautical services generally are designed to compensate an airport operator for its infrastructure investment and maintenance expense. Aeronautical revenues are principally dependent on three factors: passenger traffic volume, the number of air traffic movements and the weight of the aircraft. In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 42.9%, 50.1% and 55.6% of our consolidated revenues, respectively, were derived from aeronautical services.
At our Mexican airports, we collect a passenger charge for each departing passenger on an aircraft (other than diplomats, infants and transfer and transit passengers). We do not collect passenger charges from arriving passengers. Passenger charges are automatically included in the cost of a passenger’s ticket and generally collected twice monthly from each airline. As of November 2022, the charge for international passengers was U.S.$ 27.5, U.S.$ 39.7, U.S.$ 34.00, U.S.$ 36.00, U.S.$ 28.00, U.S.$ 29.00, U.S.$ 28.00, U.S.$ 32.00 and U.S.$ 32.00, for Cancún, Cozumel, Huatulco, Mérida, Minatitlán, Oaxaca, Tapachula, Veracruz and Villahermosa airports, respectively. As of November 2022, the charge for Mexican domestic passengers was Ps. 200.00, Ps. 300.00, Ps. 470.00, Ps. 500.00, Ps. 506.00, Ps. 490.00, Ps. 487.00, Ps. 500.00 and Ps. 500.00, for our Cancún, Cozumel, Huatulco, Mérida, Minatitlán, Oaxaca, Tapachula, Veracruz and Villahermosa airports, respectively. International passenger charges are currently dollar-denominated, but generally collected in Mexican pesos based on the average exchange rate during the month prior to the flight. Mexican domestic passenger charges are peso-denominated. In each of 2020, 2021 and 2022, passenger charges at our Mexican airports represented 45.4%, 53.0%, and 58.5%, respectively, of our aeronautical revenues and 19.5%, 26.5% and 32.5%, respectively, of our total consolidated revenues. From time to time, including in 2022, we have offered discounts on passenger charges at certain of our airports.
Aircraft Landing and Parking Charges, Passenger Walkway Charges and Airport Security Charges
At our Mexican airports, we collect various charges from carriers for the use of our facilities by their aircraft and passengers. For each aircraft’s arrival, we collect a landing charge that is based on the average of the aircraft’s maximum takeoff weight and the aircraft’s weight without fuel. We also collect aircraft parking charges based on the time an aircraft is at an airport’s gate or parking position. Parking charges at several of our Mexican airports vary based on the time of day that the relevant service is provided (with higher fees generally charged during peak usage periods at certain of our airports). We collect aircraft parking charges the entire time an aircraft is on our aprons. Airlines are also assessed charges for the connection of their aircraft to our terminals through a passenger walkway. We also assess an airport security charge, which is collected from each airline based on the number of its departing passengers. We provide airport security services at our airports through third-party contractors. We also provide firefighting and rescue services at our airports.
At our Mexican airports, non-aeronautical services have historically generated a proportionately smaller portion of our revenues, but have become an increased source of revenues in recent years. Our revenues from non-aeronautical services are derived from commercial activities (such as the leasing of space in our airports to retailers, restaurants, airlines and other commercial tenants) and access fees charged to providers of complementary services in our airports (such as catering, handling and ground transport). In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 25.4%, 30.6% and 33.8% of our consolidated revenues, respectively, were derived from commercial revenues from our Mexican airports as defined under the Mexican Airport Law and from our international airports (Puerto Rico and Colombia) since June 1, 2017 and October 29, 2017, the dates on which we began consolidating the results of Puerto Rico and Colombia, respectively.
Currently, the leasing of space in our Mexican airports to airlines and other commercial tenants represents the most significant source of our revenues from non-aeronautical services. Although certain of our revenues from non-aeronautical services are regulated under our “dual-till” price regulation system, our revenues from commercial activities (other than the lease of space to airlines and other airport service providers that is considered essential to an airport) are not regulated.
Leading international airports generally generate an important portion of their revenues from commercial activities. An airport’s revenues from commercial activities are largely dependent on passenger traffic, its passengers’ level of spending, terminal design, the mix of commercial tenants and the basis of fees charged to businesses operating in the airport. Revenues from commercial activities also depend substantially on the percentage of traffic represented by international passengers due to the revenues generated from duty-free shopping. We believe that revenues from commercial activities account for 31.0% or more of the consolidated revenues of many leading international airports. Accordingly, a significant part of our business strategy is focused on increasing our revenues from commercial activities in Mexican our airports.
In 2013, we opened 27 commercial spaces, including 21 in Cancún, two in Villahermosa, one in Veracruz, one in Cozumel and two in Oaxaca. In 2014, we opened 52 commercial spaces, including 32 in Cancún, four in Mérida, three in Villahermosa, two in Veracruz, five in Cozumel, three in Oaxaca, two in Huatulco and one in Minatitlán. In 2015, we opened 19 commercial spaces, including 14 in Cancún, one in Mérida, one in Veracruz, one in Oaxaca, one in Huatulco and one in Minatitlán. In 2016, we opened 21 commercial spaces, including 10 in Cancún, two in Mérida, one in Villahermosa, six in Veracruz and two in Huatulco. In 2017, we opened 67 commercial spaces, including 64 in Cancún, one in Oaxaca and two in Huatulco. In 2018, we opened 22 commercial spaces, including 15 in Cancún, 3 in Cozumel, 3 in Oaxaca, and one in Tapachula. In 2019, we opened 7 commercial spaces, all in Cancún. In 2020, we opened four commercial spaces, including one in Cancún, one in Mérida and two in Oaxaca. In 2021, we opened nine commercial spaces, including six in Cancún, one in Cozumel and two in Mérida. In 2022, we opened eleven commercial spaces, including nine in Cancún, one in Cozumel and one in Tapachula.
Within our nine Mexican airports, we leased 678 commercial premises through 331 contracts with tenants as of December 31, 2022, including restaurants, banks, retail outlets (including duty-free stores), currency exchange bureaus and car rental agencies. Our most important tenants in terms of occupied space and revenue in 2022 were Dufry México and Controladora Mera and its affiliates.
At each of our Mexican airports, we earn revenues from charging access fees to various third-party providers of complementary services, including luggage check-in, sorting and handling, aircraft servicing at our gates, aircraft cleaning, cargo handling, aircraft catering services and assistance with passenger boarding and deplaning. Our revenues from access charges are regulated under our “dual-till” price regulation system. Under current regulations, each of these services may be provided by the holder of a Mexican airport concession, by a carrier or by a third party hired by a concession-holder or a carrier. Typically, these services are provided by third parties, whom we charge an access fee based on a percentage of revenues that they earn at our Mexican airports. Under the Mexican Airport Law, third-party providers of complementary services are required to enter into agreements with the respective concession holder at that airport. Nine different contractors provide handling services at our nine Mexican airports.
Consorcio Aeroméxico, the parent company of Aeroméxico, owns Administradora Especializada en Negocios, S.A. de C.V., or Administradora Especializada, the successor company to Servicios de Apoyo en Tierra, or SEAT, a company that provides certain complementary services, such as baggage handling, to various carriers at airports throughout Mexico. SEAT operated at our Mexican airports prior to our commencement of operations under our Mexican concessions and continues to do so through its successor company.
Under the Mexican Airport Law, we are required to provide complementary services at each of our Mexican airports if there is no third party providing such services. Each of our Mexican airports has more than one third party provider of complementary services. Minatitlán Airport has the least third party providers of complementary services with four.
Automobile Parking and Ground Transport
Each of our Mexican airports has public car parking facilities consisting of open-air parking lots. The only Mexican airport at which we do not charge parking fees is Cozumel. Revenues from car parking at our Mexican airports currently are not regulated, although they could become regulated upon a finding by the COFECE that there are no competing alternatives. On August 21, 2019, the Board of Commissioners of COFECE in Mexico notified Aeropuerto de Cancún of a decision issued on July 25, 2019, which provides for: (i) administrative liability for monopolistic practices (as described in Article 54, Section I and Article 56, Section V of the LFCE (refusal of access)) and (ii) a fine of Ps.73 million. We believe we have sufficient grounds for defense and have appealed COFECE’s decision.
We collect revenues from various commercial vehicle operators, including taxi, bus and other ground transport operators. Our revenues from permanent providers of ground transport services, such as access fees charged to taxis, are regulated activities, while our revenues from non-permanent providers of ground transport services, such as access fees charged to charter buses, are not regulated revenues.
The Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil, or General Office of Civil Aviation, Mexico’s federal authority on aviation, and the Office of Public Security issue guidelines for airport security in Mexico. At each of our Mexican airports, security services are provided by independent security companies that we hire. In recent years, we have undertaken various measures to improve the security standards at our Mexican airports. These measures included increasing the responsibilities of the private security companies that we hire, the implementation, in accordance with regulations issued by ICAO, of integrated computer tomography and baggage detection system for international and domestic flights to detect explosive traces, the modernization of our carry-on luggage scanning and security equipment, the implementation of strict access control procedures to the restricted areas of our Mexican airports and the installation of a closed-circuit television monitoring system in some of our Mexican airports.
In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, we have taken additional steps to increase security at our Mexican airports. At the request of the Transportation Security Administration of the United States, the General Office of Civil Aviation issued directives in October 2001 establishing new rules and procedures to be adopted at our airports. Under these directives, these rules and procedures were to be implemented immediately and for an indefinite period of time.
To comply with these directives, we reinforced security by:
|●||increasing and improving the security training of Mexican airport personnel,|
|●||increasing the supervision and responsibilities of both our security personnel and airline security personnel that operate in our Mexican airports,|
|●||issuing new electronic identification cards to Mexican airport personnel,|
|●||reinforcing control of different access areas of our Mexican airports, and|
|●||physically changing the access points to several of the restricted areas of our Mexican airports.|
Airlines have also contributed to the enhanced security at our Mexican airports as they have adopted new procedures and rules issued by the General Office of Civil Aviation applicable to airlines. Some measures adopted by the airlines include adding more points for verification of passenger identification, inspecting luggage prior to check-in and reinforcing controls over access to airplanes by service providers (such as baggage handlers and food service providers).
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented several measures, the following of which are currently in place:
|●||installed disinfectant gel dispensers based on alcohol at a minimum of 70% in public areas and strategic points,|
|●||the use of facemasks is recommended in all areas,|
|●||provided personal protection equipment (PPE) (facemasks, gloves, face shields) to all our airport personnel,|
|●||installed ozone air purifiers at key locations to minimize airborne viruses,|
|●||installed floor markings to aid social distancing, added decals in our passenger benches to ensure safe spacing, and displayed COVID-19 and hygiene information throughout our airports,|
|●||installed protective acrylics to minimize the transmission routes of COVID-19 between passengers and personnel in the airport facilities, including at information modules and commercial areas, such as stores and rental companies,|
|●||increased the cleaning and sanitation cycles in all areas of our facilities, including through the increased use of disinfectants and the daily cleaning of transport equipment,|
|●||installed trash cans for the exclusive deposit of waste PPE,|
|●||established guidelines for effective, efficient and recurrent supervision of compliance with health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19,|
|●||circulated to airport personnel informational materials on preventive measures and questionnaires to detect health risks,|
As part of the amendments that opened Mexico’s airports to private investment, all airport property and installations related to the supply and storage of aircraft fuel were retained by the Mexican Airport and Auxiliary Services Agency (Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares) considering that concession holders were forbidden to provide such services. Pursuant to our Mexican concessions, the Mexican Airport and Auxiliary Services Agency entered into several agreements, under which it was obligated to pay to each of our subsidiary concession holders a fee for access to our facilities equivalent to 1.0% of the service charge for fuel supply. As of January 1, 2015, and as a result of certain structural reforms in Mexico’s constitutional and regulatory framework in connection with, among other things, the energy sector, private parties are now eligible to store, commercialize, distribute and supply fuel in airports to air carriers, air operators and third-party service providers of non-aeronautical services. In order to store, commercialize, distribute and supply fuel in airports, the eligible private parties are required to obtain the relevant permit from the Energy Regulatory Commission (Comisión Reguladora de Energía). In addition, third-party service providers of non-aeronautical services are required to obtain a favorable opinion from the Mexican Ministry of Energy (Secretaría de Energía), the Mexican Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation (Secretaría de Infraestructura, Comunicaciones y Transportes) and the office of Mexico’s attorney general in order to be able to acquire such fuel. As of April 17, 2023, one third-party service provider is currently selling fuel at our Mexican airports.
Construction Services Revenue
Under IFRS, an operator of a service concession that is required to make capital improvements to concessioned assets, such as us, is deemed to provide construction or upgrade services. Revenues from construction services are recognized in accordance with the methods prescribed (input method) for measuring progress towards completion of each project, as approved by the grantor. Improvements made are expected to complement the infrastructure of the airports operated by the Company. Revenues from construction services are not subject to regulation under our dual-till price regulation system in Mexico, Colombia and Puerto Rico.
Our Mexican Airports
In 2022, our Mexican airports served a total of 39.5 million passengers, 52.7% of which were international passengers. In 2022, Cancún Airport accounted for 76.8% of our Mexican passenger traffic volume and 77.1% of our Mexican revenues.
All of our Mexican airports are designated as international airports under Mexican law, which indicates that they are equipped to receive international flights and have customs and immigration facilities.
The following table sets forth the number of passengers served by our Mexican airports based on flight origination or destination.
Passengers by Flight Origin or Destination(1)
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands )
Figures exclude passengers in transit and private aviation passengers.
Figures include international passengers on domestic flights; in 2022, such passengers accounted for 2.1% of all Mexican domestic passengers.
In 2020, 2021 and 2022, 56.8%, 55.6% and 52.6%, respectively, of our Mexican domestic passengers traveled to or from Mexico City through the Mexico City International Airport (AICM).
The following table sets forth the total traffic volume and air traffic movements in our nine Mexican airports for the periods presented.
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands )
Air Traffic Movements
The following table sets forth the passenger traffic volume for each of our Mexican airports during the periods indicated:
Year ended December 31,
( in thousands)
The following table sets forth the air traffic movements in each of our Mexican airports during the periods indicated:
Air Traffic Movements by Airport(1)
Year ended December 31,