Company Quick10K Filing
ATA
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-04-28
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-18
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-04-12
20-F 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-06-29
20-F 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-06-24
20-F 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-06-26
20-F 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-06-26
20-F 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-06-06
20-F 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-06-15
20-F 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-07-07

ATAI 20F Annual Report

Part I.
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II.
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. Reserved
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fee and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III.
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-2.4 aacg-ex24_310.htm
EX-4.17 aacg-ex417_309.htm
EX-4.21 aacg-ex421_121.htm
EX-8.1 aacg-ex81_120.htm
EX-12.1 aacg-ex121_119.htm
EX-12.2 aacg-ex122_118.htm
EX-13.1 aacg-ex131_116.htm
EX-13.2 aacg-ex132_117.htm
EX-15.1 aacg-ex151_150.htm
EX-15.2 aacg-ex152_307.htm
EX-15.3 aacg-ex153_308.htm

ATA Earnings 2019-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 aacg-20f_20191231.htm 20-F aacg-20f_20191231.htm

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from         to

 

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Commission file number: 001-33910

 

ATA Creativity Global

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Not applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)

 

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

 

c/o 1/F East Gate, Building No. 2, Jian Wai Soho,

No. 39 Dong San Huan Zhong Road,

Chao Yang District, Beijing 100022, China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

Amy Tung

Chief Financial Officer

ATA Creativity Global

c/o 1/F East Gate, Building No. 2, Jian Wai Soho,

No. 39 Dong San Huan Zhong Road,

Chao Yang District, Beijing 100022, China

Telephone: +8610-6518-1133

Facsimile: +8610-5869-8106

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which
registered

American Depositary Shares, each representing two common shares, par value $0.01 per share

 

AACG

 

Nasdaq Global Market

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None


 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

 

 

63,459,214 common shares

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes   No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes   No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes   No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes   No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Emerging growth company 

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

by the International Accounting Standards Board

 

Other

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:

Item 17   Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes   No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.    

Yes  No 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Introduction

 

1

Forward-looking Statements

 

2

Part I.

 

3

Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

3

Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

3

Item 3. Key Information

 

3

Item 4. Information on the Company

 

31

Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

53

Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

53

Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

71

Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

 

80

Item 8. Financial Information

 

80

Item 9. The Offer and Listing

 

82

Item 10. Additional Information

 

82

Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

88

Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities

 

89

Part II.

 

91

Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

 

91

Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

 

91

Item 15. Controls and Procedures

 

91

Item 16. Reserved

 

92

Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert

 

92

Item 16B. Code of Ethics

 

92

Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fee and Services

 

92

Item 16D. Exemptions From the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

 

92

Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

 

92

Item 16F. Change in Registrant’S Certifying Accountant

 

92

Item 16G. Corporate Governance

 

92

Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure

 

93

Part III.

 

94

Item 17. Financial Statements

 

94

Item 18. Financial Statements

 

94

Item 19. Exhibits

 

94

Signature

 

99

 

 

 


INTRODUCTION

 

Except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this annual report only:

 

we changed our fiscal year end from March 31 to December 31 in June 2017 and filed a transition report on Form 20-F covering the nine-month period from April 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017 (the “Transition Period”). Unless otherwise noted, all references to years are to the calendar years from January 1 to December 31 and references to our fiscal year or years are to the fiscal year or years which, prior to the Transition Period, ended March 31, and from and after the Transition Period, ended December 31;

 

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our,” the “Company” and “ACG” refer to ATA Creativity Global, formerly known as ATA Inc., its subsidiaries and its consolidated variable interest entity (“VIE”) and VIE’s subsidiaries as the context requires. On August 16, 2018, we completed the sale of ATA Online (Beijing) Education Technology Co., Ltd., or ATA Online, and its subsidiaries as well as ATA Learning (Beijing) Inc., or ATA Learning, and Zhongxiao Zhixing Education Technology (Beijing) Limited, or Zhongxiao Zhixing, which were former subsidiaries of ACG incorporated under the laws of China and holding companies of ATA Online (collectively referred to as the “ATA Online Business”). After the completion of such sale of the ATA Online Business, ACG’s subsidiaries no longer include ATA Online and its direct shareholding companies, ATA Learning and Zhongxiao Zhixing. In 2019, we completed the acquisition of 100% equity interests in Beijing Huanqiuyimeng Education Consultation Corp., or Huanqiuyimeng, a leading provider of educational services for students in China interested in applying for overseas art study (the “Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition”). After the completion of the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition, ACG’s subsidiaries also include Huanqiuyimeng and its subsidiaries.

 

“China,” “Chinese” and “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for purposes of this annual report only, Taiwan and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau;

 

all references to “Renminbi” or “RMB” are to the legal currency of China, and all references to “U.S. dollars,” “dollars,” “$” or “US$” are to the legal currency of the United States.

 

“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

 

“PRC GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the People’s Republic of China.

 

“credit hour” refers to the standard unit we use to measure educational credit for our portfolio training services (as defined below) and other educational services; each credit hour roughly equals one hour of time committed by our teachers in our portfolio training services and other educational services.

This annual report on Form 20-F includes (i) our audited consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, (ii) our unaudited financial data of comprehensive income (loss) for the nine months ended December 31, 2016 and the twelve months ended December 31, 2017, and (iii) our audited consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2019. Each of our American depositary shares, or ADSs, represents two common shares. Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “AACG.”

1


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about us and our industry. All statements other than statements of historical facts in this annual report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words and phrases such as “may,” “should,” “intend,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “believe,” “is /are likely to” or the negative form of these words and phrases or other comparable expressions. The forward-looking statements included in this annual report relate to, among others:

 

our goals and strategies;

 

our future prospects and market acceptance of our products and services;

 

our future business development and results of operations;

 

our plans for mergers and acquisitions;

 

the impact of the sale of the ATA Online Business;

 

the impact of the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition;

 

projected revenues, profits, earnings and other estimated financial information;

 

our plans to expand and enhance our products and services;

 

the potential market size and growth of our products and services;

 

competition in the market for our products and services;

 

Chinese laws, regulations and policies, including those applicable to the education industry, internet content providers and foreign exchange; and

 

the impact of the outbreak of the coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) and other pandemic or natural disaster.

These forward-looking statements involve various risks, assumptions and uncertainties. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may turn out to be incorrect. Our actual results could be materially different from our expectations. Important risks and factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from our expectations are generally set forth in Item 3.D. of this annual report, “Key information — Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. All forward-looking statements included herein attributable to us or other parties or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section and under the heading “Risk Factors,” below. Except to the extent required by applicable laws and regulations, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

2


PART I.

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A.

Selected Financial Data

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

We changed our fiscal year end from March 31 to December 31 in June 2017. The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) data (other than ADS data) for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report and should be read in conjunction with such consolidated financial statements and related notes. The selected consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) data for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2017 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017, which are not included in this annual report. The unaudited financial data for the nine months ended December 31, 2016 and the twelve months ended December 31, 2017 are presented solely for the purpose of providing meaningful comparisons with the nine-month period ended December 31, 2017 and the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, respectively.

On August 16, 2018, we completed the sale of the ATA Online Business, which historically operated our computer-based testing services, online education services and other related services. Consequently, our computer-based testing services, online education services and other related services were accounted for as discontinued operations in accordance with U.S. GAAP in our consolidated financial statements. As required by U.S. GAAP, we have reclassified the comparative operating results for the discontinued operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, the twelve months ended December 31, 2017, the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 and the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. We have not included the selected financial data for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as providing such information reflecting our discontinued operations on a basis that is consistent with the consolidated financial information presented for the periods ended March 31, 2017, December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, would take a significant amount of time and cause us to incur unreasonable effort or expense.

In 2019, we acquired 100% equity interests of Huanqiuyimeng, a leading provider of educational services for students in China who are interested in applying for overseas art study. We consolidated the financial statements of Huanqiuyimeng and its subsidiaries since August 6, 2019 (the “Acquisition Date”) in this annual report.

3


The following information should also be read in conjunction with Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

 

 

For the

Fiscal Year

Ended

March 31,

 

 

For the Nine Months

Ended December 31,

 

 

For the

Twelve

Months

Ended

December 31,

 

 

For the Fiscal Year

Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In thousands, except for per share and per ADS data)

 

Selected Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenues

 

 

8,831

 

 

 

6,628

 

 

 

5,186

 

 

 

7,389

 

 

 

1,339

 

 

 

97,770

 

 

 

14,044

 

Gross profit (loss)

 

 

4,424

 

 

 

3,392

 

 

 

1,400

 

 

 

2,432

 

 

 

(2,912

)

 

 

35,856

 

 

 

5,150

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

61,228

 

 

 

47,212

 

 

 

60,088

 

 

 

74,104

 

 

 

68,672

 

 

 

154,216

 

 

 

22,152

 

Other operating income, net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,793

 

 

 

588

 

 

 

85

 

Loss from continuing operations

 

 

(56,804

)

 

 

(43,820

)

 

 

(58,688

)

 

 

(71,672

)

 

 

(67,791

)

 

 

(117,772

)

 

 

(16,917)

 

Share of losses of equity method investments

 

 

(2,838

)

 

 

(2,274

)

 

 

(1,395

)

 

 

(1,959

)

 

 

 

 

 

(8

)

 

 

(1)

 

Impairment loss of long-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(15,217

)

 

 

(15,217

)

 

 

(6,381

)

 

 

(26,815

)

 

 

(3,852)

 

Change in fair value of long-term investment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,750

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income tax expense (benefit)

 

 

1,518

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2,109

)

 

 

(591

)

 

 

 

 

 

(7,150

)

 

 

(1,027)

 

Loss from continuing operations, net of income taxes

 

 

(59,741

)

 

 

(45,036

)

 

 

(72,804

)

 

 

(87,509

)

 

 

(68,053

)

 

 

(134,112

)

 

 

(19,264)

 

Discontinued operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations of discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 

49,772

 

 

 

88,980

 

 

 

100,641

 

 

 

61,433

 

 

 

(18,951

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gain from disposal of discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

937,606

 

 

 

4,894

 

 

 

703

 

Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

 

 

49,772

 

 

 

88,980

 

 

 

100,641

 

 

 

61,433

 

 

 

918,655

 

 

 

4,894

 

 

 

703

 

Net income (loss)

 

 

(9,969

)

 

 

43,944

 

 

 

27,837

 

 

 

(26,076

)

 

 

850,602

 

 

 

(129,218

)

 

 

(18,561

)

Net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interests from continuing operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,445

)

 

 

(1,445

)

 

 

(3,181

)

 

 

(2,821

)

 

 

(405

)

Net loss attributable to non-redeemable non-controlling interests from continuing operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,132

)

 

 

(4,143

)

 

 

(595

)

Net loss attributable to non-redeemable non-controlling interests from discontinued operations

 

 

(253

)

 

 

(34

)

 

 

(352

)

 

 

(571

)

 

 

(11

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(9,716

)

 

 

43,978

 

 

 

29,634

 

 

 

(24,060

)

 

 

854,926

 

 

 

(122,254

)

 

 

(17,561

)

Net loss from continuing operations attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(59,741

)

 

 

(45,036

)

 

 

(71,359

)

 

 

(86,064

)

 

 

(63,740

)

 

 

(127,148

)

 

 

(18,264

)

Net income from discontinued operations attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

50,025

 

 

 

89,014

 

 

 

100,993

 

 

 

62,004

 

 

 

918,666

 

 

 

4,894

 

 

 

703

 

Basic and diluted earnings (losses) per common share attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(0.21

)

 

 

0.96

 

 

 

0.48

 

 

 

(0.69

)

 

 

18.25

 

 

 

(2.52

)

 

 

(0.36

)

Basic and diluted earnings (losses) per ADS(1) attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(0.42

)

 

 

1.92

 

 

 

0.96

 

 

 

(1.38

)

 

 

36.50

 

 

 

(5.04

)

 

 

(0.72

)

4


 

 

For the

Fiscal Year

Ended

March 31,

 

 

For the Nine Months

Ended December 31,

 

 

For the

Twelve

Months

Ended

December 31,

 

 

For the Fiscal Year

Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

US$

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In thousands, except for per share and per ADS data)

 

Basic and diluted losses from continuing operations per common share attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(1.31

)

 

 

(0.98

)

 

 

(1.72

)

 

 

(2.04

)

 

 

(1.81

)

 

 

(2.62

)

 

 

(0.37

)

Basic and diluted earnings from discontinued operations per common share attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

1.10

 

 

 

1.94

 

 

 

2.20

 

 

 

1.35

 

 

 

20.06

 

 

 

0.10

 

 

 

0.01

 

Basic and diluted loss from continuing operations per ADS(1) attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

(2.62

)

 

 

(1.96

)

 

 

(3.44

)

 

 

(4.08

)

 

 

(3.62

)

 

 

(5.24

)

 

 

(0.74

)

Basic and diluted earnings from discontinued operations per ADS(1) attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

2.20

 

 

 

3.88

 

 

 

4.40

 

 

 

2.70

 

 

 

40.12

 

 

 

0.20

 

 

 

0.02

 

Dividends declared per common share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.334

 

 

 

1.334

 

 

 

20.384

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average common shares outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

45,772,916

 

 

 

45,769,707

 

 

 

45,793,127

 

 

 

45,790,562

 

 

 

45,796,886

 

 

 

50,915,710

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted

 

 

45,772,916

 

 

 

45,769,707

 

 

 

45,793,127

 

 

 

45,790,562

 

 

 

45,796,886

 

 

 

50,915,710

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Each ADS represents two common shares.

5


 

 

 

As of

March 31,

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

RMB

 

 

US$

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

37,196

 

 

 

53,478

 

 

 

190,586

 

 

 

154,198

 

 

 

22,149

 

Current assets of discontinued operations

 

 

245,103

 

 

 

310,014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total current assets

 

 

295,945

 

 

 

366,816

 

 

 

213,395

 

 

 

183,560

 

 

 

26,367

 

Long-term investments

 

 

81,051

 

 

 

70,022

 

 

 

66,391

 

 

 

45,726

 

 

 

6,568

 

Intangible assets, net

 

 

3,968

 

 

 

5,746

 

 

 

17,123

 

 

 

135,600

 

 

 

19,478

 

Goodwill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

200,479

 

 

 

28,797

 

Right-of-use assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40,786

 

 

 

5,859

 

Other non-current assets

 

 

34,443

 

 

 

4,004

 

 

 

800

 

 

 

16,403

 

 

 

2,356

 

Non-current assets of discontinued operations

 

 

59,771

 

 

 

79,551

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

 

519,840

 

 

 

568,442

 

 

 

335,139

 

 

 

676,090

 

 

 

97,115

 

Accrued expenses and other payables

 

 

50,681

 

 

 

28,019

 

 

 

18,112

 

 

 

47,747

 

 

 

6,858

 

Lease liabilities-current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20,556

 

 

 

2,953

 

Deferred revenues

 

 

1,418

 

 

 

2,026

 

 

 

1,634

 

 

 

171,880

 

 

 

24,689

 

Current liabilities of discontinued operations

 

 

47,482

 

 

 

111,721

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

103,030

 

 

 

141,766

 

 

 

19,746

 

 

 

264,816

 

 

 

38,038

 

Non-current liabilities of discontinued operations

 

 

1,732

 

 

 

25,299

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12,500

 

 

 

1,796

 

Total liabilities

 

 

127,383

 

 

 

167,065

 

 

 

19,746

 

 

 

325,558

 

 

 

46,764

 

Mezzanine equity-redeemable non-controlling interests

 

 

 

 

 

36,304

 

 

 

39,209

 

 

 

44,896

 

 

 

6,449

 

Common shares

 

 

3,534

 

 

 

3,535

 

 

 

3,535

 

 

 

4,692

 

 

 

674

 

Retained earnings (accumulated deficits)

 

 

38,019

 

 

 

25,885

 

 

 

(71,889

)

 

 

(200,151

)

 

 

(28,750

)

Total shareholders’ equity attributable to ATA Creativity Global

 

 

391,377

 

 

 

364,730

 

 

 

275,817

 

 

 

300,140

 

 

 

43,113

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

 

392,457

 

 

 

365,073

 

 

 

276,184

 

 

 

305,635

 

 

 

43,902

 

 

Exchange Rate Information

We conduct our business primarily in China and substantially all of our revenues and expenses are denominated in Renminbi. The conversion of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this annual report is based on the noon buying rate in the City of New York for cable transfers of Renminbi per U.S. dollars certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, as set forth in the H.10 weekly statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB 6.9618 to US$1.00, which was the noon buying rate in effect as of December 31, 2019. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all.

B.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

6


D.

Risk Factors

Risks Relating to Our Business

Historically, we were dependent on revenues from the ATA Online Business; after the completion of our sale of the ATA Online Business and the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition, we may not be able to generate sufficient net income from our business operations to sustain our continued expansion.

The ATA Online Business historically represented the principal source of revenues and profit for the Company. On August 16, 2018, we completed the sale of the ATA Online Business which was consequently reclassified as discontinued operations. In 2019, we completed the acquisition of 100% equity interests of Huanqiuyimeng, a leading provider of educational services for students in China interested in applying for overseas art study. After the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition, our business operations primarily include portfolio training services, educational travel services, overseas study counseling services, other educational services, K-12 education assessment and other services. Given that we have only a short operating history for portfolio training services, educational travel services, overseas study counseling services and other educational services after the acquisition, we cannot assure you that we will be able to generate sufficient net income from our business operations to sustain our continued operations and expansion.

We have a limited operating history in providing our new creative arts related international education services. As a result, it is difficult for us to predict our results of operations and you should not rely on our historical results of operations as an indication of our future financial performance.

After the completion of our sale of the ATA Online Business and the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition, we shifted our focus from computer-based testing services to creative arts related international education services. Although we have been leveraging our expertise in educational technologies and industry relationships, as well as resources and competencies, to pursue the development and expansion of our newly acquired businesses, given our limited history operating our newly acquired businesses, we may not be able to adapt quickly to such major business changes, compete successfully in new markets, build our brand in new sectors and generate sufficient net income from our new businesses. As a result, it is difficult for us to predict our results of operations with respect to our newly acquired business and you should not rely on our historical results of operations as an indication of our future financial performance.

Failure to develop or market our new businesses could impact our competitive position and have an adverse effect on our financial results.

Our operating results in the future will depend on our ability to develop our new businesses, including our creative arts related international education services and other services, and bring those services to the market. This ability could be adversely affected by difficulties or delays in product development and marketing such as greater than anticipated development costs, technical difficulties, regulatory obstacles, competition, lack of demand, insufficient intellectual property protection, or lack of market acceptance of our new products and services. There can be no assurance that any of the products and services we are currently developing or marketing, or could begin to develop or market in the future, will achieve substantial commercial success. If we fail to develop or market our new businesses in the way or on the timeline as we expect, or at all, our growth and financial results will be adversely impacted.

If market acceptance for and the growth of our products and services declines, or demand for our products and services stagnates or declines, our revenue growth may slow or we may experience a decrease in revenues.

Currently, we are focused on providing creative arts related international education services to high school and undergraduate students. We cannot assure you that a market decline will not happen. A decline in the demand for creative arts related international education services by high school and undergraduate students could negatively affect the demand for our services. Even if the demand for our creative arts related international education services continues to grow, this demand may not grow as quickly as we anticipate. If market acceptance of our creative arts related international education services declines or fails to grow, our revenue growth may slow or we may experience a decrease in revenues.

If we are not able to continue to attract students to enroll in our portfolio training services without a significant decrease in course fees, our revenues may decline and our profitability may be adversely affected.

The success of our business depends primarily on the number of students enrolled in our portfolio training services and the amount of course fees that our students are willing to pay. Therefore, our ability to continue to attract students to enroll in our portfolio training services without a significant decrease in course fees is critical to the continued success and growth of our business. This in turn will depend on several factors, including without limitation our ability to effectively market our services to a broader base of prospective students, develop new services and enhance existing services to respond to changes in market trends and student demands, develop additional high-quality educational content and respond to competitive pressures, and manage our growth while maintaining the consistency of our teaching quality. If we are unable to continue to attract students to enroll in our portfolio training services without a significant decrease in course fees, our revenue may decline and we may not be able to maintain profitability.

7


We depend on our dedicated and capable teachers, and if we are not able to continue to hire and retain qualified teachers, or if our teachers fail to deliver quality services, we may not be able to maintain consistent teaching quality and our brand, business and results of operation may be materially and adversely affected.

Our teachers are critical for maintaining our service quality, our brand and reputation. It is critical for us to continue to attract qualified teachers who have the relevant art background, professional skills, excellent communication skills and commitment and dedication to creative arts related international education services. We also need to hire teachers who are capable of delivering innovative and inspirational instruction to students. The number of teachers that meet our qualifications is limited and we must provide competitive compensation packages to attract and retain such qualified teachers. We also face increasing competition from our competitors for teachers with good reputations and excellent teaching skills. If we fail to hire and retain qualified teachers, we may not be able to maintain consistent teaching quality and our brand, business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, our teachers may join our competitors or set up competing businesses after they discontinue their relationship with us, which could further adversely affect our operating results.

Only around 15% of our teachers are our full-time employees, and the rest are academics from universities and colleges or designers of private studios within their respective specializations who typically work for us on a part-time basis. If our part-time teachers fail to deliver quality courses as a result of inadequate devotion of their time and energy to our courses, our business may also be adversely affected. Furthermore, China promulgated certain regulations in November 2016 requiring post-secondary teachers to obtain approval from their employers prior to engaging in part-time jobs. If these part-time teachers choose to, or are forced to, discontinue their relationship with us to comply with such regulations, we will need to seek new teachers to replace them. We cannot assure you we will be able to find replacements at a reasonable cost on a timely basis, if at all.  

If we fail to build, maintain and enhance the value of our brand, our business may not grow and our financial results may be adversely impacted.

We believe that market awareness of our “ACG” brand is important to the success of our creative arts related international education businesses, and that maintaining and enhancing the value of our brand is critical to increasing our competitive advantage. Our brand promotion initiatives primarily include cooperating with overseas study counseling agents, language test preparation institutions and other similar sales channels to enhance our brand awareness among students of such sales channels, advertising our brand on the mainstream online search engines and social media platforms, participating in educational seminars, art workshops and on-campus events to give free speeches and lectures in order to introduce and promote our brand name, and periodically participating in and hosting educational expositions and other community events to distribute information brochures and promote our brand name.

As we are still at the stage of building and enhancing our brand recognition, negative comments on our services may result in unfavorable publicity for us, and could materially and adversely damage our brand and reputation, whether or not the comments are objective and fair. Moreover, as we continue to grow in size, expand our service offerings and extend our geographic reach, it may be more difficult to maintain the quality and consistent standards of our services and to protect and promote our brand name. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our marketing methods and strategies will be successful in promoting our brand in a cost-effective manner.

If we fail to build, maintain and enhance the value of our brand, or if we incur excessive sales and marketing expenses, our ability to attract new students could be adversely impacted and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Failure to effectively and efficiently manage the expansion of our training center network may materially and adversely affect our brand, business and operating results.

We have established 22 training centers in China as of April 22, 2020. We established our first one in 2012. We may continue to expand our operations in different geographic locations in China and abroad. Our expansion has resulted, and will continue to result, in substantial demands on our management, faculty and operational, technological and other resources. Our expansion will also place significant demands on us to maintain the consistency of our teaching quality and our culture to ensure that our brand does not suffer as a result of any decreases in our teaching quality. To manage and support our growth, we must continue to improve our existing operational, administrative and technological systems and our financial and management controls, and recruit, train and retain additional qualified teachers, management personnel and other administrative and sales and marketing personnel, particularly as we expand into new markets. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively and efficiently manage the growth of our operations, recruit and retain qualified teachers and management personnel and integrate new training centers into our operations. Any failure to effectively and efficiently manage our expansion may materially and adversely affect our ability to capitalize on new business opportunities, which in turn may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

8


Failure to adequately and promptly respond to changes in requirements and expectations for portfolios could cause our programs, services and products to be less attractive to students.

Requirements and expectations for portfolios for overseas art program applications vary by school and program. Some schools have strict criteria while others are open and flexible, and such requirements and expectations, whether on substance or format, change continuously. In response to such changes in requirements and expectations for portfolios, we need to adapt our training programs and materials to new requirements and expectations from time to time. Any inability to track and respond to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner would make our programs, services and products less attractive to students, which may materially and adversely affect our reputation and ability to continue to attract students without a significant decrease in course fees.

Failure to effectively improve our margins may adversely affect our business and operating results.

Many factors may affect our gross and net margins. For example, in the portfolio training industry, one-on-one classes and small-sized classes are the most prevalent types of class format. Currently, the vast majority of our portfolio training courses are delivered through one-on-one classes, while only a small amount of our portfolio training courses are delivered through small-sized classes, generally with three to five students in each class. Although our one-on-one classes are profitable, they are marginally less profitable on average than small-sized classes. Currently, we are concentrating on developing and expanding our small-sized class model and reducing the cost of our one-on-one classes. If we fail to do so, we may not be able to effectively improve our margins, which may adversely affect our business and operating results.

If we are not able to develop and expand our online course services and adapt them to rapid technological changes and student needs, we may lose market share and our business could be adversely affected.

Although offline courses are still important and prevalent in the portfolio training industry, the market need for online courses is growing rapidly, primarily because online courses enable students to take classes from highly skilled teachers who live in other cities. Currently, only a very limited amount of our portfolio training courses are delivered through online courses and we have limited experience with generating revenues from online courses. Ongoing development and expansion of our online courses and related technology may entail significant expense and technical risks. We may fail to use new technologies effectively or adapt our online courses and related technology on a timely and cost-effective basis. If the development and expansion of our online courses and the related technology are delayed, result in system interruptions or are not aligned with market expectations or preferences, we may lose market share and our business could be adversely affected.

Any deterioration in our relationships with overseas schools and institutions may adversely affect our business.

We have business collaborations with various overseas schools and institutions to provide education resources for our creative arts related international educational programs. We derive direct benefits from these relationships, such as the ability to provide more professional and effective overseas study counseling services, deliver our portfolio training programs abroad in cooperation with local art training institutions, offer more diverse programs and courses, such as our summer and winter camps for our overseas educational travel programs, and charge a premium for the services we offer with these overseas schools and institutions. We also derive indirect benefits from these relationships, including the enhancement of our brand and reputation and exposure to international education methods and experiences.

If our relationships with any of these overseas schools and institutions deteriorate or are otherwise damaged or terminated, or if the benefits we derive from these relationships diminishes, whether as a result of our own actions, actions of our partners, actions of any third party, including our competitors, or of regulatory authorities or other entities beyond our control, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Terrorist attacks, geopolitical uncertainty, pandemics, economic slowdown and international conflicts involving the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere may discourage more students from studying in the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere outside of China, which could cause declines in the student enrollment for our courses.

Terrorist attacks, geopolitical uncertainty, pandemics, economic slowdown and international conflicts involving the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere, such as the attacks on September 11, 2001, the Boston marathon bombings on April 15, 2013, the referendum on Brexit in June 2016, and the ongoing global coronavirus outbreak, could have an adverse effect on our portfolio training services, educational travel services, overseas study counseling services and other educational services. Such events may discourage students from studying in the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere outside of China and may also make it more difficult for Chinese students to obtain visas to study abroad. These factors could cause declines in the student enrollment for our portfolio training services, educational travel services, overseas study counseling services and other educational services and could have an adverse effect on our overall business and results of operations.

9


Failure to control rental costs, obtain leases at desired locations at reasonable prices or protect our leasehold interests could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our offices and training centers are mainly located on leased premises. The lease terms generally range from one to five years and the lease agreements are renewable upon mutual consent at the end of the applicable lease period. We may not be able to obtain new leases at desirable locations or renew our existing leases on acceptable terms or at all, which could adversely affect our business. We may have to relocate our operations for various other reasons, including increasing rents, failure to pass fire inspection or to comply with the relevant fire safety regulations in certain locations and the early termination of lease agreements. Our lease agreements are governed by applicable PRC laws and regulations, and may be subject to fines ranging from RMB 1,000 to RMB 10,000 for each lease agreement that has not been registered. However, failure to complete such registration would not affect the enforceability of a lease agreement, in practice.

In addition, a few of our lessors have not been able to provide us with copies of title certificates or other evidentiary documents to prove that they have authorization to lease the properties to us or documents proving the completion of the fire inspection of the leased premises. We follow internal guidelines to identify and assess risks in connection with leasing the properties, and a final business decision is made after our analysis of the likely impact of any defects on the leasehold interests and the value of the properties to our expansion plan. However, there is no assurance that our decisions will always lead to the favorable outcomes we expect to achieve. If any of our leases are terminated as a result of challenges by third parties or government authorities for lack of title certificates or proof of authorization to lease, we do not expect to be subject to any fines or penalties but we may be forced to relocate the affected training centers. If any of our uses of a leased premises is challenged by the relevant government authorities for the lack of a fire inspection, we may be subject to fines, rectifications and we may need to relocate the affected training centers. We will incur additional expenses relating to such relocation. If we fail to find a suitable replacement sites in a timely manner or on terms acceptable to us, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We provided loans of US$2.0 million and advances of RMB 7.5 million to Beijing Biztour. If Beijing Biztour and its affiliates fail to repay such loans, our results of operations may be adversely affected.

On March 26, 2018, we entered into a framework agreement for the acquisition of 100% of the shares of Beijing Biztour International Travel Service Co., Ltd. and its affiliates, or Beijing Biztour, a provider of international educational study tour and travel services for students in China. Under the framework agreement, we provided US$2.0 million in loans, valid for one year at an annual interest rate of 8%, to Beijing Biztour in support of growing its operations. On March 6, 2019, we terminated the acquisition of Beijing Biztour because Beijing Biztour and its shareholders did not satisfy certain closing conditions for such acquisition. Beijing Biztour agreed to repay the loans and interest accrued thereon to us and the de facto controller of Beijing Biztour provided a full joint liability guarantee and agreed to mortgage certain real estate properties owned by him as security for the repayment. Such loans matured on April 6, 2019 and were extended to September 30, 2019. Additionally, the Company had also advanced RMB 7.5 million to fund the operation of Beijing Biztour from August 2018, which was also extended to September 30, 2019. On October 1, 2019, both the loans and the advances became due again and remain unpaid as of the date of this annual report. The personal guarantee made and the real estate property mortgage agreed by the de facto controller of Beijing Biztour with respect to such loans and advances may not be sufficient for full repayment. In our consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded the foregoing loans as loan receivable and the foregoing advances as other receivables, and after assessing the collectability of such receivables, we used the fair value of real estate property adjusted by the estimated costs to sell to measure impairment and recorded a provision of RMB 17.4 million. If Beijing Biztour and its affiliates fail to repay the loans and interest accrued thereon and the advances to us in full or at all, we may incur substantial costs and spend additional time and efforts to enforce such repayments, and may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, and we cannot guarantee a full repayment.

10


We may face challenges and risks in connection with our strategic investments and acquisitions as well as forming joint ventures, including producing the intended benefits or synergies, identifying suitable opportunities and integrating acquired or new businesses and assets with our existing operations, which could interrupt our business operations or adversely affect our results of operations.

As part of our business strategy, we previously made strategic investments and acquisitions in complementary businesses. For example, in addition to the Huanqiuyimeng Acquisition, in April 2016, we made a strategic investment in Beijing Empower Education Online, Co., Ltd., or EEO, an online education company that operates web-based virtual classroom platforms in China. In June 2016, we made a strategic investment in ApplySquare Education & Technology Co., Ltd., or ApplySquare, a company that provides college and graduate school application assistance services. In July 2016, we made a strategic investment in Beijing GlobalWisdom Information Technology Co., Ltd., or GlobalWisdom, a company that focuses on China’s online language education services. In February 2017, we entered into a partnership with Nantong MOOC-CN Investment Center (Limited Partnership), or MOOC-CN Investment, a company that focuses on the development of K-12 education assessment tools and content. In April 2017, we made an additional investment of RMB 5.5 million in EEO. In December 2018, we made a strategic investment in Beijing Xiaozhi Education Technology Co., Ltd. or Xiaozhi, which focuses on delivering online and offline training services for teachers and instructors in various industries and areas. We cannot assure you that any particular acquisition or investment will produce the intended benefits or synergies. In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, we recorded impairment losses of RMB 6.4 million and RMB 5.9 million ($0.9 million), respectively, related to the investments in GlobalWisdom as GlobalWisdom failed to meet the expected milestones and operational forecasts and encountered a shortage of working capital resulting from continuous negative operating cash flows in the respective periods. In the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded an impairment loss of RMB 20.9 million ($3.0 million) related to the investment in Applysquare as Applysquare failed to meet the expected milestones and operational forecasts and encountered a shortage of working capital resulting from continuous negative operating cash flows.

Currently, we are still exploring potential merger and acquisition targets in the international education sector. In addition, we may also seek to broaden our service offerings in other business sectors, obtain additional students and strengthen our service quality by acquiring other companies or businesses or making strategic investments. However, our ability to implement our acquisition or investment strategies will depend on a number of factors, including the availability of suitable acquisition candidates at an acceptable cost or at all, our ability to compete effectively to attract and reach agreements with acquisition or investment candidates or joint venture partners on commercially reasonable terms, and the availability of financing to complete acquisitions or investment or joint ventures as well as our ability to obtain any required government approvals or licenses. As such, the identification of suitable acquisition or investment targets or joint venture candidates and the consummation of proposed acquisition, investment or joint venture transactions could be difficult, time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully capitalize on identified opportunities. In addition, we may not be successful in integrating acquisitions with our existing operations and personnel. Moreover, the acquisitions or investments we pursue may require us to expend significant management and other resources, which may result in interruptions to our business operations.

There are other risks associated with acquisitions, including:

 

unforeseen or hidden liabilities, including exposure to legal proceedings, associated with acquired companies, such as Huanqiuyimeng;

 

failure to generate sufficient revenues to offset the costs and expenses of acquisitions;

 

integration of the management of the acquired business into our own;

 

potential impairment losses or amortization expenses relating to goodwill and intangible assets arising from any such acquisitions, which may materially reduce our net income or result in a net loss;

 

potential conflicts with our existing employees as a result of our integration of newly acquired companies;

 

possible contravention of Chinese regulations applicable to such acquisitions; and

 

possible disputes associated with terminated and failed acquisitions.

Furthermore, raising equity capital to finance acquisitions or investments could cause earnings or ownership dilution to your shareholding interests, which in turn could result in losses to you. Any one or a combination of the above risks could interrupt our business operations and adversely affect our results of operations.

11


Because we do not have any business liability, disruption or litigation insurance coverage for our operations in China and have limited insurance coverage with respect to our educational travel services, any business disruption or litigation we experience might result in our incurring substantial costs and diverting significant resources to handle such disruption or litigation.

The insurance industry in China is not fully developed. Insurance companies in China offer limited business insurance products. While business disruption insurance may be available to a limited extent in China, we have determined that the risks of disruption and the difficulties and costs associated with acquiring such insurance render it commercially impractical for us to have such insurance. As a result, we do not have any business liability, disruption or litigation insurance coverage for our operations in China. Any business disruption or litigation might result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of resources.

We could be held liable for accidents that occur at indoor or outdoor facilities where we organize our educational travel programs and temporary housing facilities that we lease for our students from time to time. In the event of on-site food poisoning, personal injuries, fires or other accidents suffered by students or other people, we could face claims alleging that we were negligent, provided inadequate supervision or were otherwise liable for any injuries. We are exposed to various risks associated with our educational travel business and operations, and we have limited insurance coverage. Any successful liability claims against us due to injuries suffered by our students or other people during our educational travel programs could adversely affect our reputation and our financial results. Even if unsuccessful, such claims could cause unfavorable publicity, require substantial cost to defend and divert the time and attention of our management.

Failure to comply with regulations relating to information security and privacy protection, breaches or perceived breaches of our security measures relating to our service offerings, unauthorized disclosure or misuse of personal data through breaches of our computer systems or otherwise, could result in negative publicity and loss of students, expose us to protracted and costly litigation, and harm our business and results of operations.

Our business is facing significant challenges regarding information security and privacy protection, particularly with regard to the collection, storage, transmission and sharing of confidential information, among others. As part of our service offerings, we collect, process, transmit and store the personal information of students. We are required under PRC law to maintain the security and confidentiality of such information. In December 2012, the Standing Committee of the PRC National People’s Congress promulgated the Decision on Strengthening Network Information Protection, or the Network Information Protection Decision, to enhance the legal protection of information security and privacy on the internet. The Network Information Protection Decision specifically requires internet operators to take security measures to ensure the confidentiality of user information. We have adopted various security measures pertaining to the collection, processing, transmission or storage of user information. However, any breach or perceived breach in our security measures as a result of third-party actions, employee error, and malfeasance or otherwise could result in liability claims and have a negative impact on our reputation.

The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection has also been evolving rapidly in recent years. In July 2013, the China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (and its predecessors), or MIIT, promulgated the Provisions on Protection of Personal Information of Telecommunication and Internet Users to regulate the collection and use of users’ personal information in the provision of telecommunication services and internet information services in China. On July 1, 2015, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee promulgated the National Security Law, or the New National Security Law, which took effect on the same date and replaced the former National Security Law promulgated in 1993. Under the New National Security Law, we are obligated to safeguard national security by, for example, providing evidence related to activities endangering national security, providing assistance for national security work and providing necessary support for national security institutions, public security institutions and military institutions. As such, we may have to provide data to PRC government authorities and military institutions to ensure compliance with the New National Security Law. Complying with such regulations could cause us to incur substantial costs, require us to change our data practices in a manner adverse to our business, or even subject us to negative publicity which could harm our reputation with users and negatively affect our business operations and the trading price of our ADSs. In addition, in November 2016, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee promulgated the Cyber Security Law, which took effect on June 1, 2017, to protect cyberspace security and order. The Cyber Security Law tightens control of cyber security and sets forth various security protection obligations for network operators. According to the Cyber Security Law, network operators shall, among others, take security measures to protect networks from unauthorized interference, damage and unauthorized access to prevent data from being divulged, stolen or tampered with. In 2019, the Cyberspace Administration of China and other relevant authorities further issued detailed implementation rules and measures to refine these information security and privacy protection related regulations.

12


We are continuously vigilant about protecting and improving our cyber security and have not experienced any material cyber-attacks on our cyber systems. We cannot assure you, however, that our current security measures will be adequate or sufficient to prevent any theft, misuse, or unauthorized interference, damage, or unauthorized or inappropriate disclosure of personal data of our students. In case of any misuse of information collected from our students or any unauthorized interference, damage, or unauthorized or inappropriate disclosure of such information due to our failure to protect it, we could be subject to negative publicity, liability or regulatory penalties. Any such negative publicity, liability or regulatory penalties could cause us to lose students, expose us to costly litigation and have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

We may face increasing competition from our competitors. If we fail to successfully compete, our revenues and market share may decrease, and our results of operations may be adversely affected.

As our services and products continue to develop, we will face increasing competition, including competition from both established brands and new entrants, who will try to gain market share from us. For our portfolio training services business, we compete with our competitors primarily on the basis of branding and customer acquisition, educational quality, faculty, training center environment, product breadth and pricing, among which, branding and customer acquisition is regarded as the most important factor, while pricing is the least. Our competitors may establish brands that have wider recognition than us, develop marketing and sale methods that are more effective than ours, introduce new products and services that have better performance and gain broader acceptance than our products and services, hire and retain more qualified teachers, or offer more satisfactory training center environments or lower prices to students. As a result, we may lose our market share due to increasing competition, which may negatively affect our revenues and results of operations.

Our business is subject to fluctuations caused by seasonality or other factors beyond our control, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. This may result in volatility in and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We have experienced and expect to continue to experience slight seasonal fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations, with the quarter ending March 31 typically having relatively lower revenues compared with the other quarters. This is primarily because less students take classes in January and February due to spring festival holidays in China as well as because some students have completed their application for overseas art programs in December of the previous year. We expect quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations to continue. These fluctuations could result in volatility and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We depend on our senior management team and other key personnel and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services and are unable to replace them.

Our future success is dependent upon the continued services of our senior management team and other key personnel, as we rely on their industry experience and expertise in our business operations. In particular, we rely heavily on Kevin Xiaofeng Ma, our chairman and chief executive officer, and Jun Zhang, our president, for their business vision, management skills, technical expertise, experience in the education industry and working relationships with many of our business partners, shareholders and other participants in the education industry. If one or more of our senior management team members or other key personnel, and in particular, Kevin Xiaofeng Ma or Jun Zhang, are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily, and our business may be disrupted. In addition, if any member of our senior management team or any of our other key personnel joins a competitor of us or forms a competing company, we may lose teachers, students, key professionals and staff members. Each of our senior management team members and key employees is subject to the duty of confidentiality and non-competition restrictions. However, if any disputes arise between any of our senior management team members or key personnel and us, it may be difficult to successfully pursue legal actions against these individuals because of the uncertainties of the PRC legal system.

Unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties, including infringement of our “ACG” brand, and the expenses incurred in protecting our intellectual property rights, may adversely affect our business.

Our copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, patents and other intellectual property are important to our success. Unauthorized use of any of our intellectual property may adversely affect our business and reputation. We rely on trademark, patent, and copyright law, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements with our employees, students, business partners and others to protect our intellectual property rights. Nevertheless, it may be possible for third parties to obtain and use our intellectual property without authorization. The unauthorized use of intellectual property is common and widespread in China and enforcement of intellectual property rights by Chinese regulatory agencies is inconsistent. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights. Future litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management’s attention and resources, and could disrupt our business, as well as have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Given the relative unpredictability of the PRC legal system and potential difficulties in enforcing a court judgment in China, there is no guarantee that we would be able to halt the unauthorized use of our intellectual property through litigation.

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We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which may force us to incur substantial legal expenses and, if determined adversely against us, may materially disrupt our business.

We cannot assure you that our business operations, in particular, our trademarks, software, know-how and other technologies do not or will not infringe upon trademarks, valid copyrights, patents or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may become subject to legal proceedings and claims from time to time relating to the intellectual property of others in the ordinary course of our business. If we were found to have violated the intellectual property rights of others, we may be enjoined from using such intellectual property, and we may incur licensing fees or be forced to develop alternatives. In addition, we may incur substantial expenses, and may be forced to divert management and other resources from our business operations, to defend against these third-party infringement claims, regardless of their merits. Successful infringement or licensing claims against us may result in substantial monetary liabilities or may materially disrupt the conduct of our business by restricting or prohibiting our use of the intellectual property in question.

We may need additional capital and any failure by us to raise additional capital on terms favorable to us, or at all, could limit our ability to grow our business and develop or enhance our product and service offerings to respond to market demands or competitive challenges.

Capital requirements are difficult to plan in the rapidly changing industries in which we operate. We believe that our current cash and expected future cash flows from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital and capital expenditures for the next 12 months and the foreseeable future beyond that point. We may, however, require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue. If our sources of liquidity are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. Our ability to obtain additional capital on acceptable terms is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

 

investors’ perception of, and demand for, securities of international education companies;

 

conditions of the U.S., PRC and other capital markets in which we may seek to raise funds;

 

our future results of operations and financial condition;

 

Chinese government regulation of foreign investment in China;

 

economic, political and other conditions in China; and

 

Chinese government policies relating to the borrowing and remittance of foreign currency outside China.

We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any failure by us to raise additional funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, could limit our ability to grow our business and develop or enhance our product and service offerings to respond to market demand or competitive challenges.

Increases in labor costs in China may adversely affect our business and our profitability.

The economy of China has been experiencing significant growth, leading to inflation and increased labor costs. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the changes in China’s consumer price index was 1.6%, 2.1% and 2.9% in the years 2017, 2018 and 2019. China’s overall economy and the average wage in China are expected to continue to grow. As a result, the average wage level for our employees and part-time teachers has also increased in recent years. Future increases in China’s inflation and material increases in the cost of labor may diminish our competitive advantage and, unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our students by increasing prices for our services, our profitability and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The outbreak of COVID-19 may have a material adverse impact on the general economic outlook, economic growth and business sentiment (see “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China— The outbreak of COVID-19 and any future outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian flu or coronavirus in China, or similar adverse public health developments, may disrupt our business and operations and adversely affect our financial results”), and may in turn influence the labor cost. Additionally, certain restrictive measures, including quarantining policies and travel restrictions, implemented by China and other countries in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 may impose obstacles for us to recruit teachers and operational staff suitable for our business, and may in turn influence our labor cost. Such influence, if any, however, remains unclear at of the date of this annual report.

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We may be unable to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, and as a result we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.

We are subject to provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we include a report from management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our annual reports on Form 20-F. Our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of December 31, 2019. We acquired Huanqiuyimeng in August 2019 and as permitted by applicable rules, our management excluded from our assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, Huanqiuyimeng’s internal control over financial reporting associated with total assets of RMB 436.6 million and total revenues of RMB 91.4 million included in the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019. We are in the process of evaluating the existing controls and procedures of Huanqiuyimeng and integrating Huanqiuyimeng into our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in our existing or newly acquired businesses, our management may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. Our failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our reporting processes, which could materially and adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.

Our reporting obligations as a public company will continue to place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. Our failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial reporting processes, which in turn could harm our business and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs.

The audit report included in this annual report are prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as auditors of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

On May 24, 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance, or the MOF, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations in the United States and China. It appears that the PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the PRC regulators to permit joint inspections in China of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB in relation to the audit of the PRC companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. The joint statement reflects a heightened interest in this issue. However, it remains unclear what further actions the SEC and PCAOB will take and its impact on the PRC companies listed in the U.S.

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

In June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress that would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act proposes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the Nasdaq Global Market of those issuers included on the SEC’s list that have been out of compliance for three consecutive years. Enactment of this legislation or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could increase uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of our ADSs could be adversely affected. It is unclear if this proposed legislation would be enacted.

Furthermore, there have been recent media reports on deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting PRC-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such deliberations were to materialize, the resulting legislation may have material and adverse impact on the stock performance of PRC-based issuers listed in the U.S.

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If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in the administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms’ failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC with respect to requests for the production of documents, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Starting in 2011, the PRC affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, were affected by a conflict between U.S. and PRC law. Specifically, for certain U.S. listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the PRC accounting firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under China law they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through CSRC.

In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102(e) of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the PRC affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm. A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the PRC accounting firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the PRC accounting firms reached a settlement with the SEC whereby the proceedings were stayed. Under the settlement, the SEC accepts that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents would be made to the CSRC. The PRC accounting firms would receive matching requests to those made under Section 106 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and would be required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance would require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. The CSRC for its part initiated a procedure whereby, under its supervision and subject to its approval, requested classes of documents held by the accounting firms could be sanitized of problematic and sensitive content so as to render them capable of being made available by the CSRC to US regulators.

Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four PRC-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice at the end of four years from the date of the settlement on February 6, 2019. Despite the proceedings have finally been concluded, it is presumed that all parties will continue to apply the same procedures, where the SEC will continue to make its requests to the CSRC for the production of documents, and the CSRC will process those requests applying the sanitization procedure. We cannot predict whether, in cases where the CSRC does not authorize production of requested documents to the SEC, the SEC will further challenge the four PRC-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law. If additional challenges are imposed on the PRC affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, companies listed in the United States with major operations in China may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in China, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies, and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If the PRC affiliate of our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as amended. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our ADSs from the Nasdaq Global Market, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ADSs or common shares.

We believe that we were not a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2019. PFIC status is tested each year and depends on the composition of our assets and income and the value of our assets from time to time. Since we currently hold, and expect to continue to hold, a substantial amount of cash and other passive assets and, since the value of our assets is to be determined in large part by reference to the market prices of our ADSs and common shares, which is likely to fluctuate over time, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for any future taxable year.

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We note that the portion of our assets that consisted of cash and other passive assets was more significant during the period between our sale of ATA Online Business in 2018, and our acquisition of the 100% equity interest in Huanqiuyimeng in 2019, than before or after this period, although we believe this did not result in our becoming a PFIC for either the taxable year ended December 31, 2018 or the taxable year ended December 31, 2019. There is a change of business exception to PFIC status that, in general terms, applies if a foreign corporation otherwise would be a PFIC for a year because it has disposed of one or more active businesses, so long as the foreign corporation is not a PFIC during the two succeeding years, and that might apply to us if we were found to have been a PFIC for either (but not both) of the taxable years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2019. There is limited guidance as to the application of this exception, including proposed regulations that were promulgated in July 2019 but have not been finalized, and it is unclear whether this exception would apply to us, if it were determined, absent this exception, that we were a PFIC for either the taxable year ended December 31, 2018 or the taxable year ended December 31, 2019.

If we are deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, it would adversely affect the price of our ADSs and ordinary shares and could have a material adverse effect on our business.

As part of our business strategy, we previously made strategic investments in complementary businesses and are still exploring potential investment targets in order to expand our service offerings into new markets. See Item 3.D. “Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business — We may face challenges and risks in connection with our strategic investments and acquisitions as well as forming joint ventures, including producing the intended benefits or synergies, identifying suitable opportunities and integrating acquired or new businesses and assets with our existing operations, which could interrupt our business operations or adversely affect our results of operations.” These investments may be deemed to be “investment securities” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the Investment Company Act). We may be deemed to be an “investment company” as defined under the Investment Company Act based on the value of the investment securities we hold in relation to our total assets and on other factors relevant to the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act.

As an issuer not organized under the laws of the United States, we are not eligible to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act without an order from the SEC permitting such registration. Because such registration orders are rarely obtained, if we are deemed to be an “investment company” we would either have to obtain an exemption from the SEC, or rely on an existing exemption, waiving registration and compliance generally from the Investment Company Act. Alternatively, we would have to modify our contractual rights or dispose of certain investments in order to fall outside the definition of an investment company in the first instance. On an ongoing basis, we may be required to forego potential future acquisitions of interests in certain companies if those interests were deemed to be “investment securities” and such acquisition or acquisitions would cause us to come within the definition of “investment company.” Failure to avoid being deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act coupled with our inability as a foreign private issuer to register under the Investment Company Act could make us unable to comply with our reporting obligations as a public company in the United States and lead to our being delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market, which would have a material adverse effect on the liquidity and value of our ADSs and common shares. We would also be unable to raise capital through the sale of securities in the United States or to conduct business in the United States. In addition, we may be subject to SEC enforcement actions or civil litigation for alleged violations of U.S. securities laws. Defending ourselves against any such enforcement action or lawsuits would require significant attention from our management and divert resources from our existing businesses and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Relating to Regulations of Our Business

If the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC, or another PRC regulatory agency determines that CSRC approval was required in connection with our initial public offering, we may become subject to penalties.

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the CSRC, promulgated the Provisions Regarding Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rule, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and was revised in June 22, 2009. The M&A Rule, among other things, requires that an offshore company controlled by PRC companies or individuals that has acquired a PRC domestic company for the purpose of listing the PRC domestic company’s equity interest on an overseas stock exchange must obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such offshore company’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC, pursuant to the M&A Rule, published on its official website procedures specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by offshore companies seeking CSRC approval of their overseas listings.

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Our PRC counsel, Jincheng Tongda & Neal Law Firm, advised us that CSRC approval was not required for our initial public offering in February 2008 because the CSRC approval required under the M&A Rule only applies to an offshore company that has acquired a domestic PRC company for the purpose of listing the domestic PRC company’s equity interest on an overseas stock exchange, while (i) we obtained our equity interest in each of our PRC subsidiaries by means of direct investment other than by acquisition of the equity or assets of a PRC domestic company in 2008, (ii) our former contractual arrangements with ATA Online (see “Item 7.B. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions.” for more details) did not constitute the acquisition of ATA Online, (iii) the M&A Rule did not apply to the acquisition by ATA Learning, which had been a wholly foreign owned enterprise since incorporation until it was reformed into a PRC domestic company in 2018, and (iv) although Article 11 of the M&A Rule prohibits the circumvention of the M&A Rule through establishing foreign-invested enterprises, or FIEs, ATA Learning was established in 2003 before the M&A Rule was promulgated, which makes this acquisition not a circumvention of the M&A Rule. However, if it is determined that CSRC approval was required, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs.

Because we may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our current and future Chinese subsidiaries for our cash requirements, restrictions under Chinese law on their ability to make such payments could materially and adversely affect our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could benefit our business, pay dividends to you, and otherwise fund and conduct our businesses.

We have adopted a holding company structure, and our holding companies rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our current and future Chinese subsidiaries for their cash requirements, including the funds necessary to service any debt we may incur or financing we may need for operations other than through our Chinese subsidiaries. Chinese legal restrictions permit payments of dividends by our Chinese subsidiaries only out of their accumulated after-tax profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC GAAP. Our Chinese subsidiaries are also required under Chinese laws and regulations to allocate at least 10% of their after-tax profits determined in accordance with PRC GAAP to statutory reserves until such reserves reach 50% of the company’s registered capital. Allocations to these statutory reserves and funds can only be used for specific purposes and are not transferable to us in the form of loans, advances or cash dividends. As of December 31, 2019, our Chinese subsidiaries allocated RMB 25.7 million ($3.7 million) to the general reserve fund, which is restricted for distribution to the Company. We are in full compliance with PRC laws and regulations relating to such allocations. Any limitations on the ability of our Chinese subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

The discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments currently enjoyed by our subsidiaries in China could materially increase our tax obligations.

Effective from January 1, 2008 and amended on February 24, 2017 and December 29, 2018, the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, imposes a tax rate of 25% on all enterprises, including foreign-invested enterprises, and terminates many of the tax exemptions, reductions and preferential treatments available under previous tax laws. Under the EIT Law, qualified “high-and-new technology enterprises eligible for key support from the State,” or HNTE, are entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15%, subject to an annual self-assessment review during the valid period of their HNTE certificates. If an HNTE enterprise does not satisfy the related requirements stipulated by the State Administration of Taxation, or SAT, to enjoy the preferential income tax rate of 15% during the annual self-assessment review, it will not be able to implement the preferential income tax rate for the tax year being assessed.

In December 2008, ATA Education Technology (Beijing) Limited, or ATA Education (formerly known as ATA Testing Authority (Beijing) Limited, or ATA Testing) obtained an HNTE certificate with a valid period of three years retrospectively starting from January 1, 2008 and renewed the certificate in 2011, 2014, and 2017 for another three years, respectively. As a result, ATA Education was entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15% for calendar years 2008 through 2019. ATA Education is currently in the process of re-applying for its HNTE certificate for another three years. In the event ATA Education is unable to renew its HNTE certificate, it will be subject to the standard statutory enterprise income tax rate of 25% after 2019. In December 2009, Muhua Shangce Learning Data & Technology (Beijing) Limited, or Muhua Shangce, formerly known as ATA Learning Data & Technology (Beijing) Limited, or ATA Data, and Beijing Jindixin Software Technology Limited, or Beijing JDX, obtained an HNTE certificate with a valid period of three years retrospectively starting from January 1, 2009 and renewed the certificate in 2012, 2015, and 2018 for another three years, respectively. As a result, Muhua Shangce was and will be entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 15% for calendar years 2009 through 2020. In the event Muhua Shangce is unable to meet all of the requirements stipulated by the SAT to enjoy the preferential income tax rate of 15% during the annual self-assessment review when holding the HNTE certificate or fail to renew its HNTE certificate, it will be subject to the standard statutory enterprise income tax rate of 25%. We cannot assure you that ATA Education and Muhua Shangce will continue to qualify as an HNTE after the expiration of their HNTE certificates, or that the local tax authorities will not, in the future, change their position and revoke any of our past preferential tax treatments.

The discontinuation of any of our preferential tax treatments could materially increase our tax obligations and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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Under the EIT Law, we may be classified as a “resident enterprise” of China. Such classification will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and U.S. holders of our ADSs or common shares.

Under the EIT Law, an enterprise established outside of China with its “de facto management body” in China is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it can be treated the same as a Chinese enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes. In addition, a tax circular issued by the SAT, on April 22, 2009 regarding the standards used to classify certain Chinese controlled enterprises established outside of China as “resident enterprises,” or Circular 82, clarified that dividends and other income paid by such “resident enterprises” will be considered to be PRC source income, subject to PRC withholding tax currently at a rate of 10%, when paid to non-PRC enterprise shareholders. Circular 82 also subjects such “resident enterprises” to various reporting requirements with the PRC tax authorities. Under the Implementation Rules to the EIT Law, a “de facto management body” is defined as a body that exercises “substantial and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel, and human resources, finances and properties of an enterprise.” In addition, Circular 82 details that certain Chinese-controlled enterprises will be classified as “resident enterprises” if the following are located or resident in China: senior management personnel and departments that are responsible for daily production, operation and management; financial and personnel decision making bodies; key properties, accounting books, company seal, and minutes of board meetings and shareholders’ meetings; and half or more of the senior management or directors having voting rights.

Currently, a substantial majority of the members of our management team as well as the management team of some of our offshore holding companies are located in China. However, Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreign entities like us. In the absence of detailed implementing regulations or other guidance determining that offshore companies controlled by PRC individuals or foreign entities like us are PRC resident enterprises, we do not currently consider our company or any of our overseas subsidiaries to be a PRC resident enterprise.

However, the SAT may take the view that the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 reflects the general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. Or additional implementing regulations or guidance may be issued determining that our Cayman Islands holding company is a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. If the PRC tax authorities determine that our Cayman Islands holding company is a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, we will be subject to enterprise income tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide income as well as PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. This would mean that income such as interest on offering proceeds and other non-PRC source income would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax rate at 25%, in comparison to no taxation in the Cayman Islands. Second, although under the EIT Law and its implementing rules, dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries would qualify as “tax-exempt income,” we cannot guarantee that such dividends will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax, have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. Finally, a 10% withholding tax will be imposed on dividends we pay to our non-PRC enterprise shareholders, and future guidance may extend the withholding tax to dividends we pay to our non-PRC individual shareholders and gains derived by our non-PRC shareholders from transferring our ADSs or common shares. Similar results would follow if our BVI holding company is considered a PRC “resident enterprise.” In addition to the uncertainty in how the new “resident enterprise” classification could apply, it is also possible that the rules may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. We are closely monitoring the development of this area of rules and are evaluating appropriate arrangements of our management activity to avoid being classified as a PRC “resident enterprise.”

PRC regulations of loans and direct investments by offshore holding companies to their Chinese subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entity may restrict our ability to execute our business strategy.

In order to execute our business strategy, we must invest funds in our Chinese subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entity through loans or capital contributions. Under applicable Chinese laws, any loan made by us to ATA Education and Huanqiuyimeng, each a foreign-invested enterprise, cannot exceed statutory limits tied to each company’s registered capital and total investment as approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart, and all such loans must be registered with China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, or its local counterpart. According to a notice issued by the People’s Bank of China regarding foreign debt on January 11, 2017, the maximum amount of foreign debt that each of our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated variable interest entity or other PRC domestic entities is allowed to borrow is two times of their respective net assets. Pursuant to this notice and other PRC laws and regulations regarding foreign debt, within a one-year grace period starting from January 11, 2017, the statutory limit for the total amount of foreign debt of a foreign-invested company, which is subject to its own election, is either the difference between the amount of total investment and the amount of registered capital as approved by the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart, or two times of their respective net assets. With respect to our consolidated variable interest entity or other domestic PRC entities, the limit for the total amount of foreign debt is twice of their respective net assets.

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We may also decide to finance ATA Education and Huanqiuyimeng by increasing their registered capital through capital contributions. Any capital contributions to ATA Education and Huanqiuyimeng must be filed with the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart. SAFE promulgated the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, on March 30, 2015. According to SAFE Circular 19, a foreign-invested enterprise will be able to convert foreign exchange in its capital account into RMB at any time. In order to use the converted RMB, the foreign-invested enterprise still needs to provide supporting documents and go through the review process with the banks. A failure by us to obtain the necessary government approvals or complete any required registrations or other procedures for a capital contribution, an increase in approved total investment or a loan on a timely basis, may restrict our ability to execute our business strategy.

In June 2016, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Administrative Provisions on Capital Account Foreign Exchange Settlement, or SAFE Circular No. 16, which removed certain restrictions previously provided under several SAFE circulars, including the Notice of the General Affairs Department of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on the Relevant Operating Issues concerning the Improvement of the Administration of Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular No. 142, in respect of conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency registered capital into RMB and the use of such RMB capital. However, SAFE Circular No. 16 continues to prohibit a foreign-invested enterprises from, among other things, using RMB funds converted from its foreign exchange capital for expenditure beyond its business scope, and providing loans to non-affiliated enterprises except as permitted in the business scope. On October 23, 2019, the SAFE promulgated the Notice for Further Advancing the Facilitation of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or the SAFE Circular 28, which, among other things, allows all foreign-invested companies to use RMB converted from foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in China, as long as the equity investment is genuine, does not violate applicable laws, and complies with the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List). However, since the SAFE Circular 28 is newly promulgated, it is unclear how SAFE and competent banks will carry this out in practice.

A failure by our shareholders who are Chinese citizens or residents in China to comply with regulations issued by SAFE could restrict our ability to distribute profits, restrict our overseas and cross-border investment activities or subject us to liabilities under Chinese laws, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, a share transfer or exchange, a merger, a division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

Our significant shareholder, Kevin Xiaofeng Ma, has previously completed his registration with SAFE and is in the process of updating his registration, and we have urged our other Chinese resident shareholders, including our president Mr. Zhang Jun, to register under SAFE Circular 37 and they are currently in the application process. However, we cannot assure you that their applications will be accepted by SAFE. Failure by such shareholders to comply with SAFE Circular 37 could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects. See Item 3.D. “Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Regulations of Our Business — Because we may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our current and future Chinese subsidiaries for our cash requirements, restrictions under Chinese law on their ability to make such payments could materially and adversely affect our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could benefit our business, pay dividends to you, and otherwise fund and conduct our businesses.”

Furthermore, as there is uncertainty concerning the reconciliation of these SAFE regulations with other approval requirements, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant government authorities. We cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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We may be subject to fines and legal sanctions imposed by SAFE or other Chinese government authorities if we or our Chinese employees fail to comply with Chinese regulations relating to employee share options granted by offshore listed companies to Chinese citizens.

Under applicable PRC regulations, Chinese citizens who are granted share options by an offshore listed company are required, through a Chinese agent, which can be a Chinese branch or representative of the offshore listed company, a Chinese institution which has a controlling relationship or actual control over the offshore listed company or a Chinese institution qualified for asset custody business, to register with SAFE and complete certain other procedures, including applications for foreign exchange payment quotas and opening special bank accounts. We and our Chinese employees who have been granted share options are subject to such PRC regulations. If we or our Chinese employees fail to comply with these regulations, we or our Chinese employees may be subject to fines and legal sanctions imposed by SAFE or other Chinese government authorities, which may prevent us from further granting options under our share incentive plans to our employees. Such events could adversely affect our business operations. See Item 4.B. “Information on the Company — Business overview — Regulation — SAFE Regulations on Employee Share Options.”

Our training centers may be characterized as private schools and thus be required to obtain private school operating permits, and failure to obtain such permits may materially and adversely affect our business operations.

Under the Law for Promoting Private Education, private education institutions established under the PRC law are included in the category of “private schools”. Our training centers may be characterized as private schools. According to the Law for Promoting Private Education, private schools are required to obtain operating permits from the PRC education authorities for carrying out educational activities, therefore, our training centers may be required to obtain private school operating permits by the regulators. As of the date of this annual report, some of our training centers have not obtained private school operating permits. Such training centers may be subject to various penalties, including fines, orders to promptly rectify the non-compliance, or if the non-compliance is deemed serious by the regulators, such training centers may be ordered to return course and service fees collected and pay a multiple of the amount of returned course and/or service fees to regulators as a penalty or may even be ordered to cease operations. If this occurs, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

However, according to the Draft Amended Implementation Rules, which further classifies private training institutions, a private training institution for language, arts, sports, science and technology teaching and a private training institution for adults for cultural education or non-academic continuing education can directly apply for registration with local SAMR without obtaining private school operating permits. As advised by our PRC counsel, if the abovementioned Draft Amended Implementation Rules is enacted as proposed, our training centers will not be required to obtain private school operating permits from the PRC education authorities. However, as the Draft Amended Implementation Rules is still in draft form, there can be no assurance that it will be enacted as proposed or at all, and there are also uncertainties as to the interpretation and implementation by the relevant authorities.

Risks Relating to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China

China’s economic, political and social conditions, as well as changes in any government policies, laws and regulations, could adversely affect the overall economy in China or the prospects of the industries in which we operate, which in turn could impact our financial performance.

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are subject, to a significant extent, to economic, political and social developments in China.

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange, and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy since the late 1970s, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling the incurrence and payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Changes in any of these policies, laws and regulations could adversely affect the overall economy in China or the prospects of the industries in which we operate, which could harm our business. Additionally, the outbreak of COVID-19 may have a material adverse impact on the overall economic outlook, economic growth and business sentiment in China (see “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China— The outbreak of COVID-19 and any future outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian flu or coronavirus in China, or similar adverse public health developments, may disrupt our business and operations and adversely affect our financial results”), and may in turn influence the operation of our business.

China’s social and political conditions are also not as stable as those of the United States and other developed countries. Any sudden changes to China’s political system or the occurrence of widespread social unrest could have negative effects on our business and results of operations. In addition, China has contentious relations with some of its neighbors. A significant further deterioration in such relations could have negative effects on the Chinese economy and lead to changes in governmental policies that would be adverse to our business interests.

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The Chinese legal system has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

Unlike common law systems, the Chinese legal system is based on written statutes and decided legal cases have little precedential value. Since 1979, the Chinese government has promulgated a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation since then has been to significantly enhance the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. Each of our Chinese operating subsidiaries, ATA Education and Huanqiuyimeng, is a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, which is an enterprise incorporated in China and wholly-owned by foreign investors, and is subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China in general and laws and regulations applicable to wholly foreign-owned enterprises in particular. Relevant Chinese laws, regulations and legal requirements may change frequently, and their interpretation and enforcement involve uncertainties. In addition, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce the legal protection that we enjoy either by law or contract. However, since Chinese administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Such uncertainties, including the inability to enforce our contracts and intellectual property rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and operations. Accordingly, we cannot predict the effect of future developments in the Chinese legal system, including the promulgation of new laws, changes to existing laws or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, or the preemption of local regulations by national laws. These uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us and other foreign investors, including you. For example, on March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, effective from January 1, 2020 and replacing the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law. As it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation, and failure to take timely and appropriate measures to comply with the Foreign Investment Law and relevant rules could result in material and adverse effects on us. For instance, although the Foreign Investment Law does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, it contains a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated by laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, or the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions to be promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, at which time it will be uncertain whether our contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the market access requirements for foreign investment in China and, if so, how our contractual arrangements will be dealt with. In addition, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions to be prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. In the worst case scenario, we may be required to unwind our existing contractual arrangements and/or dispose of the relevant business operations, which could have a material and adverse effect on our current corporate structure, corporate governance, business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, on December 12, 2019, State Council promulgated the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law, effective from January 1, 2020. Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to how the relevant government authorities will interpret and implement such rules in practice, which may incur additional costs for us to comply with such rules.

Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to utilize our cash generated from sales of our services effectively and the ability of our Chinese subsidiaries to obtain financing.

Substantially all of our revenues and operating expenses are denominated in Renminbi. Restrictions on currency exchange imposed by the Chinese government may limit our ability to utilize cash generated from sales of our services in Renminbi to fund our business activities outside China, if any, or expenditures denominated in foreign currencies. Under current Chinese regulations, Renminbi may be freely converted into foreign currency for payments relating to “current account transactions,” which include, among other things, dividend payments and payments for the import of goods and services, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Cash generated from sales of our services in China can be converted into foreign currency to pay salaries of employees located outside of China upon the employee completing certain registration procedures. Cash generated from sales of our services in China can also be used to pay off debt generated outside of China, provided that the Company complies with the applicable foreign debt registration or approval requirements. Although the Renminbi has been fully convertible for current account transactions since 1996, we cannot assure you that the relevant Chinese government authorities will not limit or eliminate our ability to purchase and retain foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future.

Conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies and of foreign currencies into Renminbi for payments relating to “capital account transactions,” which include, among other things, investments, loans and acquisitions of land and other fixed assets overseas, generally requires the approval of SAFE and other relevant Chinese governmental authorities. Restrictions on the convertibility of Renminbi for capital account transactions could affect the ability of our Chinese subsidiaries to make investments overseas or to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing, including by means of loans or capital contributions from us.

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could result in foreign currency exchange losses.

Because substantially all of our revenues and expenditures are denominated in Renminbi, fluctuations in the exchange rate between U.S. dollar and Renminbi will affect our balance sheet and earnings per share in U.S. dollars. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in value of the Renminbi relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations. Fluctuations in exchange rate will also affect the relative value of any dividends we issue that are exchanged into U.S. dollars and the earnings from and the value of any U.S. dollar-denominated investments we make in the future.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies. It is difficult to predict how economic conditions, or PRC or U.S. government policy, in particular, the outbreak of trade war between PRC and U.S. and the imposition of additional tariffs on goods sold to each other beginning in 2018, may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future. The People’s Bank of China regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to limit fluctuations in Renminbi exchange rates and achieve policy goals. Very limited hedging transactions are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedging transactions may be limited and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by Chinese exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

Our ability to provide our creative arts related international educational services may be subject to significant limitations or may otherwise be materially and adversely affected by changes in PRC laws and regulations.

The principal regulations governing private education in China are the Law for Promoting Private Education (as amended by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress December 29, 2018), or the Amended Private Education Law, which replaced the Law for Promoting Private Education (2016), and the Implementation Rules for the Law for Promoting Private Education (2004), or the Implementation Rules (2004), the amendment to which is currently under review by the State Council. The implementation of the Amended Private Education Law is still in a transition period pending the promulgation of the amendment to the Implementation Rules (2004) and the adoption of local regulations by each province in China. Thus the private education service providers in China, including us, are now in a transition period for re-registration according to the Amended Private Education Law and its Implementation Rules and other relevant regulations.

On August 10, 2018, the Ministry of Justice published for public comment a draft of the amended Implementation Rules for the Law for Promoting Private Education, or the Draft Amended Implementation Rules, which has been submitted by the Ministry of Education to the State Council for approval. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Amended Implementation Rules are still pending for approval. If these rules are signed into law, they would have several impacts on our existing business. For example, the Draft Amended Implementation Rules require private schools providing online diploma-awarding education to hold both a private school operating permit and the relevant internet operating permits. Private educational institutions providing any online training and education services, or technology companies providing any online platform or system supporting such online training and educations, would need to obtain the relevant internet operation permits and file with the government’s education department or the government’s human resources and social security department at provincial level, and would need to review and record the identities of entities or individuals who apply for access to their online platforms. We provide some of our portfolio training services online but none of them are diploma-awarding and our online courses are delivered through a third party online platform provider. We have not obtained a license for internet information services, or an ICP license. If the Draft Amended Implementation Rules are signed into law, we might be deemed to be “providing online training and education services” even though our courses are delivered through a third party online platform provider and hence required to obtain an ICP license. Without such license, our online programs might be suspended, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is unclear at the current stage whether further licenses would be required if the Draft Amended Implementation Rules are signed into law.

In addition, the Draft Amended Implementation Rules prohibit any entities that implement collectivization education from gaining control over non-profit schools through mergers and acquisitions, franchise chains, and control agreements. Any agreements between a non-profit private school and its connected party that involve major interests or will be repeatedly performed in a long-term shall be reviewed and audited by the relevant government authorities in terms of necessity, legitimacy and compliance and shall be arm’s-length transactions. These and other provisions regarding non-profit private schools, if signed into law, may force all of our training centers, which might be deemed as “private schools,” to elect to be for-profit schools, which may substantially restrict our ability to acquire and control non-profit schools and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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The outbreak of COVID-19 and any future outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian flu or coronavirus in China, or similar adverse public health developments, may disrupt our business and operations and adversely affect our financial results.

Our financial results, business and operations could be materially and adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, coronavirus or other similar adverse public health developments. In recent years, there have been reports on the occurrences of avian influenza in various parts of China and neighboring countries, including confirmed human cases.

Additionally, in late 2019, there has been an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by COVID-19, which has expanded widely within China and globally. The new strain of COVID-19 is considered highly contagious and may pose a serious public health threat. On January 23, 2020, the PRC government announced the lockdown of Wuhan City in an attempt to quarantine the city, followed by draconian measures imposed by China in various regions of the nation including travel restrictions in major cities. The outbreak of COVID-19 has adversely affected our business operations in certain aspects. For example, we temporarily closed our training centers and offices in China, and even after re-opening of some of the offices, relevant local provincial authorities did not allow full operation to avoid the spread of disease. As a response to the situation, we have implemented certain practical plans, including converting some of our offline courses to online courses and delivering them to students through a third party platform since February 2020. In recent weeks, the number of newly confirmed COVID-19 cases in China has gradually declined, as a result of which, the business activities in China’s major cities have started to resume. As such, we will re-open our training centers and offices as soon as it is permitted to do so by relevant governmental authorities.

However, as the COVID-19 continues to expand globally, and has posed a serious public health threat to various countries and territories as of the date of this annual report, a number of countries and territories have implemented quarantining policies and travel restrictions from and to seriously affected cities or areas. Those measures, though temporary in nature, may continue and increase depending on developments in the coronavirus outbreak. As a result, our ability to deliver our services, particularly our educational travel services, may be adversely impacted and the costs for us to deliver our services may increase. Some students may delay or cancel their overseas study or travel plans due to these restrictive measures or safety considerations, and thus the demand for our services, especially demand for our educational travel services, overseas study counseling services and portfolio training services may decrease. In addition, due to limited offline sales and marketing activities and less referrals from overseas study agents since the outbreak of COVID-19, we have to rely more on search engine marketing and other online marketing, which has increased our marketing costs and lowered our investment return rates. The COVID-19 outbreak did not have a material adverse impact on our business operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, it may, however, have material adverse impacts on our business operations for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

We have not adopted any written policies to combat the outbreak of COVID-19, or any future outbreak of SARS, avian flu, coronavirus or other epidemics. We are uncertain as to when the outbreak of COVID-19 will be completely controlled in China and globally, and the prolonged adverse effects of COVID-19 and any other adverse public health developments may result in the prolonged closure of our training centers or our offices while we remain obligated to pay rent and other expenses for these facilities, the quarantining of infected or potentially infected students, teachers, or employees and the disinfection of the affected properties along with the temporary suspension of our operations, or the cancellation or deferments of student enrollment to avoid the spread of disease. If such occurrences continue without being effectively controlled in the future, our business operations and financial performance may be materially and adversely affected as a result of various factors, such as changes in general economic outlook, slowdowns in economic growth and negative business sentiment, and measures taken by government authorities which may restrict our operations in China and abroad.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government deems our contractual arrangements relating to our variable interest entity do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in certain industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, they are not eligible to provide certain restricted services related to our businesses. As a result, we conduct or will conduct such business and investment activities through ATA Intelligent Learning (Beijing) Technology Limited, or ATA Intelligent Learning.

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ATA Intelligent Learning is 90% owned by Mr. Kevin Xiaofeng Ma, our chairman of the board and chief executive officer, and 10% owned by Mr. Haichang Xiong, our general counsel. Mr. Ma and Mr. Xiong are PRC citizens. We entered into a series of contractual arrangements with ATA Intelligent Learning and its shareholders, which enable us to:

 

exercise effective control over ATA Intelligent Learning;

 

receive substantially all of the economic benefits of ATA Intelligent Learning; and

 

have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in ATA Intelligent Learning when and to the extent permitted by PRC law.

Because of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of ATA Intelligent Learning and hence consolidate its financial results. For a detailed discussion of these contractual arrangements, see Item 4.A. “Information on the Company— History and Development of the Company— Contractual Arrangements with ATA Intelligent Learning.”

In the opinion of Jincheng Tongda & Neal Law Firm, our PRC legal counsel, the above contractual arrangements are legally binding and enforceable and do not violate current PRC laws and regulations. However, there are uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of existing and future PRC laws and regulations. The Company cannot assure that the PRC regulatory authorities will not ultimately take a contrary view to its opinion. If the current ownership structure of the Company and the contractual arrangements with ATA Intelligent Learning are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws and regulations, the PRC government could:

 

revoke the Company’s business and operating licenses;

 

levy fines on the Company;

 

confiscate any of the Company’s income that they deem to be obtained through illegal operations;

 

shut down a portion or all of the Company’s ser