10-K 1 avns-20231231.htm 10-K avns-20231231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
(Mark One)
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                  to
Commission file number: 001-36440
avanoslogoa08.jpg
Avanos Medical, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware46-4987888
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
5405 Windward Parkway
Suite 100 South
Alpharetta,Georgia30004
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (844) 428-2667
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock—$0.01 Par ValueAVNSNew York Stock Exchange
(Title of each class)(Trading Symbol)(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes        No    
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes        No    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes        No    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).                         Yes     No    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).           Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates or registrant on June 30, 2023 was $1,191,714,961.
As of February 13, 2024, there were 46,202,992 shares of Avanos Medical, Inc. common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information contained in the definitive Proxy Statement for the Avanos Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on April 25, 2024 is incorporated by reference into Part III.




AVANOS MEDICAL, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Part IPage
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Part III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Part IV
Item 15.
 
 


PART I
Information Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) and other materials we have filed or furnished or will file or furnish with the SEC (as well as information included in our oral or other written statements) contain, or will contain, certain “forward-looking statements,” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, regarding business strategies, market potential, future financial performance and other matters. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this Form 10-K, including without limitation, in the following sections: Item 1 “Business;” Item 1A “Risk Factors;’ and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements include all statements that do not relate solely to historical or current facts, and can generally be identified by the use of words such as “may,” “believe,” “will,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “plan” or “continue” and similar expressions, among others. The matters discussed in these forward-looking statements are based on the current plans and expectations of our management and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected, anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to:
general economic conditions particularly in the United States;
weakening of economic conditions that could adversely affect the level of demand for our products;
pricing pressures generally, including cost-containment measures that could adversely affect the price of or demand for our products;
fluctuations in global equity and fixed-income markets;
our ability to successfully execute on or achieve the expected benefits of our restructuring initiative;
supply chain issues and inflationary pressures;
a resurgence of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in the competitive environment;
the loss of current customers or the inability to obtain new customers;
cybersecurity threats, including breaches of or cyberattacks on our information systems;
the ongoing regional conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and in the Middle East;
concentration of our manufacturing operations in Mexico;
financial conditions affecting the banking system and the potential threats to the solvency of commercial banks;
litigation and enforcement actions;
price fluctuations in key commodities;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
disruptions in the supply of raw materials for or the manufacture or distribution of our finished goods;
changes in governmental regulations that are applicable to our business;
our ability to realize the intended benefits of acquisition or merger transactions;
changes in asset valuations including write-downs of assets such as inventory, accounts receivable or other assets for impairment or other reasons and
the other matters described in Item 1A - “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K.
You are cautioned not to unduly rely on such forward-looking statements when evaluating the information in this Form 10-K. Where, in any forward-looking statement, an expectation or belief as to future results or events is expressed, such expectation or belief is based on the current plans and expectations of our management and expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speaks only as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by applicable securities laws.

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ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Overview
Avanos Medical, Inc. is a medical technology company focused on delivering clinically superior medical device solutions that help patients get back to the things that matter. Headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia, we are committed to addressing some of today’s most important healthcare needs, including providing a vital lifeline for nutrition to patients from hospital to home, and reducing the use of opioids while helping patients move from surgery to recovery. We develop, manufacture and market our recognized brands globally and hold leading market positions in multiple categories across our portfolio. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Avanos,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Avanos Medical, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. We were originally incorporated in Delaware in 2014. The address of our principal executive offices is 5405 Windward Parkway, Suite 100 South, Alpharetta, Georgia 30004, and our telephone number is (844) 428-2667.
We conduct our business in one operating and reportable segment that provides our medical device products to healthcare providers and patients. We have manufacturing facilities in the United States and Mexico. Within our single reportable segment, we provide a portfolio of innovative product offerings focused on Digestive Health and Pain Management and Recovery to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care.
Digestive Health is a portfolio of products that includes our MIC-KEY enteral feeding tubes, Corpak patient feeding solutions and NeoMed neonatal and pediatric feeding solutions. In the year ended December 31, 2023, our legacy enteral feeding tubes, which includes our MIC-KEY enteral feeding tubes, our Corpak feeding solutions and our NeoMed neonatal and pediatric feeding solutions each accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales. In the year ended December 31, 2022, our legacy enteral feeding tubes and our NeoMed neonatal and pediatric feeding solutions feeding solutions each accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales. In the year ended December 31, 2021, our legacy enteral feeding tubes and our Corpak feeding solutions each accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales.
Pain Management and Recovery is a portfolio of non-opioid pain solutions including:
Surgical pain and recovery products such as ON-Q and ambIT surgical pain pumps and Game Ready cold and compression therapy systems. In the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our ON-Q surgical pain pump individually accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales. In the year ended December 31, 2021, our surgical pain products, which includes both On-Q and ambIT pumps, accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales.
Interventional pain solutions, which provide minimally invasive pain relieving therapies, such as our COOLIEF pain therapy, OrthogenRx’s knee osteoarthritis hyaluronic acid (“HA”) pain relief injection products and Trident radiofrequency ablation (“RFA”) products used to treat chronic pain conditions. In the year ended December 31, 2023, products associated with our COOLIEF pain therapy accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales. In the year ended December 31, 2022, COOLIEF pain therapy products and our OrthogenRx pain relief injection products (GenVisc and TriVisc), each accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales. In the year ended December 31, 2021, products associated with our COOLIEF pain therapy accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated net sales.
Acquisitions
On June 17, 2023 we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Diros Technology Inc. (“Diros”), a leading manufacturer of innovative radiofrequency (RF) products used to treat chronic pain conditions. On July 24, 2023, we closed the acquisition of Diros for approximately $53.0 million, consisting of $2.5 million cash paid upon entry into the definitive agreement and $50.5 million in cash at closing less working capital and other adjustments, with an up to additional $7.0 million payable in contingent cash consideration based on achievement of certain performance objectives defined in the purchase agreement (the “Diros Acquisition”). The purchase price for the Diros Acquisition was funded by available cash on hand and proceeds from our Revolving Credit Facility. For further information regarding the acquisition of Diros, see “Business Acquisition” in Note 6 to the Consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
On January 20, 2022, we acquired all of the equity voting interests and completed the acquisition of OrthogenRx, Inc. (“OrthogenRx”), which is focused on the development and commercialization of treatments for knee pain caused by osteoarthritis (the “OrthogenRx Acquisition”). The OrthogenRx Acquisition enhanced our interventional pain portfolio. The purchase price was $130.0 million at closing less working capital adjustments, with up to an additional $30.0 million payable in contingent cash consideration based on OrthogenRx’s growth in net sales during 2022 and 2023. $10.6 million of contingent cash consideration has been paid based on OrthogenRx’s 2022 net sales. The purchase price for the OrthogenRx Acquisition was funded by available cash on hand and the proceeds of borrowings, including from the incurrence of a new incremental tranche of term loans of $125.0 million, under the Company’s prior senior secured revolving credit facility.

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During 2019, we completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets of Endoclear, LLC (“Endoclear”) and Summit Medical Products, Inc. (“Summit”), and we completed the acquisition of NeoMed, Inc. (“NeoMed”) (collectively, the “2019 Acquisitions”). The aggregate purchase price for the 2019 Acquisitions was $57.5 million, net of cash acquired, plus future contingent payments of $7.2 million.
Divestiture
On June 7, 2023, we entered into a Purchase Agreement (“Purchase Agreement”) by and among us and certain of our affiliates and SunMed Group Holdings, LLC (“Buyer”), pursuant to which the Buyer agreed to purchase substantially all of the assets primarily relating to or primarily used in our Respiratory Health (“RH”) business (the “RH Divestiture”). On October 2, 2023, we closed the sale of our RH business for $110.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments as provided in the Purchase Agreement based on the indebtedness and inventory transferred to Buyer at the closing and the chargebacks assumed by Buyer but that would otherwise have been payable by the Company and its subsidiaries on or after October 2, 2023 to distributors of the Company’s RH products located in the United States.
The RH Divestiture represents a key component of Avanos’ ongoing three-year transformation process, which was initiated in January 2023 and is aimed at accelerating the Company’s efforts to focus its portfolio on markets where it is well positioned to succeed (the “Transformation Process”).
In conjunction with the RH Divestiture, we and Buyer entered into various transition services agreements pursuant to which we, Buyer and each company’s respective affiliates provide to each other various transitional services, including, but not limited to, product manufacturing and distribution, facilities, order fulfillment, invoicing, quality assurance, regulatory support, audit support and other services. The services generally commenced on the closing date of the RH Divestiture and will terminate in no later than one to three years. For further information regarding the RH Divestiture, see “Discontinued Operations” in Note 2 to the Consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Sales and Marketing
We direct our primary sales and marketing efforts toward hospitals, ambulatory care centers, and other sites of care. We engage with physicians and other healthcare providers to highlight the unique benefits and competitive differentiation of our branded products. We work directly with physicians, nurses, professional societies, hospital administrators and healthcare group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”) to collaborate and educate on emerging practices and clinical techniques. These marketing programs are delivered directly to healthcare providers. Additionally, we provide marketing programs to our strategic distribution partners throughout the world.
Distribution
While our products are generally marketed directly to hospitals and other healthcare providers, they are generally sold through third-party wholesale distributors, with some sales directly to healthcare facilities and other end-user customers. In 2023, approximately 43% of our net sales in North America were made through distributors. In the year ended December 31, 2023, sales to Medline Industries, McKesson Corporation, and Owens & Minor, Inc. accounted for approximately 15%, 13%, and 6% of consolidated net sales, respectively. In the year ended December 31, 2022, sales to Medline Industries, McKesson Corporation, and Owens & Minor, Inc. accounted for approximately 12%, 12%, and 5% of consolidated net sales, respectively. In the year ended December 31, 2021, sales to Medline Industries, McKesson Corporation, and Owens & Minor, Inc. accounted for approximately 13%, 11%, and 6% of consolidated net sales, respectively.
Outside North America, sales are made either directly to end-user customers or through distributors, depending on the market served. In 2023, approximately 71% of our net sales outside North America were made through wholesalers or distributors.
We utilize distribution centers in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan. No material portion of our business is subject to renegotiation of profits or termination of contracts at the election of the government.
Group Purchasing Organizations
Our agreements with GPOs enables us to sell our products to their members, whether sold directly by us or through independent wholesale distributors. Agreements with GPOs are generally renewed every three years. GPOs negotiate pricing and volume purchasing discounts for hospitals, physician practices and other health care providers and institutions. Under our agreements with GPOs, we pay a fee based on sales of our products to GPO members, which is recorded as a reduction of net sales. Approximately 28% of our 2023 global net sales, including sales to wholesale distributors, were contracted through GPOs.
Competition
While no single company competes with us across the full breadth of our offerings, we face significant competition in U.S. and international markets.

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There are a variety of treatment means and alternative clinical practices to address pain management and recovery and digestive health. We face competition from these alternative treatments, as well as improvements and innovations in products and technologies by our competitors. Major competitors include, among others:
Digestive Health: Boston Scientific Corporation, Cook Medical and Applied Medical Technology, Inc.
Pain Management and Recovery: Boston Scientific Corporation, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Stryker Corporation, Medtronic plc, Pajunk Medical Systems, Nice Recovery Systems and Bioventus, Inc.
In developing and emerging markets, alternative clinical practices and different standards of care are our primary competition.
While we believe that the number of procedures using our products will grow due, in part, to increasing global access to healthcare, we expect that our ability to compete with other providers of similar products will be impacted by rapid technological advances, pricing pressures and third-party reimbursement practices. We continue to defend our market positions and launched two new products in the U.S. market in 2023. We believe that our key product characteristics, such as proven efficacy, reliability and safety, along with our product launch capability, efficient manufacturing processes, and our established distribution network, field sales organization and customer service group, are important factors that distinguish us from our competitors.
Research and Development
We continuously engage in research and development to commercialize new products and enhance the effectiveness, reliability and safety of our existing products. We incurred research and development costs of $27.2 million in 2023, $29.2 million in 2022 and $30.6 million in 2021. These amounts consisted primarily of salaries and related expenses for personnel, product trial costs, outside laboratory and license fees, the costs of laboratory equipment and facilities and asset write-offs for equipment associated with unsuccessful product launches. We intend to continue our research and development efforts as a key strategy for growth.
Intellectual Property
Patents, trademarks and other proprietary rights are very important to our business. We also rely upon trade secrets, manufacturing know-how, continuing technological innovations and licensing opportunities to maintain and improve our competitive position. We review third-party proprietary rights, including patents and patent applications, as they become available, in an effort to develop an effective intellectual property strategy, avoid infringement of third-party proprietary rights, identify licensing opportunities and monitor the intellectual property owned by others.
We hold numerous patents and have numerous patent applications pending in the United States and other countries that relate to the technology used in many of our products. We utilize patents in our Pain Management and Recovery and Digestive Health products. These patents generally expire between 2024 and 2042. None of the patents we license from third parties are material to our business.
We consider the patents and trademarks which we own and the trademarks under which we sell certain of our products, as a whole, to be material to our business. However, we do not consider our business to be materially dependent upon any individual patent or trademark.
Raw Materials
We use a wide variety of raw materials and other inputs in our production processes. We base our purchasing decisions on quality assurance, cost effectiveness and regulatory requirements, and we work closely with our suppliers to assure continuity of supply while maintaining high quality and reliability. We primarily purchase these materials from external suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers.
Regulatory Matters
The development, manufacture, marketing, sale, promotion and distribution of our products are subject to comprehensive government regulation. Government regulation by various national, regional, federal, state and local agencies, both in the United States and other countries, addresses (among other matters) inspection of, and controls over, research and laboratory procedures, clinical investigations, product approvals and manufacturing, labeling, packaging, marketing and promotion, pricing and reimbursement, sampling, distribution, quality control, post-market surveillance, servicing, record keeping, storage and disposal practices. Our operations are also affected by trade regulations in many countries that limit the import of raw materials and finished products and by laws and regulations that seek to prevent corruption and bribery in the marketplace (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the United Kingdom Bribery Act, which provide guidance on corporate interactions with government officials) and require safeguards for the protection of personal data. In addition, we are subject to laws and regulations pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including state and federal anti-kickback and false claims laws in the United States.

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Compliance with these laws and regulations is costly and materially affects our business. Among other effects, healthcare regulations substantially increase the time, difficulty and costs incurred in obtaining and maintaining approval to market newly developed and existing products. For example, in the United States, before we can market a new medical product, or market a new use for, claim for or significant modification to an existing product, we generally must first receive clearance under Section 510(k) of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“510(k) clearance”) from the United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). In order for us to obtain 510(k) clearance, the FDA must determine that our proposed product is substantially equivalent to a device legally on the market, known as a predicate device, with respect to intended use, technology, safety and effectiveness. Similarly, most major markets for medical devices outside the United States also require clearance, approval or compliance with certain standards before a product can be commercially marketed. For instance, the European Union, or EU, harmonized national regulations for the control of medical devices through the European Medical Device Directive (“EU MDD”) with which manufacturers must comply. To sell medical devices in the EU, manufacturers must place a CE mark on their products, signifying to customers that the products meet EU requirements for safety and performance. For all but the lowest risk medical devices, manufacturers must have approval from a notified body prior to placing the CE mark on their devices. Medical devices without a CE mark may not be sold or distributed in the EU.
During 2021, the European Union adopted the EU Medical Device Regulation (“EU MDR”), replacing the EU MDD. The main goal of this regulation is to enhance product safety, quality and transparency for medical devices within the European Union. To achieve this, the EU MDR includes significant new requirements for medical devices, including enhanced requirements for clinical evidence and documentation, increased focus on device identification and traceability, and additional post-market surveillance and diligence. Compliance with the EU MDR requires re-certification of many of our products to the enhanced standards, during a transition period ending May 26, 2024. Complying with the EU MDR will require us to incur significant expenditures.
We expect that ensuring compliance with these regulations will continue to require significant technical expertise and capital investment. Failure to comply with applicable regulations will delay the release of a new product or result in regulatory and enforcement actions, the seizure or recall of a product, the suspension or revocation of the authority necessary for a product’s production and sale and other civil or criminal sanctions, including fines and penalties.
In addition to regulatory initiatives, our business can be affected by ongoing studies of the utilization, safety, efficacy and outcomes of healthcare products and their components. These studies, which are regularly conducted by industry participants, government agencies and others, can call into question the utilization, safety and efficacy of previously marketed products. In some cases, these studies have resulted, and may in the future result, in the discontinuance of, or limitations on, marketing of products domestically or worldwide, and may give rise to claims for damages from persons who believe they have been injured as a result of their use.
Access to healthcare products continues to be a subject of investigation and action by governmental agencies, legislative bodies and private organizations in the United States and other countries. A major focus is cost containment. Efforts to reduce healthcare costs are also being made in the private sector, notably by healthcare payors and providers, which have instituted various cost reduction and containment measures. We expect insurers and providers to continue attempts to reduce the cost of healthcare products. Outside the United States, many countries control the price of healthcare products directly or indirectly, through reimbursement, payment, pricing, coverage limitations, or compulsory licensing. Budgetary pressures in the United States and in other countries may also heighten the scope and severity of pricing pressures on our products for the foreseeable future.
We expect debate to continue during the next several years at all government levels worldwide over the marketing, availability, method of delivery, and payment for healthcare products and services. We believe that future legislation and regulation in the markets we serve could affect access to healthcare products and services, increase rebates, reduce prices or the rate of price increases for healthcare products and services, change healthcare delivery systems, create new fees and obligations, or require additional reporting and disclosure. It is not possible to predict the extent to which we or the healthcare industry in general might be affected by the matters discussed above. Such legislative or regulatory changes could have a material adverse effect on our business by reducing the prices paid for our products or imposing other requirements.
Since we market our products worldwide, certain products and variations of product lines must also meet other local regulatory requirements. Certain additional risks are inherent in conducting business outside the United States, including price and currency exchange controls, changes in currency exchange rates, limitations on participation in local enterprises, expropriation, nationalization, and other governmental action.
Demand for many of our existing and new medical devices is, and will continue to be, affected by the extent to which government healthcare programs and private health insurers reimburse our customers for patients’ medical expenses in the countries where we do business. Statutory and regulatory requirements for Medicaid, Medicare, and other government healthcare programs govern provider reimbursement levels. From time to time, legislative changes are made to government healthcare programs that impact our business, and the federal and/or state governments may continue to enact measures in the

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future aimed at containing or reducing reimbursement levels for medical expenses paid for in whole or in part with government funds. We cannot predict the nature of such measures or their impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Any reduction in the amount of reimbursements received by our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business by reducing their selection of our products and the prices they are willing to pay.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
Our operations are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws, regulations and ordinances relating to various environmental, health and safety matters. We believe our operations are in compliance with, or we are taking actions designed to ensure compliance with, these laws, regulations and ordinances. However, the nature of our operations exposes us to the risk of claims concerning non-compliance with environmental, health and safety laws or standards, and there can be no assurance that material costs or liabilities will not be incurred in connection with those claims. We are not currently named as a party in any judicial or administrative proceeding relating to environmental, health or safety matters.
While we have incurred in the past several years, and will in the future continue to incur, capital and operating expenditures in order to comply with environmental, health and safety laws, regulations and ordinances, we believe that our future cost of compliance with such regulations and ordinances, and our exposure to liability for environmental, health and safety claims will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. However, future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, or contamination of sites owned, operated or used for waste disposal by us (including currently unknown contamination and contamination caused by prior owners and operators of such sites or other waste generators) may give rise to additional costs which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Employees and Human Capital Management
Employees are our most-valued resource and are at the center of everything we do. Their talent, diversity and commitment are crucial to our innovation and success. Our work environment fosters personal, professional and corporate growth and nurtures innovation through product development and customer solutions. Our global teams work together in a spirit of cooperation to improve health and healthcare every day.
Employee demographics presented in the table below represent the number of employees as of December 31, 2023:
Global Employees2023% of Total
United States881 23.3%
Mexico2,665 70.7%
Latin America10 0.3%
Europe, Middle East and Africa108 2.9%
Asia Pacific107 2.8%
Total3,771 
Compensation
We strive to compensate employees competitively and fairly in markets throughout the world. Compensation for salaried employees is strongly tied to performance objectives. Salaried employees above a certain pay grade have a substantial portion of their total compensation subject to performance objectives. More about the compensation paid to our executive officers can be found in the proxy statement relating to our 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2024 Proxy Statement”).
Training and Educational Opportunities
Because we are a medical device manufacturer, our employees are regularly trained in key areas required by the FDA and other applicable regulatory authorities, including topics such as documentation, safety, complaint handling, anti-bribery and quality, among others. In addition to regulated training, employees are educated on the Avanos Code of Conduct, which aims to ensure all our employees understand and act in alignment with our cultural and behavioral expectations.
Employee Engagement
We believe that employees who are engaged in their roles, treated as partners in the business and recognized for their efforts, are more satisfied and productive. Our goal is to ensure that each of our more than 3,700 employees understands how they contribute to the Company’s innovation and growth. This is accomplished through an employee recognition program and ongoing, two-way communications, including videos and podcasts, that allow employees to engage with and hear directly from members of the executive team.

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Employee Retention
In 2021, we implemented a multi-tiered employee retention strategy. The key elements of this strategy include: (i) enhanced compensation and rewards, including retention bonuses and equity grants for key employees, expanded benefits and more flexible work arrangements; (ii) fostering greater employee engagement through initiatives such as peer-to-peer coaching, internal promotions, a leadership development program and increased executive outreach through towns halls, podcasts and videos; and (iii) recognizing employees for their efforts through a variety of awards, spotlights and appreciation events.
Health and Safety; COVID-19 Response
We are committed to protecting our employees everywhere we operate. We identify potential risks associated with workplace activities in order to develop measures to mitigate possible hazards. In addition, we support employees with safety training and put specific programs in place for those working in potentially hazardous environments. In addition to offering a comprehensive health and benefits package, we sponsor a variety of wellness initiatives, including an Employee Assistance Program, health assessments, and Company-sponsored challenges that foster healthy habits.
We took additional measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, including implementing new safety protocols and guidelines as recommended by federal, state, local and foreign governments. When they reopened, our offices did so with strict safety and hygiene guidelines. Employees at our administrative offices generally follow a hybrid model that combines working in the office and working from home.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are an equal opportunity employer committed to providing a workplace free of harassment or discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, veteran status or other legally protected characteristic. Our commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion (“DE&I”) is aligned to foster the company’s success as we continue to grow our business and develop our workforce. Our commitment is also reflected in the important role that our DE&I Council plays in our governance practices. Founded in 2021, the DE&I Council is comprised of employees from various salary levels, functional departments and geographic regions throughout Avanos. In 2023, we took the next significant step forward in our DE&I journey by transitioning the DE&I Council leadership from a volunteer organization to an official responsibility of our Human Resources (HR) organization. The DE&I Council includes representatives from all the global regions in which the Company operates.
The following table shows various diversity metrics for the Company as of December 31, 2023.
Employee Diversity2023
Women - global director and above(a)
31.4%
Ethnically diverse - U.S. director and above(a)
17.4%
Women - global salaried employees46.3%
Ethnically diverse - U.S. salaried employees31.6%
__________________________________________________
(a) Leaders in director-level position or higher.
Available Information
We make financial information, news releases and other information available on our corporate website at www.avanos.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are available free of charge on our corporate website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file these reports and amendments with, or furnish them to, the SEC. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report filed with the SEC. Stockholders may also contact Stockholder Services, 5405 Windward Parkway, Suite 100 South, Alpharetta, Georgia 30004 or call (844) 428-2667 to obtain a hard copy of these reports without charge.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Our business faces many risks and uncertainties. Any of the risks discussed below, as well as factors described in other places in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or in our other filings with the SEC, could materially adversely affect our business, consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, these items could cause our future results to differ from our recent results, from our anticipated future results and from those in any of our forward-looking statements. These risks are not the only ones we face. Other risks that we do not presently know about or that we presently believe are not material could also adversely affect us.

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Risks Related to our Business and Industry
We face strong competition. Our failure to compete effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our industry is highly competitive. We compete with many domestic and foreign companies ranging from small start-up enterprises that might sell only a single or limited number of competitive products or compete only in a specific market segment, to companies that are larger and more established than us, have a broad range of competitive products, participate in numerous markets and have access to significantly greater financial and marketing resources than we do. We are also subject to potential competition from new technologies or new market entrants. Competitive factors include price, alternative clinical practices, innovation, quality and reputation. Our failure to compete effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may not be successful in developing, acquiring or marketing competitive products and technologies.
Our industry is characterized by extensive research and development and rapid technological advances. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to design, acquire and manufacture new competitive products and enhance existing products. Accordingly, we commit substantial time, funds and other resources to new product development, including research and development, acquisitions, licenses, clinical trials and physician education. We make these substantial expenditures without any assurance that our products will obtain regulatory clearance or reimbursement approval, acquire adequate intellectual property protection or receive market acceptance. Development by our competitors of improved products, technologies or enhancements may make our products, or those we develop, license or acquire in the future, obsolete or less competitive, which could negatively impact our net sales. Our failure to successfully develop, acquire or market competitive new products or enhance existing products could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We cannot guarantee that any of our strategic acquisitions, investments or alliances will be successful.
We intend to supplement our growth through strategic acquisitions of, investments in and alliances with new medical technologies. The success of any acquisition, investment or alliance may be affected by a number of factors, including our ability to identify and then properly assess and value the potential business opportunity or to successfully integrate any business we may acquire into our existing business. These types of transactions may require more resources and investments than originally anticipated, may divert management’s attention from our existing business, may result in exposure to unexpected liabilities of the acquired business, and may not result in the expected benefits, savings or synergies. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify and successfully make strategic acquisitions of, investments in and alliances with new medical technologies or that any past or future acquisition, investment or alliance will be cost-effective, profitable or successful.
We may be unable to attract and retain key employees necessary to be competitive.
Our ability to compete effectively depends upon our ability to attract and retain executives and other key employees, including people in technical, marketing, sales, and research and development positions. Competition for experienced employees, particularly for persons with specialized skills, can be intense. Our ability to recruit such talent will depend on a number of factors, including compensation and benefits, work location and work environment. If we cannot effectively recruit and retain qualified executives and employees, our business could be materially adversely affected.
We rely on the proper function, security and availability of our information technology systems and data, as well as those of third parties, to operate our business, and a breach of our information technology systems, or our failure to effectively integrate AI into our information technology systems and operations, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit and store electronic information in our day-to-day operations. Our information technology systems may fail to perform as anticipated, and we may encounter difficulties in implementing new systems, adapting these systems to changing technologies or expanding them to meet the future needs and growth of our business. Our information technology systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect, and enhance existing systems and develop new systems. This enables us to keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving legal and regulatory standards and changes in the techniques used to prevent unauthorized access to our data and information systems. There can be no assurance that these efforts will be successful or that systems issues will not arise in the future.
In addition, the development, adoption and use of generative artificial intelligence, or AI, technology presents opportunities and risks. AI technology is still in an early stage of development, and we are still assessing how to incorporate AI technology into our information technology systems and operations. We are developing a policy with guardrails to address AI-related risks associated with data privacy, cybersecurity and copyright and intellectual property protections. Our failure to effectively integrate AI into our information technology systems and operations could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business.

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Furthermore, from time to time we consummate new business acquisitions. We face risks associated with defects and vulnerabilities in acquired businesses’ systems and difficulties or disruptions in connection with the integration of such acquisitions into our own information technology systems.
Lastly, our information technology systems may be subjected to damage or interruption from power outages, computer and telecommunication failures, usage errors by our employees, security breaches, computer viruses or other malicious codes, unauthorized access attempts and cyber, phishing- or ransomware attacks. Furthermore, we rely on third-party vendors to support certain aspects of our information technology systems and to store certain information. These third parties could also be subject to these types of attacks. These attacks could result in our intellectual property and other confidential information, including personal health information, being lost or stolen, disruption of our operations, loss of reputation and other negative consequences, such as increased costs for security measures or remediation costs and diversion of management attention. While we will continue to implement additional protective measures to reduce the risk of and detect future cyber incidents, cyber-attacks are becoming more sophisticated and frequent, and the techniques used in such attacks change rapidly. There can be no assurance that our protective measures will prevent future attacks that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights or may infringe the intellectual property rights of others.
We rely on patents, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual property assets in the operation of our business. Our efforts to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights may not be sufficient. We cannot be sure that pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents or that patents issued or licensed to us will remain valid or prevent competitors from introducing similar competing technologies. Our ability to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights may be limited in certain countries outside of the United States in which we operate, which could make it easier for our competitors to develop or distribute similar or superior competing technologies in those jurisdictions. In addition, our competitive position may be adversely affected by expirations of our significant patents, which would allow competitors to freely use our technology to compete with us.
We operate in an industry characterized by extensive patent litigation and competitors may claim that our products infringe their intellectual property rights. Resolution of patent litigation or other intellectual property claims is inherently unpredictable, typically time consuming and costly and can result in significant damage awards and injunctions that could prevent the manufacture and sale of the affected products or require us to make significant royalty payments in order to continue selling the affected products. Any one of these could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. At any given time we are involved as either a plaintiff or a defendant in a number of patent infringement actions, the outcomes of which may not be known for prolonged periods of time. We can expect to face additional claims of patent infringement in the future.
Our business and operations are subject to risks related to global climate change.
Global climate change presents risks to our business. Shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change are expected to increase the frequency, severity and duration of certain adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires, droughts, extreme temperatures and flooding. Such extreme weather conditions and the other conditions caused by or related to climate change could increase our operational costs; pose physical risks to our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers; and adversely impact various aspects of our business, including our supply chain, our manufacturing and distribution networks, the availability and cost of raw materials and components, the energy supply, transportation, and other inputs necessary for the operation of our business. In addition, more stringent environmental laws and regulations that are designed to mitigate the effects of climate change may result in increased costs to operate our business, increased compliance costs and adverse impacts on raw material sourcing, our manufacturing operations and the distribution of our products. Such developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our customers depend on third-party coverage and reimbursements. The failure of healthcare programs to provide coverage and reimbursement, or reductions in levels of reimbursement, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The ability of our customers to obtain coverage and reimbursements for products they purchase from us is important to our business. Demand for many of our existing and new medical products is, and will continue to be, affected by the extent to which government healthcare programs and private health insurers reimburse our customers for patients’ medical expenses in the countries where we do business. Any reduction in the amount of reimbursements received by our customers could harm our business by reducing their selection of our products and the prices they are willing to pay.
In addition, as a result of their purchasing power, third-party payors are implementing cost-cutting measures such as seeking discounts, price reductions or other incentives from medical products suppliers and imposing limitations on coverage and reimbursements for medical technologies and procedures. These trends could compel us to reduce prices for our existing products and potential new products and could cause a decrease in the size of the market or a potential increase in competition that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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A resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely impact our business operations, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant volatility in the global financial markets, caused disruption in global supply and distribution channels and caused us to modify certain of our business practices (including with respect to remote work policies and physical participation in meetings and other events). While the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, new mutations to the virus could lead to a resurgence of the pandemic.
The impact of such a resurgence would depend on a number of factors which are uncertain and unpredictable, including the severity, extent and duration of the new outbreak and the potential severe adverse financial impact the outbreak could have on our customers. A resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic could result in delays in payments on outstanding accounts receivable, manufacturing, distribution and supply chain disruptions, decreased customer demand for our products, and other adverse effects.
If we experience any one of these risks or uncertainties, it may have a material adverse impact to our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Additionally, our business could be severely impacted by widespread regional, national or global health epidemics unrelated to COVID-19 in the future.
An inability to obtain key components, raw materials or manufactured products from third parties may have a material adverse effect on our business.
We depend on the availability of various components, raw materials and manufactured products supplied by others for our operations. If the capabilities of our suppliers and third-party manufacturers are limited or stopped, due to quality, regulatory or other reasons, including natural disasters, pandemics or other health emergencies (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), political instability, government actions, prolonged power or equipment failures or labor dispute, it could negatively impact our ability to manufacture or deliver our products and could expose us to regulatory actions. Further, for quality assurance or cost effectiveness, we purchase from sole suppliers certain components and raw materials. Although there are other sources in the market place for these items, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources for certain components or materials due to regulations and requirements of the FDA and other regulatory authorities regarding the manufacture of our products. The loss of any sole supplier or any sustained supply interruption that affects our ability to manufacture or deliver our products in a timely or cost effective manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
An interruption in our ability to manufacture products may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Many of our key products are manufactured at single locations, with limited alternate facilities. In addition, the majority of our manufacturing output is concentrated at the two manufacturing facilities that we operate in Mexico. If one or more of these facilities experience damage, or if these manufacturing capabilities are otherwise limited or stopped due to quality, regulatory or other reasons, including natural disasters, pandemics or other health emergencies (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), political instability, government actions, prolonged power or equipment failures or labor dispute, it may not be possible to timely manufacture the relevant products at previous levels or at all. A reduction or interruption in any of these manufacturing processes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may not successfully execute on or achieve the expected benefits of our restructuring initiative.
In January 2023, we initiated a three-year restructuring initiative pursuant to which we: (i) have combined our Chronic Care and Pain Management franchises into a single commercial organization focused on the Digestive Health and Pain Management and Recovery product categories; (ii) plan to rationalize our product portfolio including certain low-margin, low-growth product categories, through targeted divestitures; (iii) have undertaken additional cost management activities to enhance our operating profitability; and (iv) plan to pursue efficient capital allocation strategies, including through acquisitions that meet our strategic and financial criteria. The restructuring initiative is subject to a variety of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including the potential that we may not be able to: (i) successfully execute on the restructuring initiative or (ii) achieve the anticipated benefits and cost-saving opportunities identified in the restructuring initiative. In addition, the expected benefits and cost-saving opportunities related to the restructuring initiative may take longer to realize than expected. Further, implementation of the restructuring initiative could be disruptive to our operations and result in reduced employee morale. Failure to fully realize or maintain the anticipated benefits of the restructuring initiative could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may not achieve the expected benefits of our divestiture activities.
One of the objectives of the Transformation Process is the rationalization of our product portfolio through targeted divestitures such as the RH Divestiture. The RH Divestiture represents a key component of the Transformation Process, and is aimed at accelerating the Company’s efforts to focus its portfolio on markets where it is well positioned to succeed. Any divestiture we undertake is subject to a variety of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including the potential that we may not be able to achieve the anticipated benefits of such divestiture. In addition, the expected benefits related to any divestiture may take

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longer to realize than expected. Further, any divestiture could be disruptive to our operations and result in reduced employee morale. Failure to fully realize the anticipated benefits of any divestiture could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Ongoing regional conflicts and the related implications could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We are subject to risks as a result of regional conflicts in different parts of the world, including the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and conflict in the Middle East. As a result of the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the United States and other countries have imposed significant sanctions on Russia and could impose even wider sanctions. Conflict in the Middle East could negatively affect sales of our products in that region and could give rise to embargoes on, or disruptions to, the supply of petroleum. These military conflicts and related sanctions or embargoes could damage or disrupt international commerce, shipping, supply chains and the global economy. We cannot predict the broader or longer-term consequences of these conflicts, which could include further sanctions and embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts, exchange rate fluctuations, inflation, financial market disruptions and economic recession. Further, these conflicts could exacerbate supply chain challenges, lead to an increase in cyberattacks from Russia and elsewhere, affect the global price and availability of key commodities, reduce our sales and earnings or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, these regional conflicts may have the effect of heightening other risks disclosed in this Item 1A, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Such risks include but are not limited to interruptions in the transportation channels for the manufacture and global distribution of our products, heightened inflation, depressed levels of consumer and commercial spending, disruptions to our global technology infrastructure, adverse changes in international trade policies and relations, and the inability to implement and execute our business strategy. We are currently unable to predict the extent, nature or duration of any of these occurrences.
Supply chain disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely on a complex global supply chain composed of multiple external suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers. These suppliers provide raw materials and other inputs for our production processes; supply certain components for our products; and deliver other goods and services used in our business. We cannot be certain that our current suppliers will continue to provide us with the quantities of materials that we require or satisfy our anticipated specifications and quality requirements on a timely basis or at all. In addition, any supply chain disruption in limited or sole sourced raw materials could materially harm our ability to manufacture our products until a new source of supply, if any, could be identified and qualified.
In addition, we rely on various transportation channels for global distribution of our products through shipping ports located throughout the world. Labor unrest, political instability, the outbreak of pandemics or other health emergencies (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), trade restrictions, transport capacity and costs, port security, weather conditions, natural disasters or other events could slow port activities and could adversely affect our business by interrupting product shipments and may increase our transportation costs if we are forced to use more expensive shipping alternatives.
From time to time we may be negatively impacted by supply chain disruptions, including the following:
Suppliers extending lead times, experiencing capacity constraints, limiting or canceling supply, allocating supply to other customers (including our competitors), delaying or canceling deliveries, going out of business or increasing prices;
Supplier quality issues;
A resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic or other pandemics, epidemics or infectious disease outbreaks;
Cybersecurity events, manmade or natural disasters, operational failures or other events that disrupt us or our suppliers;
Long lead times to qualify alternate or additional suppliers, or the unavailability of qualified alternate suppliers; and
Other events or occurrences that are beyond our control, including transportation delays, inflationary pricing pressures, work stoppages, labor shortages and governmental regulatory actions.
These and other supply chain issues can increase our costs, disrupt or reduce our production, delay our product shipments, prevent us from meeting customer demand and damage our customer relationships. They may keep us from successfully implementing our business strategy and could materially harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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Our business, operating results, and cash flows have been affected and may continue to be adversely affected by the rising rate of inflation.
Inflationary pressures have increased due to general macroeconomic factors as well as the global supply chain disruptions, labor shortages and other factors. We expect those inflationary trends to continue for the foreseeable future. These inflationary pressures have affected our manufacturing costs, operating expenses (including wages) and other expenses. We may not be able to pass these cost increases on to our customers in a timely manner, which could have an impact on our gross margins and profitability. In addition, inflation has resulted in higher interest rates and could otherwise adversely impact the macroeconomic environment, which in turn could adversely impact our customers and their ability or willingness to purchase our products. Our inability to successfully manage the effects of inflation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
The adoption and interpretation of tax laws may have a material adverse effect on our business.
The laws and rules and related interpretations dealing with income taxation are frequently reviewed and amended by governmental bodies, officials and regulatory agencies in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we do business. The governmental bodies may include the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Treasury Department, the U.S. Congress, taxing authorities in countries outside the United States, and various state, provincial, local or municipal regulatory agencies. Our provision for income taxes and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes to our operating structure, changes in the mix of income and expenses in countries with differing tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in tax laws, regulations or administrative interpretations thereof. For example, the U.S. federal government could make changes to existing U.S. tax laws, including the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 or the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act of 2020, which could include an increase in the corporate tax rate and the tax rate on foreign earnings. It cannot be predicted whether, when, in what form, or with what effective dates, tax laws, regulations and rulings may be enacted, promulgated, issued or amended that could result in a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We face significant uncertainty in the healthcare industry due to government healthcare reform in the United States and elsewhere.
The U.S. Congress, regulatory agencies and certain state legislatures, as well as international legislators and regulators, periodically review and assess alternative healthcare delivery systems and payment methods with an objective of ultimately reducing healthcare costs and expanding access. We cannot predict with certainty what healthcare initiatives, if any, will be implemented by states or foreign governments or what ultimate effect healthcare reform or any future legislation or regulation may have on our customers’ purchasing decisions regarding our products. However, the implementation of new legislation and regulation may lower reimbursements for our products, reduce medical procedure volumes and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to extensive government regulation, which may require us to incur significant expenses to ensure compliance.
Many of our products are subject to extensive regulation in the United States by the FDA and other regulatory authorities and by comparable government agencies in other countries concerning the development, design, approval, manufacture, labeling, importing and exporting and sale and marketing of many of our products. Furthermore, our facilities are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA and other federal, state and foreign government authorities, which require manufacturers of medical devices to adhere to certain regulations, including the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, which requires periodic audits, design controls, quality control testing and documentation procedures, as well as complaint evaluations and investigation. Regulations regarding the development, manufacture and sale of medical products are evolving and subject to future change. We cannot predict what impact those regulatory changes may have on our business. Failure to comply with applicable regulations could lead to manufacturing shutdowns, product shortages, delays in product manufacturing, product seizures, recalls, operating restrictions, withdrawal or suspension of required licenses, and prohibitions against exporting of products to, or importing products from, countries outside the United States and may require significant resources to resolve. Any one or more of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations that could result in significant liability, require us to change our business practices or restrict our operations in the future.
We are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry, including the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and anti-kickback and false claims laws. Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal or civil sanctions, including substantial fines, imprisonment and exclusion from participation in healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. These laws and regulations are wide ranging and subject to changing interpretation and application, which could restrict our sales or marketing practices. Furthermore, since many of our customers rely on reimbursement from Medicare, Medicaid and other governmental programs to cover a substantial portion of their expenditures, our exclusion from

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such programs as a result of a violation of these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We must obtain clearance or approval from the appropriate regulatory authorities prior to introducing a new product or a modification to an existing product. The regulatory clearance process may result in substantial costs, delays and limitations on the types and uses of products we can bring to market, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In the United States, before we can market a new product, or market a new use of, or claim for, or significant modification to, an existing product, we generally must first receive clearance or approval from the FDA and certain other regulatory authorities. Most major markets for medical devices outside the United States also require clearance, approval or compliance with certain standards before a product can be commercially marketed. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances and approvals to market a medical device can be costly and time consuming, involve rigorous pre-clinical and clinical testing, require changes in products or result in limitations on the indicated uses of products. There can be no assurance that these clearances and approvals will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. In addition, once a medical device has been cleared or approved, a new clearance or approval may be required before the medical device may be modified, its labeling changed or marketed for a different use. Medical devices are cleared or approved for one or more specific intended uses and promoting a device for an off-label use could result in government enforcement action. Furthermore, a product approval or clearance can be withdrawn or limited due to unforeseen problems with the medical device or issues relating to its application. The regulatory clearance and approval process may result in, among other things, the inability to bring a product to market, delayed realization of product net sales, substantial additional costs and limitations on the types of products we may bring to market or their indicated uses, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to risks related to our manufacturing operations in Mexico.
Our manufacturing facilities in Mexico are authorized to operate as Maquiladoras by the Ministry of Economy of Mexico. Maquiladora status allows us to import certain items from the United States into Mexico duty-free, provided that such items, after processing, are exported from Mexico within a stipulated time frame. Maquiladora status, which is renewed periodically, is subject to various restrictions and requirements, including compliance with the terms of the Maquiladora program and other local regulations. Failure to comply with these regulations, ceasing to qualify for Maquiladora status or other disruptions within the program would cause our manufacturing costs in Mexico to increase and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, Mexico periodically experiences heightened civil unrest, and certain areas of the country suffer from persistent criminal activity, both of which could interfere with our manufacturing operations, cause transportation delays or stoppages and otherwise disrupt the supply of products to and from our facilities.
Further, we have experienced inflationary pressure on our labor and other costs in Mexico. Continued increases in such costs could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. These pressures may be exacerbated by exchange rate fluctuations in the Mexican peso.
These risks, as well as certain other risks described generally in this Item 1A as they relate specifically to Mexico (including, without limitation, the risk of currency rate fluctuations, the risk of manufacturing interruptions and the risk of doing business outside the United States), could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may incur product liability losses, litigation liability, product recalls, safety alerts or regulatory action associated with our products which could be costly and disruptive to our business.
The risk of product liability claims is inherent in the design, manufacture and marketing of medical products of the type we produce and sell. A number of factors could result in an unsafe condition or injury to, or death of, a patient with respect to the products that we manufacture or sell, including the physician’s skill, technique and experience in performing the relevant surgical procedure, component failures, manufacturing flaws, design defects or inadequate disclosure of product-related risks or information.
In addition to product liability claims and litigation, an unsafe condition or injury to, or death of, a patient associated with our products could lead to a recall of, or issuance of a safety alert relating to, our products, or suspension or delay of regulatory product approvals or clearances, product seizures or detentions, governmental investigations, civil or criminal sanctions or injunctions to halt manufacturing and distribution of our products. Any one of these could result in significant costs and negative publicity resulting in reduced market acceptance and demand for our products and harm our reputation. In addition, a recall or injunction affecting our products could temporarily shut down production lines or place products on a shipping hold.
All of the foregoing types of legal proceedings and regulatory actions are inherently unpredictable and, regardless of the outcome, could disrupt our business, result in substantial costs or the diversion of management attention and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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Economic conditions have affected and may continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Disruptions in the financial markets, economic recessions and other macro-economic challenges affecting the economy and the economic outlook of the United States, Europe, Japan, China and other parts of the world may have an adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Economic conditions and depressed levels of consumer and commercial spending have caused and may continue to cause our customers to reduce, modify, delay or cancel plans to purchase our products, and we have observed certain hospitals delaying and prioritizing purchasing decisions, which has had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, as a result of economic conditions, our customers inside and outside the United States, including foreign governmental entities or other entities that rely on government healthcare systems or government funding, may be unable to pay their obligations on a timely basis or to make payment in full. If our customers’ cash flow or operating and financial performance deteriorate or fail to improve, or if our customers are unable to make scheduled payments or obtain credit, they may not be able to pay, or may delay payment of accounts receivable owed to us. These conditions also may have an adverse effect on certain of our suppliers who may reduce output or change terms of sales, which could cause a disruption in our ability to produce our products. Any inability of current and/or potential customers to pay us for our products or any demands by our suppliers for different payment terms may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Currency exchange rate fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Due to our international operations, we transact business in many foreign currencies and are subject to the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, including the Mexican peso, Japanese yen, Australian dollar and the Euro. Our financial statements are reported in U.S. dollars with international transactions being translated into U.S. dollars. If the U.S. dollar strengthens in relation to the currencies of other countries where we sell our products, our U.S. dollar reported net sales and income will decrease. Additionally, we incur significant costs in foreign currencies and a fluctuation in those currencies’ value can negatively impact manufacturing and selling costs.
While we have in the past engaged, and may in the future engage, in various hedging transactions in attempts to minimize the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, there can be no assurance that these hedging transactions will be effective. Changes in the relative values of currencies occur regularly and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations is heightened due to the concentration of our manufacturing operations in Mexico. For example, a hypothetical appreciation of 10% in the value of the Mexican peso in relation to the U.S. dollar would have negatively impacted operating profit for the year ended December 31, 2023 by approximately $0.7 million.
We are exposed to price fluctuations of key commodities, which may negatively impact our results of operations.
We rely on product inputs in the manufacture of our products. Prices of oil and gas affect our distribution and transportation costs. Prices of these commodities are volatile and have fluctuated significantly in recent years, which has contributed to, and in the future may continue to contribute to, fluctuations in our results of operations. Our ability to hedge commodity price volatility is limited. Furthermore, due to competitive dynamics, the cost containment efforts of our customers and third-party payors, and contractual limitations, particularly with respect to products we sell under group purchasing agreements, which generally set pricing for a three-year term, we may be unable to pass along commodity-driven cost increases through higher prices. If we cannot fully offset cost increases through other cost reductions, or recover these costs through price increases or surcharges, we could experience lower margins and profitability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Cost-containment efforts of our customers, healthcare purchasing groups, third-party payors and governmental organizations could adversely affect our sales and profitability.
Many of our customers are members of GPOs, or integrated delivery networks (“IDNs”). GPOs and IDNs negotiate pricing arrangements with healthcare product manufacturers and distributors and offer the negotiated prices to affiliated hospitals and other members. Although we are the sole contracted supplier to certain GPOs for certain product categories, members of the GPO are generally free to purchase from other suppliers, and such contract positions can offer no assurance that sales volumes of those products will be maintained. In addition, initiatives sponsored by government agencies and other third-party payors to limit healthcare costs, including price regulation and competitive bidding for the sale of our products, are ongoing in markets where we sell our products. Pricing pressure has also increased in our markets due to consolidation among healthcare providers, trends toward managed care, governments becoming payors of healthcare expenses and regulation relating to reimbursements. The increasing leverage of organized buying groups and consolidated customers and pricing pressure from third-party payors may reduce market prices for our products, thereby reducing our profitability and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

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We are subject to political, economic and regulatory risks associated with doing business outside of the United States.
Most of our manufacturing facilities are located outside the United States in Mexico. We also may use contract manufacturers outside the United States from time to time and may source many of our raw materials and components from foreign suppliers. We distribute and sell our products globally. In 2023, approximately 20% of our net sales were generated outside of North America and we expect this percentage will grow over time. Our operations outside of the United States are subject to risks that are inherent in conducting business internationally, including compliance with both United States and foreign laws and regulations that apply to our international operations. These laws and regulations include robust data privacy requirements, labor relations laws that may impede employer flexibility, tax laws, anti-competition regulations, import, customs and trade restrictions, export requirements, economic sanction laws, environmental, health and safety laws, anti-bribery laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions. Given the high level of complexity of these laws, there is a risk that some provisions may be violated inadvertently or through fraudulent or negligent behavior of individual employees, our failure to comply with certain formal documentation requirements or otherwise. In addition, these laws are subject to changes, which may require additional resources or make it more difficult for us to comply with these laws. Violations of the laws and regulations governing our international operations could result in fines or criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to manufacture or distribute our products in one or more countries and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to anticipate and prevent or mitigate these risks and manage difficulties as they arise.
We may be subject to trade protection measures that are being contemplated by the United States and other governments around the world, as well as potential disruptions in trade agreements, such as the exit of the United Kingdom from the EU. These measures and disruptions may result in new or higher tariffs, import-export restrictions and taxes. Changes in, or revised interpretations of import-export laws or international trade agreements, along with new or increased tariffs, trade restrictions or taxation on income earned or goods manufactured outside the United States may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition to the foregoing, engaging in international business inherently involves a number of other difficulties and risks, including:
different local medical practices, product preferences and product requirements,
price and currency controls and exchange rate fluctuations,
cost and availability of international shipping channels,
longer payment cycles in certain countries other than the United States,
minimal or diminished protection of intellectual property in certain countries,
uncertainties regarding judicial systems, including difficulties in enforcing agreements through certain non-U.S. legal systems,
political instability and actual or anticipated military or political conflicts, expropriation of assets, economic instability and the impact on interest rates, inflation and the credit worthiness of our customers, and
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing non-U.S. operations.
These risks and difficulties, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may need additional financing in the future to meet our capital needs or to make acquisitions and such financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all.
We intend to continue our research and development activities and make acquisitions. Accordingly, we may need to seek additional debt or equity financing. We may be unable to obtain any desired additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to fund our expansion, successfully develop or enhance products or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could negatively affect our business.
Events in the banking industry and the associated macroeconomic impacts may have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Financial conditions affecting the banking system and financial markets and the potential threats to the solvency of commercial banks, investment banks and other financial institutions may have an adverse effect on our operations and the operations of companies with which we do business or in which we hold a minority stake. There can be no assurance that the actions taken by the Federal Reserve, the Treasury Department and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation since early 2023 in response to bank solvency concerns will achieve the purpose of stabilizing the financial markets, restoring consumer confidence, or have

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other intended effects. Concerns about the stability of financial markets and the solvency of lenders may cause further negative effects across the banking system and may cause the costs of obtaining financing from the credit markets to increase, which may limit our ability to secure adequate financing in the future or have other negative effects on our business operations, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Any non-cash impairment of our long-lived assets, including intangible assets and goodwill, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
We review long-lived assets, such as property, equipment and intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying values may not be recoverable. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever events and circumstances indicate that, more likely than not, impairment may have occurred. The evaluation of long-lived assets and goodwill requires us to form estimates and assumptions with respect to a number of factors, including future sales growth, cash flows, our weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and a terminal value. Our evaluation of goodwill also includes consideration of our current market capitalization. Unanticipated changes in any of the factors used in our evaluation could result in a non-cash charge for impairment in a future period, which may significantly affect our results of operations in the period of such charge.
Risks Related to Ownership of Avanos Common Stock
We cannot guarantee that our stock price will not decline or fluctuate significantly.
The price at which Avanos common stock trades has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate significantly. The market price, or fluctuations in price, for Avanos common stock may be negatively influenced by many factors, including:
actual or unanticipated fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results,
the outcome of litigation and enforcement actions,
developments generally affecting the healthcare industry,
changes in market valuations of comparable companies,
the amount of our indebtedness,
general economic, industry and market conditions,
the depth and liquidity of the market for Avanos common stock,
price fluctuations in key commodities,
announcements by us or our competitors regarding performance, strategy, significant acquisitions, divestitures, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments,
fluctuations in interest and currency exchange rates, and
perceptions of or speculations by the press or investment community.
These and other factors may lower the market price of Avanos common stock, regardless of our actual financial condition or operating performance.
We have no present intention to pay dividends on Avanos common stock.
We have no present intention to pay dividends on Avanos common stock. Any determination to pay dividends to holders of Avanos common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on many factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, projections, liquidity, earnings, legal requirements, restrictions in our debt agreements and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant.
The percentage of ownership of existing stockholders in Avanos may be diluted in the future.
In the future, a stockholder’s percentage ownership in Avanos may be diluted because of equity issuances for acquisitions, capital market transactions or otherwise, including equity awards that we may grant to our directors, officers and employees. In addition, our compensation committee has, and we anticipate that they will continue in the future to, grant stock options or other equity based awards to our employees. These awards will have a dilutive effect on existing stockholders and on our earnings per share, which could adversely affect the market price of shares of Avanos common stock.
In addition, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of Avanos stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designation, powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, including preferences over Avanos common stock with respect to dividends and distributions, as our Board of Directors generally may determine. If our Board of Directors were to approve the issuance of preferred stock in the future, the terms of one or more classes or series of such preferred stock could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of Avanos

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common stock. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we could assign to Avanos preferred stock could affect the residual value of Avanos common stock.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation may make it difficult for stockholders to initiate litigation against us in a favorable forum for disputes with us or our directors or officers.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if that court does not have jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware) as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors or officers.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and of Delaware law may make it difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our Board of Directors and may discourage hostile takeover attempts which some of our stockholders may consider to be beneficial.
Certain provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation and by-laws and those contained in Delaware law may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control if our Board of Directors determines that such changes in control are not in the best interests of us and our stockholders. These provisions include, among other things, the following:
the ability of our Board of Directors to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms, including preferences and voting rights, of those shares without stockholder approval,
the inability of our stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders,
stockholder action may be taken only at a special or regular meeting of stockholders,
advance notice procedures for nominating candidates to our Board of Directors or presenting matters at stockholder meetings,
stockholder removal of directors only for cause and only by a supermajority vote,
the ability of our Board of Directors, and not our stockholders, to fill vacancies on our Board of Directors, and
supermajority voting requirements to amend our by-laws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and to engage in certain types of business combinations.
While these provisions have the effect of encouraging persons seeking to acquire control of our company to negotiate with our Board of Directors, they could enable the Board of Directors to hinder or frustrate a transaction that some, or a majority, of the stockholders might believe to be in their best interests and, in that case, may prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors. We are also subject to Delaware laws that could have similar effects. One of these laws prohibits us from engaging in a business combination with a significant stockholder unless specific conditions are met.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C. Cybersecurity
Avanos has implemented a comprehensive cybersecurity program to identify, assess and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats. In addition, we have instituted executive management and board oversight of the risks arising from cybersecurity threats.
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy.
We have a proactive strategy to manage the material risks stemming from cybersecurity threats. Our cybersecurity program follows the Cybersecurity Framework as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies. The Cybersecurity program is the responsibility of our internal IT Security Team, which is overseen by our Vice President, Chief Information Officer (the “CIO”).
Our cybersecurity program includes the following key elements:
Identification. Avanos maintains an inventory of IT assets, comprising hardware and software, as well as the associated risk profiles of those systems and applications. We utilize a risk management strategy and annual risk assessment process to identify key risk areas based on the holistic threat landscape facing Avanos and our industry. To define that threat landscape, we utilize threat intelligence feeds, such as those provided by Health Information Sharing and Analysis Center (H-ISAC) and a third-party vendor, to determine security threats to the Company and other healthcare and life science organizations.

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Protection. We utilize multiple intrusion protection systems and processes to protect our technology assets. These protections include Identity and Access Management (IAM), Privileged Access Management (PAM), Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), Vulnerability Management, Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR), Advanced Anti-Phishing and Awareness trainings, Network and Cloud Security and other protective technologies. Annual audits are conducted to assess these controls.
Our cybersecurity protection strategy incorporates a Vulnerability Management process and solution to assist in the identification of potential vulnerabilities in our systems. If vulnerabilities are identified, we utilize a follow-on process to remediate such vulnerabilities. A third-party software-as-a-service (SaaS) provider conducts code scanning and vulnerability assessments of our external-facing websites. Furthermore, multiple cybersecurity controls exist on and around our servers and end-user systems to prevent unauthorized system and data access and data leakage. Additionally, third-party vendors conduct yearly penetration tests to search for risks to our systems utilizing techniques commonly used by bad actors.
Detection. Avanos has a formal framework consisting of people, processes and technologies dedicated to monitoring, detecting and responding all security events. We utilize multiple intrusion detection systems and processes. These include user access reviews to determine appropriate access to systems and data and a Security Identity and Event Management (SIEM) software solution, which consists of system logs with correlation logic to identify malicious activity. Logs and alerts cover the network, devices, applications and email.
Response. We have an incident response plan for cybersecurity incidents and conduct response planning with tabletop exercises. We have engaged a third party to assist with forensic investigations and expert support when needed. When a cybersecurity incident is identified by our IT Security Director and Security Team, our CIO and other members of our IT team are alerted. Incidents are classified by severity with predefined definitions, actions and notifications for each severity level. Incidents that are defined as medium, high or critical are reported the Chief Financial Officer, Principal Accounting Officer, General Counsel and CIO to determine materiality and associated public disclosure steps. For these incidents, we engage our third-party forensic partner to assist with containment, remediation and issuing a report on the incident.
Recovery. Our dedicated security operations team, defined incident response plan and third party forensic partner are employed to contain and recover from an incident. In addition, the IT organization conducts an annual disaster recovery exercise. Following an incident, the IT Security Team conducts a post-mortem to identify opportunities to improve our cybersecurity program. Any follow-up communications are provided as part of the recovery process.
Controls assessments are completed annually with respect to any remediation activities that have been identified and completed as part of the cybersecurity program. Avanos engages third-party vendors to conduct assessments and deliver their recommendations for improvement annually. Where appropriate, third-party vendors also assist with remediation projects.
We have a third-party risk management program. Prior to engaging third-party service providers, we conduct a cybersecurity risk assessment and utilize a third-party exchange service to gather security posture ratings across all of the third party’s IT security, compliance and data privacy domains.
We are not aware of any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, which have materially affected or are reasonably likely to affect us, including our business strategy, results of operation or financial condition.
Governance
Our Audit Committee is responsible for overseeing risks from cybersecurity threats. At each meeting of the Audit Committee, our CIO provides a report on cybersecurity matters. The Audit Committee’s cybersecurity-related oversight includes the following:
Receiving notice of, and providing guidance with respect to, material cybersecurity incidents;
Reviewing our cybersecurity threat landscape, risks and cybersecurity programs and policies;
Overseeing our management and mitigation of cybersecurity risks and potential breach incidents;
Reviewing our technology and information systems strategies and trends that may affect these strategies;
Reviewing reports and key metrics on the Company’s cybersecurity and related risk management programs;
Reviewing the progress of major technology-related proposals, plans, projects and architecture decisions to ensure that these projects and decisions support our overall business strategy; and
Reviewing and providing oversight on the Company’s crisis preparedness with respect to cybersecurity.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, our Audit Committee met four times.

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Our CIO (who has 14 years of cybersecurity experience) and our Associate Director of Global Cybersecurity (who has 25 years of cybersecurity experience) are the members of our management team who are responsible for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our CIO is a member of the Incident Response Team, and the Director of Global Cybersecurity is a member of our internal IT Security Team and the Incident Response Team.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
We own or lease operating facilities located throughout the world that handle manufacturing production, assembly, research, quality assurance testing, distribution and packaging of our products. We believe our facilities are suitable and adequate for our present operations. We lease our principal executive offices that are located in Alpharetta, Georgia. The locations of our principal medical device production facilities owned or leased by us around the world are as follows:
LocationCountryOwned/Leased
NogalesMexicoOwned
Nogales*
MexicoLeased
Tucson, ArizonaUSALeased
Magdalena*
MexicoLeased
TijuanaMexicoLeased
Markham
Canada
Leased
__________________________________________
* Pursuant to the RH Divestiture, these leases, along with substantially all the assets located at these facilities that relate to our RH business, will be transferred to Buyer on a delayed basis pursuant to the term of the Purchase Agreement.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to various legal proceedings, claims and governmental inspections, audits or investigations pertaining to issues such as contract disputes, product liability, tax matters, patents and trademarks, advertising, governmental regulations, employment and other matters. At present, although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe that the ultimate resolution of any pending legal proceeding to which we are a party will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. See “Commitments and Contingencies” in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a description of current legal matters.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Avanos common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “AVNS”. We did not pay any dividends on our common stock in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 and we do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
As of February 13, 2024, we had 9,469 holders of record of our common stock. No unregistered securities were sold by the Company within the past three years, and neither the Company nor any affiliated purchaser purchased any equity securities of the Company, other than repurchases described under “Share Repurchase Program” in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
For information relating to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.
Performance
The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our common stock from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023 with the cumulative return of companies comprising the Standard and Poor’s S&P MidCap 400 Index and the S&P 500 Health Care Equipment and Services Index. The graph plots the change in value of an initial investment of $100 in each of our common stock, the S&P MidCap 400 Index and the S&P 500 Health Care Equipment and Services Index over the indicated time periods and assumes reinvestment of all dividends, if any, paid on the securities. We have not paid any cash dividends, and therefore, the cumulative total return calculation for us is based solely upon stock price appreciation and not upon reinvestment of cash dividends. The stock price performance shown on the graph is not necessarily indicative of future

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price performance.
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The preceding chart is based on the following data:
AVNSS&P
MidCap 400
S&P 500
Health Care
Equipment and Services
December 31, 2018$100.00 $100.00 $100.00 
December 31, 201972.98 123.57 145.98 
December 31, 202099.35 147.80 174.51 
December 31, 202175.08 193.51 230.55 
December 31, 202258.60 177.16 222.78 
December 31, 202348.57 216.46 240.90 
ITEM 6.    Reserved



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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Introduction
Avanos is a medical technology company focused on delivering clinically superior medical device solutions that help patients get back to the things that matter. We are committed to addressing some of today’s most important healthcare needs, including providing a vital lifeline for nutrition to patients from hospital to home, and reducing the use of opioids while helping patients move from surgery to recovery. We develop, manufacture and market our recognized brands globally and hold leading market positions in multiple categories across our portfolio.
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is intended to provide investors with an understanding of our recent performance, financial condition and prospects and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following will be discussed and analyzed:
Restructuring Activities;
Divestiture of the Respiratory Health Business;
Discontinued Operations;
Business Acquisitions;
Results of Operations and Related Information;
Liquidity and Capital Resources;
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates; and
Legal Matters.
Restructuring Activities
In January 2023, we initiated a three-year restructuring initiative pursuant to which we: (i) have combined our Chronic Care and Pain Management franchises into a single commercial organization focused on the Digestive Health and Pain Management and Recovery product categories; (ii) plan to rationalize our product portfolio, including certain low-margin, low-growth product categories, through targeted divestitures; (iii) have undertaken additional cost management activities aimed at enhancing the Company’s operating profitability; and (iv) plan to pursue efficient capital allocation strategies, including through acquisitions that meet the Company’s strategic and financial criteria (the “Transformation Process”).
By 2025, we expect total gross savings of between $45.0 million and $55.0 million compared to 2022, most of which will be achieved in 2024. We expect the Transformation Process will be substantially complete by the end of 2025.
We expect to incur up to $30.0 million of cash expenses in connection with the Transformation Process, consisting of between $9.0 million and $12.0 million of program management consulting and employee retention expenses, between $8.0 million and $11.0 million of expenses associated with manufacturing and supply chain improvements and portfolio rationalization; and the remainder for expenses associated with organization design and alignment and other related activities. These amounts include between $6.0 million and $8.0 million of employee severance and benefits costs. The accompanying consolidated income statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 include $28.2 million of costs incurred in connection with the Transformation Process in “Selling and general expenses.”
Divestiture of the Respiratory Health Business
On October 2, 2023, we closed the sale of our Respiratory Health (“RH”) business to SunMed Group Holdings, LLC (“Buyer”) for a total purchase price of $110.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments as provided in the Purchase Agreement based on the indebtedness and inventory transferred to Buyer at the closing and the chargebacks assumed by Buyer but that would otherwise have been payable by the Company and its subsidiaries on or after October 2, 2023 to distributors of the Company’s RH products located in the United States (the “RH Divestiture”).
The RH Divestiture represents a key component of the Transformation Process, and is aimed at accelerating the Company’s efforts to focus its portfolio on markets where it is well positioned to succeed.
In conjunction with the RH Divestiture, we and Buyer entered into various transition services agreements pursuant to which we, Buyer and each company’s respective affiliates will provide to each other various transitional services, including, but not limited to, product manufacturing and distribution, facilities, order fulfillment, invoicing, quality assurance, regulatory support, audit support and other services. The services generally commenced on the closing date of the Divestiture and terminate no later than one to three years thereafter.

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Discontinued Operations
As a result of the RH Divestiture, the results of operations from our RH business are reported as “(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax” and the related assets and liabilities are classified as “held for sale” in the consolidated financial statements.
Net sales from discontinued operations were $100.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $135.9 million and $157.6 million in the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The decrease in net sales was primarily driven by lower volume along with unfavorable currency effects. We recognized a loss on disposal of the RH business, and accordingly, we recorded impairment of $70.8 million against assets in the disposal group, which is included in “(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax.”
Business Acquisitions
On June 17, 2023 we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Diros Technology, Inc. (“Diros”), a leading manufacturer of innovative radiofrequency (“RF”) products used to treat chronic pain conditions. On July 24, 2023, we closed the acquisition of Diros for approximately $53.0 million, consisting of $2.5 million cash paid upon entry into the definitive agreement and $50.5 million in cash at closing less working capital and other adjustments, with up to an additional $7.0 million payable in contingent cash consideration based on achievement of certain performance objectives defined in the purchase agreement. The purchase price for the Diros Acquisition was funded by proceeds from our Revolving Credit Facility.
On January 20, 2022, we acquired all of the equity voting interests and completed the acquisition of OrthogenRx, which is focused on the development and commercialization of treatments for knee pain caused by osteoarthritis. The initial purchase price for the OrthogenRx Acquisition was $130.0 million at closing less working capital adjustments, with up to an additional $30.0 million payable in contingent cash consideration based on OrthogenRx’s growth in net sales during 2022 and 2023.
Results of Operations and Related Information
Use of Non-GAAP Measures
In this section, “Adjusted Operating Profit (Loss),” which is a profitability measure that is not calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), is referred to as a non-GAAP financial measure. We provide this non-GAAP measure because we use it to measure our operational performance and provide greater insight into our ongoing business operations. This measure is not intended to be, and should not be, considered separately from, or an alternative to, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures. A reconciliation of the non-GAAP measure to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures is provided under “Adjusted Operating (Loss) Profit.”
Net Sales
Our net sales are summarized in the following table for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change2021Change
Digestive Health$371.6 $340.4 9.2 %$322.2 5.6 %
Pain Management and Recovery:
Surgical pain and recovery139.2 160.1 (13.1)%162.7 (1.6)%
Interventional pain162.5 183.6 (11.5)%102.1 79.8 %
Total Pain Management and Recovery301.7 343.7 (12.2)%264.8 29.8 %
Total Net Sales$673.3 $684.1 (1.6)%$587.0 16.5 %
Total
Volume(a)
Pricing/MixCurrency
Other(b)
Net Sales - percentage change 2023 vs. 2022
(1.6)%(1.7)%0.3 %(0.2)%— %
Net Sales - percentage change 2022 vs. 2021
16.5 %17.5 %0.7 %(1.6)%(0.1)%
______________________________
(a)Volume includes incremental sales from acquisitions.
(b)Other includes rounding.

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Product Category Descriptions
Digestive Health is a portfolio of products such as our MIC-KEY enteral feeding tubes, Corpak patient feeding solutions and NeoMed neonatal and pediatric feeding solutions.
Pain Management and Recovery is a portfolio of products including:
Surgical pain and recovery products such as ON-Q and ambIT surgical pain pumps and Game Ready cold and compression therapy systems; and
Interventional pain solutions, which provide minimally invasive pain relief therapies, such as our COOLIEF pain therapy, OrthogenRx’s knee osteoarthritis HA pain relief injection products and Diros’ RFA products used to treat chronic pain conditions.
Net Sales - 2023 Compared to 2022
Net sales decreased by 1.6% to $673.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily due to lower volume in the Pain Management and Recovery portfolio (primarily lower HA sales), partially offset by continued strong demand for Digestive Health products. In addition to volume, 0.3% of favorable pricing was offset by 0.2% of unfavorable foreign currency translation effects.
Net Sales - 2022 Compared to 2021
Net sales increased by 16.5% to $684.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to incremental revenue from the OrthogenRx acquisition and strong demand for Digestive Health products, in addition to 0.7% of favorable pricing, which was partially offset by 1.6% of unfavorable foreign currency translation effects.
Net Sales by Geographic Region
Net sales by region is presented in the table below (in millions):
 Year Ended December 31,
20232022 
Change
 2021 
Change
North America$537.9   $552.0 (2.6)%$449.1 22.9 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa84.1   77.4 8.7 86.1 (10.1)
Asia Pacific and Latin America51.3   54.7 (6.2)51.8 5.6 
Total Net Sales$673.3 $684.1 (1.6)%$587.0 16.5 %
Gross Profit (in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net sales$673.3 $684.1 $587.0 
Cost of products sold293.6 289.9 287.8 
Gross profit379.7 394.2 299.2 
Gross profit margin56.4 %57.6 %51.0 %
Cost of products sold increased from $289.9 million to $293.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily driven by unfavorable product mix, partially offset by improved manufacturing efficiencies. In the year ended December 31, 2023, gross profit margin decreased from 57.6% to 56.4%.
Cost of products sold increased from $287.8 million to $289.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily driven by higher freight costs and delays in returning our manufacturing operations to pre-pandemic efficiency levels. In the year ended December 31, 2022, gross profit margin increased from 51.0% to 57.6% driven by high volume, primarily due to incremental revenue from the OrthogenRx acquisition and strong demand for digestive health products .
Research and Development (in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Research and development$27.2 $29.2 $30.6 
Percentage of net sales4.0 %4.3 %5.2 %

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Research and development consists primarily of compensation for personnel and expenses for product trial costs, outside laboratory and license fees, the cost of laboratory equipment and facilities and asset write-offs for equipment associated with unsuccessful product launches. Research and development has historically been between 4% and 6% of net sales.
Selling and General Expenses (in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Selling and general expenses$335.0 $326.5 $285.3 
Percentage of net sales49.8 %47.7 %48.6 %
Selling and general expenses increased from $326.5 million in 2022 to $335.0 million in 2023, driven by higher selling costs, non-recurring expenses associated with the ongoing Transformation Process and the RH Divestiture, as well as compliance costs associated with the EU MDR.
In the year ended December 31, 2022, selling and general expenses increased from $285.3 million in 2021 to $326.5 million in 2022, driven by higher selling costs, along with consulting costs associated with evaluating and planning for the Transformation Process, compliance costs associated with the EU MDR and higher acquisition-related costs.
Other Expense, net (in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Other expense, net$13.3 $3.0 $22.3 
Percentage of net sales2.0 %0.4 %3.8 %
Other expense, net increased from $3.0 million in 2022 to $13.3 million in 2023 primarily due to litigation and legal costs of $10.0 million. Legal and litigation costs were incurred as the result of the settlement related to a customer claim.
Other expense, net decreased from $22.3 million in 2021 to $3.0 million in 2022 primarily due to lower legal costs and completion of a restructuring initiated in the fourth quarter of 2020 (the “2020 Restructuring”) and plans related to the divestiture of our Surgical and Infection Prevention (“S&IP”) business in 2018 (the “S&IP Divestiture”). Other expense, net includes litigation and legal costs of $15.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. Legal and litigation costs were incurred for matters described in “Commitments and Contingencies” in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Operating Profit (Loss) (in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating profit (loss)$4.2 $35.5 $(39.0)
Operating profit margin0.6 %5.2 %(6.6)%
The items previously described drove operating profit to $4.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to operating profit of $35.5 million and operating loss of $39.0 million, respectively, in the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.

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Adjusted Operating Profit (Loss)
A reconciliation of adjusted operating profit (loss), a non-GAAP measure, to operating profit (loss) is provided in the table below (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating profit (loss), as reported (GAAP)$4.2 $35.5 $(39.0)
COVID-19 related expenses — 0.3 
2020 Restructuring charges — 12.4 
Post-Divestiture restructuring and transition charges — 14.1 
Acquisition and integration-related charges3.3 3.4 1.6 
Restructuring and transformation charges28.2 — — 
Divestiture-related charges6.0 — — 
EU MDR Compliance3.7 6.9 4.0 
Litigation and legal10.0 — 15.0 
Other items 3.8 — 
Intangibles amortization24.3 23.6 14.6 
Adjusted Operating Profit (Loss) (non-GAAP)$79.7 $73.2 $23.0 
The items noted in the table above are described below:
On a GAAP basis, operating income increased compared to the prior year due to higher sales, lower legal costs and completion of restructuring activities, partially offset by higher selling costs.
Items impacting operating results include the following:
COVID-19 related expenses: As a result of the recent COVID-19 pandemic, we incurred incremental expenses for additional personal protective equipment for our manufacturing employees, sanitation at our facilities and other costs. We incurred no COVID-19 related costs in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. We incurred $0.3 million of COVID-19 related costs in the year ended December 31, 2021.
2020 Restructuring charges: We incurred no 2020 Restructuring-related costs in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. We incurred $12.4 million of costs in the year ended December 31, 2021, in connection with the 2020 Restructuring.
Post-S&IP Divestiture restructuring and transition charges: These charges were associated with the post-S&IP Divestiture restructuring plan, a multi-phase restructuring plan intended to align our organizational structure, IT platform, supply chain and distribution channels to be more appropriate for our business following the divestiture of the Surgical and Infection Prevention (“S&IP”) business. We incurred no costs associated with the post-S&IP divestiture restructuring plan in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. We incurred $14.1 million of costs in connection with the post-S&IP divestiture restructuring plan for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Acquisition and integration-related charges: We incurred $3.3 million, $3.4 million and $1.6 million of costs in connection with acquisition and integration activities for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Expenses incurred during 2023 were related to the acquisition of Diros and OrthogenRx. Expenses incurred in the prior periods were for integrations of earlier acquisitions.
Restructuring and transformation charges: In January 2023, we initiated the Transformation Process, a three-year restructuring initiative intended to align the Company under a single commercial organization, rationalize our product portfolio, undertake additional cost management activities to enhance the Company’s operating profitability and pursue efficient capital allocation strategies. In the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred expenses of $28.2 million related to the Transformation Process which consisted of costs associated with program management consulting and employee retention expenses and employee severance and benefits costs.
RH Divestiture related charges: In conjunction with the divestiture of our RH business, we incurred accounting, legal and other professional fees of approximately $6.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023.
EU MDR Compliance: The EU MDR became effective in 2021 and brings significant new requirements for many of our medical devices. Incremental costs associated with EU MDR compliance are primarily related to re-certification of our products

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under the enhanced standards. We incurred $3.7 million, $6.9 million and $4.0 million of costs related to EU MDR compliance in the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 respectively.
Other items: In the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred no costs associated with other items. In the year ended December 31, 2022, we incurred $3.8 million of expenses in connection with evaluating and planning for the Transformation Process. These costs consisted of $2.6 million of consulting costs associated with evaluation of overall scope and alternatives for transforming our business, and $1.2 million for the impairment of certain assets associated with research and development projects that were cancelled.
Litigation and legal: In the year ended December 31, 2023,we incurred $10.0 million of costs for litigation matters. This expense was for a settlement related to a customer claim and is included in “Other expense, net”. We incurred no costs for litigation matters in the year ended December 31, 2022 and $15.0 million of expenses for certain litigation matters in the year ended December 31, 2021, which are included in “Other expense, net.” In 2021, costs include amounts associated with a $22.2 million payment related to a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (the “DPA”) with the United Sates Department of Justice (the “DOJ”), which is described in “Commitments and Contingencies” in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Intangibles amortization: Intangibles amortization is related primarily to the amortization of intangibles acquired in prior business acquisitions and was $24.3 million, $23.6 million and $14.6 million, respectively, in the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. The increase in amortization in the year ended December 31, 2023 is due to incremental amortization of intangibles acquired with Diros in Q3 2023.
Our non-GAAP measures excludes certain items, as applicable, for the relevant time periods as indicated in the “Operating Profit” table above. The excluded items include:
Incremental expenses associated with altering operations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Expenses associated with restructuring activities, including IT-related charges.
Expenses associated with post-RH Divestiture and post-S&IP divestiture transition activities.
Certain acquisition and integration charges related to the acquisitions of Diros, OrthogenRx and GameReady.
Expenses associated with our three-year restructuring initiative.
Expenses for accounting, legal and other professional fees associated with the divestiture of our RH business.
Expenses associated with EU MDR compliance.
Expenses associated with other unusual items such as consulting costs associated with evaluating transformational restructuring or other strategies or asset impairment charges for cancelled research and development projects.
Expenses associated with certain litigation matters.
The amortization of intangible assets associated with prior business acquisitions.

Interest Expense
Interest expense was $15.0 million, $10.0 million and $3.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. In the year ended December 31, 2022, interest expense includes an early extinguishment loss of $1.1 million incurred upon terminating our Prior Credit Agreement (as defined below) on June 24, 2022. In the year ended December 31, 2023, $0.5 million of interest was capitalized on long-term capital projects. In the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, $0.1 million of interest was capitalized on long-term capital projects.
Interest expense consists of interest accrued and amortization of debt discount and issuance costs on our long-term debt. See “Debt” in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion of our indebtedness, our Prior Credit Agreement and our new Credit Agreement.

Provision for Income Taxes
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), enacted in March 2020, allows for the carryback of U.S. net operating losses, which were expected to be used in future years to prior years, resulting in no benefit in the year ended December 31, 2023, and a $3.8 million and $2.8 million benefit in the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a result, as of December 31, 2023, we had $3.8 million of income tax receivables.

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Our overall effective tax rate was (25.3)% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to a rate of 19.5% in 2022 and 26.6% in 2021. See “Income Taxes” in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further details regarding our income taxes.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
General
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand provided by operating activities and amounts available with our revolving credit facility under our existing credit agreement. Our operating cash flow has historically been sufficient to meet our working capital requirements and fund capital expenditures. We expect our operating cash flow will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements and fund capital expenditures in the next twelve months. In addition, with our borrowing capacity, we expect to have the ability to fund capital expenditures and other investments necessary to grow our business for the foreseeable future for both our domestic and international operations.
As of December 31, 2023, $48.4 million of our $87.7 million of cash and cash equivalents was held by foreign subsidiaries. We consider the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries to be indefinitely reinvested and currently do not have plans to repatriate such earnings. See further discussion below in “Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates” under “Income Taxes.” We do not expect restrictions on repatriation of cash held outside of the United States to have a material effect on our overall liquidity, financial condition or results of operations for the foreseeable future.
Cash and equivalents decreased by $40.0 million to $87.7 million as of December 31, 2023 compared to $127.7 million last year. The decrease was driven by $49.6 million of cash used for the acquisition of Diros, $15.0 million used to repurchase shares of our common stock, repayments of our debt, including $115.0 million on our revolving credit facility and $4.7 million on our secured term loan, $11.7 million of contingent consideration payments and $17.8 million of capital expenditures. This was partially offset by $32.4 million of cash provided by operating activities, $55.0 million of proceeds from our revolving credit facility and $89.0 million of proceeds from the RH divestiture.
Cash and equivalents increased by $9.2 million to $127.7 million as of December 31, 2022 compared to $118.5 million as of December 31, 2021. The increase was driven by $90.9 million of cash provided by operating activities, $250.0 of proceeds from our secured debt and $150.0 million of proceeds from our revolving credit facility partially offset by payments on our prior credit agreement including $126.6 million on our secured term loan and $170.0 million on our revolving credit facility, $116.1 million of cash used for the acquisition of OrthogenRx, $45.5 million used to repurchase shares of our common stock and $19.3 million of capital expenditures.
Long-Term Debt
On June 24, 2022, we entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with certain lenders which established credit facilities in an aggregate principal amount of $500.0 million, consisting of a five-year senior secured term loan of $125.0 million (the “Term Loan Facility”) and a five-year senior secured revolving credit facility allowing borrowings of up to $375.0 million, with a letter of credit sub-facility in an amount of $75.0 million (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). All obligations under the Credit Agreement and certain hedging agreements and cash management arrangements thereunder are: (i) guaranteed by each of the Company’s direct and indirect, existing and future, material wholly owned domestic subsidiaries (“Guarantors”) and (ii) secured by a first priority lien on substantially all the assets of the Company and the Guarantors. The Credit Agreement contains an accordion feature that allows us to incur incremental term loans under the Term Loan Facility or under new term loan facilities or to increase the amount of the commitments under the Revolving Credit Facility, including through the establishment of one or more tranches under the Revolving Credit Facility. The Credit Agreement will mature on June 24, 2027.
Borrowings under the Term Loan Facility and Revolving Credit Facility bear interest at our option at either: (i) an adjusted term secured overnight financing rate (“SOFR”), plus a margin ranging between 1.50% to 2.00% per annum, depending on our consolidated total leverage ratio; (ii) an adjusted daily simple SOFR rate, plus a margin ranging between 1.50% to 2.00% per annum, depending on our consolidated total leverage ratio; or (iii) a base rate (calculated as the greatest of (a) the prime rate, (b) the NYFRB rate (being the greater of the federal funds effective rate or the overnight bank funding rate) plus 0.50%, and (c) the one month adjusted term SOFR rate plus 1.00%), plus a margin ranging between 0.50% to 1.00% per annum, depending on our consolidated total leverage ratio. The unused portion of the Revolving Credit Facility will be subject to a commitment fee ranging between 0.20% to 0.25% per annum, depending on our consolidated total leverage ratio. Unamortized debt discount

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and issuance costs are being amortized to interest expense over the life of the Term Loan Facility using the interest method, resulting in an effective interest rate of 6.6% as of December 31, 2023.
In connection with entering into the Credit Agreement, we terminated the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of October 30, 2018 by and among the Company, the lenders thereunder and Citibank N.A., as administrative agent (as amended and supplemented, the “Prior Credit Agreement”).
The Credit Agreement requires compliance with certain customary operational and financial covenants. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all of our debt covenants.
For further information regarding our debt arrangements, see “Debt” in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Share Repurchase Program
On December 15, 2021, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $30 million of our common stock. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we repurchased $10.7 million, and during the first quarter of 2022, we repurchased the remaining $19.3 million.
On May 16, 2022, the Board of Directors approved a new one-year program authorizing us to repurchase up to $25.0 million of our common stock. In connection with such repurchase program, we established a pre-arranged trading plan in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 which permitted common stock to be repurchased over a twelve-month period. Under this program, during the second quarter of 2022 we repurchased $14.1 million of our common stock, and during the third quarter of 2022 we repurchased the remaining $10.9 million.
On July 28, 2023, the Board of Directors approved a new one-year program under which we may repurchase up to $25.0 million of our common stock. In connection with such repurchase program, we established a pre-arranged trading plan in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 which permitted common stock to be repurchased over a twelve-month period. Under this program, during the third quarter of 2023 we repurchased $9.2 million of our common stock, and during the fourth quarter of 2023 we repurchased the remaining $5.8 million. Additional repurchases under this program will be made from time to time at management’s discretion on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions in compliance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act, subject to market conditions, applicable legal requirements and other relevant factors. This share repurchase program does not obligate us to purchase any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended, modified or discontinued by us without prior notice.
For further information, see “Share Repurchase Program” in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Contractual Obligations
In the normal course of business, we enter into contracts and commitments that obligate us to make payments in the future. Information regarding our obligations under lease and debt arrangements and defined benefit plans are provided in Notes 6, 8, and 10, respectively, to the consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. For obligations under our purchase arrangements which consist mostly of open purchase orders and other commitments, as of December 31, 2023, we have amounts due in less than one year of $71.7 million, $7.0 million in one to three years, and $8.6 million thereafter.
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting period. The critical accounting policies we used in the preparation of the consolidated and financial statements are those that are important both to the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and require significant judgments by management with regard to estimates used. The critical judgments by management relate to distributor rebate accruals, future cash flows associated with impairment testing for goodwill and long-lived assets, loss contingencies and deferred income taxes and potential tax assessments.
Use of Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, which requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting periods. Estimates are used in accounting for, among other things, certain amounts included in discontinued operations, certain amounts included in assets and liabilities held for sale, distributor rebate accruals, future cash flows associated with impairment testing for goodwill and long-lived assets, loss contingencies, and deferred income taxes and potential income tax assessments. Our estimates are subject to uncertainties associated with the

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ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Actual results could differ from these estimates, and the effect of the change could be material to our financial statements. Changes in these estimates are recorded when known.
Revenue Recognition
Sales revenue is recognized at the time of product shipment or delivery of our products to unaffiliated customers, depending on shipping terms. Accordingly, control of the products transfers to the customer in accordance with the transaction’s shipping terms. Sales revenue is recognized for the amount of considerations that we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for our products. Sales are reported net of returns, rebates, incentives, each as described below, and freight allowed. Taxes imposed by governmental authorities on our revenue-producing activities with customers, such as sales taxes and value-added taxes, are excluded from net sales. Our contracts provide for forms of variable consideration including rebates, incentives and pricing tiers, each of which are described further in Note 1 “Accounting Policies” in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Loss Contingencies
The outcome of loss contingencies, legal proceedings, indemnification matters and claims brought against us is subject to uncertainty. An estimated loss contingency is accrued by a charge to earnings if it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Determination of whether to accrue a loss requires evaluation of the probability of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a reasonable estimate. Changes in these estimates could affect the timing and amount of accrual of loss contingencies.
Income Taxes
We recognize tax benefits in our financial statements when our uncertain tax positions are more likely than not to be sustained upon audit. The amount we recognize is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
We recognize deferred tax assets for deductible temporary differences, operating loss carry-forwards and tax credit carry-forwards. We record valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to amounts that are more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider both positive and negative evidence related to the likelihood of realization of the deferred tax assets. The weight given to the positive and negative evidence is commensurate with the extent to which the evidence may be objectively verified. As such, it is generally difficult for positive evidence regarding projected future taxable income exclusive of reversing taxable temporary differences to outweigh objective negative evidence of recent financial reporting losses. This assessment, which is completed on a taxing jurisdiction basis, takes into account a number of types of evidence, including the nature, frequency, and severity of current and cumulative financial reporting losses, sources of future taxable income, taxable income in prior carryback year(s) and tax planning strategies.
If it is determined that we would be able to realize deferred tax assets in the future in excess of our net recorded amount, an adjustment to the net deferred tax asset would increase income in the period that such determination was made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of the net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the net deferred tax asset would decrease income in the period such determination was made. We regularly evaluate the need for valuation allowances against its deferred tax assets.
As of December 31, 2023, we have accumulated undistributed earnings generated by our foreign subsidiaries of approximately $33.6 million. Certain earnings were previously subject to tax due to the one-time transition tax of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Any additional impacts due with respect to the previously-taxed earnings, if repatriated, would generally be limited to foreign withholding tax, U.S. state income tax and the tax effect of certain foreign exchange adjustments. We intend, however, to indefinitely reinvest these earnings and expect future U.S. cash generation to be sufficient to meet U.S. cash needs. At this time, the determination of deferred tax liabilities on the amount of financial reporting over tax basis is not practicable.
Legal Matters
A description of legal matters can be seen in “Commitments and Contingencies” in Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to risks such as changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices. A variety of practices are employed to manage these risks, including derivative instruments where deemed appropriate. Derivative instruments are used only for risk management purposes and not for speculation. All foreign currency derivative instruments are entered into with major financial institutions. Our credit exposure under these arrangements is limited to agreements with a positive fair value at the reporting date. Credit risk with respect to the counterparties is actively monitored but is not considered significant.

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Presented below is a description of our risk together with a sensitivity analysis, performed annually, based on selected changes in market rates and prices. These analyses reflect management’s view of changes which are reasonably possible to occur over a one-year period. Also included is a description of our commodity price risk.
Interest Rate Risk
Our senior secured revolving credit facility under our Credit Agreement, which allows for borrowings up to $375.0 million, is subject to a variable interest rate based on SOFR. As of December 31, 2023, a one percentage point increase in SOFR could result in $3.8 million of incremental interest expense if the senior secured revolving credit facility was fully drawn for the entire year.
Foreign Currency Risk
Foreign currency transactional exposures are sensitive to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. An annual test is performed to quantify the effects that possible changes in foreign currency exchange rates would have on annual operating profit based on our foreign currency transactional exposures at the current year-end. The balance sheet effect is calculated by multiplying each affiliate’s net monetary asset or liability position by a 10% change in the foreign currency exchange rate versus the U.S. dollar. The results of these sensitivity tests are presented in the following paragraph.
As of December 31, 2023, a 10% change in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the prevailing market rates of foreign currencies involving balance sheet transactional exposures would have an effect of $1.4 million to our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. These hypothetical effects on transactional exposures are based on the difference between the December 31, 2023 rates and the assumed rates.
The translation of the balance sheets of non-U.S. operations from local currencies into U.S. dollars is also sensitive to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Consequently, an annual test is performed to determine if changes in currency exchange rates would have a significant effect on the translation of the balance sheets of non-U.S. operations into U.S. dollars. These translation gains or losses are recorded as unrealized translation adjustments (“UTA”) within stockholders’ equity. The hypothetical change in UTA is calculated by multiplying the net assets of these non-U.S. operations by a 10% change in the currency exchange rates.
As of December 31, 2023, a 10% change in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the prevailing market rates of our foreign currency translation exposures would have impacted stockholders’ equity by approximately $13.6 million. These hypothetical adjustments in UTA are based on the difference between the December 31, 2023 exchange rates and the assumed rates. In the view of management, the above UTA adjustments resulting from these assumed changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not material to our consolidated financial position because they would not affect our cash flow.
Commodity Price Risk
We are subject to commodity price risk for certain raw materials used in the manufacture of our products. As previously discussed under “Risk Factors,” increases in commodities prices could adversely affect our earnings if selling prices are not adjusted or if such adjustments significantly trail the increases in commodities prices.
Our energy, manufacturing and transportation costs are affected by various market factors including the availability of supplies of particular forms of energy, energy prices and local and national regulatory decisions. As previously discussed in “Risk Factors,” there can be no assurance we will be fully protected against substantial changes in the price or availability of energy sources. In addition, we are subject to price risk for utilities and manufacturing inputs, which are used in our manufacturing operations.

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ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED INCOME STATEMENTS
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net Sales
$673.3 $684.1 $587.0 
Cost of products sold
293.6 289.9 287.8 
Gross Profit379.7 394.2 299.2 
Research and development27.2 29.2 30.6 
Selling and general expenses335.0 326.5 285.3 
Other expense, net13.3 3.0 22.3 
Operating Income (Loss)4.2 35.5 (39.0)
Interest income2.9 1.2 0.2 
Interest expense(15.0)(10.0)(3.3)
(Loss) Income Before Income Taxes
(7.9)26.7 (42.1)
Income tax (provision) benefit(2.0)(5.2)11.2 
(Loss) Income from Continuing Operations(9.9)21.5 (30.9)
(Loss) Income from discontinued operations, net of tax(51.9)29.0 37.2 
Net (Loss) Income$(61.8)$50.5 $6.3 
(Loss) Earnings Per Share
Basic:
Continuing operations$(0.21)$0.46 $(0.64)
Discontinued operations(1.11)0.62 0.77 
Basic (Loss) Earnings Per Share$(1.32)$1.08 $0.13 
Diluted:
Continuing operations$(0.21)$0.46 $(0.64)
Discontinued operations(1.11)0.61 0.77 
Diluted (Loss) Earnings Per Share$(1.32)$1.07 $0.13 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net (Loss) Income $(61.8)$50.5 $6.3 
Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income, Net of Tax
Defined benefit plans(0.3)0.3 0.4 
Unrealized currency translation adjustments9.1 (2.3)(6.1)
  Cash flow hedges   
Total Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), Net of Tax8.8 (2.0)(5.7)
Comprehensive (Loss) Income $(53.0)$48.5 $0.6 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share data)
As of December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$87.7 $127.7 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances142.8 167.9 
Inventories163.2 132.3 
Prepaid and other current assets28.8 13.9 
Assets held for sale64.5 182.3 
Total Current Assets487.0 624.1 
Property, Plant and Equipment, net117.2 118.6 
Operating Lease Right-of-Use Assets26.8 27.5 
Goodwill796.1 760.3 
Other Intangible Assets, net239.5 234.2 
Deferred Tax Assets6.5 4.6 
Other Assets19.3 17.6 
TOTAL ASSETS$1,692.4 $1,786.9 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Current portion of long-term debt$8.6 $6.2 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities12.8 $12.0 
Trade accounts payable56.3 67.9 
Accrued expenses93.2 97.8 
Liabilities held for sale63.7 7.1 
Total Current Liabilities234.6 191.0 
Long-Term Debt159.4 226.3 
Operating Lease Liabilities28.3 32.5 
Deferred Tax Liabilities23.8 25.4 
Other Long-Term Liabilities10.0 20.5 
Total Liabilities456.1 495.7 
Commitments and Contingencies
Stockholders’ Equity
Preferred stock - $0.01 par value - authorized 20,000,000 shares, none issued
  
Common stock - $0.01 par value - authorized 300,000,000 shares, 46,174,337 outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 46,528,907 outstanding at December 31, 2022
0.5 0.5 
Additional paid-in capital1,663.6 1,646.4 
Accumulated deficit(314.9)(253.1)
Treasury stock(85.9)(66.8)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(27.0)(35.8)
Total Stockholders’ Equity1,236.3 1,291.2 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$1,692.4 $1,786.9 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in millions, shares in thousands)
Common Stock
Outstanding
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Treasury Stock
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
(Loss) Income
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202047,918 $0.5 $1,609.4 $(309.9)231 $(9.8)$(28.1)$1,262.1 
Net income
— — — 6.3 — — — 6.3 
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise or redemption of share-based awards288 — 6.2 — — — — 6.2 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 13.2 — — — — 13.2 
Purchases of treasury stock
— — — — 349 (11.5)— (11.5)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — — (5.7)(5.7)
Balance at December 31, 202148,206 0.5 1,628.8 (303.6)580 (21.3)(33.8)1,270.6 
Net income— — — 50.5 — — — 50.5 
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise or redemption of share-based awards(1,677)— 1.7 — 42 (1.2)— 0.5 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 15.9 — — — — 15.9 
Purchases of treasury stock— — — — 1,510 (44.3)— (44.3)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— — — — — — (2.0)(2.0)
Balance at December 31, 202246,529 0.5 1,646.4 (253.1)2,132 (66.8)(35.8)1,291.2 
Net loss
   (61.8)   (61.8)
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise or redemption of share-based awards(355) 1.4  168(4.1) (2.7)
Stock-based compensation expense  15.8     15.8 
Purchases of treasury stock    743(15.0) (15.0)
Other comprehensive income, net of tax      8.8 8.8 
Balance at December 31, 202346,174 $0.5 $1,663.6 $(314.9)3,043 $(85.9)$(27.0)$1,236.3 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED CASH FLOW STATEMENTS
(in millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating Activities
Net (loss) income $(61.8)$50.5 $6.3 
Depreciation and amortization46.1 47.7 38.3 
Stock-based compensation15.8 15.9 13.2 
Loss on RH disposal70.8   
Net losses on asset dispositions and asset impairments1.9 1.1 8.0 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisition
Accounts receivable39.0 (24.7)(10.8)
Inventories, net of allowance4.7 (30.9)15.7 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(19.6)3.0 (1.9)
Accounts payable(14.4)35.4 (11.9)
Accrued expenses(27.7)(7.1)33.4 
Deferred income taxes and other(22.4) (3.0)
Cash Provided by Operating Activities32.4 90.9 87.3 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures(17.8)(19.3)(21.0)
Proceeds from the RH divestiture89.0   
Acquisition of assets and businesses, net of cash acquired(49.6)(116.1) 
Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities21.6 (135.4)(21.0)
Financing Activities
Proceeds from issuance of secured debt 250.0  
Secured debt repayments(4.7)(126.6) 
Debt issuance costs (2.9) 
Revolving credit facility proceeds55.0 150.0 20.0 
Revolving credit facility repayments(115.0)(170.0)(70.0)
Purchase of treasury stock(19.1)(45.5)(11.5)
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options1.3 1.7 6.2 
Payment of contingent consideration liabilities(11.7)  
Cash (Used in) Provided by Financing Activities(94.2)56.7 (55.3)
Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Cash and Cash Equivalents0.2 (3.0)(4.0)
(Decrease) Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents(40.0)9.2 7.0 
Cash and Cash Equivalents - Beginning of Year127.7 118.5 111.5 
Cash and Cash Equivalents - End of Year$87.7 $127.7 $118.5 
Supplemental Cash Flow Disclosure:
Cash paid (refunded) for income taxes$23.6 $(2.9)$(45.0)
Cash paid for interest$14.7 $8.1 $3.0 
Supplemental Noncash Disclosure
Capital expenditures included in accounts payable or accrued expenses$3.4 $3.9 $5.6 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AVANOS MEDICAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1.    Accounting Policies
Avanos Medical, Inc. is a medical technology company focused on delivering clinically superior medical device solutions that will help patients get back to the things that matter. Headquartered in Alpharetta, Georgia, we are committed to addressing some of today’s most important healthcare needs, including providing a vital lifeline for nutrition to patients from hospital to home, and reducing the use of opioids while helping patients move from surgery to recovery. We develop, manufacture and market our recognized brands globally and hold leading market positions in multiple categories across our portfolio. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Avanos,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Avanos Medical, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include our net assets, results of our operations and cash flows. All intercompany transactions and accounts within our consolidated businesses have been eliminated. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Use of Estimates
Preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of net sales and expenses during the reporting periods. Estimates are used in accounting for, among other things, certain amounts included in discontinued operations, certain amounts included in assets and liabilities held for sale, distributor rebate accruals, future cash flows associated with impairment testing for goodwill and long-lived assets, loss contingencies, and deferred tax assets and potential income tax assessments. Our estimates are subject to uncertainties associated with the recent COVID-19 pandemic which has caused volatility and adverse effects in global markets. Actual results could differ from these estimates, and the effect of the change could be material to our financial statements. Changes in these estimates are recorded when known.
Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are short-term investments with an original maturity date of three months or less. We maintain cash balances and short-term investments in excess of insurable limits in a diversified group of major banks that are selected and monitored based on ratings by the major rating agencies in accordance with our treasury policy.
Inventories and Distribution Costs
U.S. and non-U.S. inventories are valued at the lower of cost, using the First-In, First-Out (“FIFO”) method, or market. Distribution costs are classified as cost of products sold.
Property, Plant and Equipment and Depreciation
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated on the straight-line method. Buildings are depreciated over their estimated useful lives, primarily 40 years. Machinery and equipment are depreciated over their estimated useful lives, primarily ranging from 16 to 20 years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the assets’ estimated useful lives, or the remaining lease term, whichever is shorter. Purchases of computer software, including external costs and certain internal costs (including payroll and payroll-related costs of employees) directly associated with developing significant computer software applications for internal use, are capitalized. Computer software costs are amortized on the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the software, which is generally three to nine years. Depreciation expense is recorded in cost of products sold, research and development and selling and general expenses.
Estimated useful lives are periodically reviewed, and when warranted, changes are made to them. Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be indicated when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the use and eventual disposition of an asset group, which are identifiable and largely independent of the cash flows of other asset groups, are less than the carrying amount of the asset group. Measurement of an impairment loss would be based on the excess of the carrying amount of the asset group over its fair value. Fair value is measured using discounted cash flows or independent appraisals, as appropriate. When property is sold or retired, the cost of the property and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet and any gain or loss on the transaction is included in income.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We test goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently whenever events or circumstances more likely than not indicate that the fair value of the reporting unit may be below its carrying value. We operate as a single reportable operating segment

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with one reporting unit. The fair value of our reporting unit was estimated using a combination of income (discounted cash flow analysis) and market approaches. The income approach is dependent upon several assumptions regarding future periods such as sales growth and a terminal growth rate. A weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”) was used to discount future estimated cash flows to their present values. The WACC was based on externally observable data considering market participants’ cost of equity and debt, optimal capital structure and risk factors specific to us. The market approach estimates the value of our company using a market capitalization methodology.
We completed our annual goodwill impairment test as of July 1, 2023, and determined that the fair value of our reporting unit exceeds the net carrying amount. There can be no assurance that the assumptions and estimates made for purposes of the annual goodwill impairment test will prove to be accurate. Volatility in the equity and debt markets, or increases in interest rates, could result in a higher discount rate. Changes in sales volumes, selling prices and costs of goods sold, and increases in interest rates could cause changes in our forecasted cash flows. Unfavorable changes in any of the factors described above, as well as a decline in our stock price, could result in a goodwill impairment charge in the future.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Estimated useful lives range from 7 to 30 years for trademarks, 7 to 17 years for patents and acquired technologies, and 2 to 16 years for other intangible assets. An impairment loss would be indicated when estimated undiscounted future cash flows from the use of the asset are less than its carrying amount. An impairment loss would be measured as the difference between the fair value (based on discounted future cash flows) and the carrying amount of the asset.
Revenue Recognition and Accounts Receivable
Sales revenue is recognized at the time of product shipment or delivery of our products to unaffiliated customers, depending on shipping terms. Accordingly, control of the products transfers to the customer in accordance with the transaction’s shipping terms. Sales revenue is recognized for the amount of consideration that we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for our products. Sales are reported net of returns, rebates, incentives, each as described below, and freight allowed. Taxes imposed by governmental authorities on our revenue-producing activities with customers, such as sales taxes and value-added taxes, are excluded from net sales.
We provide medical products to distributors or end-user customers under supply agreements under which customers may place purchase orders for a variety of our products at specified pricing over a specified term, usually three years. While our sales and marketing efforts are directed to hospitals or other healthcare providers, our products are generally sold through third-party distribution channels.
Under our contracts with customers, our performance obligations are normally limited to shipment or delivery of products to a customer upon receipt of a purchase order. We bill our customers, depending on shipping terms, upon shipment or delivery of the products to the customer.
Amounts billed are typically due within 30 days, with a 1% discount allowed for distributors if payments are made within 15 days. We estimate cash discounts based on historical experience and record the cash discounts as an allowance to trade receivables. The allowance for this cash discount is disclosed in “Supplemental Balance Sheet Information” under “Accounts Receivable” in Note 5. The differences between estimated and actual cash discounts are generally not material.
We allow for returns within a specified period of time, based on our standard terms and conditions, following customers’ receipt of the goods and estimate a liability for returns based on historical experience. The liability for estimated returns was $0.1 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. The differences between estimated and actual returns are generally not material.
Our contracts provide for forms of variable consideration including rebates, incentives and pricing tiers, each of which are described below:
Distributor Rebates - Sales to distributors, on a global basis, represents approximately 49% of our consolidated net sales. We provide for rebates on gross sales to distributors for differences between list prices and average end-user customer prices. Rebate rates vary widely (typically between 10% and 35%) between our product families. A liability for distributor rebates is estimated based on a moving average of rebate rates, specific customer trends, contractual provisions, historical experience and other relevant factors. The liability for estimated rebates was $10.4 million and $14.5 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. Differences between our estimated and actual costs are generally not material and recognized in earnings in the period in the period such differences are determined.
Incentives - Globally, approximately 28% of our consolidated net sales are contracted through group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”). Incentives include fees paid to GPOs or small percentage rebates to distributors in conjunction with the sales volume of our products to end-user customers. A liability for incentives is estimated based on average incentive rates over a period of time. The liability for estimated incentives was $7.3 million and $12.4 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.

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Differences between estimated and actual incentives are generally not material and recognized in earnings in the period such differences are determined.
Pricing tiers - In certain of our contracts, pricing is dependent on volumes purchased, with lower pricing given upon meeting certain established purchase volumes. Customers are placed in a pricing tier based on expected purchase volume, which is developed primarily using the customer’s purchase history. Depending on the customer’s purchases, we may move the customer up or down a tier, upon meeting or failing to meet certain established purchase volumes. Pricing in the new tier is applied to purchase orders prospectively. There are no retrospective adjustments based on movements between pricing tiers.
We had one customer who individually accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022. Bad debt expense was $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 and a net benefit of $0.5 million for the year end December 31, 2021.
Foreign Currency Translation
The income statements of foreign operations are translated into U.S. dollars at rates of exchange in effect each month. The balance sheets of these operations are translated at period-end exchange rates, and the differences from historical exchange rates are reflected as unrealized translation adjustments in other comprehensive income.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related expenses for personnel, product trial costs, outside laboratory and license fees, the costs of laboratory equipment and facilities and asset write-offs for equipment that does not reach success in product manufacturing certifications.
Stock-Based Compensation
We have a stock-based Equity Participation Plan, a Long Term Incentive Plan and an Outside Directors’ Compensation Plan that provide for awards of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock (and in certain limited cases, unrestricted stock), restricted stock units, performance units and cash awards to eligible employees (including officers who are employees), directors, advisors and consultants. Stock-based compensation is initially measured at the fair value of the awards on the grant date and is recognized in the financial statements over the period the employees are required to provide services in exchange for the awards, with forfeitures accounted for as they occur. The fair value of option awards is measured on the grant date using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of time-based and some performance-based restricted share awards is based on the Avanos stock price at the grant date and the assessed probability of meeting future performance targets. For performance-based restricted share units for which vesting is conditioned upon achieving a measure of total shareholder return, fair value is measured using a Monte Carlo simulation. Generally, new shares are issued to satisfy vested restricted stock units and exercises of stock options. See Note 13, “Stock-Based Compensation.”
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method of accounting, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. Under this method, changes in tax rates and laws are recognized in income in the period such changes are enacted. The provision for federal, state, and foreign income taxes is calculated on income before income taxes based on current tax law and includes the cumulative effect of any changes in tax rates from those used previously in determining deferred tax assets and liabilities. Such provision differs from the amounts currently payable because certain items of income and expense are recognized in different reporting periods for financial reporting purposes than for income tax purposes. Recording the provision for income taxes requires management to make significant judgments and estimates for matters whose ultimate resolution may not become known until the final resolution of an examination by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or state and foreign agencies. If it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of a deferred tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is recognized.
Recording liabilities for uncertain tax positions involves judgment in evaluating our tax positions and developing the best estimate of the taxes ultimately expected to be paid. We include any related tax penalties and interest in income tax expense.
As of December 31, 2023, we have accumulated undistributed earnings generated by our foreign subsidiaries of approximately $33.6 million. Certain earnings were previously subject to tax due to the one-time transition tax of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Any additional impacts due with respect to the previously-taxed earnings, if repatriated, would generally be limited to foreign withholding tax, U.S. state income tax and the tax effect of certain foreign exchange adjustments. We intend, however, to indefinitely reinvest these earnings and expect future U.S. cash generation to be sufficient to meet U.S. cash needs. At this time, the determination of deferred tax liabilities on the amount of financial reporting over tax basis is not practicable.

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Employee Defined Benefit Plans
We recognize the funded status of our defined benefit obligation as an asset or a liability on our balance sheet. Actuarial gains or losses are a component of our other comprehensive income, which is then included in our accumulated other comprehensive income. Pension expenses are recognized over the period in which the employee renders service and becomes eligible to receive benefits. We make assumptions (including the discount rate and expected rate of return on plan assets) in computing the pension expense and obligations.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2023, we adopted ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations: Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. This ASU pertains to acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination and addresses diversity in practice and inconsistency related to recognition of an acquired contract liability and payment terms and their effect on subsequent revenue recognized by the acquirer. Adoption of this ASU did not have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, Income Taxes: Improvement to Income Tax Disclosures. This ASU pertains to disaggregation of income tax disclosures and enhances annual income tax disclosures to address investor requests for more information about the tax risks and opportunities present in an entity’s worldwide operations. The two primary enhancements disaggregate existing income tax disclosures related to the effective tax rate reconciliation and income taxes paid, and requires entities to disclose a tabular reconciliation of expected tax and reported tax on income from continuing operations using both percentages and amounts, broken out into specific categories with certain reconciling items at or above 5% of the expected tax further broken out by nature and/or jurisdiction. Additionally, this ASU requires disclosure around income taxes paid (net of refunds received) broken out between federal, state, local and foreign, and income taxes paid (net of refunds received) to an individual jurisdiction when greater than 5% of total income taxes paid. This ASU will be effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-07, Segment Reporting: Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures. This ASU enhances segment reporting under Topic 280 by expanding the breadth and frequency of segment disclosures, and aims to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. In addition, the amendments enhance interim disclosure requirements, clarify circumstances in which an entity can disclose multiple segment measures of profit or loss, provide new segment disclosure requirements for entities with a single reportable segment, and contain other disclosure requirements. This ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In August 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-05, Business Combinations: Joint Venture Formations. This ASU is intended to address diversity in practice regarding accounting and provide decision-useful information related to contributions made to joint ventures and requires entities that qualify as either a joint venture or a corporate joint venture to apply a new basis of accounting upon the formation of the joint venture. Specifically, the ASU provides that a joint venture or a corporate joint venture must initially measure its assets and liabilities at fair value on the formation date. This ASU will be effective for all newly-formed joint venture entities with a formation date on or after January 1, 2025, with early adoption permitted. Joint ventures formed prior to the adoption date may elect to apply the new guidance retrospectively back to their original formation date. Adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Note 2.    Discontinued Operations
On June 7, 2023, we entered into a Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) by and among us and certain of our affiliates and SunMed Group Holdings, LLC (“Buyer”) pursuant to which Buyer agreed to purchase substantially all of the assets primarily relating to or primarily used in our Respiratory Health (“RH”) business (the “RH Divestiture”). On October 2, 2023, we closed the RH Divestiture for a total purchase price of $110.0 million in cash, subject to certain adjustments as provided in the Purchase Agreement based on the indebtedness and inventory transferred to Buyer at the closing and the chargebacks assumed by Buyer but that would otherwise have been payable by the Company and its subsidiaries on or after October 2, 2023 to distributors of the Company’s RH products located in the United States (the “Initial Closing”).
The Divestiture represents a key component of Avanos’ ongoing three-year transformation process, and is aimed at accelerating the Company’s efforts to focus its portfolio on markets where it is well positioned to succeed.

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At or before the closing of the RH Divestiture, we and Buyer entered into various transition services agreements pursuant to which we, Buyer and each company’s respective affiliates will provide to each other various transitional services, including, but not limited to, product manufacturing and distribution, facilities, order fulfillment, invoicing, quality assurance, regulatory support, audit support and other services. The services generally commenced on the closing date of the Divestiture and terminate no later than one to three years thereafter.
We have also entered into distribution agreements with Buyer under which we will remain a limited risk distributor for RH products on Buyer’s behalf for sales outside of the United States. As a result, we have $11.9 million of RH products included in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023. We anticipate the limited risk distributor arrangements will terminate no later than a period not to exceed three years from the date of the Purchase Agreement.
As a result of the Divestiture, the results of operations from our RH business are reported as “(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax” and the related assets and liabilities are classified as “held for sale” in the consolidated financial statements.
Pursuant to an agreement under which we provide manufacturing services for the Buyer, certain manufacturing facilities and equipment did not transfer to the Buyer upon the Initial Closing, and remain in “Assets Held for Sale” as of December 31, 2023 with a corresponding liability representing our obligation to transfer the manufacturing facilities and equipment to the buyer at a later date. Likewise, the results of operations from these manufacturing operations continue to be classified as “(Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax.”
The following table summarizes the financial results of our discontinued operations for all periods presented herein (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net Sales$100.9 $135.9 $157.6 
Cost of products sold68.8 80.1 91.0 
Gross Profit32.1 55.8 66.6 
Research and development0.8 1.4 1.7 
Selling and general expenses11.2 15.4 15.0 
Pretax loss on classification as discontinued operations70.8   
Other expense, net0.3 0.5 0.5 
Operating Income(51.0)38.5 49.4 
Income tax (provision) benefit from discontinued operations(0.9)(9.5)(12.2)
Net (Loss) Income from discontinued operations, net of tax$(51.9)$29.0 $37.2 
The “Pretax loss on classification of discontinued operations” was $70.8 million, which includes goodwill impairment of $59.1 million, inventory impairment of $5.0 million and impairment on the remaining disposal group of $6.7 million.
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), only expenses specifically identifiable and related to a business to be disposed may be allocated to discontinued operations. Accordingly, the cost of products sold, research and development, selling and general expenses and other expense, net in discontinued operations include expenses incurred directly to solely support our respiratory health business.
Details on assets and liabilities classified as held for sale in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets are presented in the following table (in millions):

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December 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets held for sale - discontinued operations
Inventories$17.5 $58.0 
Property, Plant and Equipment, net43.9 45.3 
Operating Lease Right-of-Use Assets3.1 3.1 
Goodwill 59.1 
Other Intangible Assets, net 16.8 
Total assets classified as held for sale$64.5 $182.3 
Liabilities held for sale - discontinued operations
Current Portion of Operating Lease Liabilities0.8 $0.8 
Liabilities held for sale
61.3 4.1 
Current liabilities held for sale - discontinued operations62.1 4.9 
Non-Current Operating Lease Liability$1.6 2.2 
Total liabilities held for sale - discontinued operations$63.7 $7.1 
Assets and liabilities held for sale as of December 31, 2023 were classified as current since we expect the Divestiture to be completed within one year of the Purchase Agreement date.

The following table provides operating and investing cash flow information for our discontinued operations (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating Activities:
Depreciation and amortization$2.6 $6.5 $6.7 
Stock-based compensation expense0.1 0.1 0.1 
Investing Activities:
Capital expenditures3.6 5.0 6.9 

Note 3.    Restructuring
Our restructuring expenses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are summarized in the table below (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Transformation Process$28.2 $ $ 
Post-S&IP Divestiture Restructuring Plan
  10.2 
2020 Restructuring  12.4 
Total Restructuring Costs$28.2 $ $22.6 
Transformation Process
In January 2023, we initiated a three-year restructuring initiative intended to align the Company under a single commercial organization, rationalize our product portfolio, undertake additional cost management activities to enhance the Company’s operating profitability and pursue efficient capital allocation strategies (the “Transformation Process”). The Divestiture represents a key component of our three-year transformation process. We expect the Transformation Process will be substantially complete by the end of 2025.
We expect to incur up to $30.0 million of cash expenses in connection with the Transformation Process, consisting of between $9.0 million and $12.0 million of program management consulting and employee retention expenses; between $8.0 million and $11.0 million of expenses associated with manufacturing and supply chain improvements and portfolio r