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UNITED STATES

 SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

              (Mark One)

           QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended: March 31, 2022

 

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from _____to _____

 

Commission File Number: 001-37606

 

ANAVEX LIFE SCIENCES CORP.

 (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Nevada 98-0608404
(State or other jurisdiction of (IRS Employer
incorporation or organization) Identification No.)

 

630 5th Avenue, 20th Floor, New York, NY USA 10111

 (Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

 

1-844-689-3939

 (Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class   Trading Symbol   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock Par Value $0.001   AVXL   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

☒ Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company
      Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes ☒ No

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: 77,408,976 shares of common stock outstanding as of May 10, 2022.

  

1

 

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION 3
   
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 3
   
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS. 4
   
ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS. 19
   
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 19
   
PART II – OTHER INFORMATION 19
   
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 19
   
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS 19
   
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS 19
   
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES 20
   
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 20
   
ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION. 20
   
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS. 20
   
SIGNATURES 21

 

2

 

  

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  

3

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

 

Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

March 31, 2022

 

(Unaudited)

 

F-1 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
As at March 31, 2022 and September 30, 2021
(Unaudited)

 

                 
    March 31,   September 30,
    2022   2021
         
Assets                
Current assets                
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 153,342,556     $ 152,107,745  
Incentive and tax receivables     6,468,987       9,136,831  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     464,605       371,914  
Total assets   $ 160,276,148     $ 161,616,490  
                 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity                
Current Liabilities                
Accounts payable   $ 2,631,888     $ 4,739,781  
Accrued liabilities (Note 4)     4,995,388       5,614,774  
Deferred grant income     443,831       443,831  
Total liabilities     8,071,107       10,798,386  
                 
Commitments and Contingencies - Note 6                
Stockholders' equity                
Capital stock                
Authorized:                
  10,000,000 preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share                
  200,000,000 common stock, par value $0.001 per share                
Issued and outstanding:                
  77,161,688 common shares                
  (September 30, 2021 - 75,918,465)     77,163       75,920  
Additional paid-in capital     371,437,616       348,328,048  
Share proceeds receivable     (403,696 )      
Accumulated deficit     (218,906,042 )     (197,585,864 )
Total stockholders' equity     152,205,041       150,818,104  
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity   $ 160,276,148     $ 161,616,490  

 

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

 

F-2 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.
Interim Condensed Consolidated
Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
For the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
(Unaudited)

 

                                 
    Three months ended March 31,   Six months ended March 31,
    2022   2021   2022   2021
Operating expenses                                
General and administrative   $ 2,915,158     $ 2,233,745     $ 5,982,109     $ 3,704,401  
Research and development     8,604,589       6,720,841       17,261,028       14,646,360  
Total operating expenses     (11,519,747 )     (8,954,586 )     (23,243,137 )     (18,350,761 )
                                 
Other income (expenses)                                
Grant income           10,820             10,820  
Research and development incentive income     835,513       960,879       1,646,243       2,230,195  
Interest income, net     7,578       9,216       12,488       7,657  
Foreign exchange gain (loss), net     268,645       (154,563 )     324,008       178,071  
Total other income, net     1,111,736       826,352       1,982,739       2,426,743  
Net loss before provision for income taxes     (10,408,011 )     (8,128,234 )     (21,260,398 )     (15,924,018 )
                                 
Income tax expense, current     (29,800 )     (26,988 )     (59,780 )     (86,269 )
                                 
Net loss and comprehensive loss   $ (10,437,811 )   $ (8,155,222 )   $ (21,320,178 )   $ (16,010,287 )
                                 
Net Loss per share                                
  Basic and diluted   $ (0.14 )   $ (0.12 )   $ (0.28 )   $ (0.24 )
                                 
Weighted average number of shares outstanding                                
  Basic and diluted     76,248,603       68,594,867       76,121,792       66,421,380  

 

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

 

F-3 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders' Equity
For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
(Unaudited)

 

                                                 
        Common Stock            
            Additional Paid-in   Share proceeds   Accumulated    
    Shares   par value   Capital   Receivable   Deficit   Total
                         
Balance, January 1, 2022     76,155,187       76,156       354,759,781           $ (208,468,231 )     146,367,706  
Shares issued pursuant to exercise of stock options     39,700       40       123,386                    123,426  
Shares issued under Sales Agreement     966,801       967       12,489,713       (403,696 )           12,086,984  
Less: share issue costs                 (374,720 )                 (374,720 )
Stock based compensation                 4,439,456                    4,439,456  
Net loss                             (10,437,811 )     (10,437,811 )
Balance, March 31, 2022     77,161,688     $ 77,163     $ 371,437,616     $ (403,696 )   $ (218,906,042 )   $ 152,205,041  
                                                 
Balance, January 1, 2021     66,962,957     $ 66,964     $ 213,766,108           $ (167,532,295 )   $ 46,300,777  
Shares issued under 2019 purchase agreement                                                
Purchase shares     661,708       662       6,649,134                   6,649,796  
Commitment shares     21,571       22       (22                  
Shares issued upon exercise of options     346,900       347       998,455                   998,802  
Shares issued under Sales Agreement     2,037,484       2,037       29,039,187                   29,041,224  
Less: share issue costs                 (871,237 )                 (871,237 )
Stock based compensation                 1,846,156                   1,846,156  
Net loss                             (8,155,222 )     (8,155,222 )
Balance, March 31, 2021     70,030,620     $ 70,032     $ 251,427,781     $     $ (175,687,517 )   $ 75,810,296  

  

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

 

F-4 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders' Equity
For the six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
(Unaudited)

 

        Common Stock            
            Additional Paid-in   Share proceeds   Accumulated    
    Shares   Par Value   Capital   Receivable   Deficit   Total
                         
Balance, October 1, 2021     75,918,465     $ 75,920     $ 348,328,048           $ (197,585,864 )   $ 150,818,104  
Shares issued under Sales Agreement     1,066,389       1,066       14,802,398       (403,696 )           14,399,768  
Less: share issue costs                 (537,806 )                 (537,806 )
Shares issued upon exercise of stock options     176,834       177       496,746                   496,923  
Stock based compensation                 8,348,230                   8,348,230  
Net loss                             (21,320,178 )     (21,320,178 )
Balance, March 31, 2022     77,161,688     $ 77,163     $ 371,437,616     $ (403,696 )   $ (218,906,042 )   $ 152,205,041  
                                                 
Balance, October 1, 2020     62,045,198     $ 62,047     $ 186,851,752           $ (159,677,230 )   $ 27,236,569  
Shares issued under 2019 Purchase Agreement                                              
Purchase shares     4,007,996       4,008       24,107,190                   24,111,198  
Commitment shares     78,213       78       (78 )                  
Shares issued upon exercise of options     346,900       347       998,455                   998,802  
Shares issued under Sales Agreement     3,552,313       3,552       37,819,689                   37,823,241  
Less: share issue costs                 (1,134,697 )                 (1,134,697 )
Stock based compensation                 2,785,470                   2,785,470  
Net loss                             (16,010,287 )     (16,010,287 )
Balance, March 31, 2021     70,030,620     $ 70,032     $ 251,427,781     $     $ (175,687,517 )   $ 75,810,296  

 

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

 

F-5 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
For the six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
(Unaudited)

 

                 
    2022   2021
         
Cash flows used in operating activities                
Net loss   $ (21,320,178 )   $ (16,010,287 )
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operations:                
Stock-based compensation     8,348,230       2,785,470  
Changes in working capital balances:                
Incentive and tax receivables     2,667,844       (2,478,750 )
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     (109,056 )     57,030  
Accounts payable     (2,107,893 )     (331,002 )
Accrued liabilities     (619,386 )     302,205  
Deferred grant income           487,111  
Net cash used in operating activities     (13,140,439 )     (15,188,223 )
                 
Cash flows provided by financing activities                
Issuance of common shares     14,399,768       61,934,439  
Share issue costs     (521,441 )     (1,134,697 )
Proceeds from exercise of stock options     496,923       998,802  
Net cash provided by financing activities     14,375,250       61,798,544  
                 
Increase in cash and cash equivalents during the period     1,234,811       46,610,321  
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period     152,107,745       29,249,018  
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period   $ 153,342,556     $ 75,859,339  
                 
Supplemental Cash Flow Information                
Cash paid for state and local minimum income taxes   $ 141,374   $ 59,281

 

See Accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

 

F-6 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 1       Description of Business and Basis of Presentation

 

Description of Business

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp. (“Anavex” or the “Company”) is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development of differentiated therapeutics by applying precision medicine to central nervous system (“CNS”) diseases with high unmet need. Anavex analyzes genomic data from clinical studies to identify biomarkers, which are used to select patients that will receive the therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases. The Company’s lead compound ANAVEX®2-73 is being developed to treat Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and potentially other central nervous system diseases, including rare diseases, such as Rett syndrome, a rare severe neurological monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (“MECP2”).

 

Basis of Presentation

 

These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim reporting. Accordingly, certain information and note disclosures normally included in the annual financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. In the opinion of management, the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading.

 

These accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, which in the opinion of management are necessary for fair presentation of the information contained herein. The consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 was derived from the audited annual financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2021 filed with the SEC on November 24, 2021. The Company follows the same accounting policies in the preparation of interim reports.

 

Operating results for the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending September 30, 2022.

 

Liquidity

 

All of the Company’s potential drug compounds are in the clinical development stage and the Company cannot be certain that its research and development efforts will be successful or, if successful, that its potential drug compounds will ever be approved for sales to pharmaceutical companies or generate commercial revenues. To date, we have not generated any revenues from our operations. The Company expects the business to continue to experience negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future and cannot predict when, if ever, our business might become profitable.

 

F-7 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 1       Description of Business and Basis of Presentation – (Continued)

 

Management believes that the current working capital position will be sufficient to meet the Company’s working capital requirements beyond the next 12 months after the date that these interim condensed consolidated financial statements are issued. The process of drug development can be costly, and the timing and outcomes of clinical trials is uncertain. The assumptions upon which the Company has based its estimates are routinely evaluated and may be subject to change. The actual amount of the Company’s expenditures will vary depending upon a number of factors including but not limited to the design, timing and duration of future clinical trials, the progress of the Company’s research and development programs and the level of financial resources available. The Company has the ability to adjust its operating plan spending levels based on the timing of future clinical trials.

 

Other than our rights related to the Sales Agreement (as defined below in Note 5), there can be no assurance that additional financing will be available to us when needed or, if available, that it can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. If the Company is not able to obtain the additional financing on a timely basis, if and when it is needed, it will be forced to delay or scale down some or all of its research and development activities.

 

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

 

The recent global outbreak of COVID-19 has not had a material impact on the Company’s results of operations or financial condition as of March 31, 2022. However, the pandemic continues to rapidly evolve as of the date these condensed consolidated interim financial statements are issued and has created a dynamic and uncertain situation in the global economy. As such, it is uncertain as to the full magnitude that the outbreak will have on the Company’s financial condition and future results of operations. Management is actively monitoring the global situation on its business, including on its clinical trials and operations and financial condition. Given the daily evolution of the COVID-19 situation, and the global responses to curb its spread, the Company is not able to estimate the effects COVID-19 may have on its future results of operations or financial condition.

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses in the reporting period. The Company regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to accounting for research and development costs, incentive income receivable, valuation and recoverability of deferred tax assets, asset impairment, stock-based compensation, and loss contingencies. The Company bases its estimates and assumptions on current facts, historical experience, and various other factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the accrual of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially and adversely from the Company’s estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and the actual results, future results of operations will be affected.

 

F-8 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 1       Description of Business and Basis of Presentation – (Continued)

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Anavex Life Sciences Corp. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Anavex Australia Pty Limited. (“Anavex Australia”), a company incorporated under the laws of Australia, Anavex Germany GmbH, a company incorporated under the laws of Germany, and Anavex Canada Ltd., a company incorporated under the laws of the Province of Ontario, Canada. All inter-company transactions and balances have been eliminated.

 

Fair Value Measurements

 

The fair value hierarchy under GAAP is based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:

 

Level 1 -  quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

Level 2 -   observable inputs other than Level 1, quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, and model-derived prices whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable; and

 

Level 3 - assets and liabilities whose significant value drivers are unobservable by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

 

The book value of cash and cash equivalents and accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values due to the short-term maturity of those instruments.

 

At March 31, 2022 and September 30, 2021, the Company did not have any Level 3 assets or liabilities.

 

Basic and Diluted Loss per Share

 

Basic income/(loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income/(loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income/(loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income/(loss) available to common stockholders by the sum of (1) the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, (2) the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of options and warrants using the treasury stock method and (3) the dilutive effect of other potentially dilutive securities. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, options and warrants are potentially dilutive securities and are excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive.

 

As of March 31, 2022, loss per share excludes 11,510,319 (September 30, 2021 – 11,540,903) potentially dilutive common shares related to outstanding options and warrants, as their effect was anti-dilutive.

 

F-9 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 2       Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

 

Effective October 1, 2021, the Company adopted ASU 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (ASC 740)”, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and clarifying and amending existing guidance to improve consistent application. There was no material impact on the Company’s operations, financial condition, or cash flows.

 

Note 3       Other Income

 

Grant Income

 

During the year ended September 30, 2021, the Company received $497,931 of a $995,862 research grant awarded by the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The grant will be used to fund a clinical trial of the Company’s lead compound, ANAVEX®2-73 related to Parkinson’s disease.

 

The grant income is being deferred when received and amortized to other income as the related research and development expenditures are incurred. During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, the Company did not recognize any of this grant on its statements of operations (2021: $10,820 and $10,820, respectively). At March 31, 2022, an amount of $443,831 (September 30, 2021: $443,831) of this grant is recorded as deferred grant income, representing the amount of this grant which has not yet been amortized to other income. The Company will recognize this income on its statement of operations as the relating expenditures are incurred to offset the income.

 

Research and development incentive income

 

Research and development incentive income represents the receipt by Anavex Australia, of the Australian research and development incentive credit, (the “R&D Incentive Credit”).

 

During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 the Company recorded research and development incentive income of $835,513 (AUD 1,146,955) and $1,646,243 (AUD 2,263,317) (2021: $960,879 (AUD 1,244,133) and $2,230,195 (AUD 2,980,095)), respectively, related to the R&D Incentive Credit for eligible research and development expenses incurred during the period.

 

Note 4     Accrued liabilities

 

  The principal components of accrued liabilities consists of:

 

       
    March 31,   September 31,
    2022   2021
Clinical site costs and patient visits   $ 1,797,377     $ 2,035,800  
Accrued compensation and benefits     511,234       1,201,903  
Fixed contract accruals     391,818       649,649  
Accrued license fees payables     500,000        
All other accrued liabilities     1,794,959       1,727,422  
 Total accrued liabilities   $ 4,995,388     $ 5,614,774  

 

F-10 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 5       Equity Offerings

 

Common Stock

 

Common shares are voting and are entitled to dividends as declared at the discretion of the Board of Directors.

 

Preferred Stock

 

The Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”) has the authority to issue preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, restrictions and the number of shares constituting any series of the designation of the series.

 

Sales Agreement

 

The Company entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement on July 6, 2018, which was amended and restated on May 1, 2020 (the “Sales Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and SVB Leerink LLC (together the “Sales Agents”), pursuant to which the Company may offer and sell shares of common stock registered under an effective registration statement from time to time through the Sales Agents (the “Offering”).

 

Upon delivery of a placement notice based on the Company’s instructions and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Sales Agents may sell the Shares by methods deemed to be an “at the market offering” offering, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, or by any other method permitted by law, including negotiated transactions, subject to the prior written consent of the Company. The Company is not obligated to make any sales of Shares under the Sales Agreement. The Company or Sales Agents may suspend or terminate the offering of Shares upon notice to the other party, subject to certain conditions. The Sales Agents will act as agent on a commercially reasonable efforts basis consistent with their normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal law, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq.

 

The Company has agreed to pay the Sales Agents commissions for their services of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the Shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement. The Company also agreed to provide the Sales Agents with customary indemnification and contribution rights. During the six months ended March 31, 2022, 1,066,389 shares were sold pursuant to the Offering for gross proceeds of $14,803,464 (net proceeds of $14,265,658 after deducting offering expenses) (2021: 3,552,313 shares were sold for gross proceeds of $37,823,241 (net proceeds of $36,688,544 after deducting offering expenses)). At March 31, 2022, an amount of $148,589,086 (September 30, 2021: $163,392,550) was registered pursuant to an effective registration statement and remained available to be sold under the Sales Agreement.

 

F-11 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 5      Equity Offerings – (continued)

 

2019 Purchase Agreement

 

On June 7, 2019, the Company entered into a $50,000,000 purchase agreement (the “2019 Purchase Agreement”) with Lincoln Park, as amended on July 1, 2020, pursuant to which the Company had the right to sell and issue to Lincoln Park, and Lincoln Park was obligated to purchase, up to $50,000,000 in value of its shares of common stock from time to time over a three-year period until July 1, 2022.

 

In consideration for entering into the 2019 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to Lincoln Park 324,383 shares of common stock as a commitment fee during the year ended September 30, 2019 and agreed to issue up to 162,191 shares pro rata, when and if, Lincoln Park purchased, at the Company’s discretion, the $50,000,000 aggregate commitment.

 

At March 31, 2022 and September 30, 2021, no shares remained available for issuance under the 2019 Purchase Agreement. During the six months ended March 31, 2021, the Company issued to Lincoln Park an aggregate of 4,086,209 shares of common stock including 4,007,996 shares of common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $24,111,198 and 78,213 commitment shares.

 

Note 6      Commitments and Contingencies

 

a)Leases

 

During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, the Company incurred office lease expense of $16,488 and $21,333 (2021: $29,903 and $98,290), respectively.

 

b)Employee 401(k) Benefit Plan

 

The Company has a defined-contribution savings plan under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. The plan covers all United States based employees. United States based employees eligible to participate in the plan may contribute up to the current statutory limits under the Internal Revenue Service regulations. The 401(k) plan permits the Company to make additional matching contributions on behalf of contributing employees. During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, the Company made $70,940 and $93,622 (2021: $57,484 and $74,040), respectively, in matching contributions under the 401(k) plan.

 

c)Litigation

 

The Company is subject to claims and legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. Such matters are inherently uncertain, and there can be no guarantee that the outcome of any such matter will be decided favorably to the Company or that the resolution of any such matter will not have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company does not believe that any of such pending claims and legal proceedings will have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial statements.

 

F-12 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 6       Commitments and Contingencies – (Continued)

 

d)Share Purchase Warrants

 

A summary of the status of the Company’s outstanding share purchase warrants is presented below:

 

      
      Weighted
      Average
   Number of  Exercise Price
   Shares  ($)
Balance, September 30, 2020    500,000    3.88 
Granted    60,000    12.00 
Exercised    (350,000)   4.19 
Balance, September 30, 2021    210,000    5.69 
Forfeited    (50,000)   12.00 
Balance, March 31, 2022    160,000    3.72 

 

At March 31, 2022, the Company had share purchase warrants outstanding as follows:

 

      
Number  Exercise Price  Expiry Date
 150,000   $3.17   May 6, 2024
 10,000   $12.00   April 21, 2026
 160,000         

 

e)Stock–based Compensation Plan

 

2015 Stock Option Plan

 

On September 18, 2015, the Company’s Board approved a 2015 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”), which provided for the grant of stock options and restricted stock awards to directors, officers, employees and consultants of the Company.

 

The maximum number of our common shares reserved for issue under the plan was 6,050,553 shares, subject to adjustment in the event of a change of the Company’s capitalization.

 

F-13 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 6      Commitments and Contingencies – (Continued)

 

e)Stock-based Compensation Plan – (Continued)

 

2019 Stock Option Plan

 

On January 15, 2019, the Board approved the 2019 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”), which provides for the grant of stock options and restricted stock awards to directors, officers, employees, consultants and advisors of the Company.

 

The maximum number of our common shares reserved for issue under the plan was 6,000,000 shares, subject to adjustment in the event of a change of the Company’s capitalization.

 

At March 31, 2022, 406,453 options previously available under the 2019 Plan and the 2015 Plan became available under the 2022 Plan.

 

2022 Stock Option Plan

 

On March 25, 2022, the Board approved, subject to stockholder approval, the 2022 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2022 Plan”). Under the terms of the 2022 Plan, 10,000,000 additional shares of Common Stock will be available for issuance under the plan, in addition to the shares available under the 2019 Plan and the 2015 Plan. Any awards outstanding under a previous stock option plan will remain subject to and be paid under such plan, and any shares subject to outstanding awards under a previous plan that subsequently cease to be subject to such awards (other than by reason of settlement of the awards in shares) will automatically become available for issuance under the 2022 Plan.

 

The 2022 Plan provides that it may be administered by the Board, or the Board may delegate such responsibility to a committee. The exercise price will be determined by the Board at the time of grant shall be at least equal to the fair market value on such date. If the grantee is a 10% stockholder on the grant date, then the exercise price shall not be less than 110% of fair market value of the Company’s shares of common stock on the grant date. Stock options may be granted under the 2022 Plan for an exercise period of up to ten years from the date of grant of the option or such lesser periods as may be determined by the board, subject to earlier termination in accordance with the terms of the 2022 Plan. At March 31, 2022, no awards had been issued under the 2022 Plan and 10,406,453 options were available for issue under the 2022 Plan, subject to stockholder approval.

 

F-14 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 6 Commitments and Contingencies – (Continued)

 

e)Stock-based Compensation Plan – (Continued)

 

A summary of the status of Company’s outstanding stock options is presented below:

 

               
        Weighted   Weighted    
        Average   Average Grant   Aggregate
    Number of   Exercise Price   Date Fair Value   intrinsic value
    Shares   ($)   ($)   ($)
  Outstanding, September 30, 2020       10,076,266       3.48               14,982,581  
  Granted       2,732,000       12.55       9.32          
  Forfeited       (55,834 )     3.04       2.43          
  Exercised       (1,421,529 )     2.89       2.43       24,446,305  
  Outstanding, September 30, 2021       11,330,903       5.74               140,132,451  
  Granted       300,000       15.16       10.19          
  Forfeited       (103,750 )     5.39       4.04          
  Exercised       (176,834 )     2.81       2.23          
  Outstanding, March 31, 2022       11,350,319       6.04               81,056,222  
  Exercisable, March 31, 2022       8,201,651       3.81               70,271,175  

 

The following summarizes information about stock options at March 31, 2022 by a range of exercise prices:

 

                       
            Weighted            
Range of exercise       average   Weighted       Weighted
prices   Number of   remaining   average   Number of   average
                  outstanding       contractual       exercise       vested       exercise  
  From       To       options       life (in years)       price       options       price  
$ 0.92     $ 2.96       4,108,765       5.67       2.29       4,059,181       2.29  
$ 3.15     $ 4.80       2,097,500       5.85       3.30       1,822,500       3.30  
$ 5.04     $ 8.98       3,347,054       5.91       6.06       2,207,054       6.35  
$ 11.10     $ 17.03       500,000       8.03       13.53       67,916       12.62  
$ 18.11     $ 24.58       1,297,000       9.33       19.39       45,000       24.08  
                  11,350,319                       8,201,651          

 

The weighted average grant date fair value of options vested during the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 was $3.20 (2021: $2.28). At March 31, 2022, the weighted average contractual life of options outstanding was 6.29 years (September 30, 2021: 6.79 years) and for options exercisable was 5.37 years (September 30, 2021: 5.51 years).

 

The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the underlying awards and the quoted market price of the Company’s stock for the options that were in-the-money at March 31, 2022.

 

F-15 

 

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp.

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements

March 31, 2022

(Unaudited)

 

Note 6 Commitments and Contingencies – (Continued)

 

e)Stock-based Compensation Plan – (Continued)

 

               
    Three months ended March 31,   Six months ended March 31,
    2022   2021   2022   2021
General and administrative   $ 1,577,831     $ 793,957     $ 3,249,557     $ 1,216,780  
Research and development     2,861,625       1,052,199       5,098,673       1,568,690  
Total stock-based compensation   $ 4,439,456     $ 1,846,156     $ 8,348,230     $ 2,785,470  

 

During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, the Company recognized stock-based compensation expense of $4,439,456 and $8,348,230 (2021: $1,846,156 and $2,785,470), respectively, in connection with the issuance and vesting of stock options and warrants in exchange for services. These amounts have been included in general and administrative expenses and research and development expenses on the Company’s statement of operations as follows:

 

An amount of approximately $16,030,270 in stock-based compensation is expected to be recorded over the remaining term of such options through fiscal 2025.

 

The fair value of each option award granted during the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 is estimated on the date of grant using the Black Scholes option pricing model based on the following weighted average assumptions:

 

       
    2022   2021
Risk-free interest rate     1.40 %     0.64 %
Expected life of options (years)     4.90       5.64  
Annualized volatility     95.88 %     96.26 %
Dividend rate     0.00 %     0.00 %

 

The fair value of stock compensation charges recognized during the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was determined with reference to the quoted market price of the Company’s shares on the grant date.

 

F-16 

 

  

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q includes forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our anticipated future clinical and regulatory milestone events, future financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” “should,” “forecast,” “could,” “suggest,” “plan” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements regarding:

  

  volatility in our stock and in the markets in general;
  our ability to successfully conduct clinical and preclinical trials for our product candidates;
  our ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms and the impact of such activities on our stockholders and stock price;
  the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and its effect on us;
  our ability to generate any revenue or to continue as a going concern;
  our ability to execute our research and development plan on time and on budget;
  our products’’ ability to demonstrate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile of our product candidates;  
  our ability to obtain the support of qualified scientific collaborators;  
  our ability, whether alone or with commercial partners, to successfully commercialize any of our product candidates that may be approved for sale;  
  our ability to identify and obtain additional product candidates;  
  our reliance on third parties in non-clinical and clinical studies;  
  our ability to defend against product liability claims;  
  ●  our ability to safeguard against security breaches;  
  our ability to obtain and maintain sufficient intellectual property protection for our product candidates;  
  our ability to comply with our intellectual property licensing agreements;  
  our ability to defend against claims of intellectual property infringement;  
  our ability to comply with the maintenance requirements of the government patent agencies;  
  our ability to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world;  
  competition;  
  the anticipated start dates, durations and completion dates of our ongoing and future clinical studies;  
  the anticipated designs of our future clinical studies;  
  the impact of fast track designation on receipt of actual FDA approval;  
  our anticipated future regulatory submissions and our ability to receive regulatory approvals to develop and market our product candidates, including any orphan drug or fast track designations; and  
  our anticipated future cash position.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events, including the responses we expect from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (“FDA”), and other regulatory authorities and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, preclinical and clinical trials, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions including without limitation the risks described in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 24, 2021. These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We cannot assure you that the events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable laws including the securities laws of the United States, we assume no obligation to update or supplement forward-looking statements.

 

4

 

 

As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” and “Anavex” mean Anavex Life Sciences Corp., unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

 

Our Current Business

 

Anavex Life Sciences Corp. is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development of differentiated therapeutics by applying precision medicine to central nervous system (“CNS”) diseases with high unmet need. We analyze genomic data from clinical studies to identify biomarkers, which we use to select patients that will receive the therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

 

Our lead compound, ANAVEX®2-73, is being developed to treat Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and potentially other central nervous system diseases, including rare diseases, such as Rett syndrome, a rare severe neurological monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (“MECP2”).

 

We currently have two core programs and two seed programs. Our core programs are at various stages of clinical and preclinical development, in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

 

The following table summarizes key information about our programs:

 

 

* = Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA; Dashed lines indicate planned clinical studies

 

Anavex has a portfolio of compounds varying in sigma-1 receptor (S1R) binding activities. The SIGMAR1 gene encodes the S1R protein, which is an intracellular chaperone protein with important roles in cellular communication. S1R is also involved in transcriptional regulation at the nuclear envelope and restores homeostasis and stimulates recovery of cell function when activated. In order to validate the ability of our compounds to activate quantitatively the S1R, we performed, in collaboration with Stanford University, a quantitative Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging scan in mice, which demonstrated a dose-dependent ANAVEX®2-73 target engagement or receptor occupancy (RO) with S1R in the brain.

 

5

 

 

 

Source: Reyes S et al., Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 25; 11(1):17150

 

Cellular Homeostasis

 

Many diseases are possibly directly caused by chronic homeostatic imbalances or cellular stress of brain cells. In pediatric diseases like Rett syndrome or infantile spasms, the chronic cellular stress is possibly caused by the presence of a constant genetic mutation. In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, chronic cellular stress is possibly caused by age-correlated buildup of cellular insult and hence chronic cellular stress. Specifically, defects in homeostasis of protein or ribonucleic acid (“RNA”) lead to the death of neurons and dysfunction of the nervous system. The spreading of protein aggregates resulting in a proteinopathy, a characteristic finding in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases that results from disorders of protein synthesis, trafficking, folding, processing or degradation in cells. The clearance of macromolecules in the brain is particularly susceptible to imbalances that result in aggregation and degeneration in nerve cells. For example, Alzheimer’s disease pathology is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, which are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein that are a marker of other diseases known as tauopathies as well as inflammation of microglia. With the SIGMAR1 activation through SIGMAR1 agonists like ANAVEX®2-73, our approach is to restore cellular balance, i.e. homeostasis. Therapies that correct defects in cellular homeostasis might have the potential to halt or delay neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease progression.

 

ANAVEX®2-73-specific Biomarkers

 

A full genomic analysis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients treated with ANAVEX®2-73 resulted in the identification of actionable genetic variants. A significant impact of the genomic biomarkers SIGMAR1, the direct target of ANAVEX®2-73 and COMT, a gene involved in memory function, on the drug response level was identified, leading to an early ANAVEX®2-73-specific biomarker hypothesis. It is expected that excluding patients with SIGMAR1 identified biomarker variant (approximately 10%-20% of the population) in prospective studies would identify approximately 80%-90% patients that would display clinically significant improved functional and cognitive scores.

 

6

 

 

The consistency between the identified DNA and RNA data related to ANAVEX®2-73, which are considered independent of AD pathology, as well as multiple endpoints and time-points, provides support for precision medicine clinical development of ANAVEX®2-73 by using genetic biomarkers identified within the study population itself to target patients who are most likely to respond to ANAVEX®2-73 treatment in AD as well as indications like Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) or Rett syndrome (RTT) in which ANAVEX®2-73 is currently studied.

 

Clinical Studies Overview

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

 

In November 2016, we completed a Phase 2a clinical trial, consisting of PART A and PART B, which lasted a total of 57 weeks, for ANAVEX®2-73 in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s patients. This open-label randomized trial met both primary and secondary endpoints and was designed to assess the safety and exploratory efficacy of ANAVEX®2-73 in 32 patients. ANAVEX®2-73 targets sigma-1 and muscarinic receptors, which have been shown in preclinical studies to reduce stress levels in the brain believed to restore cellular homeostasis and to reverse the pathological hallmarks observed in Alzheimer’s disease. In October 2017, we presented positive pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data from the Phase 2a study, which established a concentration-effect relationship between ANAVEX®2-73 and study measurements. These measures obtained from all patients who participated in the entire 57 weeks include exploratory cognitive and functional scores as well as biomarker signals of brain activity. Additionally, the study appears to show that ANAVEX®2-73 activity is enhanced by its active metabolite (ANAVEX19-144), which also targets the sigma-1 receptor and has a half-life approximately twice as long as the parent molecule.

 

Two consecutive trial extensions for the Phase 2a trial have allowed participants who completed the 52-week PART B of the study to continue taking ANAVEX®2-73, providing an opportunity to gather extended safety data for a cumulative time period of five years. In August 2020, patients completing these Phase 2a trial extensions were granted continued access to treatment with ANAVEX®2-73 through the Australian Government Department of Health – Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) compassionate use Special Access Scheme.

 

A larger Phase 2b/3 double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ANAVEX®2-73 in Alzheimer’s disease commenced in August 2018. The Phase 2b/3 study enrolled 509 patients for 48 weeks, randomized 1:1:1 to two different ANAVEX®2-73 doses or placebo. The trial commenced in Australia; and during fiscal 2020 additional regions were added in the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Germany and Canada. The ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2b/3 study design incorporates genomic precision medicine biomarkers identified in the ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2a study. Primary and secondary endpoints will assess safety and both cognitive and functional efficacy, measured through Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognition (ADAS-Cog), ADCS-ADL and Clinical Dementia Rating – Sum of Boxes for cognition and function (CDR-SB). The study completed enrollment in June 2021, exceeding the 450 patient enrollment target at 52 sites across North America, Europe and Australia.

 

In October 2019, we initiated a long-term open label extension study of ANAVEX®2-73, entitled the ATTENTION-AD study, for patients who have completed the 48-week Phase 2b/3 placebo-controlled trial referenced above. This study is expected to last two years and will give patients the opportunity to continue their treatment. Upon request by patients, caretakers and investigators, this extension study was extended by one further year.

 

Rett Syndrome

 

In February 2016, we presented positive preclinical data for ANAVEX®2-73 in Rett syndrome, a rare neurodevelopmental disease. The study was funded by the International Rett Syndrome Foundation (“Rettsyndrome.org”). In January 2017, we were awarded a financial grant from Rettsyndrome.org of a minimum of $0.6 million to cover some of the costs of a multicenter Phase 2 clinical trial of ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Rett syndrome. This award was received in quarterly instalments which commenced during fiscal 2018.

  

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In March 2019, we commenced the first Phase 2 clinical trial in a planned Rett syndrome program of ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Rett syndrome. The studies will be conducted in a range of patient age demographics and geographic regions, utilizing a convenient oral liquid once-daily formulation of ANAVEX®2-73.

 

The first Phase 2 study, (ANAVEX®2-73-RS-001), which took place in the United States, was completed in December 2020. This trial was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and efficacy study of oral liquid ANAVEX®2-73 formulation in 25 adult female patients with Rett syndrome over a 7-week treatment period including ANAVEX®2-73-specific genomic precision medicine biomarkers. The primary endpoint of the trial was safety. The dosing of 5 mg ANAVEX®2-73 was well-tolerated and demonstrated dose-proportional PK (pharmacokinetics). All secondary efficacy endpoints of the trial showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful response in the Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire (RSBQ AUC) Total scores, when compared to placebo, in the ITT cohort (all participants, p = 0.011). 66.7% of ANAVEX®2-73 treated subjects showed a statistically significant improvement in RSBQ response as compared to 10% of the subjects on placebo in the ITT cohort (all participants, p = 0.011). ANAVEX®2-73 treatment resulted in a sustained improvement in Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scores throughout the 7-week study, when compared to placebo in the ITT cohort (all participants, p = 0.014). Consistent with previous ANAVEX®2-73 clinical trials, patients carrying the common form of the SIGMAR1 gene treated with ANAVEX®2-73 experienced stronger improvements in the prespecified efficacy endpoints.

 

The second, international study of ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Rett syndrome, called the AVATAR study, commenced in June 2019. This study took place in Australia and the United Kingdom using a higher dose than the U.S. based Phase 2 study for Rett syndrome. The study was a Phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ANAVEX®2-73 in 33 patients over a 7-week treatment period including ANAVEX®2-73 specific precision medicine biomarkers. Following the successful completion of the U.S. Phase 2 Rett syndrome study (ANAVEX®2-73-RS-001), and the knowledge gained from it, the endpoints for the AVATAR study (ANAVEX®2-73-RS-002) were appropriately updated according to ICH guidelines and were approved by the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and in Australia by the Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC), where the AVATAR study was conducted. Subsequently the AVATAR study was updated from a Phase 2 to a Phase 3 study.

 

The data of the AVATAR study was released in February 2022. The study met all primary and secondary efficacy and safety endpoints, with consistent improvements in primary efficacy endpoint, RSBQ AUC (p = 0.037) response, and secondary efficacy endpoints, ADAMS (p = 0.010) and CGI-I (p = 0.037) response. Efficacy endpoints demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in Rett syndrome symptoms. Convenient once daily oral liquid doses of up to 30mg of ANAVEX®2-73 were also well tolerated with good medication compliance. All patients who participated in the study are eligible to receive ANAVEX®2-73 under a voluntary open label extension protocol, which is currently ongoing.

 

In July 2020, we commenced the third study of ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Rett syndrome, called the EXCELLENCE study. This Phase 2/3 study in pediatric patients with Rett syndrome will evaluate the safety and efficacy of ANAVEX®2-73 in approximately 84 pediatric patients, aged 5 to 18, over a 12-week treatment period incorporating ANAVEX®2-73 specific precision medicine biomarkers. All patients who participate in the study will be eligible to receive ANAVEX®2-73 under a voluntary open label extension protocol.

 

Parkinson’s Disease

 

In September 2016, we presented positive preclinical data for ANAVEX®2-73 in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease, which demonstrated significant improvements on behavioral, histopathological, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. The study was funded by the Michael J. Fox Foundation. Additional data announced in October 2017 indicates that ANAVEX®2-73 induces robust neurorestoration in experimental Parkinsonism. The encouraging results we have gathered in this model, coupled with the favorable profile of this compound in the Alzheimer’s disease trial, support the notion that ANAVEX®2-73 is a promising clinical candidate drug for Parkinson’s disease dementia.

 

In October 2020, we completed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept Phase 2 trial with ANAVEX®2-73 in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD), to study the effect of the compound on both the cognitive and motor impairment of Parkinson’s disease. The Phase 2 study enrolled approximately 132 patients for 14 weeks, randomized 1:1:1 to two different ANAVEX®2-73 doses, 30mg and 50mg, or placebo. The ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2 PDD study design incorporated genomic precision medicine biomarkers identified in the ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2a Alzheimer’s disease study.

 

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Within this study ANAVEX®2-73 was safe and well tolerated in oral doses up to 50mg once daily. The results show clinically meaningful, dose-dependent, and statistically significant improvements in the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system analysis. Treatment with ANAVEX®2-73 also resulted in clinically meaningful improvements as measured by the global composite score of Parkinson’s disease symptom severity, MDS-UPDRS Total score on top of standard of care including dopaminergic therapy, levodopa and other anti-PD medications after 14 weeks of treatment, suggesting ANAVEX®2-73’s potential global capability of slowing and reversing symptoms that progress in Parkinson’s disease. The study confirmed the precision medicine approach of targeting SIGMAR1 as a genetic biomarker in response to ANAVEX®2-73.

 

In January 2021, we announced we were awarded a research grant of $1.0 million from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research (MJFF) to develop ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The award will explore utilization of PET imaging biomarkers to enable measurement of target engagement and pathway activation of the sigma-1 receptor (SIGMAR1) with clinically relevant doses in people with Parkinson’s disease.

 

Frontotemporal Dementia

 

In July 2020, we commenced the First-in-Human Phase 1 clinical trial of ANAVEX®3-71. ANAVEX®3-71 was previously granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) by the FDA. ANAVEX®3-71 is an orally administered small molecule targeting sigma-1 and M1 muscarinic receptors that is designed to be beneficial for neurodegenerative diseases. In preclinical studies, ANAVEX®3-71 demonstrated disease-modifying activity against the major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice, including cognitive deficits, amyloid and tau pathologies, as well as beneficial effects on mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation.

 

The Phase 1 clinical trial was a prospective double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 36 healthy male and female subjects were included. Single escalating doses of ANAVEX®3-71 were administered in order to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ANAVEX®3-71 and the effects of food and gender on its PK in healthy volunteers.

 

The study met its primary and secondary endpoints of safety, with no serious adverse events (SAEs) or dose-limiting toxicities observed. ANAVEX®3-71 was well tolerated in all cohorts receiving ANAVEX®3-71 in single doses ranging from 5 mg to 200 mg daily with no SAEs and no significant lab abnormalities in any subject. In the study, ANAVEX®3-71 exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. Its pharmacokinetics was also dose proportional for doses up to 160 mg. Gender had no effect on the PK of the drug and food had no effect on the bioavailability of ANAVEX®3-71. The study also met the secondary objective of characterizing the effect of ANAVEX®3-71 on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. There were no clinically significant ECG parameters throughout the study. Participant QTcF measures were normal across all dose groups with no difference between ANAVEX®3-71 and placebo.

 

Based on these results, and ANAVEX®3-71 pre-clinical profile, the Company intends to advance ANAVEX®3-71 into a biomarker-driven clinical development dementia program for the treatment of FTD, schizophrenias and Alzheimer’s disease, evaluating longitudinal effect of treatment with ANAVEX®3-71. We believe the results of these studies could serve as the basis for advancing into respective registration studies in the U.S.

 

Our Pipeline

 

Our research and development pipeline includes ANAVEX®2-73 currently in three different clinical study indications, and several other compounds in different stages of clinical and pre-clinical study.

 

Our proprietary SIGMACEPTOR™ Discovery Platform produced small molecule drug candidates with unique modes of action, based on our understanding of sigma receptors. Sigma receptors may be targets for therapeutics to combat many human diseases, both of neurodegenerative nature, including Alzheimer’s disease, as well as of neurodevelopmental nature, like Rett syndrome. When bound by the appropriate ligands, sigma receptors influence

 

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the functioning of multiple biochemical signals that are involved in the pathogenesis (origin or development) of disease. Multiple viruses including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) induce cellular stress by intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and other related cellular processes, in order to ensure survival and replication. Hence, it is possible that S1R could play a role in modulating the cellular response to viral infection and ameliorate pathogenesis.

 

Compounds that have been subjects of our research include the following:

 

ANAVEX®2-73 (blarcamesine)

 

ANAVEX®2-73 may offer a disease-modifying approach in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases by activation of sigma-1 receptors.

 

In Rett syndrome, administration of ANAVEX®2-73 resulted in both significant and dose related improvements in an array of behavioral paradigms in the MECP2 HET Rett syndrome disease model. In addition, in a further experiment sponsored by Rettsyndrome.org, ANAVEX®2-73 was evaluated in automatic visual response and respiration tests in 7-month old mice, an age at which advanced pathology is evident. Vehicle-treated MECP2 mice demonstrated fewer automatic visual responses than wild-type mice. Treatment with ANAVEX®2-73 for four weeks significantly increased the automatic visual response in the MECP2 Rett syndrome disease mice. Additionally, chronic oral dosing daily for 6.5 weeks of ANAVEX®2-73 starting at ~5.5 weeks of age was conducted in the MECP2 HET Rett syndrome disease mouse model assessed the different aspects of muscular coordination, balance, motor learning and muscular strengths, some of the core deficits observed in Rett syndrome. Administration of ANAVEX®2-73 resulted in both significant and dose related improvements in an array of these behavioral paradigms in the MECP2 HET Rett syndrome disease model.

 

In May 2016 and June 2016, the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of Rett syndrome and infantile spasms, respectively. In November 2019, the FDA granted to ANAVEX®2-73 the Rare Pediatric Disease (RPD) designation for the treatment of Rett syndrome. The RPD designation provides priority review by the FDA to encourage the development of treatments for rare pediatric diseases.

 

Further, in February 2020, the FDA granted Fast Track designation for the ANAVEX®2-73 clinical development program for the treatment of Rett syndrome. The FDA Fast Track program is designed to facilitate and expedite the development and review of new drugs to address unmet medical needs in the treatment of serious and life-threatening conditions.

 

For Parkinson’s disease, data demonstrates significant improvements and restoration of function in a disease modifying animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Significant improvements were seen on all measures tested: behavioral, histopathological, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. In October 2020, we completed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept Phase 2 trial with ANAVEX®2-73 in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD), to study the effect of the compound on both the cognitive and motor impairment of Parkinson’s disease. The Phase 2 study enrolled approximately 132 patients for 14 weeks, randomized 1:1:1 to two different ANAVEX®2-73 doses, 30mg and 50mg, or placebo. The ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2 PDD study design incorporated genomic precision medicine biomarkers identified in the ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2a Alzheimer’s disease study.

 

The study found that ANAVEX®2-73 was safe and well tolerated in oral doses up to 50mg once daily. The results show clinically meaningful, dose-dependent, and statistically significant improvements in the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system analysis. We anticipate conducting further clinical trials of ANAVEX®2-73 in Parkinson’s disease dementia after submitting the results of the study to the FDA to obtain regulatory guidance.

 

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal models, ANAVEX®2-73 has shown pharmacological, histological and behavioral evidence as a potential neuroprotective, anti-amnesic, anti-convulsive and anti-depressive therapeutic agent, due to its potent affinity to sigma-1 receptors and moderate affinities to M1-4 type muscarinic receptors. In addition, ANAVEX®2-73 has shown a potential dual mechanism which may impact amyloid, tau pathology and inflammation. In a transgenic AD animal model Tg2576, ANAVEX®2-73 induced a statistically significant neuroprotective effect against the development of oxidative stress in the mouse brain, as well as significantly increased the expression of functional and synaptic plasticity markers that is apparently amyloid-beta independent. It also statistically alleviated the learning and memory deficits developed over time in the animals, regardless of sex, both in terms of spatial working memory and long-term spatial reference memory.

 

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Based on the results of pre-clinical testing, we initiated and completed a Phase 1 single ascending dose (SAD) clinical trial of ANAVEX®2-73. In this Phase 1 SAD trial, the maximum tolerated single dose was defined per protocol as 55-60 mg. This dose is above the equivalent dose shown to have positive effects in mouse models of AD. There were no significant changes in laboratory or electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. ANAVEX®2-73 was well tolerated below the 55-60 mg dose with only mild adverse events in some subjects. Observed adverse events at doses above the maximum tolerated single dose included headache and dizziness, which were moderate in severity and reversible. These side effects are often seen with drugs that target CNS conditions, including AD.

 

In December 2014, a Phase 2a clinical trial was initiated for ANAVEX®2-73, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The open-label randomized trial was designed to assess the safety and exploratory efficacy of ANAVEX®2-73 in 32 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. ANAVEX®2-73 is an orally available drug candidate that restores cellular homeostasis by targeting sigma-1 and muscarinic receptors. Preclinical studies demonstrated its potential to halt and/or reverse the course of Alzheimer’s. The Phase 2a study met both primary and secondary objectives of the study.

 

In July 2018, we presented the results of a genomic DNA and RNA evaluation of the participants in the Phase 2a study. More than 33,000 genes were analyzed using unbiased, data driven, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI) system for analyzing DNA & RNA data in patients exposed to ANAVEX®2-73. The analysis identified genetic variants that impacted response to ANAVEX®2-73, among them variants related to the Sigma-1 receptor (SIGMAR1), the target for ANAVEX®2-73. Results showed that study participants with the common SIGMAR1 wild type gene variant, which is about 80 percent of the population worldwide, demonstrated improved cognitive (MMSE) and the functional (ADCS-ADL) scores. The results from this evaluation have been used to establish a precision medicine approach in subsequent clinical trials, since these signatures can now be applied to neurological indications tested in clinical studies with ANAVEX®2-73 including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia and Rett syndrome.

 

ANAVEX®2-73 data presented met prerequisite information in order to progress into a Phase 2b/3 placebo-controlled study. On July 2, 2018, the Human Research Ethics Committee in Australia approved the initiation of our Phase 2b/3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 48-week safety and efficacy trial of ANAVEX®2-73 for the treatment of early Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical trial sites in Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany were also added. This Phase 2b/3 study design incorporates inclusion of genomic precision medicine biomarkers identified in the ANAVEX®2-73 Phase 2a study. The Phase 2b/3 study, which commenced in October 2018, randomized 1:1:1 to either two different ANAVEX®2-73 doses or placebo, completed enrollment in June 2021.

 

Preclinical data also validates ANAVEX®2-73 as a prospective platform drug for other neurodegenerative diseases beyond Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or Rett syndrome, more specifically, epilepsy, infantile spasms, Fragile X syndrome, Angelman syndrome, multiple sclerosis and, more recently, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). ANAVEX®2-73 demonstrated significant improvements in all of these indications in the respective preclinical animal models.

 

In a study sponsored by the Foundation for Angelman Syndrome, ANAVEX®2-73 was assessed in a mouse model for the development of audiogenic seizures. The results indicated that ANAVEX®2-73 administration significantly reduced audiogenic-induced seizures. In a study sponsored by FRAXA Research Foundation regarding Fragile X syndrome, data demonstrated that ANAVEX®2-73 restored hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression to normal levels. BDNF under-expression has been observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative pathologies. BDNF signaling promotes maturation of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. ANAVEX®2-73 normalization of BDNF expression could be a contributing factor for the positive data observed in both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders like Angelman and Fragile X syndromes.

 

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Preclinical data presented also indicates that ANAVEX®2-73 demonstrates protective effects of mitochondrial enzyme complexes during pathological conditions, which, if impaired, are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

 

Preclinical data on ANAVEX®2-73 related to multiple sclerosis indicates that ANAVEX®2-73 may promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis disease. Further, data also demonstrates that ANAVEX®2-73 provides protection for oligodendrocytes (“OL’s”) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (“OPC’s”), as well as central nervous system neurons in addition to helping repair by increasing OPC proliferation and maturation in tissue culture.

 

In March 2018, we presented preclinical data of ANAVEX®2-73 in a genetic mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (“TSC”). TSC is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous benign tumors in many parts of the body with a high incidence of seizures. The preclinical data demonstrates that treatment with ANAVEX®2-73 significantly increases survival and reduces seizures.

 

ANAVEX®3-71

 

ANAVEX®3-71 is a clinical drug candidate with a novel mechanism of action via sigma-1 receptor activation and M1 muscarinic allosteric modulation, which has been shown to enhance neuroprotection and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease models. ANAVEX®3-71 is a CNS-penetrable potential disease modifying treatment for cognitive impairments. It is highly effective in very small doses against the major Alzheimer’s hallmarks in transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice, including cognitive deficits, amyloid and tau pathologies, and also has beneficial effects on inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunctions. ANAVEX®3-71 indicates extensive therapeutic advantages in Alzheimer’s and other protein-aggregation-related diseases given its ability to enhance neuroprotection and cognition via sigma-1 receptor activation and M1 muscarinic allosteric modulation.

 

A preclinical study examined the response of ANAVEX®3-71 in aged transgenic animal models and showed a significant reduction in the rate of cognitive deficit, amyloid beta pathology and inflammation with the administration of ANAVEX 3-71. In April 2016, the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to ANAVEX®3-71 for the treatment of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD).

 

During pathological conditions ANAVEX®3-71 demonstrated the formation of new synapses between neurons (synaptogenesis) without causing an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, synaptogenesis is believed to be impaired. Additional preclinical data presented also indicates that in addition to reducing oxidative stress, ANAVEX®3-71 demonstrates protective effects of mitochondrial enzyme complexes during pathological conditions, which, if impaired, are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

 

In July 2020, we commenced the first Phase 1 clinical trial of ANAVEX®3-71. The study took place in Australia and was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 1 trial to evaluate safety and tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral escalating doses of ANAVEX®3-71 including effects of food and gender in healthy volunteers The study met its primary and secondary endpoints of safety, respectively with no serious adverse events (SAEs) or dose-limiting toxicities observed, as more fully described above under Clinical Studies Overview – Frontotemporal Dementia.

 

Based on these results, and ANAVEX®3-71 pre-clinical profile, the Company intends to advance ANAVEX®3-71 into a biomarker-driven clinical development dementia program for the treatment of FTD, schizophrenias and Alzheimer’s disease, evaluating longitudinal effect of treatment with ANAVEX®3-71. Anavex believes the results of these studies, could serve as the basis for advancing into respective registration studies in the U.S.

 

ANAVEX®1-41

 

ANAVEX®1-41 is a sigma-1 agonist. Pre-clinical tests revealed significant neuroprotective benefits (i.e., protects nerve cells from degeneration or death) through the modulation of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial and oxidative stress, which damages and impairs cell viability. In addition, in animal models, ANAVEX®1-41 prevented the expression of caspase-3, an enzyme that plays a key role in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and loss of cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that regulates learning, emotion and memory. These activities involve both muscarinic and sigma-1 receptor systems through a novel mechanism of action.

 

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Preclinical data presented also indicates that ANAVEX®1-41 demonstrates protective effects of mitochondrial enzyme complexes during pathological conditions, which, if impaired, are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.

 

ANAVEX®1066

 

ANAVEX®1066, a mixed sigma-1/sigma-2 ligand, is designed for the potential treatment of neuropathic and visceral pain. ANAVEX®1066 was tested in two preclinical models of neuropathic and visceral pain that have been extensively validated in rats. In the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, a single oral administration of ANAVEX®1066 dose-dependently restored the nociceptive threshold in the affected paw to normal levels while leaving the contralateral healthy paw unchanged. Efficacy was rapid and remained significant for two hours. In a model of visceral pain, chronic colonic hypersensitivity was induced by injection of an inflammatory agent directly into the colon and a single oral administration of ANAVEX®1066 returned the nociceptive threshold to control levels in a dose-dependent manner. Companion studies in rats demonstrated the lack of any effects on normal gastrointestinal transit with ANAVEX®1066 and a favorable safety profile in a battery of behavioral measures.

 

ANAVEX®1037

 

ANAVEX®1037 is designed for the treatment of prostate and pancreatic cancer. It is a low molecular weight, synthetic compound exhibiting high affinity for sigma-1 receptors at nanomolar levels and moderate affinity for sigma-2 receptors and sodium channels at micromolar levels. In advanced pre-clinical studies, this compound revealed antitumor potential. It has also been shown to selectively kill human cancer cells without affecting normal/healthy cells and also to significantly suppress tumor growth in immune-deficient mice models. Scientific publications highlight the possibility that these ligands may stop tumor growth and induce selective cell death in various tumor cell lines. Sigma receptors are highly expressed in different tumor cell types. Binding by appropriate sigma-1 and/or sigma-2 ligands can induce selective apoptosis. In addition, through tumor cell membrane reorganization and interactions with ion channels, our drug candidates may play an important role in inhibiting the processes of metastasis (spreading of cancer cells from the original site to other parts of the body), angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and tumor cell proliferation.

 

Our compounds are in the pre-clinical and clinical testing stages of development, and there is no guarantee that the activity demonstrated in pre-clinical models will be shown in human testing.

 

We continue to identify and initiate discussions with potential strategic and commercial partners to most effectively advance our programs and realize maximum shareholder value. Further, we may acquire or develop new intellectual property and assign, license, or otherwise transfer our intellectual property to further our goals.

 

Our Target Indications

 

We have developed compounds with potential application to two broad categories and several specific indications. including:

 

Central Nervous System Diseases

 

  Alzheimer’s disease – In 2021, an estimated 5.7 million Americans were suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. The Alzheimer’s Association® estimates that by 2050, this number will rise to nearly 14 million Americans. Medications on the market today treat only the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and do not have the ability to stop its onset or its progression. There is an urgent and unmet need for both a disease modifying cure for Alzheimer’s disease as well as for better symptomatic treatments.

 

  Parkinson’s disease – Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremors, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Parkinson’s disease afflicts more than 10 million people worldwide, typically middle-aged and elderly people. The Parkinson’s disease market is expected to expand to $11.5 billion by 2029, according to business intelligence provider GBI Research.

  

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  Rett syndrome – Rett syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic neurological and developmental disorder that affects the way the brain develops, including protein transcription, which is altered and as a result leads to severe disruptions in neuronal homeostasis. It is considered a rare, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder and is caused by a single mutation in the MECP2 gene. Because males have a different chromosome combination from females, boys who have the genetic MECP2 mutation are affected in devastating ways. Most of them die before birth or in early infancy. For females who survive infancy, Rett syndrome leads to severe impairments, affecting nearly every aspect of the child’s life; severe mental retardation, their ability to speak, walk and eat, sleeping problems, seizures and even the ability to breathe easily. Rett syndrome affects approximately 1 in every 10,000-15,000 females.

 

  Depression – Depression is a major cause of morbidity worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Pharmaceutical treatment for depression is dominated by blockbuster brands, with the leading nine brands historically accounting for approximately 75% of total sales. However, the dominance of the leading brands is waning, largely due to the effects of patent expiration and generic competition.

 

  Epilepsy – Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms of abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2015 epilepsy affected 3.4 million Americans. Today, epilepsy is often controlled, but not cured, with medication that is categorized as older traditional anti-epileptic drugs and second generation anti-epileptic drugs. Because epilepsy afflicts sufferers in different ways, there is a need for drugs used in combination with both traditional anti-epileptic drugs and second generation anti-epileptic drugs.

 

  Neuropathic Pain – We define neuralgia, or neuropathic pain, as pain that is not related to activation of pain receptor cells in any part of the body. Neuralgia is more difficult to treat than some other types of pain because it does not respond well to normal pain medications. Special medications have become more specific to neuralgia and typically fall under the category of membrane stabilizing drugs or antidepressants.

 

Cancer

 

  Malignant Melanoma – Predominantly a skin cancer, malignant melanoma can also occur in melanocytes found in the bowel and the eye. Malignant melanoma accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor, adjuvant treatment, chemo and immunotherapy, or radiation therapy. According to iHealthcareAnalyst, Inc. the worldwide malignant melanoma market is expected to grow to $6.4 billion by 2027.

 

  Prostate Cancer – Specific to men, prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. The cancer cells may metastasize from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Drug therapeutics for prostate cancer are expected to increase to nearly $13.5 billion in 2024 according to Datamonitor Healthcare.

 

  Pancreatic Cancer – Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. In the United States, approximately 55,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer will be diagnosed this year and approximately 44,000 patients will die as a result of their cancer, according to the American Cancer Society. Sales predictions by FutureWise forecast that the market for the global pharmaceutical treatment of pancreatic cancer will increase to $4.7 billion by 2027.

  

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Patents, Trademarks and Intellectual Property

 

We hold ownership or exclusive rights to fifteen U.S. patents, sixteen U.S. patent applications, and various PCT or ex-U.S. patent applications relating to our drug candidates, methods associated therewith, and to our research programs.

 

We own one issued U.S. patent entitled “ANAVEX®2-73 and certain anticholinesterase inhibitors composition and method for neuroprotection” claims a composition of matter of ANAVEX®2-73 directed to a novel and synergistic neuroprotective compound combined with donepezil and other cholinesterase inhibitors. This patent is expected to expire in June 2034, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. We own three issued U.S. patents each with claims directed to crystalline forms of ANAVEX®2-73. The first of these three patents claims crystalline forms of ANAVEX®2-73, dosage forms and compositions containing crystalline ANAVEX®2-73, and methods of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease using them. This patent is expected to expire in July 2036, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. The second of these three patents claims pharmaceutical compositions containing a crystalline form of ANAVEX®2-73, and methods of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease using the compositions. This patent is expected to expire in June 2037, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. The third of these three patents claims pharmaceutical compositions containing a crystalline form of ANAVEX®2-73, and methods of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease using the compositions. This patent is expected to expire in June 2037, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. We also own two issued U.S. patents for seizure treatment. The first of these two patents claims methods and dosage forms for treating seizures, the dosage forms containing a low-dose anti-epilepsy drug combined with either: (i) ANAVEX®2-73 and its active metabolite ANAVEX®19-144; or (ii) ANAVEX®19-144. The second of these two patents further claims a combination seizure treatment involving administration of an anti-epilepsy drug combined with (i) ANAVEX®19-144, or (ii) ANAVEX 19-144® and ANAVEX 2-73®. Both patents are expected to expire in October 2035, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. We also own two issued U.S. patents with claims directed to treating neurodevelopmental disorders. These patents claim methods for treating a neurodevelopmental disorder or multiple sclerosis by administering ANAVEX®2-73, ANAVEX®19-144, and/or ANAVEX®1-41 (another sigma receptor ligand similar to ANAVEX®2-73), or compositions thereof. Both patents are expected to expire in January 2037, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. In addition, we own one issued U.S. Patent with claims directed to methods of treating melanoma with a compound related to ANAVEX®2-73. This patent is expected to expire in February 2030, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. We also own an issued U.S. patent that claims crystalline forms of ANAVEX®19-144, dosage forms and compositions containing the crystalline forms of ANAVEX®19-144, and methods of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. This patent is expected to expire in July 2036, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. Further, we own one issued U.S. Patent with claims directed to methods of treating cardiac dysfunction with ANAVEX®2-73 . This patent is expected to expire in July 2038, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays.

 

We also own two issued U.S. patents related to ANAVEX®1066. The first of these two patents claims methods for treating or preventing pain using (+) ANAVEX®1066 isomer. The second patent claims methods for treating or preventing pain using (-) ANAVEX®1066 isomer. Both patents are expected to expire in November 2036, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays.

 

For ANAVEX®2-73, ANAVEX®19-144, ANAVEX®1-41, and ANAVEX®1066, we also have granted or pending applications in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Japan, and Hong Kong, which are expected to expire after 2035.

 

With regard to ANAVEX®3-71, we own exclusive rights to two issued U.S. patents with claims respectively directed to the ANAVEX®3-71 compound and methods of treating various diseases including Alzheimer’s with the same. These patents are expected to expire in April 2030, and January 2030, respectively, absent any patent term extension for regulatory delays. We also own exclusive rights to related patents or applications that are granted or pending in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Russia, and South Africa, which are expected to expire in January 2030.

 

We also own other patent applications directed to enantiomers, crystals, formulations, uses, and patient selection methods that may provide additional protection for one or more of our product candidates.

 

We regard patents and other intellectual property rights as corporate assets. Accordingly, we attempt to optimize the value of intellectual property in developing our business strategy including the selective development, protection, and exploitation of our intellectual property rights. In addition to filings made with intellectual property authorities, we protect our intellectual property and confidential information by means of carefully considered processes of communication and the sharing of information, and by the use of confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements and provisions for the same in contractor’s agreements. While no agreement offers absolute protection, such agreements provide some form of recourse in the event of disclosure, or anticipated disclosure.

 

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Our intellectual property position, like that of many biomedical companies, is uncertain and involves complex legal and technical questions for which important legal principles are unresolved. For more information regarding challenges to our existing or future patents, see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 24, 2021.

 

Financial Highlights

 

We are in the development stage and have not earned any revenues since our inception in 2004. We do not anticipate earning any revenues until we can establish an alliance with other companies to develop, co-develop, license, acquire or market our products.

 

Our operating costs consist primarily of research and development activities including the cost of clinical studies and clinical supplies as well as clinical drug manufacturing and formulation. Research and development expenses also include personnel related costs such as salaries and wages, and third-party contract research organization (CRO) expenses in support of these clinical studies. Personnel costs include salaries and wages, benefits, and non-cash stock-based compensation charges associated with options and other equity awards granted to employees and consultants who are directly engaged in support of our research and development activities.

 

 General and administrative expenses consist of personnel costs, expenses for outside professional services and expenses associated with operating as a public company. Personnel costs consist of salaries and wages, benefits and stock-based compensation for general and administrative personnel. Outside professional services and public company expenses include expenses related to compliance and reporting, additional insurance expenses, audit and SOX compliance, expenses associated with patent research, applications and filings, investor and shareholder relations activities and other administrative expenses and professional services.

 

Comparison of the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

 

During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, we continued to advance enrollment of our EXCELLENCE international Phase 2/3 pediatric Rett syndrome clinical trial. We have activated clinical sites in the United Kingdom and Canada to access additional patient populations and we are actively recruiting in these new regions.

 

We also continued to advance our double blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2b/3 study for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease as planned, which study completed enrollment in June 2021. Additionally, we continued to run open label extensions of our recently completed AVATAR study and the Phase 2 clinical trial in Parkinsons Disease Dementia.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Total operating expenses for the second quarter of fiscal 2022 were $11.5 million, compared to $9.0 million for the comparable second quarter of fiscal 2021. Total operating expenses for the first half of fiscal 2022 were $23.2 million compared to $18.4 million for the same period in fiscal 2021.

 

General and administrative expenses were $2.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $2.2 million for the second quarter of fiscal 2021. Similarly, general and administrative expenses were $6.0 million for the six months ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $3.7 million for the six months ended March 31, 2021. The increase in general and administrative expense is primarily related to (i) an increase in non-cash stock option compensation charges of $0.8 million and $2.0 million, in the three and six month periods respectively, in connection with the vesting of stock options to an expanding team and (ii) an increase in corporate insurance costs.

 

Our research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 were $8.6 million, as compared to $6.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. Our research and development expenses were $17.3 million for the six-month period ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $14.6 million for the comparable six-month period in 2021. The increase in research and development expenses is primarily driven by an increase in non-cash stock option compensation charges of $1.8 million and $3.5 million in the three and six month periods respectively, associated with an expanding team directly engaged in support of ongoing research and development activities. For the six-month period ended March 31, 2022, this increase was partially offset by a decrease in clinical trial expenditures over the comparable period, associated with the completion of Phase 2 trial with ANAVEX®2-73 in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD) and completed enrollment and recruitment activities associated with our Phase 2b/3 trial in Alzheimer’s disease.

 

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Other income (net)

 

The net amount of other income for the three months ended March 31, 2022 was $1.1 million as compared to $0.8 million for the comparable three months ended March 31, 2021 and $2.0 million for the six-month period as compared to $2.4 million for the comparable six-month period in fiscal 2021. The increase in other income for the three-month period is related to differences in foreign exchange fluctuations of the Australian dollar against the US dollar as they relate to incentive and tax receivables denominated in Australian Dollars. The decrease in other income for the six-month period is attributable to a decrease in Australian research and development incentive income in connection with the decrease in eligible clinical activities in Australia over the comparable period such as the completion of the ANAVEX®3-71 Phase 1 clinical study.

 

Foreign exchange gains during the period are primarily related to the fluctuations in the Australian dollar against the US dollar and its related impact on incentive and tax receivables during the period.

 

Net loss

 

Net loss for the second quarter of fiscal 2022 was $10.4 million, or $0.14 per share, as compared to $8.2 million, or $0.12 per share in the comparative second quarter of fiscal 2021 and $21.3 million, or $0.28 per share, for the six-month period ended March 31, 2022, as compared to $16.0 million, or $0.24 per share in the comparative six-month period ended March 31, 2021.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Working Capital

 

    March 31, 2022   September 30, 2021
Current Assets   $ 160,276,148     $ 161,616,490  
Current Liabilities     8,071,107       10,798,386  
Working Capital   $ 152,205,041     $ 150,818,104  

 


At March 31, 2022, we held $153.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, an increase of $1.2 million from September 30, 2021. Cash used in operations was $13.1 million for the six-month period ended March 31, 2022, compared to $15.2 million in the comparable six-month period ended March 31, 2021. We received cash from financing activities of $14.4 million, primarily from the issuance of shares of common stock under the Sales Agreement (as defined below).

 

We intend to continue to use our capital resources to advance our clinical trials for ANAVEX®2-73 and ANAVEX®3-71, and to perform work necessary to prepare for future development of our pipeline compounds.

 

Cash Flows

 

    Six months ended March 31,
    2022   2021
Net cash flows used in operating activities   $ (13,140,439 )   $ (15,188,223 )
Net cash flows from financing activities     14,375,250       61,798,544  
Increase in cash and cash equivalents   $ 1,234,811     $ 46,610,321  

 

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Cash flow used in operating activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities for the six months ended March 31, 2022 was $13.1 million, compared to $15.2 million during the comparable six months ended March 31, 2021. The principal reason for this decrease in net cash used in operating activities in the current period is due to the receipt of research and development incentive tax refunds during the period, as compared to no such receipts during the comparable period.

 

Cash flow provided by financing activities

 

Cash provided by financing activities for the six months ended March 31, 2022 was $14.4 million, primarily attributable to cash received from the issuance of common shares at various market prices under the Sales Agreement

 

Cash provided by financing activities for the six months ended March 31, 2021 was $61.8 million, attributable to cash received from the issuance of common shares at various market prices under the 2019 Purchase Agreement and the Sales Agreement.

 

Other Financing

 

Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement

 

On May 1, 2020, we entered into an Amended and Restated Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and SVB Leerink LLC (the “Sales Agents”), pursuant to which we may offer and sell shares of common stock registered under an effective registration statement from time to time through the Sales Agents (the “At-the-Market Offering”).

 

Upon delivery of a placement notice based on our instructions and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Sales Agents may sell shares of common stock by methods deemed to be an “at the market offering”, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, or by any other method permitted by law, including negotiated transactions, subject to our prior written consent. We are not obligated to make any sales of shares under the Sales Agreement. We or the Sales Agents may suspend or terminate the At-the-Market Offering upon notice to the other party, subject to certain conditions. The Sales Agents will act as agents on a commercially reasonable efforts basis consistent with their normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal law, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq.

 

We have agreed to pay the Sales Agents commissions for their services of 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sale of the shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to provide the Sales Agents with customary indemnification and contribution rights.

 

During the six months ended March 31, 2022, 1,066,389 shares were sold pursuant to the At-the-Market Offering for gross proceeds of $14.8 million (net proceeds of $14.3 million after deducting commissions and offering expenses).

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to our stockholders.

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

We prepare our interim condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and make estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and the related disclosures of contingent liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable in the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

 

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There have been no significant changes in the critical accounting policies and estimates described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2021 as filed with the SEC on November 24, 2021.

 

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

 

Please refer to Note 2 “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in notes to our Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-Q.

 

ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS.

 

Not applicable

 

ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to provide reasonable assurance that material information required to be disclosed in our periodic reports filed under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and to provide reasonable assurance that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, our chief executive officer and our principal financial officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

We carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a 15(e) under the Exchange Act, as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of March 31, 2022.

 

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

 

During the quarter ended March 31, 2022, there were no changes to our internal control over financial reporting identified in management’s evaluation pursuant to Rules 13a 15(d) or 15d 15 (d) of the Exchange Act that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal controls over financial reporting.

 

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

 

ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

We know of no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business, to which our Company or our subsidiary is a party or of which any of their property is subject. There are no proceedings in which any of our directors, officers or affiliates, or any registered or beneficial stockholder holding more than 5% of our shares, is an adverse party or has a material interest adverse to our or our subsidiary’s interest.

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

There have been no material changes to the risk factors discussed in “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 filed with the SEC on November 24, 2021.

 

ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

During the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we have not sold any equity securities that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933 that were not previously reported in a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

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ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES

 

None

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION

 

None

 

ITEM 6. EXHIBIT 

 

Exhibit
Number

Description
(3) Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws
3.1 Articles of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2021 filed on November 24, 2021)
3.2 Bylaws (incorporated by reference to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 28, 2007)
(31) Rule 13a-14(a)/15(d)-14(a)Certifications
31.1* Certification of Christopher Missling, PhD.
31.2* Certification of Sandra Boenisch
(32) Section 1350 Certifications
32.1** Certification of Christopher Missling, PhD and Sandra Boenisch.
(101) XBRL
101.INS* XBRL INSTANCE DOCUMENT
101.SCH* XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION SCHEMA
101.CAL* XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION CALCULATION LINKBASE
101.DEF* XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION DEFINITION LINKBASE
101.LAB* XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION LABEL LINKBASE
101.PRE* XBRL TAXONOMY EXTENSION PRESENTATION LINKBASE

 

* Filed herewith.

 

** Furnished herewith.

 

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SIGNATURES

  

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

ANAVEX LIFE SCIENCES CORP.

  

/s/Christopher Missling, PhD  
   
Christopher Missling, PhD  
Chief Executive Officer  
(Principal Executive Officer)  
Date: May 10, 2022  

  

/s/Sandra Boenisch  
   
Sandra Boenisch, CPA, CGA  
Principal Financial Officer  
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)  
Date: May 10, 2022  

 

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