10-K 1 awi-20231231.htm 10-K 10-K
FYtrue0.3333false0000007431--12-31http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RealEstateMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#RealEstateMemberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossPensionAndOtherPostretirementBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#BusinessCombinationContingentConsiderationArrangementsChangeInAmountOfContingentConsiderationLiability1http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitiesNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitiesNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossNetOfTaxhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherComprehensiveIncomeLossNetOfTax07-08-20262023-032023-052023-082023-112024-032016-10-3100000074312023-07-012023-07-310000007431awi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:SeniorNotesMember2023-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPlansMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LetterOfCreditMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMembersrt:PartnershipInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310000007431country:USawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000007431awi:TermLoanMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetPriorServiceCostCreditMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:CustomerOneAndTwoMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchTenTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:InsolcorpLLCMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MeasurementInputPriceVolatilityMemberawi:InsolcorpLLCMember2023-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-12-310000007431awi:ElizabethCityMember2007-01-012007-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2023-12-310000007431country:USawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-012022-11-300000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310000007431awi:GcProductsIncMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-11-012022-11-300000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToNovemberTwentyTwentySevenMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312023-06-300000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:PatentsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-012023-07-3100000074312022-08-310000007431country:USawi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:EquitiesRealEstateAndPrivateEquityMember2022-12-310000007431awi:MaconSiteMember2010-09-012010-09-300000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToNovemberTwentyTwentySevenMember2023-12-3100000074312023-02-012023-02-280000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2022-12-310000007431awi:OtherIntangiblesMemberawi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-12-310000007431awi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-012023-07-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2023-12-310000007431awi:GcProductsIncMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-11-300000007431us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431country:USawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-012023-07-3100000074312021-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2022-12-3100000074312022-10-012022-10-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431country:USawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:PhantomShareUnitsPSUsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:BokModernLlcMemberawi:TechnologyMember2023-07-012023-07-310000007431awi:TwoThousandTwentyTwoEcipMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431awi:EmployeeRetentionCreditMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:BondsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2020-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToJuneTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:GoodwillMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2020-12-310000007431us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMembersrt:PartnershipInterestMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:CanadaLocationsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2022-12-310000007431srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:MeasurementInputDefaultRateMemberawi:InsolcorpLLCMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2023-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312022-12-0700000074312022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-310000007431srt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-02-142024-02-140000007431us-gaap:BuildingMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431awi:LongDurationBondMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:UnitedStatesLocationsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CapitalLossCarryforwardMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2022-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchTenTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetPriorServiceCostCreditMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:PatentsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-310000007431awi:NonUSDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2022-12-310000007431awi:CustomerOneAndTwoMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:MarketBasedPerformanceStockAwardsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:TrademarksAndTradeNamesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToJuneTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2022-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:EuropeMiddleEastAndAfricaIncludingRussiaAndPacificRimBusinessesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandTwentyInducementAwardPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:BuildingMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPlansMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:PhantomShareUnitsPSUsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:ArmstrongFlooringIncMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:LongTermDebt1Member2022-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToDecemberTwentyTwentyFiveMember2023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MaintenanceMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberawi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-300000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:RevolvingCreditFacilityDue2027Member2022-12-310000007431awi:OtherIntangiblesMemberawi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2022-12-310000007431awi:TrademarksAndBrandNamesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000007431country:USawi:MineralFiberMember2022-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431country:USawi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310000007431srt:PartnershipInterestMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2022-12-310000007431awi:MarketBasedPerformanceStockAwardsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMemberawi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-300000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberawi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2022-12-310000007431awi:StateTaxCreditsMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:BokModernLlcMemberawi:TechnologyMember2023-07-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:July2018ProgramMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2016-07-290000007431us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-310000007431srt:MinimumMemberawi:RefinancedSeniorCreditFacilityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetGainLossIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431country:USawi:MineralFiberMember2023-12-310000007431awi:LongTermDebt1Member2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:December2026ProgramMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2016-07-290000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberawi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:NonUSDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:ShareRepurchaseProgramExcludingAcceleratedShareRepurchaseMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:BondsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2022-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberawi:TwoThousandTwentyInducementAwardPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MeasurementInputDefaultRateMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-12-310000007431awi:TermLoanADuetwothousandtwentySevenMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-012023-07-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMemberawi:HomeCentersMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2023-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:OperatingSegmentsMemberus-gaap:GeographicConcentrationRiskMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2023-12-310000007431awi:TermLoanADuetwothousandtwentySevenMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMember2022-12-310000007431awi:InsolcorpLLCMember2023-10-310000007431us-gaap:LongTermDebtMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431srt:PartnershipInterestMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312023-05-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2020-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:ShortTermDebtMember2022-12-310000007431awi:DefinedBenefitContributionPlanMemberawi:UnitedStatesAndNonUSPlansMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberawi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:LongDurationBondMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPlansMember2023-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000007431awi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-300000007431us-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2022-12-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandSixteenDirectorStockUnitPlanMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:InsolcorpLLCMemberus-gaap:InProcessResearchAndDevelopmentMember2023-10-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMemberawi:HomeCentersMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ComputerSoftwareMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-3100000074312020-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:OtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandTwentyTwoEcipMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:UnitedStatesLocationsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:OtherCurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-3100000074312023-04-012023-06-300000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:TrademarksAndBrandNamesMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:CanadaLocationsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFiveMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-3100000074312017-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:ComputerSoftwareMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:EuropeMiddleEastAndAfricaIncludingRussiaAndPacificRimBusinessMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchElevenTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberawi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:DomesticCountryMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312022-10-012022-12-3100000074312023-04-012023-04-300000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:RefinancedSeniorCreditFacilityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToDecemberTwentyTwentyFiveMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:FederalAndStateMemberus-gaap:CapitalLossCarryforwardMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:OtherIntangibleAssetsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:DefinedBenefitContributionPlanMemberawi:UnitedStatesAndNonUSPlansMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2023-12-310000007431awi:InsolcorpLLCMemberawi:TechnologyMember2023-10-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:InsolcorpLLCMember2023-10-012023-10-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMemberawi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-012022-11-300000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:CapitalLossCarryforwardMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:ShareRepurchaseProgramIncludingAcceleratedShareRepurchaseMemberus-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:ShortTermDebtMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2020-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:MeasurementInputPriceVolatilityMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:RefinancedSeniorCreditFacilityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToDecemberTwentyTwentySixMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodNovemberTwentyTwentyThreeToDecemberTwentyTwentySixMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000007431country:USawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431awi:RetireeHealthAndLifeInsuranceBenefitsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMemberawi:HomeCentersMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:BondsMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:PhantomShareUnitsPSUsMember2022-12-310000007431awi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentNetGainLossIncludingPortionAttributableToNoncontrollingInterestMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:DefinedBenefitContributionPlanMemberawi:UnitedStatesAndNonUSPlansMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMember2023-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000007431awi:TrademarksAndBrandNamesMember2023-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:DirectCustomersMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:MineralFiberMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:PhantomShareUnitsPSUsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:MachineryAndEquipmentMember2023-12-3100000074312022-12-3100000074312023-10-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2022-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:GoodwillMember2022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:TrademarksAndBrandNamesMember2023-12-310000007431awi:BokModernLlcMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312023-05-012023-05-310000007431us-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberawi:GcProductsIncMember2022-11-012022-11-300000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-01-012023-12-3100000074312023-11-300000007431awi:BiLateralFacilityMemberus-gaap:LetterOfCreditMember2023-12-310000007431awi:EuropeMiddleEastAndAfricaIncludingRussiaAndPacificRimBusinessMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431srt:PartnershipInterestMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2022-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2020-12-310000007431us-gaap:LongTermDebtMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccountsPayableAndAccruedLiabilitiesMember2022-12-3100000074312024-02-140000007431us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberawi:TrademarksAndBrandNamesMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedTranslationAdjustmentMember2021-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFiveMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AllowanceForCreditLossMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberus-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431stpr:CAawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetailersAndOtherMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:EquitiesRealEstateAndPrivateEquityMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RestrictedStockMemberawi:TwoThousandTwentyInducementAwardPlanMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:DomesticCountryMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:TwoThousandTwentyInducementAwardPlanMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:TrademarksMemberawi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberawi:TermLoanMember2023-12-3100000074312023-12-310000007431srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberawi:BokModernLlcMember2023-07-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:TURFDesignIncMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:PropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberawi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMember2023-12-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:NoncompeteAgreementsMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:WarrantyReservesMember2021-12-310000007431awi:WorthingtonArmstrongVentureMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431srt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-03-310000007431srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ComputerSoftwareIntangibleAssetMember2023-12-310000007431awi:RetirementBenefitEquityPlanMember2023-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPlansMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:RevolvingCreditFacilityDue2027Member2023-12-310000007431awi:DistributorsMemberawi:ArchitecturalSpecialtiesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000007431awi:InterestRateSwapsCoveragePeriodMarchElevenTwentyTwentyOneToMarchTwentyTwentyFourMember2023-12-310000007431country:USawi:MineralFiberMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:MaconSiteMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:RetirementBenefitEquityPlanMember2022-12-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedGainLossNetCashFlowHedgeParentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:RightOfUseAssetMember2023-12-310000007431awi:CollectiveTrustFundsMember2023-12-310000007431us-gaap:InventoryValuationReserveMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310000007431us-gaap:PensionPlansDefinedBenefitMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:ReserveForCashDiscountsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:TreasuryStockCommonMember2021-01-012021-12-3100000074312023-03-310000007431us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000007431awi:USDefinedBenefitPensionPlansMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431awi:CustomerOneAndTwoMemberawi:SalesRevenueGrossMember2022-01-012022-12-310000007431us-gaap:CorporateNonSegmentMember2021-12-310000007431us-gaap:LetterOfCreditMember2023-01-012023-12-31awi:Facilityawi:Siteawi:Customerxbrli:pureiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesxbrli:sharesiso4217:USD

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to _________

Commission File Number 1-2116

ARMSTRONG WORLD INDUSTRIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Pennsylvania

 

23-0366390

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

2500 Columbia Avenue, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

 

17603

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (717) 397-0611

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

 

AWI

 

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter time period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒

The aggregate market value of the Common Stock of Armstrong World Industries, Inc. held by non-affiliates based on the closing price ($73.46 per share) on the New York Stock Exchange (trading symbol AWI) as of June 30, 2023 was approximately $3.3 billion. As of February 14, 2024, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant's Common Stock was 43,808,333.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Certain sections of Armstrong World Industries, Inc.’s definitive Proxy Statement for use in connection with its 2024 annual meeting of shareholders, to be filed no later than April 29, 2024 (120 days after the last day of our 2023 fiscal year), are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K Report where indicated.

 

Auditor Name: KPMG LLP

Auditor Location: Philadelphia, PA

     Auditor Firm ID: 185

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

PAGE

 

 

 

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

3

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

Item 1.

Business

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

10

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

18

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

18

Item 2.

Properties

19

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

19

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

19

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

20

Item 6.

[Reserved]

20

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

21

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

30

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

31

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

75

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

75

Item 9B.

Other Information

75

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

75

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

76

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

76

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

77

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

77

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

77

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

78

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

80

 

 

 

Signatures

81

 

 

2


 

When we refer to “AWI,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us,” we are referring to Armstrong World Industries, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated by reference herein may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Those forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties and include all statements that are not historical statements of fact and those regarding our intent, belief or expectations, including, but not limited to, our expectations concerning our markets, broader economic conditions and their effect on our operating results; our expectations regarding the payment of dividends; and our ability to increase revenues, earnings and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. Words such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “outlook,” “target,” “predict,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “seek,” and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are based on management’s current expectations and beliefs and are subject to a number of factors that could lead to actual results materially different from those described in the forward-looking statements. Although we believe that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be attained. Factors that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations or future prospects or which could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations include, but are not limited to:

Risks Related to Our Operations

changes in key customer relationships;
availability and costs of manufacturing inputs or sourced products;
financial contribution of Worthington Armstrong Venture (“WAVE”), our joint venture with Worthington Enterprises, Inc.;
labor;
cost savings and productivity initiatives;
progress towards environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) and sustainability objectives and related compliance;

Risks Related to Our Strategy

benefits from strategic initiatives, including investments in digitalization and product innovation;
identification, completion and successful integration of strategic transactions;

Risks Related to Financial Matters

our liquidity needs and indebtedness;
ability to make dividend payments and stock repurchases;
unanticipated negative tax consequences;
defined benefit plan obligations;

 

Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters

environmental liability exposure;
claims and litigation;
effectiveness of intellectual property rights protection;
operations in Canada and Latin America;

Risks Related to General Economic and Other Factors

economic conditions;
construction activity;
market competition;
customer consolidation;

3


 

information technology disruptions and cybersecurity breaches;
dependence on third-party vendors and suppliers;
geographic concentration;
public health epidemics or pandemics; and
other risks detailed from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), press releases and other communications, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. We expressly disclaim any obligation to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any statement is based.

4


 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (“AWI” or the “Company”) is a Pennsylvania corporation incorporated in 1891. When we refer to “we,” “our” and “us” in this report, we are referring to AWI and its subsidiaries.


AWI is a leader in the design, innovation and manufacture of ceiling and wall solutions in the Americas. We manufacture and source products made of numerous materials, including mineral fiber, fiberglass wool, metal, wood, felt, wood fiber, and glass-reinforced-gypsum. We also manufacture ceiling suspension system (grid) products through a joint venture with Worthington Enterprises, Inc. called Worthington Armstrong Venture (“WAVE”).

Reportable Segments

Our operating segments are as follows: Mineral Fiber, Architectural Specialties and Unallocated Corporate.
 

Mineral Fiber – produces suspended mineral fiber and soft fiber ceiling systems. Our mineral fiber products offer various performance attributes such as acoustical control, rated fire protection, and energy efficiency, along with other health and sustainability features and aesthetic appeal. Ceiling products are primarily sold to resale distributors, ceiling systems contractors and wholesalers, and retailers (including large home centers). The Mineral Fiber segment also includes the results of WAVE, which manufactures and sells suspension system (grid) products and ceiling component products that are invoiced by both AWI and WAVE. Segment results relating to WAVE consist primarily of equity earnings and reflect our 50% equity interest in the joint venture. Ceiling component products consist of ceiling perimeters and trim, in addition to grid products that support drywall ceiling systems. For some customers, WAVE sells its suspension system products to AWI for resale to customers. Mineral Fiber segment results reflect those sales transactions. The Mineral Fiber segment also includes all assets and liabilities not specifically allocated to our Architectural Specialties or Unallocated Corporate segment, including all property and related depreciation associated with our Lancaster, PA headquarters. Operating results for the Mineral Fiber segment include a significant majority of allocated Corporate administrative expenses that represent a reasonable allocation of general services to support its operations.

Architectural Specialties – produces, designs and sources ceilings, walls and facades primarily for use in commercial settings. Products are available in numerous materials, such as metal, wood and felt, in addition to various colors, shapes and designs. These products offer various performance attributes such as acoustical control, rated fire protection and aesthetic appeal. We sell standard, premium and customized products, a portion of which are sourced from third-party producers. Architectural Specialties products are sold primarily to resale distributors and direct customers, primarily ceiling systems contractors. The majority of this segment’s revenues are project driven, which can lead to more variability in sales patterns. Operating results for the Architectural Specialties segment include a portion of allocated Corporate administrative expenses that represent a reasonable allocation of general services to support its operations.

 

Unallocated Corporate – includes certain assets, liabilities, income and expenses that have not been allocated to our other business segments and consists of: cash and cash equivalents, the net funded status of our U.S. Retirement Income Plan (“RIP”), the estimated fair value of interest rate swap contracts, outstanding borrowings under our senior secured credit facility and income tax balances.

Overview

Our business has been built on providing high-quality, innovative products through a highly focused service model as well as by maintaining strong brand awareness and trust. We are committed to delivering profitable topline growth and sustainable shareholder value by strengthening our core Mineral Fiber segment and expanding our Architectural Specialties segment into new, adjacent business categories and sectors. Through this strategy, we have delivered consistent growth in mineral fiber sales dollars per unit sold through product innovation, including our Healthy Spaces products, Total Acoustics® solutions and Sustain® family of products, and we have built a broad portfolio of architectural specialties products for ceilings, specialty walls and exterior applications in our markets. Our primary focus is on growth initiatives that further leverage innovation and digitalization (including the movement toward healthier and sustainable indoor environments in order to accelerate renovation), expansion of our Architectural Specialties segment through acquisitions, and strong cash flow generation.

5


 

Acquisitions

In October 2023, we acquired a portion of the business and certain assets of Insolcorp, LLC (“Insolcorp”), based in Albemarle, NC, used to develop, test and manufacture energy saving products deployed in building and roofing installations. The acquired operations, assets and liabilities of Insolcorp are included in our Mineral Fiber segment.

In July 2023, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding stock of BOK Modern, LLC (“BOK”), based in San Rafael, CA. BOK is a designer of metal facade architectural solutions.

In November 2022, we acquired the business of GC Products, Inc. (“GC Products”), based in Lincoln, CA. GC Products is a designer and manufacturer of glass-reinforced-gypsum, glass-reinforced-cement, molded ceiling and specialty wall products with one manufacturing facility.

The operations, assets and liabilities of BOK and GC Products are included in our Architectural Specialties segment.

Markets

We primarily operate in the United States, Canada and Latin America. We believe we are well positioned in the industry sectors and categories in which we operate, often holding a leadership position. Our products compete against mineral fiber and fiberglass ceiling products from other manufacturers, as well as drywall and a wide range of specialty ceiling products. We compete directly with other domestic and international suppliers of these products. The major markets in which we compete are:

Commercial Construction. Our revenue opportunities come from new construction as well as renovation of existing buildings. Most of our revenue comes from the following sectors of commercial construction – office, education, healthcare, transportation and retail. We closely monitor publicly available macroeconomic data and trends that provide insight into commercial construction market activity, including, but not limited to, gross domestic product (“GDP”), office vacancy rates, the Architecture Billings Index, new commercial construction starts, state and local government spending, corporate profits and retail sales. Our revenue from new construction can lag behind construction starts by as much as 24 months. We believe that these statistics, taking into account the time-lag effect, provide a reasonable indication of our future revenue opportunity from commercial renovation and new construction. Additionally, we believe that customer preferences for product type, style, color, performance attributes (such as acoustics, energy efficiency, sustainability and health attributes), availability, affordability and ease of installation also affect our revenue.

In our Mineral Fiber segment, we estimate that a majority of our commercial construction market sales are used for existing building renovation purposes by end-users of our products. We differentiate renovation opportunities between major renovation projects, which tend to be larger in scope, versus repair projects that generally involve the replacement of old products with new products. In our Architectural Specialties segment, we estimate that a majority of our commercial market sales are used for new building construction by end-users of our products. The end-use of our products is based on management estimates as such information is not easily determinable.

Residential Construction. While a smaller portion of our business, we also sell products for use in single and multi-family housing. We estimate that existing home renovation work represents the majority of the residential construction market opportunity. Key U.S. statistics that indicate market opportunity include existing home sales (a key indicator for renovation opportunity), housing starts, housing completions, home prices, interest rates and consumer confidence.

Customers

We use our reputation, capabilities, service, innovation and brand recognition to develop long-standing relationships with our customers. We principally sell commercial products to building materials distributors, who re-sell our products to contractors, subcontractors’ alliances, large architect and design firms, and major facility owners. We have important relationships with national home centers such as Lowe’s Companies, Inc. and The Home Depot, Inc., with wholesalers who re-sell our products to dealers who service builders, and direct customers, which include sales to contractors, architects and designers who specify products.

In 2023, nearly 70% of our consolidated net sales were to distributors. Sales to large home centers accounted for nearly 10% of our consolidated net sales. Our remaining sales were primarily to direct customers and retailers.

Gross sales to Foundation Building Materials, Inc. and GMS, Inc. totaled $631.9 million and individually exceeded 10% of our consolidated gross sales in 2023. Sales to these distributors are included in both our Mineral Fiber and Architectural Specialties segment net sales.

6


 

Working Capital

We produce goods for inventory and sell on credit to our customers. Generally, we believe our distributors and home center customers carry inventory as needed to meet local or rapid delivery requirements. We sell our products to select, pre-approved customers using customary trade terms that allow for payment in the future. These practices are typical within the industry.

Competition

The markets in which our products are sold are highly competitive. Principal attributes of competition include product performance, product styling, service and price. Competition comes from both domestic and international manufacturers. Additionally, some of our products compete with alternative products or finishing solutions, namely, drywall and exposed structure (also known as open plenum). Excess industry capacity exists for certain products, which tends to increase price competition. The following companies are our primary competitors:

CertainTeed Corporation (a subsidiary of Saint-Gobain), Chicago Metallic Corporation (owned by Rockwool International A/S), Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Rockfon A/S (owned by Rockwool International A/S), USG Corporation (owned by Gebr. Knauf KG), Ceilings Plus (owned by USG Corporation), Rulon International, and 9Wood.

Raw Materials

We purchase raw materials from numerous suppliers worldwide in the ordinary course of business. Our principal raw materials are fiberglass, perlite, recycled paper and starch. Other raw materials we purchase include clays, felt, pigment, wood and wood fiber. We manufacture most of our mineral wool needs at one of our facilities. Finally, we use aluminum and steel in the production of metal ceilings by us and by WAVE, our joint venture that manufactures grid products.

We also purchase significant amounts of packaging materials and consume substantial amounts of energy, such as electricity and natural gas, and water.

In general, adequate supplies of raw materials are available to all of our operations. However, availability can change for a number of reasons, including environmental conditions, laws and regulations, shifts in demand by other industries competing for the same materials, transportation disruptions and/or business decisions made by, or events that affect, our suppliers. There is no assurance that these raw materials will remain in adequate supply to us.

Prices for certain high usage raw materials can fluctuate dramatically. Cost increases for these materials can have a significant adverse impact on our manufacturing costs. Given the competitiveness of our markets, we may not be able to recover the increased manufacturing costs through increasing selling prices to our customers.

Sourced Products

Some of the products we sell are sourced from third parties. Our primary sourced products include specialty ceiling products. A portion of our sourced products are from suppliers located outside of the U.S., primarily from Europe and the Pacific Rim. Sales of sourced products represented approximately 10% of our total consolidated revenue in 2023.

In general, we believe we have adequate supplies of sourced products. However, we cannot guarantee that the supply will remain adequate.

Seasonality

Historically, our sales tend to be stronger in the second and third quarters of our fiscal year due to more favorable weather conditions, customer business cycles and the timing of renovation and new construction activity.

Patent and Intellectual Property Rights

Patent protection is important to our business. We hold a broad collection of intellectual property rights relating to certain aspects of our products and processes developed or perfected within AWI or obtained through acquisitions and licenses. This includes patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights, trade secrets and other forms of intellectual property rights in the U.S. and various foreign countries.

Patent protection extends for varying periods according to the date of patent filing or grant and the legal term of a patent in the various countries where patent protection is obtained. The actual protection afforded by a patent, which can vary from country to country,

7


 

depends upon the type of patent, the scope of its coverage and the availability of legal remedies. Although we consider that, in the aggregate, our patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights, trade secrets and licenses constitute a valuable asset of material importance to our business, we do not believe we are materially dependent upon any single one of these intellectual property rights.

Certain of our trademarks, including without limitation, img2330456_0.jpg, Armstrong®, 24/7 Defend™, ACOUSTIBuilt®, AirAssure®, Airtite®, Arktura®, BŌK Modern®, Calla®, Cirrus®, Cortega®, DESIGNFlex®, Dune™, Feltworks®, Humiguard®, Infusions®, InvisAcoustics™, Kanopi™, Lyra®, MetalWorks™, Móz™, Optima®, Plasterform™, ProjectWorks®, Soundscapes®, Sustain®, Tectum®, Templok®, Total Acoustics®, Turf®, Ultima®, and WoodWorks®, are important to our business because of their significant brand name recognition. Registrations are generally for fixed, but renewable, terms.

In connection with the separation and distribution of our former flooring business into a separate publicly-traded company, Armstrong Flooring, Inc. (“AFI”), in 2016, we entered into several agreements with AFI that, together with a plan of division, provided for the separation and allocation of assets between AWI and AFI. These agreements include a Trademark License Agreement and a Transition Trademark License Agreement. Pursuant to the Trademark License Agreement, AWI provided AFI with a perpetual, royalty-free license to utilize the “Armstrong” trade name and logo. Further, in 2022, as part of the AFI bankruptcy and with AWI consent, all rights, obligations and protections that existed as part of the arrangement with AFI were transferred to AHF Products in North America, Zhejiang GIMIG Tech Co., Ltd. in China, and to Braeside Mills Investments Pty Ltd in Australia/New Zealand. None of these transactions had or are expected to have any material impact on the integrity of the Armstrong trademark.

In connection with the sale of certain subsidiaries comprising our businesses and operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (including Russia) (“EMEA”) and the Pacific Rim, including the corresponding businesses and operations conducted by WAVE (collectively, the “Sale”), to Knauf International GmbH (“Knauf”) in 2019, we entered into a royalty-free intellectual property License Agreement with Knauf for its benefit (and, under sublicense, to the buyers of certain businesses divested by Knauf) under which they license certain patents, trademarks and know-how from us for use in certain licensed territories.

We review the carrying value of indefinite-lived trademarks at least annually for potential impairment. See the “Critical Accounting Estimates” section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of this Form 10-K for further information.

Sustainability and Environmental Matters

As a leading building products manufacturer, we are committed to operating sustainably across all areas of our business. This commitment is reflected in our ongoing initiatives to design and develop sustainable ceiling and wall solutions for every indoor space. Our sustainability focus reflects our mission to make a positive difference in the lives of people where they live, work, learn, heal and play. Our approach to sustainability is designed to support our strategic priorities, align with stakeholder interests, and be visible and measurable.

Our sustainability program is organized around three program pillars: People, Planet and Product.

Our People pillar broadly focuses on creating a safe working environment for our employees, increasing our engagement in the communities where we operate, evaluating our benefits and compensation structure for all levels of the organization, promoting and maintaining a diverse, inclusive, talented and thriving workforce, and encouraging and protecting human rights.

Our Planet pillar broadly focuses on reducing our greenhouse gas footprint, reducing or reclaiming water in our operations, and reducing waste in our operations. These efforts include achieving emissions reductions through operational efficiency and product design improvements and exploring renewable electricity options where we operate. Additionally, we are committed to complying with all environmental laws and regulations that are applicable to our operations.

Our Product pillar broadly focuses on ensuring our products are free of chemicals of concern, reducing our products’ water and greenhouse gas footprint, improving the circularity of our products so they can be recycled, reused or repurposed, and continuing to invest in solutions that meet customer demand for building products that align with their sustainability goals. These efforts also include our mineral fiber ceilings recycling program, which aims to divert reclaimed ceiling tiles from landfills. We expect that there will be increased demand over time for products, systems and services that meet evolving regulatory and customer sustainability standards and preferences and decreased demand for products that produce significant greenhouse gas emissions. We also believe that our ability to continue to provide these products, systems and services to our customers, including through our Sustain® portfolio, is aligned with our growth strategy.

8


 

The adoption of environmentally responsible building codes and standards such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (“LEED”) rating system established by the U.S. Green Building Council, has the potential to increase demand for products, systems and services that contribute to sustainable buildings. Many of our products meet the requirements for the award of LEED credits, and we are continuing to develop new products, systems and services to address market demand for products that enable construction of buildings that require fewer natural resources to build, operate and maintain. Our competitors also have developed and introduced products with an increased focus on sustainability.

In 2023, we published our third Sustainability Report, which refines and measures our progress towards achieving our 2030 sustainability goals. We expect to update our progress regularly. The report is available in the "Sustainability" section of our website, which is listed below. Information in the 2023 Sustainability Report or the Company's website is not incorporated herein by reference.

Human Capital

Workforce Demographics. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had approximately 3,100 and 3,000 full time and part time employees, respectively. During 2023, our total voluntary and involuntary turnover rates were approximately 8% and 4%, respectively, for non-production employees and 11% and 6%, respectively, for production employees.

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 56% of our approximately 1,500 production employees in the U.S. were represented by labor unions. Collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 470 employees at two U.S. plants will expire during 2024. We believe that our relations with our employees are constructive and positive.

Employee Health and Safety. Safety is a core value at AWI and our culture is committed to making safety a personal core value for every employee. Our overall goal is to eliminate workplace injuries. We promote and foster an environment of empowerment and sharing throughout the company at all levels and in all locations. We engage our employees on safety with a focus on risk identification and elimination and through tracking various leading indicators. We track Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) recordable injuries and lost time rates by location monthly. We establish safety targets annually, which are tracked and reported to leadership monthly and reviewed with our Board of Directors.

Compensation, Benefits and Wellness. Employee compensation is based on defined job descriptions and position grades that are evaluated against external market data that we believe is competitive and fair. We offer competitive health and wellness benefits to eligible employees and periodically conduct analyses of plan utilization to further tailor our employee benefits to meet their ongoing needs. In recent years we added parental leave and adoption benefits for all employees and launched a wellness program to promote physical, mental, and financial well-being. In addition, we offer on-site wellness screenings at our manufacturing facilities in partnership with our medical provider. Finally, we offer mental well-being support and nutrition and financial wellness education to all employees.

Diversity and Inclusion. We continue to value diversity and inclusion within our organization, as we believe it is important to our success. This commitment is reflected in the aspirational goals of the People Pillar of our Sustainability program, which is led by our Vice President of Talent Sustainability and Talent Acquisition. As part of our commitment to diversity and inclusion, in our merit-based selection process we strive to hire qualified candidates from a diverse talent pool reflective of the communities in which we have operations. In addition, we are committed to engaging in events and outreach that support enhanced diversity and inclusion, including providing training to employees on diversity and inclusion topics that matter to them. To support this strategy, we also take an active approach to attracting, retaining, and engaging diverse talent through internships, employee resource groups, professional development and apprenticeship programs, and employee feedback. As of December 31, 2023, our executive leadership team, defined as the chief executive officer and direct reports to the chief executive officer, included 33% gender diversity and 33% racial/ethnic diversity. As of December 31, 2022, our executive leadership team included 43% gender diversity and 14% racial/ethnic diversity.

Product Innovation

Product innovation activities are important and necessary in helping us improve our products’ competitiveness. Principal product innovation functions include the development and improvement of products and manufacturing processes. We engage in research and development activities with a focus on market-driven product innovation to maintain our competitive position and enable growth, as well as innovation in our manufacturing processes to increase productivity.

Legal and Regulatory Proceedings

Regulatory activities of particular importance to our operations include proceedings under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), and state Superfund and similar type environmental laws governing existing

9


 

or potential environmental contamination at two domestically owned locations allegedly resulting from past industrial activity. We are one of several potentially responsible parties in these matters and have agreed to jointly fund the required investigation, while preserving our defenses to the liability. We may also have rights of contribution or reimbursement from other parties or coverage under applicable insurance policies.

Most of our facilities are affected by various federal, state and local environmental requirements relating to the discharge of materials or the protection of the environment. We make expenditures necessary for compliance with applicable environmental requirements at each of our operating facilities. We have not experienced a material adverse effect upon our capital expenditures or competitive position as a result of environmental control legislation and regulations.

From time to time, we are involved in various other lawsuits, claims, investigations and other legal matters that arise in the ordinary course of business, including matters involving our products, intellectual property, relationships with suppliers, relationships with distributors, relationships with competitors, employees and other matters. In connection with those matters, we may have rights of contribution or reimbursement from other parties or coverage under applicable insurance policies. When applicable and appropriate, we will pursue coverage and recoveries under those policies, but are unable to predict the outcome of those demands. While complete assurance cannot be given to the outcome of any proceedings relating to these matters, we do not believe that any current claims, individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Liabilities for environmental matters that we consider probable and for which a reasonable estimate of the probable liability could be made were $0.5 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. See Note 27 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and Risk Factors in Item 1A of this Form 10-K, for information regarding the possible effects that compliance with environmental laws and regulations may have on our businesses and operating results.

Website

We maintain a website at https://www.armstrongceilings.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated into this document. Annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, all amendments to those reports and other information about us are available free of charge through this website. Documents filed with the SEC are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed with the SEC. We also file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC at https://sec.gov. Reference in this Form 10-K to our website and the SEC’s website is an inactive text reference only.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Operations

Sales fluctuations and changes in our relationships with key customers could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

The loss, reduction, or fluctuation of sales to key customers, including independent distributors or national home center customers, or any adverse change in our business relationship with them, whether as a result of changing customer demands and expectations, reduced demand, supply chain constraints, competition, industry consolidation or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

If the availability of our manufacturing inputs or sourced products decreases, or the cost of those inputs or sourced products increases and we are unable to pass along increased costs resulting from supply chain or inflationary pressures, our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be adversely affected.

The availability and cost of raw materials, packaging materials, energy and sourced products are critical to our operations and our results of operations. For example, we use substantial quantities of natural gas and some petroleum-based raw materials in our manufacturing operations. We source some materials from a limited number of suppliers, which, among other things, increases the risk of unavailability. Limited availability could require us to reformulate products or limit our production. Supply chain disruptions could decrease access to manufacturing inputs or sourced products or significantly increase the cost to purchase these items. The cost of some inputs has been volatile in recent years and availability has been limited at times. Future input cost volatility could occur because of our suppliers’ exposure to geopolitical events. A decrease in availability or increases in costs of manufacturing inputs or sourced products, and any inability to pass along such costs through price increases, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

10


 

The performance of our WAVE joint venture is important to our financial results. Changes in the demand for, or quality of, WAVE products, or in the operational or financial performance of the WAVE joint venture, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. Similarly, if there is a change with respect to our joint venture partner that adversely impacts its relationship with us, WAVE’s performance could be adversely impacted.

Our equity investment in our WAVE joint venture remains important to our financial results. WAVE’s markets are highly competitive and changes in the demand for, or quality of, WAVE products, or in the operational or financial performance of the WAVE joint venture, could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. Similarly, the availability and cost of raw materials, packaging materials, energy and sourced products, and the ability to pass along increased costs, are critical to WAVE’s operations and its results of operations.

We believe the relationship with our partner, Worthington Enterprises, Inc., is an important element in the success of this joint venture. In December 2023, Worthington Enterprises, Inc. (formally known as Worthington Industries, Inc.) completed its previously announced separation of Worthington Steel, Inc. into a separate independent, publicly-traded company (the “Worthington Separation”). Worthington Enterprises, Inc.’s investment in WAVE was not included in the assets and business transferred to Worthington Steel, Inc. If the Worthington Separation or any other change in ownership, change of control, change in management or management philosophy, change in business strategy or another change with respect to our partner adversely impacts our relationship, WAVE’s performance could be adversely impacted. In addition, our partner may develop economic or business interests or goals that are different from or inconsistent with our interests or goals, which may impact our ability to influence or align WAVE’s strategy and operations with our interests or goals.

Increased labor costs, labor disputes, work stoppages or union organizing activity, as well as increased labor shortages, or an inability to attract and retain talented employees could delay or impede production and could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We rely on our employees to manufacture and sell our products. Labor disputes, which may result in work stoppages or union organizing activities, can directly impact production levels. As the majority of our manufacturing employees are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining or similar agreements, we often incur costs attributable to periodic renegotiation of those agreements, which may be difficult to project. Collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 470 employees at two U.S. plants will expire during 2024. We are also subject to the risk that strikes or other conflicts with organized personnel may arise or that we may become the subject of union organizing activity at our facilities that do not currently have union representation. Prolonged negotiations, conflicts or related activities could also lead to costly work stoppages and loss of productivity.

Our success is also dependent upon attracting and retaining a qualified and diverse workforce. In many cases, we rely upon our employees’ high degree of technical knowledge and industry experience. There can be no assurance that we will continue to attract and retain talented employees, particularly during times of increased labor costs or labor shortages. The impact from our inability to attract and retain a sufficient number of employees could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We continuously pursue productivity initiatives and periodically engage in cost-saving initiatives. Execution of these initiatives may result in interruptions in production and/or may result in lower-than-expected savings in our operating cost structure or may not improve our operating results.

We seek ways to make our operations more efficient and effective. We may reduce, move, modify or expand our plants and operations, as well as our sourcing and supply chain arrangements, and invest in technology, as needed, to control costs and improve productivity. Such actions involve substantial planning, often require capital investments and may result in charges for fixed asset impairments or obsolescence and substantial severance costs. Our ability to achieve cost savings and other benefits within expected time frames is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, if we experience delays resulting from equipment failures or other interruptions in production, or if other unforeseen events occur, our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We are subject to certain regulatory, financial and other risks related to climate change, climate transition, and other sustainability matters, broadly known as ESG. Should our efforts to address these risks fail to align with new regulations or stakeholder expectations, fail to achieve the anticipated benefits, or result in unanticipated costs, our corporate reputation, financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be adversely impacted.

In recent years, governmental and societal attention on ESG topics has increased. These ESG topics include greenhouse gas emissions and climate-related risks, renewable energy, water stewardship, waste management, diversity, equity and inclusion, responsible

11


 

sourcing and supply chain transparency, human rights, and social responsibility. Evolving government and societal expectations around these issues and our efforts to manage and report on them, as well as accomplish our ESG goals present numerous operational, regulatory, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks, any of which could have a material adverse impact.

In July 2023, we published our third Sustainability Report, which includes certain 2030 ESG and sustainability goals and describes our progress towards meeting those goals. We may not achieve the anticipated benefits we expect from these or other ESG and sustainability goals, which may damage our reputation, or these efforts may not align with new regulations or expectations of stakeholders. Efforts to achieve these goals may result in higher or unforeseen costs. In addition, we may encounter challenges measuring our progress towards the achievement of our ESG goals.

Further, concerns related to climate change have resulted in domestic and foreign legislative or regulatory actions as well as changing customer preferences and policies, such as environmentally responsible building codes and standards. New legislation and regulations in the U.S. and in the foreign countries in which we operate could impose restrictions, caps, taxes, or other controls on emissions of greenhouse gases, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results. While we have a comprehensive sustainability strategy, including, greenhouse gas reduction targets, transparent disclosures related to our ESG impacts and product innovation to respond to these evolving codes, standards and customer preferences, there is no certainty we will be successful in our approach. Overall, climate change, its effects and impacts of government regulation, consumer, investor and business preferences are inherently difficult to predict and could adversely impact our business by increasing our energy costs and/or result in substantial, additional capital expenditures and operating costs in the form of taxes, emissions allowances, or required equipment upgrades or require that we modify our products or processes in a manner that increases our costs and/or reduces our profitability. Any of the foregoing factors could impair our operating efficiency and productivity and result in higher operating costs.

Risks Related to Our Strategy

We may not experience the anticipated benefits from our strategic initiatives, including investments in digitalization, Healthy Spaces and innovation.

We continue to evaluate and may pursue strategic initiatives involving the development or utilization of new or innovative products, solutions and tools, including those related to Healthy Spaces, as well as the expansion of our ecommerce platform, Kanopi by Armstrong, and our automated design service, ProjectWorks. These initiatives are designed to grow revenue, improve profitability and increase shareholder value. Our results of operations and financial position could be materially and adversely affected if we are unable to successfully identify, execute and integrate these initiatives or if we are unable to complete these initiatives in a timely and efficient manner to realize competitive advantages and opportunities.

We may pursue strategic transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic alliances or other investments, which could create risks and present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We regularly evaluate potential mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, strategic alliances or other investments that we believe could complement, enhance or expand our current businesses or product lines or that might otherwise offer us growth opportunities, particularly in our Architectural Specialties segment for which we have completed five acquisitions since July 2020. Any such strategic transaction involves a number of risks, including potential disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of management, difficulty with integrating or separating personnel and business operations and infrastructure, increasing or decreasing the scope, geographic diversity and complexity of our operations, and potentially expanding into new ceiling and wall adjacencies and/or offering products with new attributes. Strategic transactions could involve payment by us of a substantial amount of cash, assumption of liabilities and indemnification obligations, regulatory requirements, incurrence of a substantial amount of debt or issuance of a substantial amount of equity. Certain strategic opportunities may not result in the consummation of a transaction or may fail to realize the intended benefits and synergies. If we fail to identify, consummate and integrate our strategic transactions in a timely and cost-effective manner, our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Financial Matters

 

We require a significant amount of liquidity to fund our operations and our indebtedness may adversely affect our ability to operate and invest in our business, execute on our strategic initiatives, and return cash to shareholders.

Our level of indebtedness and degree of leverage could:

limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;

12


 

make us more vulnerable to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions and adverse changes in government regulation;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged and, therefore, more able to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from pursuing;
limit our ability to refinance existing indebtedness or borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other purposes;
restrict our ability to pay dividends on or repurchase our capital stock; and
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness.

Additionally, the agreements that govern our indebtedness include covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions, including restrictions on our ability to engage in activities that may be in our best long-term interests. Under the terms of our senior secured credit facility, we are required to maintain specified leverage and interest coverage ratios. Our ability to meet these ratios could be affected by events beyond our control, and we cannot assure that we will meet them. A breach of any of the restrictive covenants or ratios would result in a default under the senior secured credit facility. If any such default occurs, the lenders under the senior secured credit facility may be able to elect to declare all outstanding borrowings under our facility, together with accrued interest and other fees, to be immediately due and payable, or enforce their security interest. The lenders may also have the right in these circumstances to terminate commitments to provide further borrowings.

Our liquidity needs vary throughout the year. If our business experiences materially negative, unforeseen events, we may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to fund our needs or maintain sufficient liquidity to operate and may seek to incur additional indebtedness, which could exacerbate the risks detailed above. In addition, to the extent that our indebtedness bears interest at floating rates, our sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations will increase. Further, we cannot guarantee financial institutions’ capacity in the future to provide credit, or alternatively access to capital markets, which may limit our ability to obtain new debt financing or refinance existing debt obligations.

The above factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We cannot provide any guarantees of future cash dividend payments or future repurchases of our common stock pursuant to a share repurchase program.

Since December 2018, our Board of Directors has declared a quarterly dividend on our common stock. The payment of any future cash dividends to our shareholders is not guaranteed and will depend on decisions that will be made by our Board of Directors based upon our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, business requirements and a determination that the declaration of cash dividends is in the best interest of our shareholders and is in compliance with all laws and agreements applicable to the payment of dividends.

In July 2016, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $150.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock (the “Program”). Since inception of the Program we have been authorized to repurchase up to an aggregate of $1,700.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through December 31, 2026. Repurchases under the Program may be made through open market, block and privately negotiated transactions, including Rule 10b5-1 plans, at times and in amounts as management deems appropriate, subject to market and business conditions, regulatory requirements and other factors. The Program does not obligate us to repurchase any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that we will be able to repurchase our common stock and we may discontinue plans to repurchase common stock at any time.

Negative tax consequences can have an unanticipated effect on our financial results.

We are subject to the tax laws of the various jurisdictions in which we operate. The tax laws are complex, and the manner in which they apply to our operations, results and tax planning strategies is sometimes open to interpretation. Our income tax expense (benefit) and reported net earnings may fluctuate significantly and may be materially different than forecasted or experienced in the past. Our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by changes in effective tax rates, changes in our overall profitability, changes in tax legislation, the results of examinations of previously filed tax returns, and ongoing assessments of our tax exposures.

Our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could also be adversely affected by changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. We have substantial deferred tax assets related to capital loss carryforwards and state net operating losses

13


 

(“NOLs”), which are available to reduce our U.S. income tax liability and to offset future state taxable income. However, our ability to utilize the current carrying value of these deferred tax assets may be impacted by certain future events, such as changes in tax legislation and insufficient future taxable income prior to expiration of the capital loss carryforwards and NOLs.

Significant changes in factors and assumptions used to measure our defined benefit plan obligations, actual investment returns on pension assets and other factors could negatively impact our operating results and cash flows.

We maintain pension and postretirement plans in the U.S. The recognition of costs and liabilities associated with these plans for financial reporting purposes is affected by assumptions made by management and used by actuaries engaged by us to calculate the benefit obligations and the expenses recognized for these plans.

The inputs used in developing the required estimates are calculated using multiple assumptions and represent management’s best estimate of the future. The assumptions that have the most significant impact on reported results are the discount rate, the estimated long-term return on plan assets for the funded plans, retirement rates, and mortality rates and, for postretirement plans, the estimated inflation in health care costs. These assumptions are generally updated annually.

In the aggregate, our U.S. pension plans were overfunded by $56.9 million as of December 31, 2023. Our unfunded postretirement plan liabilities were $47.6 million as of December 31, 2023. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our pension and postretirement plans obligations, we could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital, or refinance or obtain additional indebtedness.

Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters

We may be subject to liability under, and may make substantial future expenditures to comply with, environmental laws and regulations, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We are actively involved in environmental investigation and remediation activities relating to two domestically owned locations allegedly resulting from past industrial activity, for which our ultimate liability may exceed the currently estimated and accrued amounts. See Note 27 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information related to our current environmental matters and the potential liabilities associated therewith. It is also possible that we could become subject to additional environmental matters and corresponding liabilities in the future.

The building materials industry has been subject to claims relating to raw materials such as silicates, polychlorinated biphenyl (“PCB”), polyvinyl chloride (“PVC”), formaldehyde, fire-retardants and claims relating to other issues such as mold and toxic fumes, as well as claims for incidents of catastrophic loss, such as building fires. We have not received any significant claims involving our raw materials or our product performance; however, product liability insurance coverage may not be available at commercially acceptable premium levels or at all, or such coverage may not be adequate in all circumstances to cover claims that may arise in the future.

In addition, our operations are subject to various environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations. These laws and regulations not only govern our current operations and products but may also impose potential liability on us for our past operations and past operations at sites on which we operate. Our costs to comply with these laws and regulations may increase as these requirements become more stringent in the future.

Potential regulatory actions, product and service claims, environmental claims and other litigation could be costly and have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. Insurance coverage may not be available or adequate in all circumstances.

In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to various claims and litigation. Any such claims, whether with or without merit, could be time-consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. While we strive to ensure that our products and services comply with applicable government regulatory standards and internal requirements, and that our products and services perform effectively and safely, customers from time to time could claim that our products and services do not meet warranty or contractual requirements, and users could claim to be harmed by use or misuse of our products and services. These claims could give rise to breach of contract, warranty or recall claims, or claims for negligence, product liability, strict liability, personal injury or property damage. They could also result in negative publicity.

In addition, claims and investigations may arise related to patent infringement, distributor relationships, commercial contracts, antitrust or competition law requirements, employment matters, employee benefits issues, and other compliance and regulatory matters, including anti-corruption and anti-bribery matters. While we have processes and policies designed to mitigate these risks and

14


 

to investigate and address such claims as they arise, we cannot predict or, in some cases, control the costs to defend or resolve such claims.

We currently maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. In the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium levels. In addition, the levels of insurance we maintain may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. If any significant judgment or claim is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Our intellectual property rights may be infringed, misappropriated, invalidated or otherwise circumvented, which could adversely impact our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We rely on our proprietary intellectual property, including numerous patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights and trade secrets, as well as our licensed intellectual property to market, promote and sell our products. We monitor and protect against activities that might infringe, dilute, or otherwise harm our patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property and rely on the laws of the U.S. and other countries. Despite our efforts, the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate. Existing trade secret, patent, design, trademark and copyright laws offer only limited protection. Our patents could be invalidated or circumvented. In addition, others may develop substantially equivalent or superseding proprietary technology, or competitors may offer similar competing products that do not infringe on our intellectual property rights, thereby substantially reducing the value of our intellectual property rights. Litigation may be necessary to defend and enforce our intellectual property rights. Engaging in litigation may incur substantial costs and divert resources, which could harm our business regardless of the outcome. Despite our efforts to protect and maintain our intellectual property rights, both in the U.S. and abroad, we may be unsuccessful in some matters. In addition, the laws of some non-U.S. jurisdictions, particularly those of certain emerging markets, provide less protection for our proprietary rights than the laws of the U.S. and present greater risks of counterfeiting and other infringement. To the extent we cannot protect our intellectual property, unauthorized use and misuse of our intellectual property could harm our competitive position. All of the above could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with our operations in Canada and Latin America. Legislative, political, regulatory and economic volatility, as well as vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions, could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

A portion of our net sales are generated in Canada and Latin America. While these sales are minor in comparison to our total consolidated net sales, they are subject to currency exchange fluctuations, trade regulations, import duties, logistics costs, delays and other related risks. Our Canadian and Latin American operations are also subject to various tax rates, credit risks in emerging markets, political risks, uncertain legal systems, and loss of sales to local competitors following currency devaluations in countries where we import products for sale. In addition, a part of our growth strategy depends on our ability to expand our operations in Canada and Latin America, including emerging markets that have greater political and economic volatility and greater vulnerability to infrastructure and labor disruptions than established markets.

In addition, in countries outside of the U.S., particularly in those with developing economies, it may be common for others to engage in business practices prohibited by laws and regulations applicable to us, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or similar local anti-corruption or anti-bribery laws. These laws generally prohibit companies and their employees, contractors or agents from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Failure to comply with these laws, as well as U.S. and foreign export and trading laws, could subject us to civil and criminal penalties. As we continue to expand our business, we may have difficulty anticipating and effectively managing these and other risks that our operations may face, which may adversely affect our business outside the U.S. and our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Risks Related to General Economic and Other Factors

Unstable market and economic conditions could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Our business is influenced by market and economic conditions, including inflation, deflation, interest rates, availability and cost of capital, consumer spending rates, energy availability and the effects of government stimulus. Volatility in financial markets and softness or deterioration of national and global economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations, including as follows:

the financial stability of our customers or suppliers may be compromised, which could result in additional bad debts for us or non-performance by suppliers;

15


 

consumers of our products may postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and/or stagnation or further declines in income or asset values, which could have a material adverse impact on the demand for our products;
the value of investments underlying our defined benefit pension plan may decline, which could result in significant cash contributions to the plan in order to meet obligations or regulatory requirements; and
our asset impairment assessments and underlying valuation assumptions may change, which could result from changes to estimates of future sales and cash flows that may lead to substantial impairment charges.

Continued or sustained deterioration of economic conditions would likely exacerbate and prolong these adverse effects.

Our business is dependent on construction activity in North America. Downturns or delays in construction activity could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Our business has greater sales opportunities when construction activity, including both new building construction and renovation of existing buildings, is strong and, conversely, has fewer opportunities when such activity declines. The cyclical nature of construction activity, including construction activity funded by the public sector, tends to be influenced by prevailing economic conditions, including the rate of growth in gross domestic product, financing availability, prevailing interest rates, government spending patterns, business, investor and consumer confidence, inflation, availability of labor, adequately functioning supply chains and other factors beyond our control. Our revenue opportunities come from new construction as well as renovation of existing buildings. Most of our revenue comes from the following sectors of commercial construction – office, education, healthcare, transportation and retail. Commercial construction activity for these sectors can be influenced by the changing needs for spaces, including potential declines in demand for office space as a result of sustained remote or hybrid work models. Prolonged downturns or delays in construction activity could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Our markets are highly competitive. Competition could reduce demand for our products or impact our profitability. Failure to compete effectively by meeting consumer preferences, developing and marketing innovative solutions, maintaining strong customer service and distribution relationships, and expanding our solutions capabilities and reach could adversely affect our results.

Our customers consider product performance attributes, product styling, customer service and price when deciding whether to purchase our products. Failure to meet shifting consumer preferences in our highly competitive markets, whether for product performance attributes, such as acoustics, energy efficiency, sustainability, health attributes, or styling preferences, or our inability to develop and offer new competitive performance features could have an adverse effect on our sales. Similarly, our ability to identify, protect and market new and innovative solutions is critical to our long-term growth strategy, namely, to sell into more spaces and sell more solutions in every space. If our competitors offer discounts on certain products or provide new or alternative offerings that the marketplace perceives as more cost-effective, it could adversely affect our price realization. Any of the above factors could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Customer consolidation, and competitive, economic and other pressures facing our customers, and our potential failure to attract new customers in our markets, may negatively impact our net sales, operating margins and profitability.

A number of our customers, including distributors and contractors, have consolidated in recent years and consolidation could continue, further concentrating an increasing portion of our net sales within a smaller group of key customers. Further consolidation could impact margin growth and profitability as larger customers may realize certain operational and other benefits of scale. The economic and competitive landscape for our customers is constantly changing, and our customers' responses to those changes could impact our business. The demand for our products can also be impacted by the buying patterns of certain customers and how they manage their inventory levels. These factors could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Our operating and information systems may experience a failure, a compromise of security, or a violation of data privacy laws or regulations, which could interrupt or damage our operations.

In the conduct of our business, we collect, use, transmit and store data on information systems, which are vulnerable to disruption and an increasing threat of continually evolving cybersecurity risks. These information systems may be disrupted or fail as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, including events such as power loss, software or hardware defects, hacking, computer viruses, malware, ransomware or other cyber-attacks. All of these risks are also applicable where we rely on outside vendors to provide services, which may operate in a cloud environment. We are dependent on third-party vendors to operate secure and

16


 

reliable systems which may include data transfers over the internet. Any events which deny us use of vital operating or information systems may seriously disrupt our normal business operations.

We also compete through our use of information technology. We strive to provide customers with timely, accurate, easy-to-access information about product availability, orders and delivery status using state-of-the-art systems. While we have processes for short-term failures and disaster recovery capability, a prolonged disruption of system or other failures in the reliability of our systems may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

We could also experience a disruption of service or a compromise of our information security due to technical system flaws, clerical, data input or record-keeping errors, migration to new systems, or tampering or manipulation of our systems by employees or unauthorized third parties. Information security risks also exist with respect to the use of portable electronic devices, such as laptops and smartphones, which are particularly vulnerable to loss and theft. Any security breach or compromise of our information systems could significantly damage our reputation, cause the disclosure of confidential customer, employee, supplier or company information, including our intellectual property, and result in significant losses, litigation, fines and costs. The security measures we have implemented to protect against unauthorized access to our information systems and data may not be sufficient to prevent breaches. The regulatory environment related to information security, data collection and privacy is evolving, with new and constantly changing requirements applicable to our business, and compliance with those requirements could result in additional costs.

Additionally, our key partners, distributors or suppliers could experience a compromise of their information security due to technical system flaws, clerical, data input or record-keeping errors, or tampering or manipulation of their respective systems by employees or third parties, which may have an impact on our commercial sales, vendor, partner or other relationships.

Our business is dependent upon third-party vendors and suppliers whose failure to perform adequately could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We source a significant portion of raw materials and sourced products from third parties, including international suppliers. Our ability to select and retain reliable vendors and suppliers who provide timely deliveries of quality raw materials and sourced products will impact our success in meeting customer demand for timely delivery of quality products.

The ability of third-party suppliers to timely deliver raw materials and sourced products may be affected by events beyond their control, such as inability of shippers to timely deliver merchandise due to work stoppages or slowdowns, demand volatility or port congestion, unavailability of shipping containers or other equipment, or significant weather and health conditions affecting manufacturers and/or shippers. Any adverse change in our relationships with our third-party suppliers, the financial condition of third-party suppliers, the ability of third-party suppliers to manufacture and deliver outsourced raw materials or sourced products on a timely basis could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

In addition, the financial condition of our vendors and suppliers may be adversely affected by general economic conditions, such as credit difficulties and the uncertain macroeconomic environment. Our international suppliers may be impacted by tariffs or other trade matters. Any inability of our vendors and suppliers to timely deliver quality raw materials and sourced products or any unanticipated change in supply, quality or pricing of products could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

The geographic concentration of our business could subject us to risks, including those associated with climate change, which may be greater than our competitors and could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

We primarily operate in the U.S., Canada and Latin America. Our concentrated operations in the Americas could subject us to a greater degree of risk relative to our global, diversified competitors. We are particularly vulnerable to adverse events (including acts of terrorism, natural disasters, weather conditions, labor market disruptions and government actions) and economic conditions in the U.S., Canada and Latin America. While our operations are primarily in the U.S., Canada and Latin America, we are exposed to downstream risks from global events. Adverse events or conditions in these geographic areas could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Climate change and related extreme weather events in these geographic areas could impact:

our manufacturing capability if one of our facilities is affected by such an event;
demand from our customers through changes in construction activity in the markets in which we operate;
availability or increased costs of manufacturing inputs or sourced products from our vendors and suppliers; and
our broader supply chain through inability to ship and receive goods.

17


 

 

We may not be able to forecast the likelihood or severity of any of these impacts. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Public health epidemics or pandemics could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Public health epidemics or pandemics may impact our employees, operations, customers, suppliers and financial results. The extent of the impact will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including: the duration and scope of an epidemic or pandemic; government actions taken in response to an epidemic or pandemic, including required shutdowns; the availability, acceptance, distribution and effectiveness of vaccines; the impact on construction activity; supply chain disruptions; rising inflation; labor shortages; sustained remote or hybrid work models; our ability to manufacture and sell our products; and the ability of our customers to pay for our products. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Our use of information systems for collecting, using, transmitting and storing data is a vital aspect of our business operations. Information systems are inherently vulnerable to a range of cybersecurity threats that could potentially have a material impact on our strategy, financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy. The Company actively maintains an enterprise risk management program. Management’s role is to identify, mitigate, guide and review the efforts of our business units, consider whether the residual risks are acceptable, and approve plans to deal with potentially material risks. Cybersecurity is a key risk management category within our enterprise risk management program.

The Vice President and Chief Information Officer (“CIO”), who also serves as a member of the Company’s enterprise risk counsel, works closely with key business leaders and functions to develop and enhance the Company’s cybersecurity strategy. Our cybersecurity program is designed to safeguard against an evolving threat landscape through effective prevention, detection, response and recovery processes. Our cybersecurity risk management processes include frequent assessment of our top cyber risks and mitigations.

Our approach encompasses several key areas consisting of threat and vulnerability management that help to identify, prioritize and reduce cybersecurity gaps or weaknesses. Identity and access management serves as an integral part of our strategy and involves access controls and authentication methods. Data protection and privacy practices, including data loss prevention, safeguards sensitive information. We also deploy cybersecurity systems, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and continuous monitoring, to provide defenses against unauthorized access. Incident response exercises are regularly performed to ensure readiness for potential cybersecurity incidents. Employee training and awareness programs are conducted to minimize risks associated with human error and foster a culture of security consciousness. Finally, vendor risk management practices are employed and focus on monitoring the posture of our third-party vendors to mitigate risks from external sources. In addition, we perform user access reviews for third-party applications, and for certain applications, obtain and review System and Organization Controls reports to assess our critical vendors’ cybersecurity preparedness both at inception and on an ongoing basis.

Our cybersecurity program’s effectiveness is periodically evaluated against established quantifiable goals and other external benchmarks, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology security framework. This evaluation is carried out through periodic internal and external risk assessments and compliance audits. We regularly engage third parties in order to help conduct these evaluations, assessments and audits, advise us on the effectiveness of our cybersecurity processes and assist the Company in remediating any identified vulnerabilities.

To date, the risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous immaterial cybersecurity incidents, have not materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our strategy, financial condition, liquidity or results of operations.

Governance. Our Board of Directors has responsibility for oversight of management’s cybersecurity risk program and receives regular updates from our CIO. These updates, provided on a semi-annual basis, cover a range of topics, including the performance of our

18


 

cybersecurity program against established goals and external standards, insights into the evolving cybersecurity landscape, current events and recent cybersecurity threats, and progress in enhancing the Company’s cybersecurity posture.

Our CIO holds an advanced degree in Information Technology with over 20 years of experience, including senior leadership roles in technology at various companies. In addition, our CIO leads the Information Security Steering Committee, a group comprised of key information technology employees and business leaders, including our Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer. This committee meets regularly to review and discuss the Company's cybersecurity strategies and developments, ensuring a comprehensive approach to managing cybersecurity risk.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We own a 100-acre, multi-building campus in Lancaster, Pennsylvania comprising the site of our corporate headquarters and most of our non-manufacturing operations.

As of December 31, 2023, we operated 16 manufacturing plants, including 14 plants located within the U.S. and two plants in Canada. This excludes our St. Helens, Oregon mineral fiber manufacturing plant, which was closed in the second quarter of 2018 and was classified as an asset held for sale as of December 31, 2023.

WAVE operates seven additional plants in the U.S. to produce suspension system (grid) products, which we use and sell in our ceiling systems.

Nine of our plants are leased and the remaining seven are owned.

 

Operating Segment

 

Number of

Plants

 

Location of Principal Facilities

 

 

 

 

 

Mineral Fiber

 

5

 

U.S. (Florida, Georgia, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia)

Architectural Specialties

 

11

 

U.S. (California (3), Illinois (2), Missouri and Ohio (3)), Canada (Quebec and Ontario)

Sales and administrative offices are leased and/or owned, and leased facilities are utilized to supplement our owned warehousing facilities.

Production capacity and the extent of utilization of our facilities are difficult to quantify with certainty. In any one facility, utilization of our capacity varies periodically depending upon demand for the product that is being manufactured. We believe our facilities are adequate and suitable to support the business. Additional incremental investments in plant facilities are made as appropriate to balance capacity with anticipated demand, improve quality and service, and reduce costs.

See the “Specific Material Events” subheading under “Environmental Matters” section of Note 27 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which is incorporated herein by reference, for a description of our significant legal proceedings. We are party to various other lawsuits, claims, investigations and other legal matters that arise in the ordinary course of business, including matters involving our products, intellectual property, relationships with suppliers, relationships with distributors, other customers or end users, relationships with competitors, employees and other matters. We do not believe that any such current claims, individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. However, regardless of outcome, litigation and related matters can have an adverse impact on us due to defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, negative publicity, reputational harm and other factors.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

19


 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

AWI’s common shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “AWI.” As of February 14, 2024, there were 174 holders of record of AWI’s common stock.

Dividends are payable when declared by our Board of Directors and in accordance with restrictions set forth in our debt agreements. In general, our debt agreements allow us to make “restricted payments,” which include dividends and stock repurchases, subject to certain limitations and other restrictions and provided that we are in compliance with the financial and other covenants of our debt agreements and meet certain liquidity requirements after giving effect to the restricted payment. We declared dividends on a quarterly basis, totaling $1.042 per share in 2023. On February 14, 2024, our Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.28 per common share outstanding. The dividend will be paid on March 14, 2024, to shareholders of record as of the close of business on February 29, 2024. For further discussion of the debt agreements, see the Financial Condition and Liquidity section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 and Risk Factors in Item 1A in this Form 10-K.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Period

 

Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
(1)

 

 

Average Price
Paid per Share

 

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs

 

 

Maximum Approximate Value
of Shares that may
yet be Purchased
under the Plans or
Programs

 

October 1 – 31, 2023

 

 

169,782

 

 

$

71.74

 

 

 

167,321

 

 

$

739,794,146

 

November 1 – 30, 2023

 

 

167,252

 

 

$

77.76

 

 

 

167,175

 

 

$

726,794,463

 

December 1 – 31, 2023

 

 

108,233

 

 

$

94.45

 

 

 

105,948

 

 

$

716,794,487

 

Total

 

 

445,267

 

 

 

 

 

 

440,444

 

 

 

 

 

(1)
Includes shares reacquired through the withholding of shares to pay employee tax obligations upon the exercise of options or vesting of restricted shares previously granted under our long-term incentive plans. For more information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K.

On July 29, 2016, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $150.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock (the “Program”). Since inception of the Program we have been authorized to repurchase up to an aggregate of $1,700.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through December 31, 2026. We had $716.8 million remaining under the Boards repurchase authorization as of December 31, 2023.

Repurchases of our common stock under the Program may be made through open market, block and privately negotiated transactions, including Rule 10b5-1 plans, at such times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate, subject to market and business conditions, regulatory requirements and other factors. The Program does not obligate AWI to repurchase any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice.

During 2023, we repurchased 1.8 million shares under the Program for a total cost of $132.0 million, excluding commissions and taxes, or an average price of $73.91 per share. Since inception, through December 31, 2023, we have repurchased 14.2 million shares under the Program for a total cost of $983.2 million, excluding commissions and taxes, or an average price of $69.32 per share.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

20


 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (“AWI”) is a Pennsylvania corporation incorporated in 1891.

This discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements, the accompanying notes, the cautionary note regarding forward-looking statements and risk factors included in this Form 10-K.

Overview

AWI is a leader in the design, innovation and manufacture of ceiling and wall solutions in the Americas. Our products primarily include mineral fiber, fiberglass wool, metal, wood, felt, wood fiber and glass-reinforced-gypsum. We also manufacture ceiling suspension system (grid) products through a joint venture with Worthington Enterprises, Inc. called Worthington Armstrong Venture (“WAVE”).

Acquisitions

In October 2023, we acquired a portion of the business and certain assets of Insolcorp, LLC (“Insolcorp”), based in Albemarle, NC, used to develop, test and manufacture energy saving products deployed in building and roofing installations. The acquired operations, assets and liabilities of Insolcorp are included in our Mineral Fiber segment.

In July 2023, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding stock of BOK Modern, LLC (“BOK”), based in San Rafael, CA. BOK is a designer of metal facade architectural solutions.

In November 2022, we acquired the business of GC Products, Inc. (“GC Products”), based in Lincoln, CA. GC Products is a designer and manufacturer of glass-reinforced-gypsum, glass-reinforced-cement, molded ceiling and specialty wall products with one manufacturing facility.

The operations, assets and liabilities of BOK and GC Products are included in our Architectural Specialties segment.

Manufacturing Plants

As of December 31, 2023, we operated 16 manufacturing plants, including 14 plants located within the U.S. and two plants in Canada. This excludes our St. Helens, Oregon mineral fiber manufacturing plant, which was closed in the second quarter of 2018 and was classified as an asset held for sale as of December 31, 2023.

WAVE operates seven additional plants in the U.S. to produce suspension system (grid) products, which we use and sell in our ceiling systems.

Reportable Segments

Our operating segments are as follows: Mineral Fiber, Architectural Specialties and Unallocated Corporate.
 

Mineral Fiber – produces suspended mineral fiber and soft fiber ceiling systems. Our mineral fiber products offer various performance attributes such as acoustical control, rated fire protection, and energy efficiency, along with other health and sustainability features and aesthetic appeal. Ceiling products are primarily sold to resale distributors, ceiling systems contractors and wholesalers, and retailers (including large home centers). The Mineral Fiber segment also includes the results of WAVE, which manufactures and sells suspension system (grid) products and ceiling component products that are invoiced by both AWI and WAVE. Segment results relating to WAVE consist primarily of equity earnings and reflect our 50% equity interest in the joint venture. Ceiling component products consist of ceiling perimeters and trim, in addition to grid products that support drywall ceiling systems. For some customers, WAVE sells its suspension system products to AWI for resale to customers. Mineral Fiber segment results reflect those sales transactions. The Mineral Fiber segment also includes all assets and liabilities not specifically allocated to our Architectural Specialties or Unallocated Corporate segment, including all property and related depreciation associated with our Lancaster, PA headquarters. Operating results for the Mineral Fiber segment include a significant majority of allocated Corporate administrative expenses that represent a reasonable allocation of general services to support its operations.

Architectural Specialties – produces, designs and sources ceilings, walls and facades primarily for use in commercial settings. Products are available in numerous materials, such as metal, wood and felt, in addition to various colors, shapes and designs. These products offer various performance attributes such as acoustical control, rated fire protection and aesthetic appeal. We sell standard, premium and customized products, a portion of which are sourced from third-party producers. Architectural Specialties products are sold primarily to resale distributors and direct customers, primarily ceiling systems contractors. The majority of this segment’s

21


 

revenues are project driven, which can lead to more variability in sales patterns. Operating results for the Architectural Specialties segment include a portion of allocated Corporate administrative expenses that represent a reasonable allocation of general services to support its operations.

 

Unallocated Corporate – includes certain assets, liabilities, income and expenses that have not been allocated to our other business segments and consists of: cash and cash equivalents, the net funded status of our U.S. Retirement Income Plan (“RIP”), the estimated fair value of interest rate swap contracts, outstanding borrowings under our senior secured credit facility and income tax balances.

Factors Affecting Revenues

For information on our segments’ 2023 net sales by geography, see Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K. For information on our segments’ 2023 net sales disaggregated by major customer groups, see Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K.

 

Markets. We compete in the building product markets of the Americas. We closely monitor publicly available macroeconomic data and trends that provide insight into commercial construction market activity, including, but not limited to, GDP, office vacancy rates, the Architecture Billings Index, new commercial construction starts, state and local government spending, corporate profits, and retail sales. The Company continues to monitor the impacts of geopolitical events, none of which had a material direct impact on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations during 2023.

Several factors and trends within our markets affected our business performance during 2023 compared to 2022, notably, increased interest rates, a lower rate of inflation on certain input costs and the lessening impact of supply chain and labor availability constraints, all of which resulted in uneven demand. During 2023, increased sales volumes contributed $19 million to revenue compared to 2022, due primarily to the acquisitions of BOK and GC Products, which collectively contributed $14 million of net sales in 2023. The acquisition of GC Products contributed an immaterial amount to 2022 net sales. Also contributing to the increase in sales volumes was the benefit of our growth initiatives and growth in our Architectural Specialties segment, partially offset by softer market demand during 2023 in comparison to the prior year.

Average Unit Value. We periodically modify sales prices of our products due to changes in costs for raw materials and energy, market conditions and the competitive environment. Typically, realized price increases are less than announced price increases because of project pricing, competitive adjustments and changing market conditions. We also offer a wide assortment of products that are differentiated by style, design and performance attributes. Pricing and margins for products within the assortment vary. In addition, changes in the relative quantity of products purchased at different price points can impact year-to-year comparisons of net sales and operating income. Within our Mineral Fiber segment, we focus on improving sales dollars per unit sold, or average unit value (“AUV”), as a measure that accounts for the varying assortment of products and like-for-like pricing impacting our revenues.

Favorable AUV contributed approximately $43 million to our total consolidated net sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. Our Architectural Specialties segment revenues are primarily earned based on individual contracts that include a mix of products, both manufactured by us and sourced from third parties, which varies by project. As such, we do not track AUV performance for this segment, but rather attribute most changes in net sales to volume.

During the first and third quarters of 2023, we implemented price increases on Mineral Fiber ceiling products. During the first and fourth quarters of 2023, WAVE implemented price increases on grid products. In the fourth quarter of 2023, we announced price increases on Mineral Fiber ceiling products that became effective in the first quarter of 2024. In the first quarter of 2024, WAVE announced price increases on grid products that will become effective in the first quarter of 2024. We may implement future pricing actions based on numerous factors, namely the rate and pace of inflation and its impact on our business.

 

Seasonality. Historically, our sales tend to be stronger in the second and third quarters of our fiscal year due to more favorable weather conditions, customer business cycles and the timing of renovation and new construction projects.

Factors Affecting Operating Costs

Operating Expenses. Our operating expenses are comprised of direct production costs (principally raw materials, labor, and energy), manufacturing overhead costs, freight, costs to purchase sourced products and selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses.

Our largest raw material expenditures are primarily for fiberglass, perlite, recycled paper, and starch. Other raw materials include clays, felt, pigment, wood, and wood fiber. We manufacture most of our mineral wool at one of our manufacturing facilities. We use aluminum and steel in the production of metal ceilings by us and by WAVE. Finally, natural gas and packaging materials are also significant input costs. Fluctuations in the prices of these inputs impact our financial results. In 2023, higher costs for raw materials were partially offset by lower costs for energy, negatively impacting operating income by $4 million compared to 2022.

22


 

Acquisition-Related Expenses and Losses

In connection with our acquisitions of TURF Design, Inc. (“Turf”) in July 2020, Moz Design, Inc. (“Moz”) in October 2020, Arktura LLC (“Arktura”) in December 2020 and BOK in July 2023, we recorded certain acquisition-related expenses and losses (gains) to operating income for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021, summarized as follows (dollar amounts in millions):

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Affected Line Item in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings and Comprehensive Income

Deferred revenue

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

0.7

 

Net sales

Loss (gain) related to change in fair
   value of contingent consideration

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

11.0

 

 

 

(4.1

)

Loss (gain) related to change in fair
   value of contingent consideration

Deferred cash and restricted stock expenses

 

 

10.7

 

 

 

7.9

 

 

 

12.8

 

SG&A expenses

Inventory

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

0.3

 

Cost of goods sold

Net negative impact to operating income

 

$

10.8

 

 

$

18.9

 

 

$

9.7

 

 


The deferred revenue and inventory amounts above reflect the post-acquisition expenses associated with recording acquired liabilities and assets at fair value as part of purchase accounting. The change in fair value of contingent consideration is related to our Moz, Turf and BOK acquisitions and was remeasured quarterly during each acquisition's respective earn-out periods. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information. Expenses related to the deferred cash and restricted stock awards for Arktura’s former owners and employees were recorded over their respective service periods, as such payments were subject to the awardees’ continued employment with AWI. Depreciation of fixed assets acquired, and amortization of intangible assets acquired have been excluded from the table above. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussions of year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. Please refer to Notes 3 and 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a reconciliation of segment operating income to consolidated earnings from continuing operations before income taxes and additional financial information related to discontinued operations.

 

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS

(dollar amounts in millions)

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change is Favorable

 

Total consolidated net sales

 

$

1,295.2

 

 

$

1,233.1

 

 

 

5.0

%

Operating income

 

$

323.7

 

 

$

278.7

 

 

 

16.1

%


Consolidated net sales for 2023 increased 5.0% due to favorable AUV of $43 million and higher sales volumes of $19 million. Mineral Fiber net sales increased $45 million, while Architectural Specialties net sales increased $17 million. The increase in Mineral Fiber net sales was primarily driven by improved AUV, as a result of increased like-for-like pricing, partially offset by unfavorable mix. Architectural Specialties net sales improved primarily due to contributions from the acquisitions of BOK and GC Products, as well as growth in metal and felt product sales, partially offset by lower wood product sales.

Cost of goods sold during 2023 was 61.6% of net sales, compared to 63.6% for 2022. The year-over year decrease in cost of goods sold as a percentage of net sales was driven primarily by favorable AUV margin, improved Architectural Specialties project margins and improved Mineral Fiber manufacturing productivity.

SG&A expenses in 2023 were $262.5 million, or 20.3% of net sales, compared to $237.0 million, or 19.2% of net sales, in 2022. The year-over-year increase in SG&A expenses was driven primarily by a $15 million increase in selling expenses, primarily related to investments in selling capabilities within our Architectural Specialties segment, investments in support of our digital initiatives and higher marketing expenses and an $8 million increase in incentive compensation.

In 2023, we recorded $0.1 million of remeasurement losses for changes in the fair value of contingent consideration related to the acquisition of BOK. In 2022, we recorded $11.0 million of remeasurement losses for changes in the fair value of contingent consideration related to the acquisition of Turf. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

23


 

Equity earnings from our WAVE joint venture were $89.3 million in 2023, compared to $77.6 million in 2022. The increase in WAVE earnings was primarily driven by the benefits of lower steel costs and higher volumes, partially offset by unfavorable AUV. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

Interest expense was $35.3 million in 2023 compared to $27.1 million in 2022. The increase in interest expense was primarily due to higher interest rates on floating rate debt, partially offset by lower average debt balances and the benefits from our existing interest rate swaps.

Other non-operating income, net was $9.9 million during 2023 compared to $6.0 million during 2022. Other non-operating income, net, is primarily comprised of the non-service cost components of pension and postretirement net periodic benefit costs and interest income.

Income tax expense was $74.5 million in 2023 compared to $57.7 million in 2022. The effective tax rate was 25.0% in 2023 compared to 22.4% in 2022. The effective tax rate for 2023 was higher compared to 2022 primarily due to the benefits recognized in the prior year from federal and state statute closures and the prior year reduction in our valuation allowance for capital loss carryforwards.

Total Other Comprehensive Loss (“OCL”) was $4.6 million in 2023 compared to Other Comprehensive Income (“OCI”) of $9.5 million in 2022. The change in OCL was primarily driven by interest rate swap derivative losses in 2023 compared to gains in 2022, partially offset by changes in pension and postretirement adjustments and foreign currency translation adjustments. Derivative gain/loss represents the mark-to-market value adjustments of our derivative assets and liabilities, and the recognition of gains and losses previously deferred in accumulated OCI. Pension and postretirement adjustments represent the actuarial gains and losses related to our defined benefit pension and postretirement plans. Foreign currency translation adjustments represent the change in the U.S. dollar value of assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Foreign currency translation adjustments during 2023 and 2022 were driven primarily by changes in the Canadian dollar.

 

REPORTABLE SEGMENT RESULTS

Mineral Fiber

(dollar amounts in millions)

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change is Favorable

 

Total segment net sales

 

$

932.4

 

 

$

887.4

 

 

 

5.1

%

Operating income

 

$

285.7

 

 

$

260.9

 

 

 

9.5

%

Mineral Fiber net sales increased $45 million due to $44 million of favorable AUV and $1 million of higher sales volumes. The increase in AUV was driven by favorable price, partially offset by unfavorable mix. The increase in sales volumes primarily resulted from the benefit from our growth initiatives and increases in inventory levels at certain home center customers in 2023, partially offset by softer market demand.

Operating income increased primarily due to a $33 million benefit from favorable AUV and a $12 million increase in WAVE equity earnings. These benefits were partially offset by a $10 million increase in selling expenses, primarily due to investments in support of our digital initiatives and higher marketing expenses, an $8 million increase in incentive compensation and a $4 million increase from higher manufacturing and input costs.

Architectural Specialties

(dollar amounts in millions)

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change is Favorable

 

Total segment net sales

 

$

362.8

 

 

$

345.7

 

 

 

4.9

%

Operating income

 

$

40.9

 

 

$

21.7

 

 

 

88.5

%

Architectural Specialties net sales increased $17 million, driven primarily by contributions from the acquisitions of BOK and GC Products as well as growth in metal and felt product sales. These increases were partially offset by lower wood product sales.

Operating income increased primarily due to a $23 million margin benefit from increased sales and improved custom project margins, in addition to an $8 million reduction in acquisition-related expenses, primarily due to the absence of the change in fair value of contingent consideration related to the acquisition of Turf that was recorded in 2022. These benefits were partially offset by a $5 million increase in selling expenses, primarily related to investments in selling capabilities and higher sales incentive expense, and a $6 million increase in manufacturing costs.

24


 

Unallocated Corporate

Unallocated Corporate operating loss was $3 million in 2023 compared to $4 million in 2022.

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY

Cash Flow

Operating activities for 2023 provided $233.5 million of cash, compared to $182.4 million in 2022. The increase was primarily due to favorable working capital changes in inventories, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The favorable change in inventories was primarily the result of custom project timing within Architectural Specialties. The favorable changes in accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses were due to timing related benefits and the impact of changes in incentive compensation accruals.

Net cash used for investing activities was $10.4 million for 2023, compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $28.2 million in 2022. The unfavorable change was primarily due to an increase in cash paid for acquisitions, increased purchases of property, plant, and equipment, and lower distributions from WAVE.

Net cash used for financing activities was $258.6 million in 2023, compared to $201.9 million in 2022. The unfavorable change was primarily due to higher net repayments of borrowings under our credit facility, partially offset by a decrease in repurchases of outstanding common stock.

Liquidity

Our liquidity needs for operations vary throughout the year. We retain lines of credit to facilitate our seasonal cash flow needs, since

cash flow is historically lower during the first and fourth quarters of our fiscal year.

We have a $950.0 million variable rate senior credit facility, which is comprised of a $500.0 million revolving credit facility (with a $150.0 million sublimit for letters of credit) and a $450.0 million Term Loan A. As of December 31, 2023, the revolving credit facility and Term Loan A were priced at 1.375% over the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), plus a 10-basis point adjustment. The revolving credit facility and Term Loan A mature in December 2027. We also have a $25.0 million bi-lateral letter of credit facility.

As of December 31, 2023, total borrowings outstanding under our senior credit facility were $450.0 million under Term Loan A and $140.0 million under the revolving credit facility.

The senior credit facility includes two financial covenants that require the ratio of consolidated earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) to consolidated cash interest expense minus consolidated cash interest income to be greater than or equal to 3.0 to 1.0, and requires the ratio of consolidated funded indebtedness, minus AWI and domestic subsidiary unrestricted cash and cash equivalents up to $100 million, to EBITDA to be less than or equal to 3.75 to 1.0 (subject to certain exceptions for certain acquisitions). As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants of the senior credit facility.

We use interest rate swaps to minimize the fluctuations in earnings caused by interest rate volatility associated with our senior credit facility. In March 2023, we amended our interest rate swaps outstanding in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) ASU 2020-04, “Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting,” changing our hedged interest rate from the discontinued London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, to the SOFR.

The Term Loan A is currently priced on a variable interest rate basis. The following tables summarize our interest rate swaps,

including forward interest rate swaps (dollar amounts in millions):

 

Coverage Period

 

Notional
Amount

 

Risk Coverage

 

Trade Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 2021 to March 2024

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

March 10, 2020

March 2021 to March 2024

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

March 11, 2020

November 2023 to June 2024

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

September 18, 2023

March 2021 to March 2025

 

$

100.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

November 28, 2018

November 2023 to December 2025

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

October 23, 2023

November 2023 to December 2026

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

October 10, 2023

November 2023 to November 2027

 

$

50.0

 

USD-SOFR

 

September 29, 2023

 

Under the terms of our interest rate swaps above, on a monthly basis, we pay a fixed rate and receive a floating rate based on SOFR. These swaps are designated as cash flow hedges against changes in SOFR for a portion of our variable rate debt.

25


 

 

We utilize lines of credit and other commercial commitments to ensure that adequate funds are available to meet operating requirements. Letters of credit are currently arranged through our revolving credit facility and our bi-lateral facility. Letters of credit may be issued to third party suppliers, insurance companies and financial institutions and typically can only be drawn upon in the event of AWI’s failure to pay its obligations to the beneficiary. The following table presents details related to our letters of credit facilities (dollar amounts in millions):

 

 

 

December 31, 2023

 

Financing Arrangements

 

Limit

 

 

Used

 

 

Available

 

Bi-lateral facility

 

$

25.0

 

 

$

7.7

 

 

$

17.3

 

Revolving credit facility

 

 

150.0

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

150.0

 

Total

 

$

175.0

 

 

$

7.7

 

 

$

167.3

 

 

The table below reflects scheduled future payments of long-term debt, excluding $3.2 million of unamortized debt financing costs, and the related interest payments, which are projected based on market-based interest rate swap curves (dollar amounts in millions):

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2025

 

 

2026

 

 

2027

 

 

2028

 

 

Thereafter

 

 

Total

 

Long-term debt

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

522.5

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

590.0

 

Scheduled interest payments

 

 

33.3

 

 

 

29.1

 

 

 

26.8

 

 

 

24.2

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

113.4

 

 

As of December 31, 2023, we had $70.8 million of cash and cash equivalents, $53.4 million in the U.S. and $17.4 million in various foreign jurisdictions, primarily Canada. As of December 31, 2023, we also had $360.0 million available under our revolving credit facility. We believe cash on hand and cash generated from operations, together with borrowing capacity under our credit facility, will be adequate to address our near-term liquidity needs based on current expectations of our business operations, capital expenditures and scheduled payment of debt obligations. In 2024, we expect to spend approximately $80 million to $90 million on capital expenditures and approximately $50 million on dividends.

 

In July 2016, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to $150.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock (the “Program”). Since inception of the Program we have been authorized to repurchase up to an aggregate of $1,700.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through December 31, 2026. We had $716.8 million remaining under the Board’s repurchase authorization as of December 31, 2023.

 

Repurchases of our common stock under the Program may be made through open market, block and privately negotiated transactions, including Rule 10b5-1 plans, at such times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate, subject to market and business conditions, regulatory requirements and other factors. The Program does not obligate AWI to repurchase any particular amount of common stock and may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

In preparing our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), we are required to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an on-going basis, using relevant internal and external information. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable; however, actual results may differ from what was estimated and could have a significant impact on the financial statements.

 

We have identified the following as our critical accounting estimates and have discussed these with our Audit Committee.

 

U.S. Pension Credit and Postretirement Benefit Costs – We maintain significant pension and postretirement plans in the U.S. Our defined benefit pension and postretirement benefit costs are developed from actuarial valuations. These valuations are calculated using a number of assumptions, which represent management’s best estimate of the future. The assumptions that have the most significant impact on reported results are the discount rate, the estimated long-term return on plan assets and the estimated inflation in health care costs. These assumptions are generally updated annually.

 

Management utilizes the Aon Hewitt AA only above median yield curve, which is a hypothetical AA yield curve comprised of a series of annualized individual discount rates, as the primary basis for determining discount rates. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we assumed discount rates of 5.01% and 5.21%, respectively, for our U.S. defined benefit pension plans. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we assumed discount rates of 4.96% and 5.12%, respectively, for our U.S. postretirement plan. The effects of the change in discount rate will be amortized into earnings as described below. Absent any other changes, a one-quarter percentage point increase or decrease in the discount rates for the U.S. pension and postretirement plans would impact 2024 non-operating income by $0.3 million.

26


 

 

We manage two U.S. defined benefit pension plans, our RIP, which is a qualified funded plan, and a nonqualified unfunded plan. For the RIP, the expected long-term return on plan assets represents a long-term view of the future estimated investment return on plan assets. This estimate is determined based on the target allocation of plan assets among asset classes and input from investment professionals on the expected performance of the asset classes over 10 to 30 years. Historical asset returns are monitored and considered when we develop our expected long-term return on plan assets. An incremental component is added for the expected return from active management based on historical information obtained from the plan’s investment consultants. These forecasted gross returns are reduced by estimated management fees and expenses. Over the 10-year period ended December 31, 2023, the historical annualized return was approximately 3.48% compared to an average expected return of 5.83%. The actual gain on plan assets incurred for 2023 was 8.73%, net of fees. The difference between the actual and expected rate of return on plan assets will be amortized into earnings as described below.

 

The expected long-term return on plan assets used in determining our 2023 U.S. pension cost was 6.50%. We have assumed a return on plan assets for 2024 of 6.00%. The 2024 expected return on assets was calculated in a manner consistent with 2023. Absent any other changes, a one-quarter percentage point increase or decrease in this assumption would impact 2024 non-operating income by $1.0 million.

 

Contributions to the unfunded pension plan were $2.8 million in 2023 and were made on a monthly basis to fund benefit payments. We estimate the 2024 contributions will be approximately $2.7 million. See Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

 

The estimated inflation in health care costs represents a 5 to 10-year view of the expected inflation in our postretirement health care costs. We separately estimate expected health care cost increases for pre-65 retirees and post-65 retirees due to the influence of Medicare coverage at age 65, as illustrated below:

Assumptions

Actual

Post-65

Pre-65

Post-65

Pre-65

2022

7.1

%

6.6

%

7.4

%

22.7

%

2023

7.8

%

7.3

%

19.9

%

23.6

%

2024

10.5

%

7.8

%

The difference between the actual and expected health care costs is amortized into earnings as described below. As of December 31, 2023, health care cost increases are estimated to decrease ratably until 2033, after which they are estimated to be constant at 4.50%. See Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.

 

Actual results that differ from our various pension and postretirement plan estimates are captured as actuarial gains/losses. When certain thresholds are met, the gains and losses are amortized into future earnings over the remaining life expectancy of participants. Changes in assumptions could have significant effects on earnings in future years.

 

Total net actuarial losses related to our U.S. pension benefit plans increased by $0.5 million in 2023 primarily due to changes in actuarial assumptions, including a 20-basis point decrease in the discount rate and demographic changes. The $0.5 million actuarial loss impacting our U.S. pension plans is reflected as a component of other comprehensive income in our Consolidated Statements of Earnings and Comprehensive Income along with actuarial gains and losses from our foreign pension plan and our postretirement benefit plans.

 

Income Taxes – Our effective tax rate is primarily determined based on our pre-tax income, statutory income tax rates in the jurisdictions in which we operate, and the tax impacts of items treated differently for tax purposes than for financial reporting purposes. Some of these differences are permanent, such as expenses that are not deductible in our tax returns, and some differences are temporary, reversing over time, such as depreciation expense. These temporary differences create deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Deferred income tax assets are also recorded for state net operating losses (“NOL”) and capital loss carryforwards.

 

As of December 31, 2023, we have recorded valuation allowances totaling $49.1 million for various federal and state deferred tax assets. While we have considered future taxable income in assessing the need for the valuation allowances based on our best available projections, if these estimates and assumptions change in the future or if actual results differ from our projections, we may be required to adjust our valuation allowances accordingly. Such adjustments could be material to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

As further described in Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, our Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2023 includes deferred income tax liabilities of $166.9 million, which is net of $117.2 million of deferred tax assets. We have established $49.1 million of valuation allowances consisting of $31.2 million for state deferred tax assets, primarily operating loss carryforwards, and $17.9 million for federal and state deferred tax assets related to capital loss carryforwards. Inherent in determining our effective tax rate are judgments regarding business plans and expectations about future operations. These judgments include the amount and

27


 

geographic mix of future taxable income, limitations on usage of NOL carryforwards, the impact of ongoing or potential tax audits, and other future tax consequences.

 

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had $646.7 million and $675.5 million, respectively, of gross state NOL carryforwards expiring between 2024 and 2043. We estimate we will need to generate future U.S. taxable income of approximately $240.9 million for state income tax purposes during the respective realization periods (ranging from 2024 to 2043) to be able to fully realize the gross state NOL carryforwards offset by related valuation allowances.

 

Our ability to utilize deferred tax assets may be impacted by certain future events, such as changes in tax legislation and insufficient future taxable income prior to expiration of certain deferred tax assets.

 

Impairments of Tangible Assets, Intangible Assets and Goodwill – Our indefinite-lived assets include goodwill and other intangibles, primarily trademarks and brand names. Those trademarks and brand names are integral to our corporate identity and are expected to contribute indefinitely to our corporate cash flows. Accordingly, they have been assigned an indefinite life. We conduct our annual impairment tests for these indefinite-lived intangible assets and goodwill during the fourth quarter. These assets undergo more frequent tests if an indication of possible impairment exists. We conduct impairment tests for tangible assets and definite-lived intangible assets when indicators of impairment exist for the asset group, such as operating losses and/or negative cash flows.

 

The principal assumptions used in our impairment tests for definite-lived intangible assets is operating profit adjusted for depreciation and amortization and, if required to estimate the fair value, the discount rate. The principal assumptions used in our impairment tests for indefinite-lived intangible assets include revenue growth rates, discount rate and royalty rate. The principal assumptions utilized in our impairment tests for goodwill include after-tax cash flows growth rates and discount rate. Revenue growth rates, after-tax cash flows growth rates and operating profit assumptions are derived from those used in our operating plan and strategic planning processes. The discount rate assumption is calculated based upon an estimated weighted average cost of capital which reflects the overall level of inherent risk and the rate of return a market participant would expect to achieve. The royalty rate assumption represents the estimated contribution of the intangible assets to the overall profits of the related businesses. Methodologies used for valuing our intangible assets did not change from prior periods.

 

In 2023, indefinite-lived intangibles and goodwill were tested for impairment based on the identified asset (for indefinite-lived intangibles) or on our identified reporting units (for goodwill). There were no impairment charges recorded in 2023, 2022 or 2021 related to intangible assets. We did not test tangible assets for impairment in 2023, 2022 or 2021 as no indicators of impairment existed.

 

The revenue and cash flow estimates used in applying our impairment tests are based on management’s analysis of information available at the time of the impairment test and represent a market participant view. Actual cash flows lower than the estimate could lead to significant future impairments. If subsequent testing indicates that fair values have declined, the carrying values would be reduced and our future statements of earnings would be affected.

 

We cannot predict the occurrence of certain events that might lead to material impairment charges in the future. Such events may include, but are not limited to, the impact of economic environments, particularly related to the commercial construction industry, material adverse changes in relationships with significant customers, or strategic decisions made in response to economic and competitive conditions. See Notes 3 and 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

Environmental Liabilities – We are actively involved in the investigation, closure and/or remediation of existing or potential environmental contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), and state Superfund and similar environmental laws at two domestically owned locations allegedly resulting from past industrial activity. In both cases, we are one of several potentially responsible parties and have agreed to jointly fund the required investigation, while preserving our defenses to the liability. We may also have rights of contribution or reimbursement from other parties or coverage under applicable insurance policies.

 

We provide for environmental remediation costs and penalties when the responsibility to remediate is probable and the amount of associated costs is reasonably determinable. Accruals are estimates based on the judgment of management related to ongoing proceedings. Estimates of our future liability at the environmental sites are based on evaluations of currently available facts regarding each individual site. In determining the probability of contribution, we consider the solvency of other parties, the site activities of other parties, whether liability is being disputed, the terms of any existing agreements and experience with similar matters, and the effect of our October 2006 Chapter 11 reorganization upon the validity of the claim.

 

We evaluate the measurement of recorded liabilities each reporting period based on current facts and circumstances specific to each matter. The ultimate losses incurred upon final resolution may materially differ from the estimated liability recorded. Changes in estimates are recorded in earnings in the period in which such changes occur.

28


 

 

We are unable to predict the extent to which any recoveries from other parties or coverage under insurance policies might cover our final share of costs for these sites. Our final share of investigation and remediation costs may exceed any such recoveries, and such amounts net of insurance recoveries may be material. However, we do not expect the total future costs to have a material adverse effect on our liquidity or financial condition as the cash payments may be made over many years.

 

Business Combinations and Contingent Consideration – Acquired businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that the purchase price be allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. The estimated fair value of contingent consideration is recorded as a liability on the balance sheet at the date of acquisition.

 

The purchase price allocation requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date, with respect to intangible assets and contingent consideration. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies.

 

We engage independent, third-party valuation specialists to assist in determining the fair values of acquired intangible assets and contingent consideration.

 

Both the BOK and Insolcorp acquisitions in 2023 include the potential for contingent earn-out payments based on the financial or operational performance of the acquired companies. We estimated the fair value of these contingent consideration liabilities upon acquisition and are required to measure these liabilities at fair value each reporting period until the contingencies are resolved, with changes in the fair value after the acquisition date affecting earnings in the period of the estimated fair value change. See Notes 5 and 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

The principal assumptions used in valuing certain intangible assets and contingent consideration include future expected cash flows from sales and acquired developed technologies, the acquired company's trade names and customer relationships as well as assumptions about the period of time the acquired trade names and customer relationships will continue to be used in the combined company's portfolio, the probability of meeting the future revenue and EBITDA growth targets and discount rates used to determine the present value of estimated future cash flows.

 

These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable, and if different estimates were used, the total consideration including the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration, could be allocated to the acquired assets and liabilities differently from the allocation that we have made. In addition, unanticipated events and circumstances may occur, which may affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates, and if such events occur, we may be required to record a charge against the value assigned to an acquired asset or an increase in the amounts recorded for assumed liabilities.

ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS EFFECTIVE IN FUTURE PERIODS

See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

29


 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Market Risk

Our primary exposure to market risk is from changes in interest rates that could impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We use interest rate derivatives to manage our exposures to interest rates. We use these derivative financial instruments as risk management tools and not for speculative trading purposes. In addition, our derivative financial instruments are entered into with a diversified group of major financial institutions in order to manage our exposure to potential nonperformance on such instruments.

 

Counterparty Risk

We only enter into derivative transactions with established financial institution counterparties having an investment-grade credit rating. We monitor counterparty credit ratings on a regular basis. All of our derivative transactions with counterparties are governed by master International Swap and Derivatives Association agreements (“ISDAs”) with netting arrangements. These agreements can limit our exposure in situations where we have gain and loss positions outstanding with a single counterparty. We do not post, nor do we receive, cash collateral with any counterparty for our derivative transactions. These ISDAs do not have any credit contingent features; however, a default under our bank credit facility would trigger a default under these agreements. Exposure to individual counterparties is controlled and we consider the risk of counterparty default to be negligible.

 

Interest Rate Sensitivity

We are subject to interest rate variability on our Term Loan A and revolving credit facility. A hypothetical increase of one-quarter percentage point in SOFR interest rates from December 31, 2023 levels would increase 2024 interest expense by approximately $0.7 million. We have active interest rate swaps outstanding, which effectively fix the interest rates for a portion of our debt. These interest rate swaps are included in this calculation.

 

As of December 31, 2023, we had interest rate swaps outstanding with notional amounts of $400 million. We use interest rate swaps to minimize the fluctuations in earnings caused by interest rate volatility. Under the terms of these swaps, we receive floating rate SOFR and pay a fixed rate over the hedged period. The following table summarizes our interest rate swaps as of December 31, 2023 (dollar amounts in millions):

 

Coverage Period

 

Notional
Amount

 

 

Risk Coverage

 

Trade Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 2021 to March 2024

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

March 10, 2020

March 2021 to March 2024

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

March 11, 2020

November 2023 to June 2024

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

September 18, 2023

March 2021 to March 2025

 

$

 

100.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

November 28, 2018

November 2023 to December 2025

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

October 23, 2023

November 2023 to December 2026

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

October 10, 2023

November 2023 to November 2027

 

$

 

50.0

 

 

USD-SOFR

 

September 29, 2023

 

These swaps are designated as cash flow hedges against changes in SOFR for a portion of our variable rate debt. The net liability measured at fair value was $0.4 million as of December 31, 2023.

 

The table below provides information about our long-term debt obligations as of December 31, 2023, including payment requirements and related weighted-average interest rates by scheduled maturity dates. Weighted average variable rates are based on implied forward rates in the yield curve and are exclusive of our interest rate swaps.

 

Scheduled maturity date
(dollar amounts in millions)

 

2024

 

 

2025

 

 

2026

 

 

2027

 

 

2028

 

 

After 2028

 

 

Total

 

Variable rate principal
   payments

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

22.5

 

 

$

522.5

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

590.0

 

Average interest rate

 

 

4.61

%

 

 

3.36

%

 

 

3.22

%

 

 

3.31

%

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

3.31

%

 

Variable rate principal payments reflected in the preceding table exclude $3.2 million of unamortized debt financing costs as of December 31, 2023.

 

 

30


 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Quarterly Financial Information for the Quarter Ended December 31, 2023 (Unaudited)

The following consolidated financial statements are filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K:

Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

Consolidated Statements of Earnings and Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.

Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Schedule II for the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

 

 

31


 

Armstrong World Industries, Inc., and Subsidiaries

Quarterly Financial Information (unaudited)

(dollar amounts in millions, except for per share data)

 

Fourth Quarter 2023 Compared to Fourth Quarter 2022 – Continuing Operations

Consolidated fourth-quarter 2023 net sales of $312.3 million increased $7.8 million or 2.6% compared to the prior year quarter. Mineral Fiber net sales increased 2.0% due to favorable AUV of $4 million and an increase in volumes of $1 million. Architectural Specialties net sales increased 4.0% primarily due to contributions from recent acquisitions, partially offset by the impact of unfavorable custom project timing.

For the fourth quarter of 2023, cost of goods sold was 61.7% of net sales, compared to 63.4% in the fourth quarter of 2022. The year-over-year decrease in cost of goods sold as a percent of net sales was driven primarily by improved Architectural Specialties project margins and favorable AUV margin.

SG&A expenses in the fourth quarter of 2023 were $73.3 million, or 23.5% of net sales compared to $59.1 million, or 19.4% of net sales, in the fourth quarter of 2022. The increase in SG&A expenses was driven primarily by a $6 million increase in incentive compensation, a $5 million increase in acquisition-related expenses related to the Architectural Specialties segment and a $3 million increase in selling expenses.

In the fourth quarter of 2023, we recorded $0.1 million of remeasurement losses for a change in the fair value of contingent consideration related to the acquisition of BOK. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we recorded $2.3 million of remeasurement gains for changes in the fair value of contingent consideration related to the acquisition of Turf. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

Equity earnings in the fourth quarter of 2023 were $20.2 million compared to $15.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2022. The increase in WAVE earnings resulted primarily from lower steel costs and higher volumes. See Note 11 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

As a result, operating income decreased 6.1% to $66.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2023 compared to $70.6 million in the fourth quarter of 2022.

Interest expense in the fourth quarter of 2023 was $8.6 million compared to $9.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2022. The decrease in interest expense was primarily due to lower average debt balances and the benefits from our existing interest rate swaps, partially offset by higher interest rates on floating rate debt.

 

Fourth quarter income tax expense was $13.9 million on pre-tax earnings of $60.7 million in 2023 compared to $14.5 million on pre-tax earnings of $63.3 million in 2022, resulting in a 22.9% effective tax rate for the fourth quarter of 2023 and 2022.

 

Basic and diluted earnings per share were $1.06 in the fourth quarter of 2023, compared to basic and diluted earnings per share of $1.07 in the fourth quarter of 2022.

 

32


 

 

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Our internal control over financial reporting was designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of our financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

Because of inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this evaluation and the criteria in the COSO framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023.

KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, audited our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, as stated in their report included herein.

 

/s/ Victor D. Grizzle

 

Victor D. Grizzle

Director, President and Chief Executive Officer

 

/s/ Christopher P. Calzaretta

 

Christopher P. Calzaretta

Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

 

/s/ James T. Burge

 

James T. Burge

Vice President and Corporate Controller

February 20, 2024

33


 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

 

To the Shareholders and Board of Directors
Armstrong World Industries, Inc.:

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Armstrong World Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule II (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 20, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ KPMG LLP

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
February 20, 2024

 

34


 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

 

To the Shareholders and Board of Directors
Armstrong World Industries, Inc.:

 

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Armstrong World Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule II (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 20, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Pension and postretirement benefit obligations

As discussed in Notes 2 and 18 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s pension projected benefit obligations and the fair value of plan assets for the U.S. plans were $356.5 million and $413.4 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2023, resulting in a funded status of $56.9 million. Additionally, the Company’s accumulated postretirement benefit obligation was $47.0 million, which is an unfunded liability.

We identified the evaluation of the Company’s measurement of the benefit obligations to be a critical audit matter. Subjective auditor judgment was required to evaluate the discount rates, as minor changes in the rates could have a significant impact on the benefit obligations. Additionally, the assessment of the discount rates required specialized actuarial skills and knowledge.

The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s benefit obligations process, including controls related to the actuarial determination of the discount rates used in the valuation of the benefit obligations. Additionally, we involved an actuarial professional with specialized skill and knowledge, who assisted in the evaluation of the Company’s discount rates by:

35


 

assessing changes in the discount rates from the prior year against changes in published indices;
assessing the discount rates based on the plan type, plan provisions and pattern of cash flows; and
evaluating the selected yield curve, the consistency of the yield curve with the prior year, and the spot rates.

 

 

/s/ KPMG LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1929.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
February 20, 2024

 

 

 

36


 

Armstrong World Industries, Inc., and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Earnings and Comprehensive Income

(amounts in millions, except per share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Net sales

 

$

1,295.2

 

 

$

1,233.1

 

 

$

1,106.6

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

798.2

 

 

 

784.0

 

 

 

701.0

 

Gross profit

 

 

497.0

 

 

 

449.1

 

 

 

405.6

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

 

262.5

 

 

 

237.0

 

 

 

237.4

 

Loss (gain) related to change in fair value of contingent consideration

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

11.0

 

 

 

(4.1

)

Equity (earnings) from joint venture

 

 

(89.3

)

 

 

(77.6

)

 

 

(87.7

)

Operating income

 

 

323.7

 

 

 

278.7

 

 

 

260.0

 

Interest expense

 

 

35.3

 

 

 

27.1

 

 

 

22.9

 

Other non-operating (income), net

 

 

(9.9

)

 

 

(6.0

)

 

 

(5.6

)

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes

 

 

298.3

 

 

 

257.6

 

 

 

242.7

 

Income tax expense

 

 

74.5

 

 

 

57.7

 

 

 

57.4

 

Earnings from continuing operations

 

 

223.8

 

 

 

199.9

 

 

 

185.3

 

Earnings (loss) from disposal of discontinued businesses, net of tax (benefit)
   expense of $
-, ($3.0) and $1.7

 

 

-

 

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

(2.1

)

Net earnings (loss) from discontinued operations

 

 

-

 

 

 

3.0

 

 

 

(2.1

)

Net earnings

 

$

223.8

 

 

$

202.9

 

 

$

183.2

 

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation adjustments

 

 

0.5

 

 

 

(1.8

)

 

 

-

 

Derivative (loss) gain, net

 

 

(9.0

)

 

 

18.6

 

 

 

9.9

 

Pension and postretirement adjustments

 

 

3.9

 

 

 

(7.3

)

 

 

(10.2

)

Total other comprehensive (loss) income

 

 

(4.6

)

 

 

9.5

 

 

 

(0.3

)

Total comprehensive income

 

$

219.2

 

 

$

212.4

 

 

$

182.9

 

Earnings per share of common stock, continuing operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

5.00

 

 

$

4.31

 

 

$

3.88

 

Diluted

 

$

4.99

 

 

$

4.30

 

 

$

3.86

 

Earnings (loss) per share of common stock, discontinued operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

-

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

(0.04

)

Diluted

 

$

-

 

 

$

0.07

 

 

$

(0.04

)

Net earnings per share of common stock:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

5.00

 

 

$

4.38

 

 

$

3.84

 

Diluted

 

$

4.99

 

 

$

4.37

 

 

$

3.82

 

Average number of common shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

44.7

 

 

 

46.3

 

 

 

47.6

 

Diluted

 

 

44.8

 

 

 

46.4

 

 

 

47.9

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements beginning on page 41.

 

37


 

Armstrong World Industries, Inc., and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(amounts in millions, except share data)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2023

 

 

December 31, 2022

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

70.8

 

 

$

106.0

 

Accounts and notes receivable, net

 

 

111.0

 

 

 

112.4

 

Inventories, net

 

 

104.0

 

 

 

110.0

 

Income taxes receivable

 

 

0.8

 

 

 

1.8

 

Other current assets

 

 

26.4

 

 

 

26.3

 

Total current assets

 

 

313.0

 

 

 

356.5

 

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

 

566.4

 

 

 

554.4

 

Operating lease assets

 

 

26.6

 

 

 

18.8

 

Finance lease assets

 

 

25.2

 

 

 

16.0

 

Prepaid pension costs

 

 

84.6

 

 

 

83.2

 

Investment in joint venture

 

 

17.4

 

 

 

23.9

 

Goodwill

 

 

175.5

 

 

 

167.3

 

Intangible assets, net

 

 

412.4

 

 

 

407.7

 

Other non-current assets

 

 

51.3

 

 

 

59.4

 

Total assets

 

$

1,672.4

 

 

$

1,687.2

 

Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:<