Company Quick10K Filing
AXT
Price3.72 EPS-0
Shares40 P/E-178
MCap150 P/FCF20
Net Debt-28 EBIT-0
TEV122 TEV/EBIT-1,874
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-03-23
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-06
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-10
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-08
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-12
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-08
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-08
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-08
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-11
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-07
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-07
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-04
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-09
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-08
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-04
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-08
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-27
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-04
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-05
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-06
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-11
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-06
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-07
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-08
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-13
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-11-06
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-08-08
10-Q 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-09
10-K 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-14
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-11-08
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-09
10-Q 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-10
10-K 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-15
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-11-09
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-09
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-10
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-03-15
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-11-08
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-09
10-Q 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-05-10
10-K 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-03-16
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-11-09
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-09
10-Q 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-05-17
10-K 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-03-22
8-K 2021-02-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-12-25 Enter Agreement
8-K 2020-11-13
8-K 2020-10-28
8-K 2020-07-22
8-K 2020-05-21
8-K 2020-04-22
8-K 2020-02-19
8-K 2019-12-23
8-K 2019-10-30
8-K 2019-10-02
8-K 2019-07-24
8-K 2019-05-23
8-K 2019-04-24
8-K 2019-02-20
8-K 2019-01-14
8-K 2018-11-06
8-K 2018-10-31
8-K 2018-07-25
8-K 2018-05-25
8-K 2018-04-25
8-K 2018-04-11
8-K 2018-02-21
8-K 2018-02-21

AXTI 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Note 1. The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
Note 3. Inventories
Note 4. Related Party Transactions
Note 5. Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Note 6. Investments in Privately - Held Raw Material Companies
Note 7. Balance Sheets Details
Note 8. Bank Loans and Line of Credit
Note 9. Stockholders' Equity and Stock Repurchase Program
Note 10. Employee Benefit Plans and Stock - Based Compensation
Note 11. Guarantees
Note 12. Income Taxes
Note 13. Net Income (Loss) per Share
Note 14. Segment Information and Foreign Operations
Note 15. Other Income, Net
Note 16. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 17. Unaudited Quarterly Consolidated Financial Data
Note 18. Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
Note 19. Subsequent Events
Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary
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AXT Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
225180135904502012201420172020
Assets, Equity
302317104-22012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
3525155-5-152012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                                  to                                  

Commission file number: 000-24085

AXT, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

94-3031310

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

4281 Technology Drive, Fremont, California

94538

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510438-4700

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class:

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

AXTI

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act  Yes  No

Indicate by checkmark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  No

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


reporting company)

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by checkmark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  No

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing sale price of $4.76 for the common stock on June 30, 2020 as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, was approximately $144,499,115. Shares of common stock held by each officer, director and by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of March 1, 2021, 42,086,773 shares, $0.001 par value, of the registrant’s common stock were outstanding.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

16

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

39

Item 2.

Properties

39

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

40

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

40

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

41

Item 6.

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

43

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

44

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

60

Item 8.

Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

61

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

62

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

62

Item 9B.

Other Information

63

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

64

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

64

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

64

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

64

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

64

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

65

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

106

1

Table of Contents

PART I

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.  Statements relating to our expectations regarding results of operations, market and customer demand for our products, customer qualifications of our products, our ability to expand our markets or increase sales, emerging applications using chips or devices fabricated on our substrates, the development of new products, applications, enhancements or technologies, the life cycles of our products and applications, product yields and gross margins, expense levels, the impact of the adoption of certain accounting pronouncements, our investments in capital projects, ramping production at our new sites, potential severance costs with respect to the relocation of our gallium arsenide production line, our ability to have customers re-qualify substrates from our new manufacturing location in Dingxing, China, our ability to utilize or increase our manufacturing capacity, and our belief that we have adequate cash and investments to meet our needs over the next 12 months are forward-looking statements.  Additionally, statements regarding completing steps in connection with the proposed listing of shares of our wafer manufacturing company, Beijing Tongmei Xtal Technology Co., Ltd. (“Tongmei”), on the Shanghai Stock Exchange’s Sci-Tech innovAtion boaRd (the “STAR Market”), being accepted to list shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market, the timing and completion of such listing of shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market and the completion of entity reorganizations and the alignment of assets under Tongmei are forward looking statements. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “goals,” “should,” “continues,” “would,” “could” and similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying forward-looking statements in this annual report.  Additionally, statements concerning future matters such as our strategy and plans, industry trends and the impact of trends, tariffs and trade wars, the potential or expected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations and financial condition, mandatory factory shutdowns in China, changes in policies and regulations in China and economic cycles on our business are forward-looking statements.

Our forward-looking statements are based upon assumptions that are subject to uncertainties and factors relating to the company’s operations and business environment, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements contained in this report. These uncertainties and factors include but are not limited to: the withdrawal, cancellations or requests for redemptions by private equity funds in China of their investments in Tongmei, the administrative challenges in satisfying the requirements of various government agencies in China in connection with the investments in Tongmei and the listing of shares of Tongmei on the STAR Market, continued open access to companies to list shares on the STAR Market, investor enthusiasm for new listings of shares on the STAR Market and geopolitical tensions between China and the United States. Additional uncertainties and factors include, but are not limited to: the timing and receipt of significant orders; the cancellation of orders and return of product; emerging applications using chips or devices fabricated on our substrates; end-user acceptance of products containing chips or devices fabricated on our substrates; our ability to bring new products to market; product announcements by our competitors; the ability to control costs and improve efficiency; the ability to utilize our manufacturing capacity; product yields and their impact on gross margins; the relocation of manufacturing lines and ramping of production; possible factory shutdowns as a result of air pollution in China; COVID-19 or other outbreaks of a contagious disease; the availability of COVID-19 vaccines; tariffs and other trade war issues; the financial performance of our partially owned supply chain companies; policies and regulations in China; and other factors as set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A below. All forward-looking statements are based upon management’s views as of the date of this annual report and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from historical results or those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Item 1A below, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this annual report, and identify important factors that could disrupt or injure our business or cause actual results to differ materially from those predicted in any such forward-looking statements.

These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance.  Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date hereof.  Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report, which attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.  We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements in order to reflect any development, event or circumstance that may arise after the date of this report.

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Item 1. Business

AXT, Inc. (“AXT”, “the Company”, “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to AXT, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries) is a materials science company that develops and produces high-performance compound and single element semiconductor substrates, also known as wafers. Two of our consolidated subsidiaries produce and sell certain raw materials some of which are used in our substrate manufacturing process and some of which are sold to other companies.

Our substrate wafers are used when a typical silicon substrate wafer cannot meet the performance requirements of a semiconductor or optoelectronic device. The dominant substrates used in producing semiconductor chips and other electronic circuits are made from silicon. However, certain chips may become too hot or perform their function too slowly if silicon is used as the base material.  In addition, optoelectronic applications, such as LED lighting and chip-based lasers, do not use silicon substrates because they require a wave form frequency that cannot be achieved using silicon. Alternative or specialty materials are used to replace silicon as the preferred base in these situations. Our wafers provide such alternative or specialty materials. We do not design or manufacture the chips. We add value by researching, developing and producing the specialty material wafers. We have two product lines: specialty material substrates and raw materials integral to these substrates. Our compound substrates combine indium with phosphorous (indium phosphide: InP) or gallium with arsenic (gallium arsenide: GaAs). Our single element substrates are made from germanium (Ge).

InP is a high-performance semiconductor substrate used in broadband and fiber optic applications, 5G infrastructure and data center connectivity. InP substrates are also used in biometric wearables and other health monitoring applications. In recent years, InP demand has increased. Semi-insulating GaAs substrates are used to create various high-speed microwave components, including power amplifier chips used in cell phones, satellite communications and broadcast television applications. Semi-conducting GaAs substrates are used to create opto-electronic products, including high brightness light emitting diodes (HBLEDs) that are often used to backlight wireless handsets and liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs and also used for automotive panels, signage, display and lighting applications. A new application for semi-conducting GaAs substrates is 3-D sensing chips using VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) as an array of lasers on a single chip that can be used in cell phones and other devices. GaAs wafers could also be used for making micro-LEDs. Ge substrates are used in applications such as solar cells for space and terrestrial photovoltaic applications.

Our supply chain strategy includes partial ownership of raw material companies. Two of these companies are consolidated. One of these consolidated companies produces pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles used in the high temperature (typically in the range 500 C to 1,500 C) growth process of single crystal ingots, effusion rings when growing OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) tools, epitaxial layer growth in MOCVD (Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) reactors and MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) reactors. We use these pBN crucibles in our own ingot growth processes and they are also sold in the open market to other companies. The second consolidated company converts raw gallium to purified gallium. We use purified gallium in producing our GaAs substrates and it is also sold in the open market to other companies for use in producing magnetic materials, high temperature thermometers, single crystal ingots, including gallium arsenide, gallium nitride, gallium antimonite and gallium phosphide ingots, and other materials and alloys. In addition to purified gallium, the second consolidated company also produces InP base material which we then use to grow single crystal ingots. In prior years, a third company was consolidated, but, in the first quarter of 2019, we sold a portion of our ownership to our investment partner and, as of March 11, 2019, we ceased to consolidate this company. Our substrate product group generated 79%, 81% and 79% of our consolidated revenue and our raw materials product group generated 21%, 19% and 21% for 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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The following chart shows our substrate products and their materials, diameters and illustrative applications and shows our raw materials group primary products and their illustrative uses and applications.

Products

  

Substrate Group and Wafer Diameter

Sample of Applications

Indium Phosphide

• Data center connectivity using light/lasers

(InP)

• 5G communications

2”, 3”, 4”

• Fiber optic lasers and detectors

• Passive Optical Networks (PONs)

• Silicon photonics

• Photonic Integrated circuits (PICs)

• High efficiency terrestrial solar cells (CPV)

• RF amplifier and switching (military wireless & 5G)

• Infrared light-emitting diode (LEDs) motion control

• Lidar for robotics and autonomous vehicles

• Infrared thermal imaging

Gallium Arsenide

• Wi-Fi devices

(GaAs - semi-insulating)

• IoT devices

1”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 5”, 6”

• High-performance transistors

• Direct broadcast television

• Power amplifiers for wireless devices

• Satellite communications

• High efficiency solar cells for drones and automobiles

• Solar cells

Gallium Arsenide

• High brightness LEDs

(GaAs - semi-conducting)

• Screen displays using micro-LEDs

1”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 5", 6”

• Printer head lasers and LEDs

• 3-D sensing using VCSELs

• Data center communication using VCSELs

• Sensors for industrial robotics/Near-infrared sensors

• Laser machining, cutting and drilling

• Optical couplers

• High efficiency solar cells for drones and automobiles

• Other lasers

• Night vision goggles

• Lidar for robotics and autonomous vehicles

• Solar cells

Germanium

• Multi-junction solar cells for satellites

(Ge)

• Optical sensors and detectors

2”, 4”, 6”

• Terrestrial concentrated photo voltaic (CPV) cells

• Infrared detectors

• Carrier wafer for LED

Raw Materials Group

6N+ and 7N+ purified gallium

• Key material in single crystal ingots such as:

- Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

- Gallium Nitride (GaN)

- Gallium Antimonite (GaSb)

- Gallium Phosphide (GaP)

Boron trioxide (B2O3)

• Encapsulant in the ingot growth of III-V compound semiconductors

Gallium-Magnesium alloy

• Used for the synthesis of organo-gallium compounds in epitaxial growth on semiconductor wafers

pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles

• Used when growing single-crystal compound semiconductor ingots

• Used as effusion rings growing OLED tools

pBN insulating parts

• Used in MOCVD reactors

• Used when growing epitaxial layers in Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) reactors

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We manufacture all of our products in the People’s Republic of China (PRC or China), which generally has favorable costs for facilities and labor compared with comparable facilities in the United States, Europe or Japan. Our supply chain includes partial ownership of raw material companies in China (subsidiaries/joint ventures). We believe this supply chain arrangement provides us with pricing advantages, reliable supply, market trend visibility and better sourcing lead-times for key raw materials central to manufacturing our substrates. Our raw material companies produce materials, including raw gallium (4N Ga), high purity gallium (6N and 7N Ga), starting material for InP, arsenic, germanium, germanium dioxide, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles and boron oxide (B2O3). We have board representation in all of these raw material companies. We consolidate the companies in which we have either a controlling financial interest, or majority financial interest combined with the ability to exercise substantive control over the operations, or financial decisions, of such companies. We use the equity method to account for companies in which we have smaller financial interest and have the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over such companies. We purchase portions of the materials produced by these companies for our own use and they sell the remainder of their production to third parties.

The Beijing city government is moving its offices into the area where our original manufacturing facility is currently located and is in the process of moving thousands of government employees into this area. The government has constructed showcase tower buildings and overseen the establishment of new apartment complexes, retail stores and restaurants. An amusement park is being constructed within a few miles of our facility. To create room and upgrade the district, the city instructed virtually all existing manufacturing companies, including AXT, to relocate all or some of their manufacturing lines. We were instructed to relocate our gallium arsenide manufacturing lines. For reasons of manufacturing efficiency, we elected to also move our germanium manufacturing line. Our indium phosphide manufacturing line, as well as various administrative and sales functions, will remain primarily at our original site in Beijing.

Begun in 2017, the relocation of our gallium arsenide production lines is now largely completed. We entered into volume production in 2020. To mitigate our risks and maintain our production schedule, we moved our gallium arsenide equipment in stages. By December 31, 2019, we had ceased all crystal growth for gallium arsenide in our original manufacturing facility in Beijing and transferred 100% of our ingot production to our new manufacturing facility in Kazuo, a city approximately 250 miles from Beijing. We transferred our wafer processing equipment for gallium arsenide to our new manufacturing facility in Dingxing, a city approximately 75 miles from Beijing. Some of our larger, more sophisticated customers qualified gallium arsenide wafers from the new sites in 2020. A few customers are still in that process. Our new facilities enabled us to expand capacity and upgrade some of our equipment. The new buildings are large enough that we can install additional equipment if market demand increases or if we gain market share. We also acquired sufficient land to enable us to add facilities, if needed in the future. We believe our ability to add capacity gives us a competitive advantage. In addition, a new level of technological sophistication in our manufacturing capabilities will enable us to support the major trends that we believe are likely to drive demand for our products in the years ahead.

Customer qualifications and expanding capacity as needed require us to continue to diligently address the many details that arise at both of the new sites. A failure to properly accomplish this could result in disruption to our production and have a material adverse impact on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition. If we fail to meet the product qualification and volume requirements of a customer, we may lose sales to that customer. Our reputation may also be damaged. Any loss of sales could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition.

On November 16, 2020 we announced a strategic initiative to access China’s capital markets by beginning a process to list shares of Tongmei in an initial public offering (the “IPO”) on the STAR Market, an exchange intended to support innovative companies in China. We formed and founded Tongmei in 1998 and believe Tongmei has grown into a company that will be an attractive offering on the STAR Market. To qualify for a STAR Market listing, the first major step in the process was to engage private equity firms in China (“Investors”) to invest funds in Tongmei. By December 31, 2020, investors which consists of 10 private equity funds had engaged with Tongmei for a total investment of approximately $48.1 million. (The currency used in the investment transactions was the Chinese renminbi, which has been converted to approximate U.S. dollars for this report.) The remaining investment of approximately $1.5 million of new capital was funded in early January. Under China regulations these investments must be formally approved by the

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appropriate government agency and are not deemed to be dilutive until such approval is granted. The government approved the entire approximately $49 million investment on January 25, 2021. In exchange for an investment of approximately $49 million, the Investors received a 7.28% noncontrolling interest in Tongmei. Pursuant to the investment agreements (“Capital Investment Agreements”) with the Investors, each Investor has the right to require AXT to redeem any or all Tongmei shares held by such Investor at the original purchase price paid by such Investor, without interest, in the event of a material adverse change or if Tongmei does not achieve its IPO on or before December 31, 2022. This right is suspended when Tongmei submits its formal application for IPO to the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”).  Tongmei currently plans to submit its formal application to the CSRC in the third quarter of 2021.  However, if on December 31, 2022 the IPO application has been submitted and accepted by the CSRC or the stock exchange and such submission remains under review, then the date when such investor is entitled to exercise such redemption right shall be deferred to a date when such submission is rejected by the CSRC or stock exchange, or the date when Tongmei withdraws its IPO application. Tongmei would be required to sell a minimum of 10% of its equity in the IPO. The process of going public on the STAR Market includes several periods of review and is therefore a lengthy process. Tongmei does not expect to complete the IPO until mid-2022. The listing of Tongmei on China’s STAR Market will not change the status of AXT as a U.S. public company.

An additional step in the STAR Market IPO process involves certain entity reorganizations and alignment of assets under Tongmei. In this regard our two consolidated raw material companies, Nanjing JinMei Gallium Co., Ltd. (“JinMei”) and Beijing BoYu Semiconductor Vessel Craftwork Technology Co., Ltd. (“BoYu”) and its subsidiaries were assigned to Tongmei in December 2020. This will increase the number of customers and employees attributable to Tongmei as well as increase Tongmei’s consolidated revenue.

The following organization chart depicts the consolidated structure as of December 31, 2020;

Graphic

In September 2018, the Trump Administration announced a list of thousands of categories of goods that became subject to tariffs when imported into the United States. This pronouncement imposed tariffs on the wafer substrates we imported into the United States. The initial tariff rate was 10% and subsequently was increased to 25%. Approximately 10% of our revenue derives from importing our wafers into the United States. In 2020 and 2019, we paid approximately $1.3 million and $0.7 million, respectively, in tariffs. The future impact of tariffs and trade wars is uncertain.

We were incorporated in California in December 1986 and reincorporated in Delaware in May 1998. The Company went public in 1998. We changed our name from American Xtal Technology, Inc. to AXT, Inc. in July 2000. Our principal corporate office is located at 4281 Technology Drive, Fremont, California 94538, and our telephone number at this address is (510) 438-4700.

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Industry Background

Certain electronic and opto-electronic applications have performance requirements that exceed the capabilities of conventional silicon substrates, also known as wafers, and often require high-performance compound wafers (mixture of two materials) or single element wafer substrates. Examples of higher performance non-silicon based wafer substrates include GaAs, InP, gallium nitride (GaN), silicon carbide (SiC) and Ge. One of the earliest broadly used alternative wafer substrates was GaAs and GaAs wafer substrates were the earliest wafer substrates we produced.

Silicon substrates dominate the semiconductor substrate market. Silicon wafers are larger in diameter and significantly lower in cost. AXT and our competitors exist because the laws of physics prevent certain functions from performing properly, or at all, if silicon material is used as the wafer substrate. Our substrate wafers are used when a typical silicon substrate wafer cannot meet the performance requirements of a semiconductor or optoelectronic device. Demand for higher performance non-silicon-based wafer substrates, such as the substrates in which AXT specializes, is expected to increase as new applications are adopted. In contrast to the ever-more complex electronic circuit designs and the skill sets required to accomplish such designs, the knowledge base and skill sets required for AXT and our competitors are material science-based. We do not design or manufacture the semiconductor chips and other electronic circuits. Instead we apply our deep knowledge in material science to grow single crystal ingots that are then sliced into individual wafer substrates. We add value by researching, developing and producing the specialty material wafers. This places us at the beginning of the semiconductor “food chain”.

InP is a high-performance semiconductor substrate used in broadband and fiber optic applications and data center connectivity. InP substrates can also be used in 5G applications. In recent years, InP demand has increased. Semi-insulating GaAs substrates are used to create various high-speed microwave components, including power amplifier chips used in cell phones, satellite communications and broadcast television applications. Semi-conducting GaAs substrates are used to create opto-electronic products, including high brightness light emitting diodes (HBLEDs) that are often used to backlight wireless handsets and liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs and also used for automotive panels, signage, display and lighting applications. A new application for semi-conducting GaAs substrates is 3-D sensing chips using VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers) as an array of lasers on a single chip that can be used in cell phones and other devices. Ge substrates are used in applications such as solar cells for space and terrestrial photovoltaic applications.

The AXT Advantages

We believe that we benefit from the following advantages:

New facilities, equipment and added capacity. We believe we are the only company in our industry to have recently added significant new facilities, equipment and capacity. Although current customers and prospective customers previously viewed our relocation process as a risk, we believe our progress and success in managing this process now position us as the “go to” supplier with a state of the art manufacturing line, a proven ability to add capacity and a commitment to continuous improvement.

Funds from the recent private equity investments in Tongmei and additional funds from the anticipated future IPO of Tongmei are viewed favorably by our customers and prospective customers. New applications using InP and GaAs wafer substrates could require significant capital investments to add capacity, purchase and install advanced process and test equipment or construct additional facilities. We believe customers view the funds recently raised, and intended to be raised in the IPO, as a sign of our commitment to meet their needs and to deploy this capital to increase capacity as needed.
Key leadership in InP technology and revenue growth. We believe our InP wafers have the lowest defect densities, stress and slip lines on the market, enabling our customers to achieve the highest wafer fab and device yields. We have developed a strong base of proprietary InP technology that we continue to expand. There are significant barriers to entry in the InP substrate market and currently, there are only three primary

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suppliers, including AXT. We believe that this market will continue to expand and grow. We intend to promote our track record of successfully adding capacity as the market expands.
Key provider of low defect density GaAs wafer substrates. In recent years customer demand for low etch pit density (“EPD”) GaAs wafer substrates has increased, particularly for LED lighting, the deployment of 3-D sensing for facial recognition in cell phones and world facing camera technology in cell phones. The requirement of low EPD is a barrier to entry and we believe there are a limited number of potential substrate providers that can meet this requirement, including AXT. As we qualify low EPD wafers from our new location, we believe the quality of our low EPD wafers and our ability to expand manufacturing capacity quickly will enable us to support new applications and generate additional revenue.
Proprietary process technology drives manufacturing. In our industry, the single crystal growth process and the wafer manufacturing process incorporate proprietary process technology. We have a substantial body of proprietary process technology and we believe this gives us a competitive advantage, especially in InP. This also creates a barrier to entry.
Low-cost manufacturing operation in China. Since 2004, we have manufactured all of our products in China, which generally has favorable costs for facilities and labor compared to costs of comparable facilities and labor in the United States, Japan or Europe. As of December 31, 2020, 1,046 of our 1,074 employees (including employees at our Beijing, Kazuo and Dingxing facilities as well as our consolidated raw material companies) were located in China. Our primary competitors have their major manufacturing operations in Germany or Japan. Our presence in China also enables us to closely manage our raw materials supply chain.
We believe that we are the only compound semiconductor substrate supplier to have a position in raw materials. We have partial ownership of raw material companies in China that form an integral part of our supply chain. We believe our subsidiaries and raw material companies in China provide us with a more reliable supply of, and shorter lead-times for, the raw materials central to our final manufactured products compared to third-party providers. We believe that this dedicated supply chain will enable us to meet increases in demand from our customers by providing an increased volume of raw materials quickly, efficiently and cost effectively.
Our diverse product offering results in a broader range of customers and applications. We offer a diverse range of products and are able to provide custom-defined products that meet our customers’ specifications. We have a strong technical sales support team that engages with our customers and understands their product requirements. A significant percentage of the members of our team that engage with customers have PhDs in physics or materials science. This combination of technical sales strength and our willingness to accept our customers’ unique product specifications results in a broad range of customers and applications.
Enhanced revenue diversity through the sale of raw materials. Our strategy allows our consolidated subsidiaries to also sell raw materials in the open market to third parties. Revenue from non-substrate products provides further diversity in our customer base and business model.
Business model unique among current competitors. We believe we are the only publicly traded company producing InP, GaAs and Ge wafer substrates. Our direct competitors are either privately owned companies or divisions within very large companies that are publicly listed in Japan. We believe the combination of access to U.S. and China capital markets, U.S.-based product quality standards, China-based manufacturing and a unique strategy for the supply of many of the raw materials we need is a competitive advantage as well as an attractive business model to our customers.

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Strategy

Our goal is to become the leading worldwide supplier of high-performance compound and single element semiconductor substrates. Key elements of our strategy include:

Promote our strengths in InP. As cloud-based data centers continue to combine integrated circuits and InP-based lasers to transfer data through light, we believe there will be increased demand for InP substrates. More recently InP is being used in 5G infrastructure. Future applications could include driverless cars and 5G in cell phones.

Add InP capacity and continue InP R&D. We are continuing to add manufacturing capacity for InP to support the growth for this product line. End market applications using our wafer substrate products often have long product life cycles. We believe the end market applications using InP could have product life cycles that are similar to the long product life cycles of end market applications using GaAs. In addition to adding manufacturing capacity, we are continuing to invest in InP crystal growth technology and wafer processing technology. For example, we are developing six-inch diameter ingots and improving the relative flatness of the wafer surface to improve performance.

Qualify the new facilities for GaAs based 3-D and Time of Flight sensing array applications in mobile devices. Although 3-D sensing has not yet been widely adopted and embraced, we believe its use in world-facing cameras will accelerate adoption and generate a significant impact for high-quality GaAs suppliers. We believe 3-D sensing technology will also be used as sensors in driverless automobiles. The GaAs substrate requirements for 3-D sensing applications include very low defect densities or etch pitch densities. We intend to capture opportunities in these markets by promoting our strengths and capabilities.

Create customer awareness that the new facilities are designed to allow us to add equipment and capacity rapidly. The construction of new facilities and infrastructure takes much longer to complete in comparison to the installation of furnaces and other manufacturing equipment. We have proven our ability to do both and we believe this ability makes us an attractive supplier for customers.

Offer diverse products, including custom products. We believe AXT has a reputation in the market for providing a broad range of products, including custom products that are supported by a team of technical sales support professionals, the majority of whom hold advanced graduate degrees in physics or materials science. We plan to further promote this brand image as a way to differentiate ourselves in the market. We believe this strategy will lead to a more diverse customer base and higher volumes.

Sustain manufacturing efficiencies. We seek to continue to leverage our China-based manufacturing advantage by increasing efficiencies in our manufacturing methods, systems and processes. Our strategy is to combine the benefits of U.S. quality control systems and access to U.S. and China capital markets with our China-based manufacturing operations. We promote the concept and practice of continuous improvement within our company culture.

Increase productivity and seek profitability in our subsidiaries/consolidated raw material companies. The supply and demand equation for specialty materials can be complex and volatile. Over the years, we have established or invested in raw material companies in China that are an integral part of our supply chain. We will continue to provide strategic support to these companies and they, in turn, will continue to be the backbone of our supply chain. We plan to work closely with these companies to increase their productivity and improve their financial performance as they continue to support our supply chain.

Materials of the future. The specialty materials substrate market is dynamic and subject to continued changes and cycles. We plan to use our deep knowledge and experience in specialty materials and wafer substrates to seek new applications for existing substrates in our portfolio and explore additional materials that may be synergistic with our knowledge base, customer needs and manufacturing lines.

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Technology

Wafer substrates on which integrated circuits and optical devices are fabricated serve as a foundation for semiconductor device fabrication. Wafers are derived from ingots that are grown in a cylindrical form. The diameter and length of an ingot will vary depending on the type of material and the growth process used. An ingot can be single-crystalline (a single crystal) or multi-crystalline (polycrystalline). A single crystal is a continuous lattice of atoms with no boundaries within the structure. The ingot must be a single crystal in order for it to be useful in making wafers for device fabrication. A single crystal ingot can be made from a single element such as germanium or silicon, or it can be made from two or more elements such as gallium arsenide (with gallium and arsenic) or indium phosphide (with indium and phosphorous). Depending on physical properties of the materials in a wafer, the performance of devices and circuits can be remarkably different.

AXT uses its proprietary vertical gradient freeze (VGF) technology for growing single crystal Indium Phosphide (InP), Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Germanium (Ge) ingots. After growing the crystalline ingot, the ingot is then sliced into individual substrates or wafers. Before specialty material wafers can be used, a thin layer of structured chemicals is grown on the surface of the substrate. This is called an epitaxial layer. We sell the majority of our substrates to companies that specialize in applying the epitaxial layer. The wafers are then used to produce state-of-the-art electronic and opto-electronic devices and circuit applications.

InP and GaAs compounds are formed by combining elements from Groups III and V in the periodic table of elements, whereas Ge is a Group IV elemental material. Each of these materials has unique properties that determine the best device and/or circuit applications. As a result of their special high electron mobility combined with their direct ban-gap properties, both InP and GaAs wafers have enjoyed dominant roles in the production of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid-state lasers and power amplifiers for mobile phones, to name a few applications. Ge wafers, on the other hand, have played a key role in the manufacturing of special solar cells known as triple junction solar cells (TJSCs) for space and terrestrial power generation.

With the recent evolution in several applications, InP lasers are projected to play a dominant role in the optoelectronics arena, e.g. silicon photonics (where InP lasers are a key component) and autonomous cars (where special wavelength InP-based lasers are used for object sensing and collision avoidance). Crystal growth process technology frequently contains steps and procedures that are considered proprietary secrets held by the producer, often including methods to control the temperature within the crucible. InP crystal growth relies on extreme pressure within the crucible. As such it requires not only temperature control methodologies, but also pressure control and stabilization process methodologies, many of which AXT considers proprietary trade secrets. It is this combination of variables and the required methods to control them that create a barrier to entry. We believe our long-term investment in InP research and development has resulted in a substantive body of proprietary knowledge.

After growing the crystalline ingot, the material is then sliced into individual substrates or wafers. We have continued to invest in wafer processing technology covering each step in the process from sawing to edge smoothing to final cleaning and we believe we have technology and trade secrets addressing the scope of wafer processing. One focus in our recent development programs has been on automation, particularly in cleaning the wafers.

Ideally, all the atoms in a wafer or substrate are arrayed in a specific periodic order. However, sensitivities in the ingot growth process will cause some atoms to be improperly aligned and these are referred to as dislocations. The aggregate number of dislocations in a wafer is referred to as the dislocation density. Dislocation densities can be seen as a group of tiny marks or pits under a microscope by etching the wafer with acid and each wafer has an etch pit density or EPD. Certain micro devices, such as the array used for 3-D sensing, require wafers with very low EPD. AXT considers the process technology we use to achieve low EPD as proprietary process technology and we believe we are one of only a few substrate manufacturing companies that can produce low EPD wafers.

Products

We have two product lines: specialty material substrates and raw materials integral to these substrates. We design, develop, manufacture and distribute high-performance semiconductor substrates, also known as wafers. Through

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the two consolidated subsidiaries in our supply chain, we also sell certain raw materials. InP is a high-performance semiconductor substrate used in fiber optic lasers and detectors, passive optical networks (PONs), telecommunication, now expanding to include 5G, metro and data center connectivity, silicon photonics, photonic ICs (PICs), terrestrial solar cell (CPV), lasers, RF amplifiers (military wireless), infrared motion control and infrared thermal imaging. We make semi-insulating GaAs substrates used in making semiconductor chips in applications such as power amplifiers for wireless devices, high-performance transistors and high efficiency solar cells for drones. Our semi-conducting GaAs substrates are used to create opto-electronic products, which include High Brightness LEDs that are often used to backlight wireless handsets and LCD TVs and for automotive, signage, display and lighting applications, as well as high power industrial lasers for material processing (welding, cutting, drilling, soldering, marking and surface modification). Our semi-conducting GaAs substrates could be used to create opto-electronic products for 3-D sensing using VCSELs. Ge substrates are used in emerging applications, such as triple junction solar cells for space and terrestrial photovoltaic applications and for optical applications.

Substrates. We currently sell compound substrates manufactured from InP and GaAs, as well as single-element substrates manufactured from Ge. We supply InP substrates in two-, three- and four-inch diameters, and Ge substrates in two-, four- and six-inch diameters. We supply both semi-insulating and semi-conducting GaAs substrates in one-, two-, three-, four-, five- and six-inch diameters. Many of our customers require customized specifications, such as special levels of iron or sulfur dopants or a special wafer thickness.

Raw Materials. Our two consolidated raw material subsidiaries produce and sell certain raw materials, some of which are used in our substrate manufacturing process and some of which are sold to other companies. One of these consolidated companies produces pBN crucibles and the other consolidated company converts raw gallium to purified gallium and produces InP base material.

We promote our product diversity as a way to differentiate ourselves in the market. Some competitors provide only gallium arsenide substrates. We provide gallium arsenide and also indium phosphide and germanium substrates. Some competitors limit their wafer diameters to only a few sizes. Our wafers range from one inch to up to six inches in diameter. We also produce substrates with customer defined specifications, which may range in thickness, smoothness or flatness and may include adding special additional materials, such as iron or sulfur. In addition to our wafers or substrates, we also generate revenue from our two consolidated subsidiaries that sell raw materials. Product diversity can mitigate some of the down cycles in our market because we are not dependent on a single product or application for revenue.

Customers

Before specialty material wafers can be processed in a typical wafer manufacturing facility that constructs the electronic circuit, laser or optical device on a chip, a thin layer of structured chemicals is grown on the surface of the substrate. This is called an epitaxial layer. We sell our substrates to companies that apply the epitaxial layer, who then in turn sell the modified wafers to the wafer fabs, chip design companies, LED manufacturers and others. Some customers do both the epitaxial layer and wafer fabrication.

Epitaxial layer companies that form our customer base are located in Asia, the United States and Europe. We also sell our products to universities and other research organizations that use specialty materials for experimentation in various aspects of semi-conducting and semi-insulating applications. Our customers that purchase raw materials are located in Asia, the United States and Europe.

We have at times sold a significant portion of our products in any particular period to a limited number of customers. One customer, Landmark, represented 11%, 15% and 13% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our top five customers, although not the same five customers for each period, represented 32% of our revenue for the year 2020, 40% of our revenue for 2019 and 35% of our revenue for 2018.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, three customers of our consolidated subsidiaries, in aggregate, accounted for 31% of raw material sales. For the year ended December 31, 2019, three customers of our consolidated subsidiaries, in aggregate, accounted for 48% of raw material sales and in 2018, three customers accounted for 30% of

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raw material sales. Our subsidiaries and consolidated raw material companies are a key strategic benefit for us as they further diversify our sources of revenue.

Manufacturing, Raw Materials and Supplies

We manufacture all of our products in China. We believe this location generally has favorable costs for facilities and labor compared to the United States or compared to the location of some of our competitors in Japan and Germany.

We use a two-stage wafer manufacturing process. The first stage deploys our VGF technology for the crystal growth of single element or compound element ingots in diameters currently ranging from one inch to six inches. The growth process occurs in high temperature furnaces built using our proprietary designs. Growing the crystalline elements into cylindrical ingots takes a number of days, depending on the diameter and length of the ingot produced. The crystal growth stage utilizes AXT proprietary process technology. The second stage includes slicing or sawing the ingot into wafers or substrates, then processing each substrate to strict specifications, including grinding to reduce the thickness, beveling the edges, and then polishing and cleaning each substrate. Many of the wafer processing steps use chemical baths and properly cleaning the wafer is a critical process. The wafer processing stage also utilizes AXT proprietary process technology.

Wafers from each ingot will include some material that does not meet specifications or quality standards. Defects may occur as a result of inherent factors in the materials used in the crystalline growth process. They may also result from variances in the manufacturing process. We have many steps in our line that are partially or fully automated but other manufacturing steps are performed manually. We intend to increase the level of automation, particularly in cleaning the wafers. In 2015, we purchased wafer processing equipment from Hitachi Metals to help us increase automation in our production line and, therefore, reduce variability and defects. In addition, we secured a manufacturing license from Hitachi Metals. This license includes detailed work instructions for using the equipment purchased and allows us to apply the licensed proprietary wafer processing technology at any step and on any form of equipment in our line. Due to potential defects, yield is a key factor in our manufacturing cost. Other key elements are the initial cost of the raw material elements, manufacturing equipment, factory loading, facilities and labor.

Together with certain subsidiaries we have partial ownership of 10 raw material companies in China that form the backbone of our supply chain model. These companies generally provide us with reliable supply, market trend visibility, and shorter lead-times for raw materials central to our manufactured products, including gallium, gallium alloys, indium phosphide poly-crystal, arsenic, germanium, germanium dioxide, high purity arsenic, pBN and boron oxide. We believe that these raw material companies have been and will continue to be advantageous in allowing us to procure materials to support our planned growth. In addition, we purchase supply parts, components and raw materials from several other domestic and international suppliers. We depend on a single or limited number of suppliers for certain critical materials used in the production of our substrates, such as quartz tubing, arsenic and polishing solutions. We generally purchase our materials through standard purchase orders and not pursuant to long-term supply contracts.

Sales and Marketing

We sell our substrate products directly to customers through our direct salesforce in the United States, China and Europe. We also use independent sales representatives and distributors in Japan, Taiwan, Korea and other areas. Our direct salesforce is knowledgeable in the use of compound and single-element substrates. Specialty material wafers are scientifically complicated. Our application engineers must work closely with customers during all stages of our wafer substrate manufacturing process, from developing the precise composition of the wafer substrate through manufacturing and processing the wafer substrate to the customer’s specifications. We believe that maintaining a close relationship with customers and providing them with engineering support improves customer satisfaction and provides us with a competitive advantage in selling. A significant percentage of the members of our technical sales support team who frequently engage with customers have PhDs in physics or materials science.

International Sales. International sales are a substantial part of our business. Sales to customers outside North America (primarily the United States) accounted for approximately 90% of our revenue during each of 2020, 2019 and

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2018. The primary markets for sales of our substrate products outside of North America are to customers located in Asia and Western Europe. We occasionally receive small orders from customers located in Israel and Russia.

Our raw material companies sell specialty raw materials including 4N, 5N, 6N, 7N and 8N gallium, boron oxide, germanium, arsenic, germanium dioxide, pyrolytic boron nitride crucibles used in crystal growth, parts for MBE and parts used in manufacturing OLED rings. Each raw material company has its own separate sales force and sells directly to its own customers in addition to selling raw materials to us.

Research and Development

To maintain and improve our competitive position, we focus our research and development efforts on designing new proprietary processes and products, improving the performance of existing products, achieving new lows in EPD, increasing yields and reducing manufacturing costs. We also conduct research and development focusing on larger diameter wafers and, in our history, we have consistently developed new products based on larger wafer diameters. Crystal growth of specialty earth materials becomes significantly more difficult as the ingot diameter increases because a consistent temperature, and in the case of InP, consistent control of pressure, must be applied over a larger surface area. In 2015, we acquired certain proprietary InP crystal growth technology and equipment from Crystacomm.

Certain micro devices, such as the array used for 3-D sensing, require GaAs wafers with very low etch pit density. In anticipation of a growth in demand for low EPD six-inch wafers, we have focused our development efforts on increasing our yield of such wafers.

Our current substrate research and development activities focus on continued development and enhancement of GaAs, InP and Ge substrates, including improved yield, enhanced surface and electrical characteristics and uniformity, greater substrate strength and increased crystal length. In 2015, we acquired proprietary wafer processing equipment from Hitachi Metals. The Hitachi Metals purchase includes a license covering the use of the proprietary equipment and Hitachi Metals’ proprietary wafer processing technology. A particular focus of the equipment and process technology is on cleaning the wafers. It is important to remove any residual cleaning agents from each wafer to ensure that the epitaxial growth process is not encumbered by residual chemicals on the wafer.

Our consolidated subsidiaries conduct research and development, focusing on gallium alloys, gallium refinement and pyrolytic boron nitride crucibles used in high temperature crystal growth.

We have assembled a multi-disciplinary team of skilled scientists, engineers and technicians to meet our research and development objectives. Research and development expenses were $7.1 million in 2020, compared with $5.8 million in 2019 and $5.9 million in 2018. Development work focusing on yield, continuous improvement and other matters related to our research and development efforts also occurs within regular manufacturing processes. These costs are included in our cost of revenue because it is difficult to isolate them as research and development.

Competition

The semiconductor substrate industry is characterized by narrow technological boundaries, price erosion and generally intense competition. Certain wafer substrates, such as low-quality wafer substrates for consumer products using LED lighting, compete almost entirely on price. Other products, such as InP and low EPD GaAs wafers, have fewer competitors and quality is a key competitive factor in addition to price. We face actual and potential competition from a number of established companies who have the advantages of greater name recognition and more established relationships in the industry. In some cases, our competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources as they are divisions of much larger companies. They may utilize these advantages to expand their product offerings more quickly, adapt to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements more quickly, and devote greater resources to the marketing and sale of their products. We believe a critical factor in our business is the level of technical support we provide to the customer or prospective customer and we attempt to counter possible advantages of name recognition or size with superior technical support through our team of technical sales support professionals, the majority of whom hold PhDs in physics or materials science.

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We believe that the primary competitive factors in the markets in which our substrate products compete are:

quality;
price;
customer technical support;
performance;
meeting customer specifications; and
manufacturing capacity.

Our ability to compete in target markets also depends on factors such as:

the timing and success of the development and introduction of new products, including larger diameter wafers, and product features by us and our competitors;
the availability of adequate sources of raw materials;
protection of our proprietary methods, systems and processes;
protection of our products and processes by effective use of intellectual property laws; and
general economic conditions, which impact end markets using substrates.

A majority of our customers specialize in epitaxial growth, a complex series of chemical layers grown on top of our wafers. Typically, our customer or prospective customer has at least two qualified substrate suppliers. Qualified suppliers must meet industry-standard specifications for quality, on-time delivery and customer support. Once a substrate supplier has qualified with a customer, price, consistent quality and current and future product delivery lead times become the most important competitive factors. A supplier that cannot meet a customer’s current lead times or that a customer perceives will not be able to meet future demand and provide consistent quality can lose market share. Our primary competition in the market for compound and single element semiconductor substrates includes Sumitomo Electric Industries (“Sumitomo”), Japan Energy (“JX”), Freiberger Compound Materials (“Freiberger”), Umicore, and China Crystal Technology Corp. (“CCTC”). We believe that at least two of our competitors are shipping high volumes of GaAs substrates manufactured using a process similar to our VGF technology. In addition, we also face competition from semiconductor device manufacturers that may use other specialty material substrates that are not GaAs, InP or Ge based materials and that are actively exploring alternative materials. For example, silicon-on-insulator (“SOI”) technology, a silicon wafer technology that produces satisfactory devices at lower cost, has been proven in the market. From 2012 to 2015, SOI technology displaced GaAs chips in key sectors, primarily the radio frequency (“RF”) switching function in cell phones.

Because of our vertically integrated, sophisticated supply chain, we believe we are the only compound semiconductor substrate supplier to offer a broad suite of raw materials. We believe this gives us a unique competitive advantage because we have greater control and stability over many of our needed materials. Further, we believe we have some advantage in manufacturing costs. In the event of a significant increase in demand we believe our raw materials supply chain strategy and our ability to rapidly increase capacity can provide us some advantage.

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Intellectual Property

Our success and the competitive position of our VGF technology depend on our ability to maintain our proprietary process technology secrets and other intellectual property protections. We rely on a combination of patents, trademark and trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements and other intellectual property protection methods to protect our proprietary technology. We believe that, due to the rapid pace of technological innovation in the markets for our products, our ability to establish and maintain a position of technology leadership depends as much on the skills of our research and development personnel as upon the legal protections afforded our existing technologies. To protect our trade secrets, we take certain measures to ensure their secrecy, such as executing non-disclosure agreements with our employees, customers and suppliers. However, reliance on trade secrets is only an effective business practice insofar as trade secrets remain undisclosed and a proprietary product or process is not reverse engineered or independently developed.

In addition to proprietary process trade secrets, we also file patents. To date, we have been issued 56 patents related to our VGF products and processes; 34 in China, nine in the United States, seven in Japan, two in Taiwan, two in the European Union, one in Canada and one in South Korea. Patents normally have a protected life of 20 years from their filing dates. Our patents have expiration dates ranging from 2021 to 2037.  In some cases we may consider filing divisional, continuation or continuation-in-part of the existing patents for additional claims. We currently have five patent applications pending, including three in China, one in the United States and one in Europe. Furthermore, in aggregate, our consolidated raw material companies have been issued 61 patents in China, including 42 patents issued to BoYu and 19 patents issued to JinMei.

In the normal course of business, we periodically receive and make inquiries regarding possible patent infringement. In dealing with such inquiries, it may become necessary or useful for us to obtain or grant licenses or other rights. However, there can be no assurance that such licenses or rights will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. If we are not able to resolve or settle claims, obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms and/or successfully prosecute or defend our position, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Environmental Regulations

We are subject to federal, state and local environmental and safety laws and regulations in all of our operating locations, including laws and regulations of China, such as laws and regulations related to the development, manufacture and use of our products, the use of hazardous materials, the operation of our facilities, and the use of the real property. These laws and regulations govern the use, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials during manufacturing, research and development and sales demonstrations. We maintain a number of environmental, health and safety programs that are primarily preventive in nature. As part of these programs, we regularly monitor ongoing compliance. If we fail to comply with applicable regulations, we could be subject to substantial liability for clean-up efforts, personal injury, fines or suspension or be forced to cease our operations, and/or suspend or terminate the development, manufacture or use of certain of our products, the use of our facilities, or the use of our real property, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The regulatory landscape shifts and changes in China as that country attempts to address its environmental pollution. Because we manufacture all of our products in China, we are subject to an evolving set of regulations that could require changes in our equipment and processes and require us to obtain new permits. In 2017, China increased its focus on environmental concerns which increased pressure on manufacturing companies. During periods of severe air pollution in Beijing, manufacturing companies, including AXT, may be ordered by the local government to stop production for several days. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days from February 27 to March 31, due to severe air pollution.

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Human Capital

As of December 31, 2020, AXT and Tongmei had 784 employees, which consisted of 27 employees in our headquarters in Fremont, California, one sales professional in France and 756 employees in our factories in China. In addition, our two consolidated raw material companies had, in total, 290 employees. In aggregate, we and our consolidated raw material companies had 1,074 employees, of whom 882 were principally engaged in manufacturing, 112 in sales and administration and 80 in research and development. Of these 1,074 employees, 27 were located in the United States, one in France and 1,046 in China.

We believe that our future success largely depends upon our continued ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees. We provide our employees with competitive salaries and bonuses, opportunities for equity ownership, development programs that enable continued learning and growth and a robust employment package that promotes well-being across all aspects of their lives, including health care and paid time off. Most of our employees in China are represented by unions. As of December 31, 2020, 881 employees in China, including employees of our two consolidated raw material companies, were represented by unions. We have never experienced a work stoppage and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Geographical Information

Please see Note 14 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding our foreign operations, and see “Risks related to international aspects of our business” under Item 1A. Risk Factors for further information on risks attendant to our foreign operations and dependence.

Available Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 4281 Technology Drive, Fremont, CA 94538, and our main telephone number at this address is (510) 438-4700. Our Internet website address is www.axt.com. Our website address is given solely for informational purposes; we do not intend, by this reference, that our website should be deemed to be part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to incorporate the information available at our website address into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We make these reports available free of charge through our Internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with the SEC. These reports can also be obtained from the SEC’s Internet website at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

For ease of reference, we have divided these risks and uncertainties into the following general categories:

I.Summary Risk Factors;
II.General Risk Factors;
III.Risks Related to International Aspects of Our Business;
IV.Risks Related to Our Financial Results and Capital Structure;
V.Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property; and
VI.Risks Related to Compliance, Environmental Regulations and Other Legal Matters.

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I.Summary Risk Factors
Our NASDAQ stock price is volatile and our stock price could decline. Unpredictable fluctuations in our operating results, changes and events in our end markets and global trends cause volatility in our stock price.
COVID-19 or other contagious diseases may affect our business operations and financial performance. Lack of supply of vaccines and resistance by some to be vaccinated could prolong COVID-19.
Global economic and political conditions, including trade tariffs and restrictions from China, may have a negative impact on our business and financial results.
Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments may affect our financial performance.
Our gross margin has fluctuated historically and may decline due to several factors. Factors such as product mix, unit volume, yields and other manufacturing efficiencies can cause our gross margin to decrease or increase from quarter to quarter.
The proposed Tongmei IPO on the STAR Market in China could fail to be completed. This could result in investor disappointment and in failure to secure sufficient capital needed to take advantage of market opportunities for our products. Our stock price could decline.
The terms of the private equity raised by Tongmei in China grant each investor a right of redemption if Tongmei fails to achieve the IPO on or before December 31, 2022. This could result in disgorging the cash that we raised from the investors.
Defects in our products could diminish demand for our products. Our ability to receive orders from tier one customers is contingent on producing wafer substrates of very high quality and deploying best practices in manufacturing. We may not always be able to meet these requirements and we could then lose revenue.
Difficulties in accurately estimating market demand could result in over-investing in equipment and capacity expansion or losing market share if we do not invest sufficiently.
Attracting and retaining tier one customers requires that we succeed in our research and development programs. Customers establish difficult to meet product specifications regarding defect densities, surface flatness diameter size and other specifications pushing the boundaries of material science. We may not achieve these specifications.
We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that materially impact our income statement. Because we are a global company we are exposed to changes and swings in foreign exchange, particularly when currencies experience periods of volatility.

II.General Risk Factors

Silicon substrates (wafers) are significantly lower in cost compared to substrates made from specialty materials, such as those that we produce, and new silicon-based technologies could enable silicon-based substrates to replace specialty material-based substrates for certain applications.

Historically silicon wafers or substrates are less expensive than specialty material substrates, such as those that we produce. Electronic circuit designers will generally consider silicon first and only turn to alternative materials if silicon cannot provide the required functionality in terms of power consumption, speed, wave lengths or other specifications. Beginning in 2011, certain applications that had previously used GaAs substrates, specifically the RF chip in mobile phones, adopted a new silicon-based technology called silicon on insulator, or SOI. SOI technology uses a silicon-insulator-silicon layered substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing. SOI substrates cost less than GaAs substrates and, although their performance is not as robust as GaAs substrates in terms of power consumption, heat generation and speed, they became acceptable in mobile phones and other applications that were previously dominated by GaAs substrates. The adoption of SOI resulted in decreased GaAs wafer demand, and decreased revenue. If SOI or new silicon-based technologies gain more widespread market acceptance, or are used in more applications, our sales of specialty material-based substrates could be reduced and our business and operating results could be significantly and adversely affected.

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COVID-19 or other contagious diseases may affect our business operations and financial performance.

The spread of COVID-19 has impacted our operations and financial performance. This outbreak has triggered references to the SARS outbreak, which occurred in 2003 and affected our business operations. Any severe occurrence of an outbreak of a contagious disease such as COVID-19, SARS, Avian Flu or Ebola may cause us or the government to temporarily close our manufacturing operations in China. In January 2020, virtually all companies in China were ordered to remain closed after the traditional Lunar New Year holiday ended, including our subsidiaries in China. If there is a renewed surge of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the Chinese government may require companies to close again. If one or more of our key suppliers is required to close for an extended period, we might not have enough raw material inventories to continue manufacturing operations. In addition, travel restrictions between China and the U.S. have disrupted our normal movement to and from China and this has impacted our efficiency. If COVID-19 vaccines are not widely available, our business operations may be affected negatively. The outbreak has affected transportation and reduced the availability of air transport, caused port closures, and increased border controls and closures. If our manufacturing operations were closed for a significant period or we experience difficulty in shipping our products, we could lose revenue and market share, which would depress our financial performance and could be difficult to recapture. If one of our key customers is required to close for an extended period, this may delay the placement of new orders. As a result, our revenue would decline. Further, customers might default on their obligations to us. In the first quarter of 2020 we observed an increase in our accounts receivable and believe this was the result of businesses slowing down and a general cautiousness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such events would negatively impact our financial performance.

Our gross margin has fluctuated historically and may decline due to several factors.

Our gross margin has fluctuated from period to period as a result of increases or decreases in total revenue, unit volume, shifts in product mix, shifts in the cost of raw materials, costs related to the relocation of our gallium arsenide and germanium production lines, including costs related to hiring additional manufacturing employees at our new locations, tariffs imposed by the U.S. government, the introduction of new products, decreases in average selling prices for products, utilization of our manufacturing capacity, fluctuations in manufacturing yields and our ability to reduce product costs. These factors and other variables change from period to period and these fluctuations are expected to continue in the future. A recent example is that in the second quarter of 2019 our gross margin was 34.3% but it dropped to 21.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019 as a result of several of these factors.

Further, we do not control the prices at which our raw material companies sell their raw material products to third parties and we do not control their production process. However, because we consolidate the results of two of these raw material companies with our own, any reduction in their gross margins could have a significant, adverse impact on our overall gross margins. One or more of our companies has in the past sold, and may in the future sell, raw materials at significantly reduced prices in order to gain volume sales or sales to new customers. In addition, at some points in the last three years, the market price of gallium dropped below our per unit inventory cost and we incurred an inventory write down under the lower of cost or net realizable value accounting rules.

Shutdowns or underutilizing our manufacturing facilities may result in declines in our gross margins.

An important factor in our success is the extent to which we are able to utilize the available capacity in our manufacturing facilities. A number of factors and circumstances may reduce utilization rates, including periods of industry overcapacity, low levels of customer orders, operating inefficiencies, mechanical failures and disruption of operations due to expansion, power interruptions, fire, flood, other natural disasters or calamities or government-ordered mandatory factory shutdowns, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe air pollution in Beijing can trigger mandatory factory shutdowns. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days from February 27 to March 31, due to severe air pollution. Further, we have increased capacity by adding two new sites and this could reduce our utilization rate and increase our depreciation charges. Because many portions of our manufacturing costs are relatively fixed, high utilization rates are critical to our gross margins and operating results. If we fail to achieve acceptable manufacturing volumes or experience product shipment delays, our results of operations will be negatively affected. During periods of decreased demand, we have underutilized our manufacturing lines. If we are unable to improve utilization levels at our facilities during periods of decreased demand and correctly manage capacity, the fixed expense

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levels will have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in the three months ended December 31, 2019, our revenue dropped to $18.4 million and our gross margin was only 21.0%.

If we are unable to utilize the available capacity in our manufacturing facilities, we may need to implement a restructuring plan, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition. For example, in 2013, we concluded that incoming orders were insufficient and that we were significantly underutilizing our factory capacity. As a result, in February 2014, we announced a restructuring plan with respect to our wafer manufacturing company, Tongmei, in order to better align manufacturing capacity with demand. Under the restructuring plan, we recorded a charge of approximately $907,000 in the first quarter of 2014.

If we receive fewer customer orders than forecasted or if our customers delay or cancel orders, we may not be able to reduce our manufacturing costs in the short-term and our gross margins would be negatively affected. In addition, lead times required by our customers are shrinking, which reduces our ability to forecast orders and properly balance our capacity utilization.

If we have low product yields, the shipment of our products may be delayed and our product cost and operating results may be adversely impacted.

A critical factor in our product cost is yield. Our products are manufactured using complex crystal growth and wafer processing technologies, and the number of usable wafer substrates we produce can fluctuate as a result of many factors, including:

poor control of furnace temperature and pressure;
impurities in the materials used;
contamination of the manufacturing environment;
quality control and inconsistency in quality levels;
lack of automation and inconsistent processing requiring manual manufacturing steps;
substrate breakage during the manufacturing process; and
equipment failure, power outages or variations in the manufacturing process.

An example where yield is of special concern is for our six-inch semi-conducting gallium arsenide substrates, which can be used for manufacturing opto-electronic devices in cell phones, enabling 3-D sensing. This application requires very low defect densities, also called etch pit densities, or EPD, and our yields will be lower than the yields achieved for the same substrate when it will be used in other applications. If we are unable to achieve the targeted quantity of low defect density substrates, then our manufacturing costs would increase and our gross margins would be negatively impacted.

In addition, we may modify our process to meet a customer specification, but this can impact our yields. If our yields decrease, our revenue could decline if we are unable to produce products to our customers’ requirements. At the same time, our manufacturing costs could remain fixed, or could increase. Lower yields negatively impact our gross margin. We have experienced product shipment delays and difficulties in achieving acceptable yields on both new and older products, and such delays and poor yields have adversely affected our operating results. We may experience similar problems in the future and we cannot predict when they may occur, their duration or severity.

If our manufacturing processes result in defects in our products making them unfit for use by our customers, our products would be rejected, resulting in compensation costs paid to our customers, and possible disqualification. This could lead to revenue loss and market share loss.

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Risks exist in utilizing our new gallium arsenide manufacturing sites efficiently.

The Chinese government has imposed, and may impose in the future, manufacturing restrictions and regulations that require us to move part of our manufacturing operations to a different location or temporarily cease or limit manufacturing. Such relocation, or other restrictions on manufacturing, could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

The Beijing city government is moving its offices to the Tongzhou district where our original manufacturing facility is currently located. The city government is in the process of moving thousands of government employees into this area. To create room and upgrade the district, the city instructed virtually all existing manufacturing companies, including AXT, to relocate all or some of their manufacturing lines. We were instructed to move our gallium arsenide manufacturing line out of the area.

Although the relocation is largely completed and we are in volume production at the new sites, unforeseen manufacturing issues at the new sites could still occur. Problems could occur as we add capacity or comply with strict guidelines as customers perform their qualifications. All of this will require us to continue to diligently address the many details that arise at both of the new sites. A failure to properly accomplish this could result in disruption to our production and have a material adverse impact on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition. If we fail to meet the product qualification and volume requirements of a customer, we may lose sales to that customer. Our reputation may also be damaged. Any loss of sales could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition.

Some of our key employees are relocating to our new manufacturing sites. Travel restrictions within China resulting from COVID-19 have impacted their relocation and hindered commuting. Certain employees may choose not to relocate. If we are unable to continue to employ those key employees in our original manufacturing facility, we may be required to terminate those employees and could incur severance costs. If the Chinese government does not assist us in this matter it could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition. Further, a loss of key employees or our inability to hire qualified employees could disrupt our production, which could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

The Chinese government has in the past imposed temporary restrictions on manufacturing facilities, such as the restrictions imposed on polluting factories for the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation event. These restrictions included a shutdown of the transportation of materials and power plants to reduce air pollution. To reduce air pollution in Beijing, the Chinese government has sometimes limited the construction of new, or expansion of existing, facilities by manufacturing companies in the Beijing area or required mandatory factory shutdowns. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days from February 27 to March 31 due to severe air pollution. If the government applies similar restrictions to us or requires mandatory factory shutdowns in the future, then such restrictions or shutdowns could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and our financial condition. Our ability to supply current or new orders could be significantly impacted. Customers could then be required to purchase products from our competitors, causing our competitors to take market share from us.

In addition, from time to time, the Chinese government issues new regulations, which may require additional actions on our part to comply. On February 27, 2015, the China State Administration of Work Safety updated its list of hazardous substances. The previous list, which was published in 2002, did not restrict the materials that we use in our wafers. The new list added gallium arsenide. As a result of the newly published list, we were required to seek additional permits.

Additional customers may require that they re-qualify our gallium arsenide wafer substrates or our new sites as a result of relocating our gallium arsenide manufacturing lines.

Although some of our largest customers have qualified our new sites there may still be some who will decide to go through the qualification process. If we fail to meet the product qualification requirements of a customer, we may lose sales to that customer. Our reputation may also be damaged. Any loss of sales could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, our results of operations and our financial condition.

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Global economic and political conditions, including trade tariffs and restrictions, may have a negative impact on our business and financial results.

In September 2018, the Trump Administration announced a list of thousands of categories of goods that became subject to tariffs when imported into the United States. This pronouncement imposed tariffs on wafer substrates we imported into the United States. The initial tariff rate was 10% and subsequently was increased to 25%. Approximately 10% of our revenue derives from importing our wafers into the United States. In the years 2020 and 2019 we paid approximately $1.3 million and $0.7 million, respectively, in tariffs. The future impact of tariffs and trade wars is uncertain.

The economic and political conditions between China and the United States, in our view, create an unstable business environment. The United States has restricted access by certain Chinese technology companies to items produced domestically and abroad from U.S. technology and software, which may impact our ability to grow our revenue. Trade restrictions against China have resulted in a greater determination within China to be self-sufficient and produce more goods domestically. Government agencies in China may be encouraging and supporting the founding of new companies, the addition of new products in existing companies and more vertical integration within companies. In 2019 these factors resulted in lower revenue from sales of our wafer substrates in China.

Our operations and financial results depend on worldwide economic and political conditions and their impact on levels of business spending, which has deteriorated significantly in many countries and regions. Uncertainties in the political, financial and credit markets may cause our customers to postpone deliveries. The COVID-19 virus is an additional cause of uncertainty. Delays in the placement of new orders and extended uncertainties may reduce future sales of our products and services. The revenue growth and profitability of our business depends on the overall demand for our substrates. Because the end users of our products are primarily large companies whose businesses fluctuate with general economic and business conditions, a softening of demand for products that use our substrates, caused by a weakening economy, may result in decreased revenue. Customers may find themselves facing excess inventory from earlier purchases, and may defer or reconsider purchasing products due to the downturn in their business and in the general economy. If market conditions deteriorate, we may experience increased collection times and greater write-offs, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and our cash flow.

Future tightening of credit markets and concerns regarding the availability of credit may make it more difficult for our customers to raise capital, whether debt or equity, to finance their purchases of capital equipment or of the products we sell. Delays in our customers’ ability to obtain such financing, or the unavailability of such financing, would adversely affect our product sales and revenues and, therefore, harm our business and operating results. We cannot predict the timing, duration of or effect on our business of any future economic downturn or the timing or strength of any subsequent recovery.

If any of our facilities are damaged by occurrences such as fire, explosion, power outage or natural disaster, we might not be able to manufacture our products.

The ongoing operation of our manufacturing and production facilities in China is critical to our ability to meet demand for our products. If we are not able to use all or a significant portion of our facilities for prolonged periods for any reason, we would not be able to manufacture products for our customers. For example, a fire or explosion caused by our use of combustible chemicals, high furnace temperatures or, in the case of InP, high pressure during our manufacturing processes could render some of our facilities inoperable for an indefinite period of time. Actions outside of our control, such as earthquakes or other natural disasters, could also damage our facilities, rendering them inoperable. If we are unable to operate our facilities and manufacture our products, we would lose customers and revenue and our business would be harmed.

On the evening of March 15, 2017, an electrical short-circuit fire occurred at our Beijing manufacturing facility. The electrical power supply supporting 2-inch, 3-inch and 4-inch gallium arsenide and germanium crystal growth was damaged and production in that area was stopped. In addition, a waste water pipe was damaged resulting in a halt to wafer processing for four days until the pipe could be repaired. We were able to rotate key furnace hardware and use

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some of the 6-inch capacity for smaller diameter crystal growth production to mitigate the impact of the fire and resume production. If we are unable to recover from a fire or natural disaster, our business and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

Demand for our products may decrease if demand for the end-user applications decrease or if manufacturers downstream in our supply chain experience difficulty manufacturing, marketing or selling their products.

Our products are used to produce components for electronic and opto-electronic products. Accordingly, demand for our products is subject to the demand for end-user applications which utilize our products, as well as factors affecting the ability of the manufacturers downstream in our supply chain to introduce and market their products successfully, including:

worldwide economic and political conditions and their impact on levels of business spending;
the competition such manufacturers face in their particular industries;
end of life obsolescence of products containing devices built on our wafers;
the technical, manufacturing, sales, marketing and management capabilities of such manufacturers;
the financial and other resources of such manufacturers; and
the inability of such manufacturers to sell their products if they infringe third-party intellectual property rights.

If demand for the end-user applications for which our products are used decreases, or if manufacturers downstream in our supply chain are unable to develop, market and sell their products, demand for our products will decrease. For example, during 2019 widespread political and economic instability and trade war concerns resulted in a general slowdown and our revenue decreased significantly. Additionally, in the second half of 2016, manufacturers producing and selling passive optical network devices known as EPONs and GPONs experienced a slowdown in demand resulting in surplus inventory on hand. The slowdown persisted until late in 2017. This resulted in a slowdown of sales of our InP substrates used in the PON market. We expect similar cycles of strong demand followed by lower demand will occur for various InP, GaAs or Ge substrates in the future.

Our revenue, gross margins and profitability can be hurt if the average sales price of the various raw materials in our partially-owned companies decreases.

Although the companies in our vertically integrated supply chain have historically made a positive contribution to our financial performance, when the average selling prices for the raw materials produced decline, this results in a negative impact on our revenue, gross margin and profitability. For example, the average selling prices for 4N gallium and for germanium were driven down by oversupply in recent years, and negatively impacted our financial results. In 2020, the companies accounted for under the equity method of accounting contributed a gain of $0.1 million to our consolidated financial statements. In 2019 and 2018, the companies accounted for under the equity method of accounting contributed a loss of $1.9 million and $1.1 million, respectively, to our consolidated financial statements. Further, in several quarters over the past three years, one of our consolidated subsidiaries incurred a lower of cost or net realizable value inventory write down, which negatively impacted our consolidated gross margin. In the first quarter of 2019, we incurred an impairment charge of $1.1 million for a germanium materials company in China in which we have a 25% ownership interest, writing down our investment to zero value. If the pricing environment remains stressed by oversupply and our raw material companies cannot reduce their production costs, then the reduced average selling prices of the raw materials will have a continuing adverse impact on our revenue, gross margins and net profit.

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Problems incurred in our raw material companies or our investment partners could result in a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.

We have invested in raw material companies in China that produce materials, including 99.99% pure gallium (4N Ga), high purity gallium (6N and 7N Ga), arsenic, germanium, germanium dioxide, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles and boron oxide (B2O3). We purchase a portion of the materials produced by these companies for our use and they sell the remainder of their production to third parties. We consolidate the companies in which we have a majority or controlling financial interest and employ equity accounting for the companies in which we have a smaller ownership interest. Several of these companies occupy space within larger facilities owned and/or operated by one of the other investment partners. Several of these partners are engaged in other manufacturing activities at or near the same facility. In some facilities, we share access to certain functions, including water, hazardous waste treatment or air quality treatment. If a partner in any of these ventures experiences problems with its operations, or deliberately withholds or disrupts services, disruptions in the operations of our companies could occur, having a material adverse effect on the financial condition and results of operation in these companies, and correspondingly on our financial condition or results of operations. For example, since gallium is a by-product of aluminum, our raw gallium company in China, which is housed in and receives services from an affiliated aluminum plant, could generate lower production and shipments of gallium as a result of reduced services provided by the aluminum plant. Accordingly, in order to meet customer supply obligations, our supply chain may have to source materials from another independent third-party supplier, resulting in higher costs and reduced gross margin.

The China central government has become increasingly concerned about environmental hazards. Air pollution is a well-known problem in Beijing and other parts of China. In days of severe air pollution, the government has ordered manufacturing companies to stop all production. The central government is also tightening control over hazardous chemicals and other hazardous elements such as arsenic, which is produced by two of our raw material companies. Further, the central government encourages employees to report to the appropriate regulatory agencies possible safety or environmental violations, but there may not be actual violations. Regular use in the normal course of business of hazardous chemicals or hazardous elements or a company’s failure to meet the ever-tightening standards for control of hazardous chemicals or hazardous elements could result in orders to shut down permanently, fines or other severe measures. Any such orders directed at one of our raw material companies could result in impairment charges if the company is forced to close its business, cease operations or incurs fines or operating losses, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial results. In the first quarter of 2019, we incurred an impairment charge of $1.1 million for a germanium materials company in China in which we have a 25% ownership interest, writing down our investment to zero value.

Further, some of our raw material companies share facilities with our raw material investment partners. If either company is deemed to have violated applicable laws, rules or regulations governing the use, storage, discharge or disposal of hazardous chemicals, their operations could be adversely affected and we could be subject to substantial liability for clean-up efforts, personal injury, fines or suspension or termination of operations. Employees working for these companies could bring litigation against us even though we are not directly controlling those operations. While we would expect to defend ourselves vigorously in any litigation that is brought against us, litigation is inherently uncertain and it is possible that our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be affected. Even if we are not deemed responsible for the actions of the raw material companies or investment partners, litigation could be costly, time consuming to defend and divert management attention; in addition, if we are deemed to be the most financially viable of the partners, plaintiffs may decide to pursue us for damages.

Intense competition in the markets for our products could prevent us from increasing revenue and achieving profitability.

The markets for our products are intensely competitive. We face competition for our wafer substrate products from other manufacturers of substrates, such as Sumitomo, JX, Freiberger, Umicore, and CCTC, and from companies, such as Qorvo and Skyworks, that are actively considering alternative materials to GaAs and marketing semiconductor devices using these alternative materials. We believe that at least two of our major competitors are shipping high volumes of GaAs substrates manufactured using a process similar to our VGF process technology. Other competitors may develop and begin using similar technology. Sumitomo and JX also compete with us in the InP market. If we are

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unable to compete effectively, our revenue may decrease and we may not maintain profitability. We face many competitors that have a number of significant advantages over us, including:

greater name recognition and market share in the business;
more manufacturing experience;
extensive intellectual property; and
significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources.

Our competitors could develop new or enhanced products that are more effective than our products.

The level and intensity of competition has increased over the past years and we expect competition to continue to increase in the future. Competitive pressures have resulted in reductions in the prices of our products, and continued or increased competition could reduce our market share, require us to further reduce the prices of our products, affect our ability to recover costs and result in reduced gross margins and profitability.

In addition, new competitors have and may continue to emerge, such as a crystal growing company established by a former employee in China that is supplying semi-conducting GaAs wafers to the LED market. Competition from sources such as this could increase, particularly if these competitors are able to obtain large capital investments. Further, recent trade tensions between China and the United States have resulted in a greater determination within China to be self-sufficient and produce more goods domestically. This could result in the formation of new competitors that would compete against our company and adversely affect our financial results.

Cyber-attacks, system security risks and data protection issues could disrupt our internal operations and cause a reduction in revenue, increase in expenses, negatively impact our results of operation or result in other adverse consequences.

Like most technology companies, we could be targeted in cyber-attacks. We face a risk that experienced computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate or compromise our confidential and proprietary information, potentially without being detected. Computer programmers and hackers also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that attack our information technology infrastructure and demand a ransom payment. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions and delays that may impede our sales, manufacturing, distribution, accounting or other critical functions.

Breaches of our security measures could create system disruptions or cause shutdowns or result in the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about us. Cyber-attacks could use fraud, trickery or other forms of deception. A cyber-attack could expose us to a risk of loss or misuse of information, result in litigation and potential liability, damage our reputation or otherwise harm our business. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant.

Portions of our information technology infrastructure might also experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time, which may have a material impact on our business. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource-intensive than originally anticipated. Such disruptions could adversely impact our ability to fulfill orders and interrupt other processes. Delayed sales, lower margins or lost customers could adversely affect our financial results and reputation.

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The average selling prices of our substrates may decline over relatively short periods, which may reduce our revenue and gross margins.

Since the market for our products is characterized by declining average selling prices resulting from various factors, such as increased competition, overcapacity, the introduction of new products and decreased sales of products incorporating our products, the average selling prices for our products may decline over relatively short time periods. We have in the past experienced, and in the future may experience, substantial period-to-period fluctuations in operating results due to declining average selling prices. In certain years, we have experienced an average selling price decline of our substrate selling prices of approximately 5% to 10%, depending on the substrate product. It is possible that the pace of the decline of average selling prices could accelerate beyond these levels for certain products in a commoditizing market. We anticipate that average selling prices will decrease in the future in response to the unstable demand environment, price reductions by competitors, or by other factors, including pricing pressures from significant customers. When our average selling prices decline, our revenue and gross profit decline, unless we are able to sell more products or reduce the cost to manufacture our products. We generally attempt to combat an average selling price decline by improving yields and manufacturing efficiencies and working to reduce the costs of our raw materials and of manufacturing our products. We also need to sell our current products in increasing volumes to offset any decline in their average selling prices, and introduce new products, which we may not be able to do, or do on a timely basis.

In order to remain competitive, we must continually work to reduce the cost of manufacturing our products and improve our yields and manufacturing efficiencies. Our efforts may not allow us to keep pace with competitive pricing pressures which could adversely affect our margins. There is no assurance that any changes effected by us will result in sufficient cost reductions to allow us to reduce the price of our products to remain competitive or improve our gross margins.

Defects in our products could diminish demand for our products.

Our wafer products are complex and may contain defects, including defects resulting from impurities inherent in our raw materials or inconsistencies in our manufacturing processes. We have experienced quality control problems with some of our products, which caused customers to return products to us, reduce orders for our products, or both. If we experience quality control problems, or experience other manufacturing problems, customers may return product for credit, cancel or reduce orders or purchase products from our competitors. We may be unable to maintain or increase sales to our customers and sales of our products could decline. Defects in our products could cause us to incur higher manufacturing costs and suffer product returns and additional service expenses, all of which could adversely impact our operating results. If new products developed by us contain defects when released, our customers may be dissatisfied and we may suffer negative publicity or customer claims against us, lose sales or experience delays in market acceptance of our new products.

Our substrate products have a long qualification cycle that makes it difficult to forecast revenue from new customers or for new products sold to existing customers.

New customers typically place orders with us for our substrate products three months to a year or more after our initial contact with them. The sale of our products is subject to our customers’ lengthy internal evaluation and approval processes. During this time, we may incur substantial expenses and expend selling, marketing and management efforts while the customers evaluate our products. These expenditures may not result in sales of our products. If we do not achieve anticipated sales in a period as expected, we may experience an unplanned shortfall in our revenue. As a result, our operating results would be adversely affected. In addition, if we fail to meet the product qualification requirements of the customer, we may not have another opportunity to sell that product to that customer for many months or even years. In the current competitive climate, the average qualification and sales cycle for our products has lengthened even further and is expected to continue to make it difficult for us to forecast our future sales accurately. We anticipate that sales of any future substrate products will also have lengthy qualification periods and will, therefore, be subject to risks substantially similar to those inherent in the lengthy sales cycles of our current substrate products.

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The loss of one or more of our key substrate customers would significantly hurt our operating results.

From time to time, sales to one or more of our customers individually represent more than 10% of our revenue and if we were to lose a major customer the loss would negatively impact our revenue. Our customers are not obligated to purchase a specified quantity of our products or to provide us with binding forecasts of product purchases. In addition, our customers may reduce, delay or cancel orders. In the past, we have experienced a slowdown in bookings, significant push-outs and cancellation of orders from customers. If we lose a major customer or if a customer cancels, reduces or delays orders, our revenue would decline. In addition, customers that have accounted for significant revenue in the past may not continue to generate revenue for us in any future period. Any loss of customers or any delay in scheduled shipments of our products could cause revenue to fall below our expectations and the expectations of market analysts or investors, causing our stock price to decline.

The cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry may limit our ability to maintain or increase net sales and operating results during industry downturns.

The semiconductor industry is highly cyclical and periodically experiences significant economic downturns characterized by diminished product demand, resulting in production overcapacity and excess inventory in the markets we serve. A downturn can result in lower unit volumes and rapid erosion of average selling prices. The semiconductor industry has experienced significant downturns, often in connection with, or in anticipation of, maturing product cycles of both semiconductor companies’ and their customers’ products or a decline in general economic conditions. This may adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our business.

Our continuing business depends in significant part upon manufacturers of electronic and opto-electronic compound semiconductor devices, as well as the current and anticipated market demand for these devices and products using these devices. As a supplier to the semiconductor industry, we are subject to the business cycles that characterize the industry. The timing, length and volatility of these cycles are difficult to predict. The compound semiconductor industry has historically been cyclical due to sudden changes in demand, the amount of manufacturing capacity and changes in the technology employed in compound semiconductors. The rate of changes in demand, including end demand, is high, and the effect of these changes upon us occurs quickly, exacerbating the volatility of these cycles. These changes have affected the timing and amounts of customers’ purchases and investments in new technology. These industry cycles create pressure on our revenue, gross margin and net income.

Our industry has in the past experienced periods of oversupply and that has resulted in significantly reduced prices for compound semiconductor devices and components, including our products, both as a result of general economic changes and overcapacity. Oversupply causes greater price competition and can cause our revenue, gross margins and net income to decline. During periods of weak demand, customers typically reduce purchases, delay delivery of products and/or cancel orders for our products. Order cancellations, reductions in order size or delays in orders could occur and would materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. Actions to reduce our costs may be insufficient to align our structure with prevailing business conditions. We may be required to undertake additional cost-cutting measures, and may be unable to invest in marketing, research and development and engineering at the levels we believe are necessary to maintain our competitive position. Our failure to make these investments could seriously harm our business.

A significant portion of our operating expense and manufacturing costs are relatively fixed. If revenue for a particular quarter is lower than we expect, we likely will be unable to proportionately reduce our operating expenses or fixed manufacturing costs for that quarter, which would harm our operating results.

If we do not successfully develop new product features and improvements and new products that respond to customer requirements, our ability to generate revenue, obtain new customers, and retain existing customers may suffer.

Our success depends on our ability to offer new product features, improved performance characteristics and new products, such as larger diameter substrates, low defect density substrates, thicker or thinner substrates, substrates with extreme surface flatness specifications, substrates that are manufactured with a doped crystal growth process or substrates that incorporate leading technology and other technological advances. New products must meet customer

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needs and compete effectively on quality, price and performance. The markets for our products are characterized by rapid technological change, changing customer needs and evolving industry standards. If our competitors introduce products employing new technologies or performance characteristics, our existing products could become obsolete and unmarketable. Over time, we have seen our competitors selling more substrates manufactured using a crystal growth technology similar to ours, which has eroded our technological differentiation.

The development of new product features, improved performance characteristics and new products can be a highly complex process, and we may experience delays in developing and introducing them. Any significant delay could cause us to fail to timely introduce and gain market acceptance of new products. Further, the costs involved in researching, developing and engineering new products could be greater than anticipated. If we fail to offer new products or product enhancements or fail to achieve higher quality products, we may not generate sufficient revenue to offset our development costs and other expenses or meet our customers’ requirements.

We have made and may continue to make strategic investments in raw materials suppliers, which may not be successful and may result in the loss of all or part of our investment.

We have made direct investments or investments through our subsidiaries in raw material suppliers in China, which provide us with opportunities to gain supplies of key raw materials that are important to our substrate business. These affiliates each have a market beyond that provided by us. We do not have significant influence over every one of these companies and in some we have made only a strategic, minority investment. We may not be successful in achieving the financial, technological or commercial advantage upon which any given investment is premised, and we could end up losing all or part of our investment which would have a negative impact on our results of operations. In the first quarter of 2017, we incurred an impairment charge of $313,000 against one of our partially-owned suppliers, writing down our investment to zero value. Most recently, in the first quarter of 2019, we incurred an impairment charge of $1.1 million for a germanium materials company in China in which we have a 25% ownership interest, writing down our investment to zero value. The significant decline in the selling prices of raw materials which began in 2015 has weakened some of these companies and their losses have negatively impacted our financial results. Further, the increasing concern and restrictions in China of hazardous chemicals and other hazardous elements could result in orders to shut down permanently, fines or other severe measures. Any such orders directed at one of our joint venture companies could result in impairment charges if the company is forced to close its business, cease operations or incurs fines, or operating losses, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

We purchase critical raw materials and parts for our equipment from single or limited sources, and could lose sales if these sources fail to fill our needs.

We depend on a limited number of suppliers for certain raw materials, components and equipment used in manufacturing our products, including key materials such as quartz tubing, and polishing solutions. We generally purchase these materials through standard purchase orders and not pursuant to long-term supply contracts, and no supplier guarantees supply of raw materials or equipment to us. If we lose any of our key suppliers, our manufacturing efforts could be significantly hampered and we could be prevented from timely producing and delivering products to our customers. Prior to investing in our subsidiaries and joint ventures, we sometimes experienced delays obtaining critical raw materials and spare parts, including gallium, and we could experience such delays again in the future due to shortages of materials or for other reasons. Delays in receiving equipment or materials could result in higher costs and cause us to delay or reduce production of our products. If we have to delay or reduce production, we could fail to meet customer delivery schedules and our revenue and operating results could suffer.

We may not be able to identify or form additional complementary raw material joint ventures.

We might invest in additional joint venture companies in order to remain competitive in our marketplace and ensure a supply of critical raw materials. However, we may not be able to identify additional complementary joint venture opportunities or, even once opportunities are identified, we may not be able to reach agreement on the terms of the business venture with the other investment partners. Further, geopolitical tensions and trade wars could result in government agencies blocking such new joint ventures. New joint ventures could require cash investments or cause us to

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incur additional liabilities or other expenses, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

The financial condition of our customers may affect their ability to pay amounts owed to us.

Some of our customers may be undercapitalized and cope with cash flow issues. Because of competitive market conditions, we may grant our customers extended payment terms when selling products to them. Subsequent to our fulfilling an order, some customers have been unable to make payments when due, reducing our cash balances and causing us to incur charges to allow for a possibility that some accounts might not be paid. We observed an increase in our accounts receivable in the first quarter of 2020 and believe this has resulted from work stoppages, shelter-in-place orders and general cautiousness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the past we, have had some customers file for bankruptcy. If our customers do not pay amounts owed to us then we will incur charges that would reduce our earnings.

We depend on the continuing efforts of our senior management team and other key personnel. If we lose members of our senior management team or other key personnel, or are unable to successfully recruit and train qualified personnel, our ability to manufacture and sell our products could be harmed.

Our future success depends on the continuing services of members of our senior management team and other key personnel.  Our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, and the turnover rate can be high.  We compete for qualified management and other personnel with other specialty material companies and semiconductor companies.  Our employees could leave our company with little or no prior notice and would be free to work for a competitor.  If one or more of our senior executives or other key personnel were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them easily or at all, and other senior management may be required to divert attention from other aspects of the business.  The loss of any of these individuals or our ability to attract or retain qualified personnel could adversely affect our business.

Our results of operations may suffer if we do not effectively manage our inventory.

We must manage our inventory of raw materials, work in process and finished goods effectively to meet changing customer requirements, while keeping inventory costs down and improving gross margins. Although we seek to maintain sufficient inventory levels of certain materials to guard against interruptions in supply and to meet our near term needs, we may experience shortages of certain key materials. Some of our products and supplies have in the past and may in the future become obsolete while in inventory due to changing customer specifications, or become excess inventory due to decreased demand for our products and an inability to sell the inventory within a foreseeable period. This would result in charges that reduce our gross profit and gross margin. Furthermore, if market prices drop below the prices at which we value inventory, we would need to take a charge for a reduction in inventory values in accordance with the lower of cost or net realizable value valuation rule. We have in the past had to take inventory valuation and impairment charges. Any future unexpected changes in demand or increases in costs of production that cause us to take additional charges for un-saleable, obsolete or excess inventory, or to reduce inventory values, would adversely affect our results of operations.

The effect of terrorist threats and actions on the general economy could decrease our revenue.

Countries such as the United States and China continue to be on alert for terrorist activity. The potential near and long-term impact terrorist activities may have in regards to our suppliers, customers and markets for our products and the economy is uncertain. There may be embargos of ports or products, or destruction of shipments or our facilities, or attacks that affect our personnel. There may be other potentially adverse effects on our operating results due to significant events that we cannot foresee. Since we perform all of our manufacturing operations in China, terrorist activity or threats against U.S.-owned enterprises are a particular concern to us.

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III.          Risks Related to International Aspects of Our Business

The Chinese central government is increasingly aware of air pollution and other forms of environmental pollution and their reform efforts can impact our manufacturing, including intermittent mandatory shutdowns.

The Chinese central government is demonstrating strong leadership to improve air quality and reduce environmental pollution. These efforts have impacted manufacturing companies through mandatory shutdowns, increased inspections and regulatory reforms. In the fourth quarter of 2017, many manufacturing companies in the greater Beijing area, including AXT, were instructed by the local government to cease most manufacturing for several days until the air quality improved. In the first quarter of 2018, from February 27 to March 31 over 300 manufacturing companies, including AXT, were again intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days, or 30 percent of the remaining calendar days, due to severe air pollution. Our shipments were delayed and our revenue for the quarter was negatively impacted. We expect that mandatory factory shutdowns will occur in the future. If the frequency of such shutdowns increases, especially at the end of a quarter, or if the total number of days of shutdowns prevents us from producing enough wafers to ship, then these shutdowns will have a material adverse effect on our manufacturing output, revenue and factory utilization. Each of our raw material supply chain companies could also be impacted by environmental related orders from the central government.

Enhanced trade tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, Chinese regulations or other trade barriers may materially harm our business.

All of our wafer substrates are manufactured in China and in the years 2020 and 2019, approximately 10% of our revenue was generated by sales to customers in North America, primarily in the U.S. In September 2018, the Trump Administration announced a list of thousands of categories of goods that became subject to tariffs when imported into the United States. This pronouncement imposed tariffs on wafer substrates we imported into the United States. The initial tariff rate was 10% and subsequently was increased to 25%. In the years 2020 and 2019 we paid approximately $1.3 million and $0.7 million, respectively, in tariffs. The future impact of tariffs and trade wars is uncertain. We may be required to raise prices, which may result in the loss of customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially harmed. Additionally, it is possible that our business could be adversely impacted by retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response to existing or future tariffs, which could cause us to raise prices or make changes to our operations, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The economic and political conditions between China and the United States, in our view, create an unstable business environment. The United States government has restricted access by certain Chinese technology companies to items produced domestically and abroad from U.S. technology and software, which may impact our ability to grow our revenue. Trade restrictions against China have resulted in a greater determination within China to be self-sufficient and produce more goods domestically. Government agencies in China may be encouraging and supporting the founding of new companies, the addition of new products in existing companies and more vertical integration within companies. These factors have resulted in lower revenue from sales of our wafer substrates in China. Further, the continued threats of tariffs and other trade restrictions could have a generally disruptive impact on the global economy and, therefore, negatively impact our sales.

In addition, we may incur increases in costs and other adverse business consequences, including loss of revenue or decreased gross margins, due to changes in tariffs, import or export restrictions, further trade barriers, or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements. For example, in July 2012, we received notice of retroactive value-added taxes (VATs) levied by the tax authorities in China, which applied for the period from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012.  We expensed the retroactive VATs of approximately $1.3 million in the quarter ended June 30, 2012, which resulted in a decrease in our gross margins. These VATs will continue to negatively impact our gross margins for the future quarters. Given the relatively fluid regulatory environment in China and the United States, there could be additional tax or other regulatory changes in the future. Any such changes could directly and materially adversely impact our financial results and general business condition.

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The spread of COVID-19 has affected our business operations and financial performance.

The spread of COVID-19 has impacted our operations and financial performance. This outbreak has triggered references to the SARS outbreak, which occurred in 2003 and affected our business operations. Any severe occurrence of an outbreak of a contagious disease such as COVID-19, SARS, Avian Flu or Ebola may cause us or the government to temporarily close our manufacturing operations in China. In January 2020, virtually all companies in China were ordered to remain closed after the traditional Lunar New Year holiday ended, including our subsidiaries in China. If there is a renewed surge of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the Chinese government may require companies to close again.  If one or more of our key suppliers is required to close for an extended period, we might not have enough raw material inventories to continue manufacturing operations. In addition, travel restrictions between China and the U.S. have disrupted our normal movement to and from China and this has impacted our efficiency. The outbreak has affected transportation and reduced the availability of air transport, caused port closures, and increased border controls and closures. If our manufacturing operations were closed for a significant period or we experience difficulty in shipping our products, we could lose revenue and market share, which would depress our financial performance and could be difficult to recapture. If one of our key customers is required to close for an extended period this may delay the placement of new orders. As a result, our revenue would decline. Further, customers might default on their obligations to us. In the first quarter of 2020 we observed an increase in our accounts receivable and believe this is the result of businesses slowing down and a general cautiousness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such events would negatively impact our financial performance.

Financial market volatility and adverse changes in the domestic, global, political and economic environment could have a significant adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to the risks arising from adverse changes and uncertainty in domestic and global economies. Uncertain global economic and political conditions or low or negative growth in China, Europe or the United States, along with volatility in the financial markets, increasing national debt and fiscal concerns in various regions and the adoption and availability of fiscal and monetary stimulus measures to counteract the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, pose challenges to our industry. Currently China’s economy is slowing and this could impact our financial performance. In addition, tariffs, trade restrictions, trade wars and Brexit are creating an unstable environment and can disrupt or restrict commerce. Although we remain well-capitalized, the cost and availability of funds may be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets. Volatility in U.S. and international markets and economies may adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and profitability. Another severe or prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of risks to our business, including:

increased volatility in our stock price;
increased volatility in foreign currency exchange rates;
delays in, or curtailment of, purchasing decisions by our customers or potential customers;
increased credit risk associated with our customers or potential customers, particularly those that may operate in industries most affected by the economic downturn; and
impairment of our tangible or intangible assets.

In the past, most recently in the fourth quarter of 2018 and continuing in 2019, we experienced delays in customer purchasing decisions and disruptions in a normal volume of customer orders that we believe were in part due to the uncertainties in the global economy, resulting in an adverse impact on consumer spending. During challenging and uncertain economic times and in tight credit markets, many customers delay or reduce technology purchases. Should similar events occur again, our business and operating results could be significantly and adversely affected.

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We derive a significant portion of our revenue from international sales, and our ability to sustain and increase our international sales involves significant risks.

Approximately 90% of our revenue is from international sales. We expect that sales to customers outside the United States, particularly sales to customers in Japan, Taiwan, Europe and China, will continue to represent a significant portion of our revenue. Therefore, our revenue growth depends significantly on the expansion of our international sales and operations.

All of our manufacturing facilities and most of our suppliers are also located outside the United States. Managing our overseas operations presents challenges, including periodic regional economic downturns, trade balance issues, threats of trade wars, varying business conditions and demands, political instability, variations in enforcement of intellectual property and contract rights in different jurisdictions, differences in the ability to develop relationships with suppliers and other local businesses, changes in U.S. and international laws and regulations, including U.S. export restrictions, fluctuations in interest and currency exchange rates, the ability to provide sufficient levels of technical support in different locations, cultural differences and perceptions of U.S. companies, shipping delays and terrorist acts or acts of war, natural disasters and epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19, among other risks. Many of these challenges are present in China, which represents a large potential market for semiconductor devices. Global uncertainties with respect to: (i) economic growth rates in various countries; (ii) sustainability of demand for electronic products; (iii) capital spending by semiconductor manufacturers; (iv) price weakness for certain semiconductor devices; (v) changing and tightening environmental regulations; (vi) political instability in regions where we have operations and (vii) trade wars may also affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our dependence on international sales involves a number of risks, including:

changes in tariffs, import restrictions, export restrictions, or other trade barriers;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;
longer periods to collect accounts receivable;
foreign exchange rate fluctuations;
changes in export license requirements;
political and economic instability; and
unexpected changes in diplomatic and trade relationships.

Most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, except for sales to our Chinese customers which are denominated in renminbi and our Japanese customers which are denominated in Japanese yen. We also have some small sales denominated in Euro. Increases in the value of the U.S. dollar could increase the price of our products in non-U.S. markets and make our products more expensive than competitors’ products in these markets.

We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that materially impact our income statement.

We are subject to foreign exchange gains and losses that materially impact our statement of operations. For example, in 2020 we incurred a loss of $411,000.

The functional currency of our companies in China is the Chinese renminbi, the local currency. We can incur foreign exchange gains or losses when we pay dollars to one of our China-based companies or a third-party supplier in China. Similarly, if a company in China pays renminbi into one of our bank accounts transacting in dollars the renminbi will be converted to dollars and we can incur a foreign exchange gain or loss. Hedging renminbi will be considered in

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the future but it is complicated by the number of companies involved, the diversity of transactions and restrictions imposed by the banking system in China.

Sales to Japanese customers are denominated in Japanese yen. This subjects us to fluctuations in the exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen and can result in foreign exchange gains and losses. This has been problematic in the past and, therefore, we instituted a foreign currency hedging program dealing with yen which has mitigated the problem.

Joint venture raw material companies in China bring certain risks.

Since our consolidated subsidiaries and all of our joint venture raw material companies reside in China, their activities could subject us to a number of risks associated with conducting operations internationally, including:

unexpected changes in regulatory requirements that may limit our ability to manufacture, export the products of these companies or sell into particular jurisdictions or impose multiple conflicting tax laws and regulations;
the imposition of tariffs, trade barriers and duties;
difficulties in managing geographically disparate operations;
difficulties in enforcing agreements through non-U.S. legal systems;
political and economic instability, civil unrest or war;
terrorist activities that impact international commerce;
difficulties in protecting our intellectual property rights, particularly in countries where the laws and practices do not protect proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws and practices of the United States;
changing laws and policies affecting economic liberalization, foreign investment, currency convertibility or exchange rates, taxation or employment; and
nationalization of foreign-owned assets, including intellectual property.

Uncertainty regarding the United States’ foreign policy, particularly with regards to China, could disrupt our business.

We manufacture our substrates in China and, in 2020, approximately 90% of our sales were to customers located outside the United States. Further, we have partial ownership of raw material companies in China as part of our supply chain. The United States’ current foreign policy has created uncertainty and caution in the international business community, resulting in disruptions in manufacturing, import/export, trade tariffs, sales, investments and other business activity. Such disruptions have had an adverse impact on our financial performance and could continue in the future.

If China places restrictions on freight and transportation routes and on ports of entry and departure this could result in shipping delays or increased costs for shipping.

In August 2015, there was an explosion at the Port of Tianjin, China. As a result of this incident the government placed restrictions on importing certain materials and on freight routes used to transport these materials. We experienced some modest disruption from these restrictions. If the government were to place additional restrictions on the transportation of materials, then our ability to transport our raw materials or products could be limited and result in manufacturing delays or bottlenecks at shipping ports, affecting our ability to deliver products to our customers. During

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periods of such restrictions, we may increase our stock of critical materials (such as arsenic, gallium and other items) for use during the period that these restrictions are likely to last, which will increase our use of cash and increase our inventory level. Any of these restrictions could materially and adversely impact our results of operations and our financial condition.

Our operating results depend in large part on continued customer acceptance of our substrate products manufactured in China and continued improvements in product quality.

We manufacture all of our products in China, and source most of our raw materials in China. We have in the past experienced quality problems with our China-manufactured products. Our previous quality problems caused us to lose market share to our competitors, as some of our customers reduced their orders until our wafer surface quality was as good and as consistent as that offered by our competitors and instead allocated their requirements for compound semiconductor substrates to our competitors. If we are unable to continue to achieve customer qualifications for our products, or if we are unable to control product quality, customers may not increase purchases of our products, our China facilities will become underutilized, and we will be unable to achieve revenue growth.

Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments may affect our financial performance.

Our financial performance may be affected by changes in China’s political, social, regulatory or economic environments. The role of the Chinese central and local governments in the Chinese economy is significant. The Beijing municipal government’s decision to move to the Tongzhou district, the original location of our manufacturing company, resulted in the city instructing virtually all existing manufacturing companies, including AXT, to relocate all or some of their manufacturing lines. We were instructed to move our gallium arsenide manufacturing line out of the area. Chinese policies toward hazardous materials, including arsenic, environmental controls, air pollution, economic liberalization, laws and policies affecting technology companies, foreign investment, currency exchange rates, taxation structure and other matters could change, resulting in greater restrictions on our ability to do business and operate our manufacturing facilities in China. We have observed a growing fluidity and tightening of regulations concerning hazardous materials, other environmental controls and air pollution. The Chinese government could revoke, terminate or suspend our operating licenses for reasons related to environmental control over the use of hazardous materials, air pollution, labor complaints, national security and similar reasons without compensation to us. Further, the central government encourages employees to report to the appropriate regulatory agencies possible safety or environmental violations, but there may not be actual violations. In days of severe air pollution the government has ordered manufacturing companies to stop all production. For example, in the first quarter of 2018, from February 27 to March 31, over 300 manufacturing companies, including us, were again intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days due to severe air pollution. Our shipments were delayed and our revenue for the quarter was negatively impacted. We expect that mandatory factory shutdowns will occur in the future. Any failure on our part to comply with governmental regulations could result in the loss of our ability to manufacture our products. Further, any imposition of surcharges or any increase in Chinese tax rates or reduction or elimination of Chinese tax benefits could hurt our financial results.

Our international operations are exposed to potential adverse tax consequence in China.

Our international operations create a risk of potential adverse tax consequences. Taxes on income in our China-based companies are dependent upon acceptance of our operational practices and intercompany transfer pricing by local tax authorities as being on an arm's length basis. Due to inconsistencies among taxing authorities in application of the arm's length standard, transfer pricing challenges by tax authorities could, if successful, materially increase our consolidated income tax expense. We are subject to tax audits in China and an audit could result in the assessment of additional income tax against us. This could have a material adverse effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made and could result in increases to our overall tax expense in subsequent periods. Various taxing agencies in China are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative action to increase tax revenue. In addition to risks regarding income tax we have in the past been retroactively assessed value added taxes (“VAT” or sales tax) and such VAT assessments could occur again in the future.

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If there are power shortages in China, we may have to temporarily close our China operations, which would adversely impact our ability to manufacture our products and meet customer orders, and would result in reduced revenue.

In the past, China has faced power shortages resulting in power demand outstripping supply in peak periods. Instability in electrical supply has caused sporadic outages among residential and commercial consumers causing the Chinese government to implement tough measures to ease the energy shortage. If further problems with power shortages occur in the future, we may be required to make temporary closures of our operations or of our subsidiary and joint venture raw material companies. We may be unable to manufacture our products and would then be unable to meet customer orders except from finished goods inventory on hand. As a result, our revenue could be adversely impacted, and our relationships with our customers could suffer, impacting our ability to generate future revenue. In addition, if power is shut off at any of our facilities at any time, either voluntarily or as a result of unplanned brownouts, during certain phases of our manufacturing process including our crystal growth phase, the work in process may be ruined and rendered unusable, causing us to incur costs that will not be covered by revenue, and negatively impacting our cost of revenue and gross margins.

VI.         Risks Related to Our Financial Results and Capital Structure

We may utilize our cash balances for relocating manufacturing lines, adding capacity, acquiring state-of-the-art equipment or offsetting a business downturn resulting in the decline of our existing cash and if we need additional capital, funds may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.

Our liquidity is affected by many factors including among others, the relocation of our gallium arsenide manufacturing lines, the expansion of our capacity to meet market demand, the acquisition of state-of-the-art equipment, other capital expenditures, operating activities, the effect of exchange rate changes and other factors related to the uncertainties of the industry and global economies. Such matters could draw down our cash reserves, which could adversely affect our financial condition, require us to incur debt, reduce our value and possibly impinge our ability to raise debt and equity funding in the future, at a time when we might need to raise additional cash or elect to raise additional cash. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that events will not require us to seek additional capital or, if required, that such capital would be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

The terms of the private equity raised in China as a first step toward an IPO on the STAR Market grant each Investor a right of redemption if Tongmei fails to achieve its IPO.

Pursuant to the Capital Investment Agreements with the Investors, each Investor has the right to require AXT to redeem any or all Tongmei shares held by such Investor at the original purchase price paid by such Investor, without interest, in the event of a material adverse change or if Tongmei does not achieve its IPO on or before December 31, 2022. This right is suspended when Tongmei submits its formal application to the CSRC. Tongmei currently plans to submit its formal application to the CSRC in the third quarter of 2021. However, if on December 31, 2022 the IPO application has been submitted and accepted by the CSRC or the stock exchange and such submission remains under review, then the date when such investor is entitled to exercise such redemption right shall be deferred to a date when such submission is rejected by the CSRC or stock exchange, or the date when Tongmei withdraws its IPO application. The process of going public on the STAR Market includes several periods of review and is therefore a lengthy process. Tongmei does not expect to complete the IPO until mid-2022. The listing of Tongmei on China’s STAR Market will not change the status of AXT as a U.S. public company. There can be no assurances that Tongmei will complete its IPO by December 31, 2022 or at all. In the event that investors exercise their redemption rights, we may be required to seek additional capital in order to redeem their Tongmei shares and there would be no assurances that such capital would be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any redemptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Unpredictable fluctuations in our operating results could disappoint analysts or our investors, which could cause our stock price to decline.

We have experienced, and may continue to experience, significant fluctuations in our revenue, gross margins and earnings. Our quarterly and annual revenue and operating results have varied significantly in the past and may vary significantly in the future due to a number of factors, including:

our ability to develop, manufacture and deliver high quality products in a timely and cost-effective manner;
unforeseen disruptions at our new sites;
disruptions in manufacturing if air pollution, or other environmental hazards, or outbreaks of contagious diseases causes the Chinese government to order work stoppages;
fluctuation of our manufacturing yields;
decreases in the prices of our or our competitors’ products;
fluctuations in demand for our products;
the volume and timing of orders from our customers, and cancellations, push-outs and delays of customer orders once booked;
decline in general economic conditions or downturns in the industry in which we compete;
expansion of our manufacturing capacity;
expansion of our operations in China;
limited availability and increased cost of raw materials;
costs incurred in connection with any future acquisitions of businesses or technologies; and
increases in our expenses, including expenses for research and development.

Due to these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful indicators of our future performance.

A substantial percentage of our operating expenses are fixed, and we may be unable to adjust spending to compensate for an unexpected shortfall in revenue. As a result, any delay in generating revenue could cause our operating results to fall below the expectations of market analysts or investors, which could also cause our stock price to decline.

If our operating results and financial performance do not meet the guidance that we have provided to the public, our stock price may decline.

We provide public guidance on our expected operating and financial results. Although we believe that this guidance provides our stockholders, investors and analysts with a better understanding of our expectations for the future, such guidance is comprised of forward-looking statements subject to the risks and uncertainties described in this report and in our other public filings and public statements. Our actual results may not meet the guidance we have provided. If our operating or financial results do not meet our guidance or the expectations of investment analysts, our stock price may decline.

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We have adopted certain anti-takeover measures that may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us.

Our board of directors has the authority to issue up to 800,000 shares of preferred stock in addition to the outstanding shares of Series A preferred stock and to determine the price, rights, preferences and privileges of those shares without any further vote or action by the stockholders. The rights of the holders of common stock will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any preferred stock that may be issued in the future. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire a majority of our outstanding voting stock. We have no present intention to issue additional shares of preferred stock.

Provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a merger, acquisition or change of control, or changes in our management, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. The following are some examples of these provisions:

the division of our board of directors into three separate classes, each with three-year terms;
the right of our board to elect a director to fill a space created by a board vacancy or the expansion of the board;
the ability of our board to alter our amended and restated bylaws; and
the requirement that only our board or the holders of at least 10% of our outstanding shares may call a special meeting of our stockholders.

Furthermore, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions prohibit us from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder (a stockholder who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock) for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

662/3% of the shares of voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder approve the merger or combination, or
the board of directors approves the merger or combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder.

Our common stock may be delisted from The Nasdaq Global Select Market, which could negatively impact the price of our common stock and our ability to access the capital markets.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. The bid price of our common stock has in the past closed below the $1.00 minimum per share bid price required for continued inclusion on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under Marketplace Rule 5450(a). If the bid price of our common stock remains below $1.00 per share for thirty consecutive business days, we could be subject to delisting from the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

Any delisting from The Nasdaq Global Select Market could have an adverse effect on our business and on the trading of our common stock. If a delisting of our common stock were to occur, our common stock would trade in the over-the-counter market and be quoted on a service such as those provided by OTC Markets Group, Inc. Such alternatives are generally considered to be less efficient markets, and our stock price, as well as the liquidity of our common stock, may be adversely impacted as a result. Delisting from The Nasdaq Global Select Market could also have other negative results, including the potential loss of confidence by customers, suppliers and employees, the loss of institutional investor interest and fewer business development opportunities, as well as the loss of liquidity for our stockholders.

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Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2020, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $57.0 million. We have utilized all state net operating losses, primarily in the state of California, as of December 31, 2020. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income and taxes may be limited.  In general, an “ownership change” occurs if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period.  Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.  We might have undergone prior ownership changes, and we may undergo ownership changes in the future, which may result in limitations on our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes.  Any such limitations on our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

V.         Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Intellectual property infringement claims may be costly to resolve and could divert management attention.

Other companies may hold or obtain patents on inventions or may otherwise claim proprietary rights to technology necessary to our business. The markets in which we compete are comprised of competitors that in some cases hold substantial patent portfolios covering aspects of products that could be similar to ours. We could become subject to claims that we are infringing patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary rights of others. We may incur expenses to defend ourselves against such claims or enter into cross license agreements that require us to pay royalty payments to resolve such claims. For example, in 2020, we and a competitor entered into the Cross License Agreement, which has a term that began on January 1, 2020 and expires on December 31, 2029. We have in the past been involved in lawsuits alleging patent infringement, and could in the future be involved in similar litigation.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, including our non-patented proprietary process technology, we may lose valuable assets or incur costly litigation.

We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements and other intellectual property protection methods to protect our proprietary technology. We believe that our internal, non-patented proprietary process technology methods, systems and processes are a valuable and critical element of our intellectual property. We must establish and maintain safeguards to avoid the theft of these processes. Our ability to establish and maintain a position of technology leadership also depends on the skills of our development personnel. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, third parties can develop products or processes similar to ours. Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may not be adequate, and our competitors may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our products or design around our patents. We believe that at least two of our competitors ship GaAs substrates produced using a process similar to our VGF process. Our competitors may also develop and patent improvements to the VGF technology upon which we rely, and thus may limit any exclusivity we enjoy by virtue of our patents or trade secrets.

It is possible that pending or future United States or foreign patent applications made by us will not be approved, that our issued patents will not protect our intellectual property, or that third parties will challenge our ownership rights or the validity of our patents. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States and it may be more difficult to monitor the use of our intellectual property. Our competitors may be able to legitimately ascertain non-patented proprietary technology embedded in our systems. If this occurs, we may not be able to prevent the development of technology substantially similar to ours.

We may have to resort to costly litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or know-how or to determine their scope, validity or enforceability. Enforcing or defending our proprietary technology is expensive, could cause us to divert resources and may not prove successful. Our protective measures may prove inadequate to protect our proprietary rights, and if we fail to enforce or protect our rights, we could lose valuable assets.

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VI.           Risks Related to Compliance, Environmental Regulations and Other Legal Matters

If we, or any of our partially-owned supply chain companies, fail to comply with environmental and safety regulations, we may be subject to significant fines or forced to cease our operations.

We are subject to federal, state and local environmental and safety laws and regulations in all of our operating locations, including laws and regulations of China, such as laws and regulations related to the development, manufacture and use of our products, the use of hazardous materials, the operation of our facilities, and the use of our real property. These laws and regulations govern the use, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials during manufacturing, research and development, and sales demonstrations. If we, or any of our partially-owned supply chain companies, fail to comply with applicable regulations, we could be subject to substantial liability for clean-up efforts, personal injury, fines or suspension or be forced to close or temporarily cease our operations, and/or suspend or terminate the development, manufacture or use of certain of our products, the use of our facilities, or the use of our real property, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Chinese central government is demonstrating strong leadership to improve air quality and reduce environmental pollution. The central government encourages employees to report to the appropriate regulatory agencies possible safety or environmental violations but there may not be actual violations. These efforts have impacted manufacturing companies through mandatory shutdowns, increased inspections and regulatory reforms. In the first quarter of 2018, from February 27 to March 31 over 300 manufacturing companies were again intermittently shut down by the local government for a total of ten days, or 30 percent of the remaining calendar days, due to severe air pollution. Our shipments were delayed and our revenue for the quarter was negatively impacted. We expect that mandatory factory shutdowns will occur in the future. If the frequency of such shutdowns increases, especially at the end of a quarter, or if the total number of days of shutdowns prevents us from producing enough wafers to ship, then the shutdowns will have a material adverse effect on our manufacturing output, revenue and factory utilization. We believe the relocation of our gallium arsenide and germanium manufacturing lines mitigates our exposure to factory shutdowns. Each of our raw material supply chain companies could also be impacted by environmental related orders from the central government.

In addition, from time to time, the Chinese government issues new regulations, which may require additional actions on our part to comply. For example on February 27, 2015, the China State Administration of Work Safety updated its list of hazardous substances. The previous list, which was published in 2002, did not restrict the materials that we use in our wafers. The new list added gallium arsenide. As a result of the newly published list, we were required to seek additional permits.

We could be subject to suits for personal injuries caused by hazardous materials.

In 2005, a complaint was filed against us alleging personal injury, general negligence, intentional tort, wage loss and other damages, including punitive damages, as a result of exposure of plaintiffs to high levels of gallium arsenide in gallium arsenide wafers, and methanol. Other current and/or former employees could bring litigation against us in the future. Although we have in place engineering, administrative and personnel protective equipment programs to address these issues, our ability to expand or continue to operate our present locations could be restricted or we could be required to acquire costly remediation equipment or incur other significant expenses if we were found liable for failure to comply with environmental and safety regulations. Existing or future changes in laws or regulations in the United States and China may require us to incur significant expenditures or liabilities, or may restrict our operations. In addition, our employees could be exposed to chemicals or other hazardous materials at our facilities and we may be subject to lawsuits seeking damages for wrongful death or personal injuries allegedly caused by exposure to chemicals or hazardous materials at our facilities.

Litigation is inherently uncertain and while we would expect to defend ourselves vigorously, it is possible that our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be affected in any particular period by litigation pending and any additional litigation brought against us. In addition, future litigation could divert management’s attention from our business and operations, causing our business and financial results to suffer. We could

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incur defense or settlement costs in excess of the insurance covering these litigation matters, or that could result in significant judgments against us or cause us to incur costly settlements, in excess of our insurance limits.

We are subject to internal control evaluations and attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we must include in our Annual Report on Form 10-K a report of management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Ongoing compliance with this requirement is complex, costly and time-consuming and it extends to our companies in China. If: (1) we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; or (2) our management does not timely assess the adequacy of such internal control, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions and the public’s perception of us may be adversely impacted.

We need to continue to improve or implement our systems, procedures and controls.

We rely on certain manual processes for data collection and information processing, as do our joint venture raw material companies. If we fail to manage these procedures properly or fail to effectively manage a transition from manual processes to automated processes, our systems and controls may be disrupted. To manage our business effectively, we may need to implement additional management information systems, further develop our operating, administrative, financial and accounting systems and controls, add experienced senior level managers, and maintain close coordination among our executive, engineering, accounting, marketing, sales and operations organizations.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our principal properties as of March 12, 2021 are as follows:

    

Square

    

    

Location

Feet

Principal Use

Ownership

Fremont, CA

 

19,467

 

Administration

 

Operating lease, expires November 2023

Beijing, China

 

256,000

 

Production and Administration

 

Owned by AXT / Tongmei

DingXing, China

236,000

Production

Owned by AXT / Tongmei

Kazuo, China

350,000

Production

Owned by AXT / Tongmei

Nanjing, China

 

1,250

 

Administration

 

Operating lease by Nanjing JinMei Gallium Co. Ltd., expires May 2021.*

Kazuo, China

 

71,000

 

Production and Administration

 

Owned by Beijing BoYu Semiconductor Vessel Craftwork Technology Co., Ltd.*

Beijing, China

 

5,000

Production and Administration

Operating leases by Beijing BoYu Semiconductor Vessel Craftwork Technology Co., Ltd., expire on various dates until June 2021.*

Tianjin, China

145,000

Production and Administration

Owned by Beijing BoYu Semiconductor Vessel Craftwork Technology Co., Ltd., *

Kazuo, China

 

191,000

Production

Owned by ChaoYang JinMei Gallium Ltd.,*

*

Raw material companies consolidated in our consolidated financial statements.

We consider each facility to be in good operating condition and adequate for its present use, and believe that each facility has sufficient plant capacity to meet its current and anticipated operating requirements.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time we may be involved in judicial or administrative proceedings concerning matters arising in the ordinary course of business. We do not expect that any of these matters, individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operation.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock has been trading publicly on the NASDAQ Global Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol “AXTI” since May 20, 1998, the date we consummated our initial public offering, and beginning on January 3, 2011, our common stock began trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the same symbol. The following table sets forth the range of high and low sales prices of the common stock for the periods indicated, as reported by NASDAQ.

    

High

    

Low

 

2020

First Quarter

$

4.92

$

1.85

Second Quarter

$

5.99

$

2.76

Third Quarter

$

6.42

$

4.42

Fourth Quarter

$

11.65

$

5.44

2019

First Quarter

$

4.68

$

3.70

Second Quarter

$

6.14

$

3.55

Third Quarter

$

4.47

$

3.24

Fourth Quarter

$

4.20

$

2.72

As of March 4, 2021, there were 170 holders of record of our common stock. Because many shares of AXT’s common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners of our common stock.

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Dividends accrue on our outstanding Series A preferred stock at the rate of $0.20 per annum per share of Series A preferred stock. The 883,000 shares of Series A preferred stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 are valued at $3,532,000 and are non-voting and non-convertible preferred stock with a 5.0% cumulative annual dividend rate payable when declared by our board of directors, and a $4.00 per share liquidation preference over common stock that must be paid before any distribution is made to the holders of our common stock. These shares of preferred stock were issued to shareholders of Lyte Optronics, Inc. in connection with the completion of our acquisition of Lyte Optronics, Inc. on May 28, 1999. By the terms of the Series A preferred stock, so long as any shares of Series A preferred stock are outstanding, neither the Company nor any subsidiary of the Company shall redeem, repurchase or otherwise acquire any shares of common stock, unless all accrued dividends on the Series A preferred stock have been paid. During 2013 and 2015, we repurchased shares of our outstanding common stock.  As of December 31, 2015, the Series A preferred stock had cumulative dividends of $2.9 million and we include such cumulative dividends in “Accrued liabilities” in our consolidated balance sheetsNo shares were repurchased during 2020, 2019 and 2018 under this program. If we are required to pay the cumulative dividends on the Series A preferred stock, our cash and cash equivalents would be reduced.  We account for the cumulative year to date dividends on the Series A preferred stock when calculating our earnings per share.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On October 27, 2014, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program pursuant to which we may repurchase up to $5.0 million of our outstanding common stock.  These repurchases can be made from time to time in the open market and are funded from our existing cash balances and cash generated from operations. During 2015, we repurchased approximately 908,000 shares at an average price of $2.52 per share for a total purchase price of approximately $2.3 million under the stock repurchase program. No shares were repurchased during 2020 or 2019 under this program. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, approximately $2.7 million remained available for future repurchases under this program, respectively.

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Table of Contents

Comparison of Stockholder Return

Set forth below is a line graph comparing the annual percentage change in the cumulative total return to the stockholders of the Company on our common stock with the CRSP Total Return Index for the Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S. Companies) and the Nasdaq Electronic Components Index for the period commencing December 31, 2015 and ending December 31, 2020.

Graphic

    

12/15

    

12/16

    

12/17

    

12/18

    

12/19

    

12/20

 

AXT, Inc.

 

100

 

193.55

 

350.81

 

175.40

 

175.40

 

385.89

NASDAQ Composite

 

100

 

108.87

 

141.13

 

137.12

 

187.44

 

271.64

NASDAQ Electronic Components

 

100

 

121.48

 

146.21

 

119.92

 

178.71

 

252.83

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Table of Contents

Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data is derived from and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes set forth in Item 8 below, and in our previously filed reports on Form 10-K. See also Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for further information relating to items reflecting our results of operations and financial condition.

Year Ended December 31, 

 

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

Statements of Operations Data:

Revenue

$

95,361

$

83,256

$

102,397

$

98,673

$

81,349

Cost of revenue

 

65,086

 

58,431

 

65,350

 

64,198

 

54,968

Gross profit

 

30,275

 

24,825

 

37,047

 

34,475

 

26,381

Operating expenses:

Selling, general and administrative

 

19,200

 

19,305

 

19,003

 

17,009

 

13,880

Research and development

 

7,135

 

5,834

 

5,897

 

4,827

 

5,850

Restructuring charge

 

 

 

 

 

226

Total operating expenses

 

26,335

 

25,139

 

24,900

 

21,836

 

19,956

Income (loss) from operations

 

3,940

 

(314)

 

12,147

 

12,639

 

6,425

Interest income (expense), net

 

(179)

 

217

 

528

 

461

 

409

Equity in income (loss) of unconsolidated joint ventures

 

111

 

(1,876)

 

(1,080)

 

(1,694)

 

(1,995)

Other income (expense), net

 

3,200

 

947

 

352

 

(553)

 

860

Income (loss) before provision for income taxes

 

7,072

 

(1,026)

 

11,947

 

10,853

 

5,699

Provision for income taxes

 

2,031

 

562

 

938

 

792

 

733

Net income (loss)

 

5,041

 

(1,588)

 

11,009

 

10,061

 

4,966

Less: Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

(1,803)

 

(1,012)

 

(1,355)

 

87

 

670

Net income (loss) attributable to AXT, Inc.

$

3,238

$

(2,600)

$

9,654

$

10,148

$

5,636

Net income (loss) attributable to AXT, Inc. per common share:

Basic

$

0.08

$

(0.07)

$

0.24

$

0.27

$

0.17

Diluted

$

0.07

$

(0.07)

$

0.24

$

0.26

$

0.17

Shares used in per share calculations:

Basic

 

40,152

 

39,487

 

39,049