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As submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 29, 2022
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
    REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________
OR
    SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number: 001-38049
AZUL S.A.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
N/A
(Translation of the Registrant’s name into English)
Federative Republic of Brazil
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Avenida Marcos Penteado de Ulhôa Rodrigues, n. 939, 8th floor
Edifício Jatobá, Condomínio Castelo Branco Office Park
Tamboré, Barueri, State of São Paulo, Zip Code 06460-040
Federative Republic of Brazil
(Address of principal executive offices)
Alexandre Wagner Malfitani (Chief Financial Officer and Investor Relations Officer)
E-mail: invest@voeazul.com.br
Telephone: +55.11.4831-2880
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Preferred Shares without par value
AZUL
New York Stock Exchange*
American Depositary Shares (as evidenced by American Depositary Receipts), each representing three Preferred Shares
New York Stock Exchange
*Not for trading purposes, but only in connection with the listing on the New York Stock Exchange of American Depositary Shares representing those Preferred Shares.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15 (d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
    928,965,058    Common Shares
    333,680,010    Preferred Shares



Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  ☒    No  ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   ☒
Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer   ☐
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13 (a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 (b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262 (b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Yes      No  ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report or an attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b))
Yes   ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP ☐
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by
the International Accounting Standards Board ☒

Other ☐



If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
Item  17  ☐    Item  18   ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes      No  ☒
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court:
Yes  ☐    No  ☐



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 
i


F-2
ii

INTRODUCTION
In this annual report, the discussion of our business includes the business of Azul S.A. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, “Azul” “we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company” refer to Azul S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries. The term “Brazil” refers to the Federative Republic of Brazil and the phrase “Brazilian government” refers to the federal government of Brazil. “Central Bank” refers to the Brazilian Central Bank (Banco Central do Brasil). References in the annual report to “real,” “reais” or “R$” refer to the Brazilian real, the official currency of Brazil and references to “U.S. dollar,” “U.S. dollars” or “US$” refer to U.S. dollars, the official currency of the United States.

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GLOSSARY OF AIRLINE AND OTHER TERMS:
The following is a glossary of industry and other defined terms used in this annual report:
•    “ABEAR” means the Brazilian Association of Airline Companies (Associação Brasileira das Empresas Aéreas).
•    “ABRACORP” means the Brazilian Corporate Agencies Association (Associação Brasileira de Agências Corporativas).
•    “ADR” means American depositary receipts.
•    “ADS” means American depositary shares.
•    “Aeroportos Brasil,” a private consortium that operates Viracopos airport jointly with INFRAERO.
•    The “Águia Branca Group,” or “Grupo Águia Branca,” is a Brazilian transportation and logistics conglomerate controlled by the Chieppe family.
•    “Airbus” means Airbus S.A.S.
•    “Airbus Group” means Airbus Group N.V.
•    “aircraft utilization” represents the average number of block hours operated per day per aircraft for our operating fleet, excluding spare aircraft and aircraft in maintenance.
•    “ANAC” refers to the Brazilian National Civil Aviation Agency (Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil).
•    “Atlantic Gateway” means Atlantic Gateway, SPGS, Lda., an entity jointly owned by our principal shareholder, Hainan and another European investor.
•    “ATR” means aircraft with turboprop propulsion manufactured by Avions de Transport Régional G.I.E.
•    “audited consolidated financial statements” means our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.
•    “available seat kilometers,” or “ASKs,” represents aircraft seating capacity multiplied by the number of kilometers the aircraft is flown.
•    “average fare” means total passenger revenue divided by passenger flight segments.
•    “average ticket revenue per booked passenger” means total passenger revenue divided by booked passengers.
•    “Avianca Brasil” means Oceanair Linhas Aéreas S.A.
•    “block hours” means the number of hours during which the aircraft is in revenue service, measured from the time it closes the door at the departure of a revenue flight until the time it opens the door at the arrival on the gate at destination.
•    “Boeing” means The Boeing Company.
•    “booked passengers” means the total number of passengers booked on all passenger flight segments.
•    “CADE” refers to the Brazilian Administrative Council for Economic Defense (Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica), the Brazilian antitrust authority.
•    “Calfinco” means Calfinco, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of United.
•    “CAPA” means the Centre for Aviation, a provider of independent aviation market intelligence, analysis and data services.
•    “Cape Town Convention” means the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment and its protocol on Matters Specific to Aircraft Equipment, concluded in Cape Town on November 16, 2001.
•    “CASK” represents total operating cost divided by available seat kilometers.
•    “CBP” means United States Customs and Border Protection.
•    “completion rate” means the percentage of completion of our scheduled flights that were operated by us, whether or not delayed (i.e., not cancelled).
•    “Cirium” means a real-time provider of data for analyzing route dynamics, passenger demand and operational performance.
•     “COVID-19” means the novel coronavirus that surfaced in Wuhan, China in December 2019.
•    “crewmembers” is a term we use to refer to all our employees, including aircraft crew, airport ground, call center, maintenance and administrative personnel.
•    “CVM” means the Brazilian Securities Commission (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários).
•    “DECEA” means the Brazilian Department of Airspace Control (Departamento de Controle do Espaço Aéreo).

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•    “departure” means a revenue flight segment.
•    “DOT” means the United States Department of Transportation.
•    “EASA” means the European Union Aviation Safety Agency.
•    “economic interest” means a participation in the total equity value of our company, calculated as if all common shares issued and outstanding had been converted into preferred shares at the conversion ratio of 75.0 common shares to 1.0 preferred share pursuant to the mechanisms set forth in our bylaws.
•    “E-Jets” refer to narrow-body jets manufactured by Embraer S.A.
•    “Embraer” means Embraer S.A.
•     “ESG” means Environmental, Social and Governance practices.
•    “FAA” means the United States Federal Aviation Administration.
•    “FGV” refers to the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (Fundação Getúlio Vargas), a Brazilian higher education institution that was founded in December 1944.
•    “financial statements” refers to our audited consolidated financial statements.
•    “flight hours” means the number of hours during which the aircraft is in revenue service, measured from the time it takes off until the time it lands at the destination.
•    “focus-city” means a destination from which an airline operates several point-to-point routes. A focus-city may also function as a smaller scale hub.
•    “FTEs” means full-time equivalent employees.
•    “FTEs per aircraft” means the number of FTEs divided by the number of operating aircraft.
•    “Global Distribution System” or “GDS” means a system that enables automated transactions between airlines and travel agencies. Travel agencies traditionally rely on GDS for services, products and rates in order to provide travel-related services to end consumers. GDS can link services, rates and bookings consolidating products and services across different travel sectors including airline reservations, hotel reservations and car rentals. GDS charges participant airlines a booking fee per passenger and segment sold, typically applying additional charges for ticketing, credit card authorizations, real time connectivity, information pages and other ancillary services.
•    “Gol” means Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S.A.
•    “gross billings” means the result of the sale of points to commercial partners and the cash portion of points plus money transactions. It is not an accounting measurement. This revenue may affect the current period or may be recognized as revenue in future periods, depending on the time of redemption on the part of program participants.
•    “Hainan” means Hainan Airlines Holding Co., Ltd.
•    “IATA” means the International Air Transport Association.
•    “IBGE” means the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística).
•    “ICAO” means the International Civil Aviation Organization.
•    “IFRS” means International Financial Reporting Standards, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.
•    “INFRAERO” means Empresa Brasileira de Infraestrutura Aeroportuária—INFRAERO, a Brazilian state-controlled corporation reporting to the Ministry of Infrastructure that is in charge of managing, operating and controlling federal airports, including control towers and airport safety operations.
•    “INPI” means the Brazilian Institute of Industrial Property (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial).
•    “IntelAzul S.A." or “IntelAzul” means the entity formerly known as TRIP Linhas Aéreas S.A., which was later acquired by Azul, changing its corporate name to “IntelAzul S.A.”.
• “JetBlue” means JetBlue Airways Corporation.
•    “LATAM” means Latam Airlines Group S.A. including all of its subsidiaries. LATAM was formed in 2012, through the acquisition of TAM S.A., or TAM Linhas Aéreas S.A., by Lan Airlines S.A.
•    “load factor” means the percentage of aircraft seats actually occupied on a flight (RPKs divided by ASKs).
•    “main competitors” refers to Gol and LATAM, our competitors in the Brazilian market that have a market share larger than ours and publicly disclose their results of operations from time to time. When used in the singular, the term “main competitor” refers to Gol, our only direct competitor for which stand-alone information is publicly available.
•    “LATAM Pass” is LATAM’s loyalty program.
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•    “Net promoter score or NPS” means a customer loyalty metric that we use to measure how willing a customer is to recommend our service.
•    “on-time performance” refers to the percentage of an airline’s scheduled flights that were operated and that arrived within 15 minutes of the scheduled time.
•    “operating fleet” means aircraft in service, spare aircraft and aircraft undergoing maintenance.
•    “passenger flight segments” means the total number of revenue passengers flown on all revenue flight segments.
•    “Petrobras” means Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., a mixed economy corporation in the oil and gas industry that is majority owned by the Brazilian government.
•    “pitch” means the distance between a point on one seat and the same point on the seat in front of it.
•    “PRASK” means passenger revenue divided by ASKs.
•    “PRASK premium” refers to the positive difference between an airline’s PRASK and its main competitor’s PRASK over a given time period.
•    “preferred shares” means our preferred shares issued and outstanding.
•    “principal shareholder” means David Gary Neeleman, or simply David Neeleman.
•    “RAB” means the Brazilian Aeronautical Registry (Registro Aeronáutico Brasileiro).
•    “RASK” or “unit revenue” means operating revenue divided by ASKs.
•    “revenue passenger kilometers” or “RPKs” means one-fare paying passenger transported per kilometer. RPK is calculated by multiplying the number of revenue passengers by the number of kilometers flown.
•    “route” means a segment between a pair of cities.
•    “Shareholders’ Agreement” means that certain shareholders’ agreement, dated September 1, 2017 and amendment dated on March 3, 2021 entered into by and between us and the holders of our common shares, David Neeleman, Trip, Rio Novo and Calfinco.
•    “Smiles” means Smiles Fidelidade S.A., Gol’s loyalty program.
•    “stage length” means the average number of kilometers flown per flight.
•    “TAP” means TAP – Transportes Aéreos Portugueses, SGPS, S.A.
•    “TAP bonds” means Tranche A 7.5% bonds due March 2026 issued by TAP and convertible into TAP special shares that, once issued, will represent certain capital and voting equity, and which are entitled to a right to receive certain dividends.
•    “TRIP” means the entity formerly known as TRIP Linhas Aéreas S.A., which was later acquired by Azul, changing its corporate name to "IntelAzul S.A.”. Currently, this entity has the corporate name "IntelAzul S.A."
•    “TRIP acquisition” means our 2012 acquisition of TRIP.
•    “trip cost” represents operating expenses adjusted for non-recurring events divided by departures.
•    “TRIP’s former shareholders” means, collectively, the Caprioli family and the Águia Branca Group.
•    “TSA” means the United States Transportation Security Administration.
•     “TwoFlex” means Two Taxi Aereo Ltda., actually denominated Azul Conecta Ltda. (“Azul Conecta”).
•    “United” means United Airlines Inc.
•    “Vibra Energia” means Vibra Energia S.A., a energy company.
•    “Viracopos” means the main airport of Campinas, located approximately 100 km from the city of São Paulo.
•    “yield” represents the average amount one passenger pays to fly one kilometer.
Summary of Risk Factors
An investment in our preferred shares is subject to a number of risks, including risks relating to the nature of our business as an airline and the aviation industry, our operations in Brazil and our common shares. The following list summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please read the information in the section entitled “Risk Factors” for a more thorough description of these and other risks.
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Risk Relating to Our Business and the Brazilian Aviation Industry
The airline industry is characterized by high fixed costs and relatively elastic revenues, airlines cannot quickly reduce their costs to respond to shortfalls in expected revenues.
The outbreak of highly contagious diseases worldwide, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, can lead to major disruptions and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Consolidation in the airline industry, other actions by our competitors, fluctuations in fuel costs and other changes in economic conditions could adversely affect us and our ability to implement our growth strategy.
We are highly dependent on our three hubs at Viracopos airport, Confins airport and Recife airport for a large portion of our business and we depend upon Embraer, ATR and Airbus to support our fleet of aircraft. In addition, we rely on agreements with third parties to provide our customers and us with facilities and services and we rely on partner airlines for codeshare and loyalty marketing arrangements. Any disruption in our major hubs, with our service providers or in the timely delivery of aircraft can have a negative impact on our business.
We depend significantly on automated systems and any cyber-attacks, breakdown, hacking or changes in these systems as well as any technical and operational problems in the Brazilian civil aviation infrastructure may adversely affect us.
We depend on our senior management team and the loss of any member of this team could adversely affect us. In addition, we may be unable to maintain our culture and to retain and/or hire skilled personnel as our business grows, such as pilots, which could have an adverse impact on us.
Changes to the Brazilian regulatory framework particularly with respect to civil aviation, privacy and data protection, and sale of consumer products may adversely affect us. Further, the airline industry is subject to increasingly stringent environmental and social regulations and non-compliance therewith may adversely affect us.
Risk Relating to Brazil
The Brazilian government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. This involvement as well as Brazil’s political and economic conditions could harm us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Economic, health, political, and environmental crises, or any other kind of crisis that has the ability to impact the Brazilian economy, may affect the Brazilian population’s purchasing power, which may result in a decrease in demand for air travel and, consequently, affect our business.
We cannot predict which policies the incoming President of Brazil may adopt or change during his or her mandate or the effect that any such policies might have on our business and on the Brazilian economy.
Exchange rate instability, as well as inflation and certain measures by the Brazilian government to curb inflation have historically adversely affected the Brazilian economy and Brazilian capital market, and high levels of inflation in the future would adversely affect us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Developments and the perceptions of risks in other countries, including other emerging markets, the United States and Europe, may adversely affect the Brazilian economy and the price of Brazilian securities. In addition, any further downgrading of Brazil’s credit rating could adversely affect the trading price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Variations in interest rates may have adverse effects on us; furthermore, we may face challenges associated with IBOR transition.
Deficiencies in Brazilian infrastructure, particularly in airports and ports, may adversely affect us.
Risk Relating to Our Preferred Shares, Including in the Form of ADSs
Our controlling shareholder has the ability to direct our business and affairs, and its interests may conflict with yours, including with respect to the distribution of dividends.
An active and liquid trading market for our preferred shares may not be maintained, thereby potentially adversely affecting the price our preferred shares and ADSs.
Our preferred shares will have limited voting rights and holders of our preferred shares and ADSs may not receive any dividends or interest on shareholders’ equity. In addition, holders of our preferred shares and ADSs may experience book value dilution in the future.
The sale of a significant number of our preferred shares may negatively affect the trading price of our preferred shares.
5

The Brazilian government may impose exchange controls and significant restrictions on remittances of reais abroad, which would adversely affect your ability to convert and remit dividends or other distributions or the proceeds from the sale of our preferred shares, our capacity to make dividend payments or other distributions to non-Brazilian investors and would reduce the market price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs, and our capacity to comply with payment obligations in foreign currency.
If we do not maintain a registration statement and no exemption from the Securities Act is available, U.S. Holders of ADSs will be unable to exercise preemptive rights with respect to our preferred shares.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members or executive officers.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, the market price and trading volume of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs could decline.
Our status as a foreign private issuer allows us to follow alternate standards to the corporate governance standards of the NYSE, which may limit the protections afforded to investors.
Market Share and Other Information
This annual report contains data related to economic conditions in the market in which we operate. The information contained in this annual report concerning economic conditions is based on publicly available information from third-party sources that we believe to be reasonable. Data and statistics regarding the Brazilian civil aviation market are based on publicly available data published by ANAC, INFRAERO, ABRACORP, Ministry of Transportation, Ports and Civil Aviation and Aeroportos Brasil, among others. Data and statistics regarding international civil aviation markets are based on publicly available data published by ICAO or IATA. We also make statements in this annual report about our competitive position and market share in, and the market size of, the Brazilian airline industry. We have made these statements on the basis of statistics and other information from third-party sources that we believe to be reasonable, such as Cirium, ANAC and Dados Comparativos Avançados (Advanced Comparative Data, a monthly report issued by ANAC that contains preliminary information on the number of ASKs and RPKs recorded in the Brazilian civil aviation market), and ABEAR. In addition, we include additional operating and financial information about Gol, LATAM, Smiles and LATAM Pass, which is derived from the information released publicly by them, including disclosure filed with or furnished to the SEC and other information made available on their respective websites. Although we have no reason to believe any of this information or these reports are inaccurate in any material respect and believe and act as if they are reliable, we have not independently verified it. Governmental publications and other market sources, including those referred to above, generally state that their information was obtained from recognized and reliable sources, but the accuracy and completeness of that information is not guaranteed. In addition, the data that we compile internally and our estimates have not been verified by an independent source.
Presentation of Financial and Other Information
Our audited consolidated financial statements, as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 and for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are included in this annual report. Our financial statements were prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB.
The financial information presented in this annual report should be read in conjunction with our financial statements, the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report and the section of this annual report entitled “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”
Convenience Translations
This annual report contains conversions of certain Brazilian real amounts into U.S. dollar amounts at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. These conversions should not be construed as representations that the Brazilian real amounts actually represent such U.S. dollar amounts or could be converted into U.S. dollars at the rate or any other exchange rate as of that or any other date. Unless we indicate otherwise, the U.S. dollar equivalent for information in Brazilian reais is based on the commercial selling rate published by the Central Bank of Brazil on December 31, 2021, which was R$5.5805 = US$1.00. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York does not report a noon buying rate for Brazilian reais.
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Rounding
Certain amounts and percentages included in this annual report, including in the section entitled “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” have been rounded for ease of presentation. Percentage figures included in this annual report have not been calculated in all cases on the basis of the rounded figures but on the basis of the original amounts prior to rounding. For this reason, certain percentage amounts in this annual report may vary from those obtained by performing the same calculations using the figures in our financial statements. Certain other amounts that appear in this annual report may not add up due to rounding.
Note Regarding Operating Data
The following operating data are often provided, and utilized by the Company’s management, analysts, and investors to enhance comparability of year-over-year results, as well as to compare results to other airlines: Available seat kilometers (ASKs); Passenger revenue per ASK (PRASKs); Operating revenue per ASK (RASK); and total operating cost divided by ASK (CASK) amongst others.
Operating Data
As of and For the Years Ended December 31,
2021202120202019
(US$)(1)
(R$)(R$)(R$)
Operating Statistics (unaudited)
Operating passenger aircraft at end of period161 161 162 142 
Total aircraft at end of period179 179 185 166 
Cities served at end of period147 147 112 116 
Average daily aircraft utilization (hours)8.3 8.3 5.4 11.3 
Stage length (km)1,057 1,057 1,083 1,050 
Number of departures245,102 245,102 158,070 295,354 
Block hours409,424 409,424 266,881 495,362 
Passenger flight segments23,311,416 23,311,416 14,796,044 27,674,247 
Revenue passenger kilometers (RPKs) (million)24,851 24,851 16,311 29,941 
Available seat kilometers (ASKs) (millions)31,386 31,386 20,395 35,868 
Load Factor (%)79.2 %79.2 %80.0 %83.5 %
Passenger revenue (in thousands)US$1,578,899 R$8,811,044 R$5,039,607 R$10,907,889 
Passenger revenue adjusted (in thousands)(2)
US$1,578,899 R$8,811,044 R$5,088,747 R$10,907,889 
PRASK (cents)R$5.03 R$28.07 R$24.71 R$30.41 
PRASK adjusted (cents)(2)
R$5.03 R$28.07 R$24.95 R$30.41 
RASK (cents)R$5.69 R$31.78 R$28.16 R$31.90 
RASK adjusted (cents)(2)
R$5.69 R$31.78 R$28.41 R$31.90 
Yield per ASK (cents)(2)
R$6.35 R$35.46 R$30.90 R$36.43 
Yield per ASK adjusted (cents)(2)
R$6.35 R$35.46 R$31.20 R$36.43 
Trip costUS$7,258.95 R$40,508.56 R$45,190.14 R$42,788.37 
Trip cost adjusted(3)
US$7,258.95 R$40,508.56 R$45,896.62 R$31,863.06 
End-of-period FTEs per aircraft86 86 74 93 
CASK (cents)US$5.61 R$31.30 R$35.02 R$35.23 
CASK adjusted (cents)(3)
US$5.67 R$31.63 R$35.57 R$26.24 
CASK ex-fuel adjusted (cents)(3)
US$3.81 R$21.26 R$28.17 R$17.63 
Fuel liters consumed (thousands)980 980 651 1,203 
Average fuel cost per literUS$0.59 R$3.32 R$2.32 R$2.56 
(1)
For convenience purposes only, the amounts in reais as of December 31, 2021 have been translated to U.S. dollars using the rate of R$5.5805, which corresponds to the commercial selling rate for US$1.00 as of December 31, 2021, as reported by the Central Bank. These translations should not be considered representations that any such amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at that or at any other exchange rate.
(2)Passenger revenue adjusted, PRASK adjusted, RASK adjusted and Yield per ASK adjusted for non-recurring items totaled R$49.1 million in 2020, recognized in pax revenue.
(3)
Trip cost adjusted, CASK adjusted and CASK excluding all fuel costs adjusted for non-recurring items and impairment totaled R$7.8 million gain in 2021, R$141.7 million gain in 2020 and R$3.2 billion loss in 2019.
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report includes estimates and forward-looking statements principally under the captions “Item 3. Key Information” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”
These estimates and forward-looking statements are based mainly on our current expectations and estimates of future events and trends that affect or may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, liquidity, prospects and the trading price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs. Although we believe that these estimates and forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, they are subject to many significant risks, uncertainties and assumptions and are made in light of information currently available to us.
These statements appear throughout this annual report and include statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations in connection with:
•    the economic, financial and other effects of the outbreak of the 2019 strain of coronavirus (including variants), or COVID-19, or other pandemics, epidemics and similar crises, and governmental responses thereto, particularly as such factors impact Brazil and the other markets in which we operate and continue to cause severe ongoing negative macroeconomic effects and disruptions to financial markets and the global economy, with a significant impact on the ability of businesses, including ours, to operate normally, thus heightening many of the other risks described in the “Risk Factors” section of this annual report;
•    the outbreak of diseases or public health threats such as the COVID-19 pandemic;
•    developments and the perception of risks in connection with ongoing corruption and other investigations and increasing fractious relations and infighting within the Bolsonaro administration, as well as policies and potential changes to address these matters or otherwise, including economic, healthcare and fiscal reforms, any of which may negatively affect growth prospects in the Brazilian economy as a whole;
•    our ability to implement in a timely and efficient manner, any measure necessary to respond to or reduce the impacts of developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, cash flow, prospects, liquidity and financial conditions;
changes in market prices, customer demand and preferences and competitive conditions;
•    general economic, political and business conditions in Brazil, particularly in the geographic markets we serve as well as any other countries where we currently operate and may operate in the future, including developments and the perception of risks in connection with volatility from the 2022 presidential elections in Brazil;
•    our ability to keep costs low;
•    existing and future governmental regulations;
•    increases in maintenance costs, fuel costs and insurance premiums, especially in light of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine;
•    our ability to maintain landing rights in the airports where we operate;
•    air travel substitutes;
•    labor disputes, employee strikes and other labor-related disruptions, including in connection with negotiations with unions;
•    our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;
•    our aircraft utilization rate;
•    defects or mechanical problems with our aircraft;
•    our ability to successfully implement our growth strategy, including our expected fleet growth, passenger growth, our capital expenditure plans, our future joint venture and partnership plans, our ability to enter new airports (including certain international airports), that match our operating criteria;
•    management’s expectations and estimates concerning our future financial performance and financing;
•    plans and programs;
•    our level of debt and other fixed obligations;
•    our reliance on third parties, including changes in the availability or increased cost of air transport infrastructure and airport facilities;

8

•    inflation, appreciation, depreciation and devaluation of the real, as well as interest rates and exchange rates in Brazil and the other markets in which we operate, which have been particularly volatile as a result of the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the conflict in the Ukraine;
•    our aircraft and engine suppliers;
•    significant public health crises, epidemics or pandemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition; and
•    other factors or trends affecting our financial condition or results of operations, including those factors identified or discussed as set forth under “Item 3.D. Risk Factors.”
The words “believe,” “understand,” “may,” “will,” “aim,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “intend,” “expect,” “should,” “could,” “forecast” and similar words are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on such statements, which speak only as of the date they were made. We do not undertake any obligation to update publicly or to revise any forward-looking statements after we file this annual report because of new information, future events or other factors. Our independent auditors have neither examined nor compiled the forward-looking statements and, accordingly, do not provide any assurance with respect to such statements. In light of the risks and uncertainties described above, the future events and circumstances discussed in this annual report might not occur and are not guarantees of future performance. Because of these uncertainties, you should not make any investment decision based upon these estimates and forward-looking statements.
9

PART I
ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION
A.    [Reserved]
B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.    Risk Factors
The risks described below are those that we consider material to our business and an investment in our securities. In general, investing in the securities of issuers in emerging market countries such as Brazil involves risks that are different from the risks associated with investing in the securities of U.S. companies and companies located in other countries with more developed capital markets. You should carefully consider the risks described below. We believe we could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. Other risks that we currently deem immaterial or that are currently not known to us may also adversely affect us.
To the extent that information relates to, or is obtained from sources related to, the Brazilian government or Brazilian macroeconomic data, industry data or other third parties, the following information has been extracted from official publications of the Brazilian government or other reliable third-party sources and has not been independently verified by us.
Risks Relating to Brazil
The Brazilian federal government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy. This involvement as well as Brazil’s political and economic conditions could harm us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
The Brazilian federal government frequently exercises significant influence over the Brazilian economy and occasionally makes significant changes in monetary, credit, fiscal and other policies and regulations. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and other policies and regulations have often involved, among other measures, changes in monetary and tax policies, price controls, foreign exchange rate controls, currency devaluations, capital controls and limits on imports. We have no control over and cannot predict what measures or policies the Brazilian government may take in the future. We and the market price of our securities may be adversely affected by changes in Brazilian government policies, as well as general economic factors, including, without limitation:
•    growth or downturn of the Brazilian economy;
•    interest rates and monetary policies;
•    exchange rates and currency fluctuations;
•    inflation;
•    liquidity of the domestic capital and lending markets;
•    import and export controls;
•    exchange controls and restrictions on remittances abroad;

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•    modifications to laws and regulations according to political, social and economic interests;
•    fiscal policy and changes in tax laws;
•    economic, political and social instability;
•    increases in unemployment;
•    labor and social security regulations;
•    energy and water shortages and rationing;
•    the Brazilian government’s intervention, modification or rescission of existing concessions;
•    the Brazilian government’s control of or influence on the control of certain oil producing and refining companies; and
•    other political, social and economic developments in or affecting Brazil.
In addition, from 2014 to 2016, Brazil was in a recession, and from 2017 to 2019, it grew slowly. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic impact, GDP increased 1.1% in 2019, declined by 4.1% in 2020, then increased by 4.6% in 2021, exceeding the loss caused by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.
The Brazilian federal government is facing increasing pressures from the population to implement economic reforms. We cannot predict what measures the Brazilian federal government will take in the face of mounting macroeconomic pressures or otherwise.
Developments in Brazil’s political landscape, such as elections, including the 2022 Brazilian presidential election, may also impact us. Uncertainty regarding political developments and over whether the current or future Brazilian federal government will implement changes in policy or regulation affecting these or other factors in the future, aggravated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the escalation of the conflicts in Ukraine, may affect economic performance and contribute to economic uncertainty in Brazil, which may have an adverse effect on us and our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs. Recent economic and political instability has led to a negative perception of the Brazilian economy and higher volatility in the Brazilian securities markets, which also may adversely affect us and the trading price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs. We cannot predict what future policies will be adopted by current or future Brazilian governments, or whether these policies will result in adverse consequences to the Brazilian economy or cause an adverse effect on us. See “—The ongoing economic uncertainty and political instability in Brazil may adversely affect us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.”
Economic, health, political, and environmental crises, or any other kind of crisis that has the ability to impact the Brazilian economy, may affect the Brazilian population’s purchasing power, which may result in a decrease in demand for air travel and, consequently, affect our business.
Economic, health, political, and environmental crises, or any other kind of crisis that has the ability to impact the Brazilian economy, may affect the Brazilian population’s purchasing power, which may result in a decrease in sales of our products and services. The 2008 financial crisis, for example, caused exchange rate fluctuations that devalued the real, along with increased restriction of credit in the domestic market, increased rates of unemployment, increases in default and, consequently, a decrease in expendable income in Brazil.
In the same vein, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused since 2020 negative global economic impacts, in 2020 we recorded an operating revenue of R$5.8 billion, compared to R$ 11.1 billion in 2019, representing a decreased of 49.4% year over year. ASK decreased 43.1% reaching 20.395 million in 2020, compared to 35.868 million in 2019. However, in 2021 due to its sustainable competitive advantages of its business model, Azul was one of the very few airlines worldwide to surpass pre-pandemic revenues already in 4Q21, when the operating revenue reached a record R$3.7 billion, more than double 4Q20, and 14.7% up compared to the same period in 2019.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the purchasing power of the Brazilian population decreased and we believe it may continue to decrease, which may lead to a significant reduction in expendable income and impact demand for air travel, which in turn may negatively affect our results.
The ongoing economic uncertainty and political instability in Brazil may adversely affect us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Brazil’s political environment has historically influenced, and continues to influence, the performance of the country’s economy. Political crises have affected and continue to affect the confidence of investors and the general public, which have historically resulted in economic deceleration and heightened volatility in the securities issued by Brazilian companies.
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The recent economic instability in Brazil has contributed to a decline in market confidence in the Brazilian economy as well as to a deteriorating political environment. In addition, various investigations into allegations of money laundering and corruption being conducted by the Office of the Brazilian Federal Prosecutor, including the largest such investigation, known as Lava Jato, have negatively impacted the Brazilian economy and political environment, the general market perception of the Brazilian economy, political environment and the Brazilian capital markets, as well as the image and reputation of the companies involved. Members of the Brazilian government, as well as senior officers of large state-owned companies, have faced allegations or convictions of, or have entered into plea bargain or leniency agreements for crimes related to crimes of political of corruption and money laundering. Although the task force in connection with Lava Jato was wound up in February 2021, we cannot assure that new investigations will not be launched or that additional persons will not become subject to investigation.
We have no control over, and cannot predict, whether such investigations, allegations, convictions, plea bargains and agreements will lead to further political and economic instability or whether new allegations, convictions, plea bargaining or agreements against or with government officials, officers and/or companies will arise in the future. In addition, we cannot predict the outcome of any such allegations, convictions, plea bargains and agreements, nor their effect on the Brazilian economy.
In addition, political demonstrations in Brazil over the last few years have affected the development of the Brazilian economy and investors’ perceptions of Brazil.
Moreover, the Brazilian economy is subject to the effects of uncertainty over political developments in Brazil. In 2022, Brazil will hold elections for President, senators, federal deputies and state deputies. The leading candidates in the Presidential race are incumbent Jair Messias Bolsonaro and former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, representing distinctly opposing political ideologies. Electoral uncertainty could lead to high volatility in Brazilian financial markets, and uncertainty regarding political developments and the policies the Brazilian federal government may adopt or alter may have material adverse effects on the macroeconomic environment in Brazil, as well as on businesses operating in Brazil, including ours.
Any of the above factors may create additional political uncertainty, which could have a material adverse effect on the Brazilian economy and, consequently, on us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
We cannot predict which policies, the incoming President of Brazil, may adopt or change during his or her mandate or the effect that any such policies might have on our business and on the Brazilian economy.
In 2022, Brazil will hold elections for President and current president, Jair Bolsonaro, is one of the leading candidates. If Mr. Bolsonaro is reelected we cannot predict what policies he will maintain and which policies he may adopt or change during his mandate or the effect that any such policies might have on our business and on the Brazilian economy. Further, if another candidate is elected, we cannot predict what policies might be modified or reversed, and the impact such changes may have on our business and on the Brazilian economy. Furthermore, uncertainty over whether the acting Brazilian government under the new administration will implement changes in policy or regulation in the future may contribute to economic uncertainty in Brazil and to heightened volatility in the securities issued abroad by Brazilian companies. Any such new policies or changes to current policies may have a material adverse effect on us or the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADRs.
Political instability and uncertainty surrounding the future of the current administration, may have adverse effects on the political and economic environment in Brazil as well as our business.
President Bolsonaro is currently under investigation by the highest court in the Brazilian judicial system, the Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) for the alleged practice of inappropriate acts, brought forth by the former Minister of Justice, Mr. Sergio Moro. According to the former minister, the President had pressured the appointment of certain Brazilian federal police officers. Any consequences resulting from this investigation, including a potential launch of impeachment proceedings, could have significant adverse effects on the political and economic environment in Brazil, as well as on businesses operating in Brazil, including our business.
President Bolsonaro’s response to the pandemic has been sharply criticized both within Brazil and internationally, with the destabilizing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic enhancing political uncertainty and stability in Brazil, particularly following the departure of several high-profile federal ministers and corruption allegations against President Bolsonaro.
We cannot guarantee that the unfolding of these events will not lead to additional adverse impacts on Brazil's political and economic situation. Furthermore, we cannot guarantee that other current or future political events may not come to cause even more instability in the Brazilian economy, in capital markets, or in the listing of our shares.
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Exchange rate instability may have adverse effects on the Brazilian economy, us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
The Brazilian currency has been historically volatile and has devalued frequently over the past three decades. Throughout this period, the Brazilian government has implemented various economic plans and used various exchange rate policies, including sudden devaluations, periodic mini-devaluations (during which the frequency of adjustments has ranged from daily to monthly), exchange controls, dual exchange rate markets and a floating exchange rate system. Although long-term depreciation of the real is generally linked to the rate of inflation in Brazil, depreciation of the real occurring over shorter periods has resulted in significant variations in the exchange rate between the real, the U.S. dollar and other currencies. The real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank was R$3.87 per U.S. dollar on December 31, 2018, and R$4.03 per U.S. dollar on December 31, 2019, reflecting a 4.02% depreciation in the real against the U.S. dollar. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic until December 31, 2020, the real depreciated over 29% as compared to the U.S. dollar and the real/U.S. dollar exchange rate reported by the Central Bank was R$5.20 per U.S. dollar on December 31, 2020. In 2021, the real further depreciated against the U.S. dollar and, as of December 31, 2021, the U.S. dollar selling rate was R$5.58 per US$1.00 There can be no assurance that the real will not further depreciate against the U.S. dollar or other currencies in the future.
A devaluation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar could create inflationary pressures in Brazil and cause the Brazilian government to, among other measures, increase interest rates. Any depreciation of the real may generally restrict access to the international capital markets. It would also reduce the U.S. dollar value of our results. Restrictive macroeconomic policies could reduce the stability of the Brazilian economy and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability. In addition, domestic and international reactions to restrictive economic policies could have a negative impact on the Brazilian economy. These policies and any reactions to them may adversely affect us by curtailing access to foreign financial markets and prompting further government intervention. A devaluation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar may also, as in the context of the current economic slowdown, decrease consumer spending, increase deflationary pressures and reduce economic growth.
On the other hand, an appreciation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies may deteriorate the Brazilian foreign exchange current accounts. We and certain of our suppliers purchase goods and services from countries outside Brazil, and thus changes in the value of the U.S. dollar compared to other currencies may affect the costs of goods and services that we purchase. Depending on the circumstances, either devaluation or appreciation of the real relative to the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies could restrict the growth of the Brazilian economy, as well as our business, results of operations and profitability.
 Most of our revenues are linked to the real and a significant part of our operating expenses, such as fuel, certain aircraft operating lease agreements, certain flight hour maintenance contracts and aircraft insurance, are denominated in, or linked to, foreign currency. In addition, we have and may incur substantial amounts of U.S. dollar-denominated operating lease or financial obligations, fuel costs linked to the U.S. dollar and U.S. dollar-denominated indebtedness in the future or similar exposures to other foreign currencies. As of December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, 43.2%, 33.2% and 41.3% of our operating expenses, respectively, were denominated in, or linked to, foreign currency. Historically, we have been able to increase our fares and revenues to compensate for the impact from U.S. dollar appreciation on our expenses, but there is no assurance that we will continue to be able to do so.
In addition, largely as a result of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Brent oil prices sharply increased from about US$75 per barrel at the end of 2021 to US$128 per barrel on March 8, 2022. It is possible that our U.S. dollar denominated operating expenses will further increase as a result of such increase in Brent oil prices.
We are not always fully hedged against fluctuations of the real. In light of the foregoing, there can be no assurance we will be able to protect ourselves against the effects of fluctuations of the real. Depreciation of the real could create inflationary pressures in Brazil and cause increases in interest rates, which could negatively affect the growth of the Brazilian economy as a whole, harm us, curtail access to financial markets and prompt government intervention, including recessionary governmental policies. Depreciation of the real can also, as in the context of the current global economic recovery, lead to decreased consumer spending, and reduced growth of the economy as a whole.
Any depreciation of the real against the U.S. dollar may have an adverse effect on us, including leading to a decrease in our profit margins or to operating losses caused by increases in U.S. dollar-denominated costs (including fuel costs), increases in interest expense or exchange losses on unhedged fixed obligations and indebtedness denominated in foreign currency.
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Inflation and certain measures by the Brazilian government to curb inflation have historically adversely affected the Brazilian economy and Brazilian capital market, and high levels of inflation in the future would adversely affect us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
In the past, Brazil experienced extremely high rates of inflation. Inflation and some of the measures taken by the Brazilian government in an attempt to curb inflation have had significant negative effects on the Brazilian economy generally. Inflation, policies adopted to curb inflationary pressures and uncertainties regarding possible future governmental intervention have contributed to economic uncertainty and heightened volatility in the Brazilian capital markets.
According to the National Consumer Price Index (Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo), or IPCA, Brazilian inflation rates were 10.1%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 3.8% and 2.9% for the years 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Brazil may experience high levels of inflation in the future and inflationary pressures may lead to the Brazilian government’s intervening in the economy and introducing policies that could adversely affect us and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs. In the past, the Brazilian government’s interventions included the maintenance of a restrictive monetary policy with high interest rates that restricted credit availability and reduced economic growth, causing volatility in interest rates. For example, the SELIC (Sistema Especial de Liquidação e Custódia), the Central Bank’s overnight rate, as established by the Monetary Policy Committee (Comitê de Política Monetária do Banco Central do Brasil), or COPOM, increased from 10.00% at the beginning of 2014 to a high point of 14.25% in 2016 before a series of rate reductions in 2017, 2018 and 2019, bringing the SELIC rate down to 7.00% as of December 31, 2017, 6.50% as of December 31, 2018, to 4.50% as of December 31, 2019 and to 2.00% as of December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2021, the SELIC rate was 9.25%. In February 2022, the SELIC rate was further increased to 10.75%. Conversely, more lenient government and Central Bank policies and interest rate decreases have triggered and may continue to trigger increases in inflation, and, consequently, growth volatility and the need for sudden and significant interest rate increases, which could negatively affect us and increase our indebtedness.
In the event that Brazil experiences high inflation in the future, we will attempt to adjust the prices we charge our passengers to offset the potential impacts of inflation on our expenses, including salaries as we have done in the past, but we may not be able to. This would lead to decreased net income, adversely affecting us. Inflationary pressures may also adversely affect our ability to access foreign financial markets, adversely affecting us.
Developments and the perceptions of risks in other countries, including other emerging markets, the United States and Europe, may adversely affect the Brazilian economy and the price of Brazilian securities, including the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
The market for securities issued by Brazilian companies is influenced by economic and market conditions in Brazil and, to varying degrees, market conditions in other Latin American and emerging markets, as well as the United States, Europe and other countries. To the extent the conditions of the global markets or economy deteriorate, Brazilian companies may have their businesses adversely affected. The weakness in the global economy has been marked by, among other adverse factors, lower levels of consumer and corporate confidence, decreased business investment and consumer spending, increased unemployment, reduced income and asset values, reduction of global growth rate, currency volatility and limited availability of credit and access to capital. Developments or economic conditions in other emerging market countries have at times significantly affected the availability of credit to Brazilian companies and resulted in considerable outflows of funds from Brazil, decreasing the amount of foreign investments in Brazil.
The economic and market conditions of other countries, including the United States, countries of the Europe, and emerging markets, may affect the credit availability and the volume of foreign investments in Brazil and in the countries in which we do business, to varying degrees. Since 2020, Brexit has contributed to increased volatility and uncertainty in a number of financial markets. In addition, the crisis affecting emerging markets that began in the second quarter of 2018 as a result of the rise in interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve and the trade war between the United States and China, among other factors, could have an impact on the Brazilian economy.
Moreover, recent global developments relating to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine have generated uncertainty in global capital markets, and United States and European stock markets have seen increased price volatility. We cannot predict how these developments will evolve and whether or to what extent they may affect Brazilian capital markets and, consequently, us.
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Political risks remain mainly from the escalating conflict in Ukraine, medium-term relationship between the United States and China, uncertainty over government instabilities in Europe and other local geopolitical risks. The materialization of these risks may affect global growth and decrease investors’ interest in assets from Brazil and other countries in which we do business, which may materially and adversely affect the market price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs, making it more difficult for us to access capital markets and, as a result, to finance our operations in the future.
Any further downgrading of Brazil’s credit rating could adversely affect the trading price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Brazil’s sovereign credit rating is currently rated below investment grade by the three main credit rating agencies. Consequently, the prices of securities issued by Brazilian companies have been negatively affected. A new Brazilian recession or continued political uncertainty, among other factors, could lead to further ratings downgrades.
We can be adversely affected by investors’ perceptions of risks related to Brazil’s sovereign debt credit rating. Rating agencies regularly evaluate Brazil and its sovereign ratings, which are based on a number of factors including macroeconomic trends, fiscal and budgetary conditions, indebtedness metrics and the perspective of changes in any of these factors. Brazil lost its investment grade sovereign debt credit rating by the three main U.S. based credit rating agencies, Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch in 2015. Standard & Poor’s downgraded Brazil’s sovereign debt credit rating from BBB- to BB+ in September 2015, subsequently reduced it to BB in February 2016, and maintained its negative outlook on the rating, citing Brazil’s fiscal difficulties and economic contraction as signs of a worsening credit situation. In December 2015, Moody’s placed Brazil’s Baa3 sovereign debt credit rating on review and downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating in February 2016 to Ba2 with a negative outlook, citing the prospect for further deterioration in Brazil’s indebtedness figures amid a recession and challenging political environment. Fitch downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating to BB+ with a negative outlook in December 2015, citing the country’s rapidly expanding budget deficit and worse-than-expected recession, and further downgraded Brazil’s sovereign debt credit rating in May 2016 to BB with a negative outlook. On January 11, 2018 Standard & Poor’s further downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating due to concerns over a large deficit, stalled pension reform and presidential elections. On February 23, 2018, Fitch further downgraded Brazil’s sovereign credit rating to BB-minus with a stable outlook. Moody’s reaffirmed Brazil’s Ba2 rating with a stable outlook in May 2020. Standard & Poor’s reaffirmed Brazil’s sovereign credit rating at BB- with a stable outlook in November 2021. Fitch reaffirmed Brazil’s sovereign credit rating at BB- with a negative outlook in December 2021.
Any further downgrade of Brazil’s sovereign credit ratings could heighten investors’ perception of risk and, as a result, adversely affect the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
Variations in interest rates may have adverse effects on us.
We are exposed to the risk of interest rate variations, principally in relation to the Interbank Deposit Rate, or CDI Rate. We have been benefited by the reduction over the recent years in the CDI Rate, but if the CDI Rate were to increase, our repayments under certain loans, operating and finance leases would increase, and we may not be able to adjust the prices we charge to offset increased payments.
Significant increases in consumption, inflation or other macroeconomic pressures may lead to an increase in these rates. For further information regarding our exposure to the risk of interest rate variations, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospect—Operating Results—Principal Factors Affecting Our Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Effects of exchange rates, interest rates and inflation.”
We may face challenges associated with IBOR transition.
A portion of our income, expenses and liabilities is directly tied to interest rates. Therefore, our results of operations and financial condition are affected by inflation, interest rate fluctuations and related government monetary policies. In addition, various interbank offered rates, which are deemed to be “benchmarks” (the “IBORs”, including LIBOR and EURIBOR) are the subject of recent international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. Some of these reforms are already effective while others are still to be implemented, including the majority of the provisions of the EU Benchmark Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/1011) as it forms part of domestic law of the United Kingdom by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (together, the “Benchmarks Regulations”).
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In particular, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) announced that the FCA would no longer oblige banks to contribute to the calculation of LIBOR after the end of 2021 and, on March 5, 2021, confirmed that all LIBOR settings would either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of all sterling, euro, Swiss franc and Japanese yen settings, and the 1-week and 2-month US dollar settings and immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining US dollar settings. On November 18, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”) announced that all LIBOR rates for certain currencies other than U.S. Dollar LIBOR (“USD LIBOR”), would cease publication at the end of 2021. On November 30, 2020, IBA announced that, following a consultation period, for USD LIBOR, it intended to cease publication of 1-week and 2-month LIBOR at the end of 2021 and that it did not intend to cease publication of other tenors of USD LIBOR until June 30, 2023.
In accordance with announcements by the FCA and the IBA, publication of most non-U.S. dollar LIBOR rates ceased as of the end of December 2021. While publication of the one-, three- and six-month Sterling and Japanese yen LIBOR settings will continue at least until the end of 2022 on the basis of a “synthetic” methodology (known as “synthetic LIBOR”), these rates have been designated unrepresentative by the FCA and are solely available for use in legacy transactions. Furthermore, while certain U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors are expected to continue to be published until June 30, 2023, the U.S. banking agencies and the FCA have issued guidance instructing banks to cease entering into new contracts referencing U.S. dollar LIBOR no later than December 31, 2021, with certain exceptions.
The cessation of LIBOR for various currencies at the end of 2021 (and pending cessation in 2023 for certain tenors of USD LIBOR) will also result in replacement rates being used more widely, including in the instruments documenting certain of our financial obligations. For example, in the U.S., a group convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, called the Alternative Reference Rate Committee (“ARRC”) and comprised of a diverse set of private sector entities, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (or “SOFR”) as its preferred alternative rate for the USD LIBOR and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has begun publishing SOFR daily. Many banks in the U.S. have begun entering into transactions where interest is determined based on SOFR or plan to do so during the course of 2022, as recommended by the ARRC and certain regulators. Additionally, many financial contracts, including some which govern our financial obligations, include replacement alternatives for LIBOR upon the cessation of LIBOR. It is possible that some U.S. lenders will elect to use alternative rates other than SOFR. Central banks in several other jurisdictions have also announced plans for publishing alternative reference rates for other currencies.
In addition, on November 29, 2017, the Bank of England and the FCA announced that, as of January 2018, its working group on Sterling risk free rates has been mandated with implementing a broad-based transition to the Sterling Overnight Index Average (“SONIA”) over the next four years across sterling bond, loan and derivative markets so that SONIA is established as the primary sterling interest rate benchmark by the end of 2021. In the U.K., market participants have started to transition to the SONIA, in line with FCA guidance.
On September 21, 2017, the European Central Bank announced that it would be part of a new working group tasked with the identification and adoption of a “risk free overnight rate” which can serve as a basis for an alternative to current benchmarks used in a variety of financial instruments and contracts in the euro area. On September 13, 2018, the working group on Euro risk-free rates recommended the new Euro short-term rate (“€STR”) as the new risk-free rate for the euro area. The €STR was published for the first time on October 2, 2019. Although EURIBOR has been reformed in order to comply with the terms of the Benchmark Regulation, it remains uncertain as to how long it will continue in its current form, or whether it will be further reformed or replaced with €STR or an alternative benchmark.
This and other reforms may cause IBORs to perform differently than in the past, or to disappear entirely, or have other consequences, which cannot be fully anticipated, which introduce a number of risks for us including legal risks arising from potential changes required to documentation for new and existing transactions, financial risks arising from any changes in the valuation of financial instruments linked to benchmark rates and hedging mismatch.
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Deficiencies in Brazilian infrastructure, particularly in airports and ports, may adversely affect us.
We offer products and services that depend on the performance and reliability of the infrastructure in Brazil and abroad. Historically, public investment in the construction and development of airports, ports, highways and railroads has been relatively low, which affects the demand for domestic tourism and could also affect our ability to carry out our operations or limit our expansion plans as well as cause delays and increase operational costs. For example, in 2007, Brazil went through a significant crisis related to its air traffic control system, which negatively impacted air travel and the tourism industry as a whole. Insufficient public and/or private investment in the expansion of Brazilian infrastructure, particularly airports, ports and other travel hubs could lead to a decrease in sales or lower growth rates than we expect, which may adversely affect us and growth prospects. In particular, lack of or insufficient investment in the maintenance at our main hub in Campinas could impact the general activity and operation of the airport, which would adversely impact us. For example, Aeroportos Brasil, which holds a concession for the operation of Viracopos airport from ANAC, filed for bankruptcy protection in 2018 as it has not complied with its contractual obligations relating to the construction of a new terminal. On February 14, 2020 creditors approved Aeroportos Brasil’s debt restructuring plan, which consists in returning the concession for the operation of Viracopos airport to ANAC to initiate a re-bidding process of the concession to a new operator.
On February 18, 2020, the debt restructuring court approved the judicial recovery plan and on March 19, 2020, Aeroportos Brasil filed an application to ANAC for the rebidding of Viracopos airport, in compliance with the judicial recovery plan. On July 17, 2020, the Federal Government enacted Decree No 10.427/2020, authorizing the rebidding of Viracopos airport. The Ministry of Infrastructure shall submit, within 90 days, its assessment to the Programa de Parcerias de Investimentos (Investment Partnership Program) of the possibility of transferring the debts acquired by the current concessionaire to the financiers of the new concessionaire. The auction is planned to take place in the third quarter of 2022.
The Brazilian government expects to issue the public notice in the second quarter of 2022 and hold the auction during the third quarter of 2022. In April 2021, the Grupo de Consultores em Aeroportos (GCA), a consortium made up of various private companies and a potential bidder in the auction, filed a feasibility study with the Brazilian government for a new bidding process for the concession at Viracopos airport. Public consultation on the feasibility study was held in October 2021. After ANAC approval of the feasibility study on March 8, 2022, it was sent to the Tribunal de Contas da União, where it will be analyzed between 60 and 90 days.
For more information, see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Airports and Other Facilities and Properties—Airports” and “Item 8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.”
The failure to adhere to LGPD or other privacy laws enacted in Brazil and/or other jurisdictions may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, or results.
We are subject to the legislation of protection of personal data, such as the Internet Civil Framework (Law No. 12,965/2014), and Law 13,709/2018, a comprehensive data protection law establishing general principles and obligations that apply across multiple economic sectors and contractual relationships (Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados), or the LGPD, as well as its related regulations, including those published by the National Data Protection Authority (“ANPD”).
The LGPD went into effect on September 18, 2020, after the President Bolsonaro sanctioned into law provisional measure Number 959/2020, pursuant to Article 62, §12, of the Federal Constitution. The administrative sanctions under LGPD went into effect in August 2021. The LGPD established a new legal framework to be observed in personal data processing operations and provides for the rights of the ownership of personal data, the legal bases that allow the processing of personal data, requirements for obtaining consent, obligations and requirements for security incidents and leaks, domestic and international data transfers, as well as authorization for the creation of ANPD.
Since the LGPD sanctions went into effect, non-compliance by us or by any of our subsidiaries may result in judicial action by the holders of personal data (as provided for in the LGPD), or in judicial or extrajudicial action by consumer protection bodies. In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to sanctions, in an isolated or cumulative manner, or may, separately or cumulatively, be subject to (i) warning with an indicative deadline for the adoption of corrective measures, (ii) obligation to disclose incidents, (iii) partial suspension of our database operations for a maximum period of six months, renewable for an equal period, until the controller’s processing activity is reestablished, in case of recurrence; (iv) partial suspension of activities related to data processing for a maximum period of six months, renewable for an equal period, until the controller’s processing activity is reestablished, in case of recurrence; (v) temporary blocking, or deletion, of personal data; (vi) partial or total prohibition of activities; and (vii) a fine of up to 2% of our revenues in Brazil in its previous fiscal year, excluding taxes, up to R$50,000,000 per infraction. Further, we may be held liable for material, moral, individual or collective damages caused due to non-compliance with the obligations established by LGPD.
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Thus, failures in the protection of the personal data processed by us, as well as a failure to comply to the applicable legislation, may result in high fines for us, disclosure of the incident to the market, elimination of the personal data bank, and even suspension of activities, which may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition or results.
See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Data Protection.”
Risks Relating to our Business and the Brazilian Civil Aviation Industry
Substantial fluctuations in fuel costs or the unavailability of fuel, which is mostly provided by one supplier, would have an adverse effect on us.
Historically, international and local fuel prices have been subject to wide price fluctuations based on geopolitical issues and supply and demand. Fuel expenses, which at times in 2007 and 2008 were at historically high levels, constitute a significant portion of our total operating expenses, accounting for 32.8% in 2021, 21.1% in 2020 and 24.4% in 2019. Fuel availability is also subject to periods of market surplus and shortage and is affected by demand for both home heating oil and gasoline. Events resulting from prolonged instability in the Middle East or other oil-producing regions, or the suspension of production by any significant producer, may result in substantial price increases and/or make it difficult to obtain adequate supplies, which may adversely affect us. Natural disasters or other large unexpected disrupting events in regions that normally consume significant amounts of other energy sources could have a similar effect.
In addition, because Russia is one of the world’s largest oil exporters, we expect recent global developments relating to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, and resulting export restrictions, will likely lead to decreased global supply and increased fuel prices, which effects could be more acute if the participants of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries – OPEC decide not to, or are unable to, increase their supply production.
We cannot predict the price and future availability of fuel with any degree of certainty, and significant increases in fuel prices may harm our business. Our hedging activities may not be sufficient to protect us from fuel price increases, and even though we have been able to adjust our fares adequately to protect us from this cost, we may not be able to do so in the future.
We purchase fuel from a number of distributors in Brazil, principally from Vibra Energia, ex-BR Distribuidora, Air BP Brasil Ltda. and Raízen Combustíveis Ltda., with whom we have agreements to exclusively purchase all of our jet fuel needs in certain locations. As of December 2021, Vibra Energia provided 69.9% of our fuel and was entitled to terminate its fuel supply contracts with us for a number of reasons, including (i) non-compliance with any contractual obligation, (ii) non-payment of invoices up to 60 days after expiration and (iii) in the event of our judicial or extrajudicial liquidation. In addition, Vibra Energia may be unable to guarantee its fuel supply to us, for example due to difficulties in its import or distribution activities. If we were unable to obtain fuel on similar terms from alternative suppliers, our business would be adversely affected. In addition, our agreement with Vibra Energia enables us to lock in the cost of the jet fuel that we will consume in the future. Accordingly, in case this agreement is terminated, we might be required to enter into alternative hedging or pay higher prices, which could adversely affect us.
We and the airline industry in general are particularly sensitive to changes in economic conditions and continued negative economic conditions that would likely continue to adversely affect us and our ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms.
Our operations and the airline industry in general are particularly sensitive to changes in economic conditions. Unfavorable economic conditions, such as high unemployment rates, a constrained credit market, low or negative GDP growth, unfavorable exchange rates and increased business operating expenses, can reduce spending for both leisure and business travel. For some consumers, leisure travel is a discretionary expense, and short-haul travelers, in particular, have the option to replace air travel with surface travel. As has become particularly evident in 2020 and 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, businesses and other travelers are able to forego air travel by using communication alternatives such as videoconferencing, business communication platforms, and the Internet. Also, as has become particularly evident in 2020 and 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, unfavorable economic conditions can also impact our ability to raise fares to counteract increases in fuel, labor, and other expenses. In particular, the recent recession in the Brazilian economy and political instability has adversely affected industries with significant spending in travel, including government, oil and gas, mining and construction. In addition to decreases in load factors, reduced spending on business travel also affects the quality of demand, resulting in our inability to sell as many high-yield tickets.
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We cannot predict how the COVID-19 global pandemic will evolve, including novel variants of the virus or other infectious diseases, and affect demand for air travel in Brazil and, consequently, our results of operations and financial position. As demand for air travel recovers in the context of waning effects of the global pandemic, we may not be able to increase our number of flights and capacity fast enough to meet this increased demand as a result of the significant costs required to bring idle aircraft back into operation. Any such delay may lead our customers to seek alternatives and may adversely affect us.
In addition, we cannot predict macroeconomic developments or their impact on us, including exchange rate volatility and increased fuel prices, especially in the context of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the Brazilian elections in 2022, but we expect to face inflationary pressures and sharply increased fuel prices in 2022. Especially because we may not be able to delay paying for significant amounts of our fuel costs and we will likely not be able to adjust fuel costs in our ticket prices, these price increases may materially and adversely affect us.
Additionally, any material change to the global financial markets or the Brazilian economy, caused by any factor, including pandemics other regional or international outbreaks and/or military conflicts, may hinder both our access to new favorable financing terms and issuances of securities. An increasingly unfavorable economic environment would likely adversely affect us. In addition, a significant instability of the credit, capital and financial markets could result in increasing our borrowing costs, adversely affecting us. We typically finance our aircraft through operating and finance leases and debt finance. We may not be able to continue to obtain financing on terms attractive to us, or at all. To the extent we cannot obtain such financing on acceptable terms or at all, we may be required to modify our aircraft acquisition plans or to incur higher than anticipated financing costs, which would adversely affect us and our growth strategy. These factors could also adversely affect our ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms and our liquidity in general.
Because the airline industry is characterized by high fixed costs and relatively elastic revenues, airlines cannot quickly reduce their costs to respond to shortfalls in expected revenue and this may harm our ability to attain our strategic goals.
The airline industry is characterized by low gross profit margins; high fixed costs, such as aircraft ownership and leasing, headquarters facility and personnel, information technology system license costs, training and insurance expenses; and revenues that generally exhibit substantially greater elasticity than costs. The operating costs of each flight do not vary significantly with the number of passengers flown and, therefore, a relatively small change in the number of passengers, fare pricing or traffic mix could have a significant effect on operating and financial results.
We expect to incur additional fixed costs, including contractual debt, as we lease or acquire new aircraft and other equipment to implement our growth strategy or other purposes. Based on our current firm orders, we have contractually assumed the commitment to acquire 131 aircraft, 86 directly from manufactures and 45 from lessors.
As a function of our fixed costs, we may (i) have limited ability to obtain additional financing, (ii) be required to dedicate a significant part of our cash flow to fixed costs resulting from operating leases and debt for aircraft, (iii) incur higher interest or leasing expenses for the event that interest rates increase or (iv) have a limited ability to plan for, or react to, changes in our businesses, the civil aviation sector generally and overall macroeconomic conditions. In addition, volatility in global financial markets may make it difficult for us to obtain financing to manage our fixed costs on favorable terms or at all.
As a result of the foregoing, we may be unable to quickly adjust our fixed costs in response to changes in our revenues. A shortfall from expected revenue levels could have a material adverse effect on us.
Changes to the Brazilian civil aviation regulatory framework may adversely affect us.
Brazilian aviation authorities monitor and influence the developments in Brazil’s airline market. For example, in July 2014, ANAC published new rules governing the allocation of slots at the main Brazilian airports, which consider operational efficiency (on-time performance and regularity) as the main criteria for the allocation of take-off and landing slots at Brazilian airports. The policies of Brazilian aviation authorities, including ANAC, may adversely affect us and our operations.
Further, in December 2018, the former Brazilian president approved Provisional Measure MP 863/2018, which lifts restrictions on foreign ownership of Brazilian airlines’ voting stock. On June 17, 2019, the provisional measure MP 863/2018 was converted into de Law No 13.842/2019, amending the Brazilian Aeronautical Code, and allowed 100% of the voting stock of a company belonged to foreigners. See “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Restrictions on the Ownership of Shares in Air Transportation Service Providers.”
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In addition, in 2020 and 2021, ANAC waived slots regularity targets in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. By the end of 2021, airlines, including us, shared their comments on ANAC’s slots distribution policy, which comments are, as of the date of this annual report, under ANAC’s review and consideration.
For a description of recent changes to the Brazilian civil aviation regulatory framework, see “Item 4.D. Regulation—Airport Infrastructure.” For a description of recent changes to and pending legislation regarding the Brazilian civil aviation regulatory framework, see “Item 4.B. Business Overview—Pending Legislation.”
Changes to the Brazilian civil aviation regulatory framework, including the policies of ANAC and/or INFRAERO, as well as other aviation supervisory authorities, including the Brazilian Aeronautical Code, could increase our costs and change the competitive dynamics of our industry and may adversely affect us. In addition, we cannot guarantee that any of the operating concessions that we hold will be renewed or that we will obtain new concession. Any change that requires us to dedicate a significant level of resources on compliance with new aviation regulations, for example, would result in additional expenditure on compliance and consequently adversely affect us.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and actions by our competitors could adversely affect us.
We face intense competition on certain routes in Brazil from existing scheduled airlines, charter airlines and potential new entrants in our market and also with regards to our business units TudoAzul, Azul Cargo and Azul Viagens. In particular, we face strong competition in a limited number of routes and markets where our network overlaps with that of our main competitors. As of December 31, 2021, 20% and 14% of our domestic network overlapped with that of Gol and LATAM, respectively. Airlines increase or decrease capacity in markets based on perceived profitability. Decisions by our competitors that increase overall industry capacity, or capacity dedicated to a particular region, market or route, as well as any other management decisions that increase a potential competitor’s market share, could have a material adverse impact on us. Our growth and the success of our business model could stimulate competition in our markets through the development of similar strategies by our competitors. If these competitors adopt and successfully execute similar business models, we could be adversely affected.
We may face increased competition from existing and new participants in the Brazilian market. The air transportation sector is highly sensitive to price discounting and the use of aggressive pricing policies. Changes in practices, including with respect to change and cancellation fees as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to further pricing changes among our competitors. Other factors, such as flight frequency, schedule availability, brand recognition, and quality of offered services (such as loyalty programs, VIP airport lounges, in-flight entertainment and other amenities) also have a significant impact on market competitiveness. In addition, the barriers to entering the domestic market are relatively low and we cannot guarantee that existing or new competitors in our markets will not offer lower prices, more attractive services or increase their route capacity in an effort to obtain greater market share. We may also face competition from international airlines as they introduce and expand flights to Brazil. In addition to competition among scheduled airlines and charter operators, the Brazilian airline industry faces competition from ground transportation alternatives, such as interstate buses and automobiles. Finally, the Brazilian government and regulators could give preference to new entrants or provide support to our competitors, for example, when granting new and current slots in Brazilian airports, as previously occurred with respect to new slots at Congonhas airport.
In addition, technology advancements may limit the desire for air travel. For example, new developments in video teleconferencing and other methods of electronic communication may reduce the need for in-person communication and add a new dimension of competition to the industry as travelers seek lower cost substitutes for air travel.
Furthermore, new competitors may target TudoAzul’s business partners and members or enter the loyalty marketing industry. We cannot assure you that an increase in competition faced by TudoAzul will not have an adverse effect on the growth of our business with respect to TudoAzul or in general. If we are unable to adjust rapidly to the changing nature of competition in our markets or if the Brazilian loyalty marketing industry does not grow sufficiently to accommodate new participants, it could have an adverse effect on us.
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Further consolidation in the Brazilian and global airline industry may adversely affect us.
As a result of the competitive environment in which we operate, there may be further consolidation in the Brazilian and global airline industry, whether by means of acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships or strategic alliances. We cannot predict the effects of further consolidation on the industry. Our competitors could increase their scale, diversity and financial strength and may have a competitive advantage over us, which would adversely affect us. Consolidations in the airline industry and changes in international alliances are likely to affect the competitive landscape in the industry and may result in the formation of airlines and alliances with increased financial resources, more extensive global networks and reduced cost structures than us.
We routinely engage in analysis and discussions regarding our own strategic position, including alliances, codeshare arrangements, investments, acquisitions, interline arrangements and loyalty program enhancements, and may have future discussions with other airlines regarding similar arrangements. To the extent we act as consolidators, we may not be able to successfully integrate the business and operations of companies acquired, governmental approvals may be delayed, costs of integration and fleet renovation may be greater than anticipated, synergies may not meet our expectations, our costs may increase and our operational efficiency may be reduced, all of which would negatively affect us. To the extent we do not engage in such consolidations, our competitors may increase their scale, diversity and financial strength and may have a competitive advantage over us, which would negatively affect us, including our ability to realize expected benefits from our own strategic partnerships.
We are subject to costs and risks associated with increased or changing laws and regulations affecting our business, including those relating to the sale of consumer products. Specifically, developments in data protection and privacy laws could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We operate in a complex regulatory and legal environment that exposes us to compliance and litigation risks that could materially affect our results of operations. These laws may change, sometimes significantly, as a result of political, economic or social events. Some of the federal, state or local laws and regulations in Brazil that affect us include: those relating to consumer products, product liability or consumer protection; those relating to the manner in which we advertise, market or sell products; labor and employment laws, including wage and hour laws; tax laws or interpretations thereof; data protection and privacy laws and regulations; and securities and exchange laws and regulations.
For instance, data protection and privacy laws are developing to take into account the changes in cultural and consumer attitudes towards the protection of personal data and may be interpreted in a manner that is detrimental to our operations. There can be no guarantee that we will have sufficient financial resources to comply with any new regulations or successfully compete in the context of a shifting regulatory environment.
Any additional laws or regulations enacted or approved in Brazil or in other jurisdictions in which we operate could impose regulatory obligations not previously foreseen by us, causing us to incur additional costs to implement operational and systemic changes or controls within the required deadlines, or risk having our operations restricted if we were not able to do so.
We depend significantly on automated systems and any cyber-attacks, breakdown, hacking or changes in these systems may adversely affect us.
We depend on automated systems to operate our businesses, including our sales system, automated seat reservation system, fleet and network management system, telecommunications system and website. Significant or repeated breakdowns of our automated systems may impede our passengers and travel agencies’ access to our products and services, which may cause them to purchase tickets from other airlines, adversely affecting our net revenues. Our website and ticket sales system must accommodate a high volume of traffic and deliver important flight information and the increase in work-from-home arrangements since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to enhance cybersecurity risks. Substantial or repeated website, ticket sales, scheduling or telecommunication systems failures could reduce the attractiveness of our services and could cause our customers to purchase tickets from another airline. Any interruption in these systems or their underlying infrastructure could result in the loss of important data, increase our expenses and generally harm us.
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These interruptions may include but are not limited to computer hackings, computer viruses, worms or other disruptive software, or other malicious activities. In particular, both unsuccessful and successful cyber-attacks on companies have increased in frequency, scope and potential harm in recent years. The costs associated with a major cyber-attack could include expensive incentives offered to existing customers to retain their business, increased expenditures on cyber security measures, lost revenues from business interruption, litigation and damage to our reputation. In addition, if we fail to prevent the theft of valuable information, protect the privacy of customer and employee confidential data against breaches of network or IT security, it could result in damage to our reputation, which could adversely impact customer and investor confidence. We may also implement certain changes to our systems that may result in breakdowns, reduced sales, fleet and network mismanagement or telecommunications interruptions, all of which would negatively affect us. Furthermore, the compromise of our technology systems resulting in the loss, disclosure, misappropriation of, or access to, customers’, employees’ or business partners’ information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information or disruption to our operations. Any of these occurrences could result in a material adverse effect on us.
We, our reputation, and the price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs, could be adversely affected by events outside of our control.
Accidents or incidents involving our aircraft could involve significant claims by injured passengers and others, as well as significant costs related to the repair or replacement of a damaged aircraft and its temporary or permanent loss from service. We are required by ANAC and lessors of our aircraft under our operating lease agreements to carry liability insurance. The amount of liability insurance we maintain may not be adequate, and we may be forced to bear substantial losses in the event of an accident. Substantial claims resulting from an accident in excess of our related insurance coverage would harm our business and financial results. Moreover, any aircraft accident or incident involving our aircraft, even if fully insured, or the aircraft of any major airline could cause negative public perceptions about us, our aircraft or the air transport system, due to safety concerns or other problems, whether real or perceived, which would harm our reputation, financial results and the market price of our preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs.
We may also be affected by other events that affect travel behavior or increase costs, such as the potential of epidemics or acts of terrorism. These events are outside of our control and may affect us even if occurring in markets where we do not operate and/or in connection with other airlines. Any future terrorist attacks or threats of attacks, whether or not involving commercial aircraft, any increase in hostilities relating to reprisals against terrorist organizations, including an escalation of military involvement in the Middle East, or otherwise and any related economic impact, could result in decreased passenger traffic and materially and adversely affect us.
Demand for air travel may be adversely impacted by events beyond our control, such as adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war or political and social instability. Epidemics and outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, Zika virus, Ebola, avian flu, foot-and-mouth disease, swine flu, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS, may also result in quarantines of our personnel or an inability to access facilities or our aircraft, which would harm us, our reputation, and the market value of our common shares and preferred shares, including in the form of ADSs. The outbreak of diseases such as COVID-19 could result in significant decreases in passenger traffic and the imposition of government restrictions in service and could have a material adverse impact on the airline industry. Situations such as these, or other conditions beyond our control, in one or more of the markets in which we operate could have a material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the current spread of COVID-19 and other adverse public health developments could have a prolonged effect on air travel demand and any prolonged or widespread effects could significantly impact our operations.
Natural disasters, severe weather conditions and other events outside of our control may affect and disrupt our operations. In 2018, a truckers’ strike disrupted the distribution of fuel supplies throughout Brazil, affecting flights as well as passengers’ ability to commute to and from airports for a period of approximately 10 days. About 37 airports in which Azul operates ran out of fuel, and some airports remained closed for three days.
Severe weather conditions can cause flight cancellations or significant delays that may result in increased costs and reduced revenue. Any natural disaster or other event that affects air travel in the regions in which we operate could have a material adverse impact on us.
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The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic slowdown and volatility in the Brazilian and global financial and capital markets had, and may in the future continue to have, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, liquidity, results of operations and financial condition, it will also have the effect of materially heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
The COVID-19 pandemic and governmental responses thereto have had, and may continue to have, a severe impact on global and Brazilian macro-economic and financial conditions, including the disruption of supply chains and the closures or interruptions of many businesses, leading to losses of revenues, increased unemployment and economic stagnation and contraction.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also resulted in materially increased volatility in both Brazilian and international financial markets and economic indicators, including exchange rates, interest rates and credit spreads. For example, as a result of heightened volatility, the value of assets in the B3 S.A. – Brasil, Bolsa, Balcão, or the B3 decreased significantly and quickly in the month of March 2020, triggering their circuit breaker eight times. Any shocks or unexpected movements in these market factors could result in financial losses associated with our trading portfolio or financial assets, which could deteriorate our financial condition.
Measures taken by governmental authorities worldwide, including Brazil, to stabilize markets and support economic growth may not be sufficient to control high volatility or to prevent serious and prolonged reductions in economic activity. In addition, the social distancing measures imposed by governmental authorities to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a sharp drop in air travelin 2020, significantly impacting our business. While many of these restrictions have since been lifted, there is no way to predict whether new patterns of contagion, increasing disease severity or other factors related to the pandemic, including access to, or the efficiency of, a vaccine, may result in a renewed tightening of these policies or the imposition of new and different restrictions. These policies and measures have influenced the behavior of the consumer market and the population in general, the demand for services, products and credit.We believe that the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to affect sources of demand for air travel and decreases in corporate travel may persist. While leisure travel could potentially offset this, there is no guarantee that leisure travel will return. The pace of vaccinations in Brazil may also affect the rate and timing of corporate and leisure demand recovery, if any.
In addition, we currently have a more efficient workforce than we did prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, by the end of 2021 our workforce was 5.3% below 2019 while the demand in 4Q21 was 46.5% higher than 4Q20 and only 2.4% below 2019. Recovery in Brazil continues to be one of the fastest in the world.
Moreover, there can be no assurance that the restrictive measures imposed by some Brazilian states and municipalities will not worsen if Brazil faces new waves of COVID-19, arising, for example from new strains of the virus. For example, at the beginning of 2021, a novel strain of COVID-19 started circulating in Brazil, causing an increase in the number of deaths and hospitalizations. In February 2021, Brazil registered 250,000 deaths from COVID-19 and, on March 11, 2021, Brazil was considered the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of number of confirmed cases and deaths. As a result, public authorities in Brazil reinstated more severe restrictive measures, including social distancing, quarantine and lockdowns, once again affecting demand for air travel.
In addition, the strong and rapid rise in COVID-19 cases around the world after the 2021 holiday season suggests that the Omicron, the latest variant of the virus, is highly contagious. Countries in which the variant was detected saw a strong and rapid rise in cases. The Omicron wave has surpassed that of previous variants in total number of infections, despite the high levels of vaccination. However, hospitalizations have seen a much more modest increase, and deaths have not risen significantly in the last few months. The current available information (research studies and real-world data) suggests that the Omicron variant could be less lethal despite being highly transmissible. Moreover, current high levels of vaccination in several countries and the distribution of booster doses may also be providing a defense against the disease. However, the risk of new variants other than the Omicron variant remains and reinforces the importance of booster shots and of updating vaccines to fight virus mutations.
The weakened macroeconomic fundamentals coupled with the market downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had, and may in the future continue to have, a negative impact on our performance across our business. Impacts on our business could be widespread, and material impacts may be possible, including but not limited to the following:
Some governments have discouraged travel and encouraged social distancing efforts and limits on gathering size.
Numerous travel advisories and restrictions have been implemented, and many foreign governments have placed restrictions or quarantines on citizens of other countries. For instance, numerous countries are now requiring airline passengers to provide negative COVID-19 test results prior to travel into their countries.
State and local governments have issued travel restrictions, quarantines and advisories and health-related curfews or “shelter in place” orders which dissuade or restrict air travel.
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Businesses have restricted non-essential travel for their employees. Employers in both the public and private sectors have issued instructions to employees to work from home and/or are otherwise dissuading or restricting air travel.
Business conventions and conferences, concerts and similar entertainment have been and continue to be cancelled. Many popular tourist destinations have been, and remain, closed, or operations are curtailed. Significant sporting events have been, and occasionally continue to be, cancelled or held with limited or no spectators. All of these adjustments reduce the demand for both business air travel (which has historically driven our most profitable ticket sales) and leisure air travel.
Travelers are discouraged from air travel to destinations where COVID-19 is particularly virulent.
Travelers may be dissuaded from flying due to possible enhanced COVID-19-related screening measures, which have been implemented to varying degrees and in different ways across multiple markets we serve, or due to the concern that additional travel restrictions implemented between their departure and return may affect their ability to return to their homes.
The containment and quarantine measures that are being implemented across Brazil and worldwide are significantly limiting the mobility of our customers, crewmembers and business partners, making our operation unfeasible in several routes we serve. We will continue to be materially adversely affected if government authorities extend existing orders or impose new orders or other restrictions intended to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, if businesses continue to restrict travel for their employees, or if fear of travel continues to depress future ticket sales.
As a result, on April 2020, in light of the uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic that was affecting the demand for air traffic, we operated 70 non-stop flights per day to 25 cities, representing a 90% reduction of our consolidated planned capacity in terms of ASKs for the month of April. On the other side, domestic demand recovery in Brazil was one of the fastest in the world. In 2021 of the domestic capacity was 6.8% higher than 2019, pre pandemic period. By December 2021, Azul was flying to almost 150 destinations and 900 flights per day.
Thus, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we significantly reduced capacity from our original plan and will continue to evaluate the need for further flight schedule adjustments throughout 2022.
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