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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
___________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
___________________________________
(Mark One)
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to             
Commission File No. 001-34972
 ___________________________________
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ___________________________________
Delaware 26-2634160
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
8283 Greensboro Drive, McLean,Virginia 22102
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(703) 902-5000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common StockBAHNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None.
__________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer    Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes      No  
As of September 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates was $14,260,987,781.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
Shares Outstanding
as of May 20, 2024
Class A Common Stock129,320,488 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders scheduled for July 24, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
F-1
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.



INTRODUCTORY NOTE
Unless the context otherwise indicates or requires, as used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024, references to: (i) “we,” “us,” “our,” or our “company” refer to Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation, its consolidated subsidiaries and predecessors; (ii) “Booz Allen Holding” refers to Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation, exclusive of its subsidiaries; (iii) “Booz Allen Investor” refers to Booz Allen Hamilton Investor Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Booz Allen Holding; (iv) “Booz Allen Hamilton” and “Booz Allen” refer to Booz Allen Hamilton Inc., our primary operating company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Booz Allen Holding; and (v) “fiscal,” when used in reference to any twelve-month period ended March 31, refers to our fiscal years ended March 31. Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this Annual Report is as of March 31, 2024. We have made rounding adjustments to reach some of the figures included in this Annual Report and, unless otherwise indicated, percentages presented in this Annual Report are approximate.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements contained or incorporated in this Annual Report include forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “forecasts,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “projects,” “outlook,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” “preliminary,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give you no assurance these expectations will prove to have been correct. These forward-looking statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and other factors include:
any issue that compromises our relationships with the U.S. government or damages our professional reputation, including negative publicity concerning government contractors in general or us in particular;
changes in U.S. government spending, including a continuation of efforts by the U.S. government to decrease spending for management support service contracts, and mission priorities that shift expenditures away from agencies or programs that we support, or as a result of U.S. administration transitions;
efforts by Congress and other U.S. government bodies to reduce U.S. government spending and address budgetary constraints and the U.S. deficit, as well as associated uncertainty around the timing, extent, nature, and effect of such efforts;
delayed long-term funding of our contracts, including uncertainty relating to funding the U.S. government and increasing the debt ceiling;
U.S. government shutdowns as a result of the failure by elected officials to fund the government;
failure to comply with numerous laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Federal Acquisition Regulation (“FAR”), the False Claims Act, the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (“DFARS”), and FAR Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles;
the effects of disease outbreaks, pandemics, or widespread health epidemics, including disruptions to our workforce and the impact on government spending and demand for our solutions;
our ability to compete effectively in the competitive bidding process and delays or losses of contract awards caused by competitors’ protests of major contract awards received by us;
variable purchasing patterns under U.S. government General Services Administration Multiple Award schedule contracts, or General Services Administration (“GSA”) schedules, blanket purchase agreements, and indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (“IDIQ”) contracts;
the loss of GSA schedules or our position as prime contractor on government-wide acquisition contract vehicles (“GWACs”);
changes in the mix of our contracts and our ability to accurately estimate or otherwise recover expenses, time, and resources for our contracts;
changes in estimates used in recognizing revenue;
our ability to realize the full value of and replenish our backlog, generate revenue under certain of our contracts, and the timing of our receipt of revenue under contracts included in backlog;
internal system or service failures and security breaches, including, but not limited to, those resulting from external or internal threats, including cyber attacks on our network and internal systems;
risks related to the operations of financial management systems;
an inability to attract, train, or retain employees with the requisite skills and experience;
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an inability to timely hire, assimilate, and effectively utilize our employees, ensure that employees obtain and maintain necessary security clearances, and/or effectively manage our cost structure;
risks related to inflation that could impact the cost of doing business and/or reduce customer buying power;
the loss of members of senior management or failure to develop new leaders;
misconduct or other improper activities from our employees, subcontractors, or suppliers, including the improper access, use or release of our or our clients’ sensitive or classified information;
increased competition from other companies in our industry;
failure to maintain strong relationships with other contractors, or the failure of contractors with which we have entered into a sub- or prime-contractor relationship to meet their obligations to us or our clients;
inherent uncertainties and potential adverse developments in legal or regulatory proceedings, including litigation, audits, reviews, and investigations, which may result in materially adverse judgments, settlements, withheld payments, penalties, or other unfavorable outcomes including debarment, as well as disputes over the availability of insurance or indemnification;
failure to comply with special U.S. government laws and regulations relating to our international operations;
risks associated with increased competition, new relationships, clients, capabilities, and service offerings in our U.S. and international businesses;
risks related to changes to our operating structure, capabilities, or strategy intended to address client needs, grow our business, or respond to market developments;
the adoption by the U.S. government of new laws, rules, and regulations, such as those relating to organizational conflicts of interest issues or limits;
risks related to a possible recession and volatility or instability of the global financial system, including the failures of financial institutions and the resulting impact on counterparties and business conditions generally;
risks related to a deterioration of economic conditions or weakening in credit or capital markets;
risks related to pending, completed, and future acquisitions and dispositions, including the ability to satisfy specified closing conditions for pending transactions, such as those related to receipt of regulatory approval or lack of regulatory intervention, and to realize the expected benefits from completed acquisitions and dispositions;
the incurrence of additional tax liabilities, including as a result of changes in tax laws or management judgments involving complex tax matters;
risks inherent in the government contracting environment;
continued efforts to change how the U.S. government reimburses compensation related costs and other expenses or otherwise limits such reimbursements, and an increased risk of compensation being deemed unreasonable and unallowable or payments being withheld as a result of U.S. government audit, review, or investigation;
increased insourcing by various U.S. government agencies due to changes in the definition of “inherently governmental” work, including proposals to limit contractor access to sensitive or classified information and work assignments;
the size of our addressable markets and the amount of U.S. government spending on private contractors;
risks related to our indebtedness and credit facilities which contain financial and operating covenants;
the impact of changes in accounting rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, that may affect the way we recognize and report our financial results, including changes in accounting rules governing recognition of revenue;
the impact of ESG-related risks and climate change generally on our and our clients' businesses and operations; and
other risks and factors listed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.
In light of these risks, uncertainties, and other factors, the forward-looking statements might not prove to be accurate and you should not place undue reliance upon them. All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made and we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

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PART I 
Item 1.    Business.
Overview
For 110 years, business, government, and military leaders have turned to Booz Allen Hamilton to solve their most complex problems. A values-driven organization with a guiding purpose to empower people to change the world, we remain focused on providing long-term solutions to our clients’ emerging and ever-changing challenges. Our people are passionate about their service to our clients and their missions and supporting the communities in which we live and work. This is our heritage, and it is as true today as when the Company was founded in 1914.
A collaborative culture is an integral part of our unique operating model and encourages our people to bring a diversity of ideas and talent to every client engagement. We combine our in-depth expertise in artificial intelligence and cybersecurity with leading-edge technology and engineering practices to deliver powerful solutions. Leveraging 110 years of strategic consulting expertise with the perspectives of diverse talent, we strive for results by integrating technology with an enduring focus on our clients. By investing in markets, capabilities, and talent, and building new business models, including ventures, partnerships, and product offerings, we believe we are creating sustainable quality growth for the Company.
Through our dedication to our clients' missions, and a commitment to evolving our business to address their needs, we have longstanding relationships with our clients, the longest of which is more than 80 years. We support critical missions for a diverse base of federal government clients, including nearly all of the U.S. government’s cabinet-level departments, as well as for commercial clients, both domestically and internationally. We support our federal government clients by helping them tackle their most complex and pressing challenges, such as protecting soldiers in combat and supporting their families, advancing cyber capabilities, securing our national infrastructure, enabling and enhancing digital services, transforming the healthcare system, and improving governmental efficiency to achieve better outcomes. Drawing on our deep understanding and leading position in cybersecurity, we serve commercial clients across industries, including financial services, health and life sciences, energy, and technology.
History and Corporate Structure
We were founded in 1914 by Edwin Booz, one of the pioneers of management consulting. In 1940, we began serving the U.S. government by advising the Secretary of the Navy in preparation for World War II. As the needs of our clients have grown more complex, we have expanded beyond our management consulting foundation to develop deep expertise in the fields of analytics, digital solutions, engineering, cyber and artificial intelligence.
We are organized and operate as a corporation, but sometimes use the term “partner” to refer to our Chief Executive Officer and our Executive and Senior Vice Presidents. The use of the term “partner” reflects our collaborative culture and is not meant to imply that we operate our Company as, or have any intention to create a legal entity that is, a partnership.
Booz Allen Holding was incorporated in Delaware in May 2008 to serve as the top-level holding company for the consolidated Booz Allen Hamilton U.S. government consulting business. On July 31, 2008, Booz Allen Hamilton completed the separation of its U.S. government consulting business from its legacy commercial and international consulting business, and the sale of 100% of its outstanding common stock to Booz Allen Holding, or the Carlyle Acquisition, which was majority owned by The Carlyle Group and certain of its affiliated investment funds, or Carlyle. Our Company is a corporation that is the successor to the U.S. government consulting business of Booz Allen Hamilton following the separation. Between 2013 and 2016, we registered the offering and sale of common stock by Carlyle, and on December 6, 2016, Carlyle disposed of its remaining shares of the Company's Class A Common Stock in a registered secondary offering.
Our Institution and Operating Model
We operate as a single profit/loss center with a single bonus pool for leadership. Our operating model encourages collaboration allowing us to bring a mix of the best talent to every client engagement. Our partnership-style culture provides the operational flexibility necessary to quickly mobilize people and capabilities to react to market changes faster than our competitors. As a result, we can go to market as a whole company rather than as a collection of individual competing business units or profit centers. Our operating model also encourages and enables continuous investment in the right markets, capabilities, and talent to position the Company for further growth by anticipating what government and commercial clients will need next.
Across all markets, we address our clients’ complex and evolving needs by deploying multifaceted teams with a combination of deep mission understanding, market-leading functional capabilities, consulting talent, and true technical and engineering expertise. These client-facing teams, which are fundamental to our differentiated value proposition, better position us to create market-relevant growth strategies and plan for and meet current, future, and prospective market needs. They also help us identify and deliver against diverse client needs in a more agile manner. Our significant win rates during fiscal 2024 on new and re-competed contracts of 63% and 92%, respectively, as compared to 66% and 88%, respectively, in fiscal 2023, demonstrate the strength of this approach.
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Human Capital Management
As we embrace new and future-focused ways of working, we remain true to what has always defined who we are: our commitments to our purpose and values, our clients and their missions, and our people. At Booz Allen, we strive to create an environment where all of our 34,200 employees feel a sense of belonging and feel empowered to bring their diverse skills, perspectives, and talents to bear on our clients’ biggest challenges and to create careers that are meaningful to them.
Booz Allen is a place where you can be you.
Culture. Our VoLT (Velocity, Leadership, and Technology) strategy and the modern workplace have created the opportunity for us to invigorate our culture to propel us into the next era. As we navigate a hybrid work environment and seek to perform on an exceptional level, culture is more important than ever. Intentionally building, modeling, and driving a culture that reinforces our strategic objectives, propels our connectedness, and solidifies our purpose is key to unleashing our potential.
Our cultural aspirations are to:
Cultivate a culture where everyone can thrive and belong
Preserve our cornerstone of strong relationships and collaboration
Embrace a flexible work environment
Empower our people to be successful at work and in life
These aspirations drive our performance by building off our strengths. By committing to practice an evolved way of “how we do things,” we can amplify the positive impact we have on our people, our clients, and the world.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (“DEI”). Empowering our people includes our commitment to making Booz Allen a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive workplace, enabling the execution of our strategy and enabling our people to achieve their full potential. This is aligned with our strong value proposition and assists in attracting and retaining the highest caliber employees. We celebrate diversity in all forms, fostering a sense of belonging for our workforce across all ethnicities, religions, genders, sexual orientations, ages, and disabilities Our VoLT strategy and programs are designed to recruit, incentivize, and retain top talent based on merit and contributions to our company and culture.
VoLT requires us to lead and compete differently to achieve velocity, agility and scale. Our DEI strategy focuses on leading by example through transparency and modeling inclusion; empowering potential by driving equitable access and outcomes, inspiring belonging, and being a force for advancing equity. As we look to the near future, we intend to evolve our DEI strategy to further cultivate culture, preserve relationships, embrace flexibility, and empower potential.
Nearly a quarter of our employees are members of at least one of our company-sponsored Employee Communities, which any employee can join. These groups support our people at every stage of the employment lifecycle by cultivating meaningful networks and development opportunities across locations, job roles, levels, and functional expertise. They are a facet of our devotion to inspiring belonging.
“Unstoppable Together” is our global, employee-led, DEI movement. Through the power of storytelling, it strives to humanize the complex issues facing the modern workforce. Its assets, all of which are available to employees and non-employees alike, include an annual summit, syndicated podcast, digital quarterly magazine, video library, and discussion guides and conversation cards. Through our people-first perspective, our integrated wellbeing strategy supports all aspects of our people’s lives and empowers them to thrive.
As of March 31, 2024, based upon voluntary self-reporting:
36% of our global workforce identified as female, including 37% of senior management.
35% of our U.S. workforce identified as a person of color, including 12% Asian, 12% Black or African American, and 7% Hispanic or Latino, and 4% two or more races; 21% of senior management identified as a person of color.
Nearly 28% of our employees identified as a veteran or an individual with military experience.
12% of our employees identified as an individual with a disability.
3% of our U.S. workforce identified as LGBTQIA+.
Approximately 87% of our employees hold a bachelor’s degree or higher; of that 87%, approximately 40% hold master’s degrees and 4% hold doctoral degrees.
Approximately 65% hold one or more professional certifications, including certifications on over 10 topics such as Artificial Intelligence, Cyber and IT, Project Management, and Agile.
Approximately 65% of our employees hold security clearances.
Of new employee hires, 32% globally identified as female and 40% in the U.S. identified as people of color.
Of employee departures, 29% globally identified as female and 36% in the U.S. identified as people of color.
Employee Engagement. We conduct an annual Employee Experience Survey. The survey results provide insights into our employees’ experience. Eighty-three percent of our employees reported having a favorable experience, with higher results than competitors against whom we benchmark our performance.
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Booz Allen is a place where you are part of something bigger than yourself.
We look out for one another, solve the world’s toughest problems, and do what’s right. With our purpose and values as our North Star, our unique culture provides us with a platform to set ourselves apart from our competitors.
Purpose and values. Our purpose—to empower people to change the world—is an expression of our values. Together, they form the foundation of everything at Booz Allen. Our values are:
Ferocious Integrity: Do right, and hold yourself and each other accountable.
Unflinching Courage: Bring bold thinking and speak truth to power. Maintain conviction no matter the circumstances.
Passionate Service: Listen and act with empathy as you make meaningful connections. Build community through generosity, and above all, embrace the mission.
Champion’s Heart: Bring joy to the pursuit and learn from failure. Compete with passion and crave being the best.
Collective Ingenuity: Be resourceful and creative, seek to make the biggest difference in every problem you solve. Be devoted to the team and harness the power of diversity.
Ethics & Compliance. As one of the first organizations in the United States to adopt a formal code of business ethics, we believe that doing right and holding ourselves and others accountable is the only way to do business. Our Code of Business Ethics and Conduct represents our values in action and serves as a guide for all Booz Allen people on how they should operate on behalf of the Company, day in and day out. It outlines what is expected of us and how we meet those expectations.
In March 2024, the Ethisphere Institute named Booz Allen among the World’s Most Ethical Companies for the fifth consecutive year. The annual list recognizes global companies dedicated to integrity, sustainability, governance, and community with a commitment to ethical behavior, accountability, and driving positive change.
Community Impact. To create a more secure, resilient, and equitable future for all, we support and partner with charitable organizations. For fiscal 2024, Booz Allen donated $5.4 million to nonprofit organizations. Through Booz Allen initiatives, our employees donated $1.7 million to more than 2,200 nonprofit organizations and engaged in more than 68,000 hours of volunteer service to more than 760 nonprofit organizations. Some of our calendar year 2023 highlights include:
Launched a national movement for equitable access to responsible AI education with the AI Education Project, including thought leadership, convenings, and teacher workshops, including the training of more than 1,000 educators in Hawaii and Maryland.
Recognized in 2023 by the San Diego Business Journal for “Outstanding Collaboration between a Business & Nonprofit,” Booz Allen’s partnership with Girl Scouts San Diego includes sponsorship of the annual ‘Incredible Race’ STEM scavenger hunt and educational Cybersecurity Workshops led by Booz Allen volunteers.
Supported Thurgood Marshall College Fund’s Teacher Retention and Quality Program to recruit and retain more black teachers, and to provide them with technology, resources, and training to be leaders in their schools. Our funding supported 83 teachers who were able to affect 10,000 students, 90 percent from Title 1 schools.
Established the multi-year Booz Allen Scholarship for Intelligence Studies at University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Empowered 400 students and 40 teachers through sponsorship of Wolf Trap Institute's Early STEM/Arts Program which provides professional development for educators in techniques and strategies that offer opportunities for arts integration which can lead to higher levels of learning in STEM subjects.
Booz Allen is a place where you are empowered with knowledge and support to change the world.
Our “think global, act local” approach to total rewards aims to provide our people with access to meaningful benefits and programs across a spectrum of life and career stages regardless of where they are based.
Learning without Limits. From in-house, award-winning training and badging programs to external tuition reimbursement and more, we strive to provide our employees with limitless opportunities to enhance and broaden their skill set—anytime, anywhere. In support of our VoLT growth strategy and its reliance on a highly skilled, technical workforce, we launched Technical Experience Groups (“TXGs”) to help attract, engage, and retain technically focused employees. Through TXGs, all Booz Allen employees can build technical acumen, unlock career opportunities, build connections through technical mentorships, and access and create technical thought leadership and intellectual property.
Owning the Experience. Our Talent Mobility and Performance programs move employees from where they are now to where they want to be. Our programs emphasize the importance of goal setting, regular touchpoints to share feedback and aspirations, and career profiles that display and unlock experiences—all with the support system of trained managers and leaders who help build and guide personalized career journeys.
Enjoying the Pursuit. Appreciation is personal for us. Our Total Rewards program supports a resilient, high-performing workforce by investing in the financial, emotional, and physical well-being of our employees and the people they care most about.
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Pay Practices & Pay Equity. Our commitment to provide a fair and equitable workplace for employees, including through our pay practices, is woven into our Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, other policies, and practices, with support and oversight from the Compensation, Culture and People Committee of the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”). We have designed our compensation structure to pay our people competitively in the market and equitably based on their skills, qualifications, roles, and abilities.
As part of our commitment to pay equity, we have processes in place to monitor our compensation practices, and we conduct a pay equity analysis on an annual basis in the U.S. to examine differences in pay between employees of different genders, races and ethnicities.
Booz Allen is a place that is recognized for providing an exceptional experience.
We are proud of the recognition we continue to receive for empowering great talent, exhibiting a spirit of corporate citizenship, and achieving excellence. Some of our recent awards and recognitions include:
Black Engineer of the Year Award: 100+ employees recognized since 2005
Bloomberg Government’s BGOV200 Federal Industry Leaders Report
Business Group on Health’s Best Employers: Excellence in Health & Well-Being
DefenseNews’ Top 100 Defense Companies
Disability Equality Index’s Best Places to Work
Diversity First’s Top 50 Companies for Diversity
Ethisphere’s World’s Most Ethical Companies
Forbes’ America’s Best Employers for Veterans
Forbes’ America’s Best Large Employers and America’s Best Employers for Diversity
Fortune’s America’s Most Innovative Companies: This award recognizes a company’s entrepreneurial innovation based on product innovation, process innovation, innovation culture, and revenue growth
Fortune’s Fortune 500
Fortune’s World’s Most Admired Companies
Glassdoor’s Best 100 Places to Work
Investor’s Business Daily’s Best ESG Companies
Newsweek’s: America’s Greatest Workplaces for Parents and Families
Newsweek’s: America’s Greatest Workplaces for Remote Work
Newsweek’s: Most Loved Workplaces in America
Seramount’s 100 Best Companies for Working Parents
TIME’s World’s Best Companies of 2023
U.S. Department of Labor’s 2023 HIRE Vets Platinum Medallion Award
U.S. News & World Report’s Best Companies to Work For
Washington Technology Top 100
Women of Color in STEM: 250+ employees recognized since 2004
Innovation and Solutions
Our company's innovation engine is focused on harnessing our ability to identify and ride successive waves of emerging technologies, with the goal to amass a portfolio of differentiated and mission-centric technology businesses.
We identify, assess, build, and deploy emerging technology solutions, while ensuring that our technical expertise is closely integrated with mission insight from across the business. Within the larger innovation ecosystem, we cultivate relationships through technology scouting, partnerships, and venturing to identify emerging technology with applicability to our clients' missions. We then incubate and prototype that technology against mission use cases to assess market readiness. Once proven, we focus on building capacity in emerging technology capabilities and solutions, such as AI, Cyber, and 5G, in partnership with our business sectors. Throughout this innovation lifecycle, we are focused on advancing our solution engineering standards, the creation of reusable Intellectual Property/Intellectual Capital, and the application of new business and delivery models.
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To complement our innovation engine, we are deeply invested in cultivating and inspiring our technical talent. We lead programs to grow our Company's capacity in emerging technology skills and cultivate a vibrant technical community that fuels innovation for our client missions. We also maintain an active network of innovation centers, labs, and studios that serve clients with some of the best technologies, talent, and research that our industry has to offer. Beyond The Helix—our innovation center in Washington, DC—Booz Allen’s regional research-and-development labs are stationed close to critical missions, providing clients with access to on-demand innovation and the latest in experimentation, from 5G to the metaverse.
Empowering Our Technical Communities
Booz Allen is intentional about building a culture of empowerment where we can grow today’s talent and future leaders from within. Our Technical Experience Groups are open to all employees and are designed to build technical affiliation and skills, generate opportunities for career growth, and advance our technical capabilities and solutions around the following eight functional areas that are important to the Company’s growth:
Artificial Intelligence: The Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) TXG’s computer programmers, mathematicians, and scientists harness computer learning to tackle complex decision-making with speed and precision. The group focuses on current and emerging AI capability areas, including machine learning (“ML”), predictive modeling, automation and decision analytics, and quantum computing.
Cyber: The Cyber TXG’s threat hunters, intelligence analysts, and ethical hackers utilize cybersecurity expertise to protect and defend computer networks, cyber physical systems, and infrastructure. The group prioritizes cyber capability areas, including strategy and policy, risk management, architecture and engineering, defense operations, analytics and AI/ML, and computer network operations.
Data Science & Data Engineering: The Data Science & Data Engineering TXG’s data scientists, analysts, and engineers transform data into insights to inform decisions. The group emphasizes data science and data engineering capability areas, such as data science, engineering, visualization, strategy, and analysis.
Experience & Immersive: The Experience & Immersive TXG’s artists, engineers, strategists, and storytellers combine human-centered design, digital, and data expertise to create meaningful customer experiences that improve how people interact with their environments. The group highlights experience and immersive capability areas, including User Experience (“UX”)/User Interface (“UI”), design thinking, sketching, graphic design, web design, and digital product design.
Cloud & Infrastructure: The Platform & Infrastructure TXG’s architects and engineers help accelerate, scale, secure, and transform mission and business outcomes using the latest technologies and partner offerings. The group advances platform and infrastructure capabilities, including hybrid and multi-cloud deployment, edge cloud, cloud migration and modernization, DevSecOps, and enterprise mobility, security, and infrastructure modernization.
Software Engineering: The Software Engineering TXG’s front end, back end, and full stack developers, architects, designers, testers, and UX resources apply engineering methods and principles to the design, development, testing, and maintenance of software. The group harnesses modern software and systems development capability areas, in particular agile practices, DevSecOps, automation and Cloud, and Low/No Code Platform engineering.
Systems & Digital Engineering: The Systems & Digital Engineering TXG’s engineers, system architects, computer programmers, and digital analysts combine traditional engineering with modern digital tools and practices to more efficiently and effectively conceptualize, design, develop, and deploy integrated services and solutions. The group focuses on systems and digital engineering capability areas, like engineering and science, data and ML, cloud automation, Digital Twin, and 5G.
Tech Strategy & Product Management: The Tech Strategy & Product Management TXG’s agile practitioners, operational specialists, and product and project managers manage the strategic, operational, and management functions that enable digital execution and IT transformation. The group prioritizes tech strategy and product management capability areas, including corporate venture capital, digital transformation, emerging tech, partnerships, product management, strategic assessments and technology adoption, and tech scouting.
Our Long-Term Growth Strategy
Fiscal year 2024 was the second year of our VoLT strategy, which acknowledges that continued growth requires us to operate with increased speed, agility, and scale in a rapidly changing, highly competitive, and increasingly technical environment. The competitive landscape is changing, and investments in technology from both public and private sectors are gaining momentum. The need for highly qualified technical professionals greatly exceeds availability. In this context, our clients are increasingly reliant on technology as their missions grow in size, complexity, and digital focus. We must continually adapt to keep pace with these shifts and guide our clients towards a future of digital missions. Our ability to embrace and drive change is crucial to our success, which is why we are using our VoLT strategy and its framework to rapidly innovate and scale solutions to transform missions and address our clients’ complex challenges.
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VoLT is the next era of Booz Allen and is accelerating our growth by focusing on the powerful convergence of Velocity, Leadership, and Technology—the blueprint for transforming our Company.
Velocity: Get There First
Leverage our mission knowledge to get to the future at speed and scale
Double-down on innovation
Strategically use mergers and acquisitions and partnerships to build market positions
Make decisions closer to the needs of clients
Leadership: Transform with Conviction
Redefine mission leadership to stand apart in this new era
Identify client needs ripe for hyper-growth
Scale businesses at the nexus of mission and technology
Technology: Differentiate to Win
Put technology at the heart of the client mission to define the next generation of impact
Use mission insights to develop solutions
Identify, build, and scale next generation technology to transform mission
With VoLT as the catalyst, our ambition is that by 2030 Booz Allen will be a market-leading mission partner for the U.S. government in the new digital environment, highly differentiated across a portfolio of scaled mission and technology businesses, and recognized for integrating, applying, and scaling technologies in the service of national mission priorities.
Our Clients
Booz Allen is committed to solving our clients’ toughest challenges, and we work with a diverse base of public and private sector clients across a number of industries in the U.S. and internationally, operating at the intersection of technology and mission understanding.
Our clients call us to work on their hardest problems, such as delivering effective healthcare, protecting soldiers in combat and their families, and keeping our national infrastructure secure. We are investing in markets, capabilities, and talent and are building new business models through strategic ventures, partnerships, and product offerings.
Our government clients include nearly all of the cabinet-level departments of the U.S. government. We also serve large commercial clients across industries, including financial services, health and life sciences, energy, and technology to solve their hardest and most sophisticated cyber challenges. Internationally, we also serve a portfolio of U.S. and non-U.S. government and commercial clients.
A Large Addressable Market
We believe that the U.S. government is the world’s largest consumer of management consulting and technology services. According to the Congressional Budget Office and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the U.S. government’s total spending for its fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 was $6.1 trillion. Memorandum baseline estimates for fiscal year 2023 indicate approximately $1.7 trillion was for discretionary budget authority, including $806 billion for the Department of Defense and intelligence community and $912 billion for civil agencies. Based on data from the Federal Procurement Data System, approximately $775.9 billion of the U.S. government’s fiscal year 2023 discretionary outlays were non-intelligence agency funding-related products and services procured from private contractors. We estimate that $172.8 billion of the spending directed toward private contractors in U.S. government fiscal year 2023 was for management, technology, and engineering services, with $89.0 billion spent by the Department of Defense and $83.8 billion spent by civil agencies. The agencies of the U.S. intelligence community that we serve represent an additional addressable market that is classified and, therefore, excluded from these numbers. These numbers also exclude a large addressable market for our services and capabilities in the global commercial markets where we have a modest footprint.
Highlights of Booz Allen’s fiscal 2024 are as follows:
We derived 98% of our revenue from contracts where the end client was an agency or department of the U.S. government.
We delivered services under 4,755 contracts and task orders.
We derived 95% of our revenue in fiscal 2024 from engagements for which we acted as the prime contractor.
We derived 13% of our revenue in fiscal 2024 from the Department of Veterans Affairs, which was the single largest client that we served in that year.
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Selected Long-Term Client Relationships        
Client (1)
Relationship
Length
(Years)
U.S. Navy80+
U.S. Army75+
Department of Veterans Affairs70+
Department of Energy45+
U.S. Air Force45+
National Security Agency40+
Department of Homeland Security40+
Federal Bureau of Investigation30+
Internal Revenue Service25+
Department of Health and Human Services25+
National Reconnaissance Office25+
A U.S. intelligence agency25+
 
(1)Includes predecessor organizations.
Defense Clients
We are a preferred partner to the Department of Defense in the generation and sustainment of differentiated mission outcomes. We blend decades of mission experience with state of-the-art AI/ML, next-generation data solutions, resilient communications, cyber, and advanced software development. As we operate in an environment where our adversaries are deeply investing in technology, we design open architectures to lower lifecycle cost and maintain a technical edge to modernize, achieve interoperability, and win. Our technologists partner with our mission experts to build solutions that deliver mission technologies for today’s digital battlespace, the fully networked conflict space extending across all warfighting domains.
Our core defense clients include all six branches of the U.S. military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, NASA and the Joint Staff. Our key defense clients include the Army, Navy/Marine Corps, Air Force, Space Force, Coast Guard, and Joint Combatant Commands.
Revenue generated from defense clients was $5.1 billion, or approximately 47.1% of our revenue, in fiscal 2024, as compared to $4.2 billion, or approximately 45.2% of our revenue, in fiscal 2023. Revenue generated from defense clients also includes foreign military sales and work performed under status of forces agreements to U.S. and non-U.S. government clients.
Intelligence Clients
We deliver innovative, high-value services, capabilities, and solutions that directly impact core national security missions across the Intelligence Community and national cyber mission providers. We leverage our knowledge of the mission and tailor our capabilities for our clients—our biggest driver is the demand for innovation, requiring us to be ahead of the pace of technology adoption. Technology is at the center of our clients' missions and ours—we are investing in emerging technologies like AI, zero trust cyber solutions, multi-cloud, and 5G to adapt ahead of adversaries. The national security workforce remains focused on what's next, blending cleared and uncleared talent across dispersed geographies, ensuring mission impact. Our combination of technology, innovation, and talent is helping to shape the future of our national security ecosystem.
Our intelligence clients are the 18 organizations of the U.S. Intelligence Community, which includes independent agencies, the Department of Defense elements, such as the National Security Agency and Defense Intelligence Agency, and other departments or agencies.
Revenue generated from intelligence clients was $1.8 billion, or approximately 16.6% of our revenue, in fiscal 2024, as compared to $1.7 billion, or approximately 18.2% of our revenue, in fiscal 2023.
Civil Clients
Our civil work centers on the federal missions that are the highest priority to the domestic agenda, and we excel at helping our clients innovate their most critical missions. From healthcare, homeland security, and financial services to justice, law enforcement, immigration, energy, transportation, and labor, we work at the core of the mission to address our clients' most pressing needs.
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Our major civil government clients include the Departments of Veterans Affairs, Health and Human Services, Treasury, Labor, Homeland Security, Justice, Energy, Commerce, and Transportation. Modernization and transformation are key needs of our clients, and we offer the technical expertise and mission understanding required to deliver innovative solutions to all our clients' needs across the civil portfolio.
Revenue generated from civil clients was $3.7 billion, or approximately 34.3% of our revenue, in fiscal 2024, as compared to $3.1 billion, or approximately 33.6% of our revenue, in fiscal 2023.
Global Commercial Clients
The Global Commercial business partners with clients, from sophisticated multinational organizations to small-to-medium sized organizations, to transform cybersecurity into a sustainable, competitive advantage to drive their businesses forward. We deliver advanced cyber defense solutions across two industry leading lines of business: enterprise consulting and incident response. Our team is led by practitioners with decades of cyber operational, strategic consulting, incident response, commercial, and federal experience. Our extensive industry expertise is earned through years of working with market leading clients in financial services, health and life sciences, software and technology, manufacturing, logistics, and energy.
Revenue generated from global commercial clients was $173.2 million, or approximately 1.6% of our revenue, in fiscal 2024, as compared to $231.6 million, or approximately 2.5% of our revenue, in fiscal 2023.
Contracts
Booz Allen’s approach has long been to ensure that we have prime or subcontractor positions on a wide range of contracts that allow clients maximum opportunity to access our services. Our diverse contract base provides stability to our business. This diversity shows that more than 85% of our revenue for fiscal 2024 was derived from 2,650 active task orders under IDIQ contract vehicles. Our top IDIQ contract vehicle represented approximately 15.2% of our revenue in fiscal 2024. Our largest task order under an IDIQ contract vehicle accounted for approximately 4.5% of our revenue in fiscal 2024. Our largest definite contract represented approximately 0.7% of our revenue in fiscal 2024. For risks related to our contracts, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Industry and Economic Risks.”
The U.S. government procures services through two predominant contracting methods: indefinite contract vehicles and definite contracts. Each of these is described below:
Indefinite contract vehicles provide for the issuance by the client of orders for services or products under the terms of the contract. Indefinite contracts are often referred to as contract vehicles or ordering contracts. IDIQ contracts may be awarded to one contractor (single award) or several contractors (multiple award). Under a multiple award IDIQ contract, there is no guarantee of work as contract holders must compete for individual work orders. IDIQ contracts will often include pre-established labor categories and rates, and the ordering process is streamlined (usually taking less than a month from recognition of a need to an established order with a contractor). IDIQ contracts often have multiyear terms and unfunded ceiling amounts, thereby enabling but not committing the U.S. government to purchase substantial amounts of products and services from one or more contractors in a streamlined procurement process.
Definite contracts call for the performance of specified services or the delivery of specified products. The U.S. government procures services and solutions through single award, definite contracts that specify the scope of services that will be delivered and identify the contractor that will provide the specified services. When an agency recognizes a need for services or products, it develops an acquisition plan, which details how it will procure those services or products. During the acquisition process, the agency may release a request for information to determine if qualified bidders exist, a draft request for a proposal to allow the industry to comment on the scope of work and acquisition strategy, and finally a formal request for a proposal. Following the evaluation of submitted proposals, the agency will award the contract to the winning bidder.
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Listed below are our top IDIQ contracts for fiscal 2024 and the number of active task orders under these contracts as of March 31, 2024
Fiscal
2024 Revenue
% of
Total
Revenue
Number of
Task Orders as of
March 31, 2024
Expiration Date (1)
 (in millions)
GSA Alliant 2$1,625.515.2%836/30/2028
(OASIS) One Acquisition Solution for Integrated Services1,225.211.5%983/1/2025
VA Transformation Twenty-One Total Technology Next Generation (T4NG) IDIQ765.97.2%123/6/2026
Liberty IT - VA T4NG IDIQ585.95.5%193/6/2026
DTIC Information Analysis Center Multiple Award Contract (IAC MAC) IDIQ571.85.4%599/29/2027
SeaPort Next Generation (SeaPort NxG) IDIQ558.95.2%371/1/2029
Alliant375.03.5%244/30/2019
Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) - Formerly known as Information Technology (IT) Schedule 70 (New)197.11.8%276/28/2036
CIOSP3170.21.6%234/29/2024
Solutions for Intelligence Analysis 3 IDIQ165.51.6%78/4/2029
(1) Expiration date applies to the IDIQ vehicle. Task orders awarded under the IDIQ can run past the expiration of the IDIQ itself.
Listed below for each specified revenue band is the number of task orders, revenue derived from the task orders, and average duration of the task orders as of March 31, 2024. The table includes revenue earned during fiscal 2024 under all task orders that were active during fiscal 2024 under these IDIQ contracts and the number of active task orders on which this revenue was earned. Average duration reflected in the table below is calculated based on the inception date of the task order, which may be prior to the beginning of fiscal 2024, and the completion date which may have been prior or subsequent to March 31, 2024. As a result, the actual average remaining duration for task orders included in this table may be less than the average duration shown in the table, and task orders included in the table may have been complete on March 31, 2024. 
Segmentation of Task Order by Revenue Fiscal 2024
Number of Task
Orders Active During Fiscal 2024
Fiscal 2024 
Revenue
(in millions)
% of Total
Revenue
Average
Duration
(Years)
Less than $1 million1,891$357.23%2.3
Between $1 million and $3 million341603.96%3.6
Between $3 million and $5 million142542.25%4.0
Between $5 million and $10 million122862.88%4.5
Greater than $10 million1546,758.563%4.8
Total2,650$9,124.685%2.8
Listed below are our top definite contracts for fiscal 2024 and revenue recognized under these contracts. Classified contracts that cannot be named are noted generically in the table:
Fiscal
2024 Revenue
% of
Total Revenue
Expiration
Date
 (in millions)
Classified Contract$72.5 0.7%6/30/2025
Classified Contract69.0 0.6%12/29/2023
USDA FOREST SERVICES R1S46.6 0.4%9/30/2028
Classified Contract46.5 0.4%3/31/2025
Classified Contract38.2 0.4%4/18/2028
Classified Contract33.2 0.3%9/16/2024
ARPA-E SETA BRIDGE V32.8 0.3%4/30/2024
Classified Contract30.8 0.3%1/18/2029
Classified Contract29.6 0.3%1/7/2024
Classified Contract27.2 0.3%7/31/2024
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Backlog
We define backlog to include the following three components:
Funded Backlog. Funded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding is appropriated or otherwise authorized less revenue previously recognized on these contracts.
Unfunded Backlog. Unfunded backlog represents the revenue value of orders (including optional orders) for services under existing contracts for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Priced Options. Priced contract options represent 100% of the revenue value of all future contract option periods under existing contracts that may be exercised at our clients’ option and for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Our backlog does not include contracts that have been awarded but are currently under protest, and also does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts.
The following table summarizes the value of our contract backlog as of the respective periods shown: 
 As of March 31,
 20242023
 (in millions)
Funded$4,822 $4,619 
Unfunded9,463 9,519 
Priced options19,533 17,064 
Total backlog$33,818 $31,202 
We may never realize all of the revenue that is included in our total backlog, and there is a higher degree of risk in this regard with respect to unfunded backlog and priced options. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors and Trends Affecting Our Results of Operations—Sources of Revenue—Contract Backlog” for additional disclosure regarding our backlog. See also “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Industry and Economic Risks—We may not realize the full value of our backlog, which may result in lower than expected revenue.”
Competition
The government services market is highly fragmented and competition within the government professional services industry has intensified as a result of market pressure and consolidation activity. In addition to professional service companies like ours that focus principally on the provision of services to the U.S. government, other companies active in our markets include large defense contractors; diversified consulting, technology, and outsourcing service providers; and small businesses.
Changing government policies and market dynamics are impacting the competitive landscape. In the past, the government’s focus on organizational conflicts of interest has driven divestitures, which have changed the competitive landscape. There has been increasing pressure from government clients to utilize small businesses, in large part because of a push by both past and present administrations to bolster the economy by helping small business owners. Finally, as a result of the foregoing factors and the drive in our markets to quickly build competencies in growth areas and achieve economies of scale, we believe that consolidation activity among market participants will continue.
In the course of doing business, we compete and collaborate with companies of all types and sizes. We strive to maintain positive and productive relationships with these organizations. Some of them hire us as a subcontractor, and we hire some of them to work with us as our subcontractors. Our major competitors include: (1) contractors focused principally on the provision of services to the U.S. government, (2) large defense contractors that provide both products and services to the U.S. government, and (3) diversified service providers. We compete based on our technical expertise and client knowledge, our ability to successfully recruit and retain appropriately skilled and experienced talent, our ability to deliver cost-effective multifaceted services in a timely manner, our reputation and relationship with our clients, our past performance, security clearances, and the size and scale of our Company. In addition, to maintain our competitive position, we routinely review our operating structure, capabilities, and strategy to determine whether we are effectively meeting the needs of existing clients, effectively responding to developments in our markets, and successfully building a platform intended to provide the foundation for the future growth of our business.
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Patents and Proprietary Information
Our management and technology consulting services business utilizes a variety of proprietary rights in delivering products and services to our clients. We claim a proprietary interest in certain service offerings, products, software tools, methodologies, and know-how, and also have certain licenses to third-party intellectual property that may be significant to our business. While we have several patents issued and pending in the United States and in certain foreign countries, we do not consider our overall business to be materially dependent on the protection of such patents. In addition, we have a number of trade secrets that contribute to our success and competitive position, and we endeavor to protect this proprietary information. While protecting trade secrets and proprietary information is important, we are not materially dependent on any specific trade secret or group of trade secrets.
We rely on a combination of nondisclosure agreements and other contractual arrangements, as well as copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws, to protect our proprietary information. We also enter into proprietary information and intellectual property agreements with employees, which require them to disclose any inventions created during employment, to convey such rights to inventions to us, and to restrict any disclosure of proprietary information. We have a variety of trademarks registered in the United States and certain foreign countries, including “Booz Allen Hamilton” and “Booz Allen.” Generally, registered trademarks have perpetual life, provided that they are renewed on a timely basis and continue to be used properly as trademarks. We have registered trademarks related to our name and logo in the United States, with the earliest renewal in November 2032, while the earliest renewal for our trademarks outside of the United States is October 2024.
For our work under U.S. government funded contracts and subcontracts, the U.S. government obtains certain rights to data, software, and related information developed under such contracts or subcontracts. These rights may allow the U.S. government to disclose such data, software, and related information to third parties, which may include our competitors in some instances. In the case of our work as a subcontractor, our prime contractor may also have certain rights to data, information, and products we develop under the subcontract.
Booz Allen Hamilton and other trademarks or service marks of Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. appearing in this Annual Report are the trademarks or registered trademarks of Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. Trade names, trademarks, and service marks of other companies appearing in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners.
Regulation
As a contractor to the U.S. government, as well as state and local governments, we are heavily regulated in most fields in which we operate. We deal with numerous U.S. government agencies and entities, and, when working with these and other entities, we must comply with and are affected by unique laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of public government contracts. Some significant laws and regulations that affect us include the following:
the FAR, and agency regulations supplemental to the FAR, which regulate the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts. For example, FAR 52.203-13 requires contractors to establish a Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, implement a comprehensive internal control system, and report to the government when the contractor has credible evidence that a principal, employee, agent, or subcontractor, in connection with a government contract, has violated certain federal criminal laws, violated the civil False Claims Act, or has received a significant overpayment;
the False Claims Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for violations, including substantial monetary penalties, for, among other things, presenting false or fraudulent claims for payments or approval;
the False Statements Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for making false statements to the U.S. government;
the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Statute (formerly known as the Truth in Negotiations Act), which requires certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with the negotiation of certain contracts, modifications, or task orders;
the Procurement Integrity Act, which regulates access to competitor bid and proposal information and certain internal government procurement sensitive information, and our ability to provide compensation to certain former government procurement officials;
laws and regulations restricting the ability of a contractor to provide gifts or gratuities to employees of the U.S. government;
post-government employment laws and regulations, which restrict the ability of a contractor to recruit and hire current employees of the U.S. government and deploy former employees of the U.S. government;
laws, regulations, and executive orders restricting the handling, use, and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes or determined to be “controlled unclassified information” or “for official use only,” and the export of certain products, services, and technical data, including requirements regarding any applicable licensing of our employees involved in such work;
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laws, regulations, and executive orders, regulating the handling, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information in the course of performing a U.S. government contract;
international trade compliance laws, regulations, and executive orders that prohibit business with certain sanctioned entities and require authorization for certain exports or imports in order to protect national security and global stability;
laws, regulations, and executive orders governing organizational conflicts of interest that may restrict our ability to compete for certain U.S. government contracts because of the work that we currently perform for the U.S. government or may require that we take measures such as firewalling off certain employees or restricting their future work activities due to the current work that they perform under a U.S. government contract;
laws, regulations, and executive orders that impose requirements on us to ensure compliance with requirements and protect the government from risks related to our supply chain;
laws, regulations, and mandatory contract provisions providing protections to employees or subcontractors seeking to report alleged fraud, waste, and abuse related to a government contract;
the Contractor Business Systems rule, which authorizes Department of Defense agencies to withhold a portion of our payments if we are determined to have a significant deficiency in our accounting, cost estimating, purchasing, earned value management, material management and accounting, and/or property management system; and
the Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles, which impose accounting and allowability requirements that govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based U.S. government contracts and require consistency of accounting practices over time.
Given the magnitude of our revenue derived from contracts with the Department of Defense, the Defense Contract Audit Agency (“DCAA”) is our cognizant government audit agency. The DCAA audits the adequacy of our internal control systems and policies including, among other areas, compensation. The Defense Contract Management Agency (“DCMA”), as our cognizant government contract management agency, may determine that a portion of our employee compensation is unallowable based on the findings and recommendations in the DCAA's audits. In addition, the DCMA directly reviews the adequacy of certain of our business systems, such as our purchasing system. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—Our work with government clients exposes us to additional risks inherent in the government contracting environment, which could reduce our revenue, disrupt our business, or otherwise materially adversely affect our results of operations.” We are also subject to audit by Inspectors General of other U.S. government agencies.
The U.S. government may revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract rules and regulations at any time. To help ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, all of our employees are required to attend ethics training at least annually, and to participate in other compliance training relevant to their position. Internationally, we are subject to special U.S. government laws and regulations (such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act), local government regulations and procurement policies and practices, including regulations relating to import-export control, investments, exchange controls, and repatriation of earnings, as well as varying currency, political, and economic risks.
U.S. government contracts are, by their terms, subject to termination by the U.S. government either for its convenience or default by the contractor. In addition, U.S. government contracts are conditioned upon the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Congress usually appropriates funds for a given program on a September 30 fiscal year basis, even though contract performance could take many years. As is common in the industry, our Company is subject to business risks, including changes in governmental appropriations, national defense policies, service modernization plans, and availability of funds. Any of these factors could materially adversely affect our Company’s business with the U.S. government in the future.
The U.S. government has a broad range of actions that it can instigate to enforce its procurement law and policies. These include proposing a contractor, certain of its operations or individual employees for debarment or suspending or debarring a contractor, certain of its operations or individual employees from future government business. In addition to criminal, civil, and administrative actions by the U.S. government, under the False Claims Act, an individual alleging fraud related to payments under a U.S. government contract or program may file a qui tam lawsuit on behalf of the government against us; if successful in obtaining a judgment or settlement, the individual filing the suit may receive up to 30% of the amount recovered by the government.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks—We are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations, some of which are highly complex, and our failure to comply could result in fines or civil or criminal penalties or suspension or debarment by the U.S. government that could result in our inability to continue to work on or receive U.S. government contracts, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.”
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Available Information
We file annual, quarterly, and current reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC, including us. You may also access, free of charge, our reports filed with the SEC (for example, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those forms) through the “Investors” portion of our website (www.boozallen.com). Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website is included in this Annual Report as an inactive textual reference only. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
You should consider and read carefully all of the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as other information included in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. The risks described below are not the only ones facing us. The occurrence of any of the following risks or additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. This Annual Report also contains forward-looking statements and estimates that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of specific factors, including the risks and uncertainties described below.
This risk factor summary contains a high-level summary of risks associated with our business. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read this risk factor summary together with the more detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties set forth following this summary. A summary of our risks includes, but is not limited to, the following:
Industry and Economic Risks
risks relating to our relationships with the U.S. government;
changes in U.S. government spending and mission priorities, including due to uncertainty relating to funding of the U.S. government and increasing the debt ceiling;
the effects of disease outbreaks, pandemics, or widespread health epidemics, including disruptions to our workforce and the impact on government spending and demand for our solutions;
our ability to compete effectively in the competitive bidding and re-competing processes and delays or losses of contract awards caused by competitors’ protests of major contract awards received by us;
the loss of GSA schedules, or our position as prime contractor on GWACs;
variable purchasing patterns under GSA schedules, blanket purchase agreements, and IDIQ contracts;
changes in the mix of our contracts and our ability to accurately estimate or otherwise recover expenses, time, and resources for our contracts;
changes in estimates used in recognizing revenue;
our ability to realize the full value of and replenish our backlog, generate revenue under certain of our contracts, and the timing of our receipt of revenue under contracts included in backlog;
risks related to inflation that could impact the cost of doing business and/or reduce customer buying power;
risks related to the deterioration of economic conditions or weakening in the credit or capital markets;
internal system or service failures and security breaches, including, but not limited to, those resulting from external or internal threats, including cyber attacks on our network and internal systems;
risks related to the use of artificial intelligence, which include potential liability as well as regulatory, competition, reputational and other risks;
risks related to the operation of financial management systems;
our ability to attract, train, or retain employees with the requisite skills and experience and ensure that employees obtain and maintain necessary security clearances and effectively manage our cost structure;
the loss of members of senior management or failure to develop new leaders;
misconduct or other improper activities from our employees, subcontractors, or suppliers, including the improper access, use, or release of our or our clients’ sensitive or classified information;
the impact of increased competition from other companies in our industry;
failure to maintain strong relationships with other contractors, or the failure of contractors with which we have entered into a sub- or prime-contractor relationship to meet their obligations to us or our clients;
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risks related to changes to our operating structure, capabilities, or strategy intended to address client needs, grow our business, or respond to market developments; and
risks related to completed and future acquisitions, including our ability to realize the expected benefits from such acquisitions.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
failure to comply with numerous laws and regulations, including the FAR, False Claims Act, DFARS, and FAR Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles;
risks related to our international operations;
the adoption by the U.S. government of new laws, rules, and regulations, such as those relating to organizational conflicts of interest issues or limits;
the incurrence of additional tax liabilities, including as a result of changes in tax laws or management judgments involving complex tax matters;
continued efforts to change how the U.S. government reimburses compensation related costs and other expenses or otherwise limit such reimbursements and an increased risk of compensation being deemed unreasonable and unallowable or payments being withheld as a result of U.S. government audit, review, or investigation;
inherent uncertainties and potential adverse developments in legal or regulatory proceedings;
the impact of changes in accounting rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, that may affect the way we recognize and report our financial results, including changes in accounting rules governing recognition of revenue; and
the impact of ESG-related risks and climate change generally on our and our clients' businesses and operations.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
the impact of our substantial indebtedness and our ability to service and refinance such indebtedness; and
the restrictions and limitations in the agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
the volatility of the market price of our Class A common stock;
the timing and amount of our dividends, if any; and
the impact of fulfilling our obligations incident to being a public company.
Industry and Economic Risks
We depend on contracts with U.S. government agencies for substantially all of our revenue. If our relationships with such agencies are harmed, our future revenue and operating profits would decline.
The U.S. government is our primary client, with revenue from contracts and task orders, either as a prime or a subcontractor, with U.S. government agencies accounting for 98% of our revenue for fiscal year 2024. Our belief is that the successful future growth of our business will continue to depend primarily on our ability to be awarded work under U.S. government contracts, as we expect this will be the primary source of substantially all of our revenue in the foreseeable future. For this reason, any issue that compromises our relationship with the U.S. government generally or any U.S. government agency that we serve would cause our revenue to decline. Among the key factors in maintaining our relationship with U.S. government agencies is our performance on contracts and task orders, the strength of our professional reputation, compliance with applicable laws and regulations, and the strength of our relationships with client personnel. In addition, the mishandling or the perception of mishandling of sensitive information, such as our failure to maintain the confidentiality of the existence of our business relationships with certain of our clients, including as a result of misconduct or other improper activities by our employees, subcontractors, or suppliers, or a failure to maintain adequate protection against security breaches, including those resulting from cyber attacks, could harm our relationship with U.S. government agencies. See “—Our employees or subcontractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, which could harm our ability to conduct business with the U.S. government.” Our relationship with the U.S. government could also be damaged as a result of an agency’s dissatisfaction with work performed by us, a subcontractor, or other third parties who provide services or products for a specific project for any reason, including due to perceived or actual deficiencies in the performance or quality of our work, and we may incur additional costs to address any such situation and the profitability of that work might be impaired. Further, negative publicity concerning government contractors in general, or us, regardless of accuracy, may harm our reputation among federal agencies and federal government contractors. Due to the sensitive nature of our work and our confidentiality obligations to our customers, we may be unable or limited in our ability to respond to such negative publicity, which could also harm our reputation and business. To the extent our reputation or relationships with U.S. government agencies is impaired, our revenue and operating profits could materially decline.
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U.S. government spending levels and mission priorities could change in a manner that adversely affects our future revenue and limits our growth prospects.
Our business depends upon continued U.S. government expenditures on defense, intelligence, and civil programs for which we provide support. These expenditures have not remained constant over time, have been reduced in certain periods, and have been affected by the U.S. government’s efforts to improve efficiency and reduce costs affecting U.S. government programs generally. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be materially harmed by, among other causes, the following:
budgetary constraints, including mandated automatic spending cuts, affecting U.S. government spending generally, or specific agencies in particular, and changes in available funding;
a shift in the permissible federal debt limit;
a shift in expenditures away from agencies or programs that we support;
reduced U.S. government outsourcing of functions that we are currently contracted to provide, including as a result of increased insourcing by various U.S. government agencies due to changes in the definition of “inherently governmental” work, including proposals to limit contractor access to sensitive or classified information and work assignments;
changes or delays in U.S. government programs that we support or related requirements;
U.S. government shutdowns due to, among other reasons, a failure to fund the government and other potential delays in the appropriations process;
U.S. government agencies awarding contracts on a technically acceptable/lowest cost basis in order to reduce expenditures;
delays in the payment of our invoices by government payment offices;
an inability by the U.S. government to fund its operations as a result of a failure to increase the U.S. government’s debt ceiling, the exhaustion of “extraordinary measures” to borrow additional funds without breaching the government’s debt ceiling, a credit downgrade of U.S. government obligations or for any other reason; and
changes in the political climate and general economic conditions, including political changes from successive presidential administrations, a slowdown of the economy or unstable economic conditions and other conditions, such as emergency spending, that reduce funds available for other government priorities.
In addition, any disruption in the functioning of U.S. government agencies, including as a result of U.S. government closures and shutdowns, terrorism, war, international conflicts (including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the ongoing conflict between Israel and Hamas), natural disasters, public health crises, destruction of U.S. government facilities, and other potential calamities could have a negative impact on our operations and cause us to lose revenue or incur additional costs due to, among other things, our inability to deploy our staff to client locations or facilities as a result of such disruptions.
The U.S. government budget deficits, the national debt, and prevailing economic conditions, and actions taken to address them, could negatively affect U.S. government expenditures on defense, intelligence, and civil programs for which we provide support. The Department of Defense is one of our significant clients and cost cutting, including through consolidation and elimination of duplicative organizations and insourcing, has become a major initiative for the Department of Defense. A reduction in the amount of, or delays or cancellations of funding for, services that we are contracted to provide as a result of any of these related initiatives, legislation, or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, government agencies have reduced management support services spending in recent years. If federal awards for management support services continue to decline, our revenue and operating profits may materially decline and could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Considerable uncertainty exists regarding how future budget and program decisions will unfold, including the spending priorities of the U.S. government. In January 2025, the U.S. Congress may have to contend with the legal limit on U.S. debt commonly known as the debt ceiling. If the debt ceiling is not raised, the U.S. government may not be able to fulfill its funding obligations and there could be significant disruption to all discretionary programs, which would have corresponding impacts on us and our industry.
If government funding relating to our contracts with the U.S. government or Department of Defense becomes unavailable, or is reduced or delayed, or planned orders are reduced, our contract or subcontract under such programs may be terminated or adjusted by the U.S. government or the prime contractor, if applicable. Our operating results could also be adversely affected by spending caps or changes in the budgetary priorities of the U.S. government or Department of Defense, as well as delays in program starts or the award of contracts or task orders under contracts.
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These or other factors could cause our defense, intelligence, or civil clients to decrease the number of new contracts awarded generally and fail to award us new contracts, reduce their purchases under our existing contracts, exercise their right to terminate our contracts, or not exercise options to renew our contracts, any of which could cause a material decline in our revenue.
The effects of a disease outbreak, pandemic or widespread health epidemic could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Disease outbreaks, pandemics or similar widespread health epidemics and attempts to contain and reduce their spread may adversely affect U.S. and global economies, including impacts to supply chains, customer demand, international trade, and capital markets. These effects may adversely affect certain of our business operations and may materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and equity.
We have taken precautionary measures intended to minimize the risk of disease outbreaks, pandemics or similar widespread health epidemics, to our employees, our clients, and the communities in which we operate, as well as remedial measures to address residual, lasting issues, including increased medical costs and a rise in mental health issues, which could negatively impact our business. In addition, some of our employees, clients, and subcontractors are located in foreign countries, which may be impacted differently from the United States depending on their circumstances. Although the Company has business continuity plans and other safeguards in place, there is no assurance that such plans and safeguards will be effective or that such measures will not adversely affect our operations or long-term plans. In addition, as local conditions and regulations respond to the risks of disease outbreaks, pandemics or similar widespread health epidemics regarding the return of employees to offices generally, our workforce may not be able to return to work in person immediately, if at all, or may instead choose to pursue competing employment opportunities, including as a result of transportation, childcare, and ongoing health issues, which could negatively affect our business.
In addition, disease outbreaks, pandemics or widespread health epidemics may disrupt the operations of our clients, suppliers, vendors, service providers, and subcontractors, including as a result of travel restrictions, business shutdowns, key material shortages, or lack of access to financial markets, all of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations. Any inability to develop alternative sources of supply on a cost-effective and timely basis could materially impair our ability to provide products, systems, and services to our clients.
We derive a majority of our revenue from contracts awarded through a competitive bidding process, and our revenue and profitability may be adversely affected if we are unable to compete or re-compete effectively in the process or if there are delays caused by our competitors protesting major contract awards received by us.
We derive a majority of our revenue from U.S. government contracts awarded through competitive bidding and re-competing processes. We do not expect this to change for the foreseeable future. Our failure to compete effectively in this procurement environment would have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.
The competitive bidding and re-competing processes involve risk and significant costs to businesses operating in this environment, including:
the necessity to expend resources, make financial commitments (such as procuring leased premises), and bid on engagements in advance of the completion of their design, which may result in unforeseen difficulties in execution, cost overruns and, in the case of an unsuccessful competition, the loss of committed costs;
the substantial cost and managerial time and effort spent to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may not be awarded to us;
the ability to accurately estimate the resources and costs that will be required to service any contract we are awarded;
the expense and delay that may arise if our competitors protest or challenge contract awards made to us pursuant to competitive bidding, and the risk that any such protest or challenge could result in the resubmission of bids on modified specifications, or in termination, reduction, or modification of the awarded contract; and
any opportunity cost of not bidding and winning other contracts we might have otherwise pursued.
In circumstances where contracts are held by other companies and are scheduled to expire, we still may not be provided the opportunity to bid on those contracts if the U.S. government determines to extend the existing contract. If we are unable to win particular contracts that are awarded through the competitive bidding and re-competing processes, we may not be able to operate in the market for services that are provided under those contracts for the duration of those contracts to the extent that there is no additional demand for such services. An inability to consistently win new contract awards over any extended period would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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We have seen our current competitive environment result in an increase in the number of bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. It can take many months for the relevant U.S. government agency to resolve protests by one or more of our competitors of contract awards we receive. Bid protests may result in significant expense to us, contract modification, or loss of an awarded contract as a result of the award being overturned. Even where we do not lose the awarded contract, the resulting delay in the startup and funding of the work under these contracts may cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
A significant majority of our revenue is derived from task orders under indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity, or IDIQ, contract vehicles where we perform in either a prime or subcontractor position.
We believe that one of the key elements of our success is our position as the holder of 2,650 active task orders under IDIQ contract vehicles as of March 31, 2024.
IDIQ contracts provide for the issuance by the client of orders for services or products under the contract, and often contain multi-year terms and unfunded ceiling amounts, which allow but do not commit the U.S. government to purchase products and services from contractors. Our ability to generate revenue under each of these types of contracts depends upon our ability to be awarded task orders for specific services by the client. IDIQ contracts may be awarded to one contractor (single award) or several contractors (multiple award). Multiple contractors must compete under multiple award IDIQ contracts for task orders to provide particular services, and contractors earn revenue only to the extent that they successfully compete for these task orders. A failure to be awarded task orders under such contracts would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, our ability to maintain our existing business and win new business depends on our ability to maintain our prime and subcontractor positions on these contracts. The loss, without replacement, of certain of these contract vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our ability to win new business and our operating results. If the U.S. government elects to use a contract vehicle that we do not hold, we will not be able to compete for work under that contract vehicle as a prime contractor.
Our earnings and profitability may vary based on the mix of our contracts and may be adversely affected by our failure to accurately estimate or otherwise recover the expenses, time, and resources for our contracts.
We enter into three general types of U.S. government contracts for our services: cost-reimbursable, time-and-materials, and fixed-price. Each of these types of contracts, to varying degrees, involves the risk that we could underestimate our cost of fulfilling the contract, which may reduce the profit we earn or lead to a financial loss on the contract and adversely affect our operating results.
Under cost-reimbursable contracts, we are reimbursed for allowable costs up to a ceiling and paid a fee, which may be fixed or performance-based. If our actual costs exceed the contract ceiling or are not allowable under the terms of the contract or applicable regulations, we may not be able to recover those costs. In particular, there is ongoing focus by the U.S. government on the extent to which government contractors, including us, are able to receive reimbursement for employee compensation, including the adoption of interim rules by federal agencies implementing a section of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, as amended, that substantially decreased the level of allowable compensation cost for executive-level employees and further applied the newly reduced limitation to all employees. In addition, there is an increased risk of compensation being deemed unallowable or payments being withheld as a result of U.S. government audit, review, or investigation.
Under time-and-materials contracts, we are reimbursed for labor at negotiated hourly billing rates and for certain allowable expenses. We assume financial risk on time-and-materials contracts because our costs of performance may exceed these negotiated hourly rates.
Under fixed-price contracts, we perform specific tasks for a predetermined price. Compared to time-and-materials and cost-reimbursable contracts, fixed-price contracts generally offer higher margin opportunities because we receive the benefits of any cost savings, but involve greater financial risk because we bear the impact of any cost overruns. The U.S. government has generally indicated that it intends to increase its use of fixed price contract procurements. Because we assume the risk for cost overruns and contingent losses on fixed-price contracts, an increase in the percentage of fixed-price contracts in our contract mix would increase our risk of suffering losses.
Additionally, our profits could be adversely affected if our costs under any such contract exceed the assumptions we used in bidding for the contract. For example, we may miscalculate the costs, resources, or time needed to complete projects or meet contractual milestones as a result of delays on a particular project, including delays in designs, engineering information, or materials provided by the customer or a third party, delays or difficulties in equipment and material delivery, schedule changes, and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. We record provisions in our consolidated financial statements for losses on our contracts when necessary, as required under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, but our contract loss provisions may not be adequate to cover all actual losses that we may incur in the future.
Our professional reputation and relationships with U.S. government agencies are critical to our business, and any harm to our reputation or relationships could decrease the amount of business the U.S. government does with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our future revenue and growth prospects.
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We depend on our contracts with U.S. government agencies for substantially all of our revenue and if our reputation or relationships with these agencies were harmed, our future revenue and growth prospects would be materially and adversely affected. Our reputation and relationship with the U.S. government is a key factor in maintaining and growing revenue under contracts with the U.S. government. In addition, a significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing, and implementing advanced defense and technology systems and products, including cybersecurity products and services. Negative press reports regarding poor contract performance, employee misconduct, information security breaches, engagements in or perceived connections to politically or socially sensitive activities, or other aspects of our business, or regarding government contractors generally, could harm our reputation. In addition, to the extent our performance under a contract does not meet a U.S. government agency’s expectations, the client might seek to terminate the contract prior to its scheduled expiration date, provide a negative assessment of our performance to government-maintained contractor past-performance data repositories, fail to award us additional business under existing contracts or otherwise, and direct future business to our competitors. If our reputation or relationships with these agencies are negatively affected, or if we are suspended or debarred from contracting with government agencies for any reason, such actions would decrease the amount of business that the U.S. government does with us, which would have a material adverse effect on our future revenue and growth prospects.
We use estimates in recognizing revenue and if we make changes to estimates used in recognizing revenue, our profitability may be adversely affected.
Revenue from our fixed-price contracts is primarily recognized using the percentage-of-completion method with progress toward completion of a particular contract based on actual costs incurred relative to total estimated costs to be incurred over the life of the contract. Revenue from our cost-reimbursable-plus-award-fee contracts are based on our estimation of award fees over the life of the contract. Estimating costs at completion and award fees on our long-term contracts is complex and involves significant judgment. Adjustments to original estimates are often required as work progresses, experience is gained, and additional information becomes known, even though the scope of the work required under the contract may not change. Any adjustment as a result of a change in estimate is recognized as events become known.
In the event updated estimates indicate that we will experience a loss on a contract, we recognize the estimated loss at the time it is determined. Additional information may subsequently indicate that the loss is more or less than initially recognized, which requires further adjustments in our consolidated financial statements. Changes in the underlying assumptions, circumstances, or estimates could result in adjustments that could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations.
We may not realize the full value of our backlog, which may result in lower than expected revenue.
Our backlog does not include contracts that have been awarded but are currently under protest and also does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts, except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts. For additional disclosure regarding our backlog, please see “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Factors and Trends Affecting Our Results of Operations—Sources of Revenue—Contract Backlog.”
We historically have not realized all of the revenue included in our total backlog, and we may not realize all of the revenue included in our current or future total backlog. There is a higher degree of risk in this regard with respect to unfunded backlog and priced options. In addition, there can be no assurance that our backlog will result in actual revenue in any particular period. This is because the actual receipt, timing, and amount of revenue under contracts included in backlog are subject to various contingencies, including congressional appropriations, many of which are beyond our control. The actual receipt of revenue from contracts included in backlog may never occur or may be delayed because: a program schedule could change or the program could be canceled; a contract’s funding or scope could be reduced, modified, delayed, de-obligated, or terminated early, including as a result of a lack of appropriated funds or cost cutting initiatives and other efforts to reduce U.S. government spending and/or the automatic federal defense spending cuts required by sequestration; in the case of funded backlog, the period of performance for the contract has expired or the U.S. government has exercised its unilateral right to cancel multi-year contracts and related orders or terminate existing contracts for convenience or default; in the case of unfunded backlog, funding may not be available; or, in the case of priced options, our clients may not exercise their options. In addition, client staff headcount growth is the primary means by which we are able to recognize revenue growth. Any inability to hire additional appropriately qualified personnel or failure to timely and effectively deploy such additional personnel against funded backlog could negatively affect our ability to grow our revenue. We may also not recognize revenue on funded backlog due to, among other reasons, the tardy submissions of invoices by our subcontractors and the expiration of the relevant appropriated funding in accordance with a predetermined expiration date such as the end of the U.S. government's fiscal year. The amount of our funded backlog is also subject to change, due to, among other factors: changes in congressional appropriations that reflect changes in U.S. government policies or priorities resulting from various military, political, economic, or international developments; changes in the use of U.S. government contracting vehicles, and the provisions therein used to procure our services; and adjustments to the scope of services under, or cancellation of contracts, by the U.S. government at any time. Furthermore, even if our backlog results in revenue, the contracts may not be profitable.
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Systems that we develop, integrate, maintain, or otherwise support could experience security breaches which may damage our reputation with our clients and hinder future contract win rates.
We develop, integrate, maintain, or otherwise support systems and provide services that include managing and protecting information involved in intelligence, national security, and other sensitive government functions. Our systems also store and process sensitive Company and commercial client information, including personally identifiable, health and financial information. The cybersecurity threats we and our clients face have grown more frequent and sophisticated, including but not limited to bad actors looking to augment traditional cyber tools and tradecraft with artificial intelligence capabilities that increase the speed, scale, and intricacy of threats. A security breach, including from insider threats, could result in the exfiltration of our or our clients’ data and has the potential to do serious harm to our business, damage our reputation, prevent us from executing further work on sensitive systems for U.S. government or commercial clients, and/or hinder future contract win rates. Damage to our reputation or limitations on our eligibility for additional work or any liability resulting from a security breach in one of the systems we develop, install, maintain, or otherwise support could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Certain services we provide and technologies we develop are designed to detect and monitor threats to our clients and may expose our staff to financial loss or physical or reputational harm.
We help our clients detect, monitor and mitigate threats to their people, information, and facilities. These threats may originate from nation states, terrorists or criminal actors, activist hackers or others who seek to harm our clients. Successful attacks on our clients may cause reputational harm to us and our clients, as well as liability to our clients or third parties. In addition, if we are associated with our clients in this regard, our staff, systems, information, and facilities may be targeted by a similar group of threat actors and may be at risk for financial loss, or physical or reputational harm.
Internal system or service failures, or those of our vendors, including as a result of cyber or other security threats, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide our services to our clients, which could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We create, implement, integrate, and maintain information technology (“IT”) systems that (a) are often mission critical, (b) regularly involve sensitive information, (c) may be deployed within war zones or other hazardous environments, and/or (d) can include information whose confidentiality is protected by law or contract. Additionally, we maintain internal systems housing sensitive employee and confidential company data. As a result, our systems and IT work products are susceptible to systems or service failures resulting from technical complexity, failures of third-party service providers, natural disasters, power shortages, insider threats (including improper access to the Company’s, clients’ or third parties’ information or resources, employee error, or malfeasance), terrorist attacks, physical or electronic security breaches, cyber attacks, computer viruses, or similar events or disruptions. Our systems and IT work product are the target of constantly evolving cyber attack vectors, including malware, social engineering, denial-of-service attacks, malicious software programs, phishing, account takeovers, and other cyber attacks fueled by emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence. We have noticed an increase in the frequency and sophistication of the cyber and security threats these systems face, with attacks that are more advanced and persistent, targeting us because, as a defense services contractor, we hold classified, controlled unclassified, and other sensitive information. As a result, we and our vendors face a heightened risk of a security breach or disruption resulting from an attack by computer hackers, persons with access to systems inside our organization, foreign governments, and cyber terrorists.
We have put in place policies, controls, and technologies to help detect and protect against such attacks, but we cannot guarantee that future incidents will not occur. If an incident occurs, we may not be able to successfully mitigate the impact. We have been the target of these types of attacks in the past, and attempted attacks are likely to continue. Due to the ongoing geopolitical conflicts in Europe and the Middle East, and increased tensions in Asia, state-sponsored parties or their supporters may launch retaliatory cyber attacks, and may attempt to conduct other geopolitically motivated retaliatory actions. Those same parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees or authorized third parties, including contractors, to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our systems or data, or that of our clients, customers, or service providers. If successful, these types of attacks on our network or other systems or service failures could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, due to, among other things, the loss of client or proprietary data, interruptions or delays in our clients' businesses, or damage to our reputation. In addition, the failure or disruption of our systems, communications, vendors, or utilities could cause us to interrupt or suspend our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. If our employees, contractors, suppliers or other authorized third parties do not adhere (whether inadvertently or intentionally) to appropriate information security protocols, our protocols are inadequate, or our or our clients' sensitive information is released and/or compromised, we may experience significant negative impacts to our reputation and expose us or our clients to liability. We are not immune from the possibility of a malicious insider compromising our information systems and infrastructure, including but not limited to insiders exfiltrating the personal data of employees and clients, stealing corporate trade secrets and key financial metrics, and illegally diverting funds. No series of measures can fully safeguard against every insider threat. Refer to “Item 1C. Cybersecurity” for additional information about our cybersecurity risk management program.
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If our or our vendors' systems, services, or other applications have significant defects, errors, or vulnerabilities, are successfully attacked by cyber and other security threats, suffer delivery delays, or otherwise fail to meet our clients’ expectations, we may:
lose revenue due to adverse client reaction;
be required to provide additional services to a client at no charge;
incur additional costs related to remediation, monitoring, and enhancing our cybersecurity;
lose revenue due to the deployment of employees for remediation efforts instead of client assignments;
receive negative publicity, which could damage our reputation and credibility of our brand and adversely affect our ability to attract or retain clients or talent;
be unable to successfully market services that are reliant on the creation and maintenance of secure information technology systems to U.S. government, international, and commercial clients;
suffer claims by clients, employees, or impacted third parties for substantial damages, particularly as a result of any successful network or systems breach and exfiltration of client and/or third-party information; or
incur significant costs, including fines from government regulators, related to complying with applicable federal or state laws, including laws pertaining to the security and protection of personal information.
In addition to any costs resulting from contract performance or required corrective action, these failures may result in increased costs or loss of revenue if they result in clients postponing subsequently scheduled work or canceling or failing to renew contracts.
The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. Additionally, some cyber technologies and techniques that we utilize or develop may raise potential liabilities related to legal compliance, intellectual property, and civil liberties, including privacy concerns, which may not be fully insured or indemnified. We may not be able to obtain and maintain insurance coverage on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims, or the insurer may disclaim coverage as to some types of future claims. The successful assertion of any large claim against us could seriously harm our business. Even if not successful, these claims could result in significant legal and other costs, may be a distraction to our management, may harm our client relationships, and may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain talent. In certain new business areas, we may not be able to obtain sufficient insurance and may decide not to accept or solicit business in these areas.
Implementation of and compliance with various data privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations and standards could require significant investment into ongoing compliance activities, trigger potential liability, and limit our ability to use personal data.
Any failure by us, our vendors or other business partners to comply with international, U.S. federal, state or local laws and regulations regarding data privacy or cybersecurity could result in regulatory actions or lawsuits against us, legal liability, injunctions, fines, damages or other costs. We may also incur substantial expenses in implementing and maintaining compliance with such laws and regulations, including those that require certain types of data to be retained on servers within these jurisdictions. In addition, enactment or expansion of laws related to the use of artificial intelligence in our operations could increase the cost of doing business, subject us to potential liability, regulatory risk or reputational harm. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in privacy claims or enforcement actions against us, including liabilities, fines and damage to our reputation, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
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For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), and the United Kingdom’s GDPR impose compliance obligations on companies that process personal data of people in the European Union and United Kingdom, respectively. Compliance with these laws requires investment into ongoing data protection activities and documentation requirements, and creates the potential for fines and liabilities for noncompliance. In addition, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Virginia, Utah, and other states have enacted comprehensive privacy laws that restrict the collection, use, and processing of personal information, provide rights to residents of those respective states, and create corresponding compliance obligations and litigation risks. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act, the “CPRA”), the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (the “VCDPA”), and the Colorado Privacy Act (the “CPA”), provide for consumer rights for residents of those respective states and create corresponding compliance obligations and litigation risks. The impact from the VCDPA and the CPA to Booz Allen is currently low because most of our personal information is client- or employee-related and therefore not defined as consumer-related. However, the CCPA now covers personal information collected from California residents in the context of recruitment and employment, as well as business-to-business arrangements, and therefore imposes additional compliance obligations on Booz Allen with respect to such personal information. These comprehensive state privacy laws, or other emerging U.S. state or global privacy laws, may require additional investment in compliance programs and potential modifications to business processes, and could result in fines, individual claims, and liabilities for certain compliance failures, particularly in the event of a data breach. As other states follow this trend, laws of this nature could be deemed applicable to some aspects of our business. This will impose new compliance obligations and require additional investment into data protection activities. Any obligations that may be imposed on us under CCPA, CPRA, VCDPA, CPA or similar laws may increase our compliance costs and potential liability, particularly in the event of a data breach, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including how we use personal information or our results of operations.
The U.S. Congress is considering federal privacy, cybersecurity and AI legislation that would create requirements similar to or possibly exceeding these comprehensive U.S. state privacy laws on a 50-state basis. Any federal legislation may or may not preempt the comprehensive U.S. state privacy laws, creating the possibility of different compliance measures or enforcement risks nationally or on a per-state basis. Any obligations that may be imposed on us under any of the comprehensive U.S. state privacy laws or similar laws may be different from or in addition to those required by the EU GDPR, UK GDPR, and any other applicable international laws, which may cause additional expense for compliance across jurisdictions. The EU GDPR, UK GDPR, other international laws, and the laws of U.S. states also impose obligations to maintain and implement an information security program that includes administrative, technical, physical, or organizational safeguards, as well as obligations to give notice to affected individuals and to certain regulators in the event of a data breach. We may be required to spend significant resources to comply with these information security and data breach legal requirements. A significant data breach (including various forms of external attack, such as ransomware, as well as data incidents resulting from internal actions or omissions) could have negative consequences for our business and future prospects, including possible penalties, fines, damages, reduced customer demand, legal claims against and by clients, personnel, business partners or other persons claiming to be affected, harm to our systems and operations and harm to our reputation and brand.
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In addition, as a contractor supporting defense and national security clients, we are subject to certain additional regulatory compliance requirements relating to data privacy and cybersecurity. Under DFARS and other federal regulations, our networks and IT systems are required to comply with the security and privacy controls in certain National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publications (“NIST SP”). To the extent that we do not comply with the applicable security and control requirements, unauthorized access or disclosure of sensitive information could result in a contract termination, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results and lead to reputational harm. We are also subject to the Department of Defense Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (“CMMC”), requirements, which will require all contractors to receive specific third-party certifications relating to specified cybersecurity standards in order to be eligible for contract awards. Under “CMMC 1.0”, released in January 2020, there were 5 maturity levels, comprised of 171 requirements and 14 required processes. In March 2021, the Department of Defense initiated an interim review of CMMC’s implementation, which led to a refinement of the overall program and implementation strategy. In November 2021, the Department of Defense announced “CMMC 2.0”, which included updated program structure and requirements. These refinements included a reduction in levels from 5 to 3, which includes the removal of CMMC-unique practices and reliance on the practices set forth in NIST SP 800-171(r2). The Department of Defense announced that CMMC 2.0 will become a contract requirement, likely to appear in contracts within one year of the rule going into effect, and is expected to appear in all defense contracts within two years of the rule going into effect. On December 26, 2023, the Department of Defense published a proposed rule for the CMMC 2.0 program requirements, and may face delays with uncertainties regarding final details and timing of the final requirements. To the extent we are unable to achieve certification in advance of applicable contract awards that specify the requirement, we will be unable to bid on such contract awards or on follow-on awards for existing work with the Department of Defense, depending on the level of standard as required for each solicitation, which could adversely impact our revenue and profitability. In addition, our subcontractors, and in some cases our vendors, may also be required to adhere to the CMMC program requirements and potentially to achieve certification. Should our supply chain fail to meet compliance requirements or achieve certification, this may adversely affect our ability to receive award or execute on relevant government programs. In addition, any obligations that may be imposed on us under the CMMC may be different from or in addition to those otherwise required by applicable laws and regulations, which may cause additional expense for compliance.
We utilize artificial intelligence, which could expose us to risks including potential liability as well as regulatory, competition, reputational and other risks.
We utilize artificial intelligence, including generative artificial intelligence, machine learning, and similar tools and technologies that collect, aggregate, analyze, or generate data or other materials (collectively, “AI”) in connection with our business. The development, deployment and oversight of the use of AI by us, either directly or by engaging third-party AI developers, as well as the use of AI by competitors, is expected to require us to invest substantially in AI technology resources and related governance. There are significant risks involved in using AI and no assurance can be provided that our use of AI will enhance our products or services, produce the intended results, or keep pace with the use of AI by our competitors. For example, AI algorithms may produce incomplete, insufficient, biased or otherwise flawed results or rely upon biased or inaccurate data, and any of these deficiencies may not be easily detectable despite internal policies and diligence efforts in place to mitigate such deficiencies. The degraded or flawed performance could also result from adversarial attacks that include data poisoning, malware risks, and evasion techniques. If the AI that we use produces deficient, inaccurate, or controversial results, or if public opinion of AI is adversely affected due to actual or perceived risks regarding the usage of AI, we could incur operational inefficiencies, competitive harm, legal liability, brand or reputational harm, or other adverse impacts on our business and results of operations. If we, or the third-party AI developers on which we rely, do not have sufficient rights to use the data or other material relied upon by such AI technologies, we also may incur liability through the alleged violation of applicable laws and regulations, third-party intellectual property, data privacy, or other rights, or contractual obligations. Although we conduct diligence on third-party AI developers, we will not be able to control the manner in which third-party AI technologies are developed or maintained.
Legal and regulatory frameworks related to the use of AI are evolving, including due to the perceived or actual risks of bias, unfair discrimination, transparency, and information security. The technologies underlying AI and its uses are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including intellectual property, data privacy and security, consumer protection, competition, and equal opportunity laws, and may be subject to new laws and regulations or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations. AI is the subject of ongoing review by various U.S. and foreign governmental and regulatory agencies. For example, in October 2023, the Biden Administration signed an executive order on Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence which charges various Federal agencies to establish standards for AI safety and security. In addition, in March 2024, the EU enacted a new regulation applicable to certain AI technologies and the data used to train, test and deploy them. The enactment or expansion of laws and regulations related to the use of AI in our operations could result in increased compliance costs related to our use of AI. Furthermore, it is not possible to predict all the legal, operational or technological risks that may arise relating to the use of AI, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
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The operation of financial management systems may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
From time to time, we modernize and upgrade our management systems. For example, in fiscal 2022, we launched new financial management systems designed to modernize and enhance our financial systems infrastructure and cost accounting practices through minimizing manual processes, increasing automation, and providing enhanced business analytics. Operation of these kinds of new systems requires significant investment of human and financial resources. With the operation of these new systems, we have incurred additional expenses and experienced certain one-time impacts to profitability related to the roll-out and operation of the financial systems. In addition, any significant difficulties in the operation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to fulfill and invoice customer orders, apply cash receipts, place purchase orders with suppliers, and make cash disbursements, and could negatively impact data processing and electronic communications among business locations, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, or results of operations. We also face the challenge of supporting our legacy systems and implementing necessary upgrades to those systems to support routine government and financial audits while operating our new systems.
We may fail to attract, train, and retain skilled and qualified employees, which may impair our ability to generate revenue, effectively serve our clients, and execute our growth strategy.
Our business depends in large part upon our ability to attract and retain sufficient numbers of highly qualified individuals who may have advanced degrees and/or appropriate security clearances. We compete for such qualified personnel with other U.S. government contractors, the U.S. government, and private industry, and such competition is intense. Personnel with the requisite skills, qualifications, or security clearance may be in short supply or generally unavailable. The government and industry have recognized that the current process for obtaining security clearances is time-consuming, sometimes taking years to complete, and can present a risk to customer mission. See “—We may fail to obtain and maintain necessary security clearances which may adversely affect our ability to perform on certain contracts.
Our ability to attract and retain skilled and qualified employees may also be impacted by our engagements in, or perceived connections to, politically or socially sensitive activities. In addition, our ability to recruit, hire, and internally deploy former employees of the U.S. government is subject to complex laws and regulations, which may serve as an impediment to our ability to attract such former employees, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations may expose us and our employees to civil or criminal penalties. Additionally, our ability to attract, hire, and retain skilled and qualified employees may be impacted by disease outbreaks, pandemics, or widespread health epidemics.
Adverse labor and economic market conditions and intense competition for skilled personnel may inhibit our ability to recruit new employees, including any necessary actions in response to any disease outbreaks, pandemics, or widespread health epidemics. If we are unable to recruit and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees, or cannot obtain their appropriate security clearances in a timely manner, or fail to deploy such employees, our ability to maintain and grow our business and to effectively serve our clients could be limited and our future revenue and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, to the extent that we are unable to make necessary permanent hires to appropriately serve our clients, we could be required to engage larger numbers of contracted personnel, which could reduce our profit margins.
If we are able to attract sufficient numbers of qualified new hires, training and retention costs may place significant demands on our resources. In addition, to the extent we experience attrition in our employee ranks, we may realize only a limited or no return on such invested resources, and we would have to expend additional resources to hire and train replacement employees. The loss of key personnel could also impair our ability to perform required services under some of our contracts and to retain such contracts, as well as our ability to win new business.
We may fail to obtain and maintain necessary security clearances which may adversely affect our ability to perform on certain contracts.
Many U.S. government programs require contractor employees and facilities to have security clearances. Depending on the level of required clearance, security clearances can be difficult and time-consuming to obtain. If we or our employees are unable to obtain or retain necessary security clearances in a timely manner, we may not be able to win new business, and our existing clients could terminate their contracts with us or decide not to renew them. To the extent we are not able to obtain and maintain facility security clearances or engage employees with the required security clearances for a particular contract, we may not be able to bid on or win new contracts, effectively rebid on expiring contracts, or retain existing contracts, which may adversely affect our operating results and inhibit the execution of our growth strategy.
Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to timely and effectively utilize our employees or manage our cost structure.
The cost of providing our services, including the degree to which our employees are utilized, affects our profitability. The degree to which we are able to utilize our employees in a timely manner or at all is affected by a number of factors, including:
our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new assignments and to hire, assimilate, and deploy new employees;
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our ability to forecast demand for our services and to maintain and deploy headcount that is aligned with demand, including employees with the right mix of skills and experience to support our projects;
our employees’ inability to obtain or retain necessary security clearances;
our ability to manage attrition; and
our need to devote time and resources to training, business development, and other non-chargeable activities.
If our employees are under-utilized, our profit margin and profitability could suffer. Additionally, if our employees are over-utilized, it could have a material adverse effect on employee engagement and attrition, which would in turn have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our profitability is also affected by the extent to which we are able to effectively manage our overall cost structure for operating expenses, such as wages and benefits, overhead and capital, and other investment-related expenditures. If we are unable to effectively manage our costs and expenses and achieve efficiencies, our competitiveness and profitability may be adversely affected.
Global inflationary pressures have increased the prices of goods and services, which could raise the costs associated with providing our services, diminish our ability to compete for new contracts or task orders, and/or reduce customer buying power.
For a variety of reasons, including geopolitical factors, the global economy in which we operate has faced, and may continue to face, heightened inflationary pressure, impacting the cost of doing business (in both supply and labor markets). These inflationary pressures have been and could continue to be exacerbated by geopolitical turmoil and economic policy actions, and the duration of such pressures is uncertain. We generate revenue through various fixed price and multi-year government contracts, our primary customer being the U.S. government, which has traditionally been viewed as less affected by inflationary pressures. However, our approach to include modest annual price escalations in our bids for multi-year work may be insufficient to counter inflationary cost pressures, which may result in significant cost overruns on each contract. This could result in reduced profits, or even losses, as inflation increases, particularly for fixed priced contracts, and our longer-term multi-year contracts as contractual prices become less favorable to us over time. In the competitive environment in which we operate as a government contractor, the lack of pricing leverage and power to renegotiate long-term, multi-year contracts, coupled with reduced customer buying power as a result of inflation, could reduce our profits, disrupt our business, or otherwise materially adversely affect our results of operations.
Deterioration of economic conditions or weakening in credit or capital markets may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions, an increase in the likelihood of a recession, or concerns about these or other similar risks may negatively impact our clients’ ability and willingness to fund their projects. For example, declines in state and local tax revenues as well as other economic declines may result in lower state and local government spending. Our clients reducing, postponing or cancelling spending on projects in respect of which we provide services may reduce demand for our services quickly and with little warning, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Moreover, instability in the credit or capital markets in the U.S., including as a result of failures of financial institutions and any related market-wide reduction in liquidity, or concerns or rumors about events of these kinds or similar risks, could affect the availability of credit, making it relatively difficult or expensive to obtain additional capital at competitive rates, on commercially reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts, or at all, thus making it more difficult or expensive for us to access funds or refinance our existing indebtedness, or obtain financing for acquisitions. Such instability could also cause counterparties, including vendors, suppliers and subcontractors, to be unable to perform their obligations, or to breach their obligations, to us under our contracts with them. In addition, instability in the credit or capital markets could negatively impact our clients’ ability to fund their project and, therefore, utilize our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may lose one or more members of our senior management team or fail to develop new leaders, which could cause the disruption of the management of our business.
We believe that the future success of our business and our ability to operate profitably depends on the continued contributions of the members of our senior management and the continued development of new members of senior management. We rely on our senior management to generate business and execute programs successfully. In addition, the relationships and reputation that many members of our senior management team have established and maintain with our clients are important to our business and our ability to identify new business opportunities. The loss of any member of our senior management or our failure to continue to develop new members could impair our ability to identify and secure new contracts, to maintain good client relations, and to otherwise manage our business.
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Our employees or subcontractors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, which could harm our ability to conduct business with the U.S. government.
We are exposed to the risk that fraud or other misconduct by employees, subcontractors, suppliers or other third parties with which we do business could occur. Misconduct by employees, subcontractors or suppliers could include intentional or unintentional failures to comply with U.S. government procurement regulations, engaging in other unauthorized activities, misusing authorized access, or falsifying time records. Misconduct could also involve the improper use of our clients’ sensitive or classified information, or the inadvertent or intentional disclosure of our or our clients' sensitive information in violation of our contractual, statutory, or regulatory obligations. It is not always possible to deter employee, subcontractor, or supplier misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses, which could materially harm our business. As a result of such misconduct, our employees could lose their security clearances and we could face fines and civil or criminal penalties, loss of facility clearance accreditation, and suspension, proposed debarment or debarment from bidding for or performing under contracts with the U.S. government, as well as reputational harm, which would materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We face intense competition from many competitors, which could cause us to lose business, lower prices and suffer employee departures.
Our business operates in a highly competitive industry, and we generally compete with a wide variety of U.S. government contractors, including large defense contractors, diversified service providers, and small businesses. We also face competition from entrants into our markets including companies divested by large prime contractors in response to increasing scrutiny of organizational conflicts of interest issues. There is also a significant industry trend towards consolidation, which may result in the emergence of companies that are better able to compete against us. Some of these companies possess greater financial resources and larger technical staffs, and others have smaller and more specialized staffs. These competitors could, among other things:
make acquisitions of businesses, or establish teaming or other agreements among themselves or third parties, that allow them to offer more competitive and comprehensive solutions;
divert sales from us by winning very large-scale government contracts, a risk that is enhanced by the recent trend in government procurement practices to bundle services into larger contracts;
force us to charge lower prices in order to win or maintain contracts;
seek to hire our employees; or
adversely affect our relationships with current clients, including our ability to continue to win competitively awarded engagements where we are the incumbent.
If we lose business to our competitors or are forced to lower our prices or suffer employee departures, our revenue and our operating profits could decline. In addition, we may face competition from our subcontractors who, from time to time, seek to obtain prime contractor status on contracts for which they currently serve as a subcontractor to us. If our current subcontractors are awarded prime contractor status on such contracts in the future, it could divert sales from us and could force us to charge lower prices, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.
Our failure to maintain strong relationships with other contractors, or the failure of contractors with which we have entered into a sub- or prime-contractor relationship to meet their obligations to us or our clients, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Maintaining strong relationships with other U.S. government contractors, who may also be our competitors, is important to our business and our failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results. To the extent that we fail to maintain good relations with our subcontractors or other prime contractors due to either perceived or actual performance failures or other conduct, or increased regulatory scrutiny or regulations governing information sharing and related practices, they may refuse to hire us as a subcontractor in the future or to work with us as our subcontractor. In addition, other contractors may choose not to use us as a subcontractor or choose not to perform work for us as a subcontractor for any number of additional reasons, including because they choose to establish relationships with our competitors or because they choose to directly offer services that compete with our business.
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As a prime contractor, we often rely on other companies to perform some of the work under a contract, and we expect to continue to depend on relationships with other contractors for portions of our delivery of services and revenue in the foreseeable future. If our subcontractors fail to perform their contractual obligations, our operating results and future growth prospects could be impaired. There is a risk that we may have disputes with our subcontractors arising from, among other things, the quality and timeliness of work performed by the subcontractor, client concerns about the subcontractor, our failure to extend existing task orders or issue new task orders under a subcontract, or our hiring of a subcontractor’s personnel. In addition, if any of our subcontractors fail to deliver the agreed-upon supplies or perform the agreed-upon services on a timely basis, our ability to fulfill our obligations as a prime contractor may be jeopardized. Material losses could arise in future periods and subcontractor performance deficiencies could result in a client terminating a contract for default. A termination for default could expose us to liability and have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts and orders.
As a subcontractor, we often lack control over fulfillment of a contract, and poor performance on the contract could tarnish our reputation, even when we perform as required, and could cause other contractors to choose not to hire us as a subcontractor in the future. If the U.S. government terminates or reduces other prime contractors’ programs or does not award them new contracts, subcontracting opportunities available to us could decrease, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, as a subcontractor, we may be unable to collect payments owed to us by the prime contractor, even if we have performed our obligations under the contract, as a result of, among other things, the prime contractor’s inability to fulfill the contract. Due to certain common provisions in subcontracts in certain countries, we could also experience delays in receiving payment if the prime contractor experiences payment delays, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
A delay in the completion of the U.S. government’s budget process, including as a result of a failure to raise the debt ceiling, could result in a reduction in our backlog and have a material adverse effect on our revenue and operating results.
To the extent the U.S. Congress is unable to approve the annual federal budget or raise the debt ceiling on a timely basis, and enacts a continuing resolution, funding for new projects may not be available and funding on contracts we are already performing may be delayed. If Congressional efforts to approve such funding fail, and Congress is unable to craft a long-term agreement on the U.S. government’s ability to incur indebtedness in excess of its current limits, the U.S. government may not be able to fulfill its current funding obligations and there could be significant disruption to all discretionary programs, which would have corresponding impacts on us and our industry. Any such delays would likely result in new business initiatives being delayed or canceled and a reduction in our backlog, and could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and operating results.
In addition, a failure to complete the budget process and fund government operations pursuant to a continuing resolution may result in a U.S. government shutdown, which could result in us incurring substantial costs without reimbursement under our contracts. The delay or cancellation of key programs or the delay of contract payments may have a material adverse effect on our revenue and operating results. In addition, when supplemental appropriations are required to operate the U.S. government or fund specific programs and the passage of legislation needed to approve any supplemental appropriation bill is delayed, the overall funding environment for our business could be adversely affected.
We face certain significant risk exposures and potential liabilities that may not be adequately covered by indemnity or insurance.
A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing, and implementing advanced defense and technology systems and products, including cybersecurity products and services. New technologies may be untested or unproven, and insurance may not be available. We maintain insurance policies that mitigate against risk and potential liabilities related to our operations, including data breaches. This insurance is maintained in amounts that we believe are reasonable. However, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover those claims or liabilities, and we may be forced to bear significant costs from an accident or incident. The amount of the insurance coverage we maintain or indemnification to which we may be contractually or otherwise entitled may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Accordingly, we may be forced to bear substantial costs resulting from risks and uncertainties of our business which would negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
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Failure to adequately protect, maintain, or enforce our rights in our intellectual property may adversely limit our competitive position.
We rely upon a combination of nondisclosure agreements, licenses, and other contractual arrangements, as well as employment, copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws to protect our proprietary information. We also enter into proprietary information and intellectual property agreements with employees, which require them to disclose any inventions created prior to and during employment. Inventions created during employment require inventors to convey such rights to inventions to us, and to restrict any disclosure of proprietary information. Trade secrets are generally difficult to protect. Although our employees are subject to confidentiality obligations, this protection may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information and/or the infringement of our trade secrets, trademarks, patents, and copyrights. Further, we may be unable to detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property or otherwise take appropriate steps to enforce our rights. Failure to adequately protect, maintain, or enforce our intellectual property rights may adversely limit our competitive position. We will also need to continue to respond to and anticipate changes resulting from disruptive technologies, including from AI. If we are not successful in protecting and preserving our intellectual property rights and licenses, including trade secrets, or in staying ahead of developing AI technologies and strategically incorporating them into our business, our business and financial performance could be materially and adversely affected.
Assertions by third parties of infringement, misappropriation or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business and operating results.
In recent years, there has been significant litigation involving intellectual property rights in technology industries. We may face from time to time, allegations that we or a supplier or customer have violated the rights of third parties, including patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other intellectual property rights. If, with respect to any claim against us for violation of third-party intellectual property rights, we are unable to prevail in the litigation or retain or obtain sufficient rights or develop non-infringing intellectual property or otherwise alter our business practices on a timely or cost-efficient basis, our business and competitive position may be adversely affected.
Any infringement, misappropriation, or related claims, whether or not meritorious, are time consuming, divert technical and management personnel, and are costly to resolve. As a result of any such dispute, we may have to develop non-infringing technology, pay damages, enter into royalty or licensing agreements, cease utilizing certain products or services, or take other actions to resolve the claims. These actions, if required, may be costly or unavailable on terms acceptable to us.
Our focus on new growth areas for our business entails risks, including those associated with new relationships, clients, talent needs, capabilities, service offerings, and maintaining our collaborative culture and core values.
We are focused on growing our presence in our addressable markets by: expanding our relationships with existing clients, developing new clients by leveraging our core competencies, further developing our existing capabilities and service offerings, creating new capabilities and service offerings to address our clients' emerging needs, and undertaking business development efforts focused on identifying near-term developments and long-term trends that may pose significant challenges for our clients. These efforts entail inherent risks associated with innovation and competition from other participants in those areas, potential failure to help our clients respond to the challenges they face, our ability to comply with uncertain evolving legal standards applicable to certain service offerings, including those in the cybersecurity area, and, with respect to potential international growth, risks associated with operating in foreign jurisdictions, such as compliance with applicable foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that may impose different and, occasionally, conflicting or contradictory requirements, and the economic, legal, and political conditions in the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate, including the GDPR. See “—Implementation of and compliance with various data privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations and standards could require significant investment into ongoing compliance activities, trigger potential liability, and limit our ability to use personal data. As we attempt to develop new relationships, clients, capabilities, and service offerings, these efforts could harm our results of operations due to, among other things, a diversion of our focus and resources and actual costs, opportunity costs of pursuing these opportunities in lieu of others and a failure to reach a profitable return on our investments in new technologies, capabilities, and businesses, including expenses on research and development investments, and these efforts could ultimately be unsuccessful.
The needs of our customers change and evolve regularly due to complex and rapidly changing technologies. Our success depends upon our ability to identify emerging technological trends; develop technologically advanced, innovative, and cost-effective products and services; and market these products and services to our customers. Our success also depends on our continued access to suppliers of important technologies and components. The possibility exists that our competitors might develop new capabilities or service offerings that might cause our existing capabilities and service offerings to become obsolete. If we fail in our new capabilities development efforts or our capabilities or services fail to achieve market acceptance more rapidly than our competitors, our ability to procure new contracts could be negatively impacted, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
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Our ability to grow our business by leveraging our operating model to efficiently and effectively deploy our people across our client base is also largely dependent on our ability to maintain our collaborative culture. To the extent that we are unable to maintain our culture for any reason, including our effort to focus on new growth areas or acquire new businesses with different corporate cultures, we may be unable to grow our business. Any such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, with the growth of our U.S. and international operations, we are providing client services and undertaking business development efforts in numerous and disparate geographic locations both domestically and internationally. Our ability to effectively serve our clients is dependent upon our ability to successfully leverage our operating model across all of these and any future locations, maintain effective management controls over all of our locations to ensure, among other things, compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations, and instill our core values in all of our personnel at each of these and any future locations. Any inability to ensure any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Changes to our operating structure, capabilities, or strategy intended to address our clients’ needs, respond to developments in our markets, and grow our business may not be successful.
We routinely review our operating structure, capabilities and strategy to determine whether we are effectively meeting the needs of clients, effectively responding to developments in our markets and successfully building platforms intended to provide the foundation to support the future growth of our business. The outcome of any such review is difficult to predict and the extent of changes to our business following such a review, if any, are dependent in part upon the nature and extent of the review.
The implementation of changes to our operating structure, capabilities, strategy or any other aspect of our business following an internal review, may materially alter various aspects of our business or our business model as an entirety and there can be no assurance that any such changes will be successful or that they will not ultimately have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.
Many of our contracts with the U.S. government are classified or subject to other security restrictions, which may limit insight into portions of our business.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from contracts with the U.S. government that are classified or subject to security restrictions that preclude the dissemination of certain information. In general, access to classified information, technology, facilities, or programs requires appropriate personnel security clearances, is subject to additional contract oversight and potential liability, and may also require appropriate facility clearances and other specialized infrastructure. A significant number of our employees have security clearances which preclude them from providing information regarding certain clients and services provided to such clients to other employees (or members of our board of directors) without security clearances and investors. Because we are limited in our ability to provide information about these contracts and services, the various risks associated with these contracts or services or any dispute or claims relating to such contracts or services, important information concerning our business may not be available, which may limit insight into a substantial portion of our business and reduce the ability to fully evaluate the risks related to that portion of our business.
If we cannot collect our receivables or if payment is delayed, our business may be adversely affected by our inability to generate cash flow, provide working capital, or continue our business operations.
We depend on the timely collection of our receivables to generate cash flow, provide working capital, and continue our business operations. If the U.S. or any other government or any prime contractor for whom we are a subcontractor fails to pay or delays the payment of invoices for any reason, our business and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. The U.S. or any other government may delay or fail to pay invoices for a number of reasons, including lack of appropriated funds, lack of an approved budget, lack of revised or final settled billing rates as a result of open audit years or as a result of audit findings by government regulatory agencies. Some prime contractors for whom we are a subcontractor have significantly fewer financial resources than we do, which may increase the risk that we may not be paid in full or that payment may be delayed.
We may consummate acquisitions, investments, joint ventures and divestitures, which involve numerous risks and uncertainties.
As part of our operating strategy, we continually monitor U.S. government spending and budgetary priorities to align our investments in new capabilities to drive organic growth, and selectively pursue acquisitions, investments, partnerships, and joint ventures that broaden our domain expertise and service offerings, and/or establish relationships with new customers. These transactions pose many risks, including:
we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition and investment candidates at prices we consider attractive;
as a result of continued uncertainties in economic conditions, acquisition and investment candidates may choose to delay entering into acquisition or investment transactions;
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we may not be able to compete successfully for identified acquisition and investment candidates, complete acquisitions and investments on intended terms and timeline (including, without limitation, by failing to obtain required regulatory or other approvals or the benefit of safe harbors in a timely manner, or required financing on acceptable terms), or accurately estimate the financial effect of acquisitions and investments on our business;
as a result of increased scrutiny by antitrust authorities and anticipated changes to mandatory filing requirements, we may announce acquisition or investment transactions that require significant time and resources to complete, are challenged by such authorities or are ultimately not completed due to a failure to obtain antitrust or other related regulatory approvals;
future acquisitions and investments may require us to issue common stock or spend significant cash, resulting in dilution of ownership or additional debt leverage;
we may have difficulty retaining an acquired company’s key employees or clients;
we may have difficulty integrating personnel from the acquired company with our people, our culture of integrity, and our core values;
we may have difficulty integrating acquired businesses and investments, resulting in diminished strategic value of a potential transaction and unforeseen difficulties, such as incompatible accounting, information management, or other control systems, and greater expenses than expected;
acquisitions and investments may disrupt our business or distract our management from other responsibilities;
as a result of an acquisition or investment, we may incur additional debt and we may need to record write-downs from future impairments of intangible assets, each of which could reduce our future reported earnings; and
we may not be able to effectively influence the operations of our joint ventures or partnerships, or we may be exposed to certain liabilities if our partners do not fulfill their obligations.
In connection with any acquisition or investment that we make, there may be liabilities that we fail to discover or that we inadequately assess, and we may fail to discover any failure of a target company to have fulfilled its contractual obligations to the U.S. government or other clients. Acquired entities and investments may not operate profitably or result in improved operating performance. Additionally, we may not realize anticipated synergies, business growth opportunities, cost savings, and other benefits, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, we may divest businesses, including businesses that are no longer a part of our ongoing strategic plan. These divestitures similarly require significant investment of time and resources, may disrupt our business, distract management from other responsibilities and may result in losses on disposal or continued financial involvement in the divested business, including through indemnification, guarantees or other financial arrangements, which could adversely affect our financial results. In addition, we may be unable to complete strategic divestitures on satisfactory terms and conditions, including non-competition arrangements, within expected time frames or due to a failure of a prospective purchaser to obtain financing or a failure to obtain antitrust or other related regulatory approvals.
Goodwill represents a significant asset on our balance sheet, and changes in future business conditions could cause these investments to become impaired, requiring substantial write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
As of March 31, 2024, the value of our goodwill was $2.3 billion. The amount of our recorded goodwill may substantially increase in the future as a result of any acquisitions that we make. We evaluate the recoverability of recorded goodwill amounts annually, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. Impairment analysis is based on several factors requiring judgment and the use of estimates, which are inherently uncertain and based on assumptions that may prove to be inaccurate. Additionally, material changes in our financial outlook, as well as events outside of our control, such as deteriorating market conditions for companies in our industry, may indicate a potential impairment. When there is an impairment, we are required to write down the recorded amount of goodwill, which is reflected as a charge against operating income. Such non-cash impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in the period in which they are recognized.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations, some of which are highly complex, and our failure to comply could result in fines or civil or criminal penalties or suspension or debarment by the U.S. government that could result in our inability to continue to work on or receive U.S. government contracts, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
As a U.S. government contractor, we must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts, which affect how we do business with our clients. Such laws and regulations may potentially impose added costs on our business and our failure to comply with them may lead to civil or criminal penalties, termination of our U.S. government contracts, and/or suspension or debarment from contracting with federal agencies. Some significant laws and regulations that affect us include:
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the FAR, and agency regulations supplemental to the FAR, which regulate the formation, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts. For example, the FAR 52.203-13 requires contractors to establish a Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, implement a comprehensive internal control system, and report to the government when the contractor has credible evidence that a principal, employee, agent, or subcontractor, in connection with a government contract, has violated certain federal criminal laws, violated the civil False Claims Act, or has received a significant overpayment;
the False Claims Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for violations, including substantial monetary penalties, for, among other things, presenting false or fraudulent claims for payments or approval;
the False Statements Act, which imposes civil and criminal liability for making false statements to the U.S. government;
the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Statute (formerly known as the Truth in Negotiations Act), which requires certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data in connection with the negotiation of certain contracts, modifications, or task orders;
the Procurement Integrity Act, which regulates access to competitor bid and proposal information and certain internal government procurement sensitive information, and our ability to provide compensation to certain former government procurement officials;
laws and regulations restricting the ability of a contractor to provide gifts or gratuities to employees of the U.S. government;
post-government employment laws and regulations, which restrict the ability of a contractor to recruit and hire current employees of the U.S. government and deploy former employees of the U.S. government;
laws, regulations, contract requirements and executive orders, including those related to cybersecurity, restricting the handling, use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes or determined to be “controlled unclassified information” or “for official use only” and the export of certain products, services, and technical data, including requirements regarding any applicable licensing of our employees involved in such work;
laws, regulations, and executive orders regulating the handling, use, and dissemination of personally identifiable information in the course of performing a U.S. government contract;
international trade compliance laws, regulations and executive orders that prohibit business with certain sanctioned entities and require authorization for certain exports or imports in order to protect national security and global stability;
laws, regulations, and executive orders governing organizational conflicts of interest that may restrict our ability to compete for certain U.S. government contracts because of the work that we currently perform for the U.S. government or may require that we take measures such as firewalling off certain employees or restricting their future work activities due to the current work that they perform under a U.S. government contract;
laws, regulations and executive orders that impose requirements on us to ensure compliance with requirements and protect the government from risks related to our supply chain;
laws, regulations and mandatory contract provisions providing protections to employees or subcontractors seeking to report alleged fraud, waste, and abuse related to a government contract;
the Contractor Business Systems rule, which authorizes Department of Defense agencies to withhold a portion of our payments if we are determined to have a significant deficiency in our accounting, cost estimating, purchasing, earned value management, material management and accounting, and/or property management system; and
the FAR Cost Accounting Standards and Cost Principles, which impose accounting and allowability requirements that govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based U.S. government contracts and require consistency of accounting practices over time.
In addition, the U.S. government, U.S. states and other jurisdictions in which we do business adopt new laws, rules, and regulations from time to time that could have a material impact on our results of operations. Adverse developments in legal or regulatory proceedings on matters relating to, among other things, cost accounting practices and compliance, contract interpretations and statutes of limitations, could also result in materially adverse judgments, settlements, withheld payments, penalties, or other unfavorable outcomes.
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Our performance under our U.S. government contracts and our compliance with the terms of those contracts and applicable laws and regulations are subject to periodic audit, review, and investigation by various agencies of the U.S. government and the current environment has led to increased regulatory scrutiny and sanctions for non-compliance by such agencies generally. In addition, from time to time we report potential or actual violations of applicable laws and regulations to the relevant governmental authority. Any such report of a potential or actual violation of applicable laws or regulations could lead to an audit, review, or investigation by the relevant agencies of the U.S. government. If such an audit, review, or investigation uncovers a violation of a law or regulation, or improper or illegal activities relating to our U.S. government contracts, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties or administrative sanctions, including the termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, triggering of price reduction clauses, withholding or suspension of payments, fines and suspension, or debarment from contracting with U.S. government agencies. Such penalties and sanctions are not uncommon in the industry and there is inherent uncertainty as to the outcome of any particular audit, review, or investigation. If we incur a material penalty or administrative sanction or otherwise suffer harm to our reputation, our profitability, cash position, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Further, if the U.S. government were to initiate suspension or debarment proceedings against us or if we are indicted for or convicted of illegal activities relating to our U.S. government contracts following an audit, review, or investigation, we may lose our ability to be awarded contracts in the future or receive renewals of existing contracts for a period of time which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition. We could also suffer harm to our reputation if allegations of impropriety were made against us, which would impair our ability to win awards of contracts in the future or receive renewals of existing contracts. See “Item 1. Business — Regulation.”
Adverse judgments or settlements in legal disputes could result in materially adverse monetary damages or injunctive relief and damage our reputation.
We are subject to, and may become a party to, a variety of litigation or other claims and suits that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. For example, our performance under U.S. government contracts and compliance with the terms of those contracts and applicable laws and regulations are subject to continuous audit, review, and investigation by the U.S. government which may include such investigative techniques as subpoenas or civil investigative demands. Given the nature of our business, these audits, reviews, and investigations may focus, among other areas, on various aspects of procurement integrity, labor time reporting, sensitive and/or classified information access and control, executive compensation, and post government employment restrictions. In addition, from time to time, we are also involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters (such as matters involving alleged violations of civil rights, wage and hour, and worker’s compensation laws), relationships with clients and contractors, intellectual property disputes, and other business matters. Any such claims, proceedings or investigations may be time-consuming, costly, divert management resources, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our result of operations.
The results of litigation and other legal proceedings, including the other claims described under “Item 3. Legal Proceedings,” are inherently uncertain and adverse judgments or settlements in some or all of these legal disputes may result in materially adverse monetary damages or injunctive relief against us. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance coverage in the future. The litigation and other legal proceedings described under “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” are subject to future developments and management’s view of these matters may change in the future.
We cannot predict the consequences of future geopolitical events, but they may adversely affect the markets in which we operate and our results of operations.
Ongoing instability and current conflicts in global markets, including in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Asia, and the potential for other conflicts and future terrorist activities and other recent geopolitical events throughout the world, including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the ongoing conflict between Israel and Hamas, and increased tensions in Asia, have created and may continue to create economic and political uncertainties and impacts that could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and profitability. These types of matters cause uncertainty in financial markets and may significantly increase the political, economic and social instability in the geographic areas in which we operate.
In addition, in connection with the current status of international relations with Russia, particularly in light of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the U.S. government has imposed enhanced export controls on certain products and sanctions on certain industry sectors and parties in Russia. The governments of other jurisdictions in which we operate, such as the European Union and Canada, may also implement sanctions or other restrictive measures. These potential sanctions and export controls, as well as any responses from Russia, could adversely affect the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners, or customers.
We are subject to risks associated with operating internationally.
Our business operations are subject to a variety of risks associated with conducting business internationally, including:
Changes in or interpretations of laws or policies that may adversely affect the performance of our services;
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Political instability in foreign countries and international security concerns, such as those relating to the geopolitical conflict, including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the ongoing conflict between Israel and Hamas, and increased tensions in Asia, and potential actions or retaliatory measures taken in respect thereof;
Imposition of inconsistent or conflicting laws or regulations;
Reliance on the U.S. or other governments to authorize us to export products, technology, and services to clients and other business partners;
Reliance on foreign countries for critical parts in order to meet our technical delivery requirements;
Conducting business in places where laws, business practices, and customs are unfamiliar or unknown;
Failure to comply with U.S. government and foreign laws and regulations applicable to international business, sanctions, employment, privacy, data protection, information security, or data transfer could have an adverse impact on our business with the U.S. government and could expose us to risks and costs of non-compliance with such laws and regulations, in addition to administrative, civil, or criminal penalties;
Failure by third parties that we work with, including suppliers, subcontractors, and vendors, to comply with U.S. government and foreign laws and regulations applicable to international business, sanctions, employment, privacy, data protection, information security, or data transfer could expose Booz Allen to risks and costs of non-compliance with such laws and regulations, in addition to administrative, civil, or criminal penalties;
U.S. and foreign government import and export control requirements and regulations, including International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act, technology transfer restrictions and other administrative, legislative, or regulatory actions that could materially interfere with our ability to offer our products or services in certain countries;
Imposition of limitations on or increase of withholding and other taxes on payments by foreign subsidiaries or joint ventures;
Changes in state and federal regulations in state money transmission regulations, anti-money laundering regulations, economic and trade sanctions administered by the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Asset Control;
Volatility resulting from the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union in January 2020, particularly in countries where the Company has substantial activities; and
Imposition of tariffs or embargoes, export controls, and other trade restrictions.
In addition, we are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign government officials, political parties and commercial entities for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have operations and deal with governmental clients and regulators in countries known to create heightened corruption risk, including certain developing countries. Our activities in these countries create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees or third parties that we work with that could implicate Booz Allen for violations of various laws including the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws, even though these parties are not always subject to our control. Likewise, we are impacted by the recent passage of the U.S. Foreign Extortion Prevention Act (the “FEPA”) that criminalizes a foreign government official’s solicitation of improper payments from U.S. companies or individuals in exchange for conferring an improper advantage. While this law targets improper demands by foreign officials and, therefore, does not directly impact our employees or third parties that we work with, it may increase enforcement of the FCPA other applicable anti-corruption laws and amplify exposure for U.S. companies. Our international operations also involve activities involving the transmittal of information, which may include personal data, which may expose us to data privacy laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. If our data protection practices become subject to new or different restrictions, and to the extent such practices are not compliant with the laws of the countries in which we process data, we could face increased compliance expenses and face penalties for violating such laws or be excluded from those markets altogether, in which case our operations could be adversely affected. We are also subject to import-export control regulations restricting the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the export of certain products, services, and technical data, including requirements regarding any applicable licensing of our employees involved in such work. We are also subject to applicable sanctions laws, regulations, embargoes, or restrictive measures intended to prevent unauthorized transactions with prohibited persons, entities, and countries, including, those administered and enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the Office of Financial Sanctions Implementation (“OFSI”) in the UK, and the competent authorities responsible for the administration and enforcement of Sanctions in individual EU Member States.
If we were to fail to comply with the FCPA, other applicable anti-corruption laws, import-export control regulations, sanctions, data privacy laws, or other rules and regulations, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines for our Company and incarceration for responsible employees and managers, suspension or debarment, and the possible loss of export or import privileges which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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Efforts by the U.S. government to revise its organizational conflict of interest rules could limit our ability to successfully compete for new contracts or task orders, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
Efforts by the U.S. government to reform its procurement practices have focused on, among other areas, the separation of certain types of work to facilitate objectivity and avoid or mitigate organizational conflicts of interest and the strengthening of regulations governing organizational conflicts of interest. Organizational conflicts of interest may arise from circumstances in which a contractor has:
impaired objectivity during performance;
unfair access to non-public information; or
the ability to set the “ground rules” for another procurement for which the contractor competes.
A focus on organizational conflicts of interest issues has resulted in legislation and a proposed regulation aimed at increasing organizational conflicts of interest requirements, including, among other things, separating sellers of products and providers of advisory services in major defense acquisition programs. The passage of a new federal law in December 2022 requires the FAR council within eighteen months to provide and update definitions of each of the above types of conflicts of interest and provide illustrative examples of various relationships that contractors could have that would give rise to potential conflicts of interest. The passage of this legislation comes as this topic continues to garner increased scrutiny of such alleged conflicts among federal contractors. The resulting rule making process, as well as continuing reform initiatives in procurement practices may however result in future amendments to the FAR, increasing the restrictions in current organizational conflicts of interest regulations and rules. Similarly, organizational conflicts of interest remain an active area of bid protest litigation, increasing the likelihood that competitors may leverage such arguments in an attempt to overturn agency award decisions. To the extent that proposed and future organizational conflicts of interest laws, regulations, and rules or interpretations thereof limit our ability to successfully compete for new contracts or task orders with the U.S. government, either because of organizational conflicts of interest issues arising from our business, or because companies with which we are affiliated, or with which we otherwise conduct business, create organizational conflicts of interest issues for us, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Changes in tax law or judgments by management related to complex tax matters could adversely impact our results of operations.
We are subject to taxation in the U.S. and certain other foreign jurisdictions. Any future changes in applicable federal, state and local, or foreign tax laws and regulations or their interpretation or application, including those that could have a retroactive effect, could result in the Company incurring additional tax liabilities in the future. In particular, effective starting in fiscal year 2023, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act requires the capitalization of research and development costs for tax purposes, which can then be amortized over five or fifteen years. We generally expect to amortize these costs over five years. While the most significant impact of this provision was to cash tax liability for fiscal year 2023, the tax year in which the provision took effect, the impact is expected to decline annually over the five-year amortization period to an immaterial amount in the sixth year. The actual impact will depend on a number of factors, including the amount of research and development costs incurred by the Company, whether Congress modifies or repeals the provision requiring such capitalization, and whether new guidance and interpretive rules are issued by the U.S. Treasury, among other factors. For additional information, see “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”.
Additionally, we recognize liabilities for uncertainty in income taxes when it is more likely than not that a tax position will not be sustained on examination and settlement with various taxing authorities. We regularly assess the adequacy of our uncertain tax positions and other reserves, which requires a significant amount of judgment. Although we accrue for uncertain tax positions and other reserves, the results of regulatory audits and negotiations with taxing and customs authorities may be in excess of our accruals, resulting in the payment of additional taxes, duties, penalties and interest. As a result, any final determination of tax audits or related litigation may be materially different than our current provisional amounts, which could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate. For example, during fiscal year 2024, we recorded additional uncertain tax positions of approximately $15.1 million related to research and development credits that we have claimed, or will soon claim. Any increase to the liability we established as of March 31, 2024 for these uncertain tax positions as a result of audits by taxing authorities, changes in tax laws and regulations or otherwise relating to this, or any other, tax matter could have a material effect on our results of operations. For a description of our related accounting policies, refer to Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” and Note 13, “Income Taxes,” to the consolidated financial statements.
Our U.S. government contracts may be terminated by the government at any time and may contain other provisions permitting the government to discontinue contract performance, and if lost contracts are not replaced, our operating results may differ materially and adversely from those anticipated.
U.S. government contracts contain provisions and are subject to laws and regulations that provide government clients with rights and remedies not typically found in commercial contracts. These rights and remedies allow government clients, among other things, to:
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terminate existing contracts, with short notice, for convenience as well as for default;
reduce orders under or otherwise modify contracts;
for contracts subject to the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Statute, reduce the contract price or cost where it was increased because a contractor or subcontractor furnished cost or pricing data during negotiations that was not complete, accurate or current;
for some contracts, (i) demand a refund, make a forward price adjustment, or terminate a contract for default if a contractor provided inaccurate or incomplete data during the contract negotiation process and (ii) reduce the contract price under certain triggering circumstances, including the revision of price lists or other documents upon which the contract award was predicated;
terminate our facility security clearances and thereby prevent us from receiving classified contracts;
cancel multi-year contracts and related orders if funds for contract performance for any subsequent year become unavailable;
decline to exercise an option to renew a multi-year contract or issue task orders in connection with IDIQ contracts;
claim rights in solutions, systems, and technology produced by us, appropriate such work-product for their continued use without continuing to contract for our services and disclose such work-product to third parties, including other U.S. government agencies and our competitors, which could harm our competitive position;
prohibit future procurement awards with a particular agency due to a finding of organizational conflicts of interest based upon prior related work performed for the agency that would give a contractor an unfair advantage over competing contractors, or the existence of conflicting roles that might bias a contractor’s judgment;
subject the award of contracts to protest by competitors, which may require the contracting federal agency or department to suspend our performance pending the outcome of the protest and may also result in a requirement to resubmit offers for the contract or in the termination, reduction, or modification of the awarded contract;
suspend or debar us from doing business with the U.S. government; and
control or prohibit the export of our services.
Recent and potential future budget cuts and recent efforts to decrease federal awards for management support services may cause agencies with which we currently have contracts to terminate, reduce the number of task orders under or fail to renew such contracts. If a U.S. government client were to unexpectedly terminate, cancel, or decline to exercise an option to renew with respect to one or more of our significant contracts, or suspend or debar us from doing business with the U.S. government, our revenue and operating results would be materially harmed.
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Our work with government clients exposes us to additional risks inherent in the government contracting environment, which could reduce our revenue, disrupt our business, or otherwise materially adversely affect our results of operations.
U.S. government contractors (including their subcontractors and others with whom they do business) operate in a highly regulated environment and are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. government and its agencies, including the DCAA, DCMA, Department of Defense Inspector General, and others. These agencies review our performance on contracts, pricing practices, cost accounting practices, and compliance with applicable policies, laws, regulations, and standards, including applicable government cost accounting standards, as well as our contract costs, including allocated indirect costs. The DCAA audits and the DCMA reviews, among other areas, the adequacy of our internal control systems and policies, including our DFARS required business systems, which are comprised of our purchasing, property, estimating, earned value, accounting and material management and accounting systems. These internal control systems could focus on significant elements of costs, such as executive compensation. Determination of a significant internal control deficiency by a government agency could result in increased payment withholding that might adversely affect our cash flow. In particular, over time the DCMA has increased and may continue to increase the proportion of executive compensation that it deems unallowable and the size of the executive population whose compensation is disallowed, which will continue to materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition including the requirement to carry an increased level of reserves. We recognize as revenue, net of reserves, executive compensation that we determine, based on management's estimates, to be allowable; management's estimates in this regard are based on a number of factors that may change over time, including executive compensation survey data, our and other government contractors' experiences with the DCAA audit practices in our industry, and relevant decisions of courts and boards of contract appeals. Any costs found to be unallowable under a contract will not be reimbursed, and any such costs already reimbursed must be refunded. Further, the amount of any such refund may exceed the provision for claimed indirect costs, which is based on management's estimates and assumptions that are inherently uncertain and may not cover actual losses. For example, DCAA audits may result in, and have historically resulted in, the Company's inability to retain certain claimed indirect costs, including executive and employee compensation, due to differing views of the allowability and reasonableness of such costs. As of March 31, 2024, years subsequent to the Company's fiscal year 2011 remained subject to audit and/or final resolution. As of March 31, 2024, the Company recognized a liability of $363.7 million for estimated adjustments to claimed indirect costs based on its historical DCAA audit results, including the final resolution of such audits with the DCMA. Determining the provision for claimed indirect costs is complex and subject to management's estimate of adjustments to claimed indirect costs based on the number of years that remain open to audit and expected final resolution by U.S. government agencies. As a result, significant changes in estimates could have a material effect on the Company's results of operations. Furthermore, the disallowance of any costs previously charged could directly and negatively affect our current results of operations for the relevant prior fiscal periods, and we could be required to repay any such disallowed amounts. Each of these results could materially and adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
Moreover, if any of the administrative processes and business systems, some of which are currently certified as effective, are found not to comply with government imposed requirements, we may be subjected to increased government scrutiny and approval that could delay or otherwise adversely affect our ability to compete for or perform contracts or to be paid timely. Unfavorable U.S. government audit, review, or investigation results could subject us to civil or criminal penalties or administrative sanctions, require us to retroactively and prospectively adjust previously agreed to billing or pricing rates for our work, and could harm our reputation and relationships with our clients and impair our ability to be awarded new contracts, which could affect our future sales and profitability by preventing us, by operation of law or in practice, from receiving new government contracts for some period of time. In addition, if our invoicing system were found to be inadequate following an audit by the DCAA, our ability to directly invoice U.S. government payment offices could be eliminated. As a result, we would be required to submit each invoice to the DCAA for approval prior to payment, which could materially increase our accounts receivable days sales outstanding and adversely affect our cash flow. In addition, proposed regulatory changes, if adopted, would require the Department of Defense’s contracting officers to impose contractual withholding at no less than certain minimum levels based on assessments of a contractor’s business systems. If a government investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeitures of profits, withholding of payments, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government. We could also suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us.
In addition, operation of our financial management systems and certain changes to our cost accounting practices that we have adopted may negatively impact our profitability. In particular, the changes to our cost accounting practices required us to estimate changes in costs for certain contracts and make payments in connection with such estimates. The changes are subject to audit by the DCAA and negotiation with the DCMA, which could result in additional payments that may be material and not recoverable. To the extent we are unable to fully mitigate the costs associated with changes to our cost accounting practices as we implement the new systems, our business and financial results may be adversely affected.
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The U.S. government may revise its procurement, contract, or other practices in a manner adverse to us.
The U.S. government may:
revise its procurement practices or adopt new contract laws, rules, and regulations, such as cost accounting standards, organizational conflicts of interest, and other rules governing inherently governmental functions at any time;
reduce, delay, or cancel procurement programs resulting from U.S. government efforts to improve procurement practices and efficiency;
limit the creation of new government-wide or agency-specific multiple award contracts;
face restrictions or pressure from government employees and their unions regarding the amount of services the U.S. government may obtain from private contractors;
award contracts on a technically acceptable/lowest cost basis in order to reduce expenditures, and we may not be the lowest cost provider of services;
adopt new socio-economic requirements, including setting aside procurement opportunities to small, disadvantaged businesses;
change the basis upon which it reimburses our compensation and other expenses or otherwise limits such reimbursements; and
at its option, terminate or decline to renew our contracts.
In addition, any new contracting methods could be costly or administratively difficult for us to implement and could adversely affect our future revenue and profit margin. In addition, changes to the procurement system could cause delays in the procurement decision-making process. Any such changes to the U.S. government’s procurement practices or the adoption of new contracting rules or practices could impair our ability to obtain new or re-compete contracts and any such changes or increased associated costs could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
The U.S. government may prefer minority-owned, small and small disadvantaged businesses; therefore, we may have fewer opportunities to bid for.
As a result of the Small Business Administration set-aside program, the U.S. government may decide to restrict certain procurements only to bidders that qualify as minority-owned, small, or small disadvantaged businesses. As a result, we would not be eligible to perform as a prime contractor on those programs and would be restricted to a maximum of 49% of the work as a subcontractor on those programs. An increase in the amount of procurements under the Small Business Administration set-aside program may impact our ability to bid on new procurements as a prime contractor or restrict our ability to re-compete on incumbent work that is placed in the set-aside program.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from governmental organizations, clients and our employees with respect to our ESG related practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new or additional risks.
There is increased scrutiny from governmental organizations, clients, employees, investors, and other stakeholders on environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) issues such as diversity, equity and inclusion, workplace culture, community investment, environmental management, climate impact and information security. We have expended and may further expend resources to monitor, report on and adopt policies and practices that we believe will improve alignment with our evolving ESG strategy and goals, as well as ESG-related standards and expectations of legal regimes and stakeholders such as clients, investors, stockholders, raters, employees, and business partners. If our ESG practices, including our goals for diversity, equity and inclusion, environmental sustainability and information security, do not meet evolving rules and regulations or stakeholder expectations and standards (or if we are viewed negatively based on positions we do or do not take or work we do or do not perform or cannot publicly disclose for certain clients and industries), then our reputation, our ability to attract or retain leading experts, employees and other professionals and our ability to attract new business and clients could be negatively impacted, as could our attractiveness as an investment, service provider, employer, or business partner. Similarly, our failure or perceived failure in our efforts to execute our ESG strategy and achieve our current or future ESG-related goals, targets and objectives, or to satisfy various reporting standards within the timelines expected by stakeholders, or at all, could also result in similar negative impacts. Organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters, and unfavorable ratings of our ESG efforts may lead to negative investor sentiment, diversion of investment to other companies, and difficulty in hiring skilled employees. In addition, complying or failing to comply with existing or future federal, state, local, and foreign ESG legislation and regulations applicable to our business and operations, including related to greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, or other matters could cause us to incur additional compliance and operational costs or actions and suffer reputational harm, which could adversely affect our business.
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We are exposed to certain physical and regulatory risks, and could incur additional costs, related to climate change and other natural disasters.
Due to the global nature of our business, we are exposed to a variety of physical risks related to climate change, including rising temperatures and sea levels, extreme heat, and other extreme weather events. Our worldwide operations and the operations of our customers could be subject to natural disasters (including those from climate change) such as hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, floods, earthquakes, fires, water shortages and prolonged drought. Such events could disrupt our operations or those of our customers and suppliers, including the inability of employees to work, destruction of facilities, loss of life, and adverse effects on supply chains, power, infrastructure, and the integrity of information technology systems, all of which could materially increase our costs and expenses, delay or decrease revenue from our customers, and disrupt our ability to maintain business continuity. We could incur significant costs to improve the climate-related resiliency of our infrastructure and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the effects of climate change. Additionally, if insurance or other risk transfer mechanisms are unavailable or insufficient to recover all costs or if we experience a significant disruption to our business due to a natural disaster, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may also face operational costs and transition risks due to decisions we make to conduct or change our activities in response to considerations relating to climate change, such as our goal to eventually reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, complying or failing to comply with existing or future federal, state, local, and foreign legislation and regulations applicable to our business and operations related to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change could cause us to incur additional compliance and operational costs.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We have substantial indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to obtain financing in the future as well as to react to changes in our business.
As of March 31, 2024, we had total indebtedness of approximately $3.4 billion and $998.7 million of availability under our revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). We are able to, and may, incur additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the limitations contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness. Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences to holders of our common stock, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our Senior Credit Facility, consisting of a $1.6 billion term loan facility (“Term Loan A”), a $1.0 billion Revolving Credit Facility, with a sublimit for letters of credit of $200.0 million, our $700.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 3.875% Senior Notes due 2028 (the “Senior Notes due 2028”), our $500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.000% Senior Notes due 2029 (the “Senior Notes due 2029”), our $650.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.950% Senior Notes due 2033 (the “Senior Notes due 2033”, and together with the Senior Notes due 2028 and the Senior Notes due 2029, the “Senior Notes”) and our other debt;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be dedicated to debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flows available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including under the Senior Credit Facility, are at variable rates of interest;
limiting our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in the industry in which we compete;
placing us at a disadvantage compared to other, less leveraged competitors or competitors with comparable debt and more favorable terms and thereby affecting our ability to compete; and
increasing our cost of borrowing.
Although the Senior Credit Facility and the indentures governing the Senior Notes contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and the additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions also will not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. In addition, the Revolving Credit Facility provides for commitments of $1.0 billion, which as of March 31, 2024, had availability of $998.7 million. Additionally, the used portion as it pertains to open standby letters of credit and bank guarantees totaled $1.3 million. Furthermore, subject to specified conditions, without the consent of the then-existing lenders (but subject to the receipt of commitments), the indebtedness under the Senior Credit Facility may be increased by up to $500.0 million. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we and the guarantors now face would increase and we may not be able to meet all our debt obligations, including the repayment of the Senior Notes.
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We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance our debt obligations will depend on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We might not be able to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. For information regarding the risks to our business that could impair our ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, see “— Risks Related to Our Indebtedness.”
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.
The agreements governing our indebtedness restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and also restrict our ability to raise debt to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due.
We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due. In addition, under the Senior Credit Facility, we are subject to mandatory prepayments of our Term Loans from a portion of our excess cash flows, which may be stepped down upon the achievement of specified first lien leverage ratios. To the extent that we are required to prepay any amounts under our Term Loans, we may have insufficient cash to make required principal and interest payments on other indebtedness.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and our ability to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we would be in default and the following events could occur: lenders under our Senior Credit Facility and holders of the Senior Notes could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable; and lenders under the Revolving Credit Facility could terminate their commitments to provide loans. All of these events could force us into bankruptcy or liquidation and result in investors' losing some or all of the value of their investment.
The terms of the agreements governing our indebtedness restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions, which could harm our long-term interests.
The Senior Credit Facility and the indentures governing the Senior Notes contain covenants that, among other things, impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and limit our ability to engage in actions that may be in our long-term best interest, including restrictions on our ability to:
incur additional indebtedness, guarantee indebtedness, or issue disqualified stock or preferred stock;
pay dividends on or make other distributions in respect of, or repurchase or redeem, our capital stock;
enter into sale-leaseback transactions;
incur liens;
consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our and our subsidiaries’ assets;
enter into hedging transactions; and
enter into certain lines of business.
These covenants are subject to a number of important exceptions and qualifications. In addition, the restrictive covenants in the Senior Credit Facility require us to maintain a consolidated net total leverage ratio that will be tested at the end of each fiscal quarter. Our ability to satisfy such financial ratio test may be affected by events beyond our control.
A breach of the covenants under the agreements governing our indebtedness could result in an event of default under those agreements. Such a default may allow certain creditors to accelerate the related debt and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, an event of default under the Senior Credit Facility would also permit the lenders under the Revolving Credit Facility to terminate all other commitments to extend further credit under that facility. In the event the lenders accelerate the repayment of our borrowings, we may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness.
As a result of these restrictions, we may be:
limited in how we conduct our business;
unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to operate during general economic or business downturns; or
unable to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities.
These restrictions might hinder our ability to grow in accordance with our strategy.
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Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under the Senior Credit Facility are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. During 2022 and 2023, interest rates increased significantly and interest rates may continue to increase or remain at higher than recent historical levels. With an increase in interest rates, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, would correspondingly decrease.
Based on Term Loan A outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and assuming all revolving loans are fully drawn, and after considering interest rate swaps that fix the interest rate on $550.0 million of principal of our variable-rate debt each quarter point change in interest rates would result in a $2.6 million change in our projected annual interest expense on our indebtedness under the Senior Credit Facility. We have entered into interest rate swaps and may in the future enter into additional interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce future interest rate volatility of our variable rate indebtedness. However, due to risks for hedging gains and losses and cash settlement costs, we may not elect to maintain such interest rate swaps, and any swaps may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.
A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the rating assigned by a rating agency to us or our indebtedness could make it more difficult for us to obtain additional debt financing in the future.
We and our indebtedness have been rated by nationally recognized rating agencies and may in the future be rated by additional rating agencies. We cannot assure you that any rating assigned to us or our indebtedness will remain for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes in our business, so warrant. Any downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of a rating by a rating agency (or any anticipated downgrade, suspension or withdrawal) could make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing in the future.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Booz Allen Holding is a holding company with no operations of its own, and it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund all of its operations and expenses, including to make future dividend payments, if any.
The operations of Booz Allen Holding are conducted almost entirely through its subsidiaries and its ability to generate cash to meet its debt service obligations or to pay dividends is highly dependent on the earnings and receipt of funds from its subsidiaries via dividends or intercompany loans. Further, the Senior Credit Facility and indentures governing the Senior Notes significantly restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or otherwise transfer assets to us. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common stock.
Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside our control, which could cause the market price of our Class A Common Stock to fluctuate.
Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period in the future as a result of many external factors that are outside of our control. Factors that may affect our financial results and could cause the market price of our outstanding securities, including our Class A Common Stock, to fluctuate include those listed in this “Risk Factors” section and others such as:
any cause of reduction or delay in U.S. government funding;
fluctuations in revenue earned on existing contracts;
commencement, completion, or termination of contracts during a particular period;
a potential decline in our overall profit margins if our other direct costs and subcontract revenue grow at a faster rate than labor-related revenue;
strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as changes to business strategy, strategic investments, acquisitions, divestitures, spin offs, and joint ventures;
a change in our contract mix to less profitable contracts;
changes in policy or budgetary measures that adversely affect U.S. government contracts in general;
variable purchasing patterns under U.S. government GSA schedules, blanket purchase agreements, which are agreements that fulfill repetitive needs under GSA schedules, and IDIQ contracts;
changes in demand for our services and solutions;
fluctuations in the degree to which we are able to utilize our professionals;
seasonality associated with the U.S. government’s fiscal year;
an inability to utilize existing or future tax benefits for any reason, including a change in law;
alterations to contract requirements; and
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adverse judgments or settlements in legal disputes.
We cannot assure you that we will pay special or regular dividends on our stock in the future.
The Board has authorized and declared a regular quarterly dividend for each quarter in the last several years. The Board has also authorized and declared special cash dividends from time to time. The declaration of any future dividends and the establishment of the per share amount, record dates, and payment dates for any such future dividends are subject to the discretion of the Board taking into account future earnings, cash flows, financial requirements and other factors. There can be no assurance that the Board will declare any dividends in the future. To the extent that expectations by market participants regarding the potential payment, or amount, of any special or regular dividend prove to be incorrect, the price of our common stock may be materially and negatively affected and investors that bought shares of our common stock based on those expectations may suffer a loss on their investment. Further, to the extent that we declare a regular or special dividend at a time when market participants hold no such expectations or the amount of any such dividend exceeds current expectations, the price of our common stock may increase and investors that sold shares of our common stock prior to the record date for any such dividend may forego potential gains on their investment.
Fulfilling our obligations incident to being a public company, including with respect to the requirements of and related rules under the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, is expensive and time consuming and any delays or difficulty in satisfying these obligations could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations and our stock price.
As a public company, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the related rules and regulations of the SEC, as well as the New York Stock Exchange rules, require us to implement various corporate governance practices and adhere to a variety of reporting requirements and complex accounting rules. Compliance with these public company obligations requires us to devote significant management time and place significant additional demands on our finance, accounting, and legal staff and on our management systems, including our financial, accounting, and information systems. Other expenses associated with being a public company include increased auditing, accounting, and legal fees and expenses, investor relations expenses, increased directors’ fees and director and officer liability insurance costs, registrar and transfer agent fees, listing fees, as well as other expenses.
In particular, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to document and test the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in accordance with an established internal control framework, and to report on our conclusions as to the effectiveness of our internal controls. It also requires an independent registered public accounting firm to test our internal control over financial reporting and report on the effectiveness of such controls. In addition, we are required under the Exchange Act to maintain disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Because of inherent limitations in any internal control environment, there can be no assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, errors or misstatements, if any, within our Company have been or will be detected on a timely basis. Such deficiencies could result in the correction or restatement of financial statements of one or more periods. Any failure to maintain effective controls or implement new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. We also rely on third parties for certain calculations and other information that support our accounting and financial reporting, which includes reports from such organizations on their controls and systems that are used to generate this data and information. Any failure by such third parties to provide us with accurate or timely information or implement and maintain effective controls may cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations as a publicly traded company. In addition, as we operate our financial management systems, we could experience deficiencies in their operation that could have an adverse effect on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
If we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide us with an unqualified report regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our consolidated financial statements, which could result in a decrease in the value of our common stock. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the New York Stock Exchange, or other regulatory authorities.
Provisions in our organizational documents and in the Delaware General Corporation Law may prevent takeover attempts that could be beneficial to our stockholders.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deterring, preventing, or rendering more difficult a change in control of Booz Allen Holding that our stockholders might consider in their best interests. These provisions include:
granting to the Board the sole power to set the number of directors and to fill any vacancy on the Board;
granting to the Board the ability to designate and issue one or more series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, the terms of which may be determined at the sole discretion of the Board;
the establishment of advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations for election to the Board at stockholder meetings; and
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prohibiting our stockholders from acting by written consent.
In addition, we are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which imposes additional requirements regarding mergers and other business combinations. These provisions may prevent our stockholders from receiving the benefit from any premium to the market price of our common stock offered by a bidder in a takeover context. Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock if the provisions are viewed as discouraging takeover attempts in the future.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws may also make it difficult for stockholders to replace or remove our management. These provisions may facilitate management entrenchment that may delay, deter, render more difficult, or prevent a change in our control, which may not be in the best interests of our stockholders.
The market for our Class A Common Stock may be adversely affected by the performance of other companies in the government services market.
In addition to factors that may affect our financial results and operations, the price of our Class A Common Stock may be impacted by the financial performance and outlook of other companies in the government services market. While certain factors may affect all participants in the markets in which we operate, such as U.S. government spending conditions and changes in rules and regulations applicable to government contractors, the market for our Class A Common Stock may be adversely affected by financial results or negative events only affecting other market participants or financial results of such participants. While such events or results may not impact or be indicative of our current or future performance, the price of our securities may nonetheless be adversely affected as a result thereof.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our current or former directors, officers, or stockholders.
Our seventh amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, or other employee of the Company to the Company or the Company's stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Company's seventh amended and restated certificate of incorporation or the Company's bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Because the applicability of the exclusive forum provision is limited to the extent permitted by applicable law, we do not intend that the exclusive forum provision would apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction, and acknowledge that federal courts have concurrent jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act. We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce the provision and that investors cannot waive compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity.
As one of the world’s largest cybersecurity solution providers, we routinely defend against advanced persistent threats both internally and for our clients. Our cybersecurity risk management program is an integral part of our overall enterprise risk management program, and is designed to assess, identify, manage and mitigate internal and external cybersecurity risks, threats and incidents.
Risk Management and Strategy
Our Board and its committees oversee the Company’s risk management processes, including but not limited to those relevant to cybersecurity risks, and are regularly briefed by management on risk management considerations. One of the primary tools that facilitates the Board’s oversight and mitigation of risk is the Company’s Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) Program, which is designed to look holistically at risks which may cause a material, adverse impact to the Company’s operations, reputation, or value. As part of the ERM Program, our Chief Operating Officer directs and chairs the ERM Steering Committee, which is comprised of members of senior management, including our Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Information Officer, Chief Information Security Officer, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer.
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Under the ERM Program, our Chief Operating Officer prepares for the Board a quarterly update of our enterprise risks, including but not limited to enterprise cybersecurity risks, and conducts with the Board an annual risk identification and mitigation analysis.
In addition to updates provided through the ERM Program, the Board is regularly updated by members of management, including the Chief Accounting Officer, Chief Legal Officer, and members of the ERM Steering Committee concerning significant risks facing the Company and processes that have been implemented to mitigate these risks, including but not limited to cybersecurity risks. Additionally, throughout the year, each of our sector presidents who leads one of our major market units provides a comprehensive overview of their market, including risks and challenges. See “Item 1C. Cybersecurity—Governance—Management’s Responsibilities” below for additional information regarding our cybersecurity risk management program.
We also conduct periodic internal and third-party assessments, threat simulations, and exercises to test the effectiveness of our cybersecurity defenses and controls, including associated policies and procedures. We undertake efforts to address and mitigate risks from vulnerabilities identified during such assessments, simulations, and exercises.
Governance
Management's Responsibilities
Our cybersecurity risk management program is led by our Chief Information Officer (“CIO”) and our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”), who are responsible for our information security strategy, policies, security architecture and engineering, security operations, and cybersecurity threat detection and response. Our CIO has over 25 years of information technology and program management experience, addressing complex information technology and cybersecurity challenges for large-scale enterprises in the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. federal agencies, and commercial organizations. Our CISO, a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (“CISSP”), has over 20 years of information security and program management experience and has served as the CISO for several large-scale enterprises in the U.S. government services industry, commercial organizations, and not-for-profit organizations.
As a government contractor, we are required to comply with extensive regulations and standards, including but not limited to cybersecurity regulations and standards and the requirements of the DFARS. Additionally, our cybersecurity risk management program is guided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Cybersecurity Framework. Our policies and implemented controls have been assessed by external organizations, including industry partners and the federal government. We work closely with our subcontractors and suppliers to identify and manage cybersecurity risks and, as appropriate, require them to comply with applicable laws and regulations. These contractual requirements include the requirement that our subcontractors implement certain security controls, and that our subcontractors self-report the status of their implementation of these controls to the U.S. government.
To manage cybersecurity risk introduced from our supply chain, depending on the nature of a supplier's work and the sensitivity of the Booz Allen and client information provided to the supplier, we also require suppliers to complete our security questionnaires (based on data categorization) and provide evidence of security accreditations, and we evaluate supplier compliance with security requirements using internal and third-party resources.
Our CIO and CISO also lead our Cyber Fusion Center (“CFC”), whose function is, pursuant to our Cyber Incident Response Plan, to stay apprised of existing and emerging cybersecurity threats and monitor our information systems to proactively identify, protect against, and mitigate cybersecurity threats. The CFC uses intelligence collected from various sources, fused with intelligence collected from analysis and response actions, to proactively search for and address adversary activity against our information systems. The CFC possesses in-depth knowledge of network, endpoint, perimeter security systems, identity-based vulnerabilities, data protection, threat intelligence, forensics, penetration testing, and malware reverse engineering, as well as the functioning of specific applications or underlying information systems infrastructure.
The Cyber Incident Response Team (“CIRT”) is responsible for the incident response process and provides direction and guidance to users of Booz Allen information systems when responding to cybersecurity incidents. The CIRT also provides intrusion monitoring of networks and information systems, and performs triage and analysis of events to identify potential incidents, including potential incidents occurring on third-party systems. The CIRT categorizes anomalous cybersecurity events into discrete levels in which cybersecurity events are escalated to appropriate levels of management, as well as our Cyber Incident Materiality Committee, Audit Committee, and Board, based on the severity of the incident. While typical cybersecurity management and incident response is provided by internal resources, we have arrangements with certain third parties whom we can engage if additional support and resources are required.
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Board of Directors’ Roles and Responsibilities
The Audit Committee is responsible for oversight of the Company’s risk management and mitigation, including but not limited to the Company’s cybersecurity risks, and is regularly briefed by our CIO and CISO regarding the Company’s cybersecurity risk management program, cybersecurity incidents involving the Company, vendors, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties, as well as associated mitigation actions taken, in order to assess and manage associated risks and potential harm and damages. The Audit Committee reports to the Board on cybersecurity risks to the Company on a periodic basis.
Cybersecurity Threats
Even with our extensive and systematic approach to cybersecurity, we may not be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on us. While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, the cost related to cybersecurity threats or disruptions may not be fully insured.
During the period covered by this Annual Report, we have not experienced any cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, or our financial condition. Future cybersecurity incidents could, however, materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, reputation, or financial condition.
See Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” for a discussion on cybersecurity risks and how they could materially affect the Company.
Item 2.    Properties.
We do not own any facilities or real estate. Our corporate headquarters is located at 8283 Greensboro Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102. We lease other operating offices and facilities throughout North America, and a limited number of overseas locations. Our principal offices outside of McLean, Virginia include: Annapolis Junction, Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Chantilly, Virginia; Laurel, Maryland; Arlington, Virginia; Panama City Beach, Florida; Charleston, South Carolina; Bethesda, Maryland; and Alexandria, Virginia. We have a number of Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities, which are enclosed areas within buildings that are used to perform classified work for the U.S. Intelligence Community. Many of our employees are located in facilities provided by the U.S. government. The total square footage of our leased offices and facilities is approximately 2.24 million square feet. We believe our facilities meet our current needs.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
The Company is involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters, relationships with clients and contractors, intellectual property disputes, compliance with various laws and regulations, and other business matters. We have provided information about these legal proceedings and investigations in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements contained within this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These legal proceedings seek various remedies, including claims for monetary damages in varying amounts, none of which are considered material, or are unspecified as to amount. Although the outcome of any such matter is inherently uncertain and may be materially adverse, based on current information, we do not expect any of the currently ongoing audits, reviews, investigations, or litigation to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. As of March 31, 2024, there were no material amounts accrued in the consolidated financial statements related to these proceedings. See Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements contained within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for amounts accrued in the consolidated financial statements related to legal proceedings as of March 31, 2023.
On June 19, 2017, a purported stockholder of the Company filed a putative class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia styled Langley v. Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp., No. 17-cv-00696 (“Langley”) naming the Company, its Chief Executive Officer, and its former Chief Financial Officer as defendants purportedly on behalf of all purchasers of the Company’s securities from May 19, 2016 through June 15, 2017. On September 5, 2017, the court named two lead plaintiffs, and on October 20, 2017, the lead plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint. The complaint asserted claims under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder, alleging misrepresentations or omissions by the Company purporting to relate to matters that were the subject of the investigation of the Company by the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), which has been closed or settled. See Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements contained within this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Motions to dismiss were argued on January 12, 2018, and on February 8, 2018, the court dismissed the amended complaint in its entirety without prejudice. On September 22, 2023, plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to amend the dismissed amended complaint or, in the alternative, for relief from the court’s prior dismissal order, and on October 16, 2023, the court denied plaintiffs’ motion. On November 15, 2023, plaintiffs filed with the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit a notice of appeal from the district court’s denial of plaintiffs’ motion. On April 22, 2024, plaintiffs filed a motion for the voluntary dismissal with prejudice of the appeal, and on April 23, 2024, the court granted plaintiffs’ motion.
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On November 13, 2017, a Verified Shareholder Derivative Complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware styled Celine Thum v. Rozanski et al., C.A. No. 17-cv-01638, naming the Company as a nominal defendant and numerous current and former officers and directors as defendants. The complaint asserted claims for breach of fiduciary duties, unjust enrichment, waste of corporate assets, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and violations of Sections 14(a), 10(b), and 20(a) of the Exchange Act, purportedly relating to matters that were the subject of the investigation of the Company by the DOJ, which has been closed or settled. See Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements contained within this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The parties stipulated to a stay of proceedings pending the outcome of Langley, which the court so ordered on January 24, 2018. On December 12, 2019, the court ordered that the stay remain in effect and ordered the parties to submit periodic status reports. Starting on May 27, 2020, the parties submitted periodic status reports as ordered by the court stating that the plaintiff believed the stay should remain in effect and the defendants did not object to the stay remaining in effect. On May 20, 2024, the parties filed a joint stipulation for the voluntary dismissal without prejudice of the action, and the court so ordered the joint stipulation.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
None.
Information about our Executive Officers.
The following table sets forth information about our executive officers as of the date hereof:
NameAgePosition
Horacio D. Rozanski56President and Chief Executive Officer
Matthew A. Calderone52Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Kristine Martin Anderson55Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer
Richard Crowe56Executive Vice President
Judith Dotson60Executive Vice President
Thomas Pfeifer64Executive Vice President
Nancy J. Laben62Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Susan L. Penfield62Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
Horacio D. Rozanski is our President and Chief Executive Officer. A respected authority and leader in the consulting industry, Mr. Rozanski has expertise in business strategy, technology and operations, talent and diversity, and the future of consulting. He joined Booz Allen in 1992 as a consultant to commercial clients, was elected Vice President in 1999, and served as our Chief Personnel Officer, Chief Strategy and Talent Officer, Chief Operating Officer, and President before becoming Chief Executive Officer in 2015. He also is a member of our Board. Mr. Rozanski currently serves as Chairman of the board of directors for Children’s National Hospital and is a member of the board of directors at Marriott International, Inc. (NASDAQ: MAR), CARE USA, and the Economic Club of Washington, D.C. He is also a member of the Business Roundtable, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s Committee on Conscience, Defense Advisory Committee on Diversity and Inclusion, and Vice Chair of the Kennedy Center Corporate Fund Board.
Matthew A. Calderone is an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen and our Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Calderone joined Booz Allen in 1999, and has held a variety of leadership roles in finance and strategy over the last decade. Prior to becoming Chief Financial Officer in October 2022, Mr. Calderone served as our Chief Strategy Officer, during which he led M&A activity, long-term financial strategy, and the development and rollout of VoLT, Booz Allen’s growth strategy. From 2016 to 2020, Mr. Calderone led the Company’s strategic finance and Forecasting, Planning and Analysis (FP&A) functions. In addition, in 2014, Mr. Calderone built the Company’s corporate development team. Mr. Calderone holds a B.A. in economics from the University of Maryland and an M.B.A. from the Yale School of Management.
Kristine Martin Anderson is an Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Ms. Anderson joined Booz Allen in 2006, and has held a variety of leadership roles. Prior to becoming Chief Operating Officer in May 2022, Ms. Anderson served as President for the Company's Civil sector from April 2018 to May 2022, and led the Company’s civil health business from 2015 to 2018. Under Ms. Anderson’s leadership, the Civil Sector and health business were the highest performing businesses in Booz Allen. Prior to joining Booz Allen, Ms. Anderson was Vice President for Operations and Strategy at CareScience, a health care software solutions company. Ms. Anderson holds a B.A. in neurobiology from the University of Pennsylvania and an M.B.A. from The Wharton School of Business.
Richard Crowe is an Executive Vice President and President for the Company's Civil sector. Mr. Crowe joined Booz Allen in 2004 and previously was the Company's Chief Growth Officer from April 2021 to May 2022, where he built a best-in-class business development organization aligned to the Company's business strategy and growth. Prior to that role, Mr. Crowe led the Company's Health business from 2018 to 2021. Mr. Crowe has more than 30 years of strategy development and technology delivery experience. Prior to joining Booz Allen, Mr. Crowe was the chief technical officer at PlasmaSol Corp.
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Judith Dotson is an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen and President for the Company's Global Defense sector. Ms. Dotson joined Booz Allen in 1989 and became a Senior Vice President in 2004. Prior to assuming her current role in August 2022, Ms. Dotson led the Company's Finance, Economic Development, and Energy business from 2014 to 2017, the Joint Combatant Command business from 2017 to 2020, and she served as President for the Company’s National Security sector from 2020 to July 2022. Previously, she led the Company's Enterprise Integration Capability Development Team, the Defense System Development Capability Team, and the Environment & Energy Technology Team. Ms. Dotson previously served on the board of directors for the Nature Generation, a not-for-profit that inspires and empowers environmental stewardship in youth.
Thomas Pfeifer is an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen and President for the Company's National Security sector since August 2022. Mr. Pfeifer joined our Company in 1989 and has over 40 years of industry experience. Prior to his current role, Mr. Pfeifer led several business units focused on defense military intelligence, space, national agencies, the Air Force, and NASA, where he focused on evolving the businesses closer to the mission. Mr. Pfeifer holds a master’s degree in computer systems management and a bachelor’s degree in economics, both from the University of Maryland. He is a member of the Institute of Navigation (ION), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) Computer Society, the American Society for Quality (ASQ), and the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA).
Nancy J. Laben is an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen and our Chief Legal Officer. She also served as the Secretary of the Company until August 2019. Ms. Laben joined Booz Allen in September 2013. She oversees the Legal functions, Ethics & Compliance, and Corporate Affairs. Before joining our Company, Ms. Laben served as General Counsel of AECOM Technology Corporation from 2010 to 2013, where she was responsible for all legal support. Prior to joining AECOM Technology Corporation, Ms. Laben served as Deputy General Counsel at Accenture plc beginning in 1989. Prior to joining Accenture, Ms. Laben served in the law department at IBM Corporation.
Susan L. Penfield is an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen and our Chief Technology Officer, and leads our Strategic Innovation Group. Prior to her role as Chief Technology Officer, she served as our Chief Innovation Officer. Ms. Penfield joined Booz Allen in 1994. She has over 25 years of strategy, technology, marketing, and solutions delivery experience. Prior to joining the Strategic Innovation Group, Ms. Penfield led the Company's Health business, where she drove technology and transformation initiatives across the federal, commercial, and non-profit health space. She serves as Chair of the board of directors of the Children's Inn at the National Institutes of Health, and also on the boards of directors of Seed Spot Inc., the Northern Virginia Technology Council, and the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network. Ms. Penfield is a member of the National Association for Female Executives (NAFE), and was recognized by NAFE as its 2015 Digital Trailblazer.
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PART II 
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Our Class A Common Stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange on November 17, 2010. On May 14, 2024, there were 434,838 beneficial holders of our Class A Common Stock. Our Class A Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “BAH”.
Dividends
The Company plans to continue paying recurring dividends in the future and assessing its excess cash resources to determine the best way to utilize its excess cash flow to meet its objectives. Any future dividends declared will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend, among other factors, upon our earnings, liquidity, financial condition, alternate capital allocation opportunities, or any other factors the Board deems relevant. On May 24, 2024, the Company announced that the Board had declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.51 per share. Payment of the dividend will be made on June 28, 2024 to stockholders of record at the close of business on June 13, 2024.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table presents the share repurchase activity for each of the three months in the quarter ended March 31, 2024:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
January 2024
197,225$126.76197,225$558,173,062 
February 2024
348,126$143.63348,126$508,173,151 
March 2024
169,454$147.45169,454$483,187,683 
Total
714,805714,805
(1)On December 12, 2011, the Board approved a share repurchase program, which was most recently increased by $525.0 million to $3,085.0 million on May 22, 2024. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had approximately $483.2 million remaining under the repurchase program. A special committee of the Board was appointed to evaluate market conditions and other relevant factors and initiate repurchases under the program from time to time. The share repurchase program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time at the Company’s discretion without prior notice.
Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
None.
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Performance
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative shareholder return on our Class A Common Stock between March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2024, to the cumulative return of (i) the Russell 1000 Index and (ii) S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index over the same period. The Russell 1000 and S&P Software & Services Select Industry Indices represent comparator groups for relative cumulative return performance to Booz Allen Hamilton. This graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on March 31, 2019 in our Class A Common Stock, the Russell 1000 Index, and the S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
2594
ASSUMES $100 INVESTED ON MARCH 31, 2019
ASSUMES DIVIDEND REINVESTED
Company/Market/Peer Group3/31/20193/31/20203/31/20213/31/20223/31/20233/31/2024
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp.$100.00 $119.77 $142.70 $158.56 $170.45 $277.16 
Russell 1000 Index$100.00 $91.97 $147.70 $167.30 $153.26 $199.03 
S&P Software & Services Select Industry Index$100.00 $87.72 $168.81 $158.61 $133.10 $168.69 
This performance graph and other information furnished under this Part II Item 5 of this Annual Report shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act.
Item 6.    Reserved.
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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis is intended to help the reader understand our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity and capital resources. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this Annual Report, and Part II, Item 7 “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023, which provides additional information on comparisons of fiscal 2023 and 2022.
The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity and capital resources, and other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Introductory Note — Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements”. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Our fiscal year ends March 31 and, unless otherwise noted, references to years or fiscal are for fiscal years ended March 31. See “— Results of Operations.”
Overview
Trusted to transform missions with the power of tomorrow’s technologies, Booz Allen advances the nation’s most critical civil, defense, and national security priorities. Our ability to deliver value to our clients has always been, and continues to be, a product of the strong character, expertise and tremendous passion of our people. Our approximately 34,200 employees work to solve hard problems by making clients' missions their own, combining decades of consulting and domain expertise with functional expertise in areas such as analytics, digital solutions, engineering, and cyber, all fostered by a culture of innovation that extends to all reaches of the Company.
Through our dedication to our clients' missions, and a commitment to evolving our business to address their needs, we have longstanding relationships with our clients, the longest of which is more than 80 years. We support critical missions for a diverse base of federal government clients, including nearly all of the U.S. government's cabinet-level departments, as well as for commercial clients, both domestically and internationally. We support our federal government clients by helping them tackle their most complex and pressing challenges such as protecting soldiers in combat and supporting their families, advancing cyber capabilities, securing our national infrastructure, enabling and enhancing digital services, transforming the healthcare system, and improving government efficiency to achieve better outcomes. Drawing on deep understanding and leading positions in cybersecurity, we serve commercial clients across industries including financial services, health and life sciences, energy, and technology.
Financial and Other Highlights
During fiscal 2024, the Company generated year over year revenue growth and increased client staff headcount. Revenue increased 15.2% from fiscal 2023 to fiscal 2024 primarily driven by strong demand for our services and solutions and an increase in headcount to meet that demand.
Operating income increased 126.8% to $1,013.4 million in fiscal 2024 from $446.8 million in fiscal 2023, which reflects an increase in operating margin to 9.5% from 4.8% in the comparable year. Operating income was driven by the same drivers benefiting revenue growth, as well as strong contract-level performance coupled with ongoing cost management efforts. Margins in the prior year were impacted by a $350.0 million reserve associated with the Department of Justice’s investigation of the Company (see Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information), as compared to a $27.5 million reserve in the current year.

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Non-GAAP Measures
We publicly disclose certain non-GAAP financial measurements, including Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, or Adjusted Diluted EPS, because management uses these measures for business planning purposes, including to manage our business against internal projected results of operations and measure our performance. We view Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted EPS as measures of our core operating business, which exclude the impact of the items detailed below, as these items are generally not operational in nature. These non-GAAP measures also provide another basis for comparing period to period results by excluding potential differences caused by non-operational and unusual or non-recurring items. In addition, we use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses because it provides management useful information about the Company's operating performance by excluding the impact of costs that are not indicative of the level of productivity of our client staff headcount and our overall direct labor, which management believes provides useful information to our investors about our core operations. We also utilize and discuss Free Cash Flow because management uses this measure for business planning purposes, measuring the cash generating ability of the operating business, and measuring liquidity generally. We present these supplemental measures because we believe that these measures provide investors and securities analysts with important supplemental information with which to evaluate our performance, long-term earnings potential, or liquidity, as applicable, and to enable them to assess our performance on the same basis as management. These supplemental performance measurements may vary from and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures by other companies in our industry. Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Diluted EPS, and Free Cash Flow are not recognized measurements under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, and when analyzing our performance or liquidity, as applicable, investors should (i) evaluate each adjustment in our reconciliation of revenue to Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, operating income to Adjusted Operating Income, net income to Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, and net cash provided by operating activities to Free Cash Flow, (ii) use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted EPS in addition to, and not as an alternative to, revenue, operating income, net income or diluted EPS, as measures of operating results, each as defined under GAAP and (iii) use Free Cash Flow in addition to, and not as an alternative to, net cash provided by operating activities as a measure of liquidity, each as defined under GAAP. We have defined the aforementioned non-GAAP measures as follows:
“Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses” represents revenue less billable expenses. We use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses because it provides management useful information about the Company's operating performance by excluding the impact of costs that are not indicative of the level of productivity of our client staff headcount and our overall direct labor, which management believes provides useful information to our investors about our core operations.
“Adjusted Operating Income” represents operating income before the change in provision for claimed indirect costs, acquisition and divestiture costs, financing transaction costs, significant acquisition amortization, DC tax assessment adjustment, the reserve associated with the U.S. Department of Justice investigation disclosed in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K, and restructuring costs. We prepare Adjusted Operating Income to eliminate the impact of items we do not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary, or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature.
“Adjusted EBITDA” represents net income attributable to common stockholders before income taxes, net interest and other expense and depreciation and amortization and before certain other items, including the change in provision for claimed indirect costs, acquisition and divestiture costs, acquisition and divestiture costs, financing transaction costs, DC tax assessment adjustment, the reserve associated with the U.S. Department of Justice investigation disclosed in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated statements, and restructuring costs. “Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue” is calculated as Adjusted EBITDA divided by revenue. “Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses” is calculated as Adjusted EBITDA divided by Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses. The Company prepares Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, and Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses to eliminate the impact of items it does not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature.
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“Adjusted Net Income” represents net income attributable to common stockholders before: (i) the change in provision for claimed indirect costs, (ii) acquisition and divestiture costs, (iii) financing transaction costs, (iv) significant acquisition amortization, (v) DC tax assessment adjustment, (vi) the reserve associated with the U.S. Department of Justice investigation disclosed in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K, (vii) restructuring costs, (viii) valuation adjustments to cost method investments, (iv) gains associated with equity method investment activity, (x) gains associated with divestitures or deconsolidation, and (xi) amortization or write-off of debt issuance costs and debt discount, in each case net of the tax effect where appropriate calculated using an assumed effective tax rate. We prepare Adjusted Net Income to eliminate the impact of items, net of tax, we do not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary, or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature. We view net income excluding the impact of the re-measurement of the Company's deferred tax assets and liabilities as an important indicator of performance consistent with the manner in which management measures and forecasts the Company's performance and the way in which management is incentivized to perform.
“Adjusted Diluted EPS” represents diluted EPS calculated using Adjusted Net Income as opposed to net income. Additionally, Adjusted Diluted EPS does not contemplate any adjustments to net income as required under the two-class method as disclosed in the footnotes to the consolidated financial statements.
“Free Cash Flow” represents the net cash generated from operating activities less the impact of purchases of property, equipment, and software.
Below is a reconciliation of Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Diluted EPS, and Free Cash Flow to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.    
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 Fiscal Year Ended
 March 31,
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)202420232022
 (Unaudited)
Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses
Revenue$10,661,896 $9,258,911 $8,363,700 
Less: Billable expenses3,281,776 2,808,857 2,474,163 
Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses*
$7,380,120 $6,450,054 $5,889,537 
Adjusted Operating Income
Operating Income$1,013,403 $446,848 $685,181 
Change in provision for claimed indirect costs (a)(18,345)— — 
Acquisition and divestiture costs (b)7,580 44,269 97,485 
Financing transaction costs (c)820 6,888 2,348 
Significant acquisition amortization (d)53,897 51,553 38,295 
DC tax assessment adjustment (e)(20,050)— — 
Legal matter reserve (f)27,453 350,000 — 
Restructuring costs (g)— — 4,164 
Adjusted Operating Income$1,064,758 $899,558 $827,473 
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue & Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses
Net income attributable to common stockholders$605,706 $271,791 $466,740 
Income tax expense247,614 96,734 137,466 
Interest and other, net (h)160,083 78,899 81,138 
Depreciation and amortization164,203 165,484 145,747 
EBITDA1,177,606 612,908 831,091 
Change in provision for claimed indirect costs (a)(18,345)— — 
Acquisition and divestiture costs (b)7,580 44,269 97,485 
Financing transaction costs (c)820 6,888 2,348 
DC tax assessment adjustment (e)(20,050)— — 
Legal matter reserve (f)27,453 350,000 — 
Restructuring costs (g)— — 4,164 
Adjusted EBITDA$1,175,064 $1,014,065 $935,088 
Net income margin attributable to common stockholders5.7 %2.9 %5.6 %
Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue11.0 %11.0 %11.2 %
Adjusted EBITDA Margin on Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses15.9 %15.7 %15.9 %
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Fiscal Year Ended
 March 31,
(Amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)202420232022
(Unaudited)
Adjusted Net Income
Net income attributable to common stockholders$605,706 $271,791 $466,740 
Change in provision for claimed indirect costs (a)(18,345)— — 
Acquisition and divestiture costs (b)7,580 44,269 97,485 
Financing transaction costs (c)820 6,888 2,348 
Significant acquisition amortization (d)53,897 51,553 38,295 
DC tax assessment adjustment (e)(20,050)— — 
Legal matter reserve (f)27,453 350,000 — 
Restructuring costs (g)— — 4,164 
Valuation adjustments to cost method investments (i)5,669 — — 
Gains associated with equity method investment activity (j)— — (12,761)
Gains associated with divestitures or deconsolidation (k)— (44,632)— 
Amortization or write-off of debt issuance costs and debt discount4,017 6,554 3,340 
Adjustments for tax effect (l)52,218 (81,389)(31,399)
Adjusted Net Income$718,965 $605,034 $568,212 
Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share
Weighted-average number of diluted shares outstanding130,815,903 132,716,436 134,850,808 
Diluted earnings per share$4.59 $2.03 $3.44 
Adjusted Net Income Per Diluted Share (m)$5.50 $4.56 $4.21 
Free Cash Flow
Net cash provided by operating activities$258,838 $602,822 $736,526 
Less: Purchases of property, equipment and software(66,699)(76,130)(79,964)
Free Cash Flow$192,139 $526,692 $656,562 
Operating cash flow conversion43 %222 %158 %
Free cash flow conversion27 %87 %116 %
* Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses includes $18.3 million of revenue resulting from the reduction to our provision
for claimed indirect costs (see note (a) below), and $20.1 million of revenue resulting from the impact of the Company's
unfavorable ruling from the District of Columbia Court of Appeals (see note (e) below).
(a)Represents the reduction to our provision for claimed indirect costs recorded during the second quarter of fiscal 2024, which resulted in a corresponding increase to revenue, as a result of the Defense Contract Audit Agency's findings related to its audit of our claimed indirect costs for fiscal 2022. See Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
(b)Represents costs associated with the acquisition efforts of the Company related to transactions for which the Company has entered into a letter of intent to acquire a controlling financial interest in the target entity, as well as the divestiture costs incurred in divesting a portion of our business. Acquisition and divestiture costs primarily include costs associated with (i) buy-side and sell-side due diligence activities, (ii) compensation expenses associated with employee retention, and (iii) legal and advisory fees, primarily associated with the acquisitions of Liberty IT Solutions, LLC (“Liberty”) and Tracepoint Holdings, LLC (“Tracepoint”) in fiscal 2022, and the acquisition of EverWatch Corp. (“EverWatch”) and the divestitures of our management consulting business serving the Middle East and North Africa (“MENA”) and our Managed Threat Services business (“MTS”) in fiscal 2023. See Note 5, “Acquisition and Divestitures,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
(c)Reflects expenses associated with debt financing activities incurred during the second quarters of fiscal 2024 and 2023.
(d)Amortization expense associated with acquired intangibles from significant acquisitions. Significant acquisitions include acquisitions which the Company considers to be beyond the scope of our normal operations. Significant acquisition amortization includes amortization expense associated with the acquisition of Liberty in the second quarter of fiscal 2022 and EverWatch in the third quarter of fiscal 2023.
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(e)Reflects the impact (specifically the revenue from recoverable expenses) of the Company's unfavorable ruling from the District of Columbia Court of Appeals related to contested tax assessments from the District of Columbia Office of Tax and Revenue (“DC OTR”). See Note 13, “Income Taxes,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
(f)Reserve associated with the U.S. Department of Justice's investigation of the Company. See Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
(g)Represents restructuring charges of $8.3 million incurred during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, net of approximately $4.2 million of revenue recognized on recoverable expenses, associated with severance costs of a restructuring plan to reduce certain executive administrative personnel costs.
(h)Reflects the combination of Interest expense and Other income, net from the consolidated statement of operations.
(i)Represents non-recurring valuation adjustments to the Company's cost method investments, primarily the write-off of one of its investments.
(j)Represents (i) a gain in the second quarter of fiscal 2022 associated with the Company's previously held equity method investment in Tracepoint and (ii) a gain in the third quarter of fiscal 2022 associated with the divestiture of a controlling financial interest in SnapAttack.
(k)Represents the gain recognized on the divestitures of the Company's MENA business in the second quarter of fiscal 2023, its MTS business in the third quarter of fiscal 2023, and the gain on the deconsolidation of an artificial intelligence software platform business in the third quarter of fiscal 2023.
(l)Reflects the tax effect of adjustments at an assumed effective tax rate of 26%, which approximates the blended federal and state tax rates, and consistently excludes the impact of other tax credits and incentive benefits realized. The tax effect of certain discrete items is calculated specifically and may vary from the general 26% rate. The tax effect also includes the indirect effects of uncertainty around the application of Section 174 of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ($(22.0) million for fiscal 2024, and $22.0 million for fiscal 2023), and the impact of the Company's unfavorable ruling from the District of Columbia Court of Appeals related to contested tax assessments from the DC OTR ($42.7 million for the three and twelve months ended March 31, 2024, respectively). See Note 13, “Income Taxes,” to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
(m)Excludes adjustments of approximately $5.0 million, $2.1 million, and $3.1 million of net earnings for fiscal 2024, 2023, and 2022, respectively, associated with the application of the two-class method for computing diluted earnings per share.
Factors and Trends Affecting Our Results of Operations
Our results of operations have been, and we expect them to continue to be, affected by the following factors, which may cause our future results of operations to differ from our historical results of operations discussed under “—Results of Operations.”
Business Environment and Key Trends in Our Markets
We believe that the following trends and developments in the U.S. government services industry and our markets may influence our future results of operations:
uncertainty around the timing, extent, nature and effect of Congressional and other U.S. government actions to approve funding of the U.S. government, address budgetary constraints, including caps on the discretionary budget for defense and non-defense departments and agencies, as established by the Bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011 (“BCA”) and subsequently adjusted by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), and the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021, and address the ability of Congress to determine how to allocate the available budget authority and pass appropriations bills to fund both U.S. government departments and agencies that are, and those that are not, subject to the caps;
budget deficits and the growing U.S. national debt increasing pressure on the U.S. government to reduce federal spending across all federal agencies together with associated uncertainty about the size and timing of those reductions;
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cost-cutting and efficiency initiatives, current and future budget restrictions, continued implementation of Congressionally mandated automatic spending cuts, and other efforts to reduce U.S. government spending could cause clients to reduce or delay funding for orders for services or invest appropriated funds on a less consistent or rapid basis or not at all, particularly when considering long-term initiatives and in light of current uncertainty around Congressional efforts to craft a long-term agreement on the U.S. government's ability to incur indebtedness in excess of its current limits, and generally in the current political environment, there is a risk that clients will not issue task orders in sufficient volume to reach current contract ceilings, alter historical patterns of contract awards, including the typical increase in the award of task orders or completion of other contract actions by the U.S. government in the period before the end of the U.S. government's fiscal year on September 30, delay requests for new proposals and contract awards, rely on short-term extensions and funding of current contracts, or reduce staffing levels and hours of operation;
delays in the completion of future U.S. government’s budget processes, which have in the past and could in the future delay procurement of the products, services, and solutions we provide;
changes in the relative mix of overall U.S. government spending and areas of spending growth, with lower spending on homeland security, intelligence, defense-related programs as certain overseas operations end, and continued increased spending on cybersecurity, Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), advanced analytics, technology integration, and healthcare, including as a result of the presidential and administration transition;
the extent, nature and effect of disease outbreaks, pandemics and widespread health epidemics, such as COVID-19, including the impact on federal budgets, current and pending procurements, supply chains, demand for services, deployment and productivity of our employees and the economic and societal impact of a pandemic, and the expected continued volatility in billable expenses;
increased inflationary pressure that could impact the cost of doing business and/or reduce customer buying power;
risks related to a possible recession and volatility or instability of the global financial system, including bank failures and the resulting impact on counterparties and business conditions generally;
legislative and regulatory changes, or shifts in regulatory priorities as a result of U.S. administration transitions, including limitations on the amount of allowable executive compensation permitted under flexibly priced contracts following implementation of interim rules adopted by federal agencies pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, which substantially further reduce the amount of allowable executive compensation under these contracts and extend these limitations to a larger segment of our executives and our entire contract base;
efforts by the U.S. government to address organizational conflicts of interest and related issues and the impact of those efforts on us and our competitors;
increased audit, review, investigation, and general scrutiny by U.S. government agencies of government contractors' performance under U.S. government contracts and compliance with the terms of those contracts and applicable laws;
the federal focus on refining the definition of “inherently governmental” work, including proposals to limit contractor access to sensitive or classified information and work assignments, which will continue to drive pockets of insourcing in various agencies, particularly in the intelligence market;
negative publicity and increased scrutiny of government contractors in general, including us, relating to U.S. government expenditures for contractor services and incidents involving the mishandling of sensitive or classified information;
U.S. government agencies awarding contracts on a technically acceptable/lowest cost basis, which could have a negative impact on our ability to win certain contracts;
increased competition from other government contractors and market entrants seeking to take advantage of certain of the trends identified above, and an industry trend towards consolidation, which may result in the emergence of companies that are better able to compete against us;
cost cutting and efficiency and effectiveness efforts by U.S. civilian agencies with a focus on increased use of performance measurement, “program integrity” efforts to reduce waste, fraud and abuse in entitlement programs, and renewed focus on improving procurement practices for and interagency use of IT services, including through the use of cloud based options and data center consolidation;
restrictions by the U.S. government on the ability of federal agencies to use lead system integrators, in response to cost, schedule, and performance problems with large defense acquisition programs where contractors were performing the lead system integrator role;
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increasingly complex requirements and enforcement and reporting landscapes of the Department of Defense and the U.S. intelligence community, including cybersecurity, managing federal health care cost growth, competition, and focus on reforming existing government regulation of various sectors of the economy, such as financial regulation and healthcare; and
increasing small business regulations across the Department of Defense and civilian agency clients continue to gain traction, agencies are required to meet high small business set aside targets, and large business prime contractors are required to subcontract in accordance with considerable small business participation goals necessary for contract award.
Sources of Revenue
Substantially all of our revenue is derived from services provided under contracts and task orders with the U.S. government, primarily by our client staff and, to a lesser extent, our subcontractors. Funding for our contracts and task orders is generally linked to trends in budgets and spending across various U.S. government agencies and departments. We provide services under a large portfolio of contracts and contract vehicles to a broad client base, and we believe that our diversified contract and client base lessens potential volatility in our business; however, a reduction in the amount of services that we are contracted to provide to the U.S. government or any of our significant U.S. government clients could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In particular, the Department of Defense is one of our significant clients, and the BCA originally required nine automatic spending cuts (referred to as “sequestration”) of $109 billion annually from 2013 to 2021, half of which was intended to come from defense programs, though less than $1 billion has been cut for defense programs per year under the BCA. Mandatory sequestrations under the BCA were subsequently extended by the Bipartisan Budget Acts of 2013, 2015, 2018 and 2019, the Military Retired Pay Restoration Act, the CARES Act and the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. The extension of the mandatory sequestration applies an 8.3% reduction in defense spending in each year from 2021 through 2031. This could result in a commensurate reduction in the amount of services that we are contracted to provide to the Department of Defense and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, and given the uncertainty of when and how these automatic reductions required by the BCA may return and/or be applied, we are unable to predict the nature or magnitude of the potential adverse effect.
Contract Types
We generate revenue under the following three basic types of contracts:
Cost-Reimbursable Contracts. Cost-reimbursable contracts provide for the payment of allowable costs incurred during performance of the contract, up to a ceiling based on the amount that has been funded, plus a fixed fee or award fee. As we increase or decrease our spending on allowable costs, our revenue generated on cost-reimbursable contracts will increase, up to the ceiling and funded amounts, or decrease, respectively. We generate revenue under two general types of cost-reimbursable contracts: cost-plus-fixed-fee and cost-plus-award-fee, both of which reimburse allowable costs and provide for a fee. The fee under each type of cost-reimbursable contract is generally payable upon completion of services in accordance with the terms of the contract. Cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts offer no opportunity for payment beyond the fixed fee. Cost-plus-award-fee contracts also provide for an award fee that varies within specified limits based upon the client’s assessment of our performance against a predetermined set of criteria, such as targets for factors like cost, quality, schedule, and performance.
Time-and-Materials Contracts. Under contracts in this category, we are paid a fixed hourly rate for each direct labor hour expended, and we are reimbursed for billable material costs and billable out-of-pocket expenses inclusive of allocable indirect costs. We assume the financial risk on time-and-materials contracts because our costs of performance may exceed negotiated hourly rates. To the extent our actual direct labor, including allocated indirect costs, and associated billable expenses decrease or increase in relation to the fixed hourly billing rates provided in the contract, we will generate more or less profit, respectively, or could incur a loss.
Fixed-Price Contracts. Under a fixed-price contract, we agree to perform the specified work for a predetermined price. To the extent our actual direct and allocated indirect costs decrease or increase from the estimates upon which the price was negotiated, we will generate more or less profit, respectively, or could incur a loss. Some fixed-price contracts have a performance-based component, pursuant to which we can earn incentive payments or incur financial penalties based on our performance. Fixed-price level of effort contracts require us to provide a specified level of effort (i.e., labor hours), over a stated period of time, for a fixed price.
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The amount of risk and potential reward varies under each type of contract. Under cost-reimbursable contracts, there is limited financial risk, because we are reimbursed for all allowable costs up to a ceiling. However, profit margins on this type of contract tend to be lower than on time-and-materials and fixed-price contracts. Under time-and-materials contracts, we are reimbursed for the hours worked using the predetermined hourly rates for each labor category. In addition, we are typically reimbursed for other contract direct costs and expenses at cost. We assume financial risk on time-and-materials contracts because our labor costs may exceed the negotiated billing rates. Profit margins on well-managed time-and-materials contracts tend to be higher than profit margins on cost-reimbursable contracts as long as we are able to staff those contracts with people who have an appropriate skill set. Under fixed-price contracts, we are required to deliver the objectives under the contract for a predetermined price. Compared to time-and-materials and cost-reimbursable contracts, fixed-price contracts generally offer higher profit margin opportunities because we receive the full benefit of any cost savings but generally involve greater financial risk because we bear the impact of any cost overruns. In the aggregate, the contract type mix in our revenue for any given period will affect that period's profitability. Changes in contract type as a result of re-competes and new business could influence the percentage/mix in unanticipated ways. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Industry and Economic Risks.”
The table below presents the percentage of total revenue for each type of contract for the respective periods shown: 
 Fiscal Year Ended
 March 31,
 202420232022
Cost-reimbursable55%53%54%
Time-and-materials24%25%24%
Fixed-price21%22%22%
Contract Diversity and Revenue Mix
We provide services to our clients through a large number of single award contracts, contract vehicles, and multiple award contract vehicles. Most of our revenue is generated under indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity, or IDIQ, contract vehicles, which include multiple award government wide acquisition contract vehicles, or GWACs, and General Services Administration Multiple Award Schedule Contracts, or GSA schedules, and certain single award contracts. GWACs and GSA schedules are available to all U.S. government agencies. Any number of contractors typically competes under multiple award IDIQ contract vehicles for task orders to provide particular services, and we earn revenue under these contract vehicles only to the extent that we are successful in the bidding process for task orders. No single task order under any IDIQ contract represented more than 4.5% of our revenue in fiscal 2024. No single definite contract accounted for more than 0.7% of our revenue in fiscal 2024.
We generate revenue under our contracts and task orders through our provision of services as both a prime contractor and subcontractor, as well as from the provision of services by subcontractors under contracts and task orders for which we act as the prime contractor. For fiscal 2024, 2023, and 2022, 95%, 95%, and 94%, respectively, of our revenue was generated by contracts and task orders for which we served as a prime contractor; 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively, of our revenue was generated by contracts and task orders for which we served as a subcontractor; and 25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively, of our revenue was generated by services provided by our subcontractors. The mix of these types of revenue affects our operating margin. Substantially all of our operating margin is derived from direct client staff labor as the portion of our operating margin derived from fees we earn on services provided by our subcontractors is not significant. We view growth in direct client staff labor as the primary driver of earnings growth. Direct client staff labor growth is driven by client staff headcount growth, after attrition, and total backlog growth.
Our People
Revenue from our contracts is derived from services delivered by client staff and, to a lesser extent, from our subcontractors. Our ability to hire, retain, and deploy talent with skills appropriately aligned with client needs is critical to our ability to grow our revenue. We continuously evaluate whether our talent base is properly sized and appropriately compensated, and contains an optimal mix of skills to be cost competitive and meet the rapidly evolving needs of our clients. We seek to achieve that result through recruitment and management of capacity and compensation. As of March 31, 2024, 2023, and 2022, we employed approximately 34,200, 31,900, and 29,300 people, respectively, of which approximately 31,200, 29,100, and 26,300, respectively, were client staff.
Contract Backlog
We define backlog to include the following three components:
Funded Backlog. Funded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding is appropriated or otherwise authorized less revenue previously recognized on these contracts.
Unfunded Backlog. Unfunded backlog represents the revenue value of orders (including optional orders) for services under existing contracts for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
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Priced Options. Priced contract options represent 100% of the revenue value of all future contract option periods under existing contracts that may be exercised at our clients’ option and for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Our backlog does not include contracts that have been awarded but are currently under protest and also does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts, except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts.
The following table summarizes the value of our contract backlog as of the respective periods shown: 
 Fiscal Year Ended
 March 31,
 202420232022
 (In millions)
Backlog: (1)
Funded$4,822 $4,619 $3,710 
Unfunded 9,463 9,519 9,925 
Priced options19,533 17,064 15,612 
Total backlog$33,818 $31,202 $29,247 
(1) Backlog presented as of March 31, 2023 includes $282 million of backlog for EverWatch Corp., which was acquired during fiscal 2023. Original backlog value at acquisition was $292 million.
Our total backlog consists of remaining performance obligations, certain orders under contracts for which the period of performance has expired, and unexercised option period and other unexercised optional orders. As of March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023, the Company had $8.7 billion and $7.9 billion of remaining performance obligations, respectively, and we expect to recognize approximately 70% of the remaining performance obligations as of March 31, 2024 as revenue over the next 12 months, and approximately 80% over the next 24 months. The remainder is expected to be recognized thereafter. However, given the uncertainties discussed below, as well as the risks described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” we can give no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into revenue in any particular period, if at all. Our backlog includes orders under contracts that in some cases extend for several years. The U.S. Congress generally appropriates funds for our clients on a yearly basis, even though their contracts with us may call for performance that is expected to take a number of years to complete. As a result, contracts typically are only partially funded at any point during their term and all or some of the work to be performed under the contracts may remain unfunded unless and until the U.S. Congress makes subsequent appropriations and the procuring agency allocates funding to the contract.
We view growth in total backlog and client staff headcount as the two key measures of our potential business growth. Growing and deploying client staff is the primary means by which we are able to achieve profitable revenue growth. To the extent that we are able to hire additional client staff and deploy them against funded backlog, we generally recognize increased revenue. Total backlog increased by 8.4% from March 31, 2023 to March 31, 2024 and increased by 6.7% from March 31, 2022 to March 31, 2023. Additions to funded backlog during fiscal 2024 and 2023 totaled $10.9 billion and $10.2 billion respectively, as a result of the conversion of unfunded backlog to funded backlog, the award of new contracts and task orders under which funding was appropriated, and the exercise and subsequent funding of priced options. We report internally on our backlog on a monthly basis and review backlog upon occurrence of certain events to determine if any adjustments are necessary.
We cannot predict with any certainty the portion of our backlog that we expect to recognize as revenue in any future period and we cannot guarantee that we will recognize any revenue from our backlog. The primary risks that could affect our ability to recognize such revenue on a timely basis or at all are: program schedule changes, contract modifications, and our ability to assimilate and deploy new client staff against funded backlog; cost-cutting initiatives and other efforts to reduce U.S. government spending, which could reduce or delay funding for orders for services; and delayed funding of our contracts due to delays in the completion of the U.S. government's budgeting process and the use of continuing resolutions by the U.S. government to fund its operations. The amount of our funded backlog is also subject to change, due to, among other factors: changes in congressional appropriations that reflect changes in U.S. government policies or priorities resulting from various military, political, economic, or international developments; changes in the use of U.S. government contracting vehicles, and the provisions therein used to procure our services and adjustments to the scope of services, or cancellation of contracts, by the U.S. government at any time. In our recent experience, none of the following additional risks have had a material negative effect on our ability to realize revenue from our funded backlog: the unilateral right of the U.S. government to cancel multi-year contracts and related orders or to terminate existing contracts for convenience or default; in the case of unfunded backlog, the potential that funding will not be made available; and, in the case of priced options, the risk that our clients will not exercise their options.
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In addition, contract backlog includes orders under contracts for which the period of performance has expired, and we may not recognize revenue on the funded backlog that includes such orders due to, among other reasons, the tardy submission of invoices by our subcontractors and the expiration of the relevant appropriated funding in accordance with a predetermined expiration date such as the end of the U.S. government's fiscal year. The revenue value of orders included in contract backlog that has not been recognized as revenue due to period of performance expirations has not exceeded approximately 4.8% of total backlog as of March 31, 2024 or for any of the three preceding fiscal quarters.
We expect to recognize revenue from a substantial portion of funded backlog as of March 31, 2024 within the next twelve months. However, given the uncertainties discussed above, as well as the risks described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” we can give no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into revenue in any particular period, if at all.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Costs associated with compensation and related expenses for our people are the most significant component of our operating costs and expenses. The principal factors that affect our costs are additional people as we grow our business and are awarded new contracts, task orders, and additional work under our existing contracts, and the hiring of people with specific skill sets and security clearances as required by our additional work.
Our most significant operating costs and expenses are described below.
Cost of Revenue. Cost of revenue includes direct labor, related employee benefits, and overhead. Overhead consists of indirect costs, including indirect labor relating to infrastructure, management and administration, and other expenses.
Billable Expenses. Billable expenses include direct subcontractor expenses, travel expenses, and other expenses incurred to perform on contracts.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses include indirect labor of executive management and corporate administrative functions, marketing and bid and proposal costs, and other discretionary spending.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization includes the depreciation of computers, leasehold improvements, furniture and other equipment, and the amortization of internally developed software, as well as third-party software that we use internally, and of identifiable long-lived intangible assets over their estimated useful lives.
Seasonality
The U.S. government's fiscal year ends on September 30 of each year. While not certain, it is not uncommon for U.S. government agencies to award extra tasks or complete other contract actions in the weeks before the end of its fiscal year in order to avoid the loss of unexpended fiscal year funds. In addition, we also have historically experienced higher bid and proposal costs in the months leading up to the U.S. government's fiscal year end as we pursue new contract opportunities being awarded shortly after the U.S. government fiscal year end as new opportunities are expected to have funding appropriated in the U.S. government's subsequent fiscal year. We may continue to experience this seasonality in future periods, and our future periods may be affected by it. While not certain, changes in the government's funding and spending patterns have altered historical seasonality trends, supporting our approach to managing the business on an annual basis.
Seasonality is just one of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, which may affect our results in any period. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Government Audit Impact on Operating Income
As noted in the section on regulation in Item 1, “Business,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, in the ordinary course of business, agencies of the U.S. government for which the Company is engaged as a prime contractor or a subcontractor, including the Defense Contract Audit Agency, audit the Company’s claimed indirect costs and conduct inquiries and investigations of our business practices with respect to government contracts. Such audits may result in, and have historically resulted in, the Company’s inability to retain certain claimed indirect costs, including executive and employee compensation, due to differing views of the allowability and reasonableness of such costs.
Due to the previously disclosed investigation of the Company by the DOJ, years subsequent to the Company’s fiscal year 2011 remain subject to audit and/or final resolution. As discussed in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements within this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company recognized a reserve for estimated adjustments to historical claimed indirect costs in respect of the years subsequent to fiscal 2011, based primarily on historical audit results for periods prior to 2011. Following the settlement and closure of the civil and criminal investigation, respectively, of the Company by the DOJ, as discussed in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the consolidated financial statements contained within this Annual Report on Form 10-K, audits for years subsequent to fiscal 2011 have resumed. As audits of the periods subsequent to 2011 are completed, our estimates of adjustment to claimed indirect costs for these periods could change. Any such change could materially impact our reported revenue, operating income, net income and basic and diluted earnings per common share.
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Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingencies at the date of the consolidated financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Management evaluates these estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates and assumptions have been prepared on the basis of the most current reasonably available information. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Our significant accounting policies, including the critical policies and practices listed below, are more fully described and discussed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. We consider the following accounting policies to be critical to an understanding of our financial condition and results of operations because these policies require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments on the part of our management in their application, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain.
Revenue Recognition and Cost Estimation
Our revenues from contracts with customers (clients) are derived from offerings that include consulting, analytics, digital solutions, engineering, and cyber services, substantially with the U.S. government and its agencies, and to a lesser extent, subcontractors. We also serve foreign governments, as well as domestic and international commercial clients. We perform under various types of contracts, which include cost-reimbursable-plus-fee contracts, time-and-materials contracts, and fixed-price contracts.
We consider a contract with a customer to exist under Topic 606 when there is approval and commitment from us and the customer, the rights of the parties and payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance, and collectability of consideration is probable. We will also consider whether two or more contracts entered into with the same customer should be combined and accounted for as a single contract. Furthermore, in certain transactions with commercial clients and with the U.S. government, we may commence providing services prior to receiving a formal approval from the customer. In these situations, we will consider the factors noted above, the risks associated with commencing the work, and legal enforceability in determining whether a contract with the customer exists under Topic 606.
Customer contracts are often modified to change the scope, price, specifications or other terms within the existing arrangement. Contract modifications are evaluated by management to determine whether the modification should be accounted for as part of the original performance obligation(s) or as a separate contract. If the modification adds distinct goods or services and increases the contract value proportionate to the stand-alone selling price of the additional goods or services, it will be accounted for as a separate contract. Generally, our contract modifications do not include goods or services which are distinct, and therefore are accounted for as part of the original performance obligation(s) with any impact on transaction price or estimated costs at completion being recorded through a cumulative catch-up adjustment to revenue.
We evaluate each service deliverable contracted with the customer to determine whether it represents promises to transfer distinct goods or services. Under Topic 606, these are referred to as performance obligations. One or more service deliverables often represent a single performance obligation. This evaluation requires significant judgment and the impact of combining or separating performance obligations may change the time over which revenue from the contract is recognized. Our contracts generally provide a set of integrated or highly interrelated tasks or services and are therefore accounted for as a single performance obligation. However, in cases where we provide more than one distinct good or service within a customer contract, the contract is separated into individual performance obligations which are accounted for discretely.
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Contracts with the U.S. government are generally subject to the FAR and are priced based on estimated or actual costs of providing the goods or services. We derive a majority of our revenue from contracts awarded through a competitive bidding process. Pricing for non-U.S. government agencies and commercial customers is based on discrete negotiations with each customer. Certain of our contracts contain award fees, incentive fees or other provisions that may increase or decrease the transaction price. These variable amounts generally are awarded upon achievement of certain performance metrics, program milestones or cost targets and may be based upon customer discretion. Management estimates variable consideration as the most likely amount that we expect to achieve based on our assessment of the variable fee provisions within the contract, prior experience with similar contracts or clients, and management’s evaluation of the performance on such contracts. We may perform work under a contract that has not been fully funded if the work has been authorized by the management and the customer to proceed. We evaluate unfunded amounts as variable consideration in estimating the transaction price. We include the estimated variable consideration in our transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur upon the ultimate settlement of the variable fee provision. In the limited number of situations where our contracts with customers contain more than one performance obligation, we allocate the transaction price of a contract between the performance obligations in the proportion to their respective stand-alone selling prices. We generally estimate the stand-alone selling price of performance obligations based on an expected cost-plus margin approach as allowed under Topic 606. Our U.S. government contracts generally contain FAR provisions that enable the customer to terminate a contract for default or for the convenience of the U.S. government.
We recognize revenue for each performance obligation identified within our customer contracts when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied by transferring the promised goods or services. Revenue may either be recognized over time or at a point in time. We generally recognize revenue over time as our contracts typically involve a continuous transfer of control to the customer. A continuous transfer of control under contracts with the U.S. government and its agencies is evidenced by clauses which require us to be paid for costs incurred plus a reasonable margin in the event that the customer unilaterally terminates the contract for convenience. For contracts where we recognize revenue over time, a contract cost-based input method is generally used to measure progress towards satisfaction of the underlying performance obligation(s). Contract costs include direct costs such as materials, labor and subcontract costs, as well as indirect costs identifiable with, or allocable to, a specific contract that are expensed as incurred. We do not incur material incremental costs to acquire or fulfill contracts. Under a contract cost-based input method, revenue is recognized based on the proportion of contract costs incurred to the total estimated costs expected to be incurred upon completion of the underlying performance obligation. We generally include both funded and unfunded portions of customer contracts in this estimation process.
For interim financial reporting periods, contract revenue attributable to indirect costs is recognized based upon agreed-upon annual forward-pricing rates established with the U.S. government at the start of each fiscal year. Forward pricing rates are estimated and agreed upon between us and the U.S. government and represent indirect contract costs required to execute and administer contract obligations. The impact of any agreed-upon changes, or changes in the estimated annual forward-pricing rates, are recorded in the interim financial reporting period when such changes are identified. These changes relate to the interim financial reporting period differences between the actual indirect costs incurred and allocated to customer contracts compared to the estimated amounts allocated to contracts using the estimated annual forward-pricing rates established with the U.S. government.
On certain contracts, principally time-and-materials and cost-reimbursable-plus-fee contracts, revenue is recognized using the right-to-invoice practical expedient as we are contractually able to invoice the customer based on the control transferred. However, we did not elect to use the practical expedient which would allow us to exclude contracts recognized using the right-to-invoice practical expedient from the remaining performance obligations disclosed below. Additionally, for stand-ready performance obligations to provide services under fixed-price contracts, revenue is recognized over time using a straight-line measure of progress as the control of the services is provided to the customer ratably over the term of the contract. If a contract does not meet the criteria for recognition of revenue over time, we recognize revenue at the point in time when control of the good or service is transferred to the customer. Determining a measure of progress towards the satisfaction of performance obligations requires management to make judgments that may affect the timing of revenue recognition.
Many of our contracts recognize revenue under a contract cost-based input method and require an Estimate-at-Completion (“EAC”) process, which management uses to review and monitor the progress towards the completion of our performance obligations. Under this process, management considers various inputs and assumptions related to the EAC, including, but not limited to, progress towards completion, labor costs and productivity, material and subcontractor costs, and identified risks. Estimating the total cost at completion of performance obligations is subjective and requires management to make assumptions about future activity and cost drivers under the contract. Changes in these estimates can occur for a variety of reasons and, if significant, may impact the profitability of our contracts. Changes in estimates related to contracts accounted for under the EAC process are recognized in the period when such changes are made on a cumulative catch-up basis. If the estimate of contract profitability indicates an anticipated loss on a contract, we recognize the total loss at the time it is identified. For fiscal 2024, 2023, and 2022, the aggregate impact of adjustments in contract estimates was not material.
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Remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price of exercised contracts for which work has not yet been performed, regardless of whether funding has or has not been authorized and appropriated as of the date of exercise. Remaining performance obligations do not include negotiated but unexercised options or the unfunded value of expired contracts.
Business Combinations
The accounting for the Company's business combinations consists of allocating the purchase price to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values, with the excess recorded as goodwill. Certain fair value measurements include inputs that are unobservable, requiring management to make judgments and estimates that can be affected by contract performance and other factors that may cause final amounts to differ materially from original estimates. We have up to one year from the acquisition date to use additional information obtained to adjust the fair value of the acquired assets and liabilities which may result in changes to the recorded values with an offsetting adjustment to goodwill.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets Impairment
We test goodwill and the Company’s trade name for impairment at least annually as of January 1 of each year and more frequently if interim indicators of impairment exist. We perform our impairment testing of goodwill at the reporting unit level. As our business is highly integrated and all of our components have similar economic characteristics, we conclude that we have one reporting unit at the consolidated entity level, which is the same as our single operating segment. We test goodwill for impairment using the quantitative test (primarily based on market capitalization). We test the trade name for impairment using the relief from royalty method that requires management to make a significant number of judgments and estimates in the valuation. We do not consider goodwill, trade name, or any other amortizable intangible assets at risk of impairment. A 10% change in our enterprise value would not result in a goodwill or trade name impairment.
Amortizable intangible assets are tested for impairment when an event occurs or circumstances change indicating that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. A significant amount of management judgment is required to determine if an event representing an impairment indicator has occurred during the year for programs and contract assets, channel relationships, and other amortizable intangible assets, including but not limited to: a decline in forecasted cash flows; a sustained, material decline in the stock price and market capitalization; a significant adverse change in the business climate or economy; or unanticipated competition. An adverse change in any of these factors could have a significant impact on the recoverability of other intangible assets.
During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2024, 2023, and 2022, the Company did not record any impairment of goodwill or intangible assets.
Accounting for Income Taxes
Provisions for federal, state, and foreign income taxes are calculated from the income reported on our consolidated financial statements based on current tax law and also include the cumulative effect of any changes in tax rates from those previously used in determining deferred tax assets and liabilities. Such provisions differ from the amounts currently receivable or payable because certain items of income and expense are recognized in different time periods for purposes of preparing consolidated financial statements than for income tax purposes.
Significant judgment is required in determining income tax provisions and evaluating tax positions. We establish reserves for uncertain tax positions when, despite the belief that our tax positions are supportable, there remains uncertainty in a tax position taken in our previously filed income tax returns. For tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, we record the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. To the extent we prevail in matters for which accruals have been established or are required to pay amounts in excess of reserves, our effective tax rate in a given consolidated financial statement period may be materially impacted.
The carrying value of our net deferred tax assets assumes that we will be able to generate sufficient future taxable income in certain tax jurisdictions to realize the value of these assets. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income in these jurisdictions, a valuation allowance is recorded when it is more likely than not that the value of the deferred tax assets is not realizable.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” to our accompanying audited consolidated financial statements for information related to our adoption of new accounting standards and for information on our anticipated adoption of recently issued accounting standards.
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Segment Reporting
We report operating results and financial data in one operating and reportable segment. We manage our business as a single profit center in order to promote collaboration, provide comprehensive functional service offerings across our entire client base, and provide incentives to employees based on the success of the organization as a whole. Although certain information regarding served markets and functional capabilities is discussed for purposes of promoting an understanding of our complex business, we manage our business and allocate resources at the consolidated level of a single operating segment.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and have been prepared in accordance with GAAP, and the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes of the Company include its subsidiaries, and the joint ventures and partnerships over which the Company has a controlling financial interest. The Company uses the equity method to account for investments in entities that it does not control if it is otherwise able to exert significant influence over the entities’ operating and financial policies.
The Company’s fiscal year ends on March 31 and unless otherwise noted, references to fiscal year or fiscal are for fiscal years ended March 31. The accompanying consolidated financial statements present the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2024 and 2023 and the Company’s results of operations for fiscal 2024, fiscal 2023, and fiscal 2022.
Certain amounts reported in the Company's prior year consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Results of Operations
The following table presents items from our consolidated statements of operations for the respective periods shown:
 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,Fiscal 2024
Versus
Fiscal 2023
Fiscal 2023
Versus
Fiscal 2022
 2024