10-Q 1 bcab-20240331.htm 10-Q 10-Q
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number: 001-39787

 

BIOATLA, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

85-1922320

( State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

11085 Torreyana Road, San Diego, California

92121

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (858) 558-0708

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

BCAB

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒

As of May 10, 2024, the number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding was 48,115,918 and the number of shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding was 0.

 

 


 

BIOATLA, INC.

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q

 

Table of Contents

 

Page

PART I.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements:

1

Condensed Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024 (unaudited) and December 31, 2023

1

Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss (unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

2

Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

3

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows (unaudited) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

4

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (unaudited)

5

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

13

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

19

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

19

PART II.

OTHER INFORMATION

19

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

19

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

19

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

63

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

63

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

63

Item 5.

Other Information

63

Item 6.

Exhibits

64

SIGNATURES

65

 

 


 

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

BioAtla, Inc.

Condensed Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except par value and share amounts)

 

 

 

March 31,
2024

 

 

December 31,
2023

 

 

 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

80,630

 

 

$

111,471

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

5,795

 

 

 

4,935

 

Total current assets

 

 

86,425

 

 

 

116,406

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

1,363

 

 

 

1,603

 

Operating lease right-of-use asset, net

 

 

1,255

 

 

 

1,495

 

Other assets

 

 

154

 

 

 

154

 

Total assets

 

$

89,197

 

 

$

119,658

 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

$

17,751

 

 

$

26,720

 

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

1,509

 

 

 

1,624

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

19,260

 

 

 

28,344

 

Operating lease liabilities, less current portion

 

 

415

 

 

 

836

 

Liability to licensor

 

 

19,806

 

 

 

19,806

 

Total liabilities

 

 

39,481

 

 

 

48,986

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2024
   and December 31, 2023;
0 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024
   and December 31, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 350,000,000 shares authorized at
   March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023;
48,106,317 and 48,077,599
   shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value; 15,368,569 shares authorized at
   March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023;
0 shares issued and outstanding at
    March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

489,208

 

 

 

486,930

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(439,497

)

 

 

(416,263

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

49,716

 

 

 

70,672

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

89,197

 

 

$

119,658

 

 

See accompanying notes.

1


 

BioAtla, Inc.

Unaudited Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

2024

 

2023

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

Research and development expense

$

18,852

 

$

21,697

 

General and administrative expense

 

5,605

 

 

7,233

 

Total operating expenses

 

24,457

 

 

28,930

 

Loss from operations

 

(24,457

)

 

(28,930

)

Other income:

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

1,223

 

 

1,480

 

Other expense

 

 

 

(10

)

Total other income

 

1,223

 

 

1,470

 

Net loss and comprehensive loss

$

(23,234

)

$

(27,460

)

Net loss per common share, basic and diluted

$

(0.48

)

$

(0.58

)

Weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted

 

48,087,460

 

 

47,578,418

 

 

See accompanying notes.

2


 

BioAtla, Inc.

Unaudited Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share amounts)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2024

 

 

Common Stock

 

Class B
Common Stock

 

Additional
Paid-in

 

Accumulated

 

Total
Stockholders’

 

 

Shares

 

Amount

 

Shares

 

Amount

 

Capital

 

Deficit

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2023

 

48,077,599

 

$

5

 

 

 

$

 

$

486,930

 

$

(416,263

)

$

70,672

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,300

 

 

 

 

2,300

 

Issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans, net of shares withheld for taxes

 

28,718

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(22

)

 

 

 

(22

)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(23,234

)

 

(23,234

)

Balance at March 31, 2024

 

48,106,317

 

$

5

 

 

 

$

 

$

489,208

 

$

(439,497

)

$

49,716

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31, 2023

 

 

Common Stock

 

Class B
Common Stock

 

Additional
Paid-in

 

Accumulated

 

Total
Stockholders’

 

 

Shares

 

Amount

 

Shares

 

Amount

 

Capital

 

Deficit

 

Equity

 

Balance at December 31, 2022

 

46,336,166

 

$

5

 

 

1,211,959

 

$

 

$

473,135

 

$

(292,801

)

$

180,339

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,614

 

 

 

 

3,614

 

Issuance of common stock under equity incentive plans, net of shares withheld for taxes

 

89,196

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(66

)

 

 

 

(66

)

Conversion of Class B Common Stock

 

1,211,959

 

 

 

 

(1,211,959

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(27,460

)

 

(27,460

)

Balance at March 31, 2023

 

47,637,321

 

$

5

 

 

 

$

 

$

476,683

 

$

(320,261

)

$

156,427

 

 

 

See accompanying notes.

3


 

BioAtla, Inc.

Unaudited Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(23,234

)

 

$

(27,460

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

240

 

 

 

293

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

2,300

 

 

 

3,614

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(860

)

 

 

(2,106

)

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

 

(8,978

)

 

 

3,151

 

Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, net

 

 

(296

)

 

 

(146

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(30,828

)

 

 

(22,654

)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

(50

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

(50

)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments for taxes related to net settlement of equity awards

 

 

(13

)

 

 

(116

)

Net cash used in financing activities

 

 

(13

)

 

 

(116

)

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

 

(30,841

)

 

 

(22,820

)

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

 

 

111,471

 

 

 

215,507

 

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

 

$

80,630

 

 

$

192,687

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tax related to net settlement of equity awards included in accounts payable and
   accrued expenses

 

$

9

 

 

$

17

 

 

See accompanying notes.

4


 

BioAtla, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization

BioAtla, LLC was formed in Delaware in March 2007 and was converted to a Delaware corporation in July 2020 and renamed BioAtla, Inc. (the “Company”). The Company has a proprietary platform for creating biologics, including its conditionally active biologics (“CAB” or “CABs”). CABs have been designed to be active only under certain conditions found in diseased tissue, while remaining inactive in normal tissue. The Company is currently in clinical development of several CAB drug candidates including: its two lead CAB antibody drug conjugates (“CAB ADC”), mecbotamab vedotin (BA3011), a CAB ADC targeting AXL and ozuriftamab vedotin (BA3021), a CAB ADC targeting ROR2; evalstotug (BA3071), a CAB anti-CTLA-4 antibody; and BA3182 (CAB-EpCAM x CAB-CD3), a CAB bispecific antibody targeting EpCAM.

Basis of Presentation

The unaudited condensed financial statements as of March 31, 2024, and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), and with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) applicable to interim financial statements. These unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring accruals, which in the opinion of management are necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of the interim date and results of operations for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year or future periods. These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023, included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 26, 2024.

Liquidity and Going Concern

The Company has incurred cumulative operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception and expects to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as it continues development of its product candidates. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $439.5 million. The Company plans to continue to fund its losses from operations and capital funding needs through public or private equity or debt financings, or other sources. If the Company is not able to secure adequate additional funding, the Company may be forced to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, liquidate assets where possible, or suspend or curtail planned programs. Any of these actions could materially harm the Company’s business, results of operations and future prospects.

In January 2023, the Company entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Jefferies LLC pursuant to which the Company may, from time to time at its sole discretion, sell shares of the Company’s common stock, with aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $100.0 million. The Company has not sold any shares of its common stock under the Sales Agreement as of March 31, 2024.

Management is required to perform a two-step analysis of the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management must first evaluate whether there are conditions and events that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern (Step 1). If management concludes that substantial doubt is raised, management is also required to consider whether its plans alleviate that doubt (Step 2). Management’s assessment included the preparation of cash flow forecasts resulting in management’s conclusion that there is not substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as its current cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund the Company’s operations for a period of at least one year from the issuance date of these unaudited condensed financial statements.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of the Company’s condensed financial statements requires it to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the Company’s condensed financial statements and accompanying notes. The most significant estimates in the Company’s condensed financial statements relate to accruals for research and development costs, and equity-based compensation. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.

5


 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of highly rated securities including U.S. Government and U.S. Treasury money market funds, which are unrestricted as to withdrawal or use.

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a significant concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. The Company maintains deposits in federally insured financial institutions in excess of federally insured limits and may invest cash that is not required for immediate operating needs in highly liquid instruments that bear minimal risk. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based compensation expense represents the grant date fair value of equity awards, consisting of stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and employee stock purchase plan rights, over the requisite service period of the awards (usually the vesting period) on a straight-line basis. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants and employee stock purchase plan rights using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Prior to the Company’s IPO, the fair value of RSUs was based on the estimated fair value of the underlying common stock on the date of grant and, subsequent to the Company’s IPO, the fair value is based on the closing sales price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. Equity award forfeitures are recognized as they occur.

Leases

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. An arrangement is or contains a lease if it conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. If a lease is identified, classification is determined at lease commencement. Operating lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at the lease commencement date. The Company’s leases do not provide an implicit interest rate and therefore the Company estimates its incremental borrowing rate to discount lease payments. The incremental borrowing rate reflects the interest rate that the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment over a similar term. Operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets are based on the corresponding lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before commencement, initial direct costs, and lease incentives. Renewals or early terminations are not accounted for unless the Company is reasonably certain to exercise these options. Operating lease expense is recognized and the ROU asset is amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable lease costs are not included in the calculation of the ROU asset and the related lease liability and are recognized as incurred.

The Company has a single lease agreement with lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component. Payments for short-term leases, defined as leases with a term of twelve months or less, are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company does not currently have any short-term leases.

Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use assets, operating lease liabilities, and operating lease liabilities, non-current on the Company’s balance sheets. The Company does not have any finance leases.

Comprehensive Loss

Comprehensive loss is defined as a change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources, and consists of net loss and other comprehensive gain (loss). There have been no items qualifying as other comprehensive loss and, therefore, for all periods presented, the Company’s comprehensive loss was the same as its reported net loss.

Net Loss Per Share

Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares and dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. Dilutive common stock equivalents are comprised of RSUs, common stock options outstanding under the Company’s stock option plan, and contingently issuable shares under the BioAtla, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”).

6


 

Potentially dilutive securities not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per common share because to do so would be anti-dilutive are as follows (in common stock equivalents):

 

 

As of March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Common stock options

 

 

6,276,230

 

 

 

6,214,418

 

Restricted stock units

 

 

1,561,042

 

 

 

400,293

 

ESPP shares

 

 

172,009

 

 

 

122,565

 

Total

 

 

8,009,281

 

 

 

6,737,276

 

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

There were no new accounting standards that had a material impact on the Company’s financial statements during the three months ended March 31, 2024.

In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures”. ASU 2023-09 requires disaggregated information about a reporting entity's effective tax rate reconciliation as well as information on income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective for public entities with annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on its financial statements.

2. Balance Sheet Details

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,
2024

 

 

December 31,
2023

 

Prepaid research and development

 

$

4,418

 

 

$

4,615

 

Prepaid insurance

 

 

1,009

 

 

 

 

Other prepaid expenses and current assets

 

 

368

 

 

 

320

 

Total

 

$

5,795

 

 

$

4,935

 

 

Property and equipment consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

Useful life
(years)

 

March 31,
2024

 

 

December 31,
2023

 

Furniture, fixtures and office equipment

 

3 - 7

 

$

1,721

 

 

$

1,721

 

Laboratory equipment

 

5

 

 

2,280

 

 

 

2,280

 

Leasehold improvements

 

2 - 3

 

 

3,680

 

 

 

3,680

 

 

 

 

 

7,681

 

 

 

7,681

 

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization

 

 

 

 

(6,318

)

 

 

(6,078

)

Total

 

 

 

$

1,363

 

 

$

1,603

 

 

Accounts payable and accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

March 31,
2024

 

 

December 31,
2023

 

Accounts payable

 

$

3,446

 

 

$

3,819

 

Accrued compensation

 

 

1,275

 

 

 

3,790

 

Accrued research and development

 

 

12,513

 

 

 

18,246

 

Other accrued expenses

 

 

517

 

 

 

865

 

Total

 

$

17,751

 

 

$

26,720

 

 

3. Fair Value Measurements

The carrying amounts of the Company’s current financial assets and current financial liabilities are considered to be representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of those instruments.

The accounting guidance defines fair value, establishes a consistent framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure for each major asset and liability category measured at fair value on either a recurring or non-recurring basis. Fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction

7


 

between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, the accounting guidance establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets.

Level 2: Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.

As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had $51.1 million and $50.4 million, respectively, invested in U.S. Government and U.S. Treasury money market funds which are recorded as cash equivalents and represent a Level 1 measurement within the fair value hierarchy.

None of the Company’s non-financial assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value on a non-recurring basis. No transfers between levels have occurred during the periods presented.

4. Leases

The Company has a single operating lease for its corporate headquarters and laboratory space in San Diego, California. The lease expires in July 2025 and the Company has an option to extend the term of the lease for an additional five years. Additionally, the lease includes certain rent abatement, rent escalations, tenant improvement allowances and additional charges for common area maintenance and other costs.

The components of lease expense included in the Company’s statements of operations and loss include (in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Operating lease expense

 

$

261

 

 

$

261

 

Variable lease expense

 

 

159

 

 

 

147

 

Total lease expense, net

 

$

420

 

 

$

408

 

Variable lease costs are primarily related to payments made to lessors for common area maintenance, property taxes, insurance, and other operating expenses. The Company did not have any short-term leases or finance leases for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

The weighted average remaining lease term and weighted average discount rate for operating leases were as follows:

 

 

As of March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Weighted average remaining lease term (in years)

 

 

1.25

 

 

 

2.25

 

Weighted average discount rate percentage

 

 

3.50

%

 

 

3.50

%

Supplemental cash flow information related to leases under which the Company is the lessee was as follows (amounts in thousands):

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of operating leases

 

$

557

 

 

$

407

 

Maturities of operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

Operating
lease

 

Nine months ending December 31, 2024

 

 

1,128

 

2025

 

 

845

 

Thereafter

 

 

 

Total future lease payments

 

 

1,973

 

Less: imputed interest

 

 

(49

)

Total operating lease liabilities

 

$

1,924

 

 

8


 

 

5. Commitments and Contingencies

From time to time, the Company may be subject to various claims and suits arising in the ordinary course of business. The Company is not currently a party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which the Company believes, if determined adversely to the Company, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results or financial condition.

6. Stockholders’ Equity

2020 Equity Incentive Plan

The Company may grant awards of common stock under the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”) to the Company’s employees, consultants and non-employee directors pursuant to option awards, stock appreciation rights awards, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, performance stock awards, performance stock unit awards and other stock-based awards. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the total number of common shares authorized for issuance under the 2020 Plan was 10,735,431 and 9,196,970, respectively. On January 1st of each year, commencing with the first January 1st following the effective date of the 2020 Plan, the shares authorized for issuance under the 2020 Plan shall be increased by a number of shares equal to the lesser of 4% of the total number of shares outstanding on the immediately preceding December 31st and such lesser number of shares determined by the Company’s board of directors. The maximum term of the options granted under the 2020 Plan is no more than ten years. Awards under the 2020 Plan generally vest at 25% one year from the vesting commencement date and ratably each month thereafter for a period of 36 months, subject to continuous service.

On February 26, 2023, the Compensation Committee of the Company’s board of directors approved a modification to the Company’s 2020 Plan to allow vesting of RSUs or stock options, as applicable, subject to the grantee’s continued service to the Company and/or one of its subsidiaries as an employee, non-employee director, or independent contractor. Unvested RSUs totaling 139,730 shares and 574,244 unvested options which would have been forfeited under the original terms of the 2020 Plan continued to vest. The Company applied modification accounting to these awards which resulted in a decrease in fair value to these awards. The Company calculated compensation cost for the modified unvested awards of $416,000 related to the RSUs and $962,000 related to the options, and will recognize these amounts over the remaining requisite service periods. The modification also resulted in an increase to the term of 130,699 fully vested options for which $123,000 of incremental compensation cost was immediately recognized on the date of the modification.

Stock-based compensation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 has been reported in the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

Research and development

 

$

1,080

 

 

$

1,451

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,220

 

 

 

2,163

 

Total

 

$

2,300

 

 

$

3,614

 

 

Restricted Stock Units

The following table summarizes RSU activity under the 2020 Plan for the three months ended March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

Number of
Shares

 

 

Weighted - Average
Grant Date
Fair Value

 

Outstanding at December 31, 2023

 

 

99,104

 

 

$

18.00

 

Granted

 

 

1,499,000

 

 

$

2.54

 

Vested

 

 

(37,062

)

 

$

18.00

 

Outstanding at March 31, 2024

 

 

1,561,042

 

 

$

3.16

 

 

As of March 31, 2024, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense for RSUs was $4.8 million, which is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average period of approximately 3.8 years.

9


 

Stock Options

The following table summarizes stock option activity under the 2020 Plan for the three months ended March 31, 2024:

 

 

 

Number of
Options

 

 

Weighted - Average
Exercise
Price Per
Share

 

 

Weighted -Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(In Years)

 

 

Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value

 

Balance at December 31, 2023

 

 

6,273,507

 

 

$

7.62

 

 

 

8.64

 

 

$

74,680

 

Granted

 

 

6,000

 

 

$

1.88

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expired

 

 

(3,277

)

 

$

14.28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at March 31, 2024

 

 

6,276,230

 

 

$

7.61

 

 

 

8.40

 

 

$

449,640

 

Vested and expected to vest at March 31, 2024

 

 

6,276,230

 

 

$

7.61

 

 

 

8.40

 

 

$

449,640

 

Exercisable at March 31, 2024

 

 

2,449,437

 

 

$

10.91

 

 

 

8.01

 

 

$

142,843

 

 

As of March 31, 2024, total unrecognized stock-based compensation cost for unvested common stock options was $13.7 million, which is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted-average period of approximately 2.46 years. The weighted-average grant date fair value of stock options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $1.41 per share. The total fair value of options vested during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $3.6 million. Upon option exercise, the Company issues new shares of its common stock.

The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock option grants were as follows:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

 

2024

 

2023

Expected volatility

 

86.9%

 

77.3%

Risk-free interest rate

 

3.82%

 

3.85%

Expected dividend yield

 

0.0%

 

0.0%

Expected term

 

6.11 years

 

6.10 years

 

Expected volatility. As the Company’s common stock does not have a significant trading history, the expected volatility assumption is based on volatilities of a peer group of similar companies whose share prices are publicly available. The peer group was developed based on companies in the biotechnology industry.

Risk-free interest rate. The Company bases the risk-free interest rate assumption on the U.S. Treasury’s rates for U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds with maturities similar to those of the expected term of the award being valued.

Expected dividend yield. The Company bases the expected dividend yield assumption on the fact that it has never paid cash dividends and has no present plans to pay cash dividends.

Expected term. For employees, the expected term represents the period of time that options are expected to be outstanding. Because the Company has minimal historical exercise behavior, it determines the expected life assumption using the simplified method, which is an average of the contractual term of the option and its vesting period. For nonemployees, the expected term is generally the contractual term of the option.

Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”)

The ESPP permits participants to purchase common stock through payroll deductions of up to 15% of their eligible compensation. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, a total of 2,281,600 shares and 1,737,098 shares, respectively, of common stock were authorized for issuance under the ESPP. The number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance will automatically increase on January 1 of each calendar year, from January 1, 2021 through January 1, 2030 by the least of (i) 1.0% of the total number of common shares of our common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year (calculated on a fully diluted basis), (ii) 929,658 common shares or (iii) a number determined by the Company’s board of directors that is less than (i) and (ii). The Company did not issue any shares of common stock under the ESPP during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, 1,957,304 shares of common stock remained available for issuance under the ESPP. Stock-based compensation expense related to the ESPP for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was immaterial.

10


 

Common Stock Reserved for Future Issuance

Common stock reserved for future issuance are as follows in common equivalent shares:

 

 

 

March 31,
2024

 

 

December 31,
2023

 

Common stock options and restricted stock units issued and outstanding

 

 

7,837,272

 

 

 

6,372,611

 

Awards available for future issuance under the 2020 Plan

 

 

1,028,151

 

 

 

991,413

 

Awards available for future issuance under the ESPP

 

 

1,957,304

 

 

 

1,412,802

 

Total common stock reserved for future issuance

 

 

10,822,727

 

 

 

8,776,826

 

 

7. Collaboration, License and Option Agreements

Global Co-Development and Collaboration Agreement with BeiGene

In April 2019, the Company entered into a Global Co-Development and Collaboration agreement (the “BeiGene Collaboration”) with BeiGene, Ltd. and BeiGene Switzerland GmbH (collectively “BeiGene”), for the development, manufacturing and commercialization of evalstotug (BA3071). The BeiGene Collaboration was amended several times between 2019 and 2021 and the Company received a total of $25.0 million in non-refundable payments from BeiGene during that time.

In November 2021, the BeiGene Collaboration was terminated, subject to survival of certain provisions, and BeiGene handed back rights to know-how and materials received under the amended BeiGene Collaboration. As a result, the Company is responsible for the global development and commercialization of evalstotug. As consideration for this amendment, the Company agreed to pay BeiGene mid-single digit royalties on sales worldwide and on a limited basis will share in any upfront and milestone payments received through a sublicense of evalstotug. The Company reclassified its then remaining $19.8 million of deferred revenue as a long-term liability which is expected to settle as licensing payments are made to BeiGene in accordance with the resulting amendment. In the event the license is terminated, the liability will be extinguished with no further payment to BeiGene.

The Company did not recognize any revenue related to the collaboration agreement with BeiGene during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The Company had a $19.8 million Liability to Licensor as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.

Collaboration and Supply Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb

In January 2022, the Company and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (“BMS”) entered into a clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement (the “BMS Agreement”). Under the terms of the BMS Agreement, BioAtla and BMS will collaborate on clinical trials of separate combination therapies using two of BioAtla’s CAB ADCs, mecbotamab vedotin (BA3011) and ozuriftamab vedotin (BA3021), each in combination with Opdivo® (nivolumab), BMS’ proprietary anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody product. The Company will serve as the study sponsor of the scheduled studies and will be responsible for costs associated with the trial execution. BMS will provide Opdivo® clinical drug supply at no cost for the combination study trials. After the completion of the combination therapy trials, the Company is obligated to provide BMS with a final report of the data resulting from the trial. The BMS Agreement was amended in October 2022 to include additional territories for our mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin combination study trials. There was no impact to the Company's financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 as a result of this agreement.

11


 

8. Related Party Transactions

Himalaya Therapeutics SEZC

Clinical Trial Services Agreement

In January 2024, the Company entered into an amended Clinical Trial Services Agreement with Himalaya Therapeutics SEZC (as so amended, the “Clinical Trial Services Agreement”). Under the Clinical Trial Services Agreement, BioAtla will pay Himalaya Therapeutics SEZC for the full-time use of two of its personnel and provide services related to the initiation of clinical trials for evalstotug in China for a period of 12 months. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, in research and development expense related to the Clinical Trial Services Agreement. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had $0.1 million due to Himalaya Therapeutics SEZC, related to the Clinical Trial Services Agreement.

9. 401(k) Plan

The Company maintains a defined contribution 401(k) plan available to eligible employees. Employee contributions are voluntary and are determined on an individual basis, limited to the maximum amount allowable under federal tax regulations. The Company, at its discretion, may make certain matching contributions to the 401(k) plan. To date, the Company has not made any matching contributions.

12


 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis together with our unaudited condensed financial statements and notes thereto included in “Item 1. Financial Statements” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the audited financial statements and notes thereto as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on March 26, 2024. In addition to historical information, this Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including but not limited to those set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” in the Annual Report on form 10-K, and the caption “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Furthermore, past operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future periods.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing our novel class of highly specific and selective antibody-based therapeutics for the treatment of solid tumor cancer. Our CABs capitalize on our proprietary discoveries with respect to tumor biology, enabling us to target known and widely validated tumor antigens that have previously been difficult or impossible to target. Our novel CAB therapeutic candidates exploit characteristic pH differences between the tumor microenvironment and healthy tissue. Unlike healthy tissue, the tumor microenvironment is acidic, and we have designed our antibodies to selectively bind to their targets on tumor cells under acidic pH conditions but not on targets in normal tissues. Our approach is to identify the necessary targeting and potency required for cancer cell destruction, while aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce on-target, off-tumor toxicity—one of the fundamental challenges of existing cancer therapies.

We are a United States-based company with research facilities in San Diego, California and, through our contractual relationship with BioDuro-Sundia, a provider of preclinical development services, in Beijing, China. Since the commencement of our operations, we have focused substantially all of our resources on conducting research and development activities, including drug discovery, preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates, including the ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials of mecbotamab vedotin (BA3011), ozuriftamab vedotin (BA3021), and evalstotug (BA3071), and our Phase 1 clinical trial of BA3182 (CAB-EpCAM x CAB-CD3), establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, manufacturing clinical and research material through third parties, hiring personnel, establishing product development and commercialization collaborations with third parties, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations. Since 2014, such research and development activities have exclusively related to the research, development, manufacture and Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical testing of our CAB antibody-based product candidates and the strengthening of our proprietary CAB technology platform and pipeline.

We have incurred significant losses to date. Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our current and future product candidates. Our net loss was $23.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to $27.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. As of March 31, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $439.5 million. These losses have resulted primarily from costs incurred in connection with research and development activities and general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We do not expect to generate meaningful revenue from product sales for the foreseeable future, and we expect to continue to incur significant operating expenses for the foreseeable future due to the cost of research and development, including identifying and designing product candidates and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, and the regulatory approval process for our product candidates. We expect our expenses, and the potential for losses, to be variable as we focus development efforts on our prioritized programs. We expect research and development expenses to vary as we continue to advance clinical trials of our lead product candidates, and are expected to decrease in the near term as we complete enrollment and treatment of patients in certain trials.

We expect our expenses and capital requirements could increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities as we:

advance the clinical development of mecbotamab vedotin;
advance the clinical development of ozuriftamab vedotin;
advance the clinical development of evalstotug;
advance the clinical development of BA3182;
expand our pipeline of bispecific and other CAB antibody-based product candidates;
continue to invest in our CAB technology platform;
maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio, including patents, trade secrets and know-how;
seek marketing approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
establish additional product collaborations and commercial manufacturing relationships with third parties;

13


 

build sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure and relationships with third parties to commercialize product candidates for which we may obtain marketing approval;
continue to expand our operational, financial and management information systems; and
attract, hire and retain additional clinical, scientific, management, administrative and commercial personnel.

As a result, we will require substantial additional capital to develop our product candidates and fund operations for the foreseeable future. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and other similar arrangements. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our development efforts. We cannot assure you that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations at planned levels, and as a result we may be forced to substantially reduce or terminate our operations.

As of March 31, 2024, our cash and cash equivalents totaled approximately $80.6 million. Based on our current operating plan, our current cash and cash equivalents are expected to be sufficient to fund our ongoing operations for a period of at least twelve months from the date of issuance of the financial statements included in this report. Our current operating plan includes plans to complete enrollment in certain of our clinical trials, delaying development of certain pre-clinical programs, and prioritizing and focusing clinical development on selected assets and indications. In addition, we have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

Financial Operations Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sale of products and do not expect to generate meaningful revenue in the near future.

The Company has entered into collaborations and licensing agreements with various third parties that, in some cases, may provide for potential future milestone and royalty payments to us (see Note 7 to our financial statements). Prior to developing our own programs, we received revenue from services performed under fixed price service contracts that, in some cases, provided for potential milestone and royalty payments to us. We did not recognize any revenue from collaborations, licenses, or our legacy service contracts during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in the discovery and development of our product candidates.

External expenses consist of:
Fees paid to third parties such as contractors, clinical research organizations (CROs) and consultants, and other costs related to preclinical and clinical trials;
Fees paid to third parties such as contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) and other vendors for manufacturing research and clinical trial materials; and
Expenses related to laboratory supplies and services.
Unallocated expenses consist of:
Personnel-related expenses, including salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation expenses, for personnel in our research and development functions; and
Related equipment and facilities depreciation expense.

14


 

We expense research and development costs in the periods in which they are incurred. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods or services to be received in future periods for use in research and development activities are deferred and capitalized. The capitalized amounts are then expensed as the related goods are delivered and services are performed.

We expect our research and development expenses to remain variable from quarter to quarter as we continue to advance our clinical programs, then to decrease in the near term as we complete enrollment and treatment in certain of our clinical trials, and focus development on selected high potential indications. The process of conducting the necessary preclinical and clinical research to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time-consuming. Successful product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. Accordingly, to the extent that our product candidates continue to advance into clinical trials, including larger and later-stage clinical trials, our expenses will increase substantially and may become more variable. The actual probability of success for our product candidates may be affected by a variety of factors, including the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, the quality and consistency in their manufacture, investment in our clinical programs and competition with other products. As a result of these variables, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of our research and development projects and programs or when and to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of our product candidates. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates.

General and Administrative

Our general and administrative expenses include personnel-related expenses for personnel in our executive, finance, corporate and other administrative functions, intellectual property and patent costs, facilities and other allocated expenses, other expenses for outside professional services, including legal, human resources, investor relations, audit and accounting services and insurance costs. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, benefits and equity-based compensation. We expect our general and administrative expenses to remain flat to moderately increasing in the future to support development of our prioritized CAB programs.

Interest Income

Interest income consists primarily of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalent balances.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

 

 

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

 

Change

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

18,852

 

 

$

21,697

 

 

$

(2,845

)

General and administrative

 

 

5,605

 

 

 

7,233

 

 

 

(1,628

)

Total operating expenses

 

 

24,457

 

 

 

28,930

 

 

 

(4,473

)

Loss from operations

 

 

(24,457

)

 

 

(28,930

)

 

 

4,473

 

Other income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

1,223

 

 

 

1,480

 

 

 

(257

)

Other expense

 

 

 

 

 

(10

)

 

 

10

 

Total other income

 

 

1,223

 

 

 

1,470

 

 

 

(247

)

Net loss and comprehensive loss

 

$

(23,234

)

 

$

(27,460

)

 

$

4,226

 

 

15


 

Research and Development Expense

The following table summarizes our research and development expenses allocated by CAB program for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

 

Change

 

(in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

External expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mecbotamab vedotin, BA3011 (CAB AXL-ADC)

 

$

5,333

 

 

$

4,559

 

 

$

774

 

Ozuriftamab vedotin, BA3021 (CAB ROR2-ADC)

 

 

2,541

 

 

 

2,143

 

 

 

398

 

Evalstotug, BA3071 (CAB CTLA-4)

 

 

2,608

 

 

 

2,752

 

 

 

(144

)

BA3182 (CAB EpCAM x CAB CD3)

 

 

1,170

 

 

 

1,370

 

 

 

(200

)

Other CAB Programs

 

 

1,630

 

 

 

5,368

 

 

 

(3,738

)

Total external expenses

 

 

13,282

 

 

 

16,192

 

 

 

(2,910

)

Personnel and related

 

 

3,424

 

 

 

3,083

 

 

 

341

 

Equity-based compensation

 

 

1,080

 

 

 

1,451

 

 

 

(371

)

Facilities and other

 

 

1,066

 

 

 

971

 

 

 

95

 

Total research and development expenses

 

$

18,852

 

 

$

21,697

 

 

$

(2,845

)

Research and development expenses were $18.9 million and $21.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The decrease of approximately $2.8 million was primarily driven by a $3.7 million decrease in pre-clinical development costs primarily for BA3142, our CAB-B7H3 x CAB-CD3 bispecific program, and BA3361, our CAB Nectin-4 ADC program, a $0.4 million decrease in stock-based compensation related to awards issued under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, offset by a $0.8 million increase in development costs for our clinical stage programs, primarily mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin, and a $0.3 million increase in personnel related costs.

General and Administrative Expense

General and administrative expenses were $5.6 million and $7.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The decrease of approximately $1.6 million was primarily driven by a $0.9 million decrease in stock-based compensation related to awards issued under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, $0.4 million due to professional services and consulting expenses, $0.1 million due to a decrease in insurance due to a decrease in premiums for our D&O policy, and a $0.1 million decrease in travel related expense.

Interest Income

Interest income was $1.2 million and $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The decrease of $0.3 million was due to lower cash and cash equivalents compared to the same period in 2023, offset by the impact of higher yields during the same period in 2023.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have incurred aggregate net losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception and anticipate we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. Since July 2020, we have funded our operations primarily through the issuance of equity. As of March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of $80.6 million.

In January 2023, the Company entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Jefferies LLC (“Jefferies”) acting as sales agent pursuant to which the Company may, from time to time at its sole discretion, sell shares of the Company’s common stock, with aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $100.0 million. The Company will pay Jefferies a commission of 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds the Company receives from all sales of the Company’s common stock under the Sales Agreement. We have not sold any shares of our common stock under the Sales Agreement as of March 31, 2024.

16


 

Future Funding Requirements

Our primary uses of cash are to fund operating expenses, which consist primarily of research and development expenses related to our programs and related personnel costs. The timing and amount of future funding requirements depends on many factors, including the following:

the initiation and advancement, scope, rate of progress, completion of enrollment, results and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other related activities for our product candidates;
the costs associated with manufacturing our product candidates and establishing commercial supplies and sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
the timing and costs of capital expenditures to support our research and development efforts;
the number and characteristics of other product candidates that we pursue;
our ability to maintain, expand and defend the scope of our intellectual property portfolio, including the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make in connection with the licensing, filing, defense and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights;
the timing, receipt and amount of sales from our potential products;
our need and ability to hire additional management, scientific and medical personnel;
the effect of competing products that may limit market penetration of our product candidates;
our need to implement additional internal systems and infrastructure, including financial and reporting systems;
the economic and other terms, timing and success of any collaboration, licensing, or other arrangements into which we may enter in the future, including the timing of receipt of any milestone or royalty payments under these agreements;
the compliance and administrative costs associated with being a public company; and
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies, although we have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.

Based on our current operating plan, our current cash and cash equivalents are expected to be sufficient to fund our ongoing operations for a period of at least twelve months from the date the financial statements included in this report are issued. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

We will require additional funding in order to complete development of our product candidates and commercialize our products, if approved. We may seek to raise any necessary additional capital through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing and distribution arrangements. We cannot assure you that, in the event we require additional financing, such financing will be available at acceptable terms to us, if at all. Failure to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, raise additional capital, and reduce discretionary spending should additional capital not become available could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our intended business objectives. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our product candidates, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures associated with our current and anticipated preclinical studies and clinical trials. To the extent that we raise additional capital through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates. We may also have to forego future revenue streams of research programs at an earlier stage of development or on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose, or have to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, market volatility resulting from a variety of causes, including supply chain disruptions, and geopolitical disruptions, including the recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the conflict between Israel and Hamas, could adversely impact our ability to access capital as and when needed. We may choose to raise additional capital through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to our investors and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect our stockholders’ rights. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, acquiring other businesses, products or technology, or declaring dividends. If we are unable to obtain additional funding from these or other sources, it may be necessary to significantly reduce our rate of spending through reductions in staff and delay, scale back or stop certain research and development programs.

17


 

Cash flows

The following summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended
March 31,

 

 

 

2024

 

 

2023

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Net cash used in:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

(30,828

)

 

$

(22,654

)

Investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

(50

)

Financing activities

 

 

(13

)

 

 

(116

)

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

(30,841

)

 

$

(22,820

)

 

Cash Used in Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $30.8 million, which consisted of a net loss of $23.2 million, a net change of $10.1 million in our operating assets and liabilities and $2.5 million of non-cash transactions. The net change in our operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to a decrease in accounts payable and accrued expenses of $9.0 million, a net decrease in operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $0.3 million, and an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $0.9 million. The non-cash transactions primarily consisted of $2.3 million of stock-based compensation and non-cash charges of $0.2 million related to depreciation and amortization.

Net cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $22.7 million, which consisted of a net loss of $27.5 million, a net change of $0.9 million in our operating assets and liabilities and $3.9 million of non-cash transactions. The net change in our operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses of $3.2 million, offset by an increase in prepaid expenses and other assets of $2.1 million. The non-cash transactions primarily consisted of $3.6 million of stock-based compensation and non-cash charges of $0.3 million related to depreciation and amortization.

Cash Used in Investing Activities

Cash used in investing activities was immaterial for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $50,000, related to the purchase of property and equipment.

Cash Used in Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities was immaterial for the three months ended March 31, 2024, consisting primarily of the payment of taxes related to the net settlement of restricted stock units.

Net cash used in financing activities was $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, which consisted primarily of the payment of taxes related to the net settlement of restricted stock units.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenue generated, and reported expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.

Our critical accounting policies are those accounting principles generally accepted in the United States that require us to make subjective estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain and are likely to have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations, as well as the specific manner in which we apply those principles. For a description of our critical accounting policies, see the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. There have not been any material changes to the critical accounting policies discussed therein during the three months ended March 31, 2024.

18


 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have not entered into any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the SEC.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Not applicable to a smaller reporting company.

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

As required by Rules 13a-15(b) and 15d-15(b) of the Exchange Act, our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2024. The term “disclosure controls and procedures” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives, and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2024, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2024 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

PART II—OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time, we may be subject to various claims and suits arising in the ordinary course of business. We are not currently a party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which we believe, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Risk Factor Summary

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our condensed financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this report and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before purchasing our common stock. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale, and we have a history of significant losses and expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.
We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations, and if we fail to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.
Our product candidates may fail in development or suffer delays that adversely affect their commercial viability.
We are substantially dependent on the success of our patented CAB technology platform, and our future success depends heavily on the successful development of this platform.
We may expend our resources to pursue particular product candidates and fail to capitalize on product candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

19


 

The market may not be receptive to our product candidates because they are based on our novel therapeutic modality, and we may not generate any future revenue from the sale or licensing of product candidates.
Results from early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of results from late-stage or other clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.
Interim, topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available, and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.
Delays in the commencement and completion of clinical trials could increase costs and delay or prevent regulatory approval and commercialization of our product candidates.
We face competition from entities that have developed or may develop product candidates for cancer, including companies developing novel treatments and technology platforms.
We may be unable to obtain U.S. or foreign regulatory approval and, as a result, unable to commercialize our product candidates.
We intend to seek approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities through the use of accelerated approval pathways, if available, and if we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals.
Even if we receive regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense.
If we fail to attract and retain qualified senior management and key scientific personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.
If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities on our own or through third parties, we may not be able to market and sell our product candidates, if approved, effectively in the United States and foreign jurisdictions or generate product revenue.
A portion of our research and development activities take place in China, and uncertainties regarding the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws, rules and regulations, a trade war, deterioration of international relations, or political unrest in China could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face risks related to health epidemics and outbreaks which could significantly disrupt our preclinical studies and could affect enrollment of patients in our clinical trials. Continuation and increasing severity of these conditions could delay or prevent our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals.
If we fail to enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of certain of our product candidates, or if our current and future collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on the market potential of our patented technology platform and resulting product candidates.
If we are not able to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights in any product candidates or technologies we develop, or if the scope of the intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, third parties could develop and commercialize products and technology similar or identical to ours, and we may not be able to compete effectively in our market.
Intellectual property rights of third parties could prevent or delay our drug discovery and development efforts and could adversely affect our ability to commercialize our product candidates, and we might be required to litigate or obtain licenses from third parties in order to discover, develop or market our product candidates.
The future issuance of equity or of debt securities that are convertible into equity will dilute our share capital.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval and their interests may conflict with your interests as an owner of our common stock.

20


 

Risk Factors

Risks related to our financial position and need for additional capital

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history and no products approved for commercial sale. We have a history of significant losses and we expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, which together with our limited operating history, makes it difficult to assess our future viability.

We are a Phase 2 clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. Since the commencement of our operations, we have focused substantially all of our resources on conducting research and development activities, including drug discovery, preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates, including the ongoing Phase 2 clinical trials of mecbotamab vedotin (BA3011), ozuriftamab vedotin (BA3021), evalstotug (BA3071), and the ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial of BA3182 (CAB-EpCAM x CAB-CD3), establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, manufacturing clinical and research material through third parties, hiring personnel, establishing product development and commercialization collaborations with third parties, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations. We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. As a result, it may be more difficult for you to assess our future viability than it could be if we had a longer operating history.

We have incurred significant losses to date. Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our current and future product candidates. Our net losses were $123.5 million and $106.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, our net losses were $23.2 million and $27.5 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, we had an accumulated deficit of $439.5 million. These losses have resulted primarily from costs incurred in connection with research and development activities and general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We do not expect to generate meaningful revenue from product sales for the foreseeable future, and we expect to continue to incur significant operating expenses for the foreseeable future due to the cost of research and development, including identifying and designing product candidates and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, and the regulatory approval process for our product candidates. In the near term, we expect that these expenses begin to decrease as we complete enrollment for certain clinical trials, however, these expenses, and the potential for losses, may generally increase as we progress our lead product candidates through the regulatory approval process. We also expect that our expenses will vary as a result of macroeconomic factors, including inflation. For example, recently, several of our vendors have passed along price increases they have experienced in their own business as a result of inflation.

However, the amount of our future expenses and potential losses is uncertain. Our ability to achieve profitability, if ever, will depend on, among other things, our successfully developing product candidates, obtaining regulatory approvals to market and commercialize product candidates, manufacturing any approved products on commercially reasonable terms and potentially establishing a sales and marketing organization or suitable third-party alternatives to commercialize any approved product. If we, or our existing or future collaborators, are unable to develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates or if sales revenue from any product candidate that receives approval is insufficient, we will not achieve profitability, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs or future commercialization efforts.

The development of biopharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is a very time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception, and we will continue to incur significant expenses in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, evalstotug, and BA3182. Even if one or more of the product candidates that we develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution activities. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory agencies to perform clinical trials or preclinical studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Other unanticipated costs may also arise. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials are highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amount of resources and funding that will be necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in order to continue our operations.

As of March 31, 2024, we had approximately $80.6 million in cash and cash equivalents. Based on our current operating plan, our current cash and cash equivalents are expected to be sufficient to fund our ongoing operations for a period of at least twelve

21


 

months from the date the financial statements included in this report are issued. Our current operating plan includes prioritization of our programs and focusing on clinical development of selected assets and indications. Our estimate as to how long we expect our existing cash and cash equivalents to be able to continue to fund our operations is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

We plan to use our existing cash and cash equivalents to fund the research and development of our product candidates and development programs and to fund working capital and other general corporate purposes. Advancing the development of our product candidates will require a significant amount of capital. Our existing cash and cash equivalents may not be sufficient to fund any of our product candidates through regulatory approval. Because the length of time and activities associated with successful research and development of any individual product candidate are highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require for development, marketing approval and commercialization activities. The timing and amount of our operating expenditures will depend largely on:

the timing and progress of our ongoing clinical trials for mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, evalstotug, and BA3182;
the number and scope of preclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;
the progress of our collaborators with whom we have entered, or may in the future enter, into collaboration agreements and research and development agreements;
the timing and amount of milestone payments we may receive under our collaboration agreements;
our ability to maintain our current licenses, collaboration and research and development programs or possibly establish new collaboration arrangements;
the costs involved in prosecuting and enforcing patent and other intellectual property claims;
the cost and timing of regulatory approvals; and
our efforts to enhance operational systems and hire additional personnel, including personnel to support development of our product candidates and satisfy our obligations as a public company.

If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, including under our current or future collaborations, or on acceptable terms, we may have to delay, reduce or terminate our research and development programs and preclinical studies or clinical trials, limit strategic opportunities or undergo reductions in our workforce or other corporate restructuring activities. We may seek to raise any necessary additional capital through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements and other marketing and distribution arrangements. We cannot assure you that such financing will be available at acceptable terms to us, if at all. Failure to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, raise additional capital, and reduce discretionary spending should additional capital not become available could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our intended business objectives. To the extent that we raise additional capital through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates. We may also have to forego future revenue streams of research programs at an earlier stage of development or on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose or have to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our financial condition could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. For example, global financial crises have caused extreme volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. Additionally, although we had no direct exposure to the March 2023 failure of Silicon Valley Bank, its potential near- and long-term effects on the biotechnology industry and its participants such as our vendors, suppliers, collaborators and investors, may also adversely affect our financial condition, operations and stock price. If other banks and financial institutions enter receivership or become insolvent in the future in response to financial conditions affecting the banking system and financial markets, our ability to access our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments may be threatened and could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, such as a global financial crisis, could result in a variety of risks to our business, including our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. If we do raise additional capital through public or private equity or convertible debt offerings, the ownership interest of our existing stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect our stockholders’ rights. If we raise additional capital through debt financings, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, licensing product rights, entering into product development collaborations, acquiring other businesses, products or technology or declaring dividends. If we are unable to obtain additional funding from these or other sources, it may be necessary to significantly reduce our rate of spending through reductions in staff and delay, scale back or stop certain research and development programs.

22


 

We invest a portion of our cash in a money market fund, which is vulnerable to market-specific risks that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We invest a portion of our cash in a money market fund backed by U.S. government securities. All securities are subject to risk, including fluctuations in interest rates, credit risk, market risk and systemic economic risk. Changes or movements in any of these investment-related risk items may result in a loss or impairment to our invested cash and may have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Risks related to the discovery, development and commercialization of our product candidates

Our current product candidates are in various stages of development. Our product candidates may fail in development or suffer delays that adversely affect their commercial viability. If we or our existing or future collaborators are unable to complete development of, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

We have no products on the market and our product candidates are in various stages of development. We are currently conducting Phase 2 clinical trials of mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, and evalstotug; we have begun dosing patients in our Phase 1 trial of BA3182 and various other product candidates are in earlier stages of development. Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends on obtaining regulatory approvals for and, if approved, successfully commercializing our product candidates, either alone or with third parties. Before obtaining regulatory approval for the commercial distribution of our product candidates, we or an existing or future collaborator must conduct extensive preclinical tests and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, purity and potency of our product candidates. Any product candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of preclinical or clinical development and the historical failure rate for product candidates is high. The results from preclinical testing of a product candidate may not predict the results that will be obtained in later clinical trials of the product candidate. We or our existing or future collaborators may experience issues that delay or prevent clinical testing and regulatory approval of, or our ability to commercialize, product candidates, including, among others:

delays in our clinical trials resulting from external factors including global conflicts and health epidemics;
negative or inconclusive results from preclinical testing or clinical trials leading to a decision or requirement to conduct additional preclinical testing or clinical trials or abandon a program;
product-related side effects experienced by participants in clinical trials or by individuals using therapeutic biologics that share characteristics with our product candidates;
delays in submitting INDs or comparable foreign applications or delays or failure in obtaining the necessary approvals from regulators or institutional review boards, or IRBs, to commence a clinical trial, or a suspension or termination of a clinical trial once commenced;
conditions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign authorities, including the EMA, regarding the scope or design of clinical trials;
delays in enrolling patients in clinical trials;
high drop-out rates of patients;
inadequate drug materials or other supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials;
greater than anticipated clinical trial costs;
poor effectiveness of our product candidates during clinical trials;
unfavorable FDA or other regulatory agency inspection and review of a clinical trial site;
deficiencies in our third-party manufacturers’ manufacturing processes or facilities;
success or further approval of competitor products approved in indications in which we undertake development of our product candidates, which may change the standard of care or change the standard for approval of our product candidates in our proposed indications;
failure of any third-party contractors, investigators or contract research organizations, or CROs, to comply with regulatory requirements or otherwise meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all;
delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines, including the imposition of additional regulatory oversight around clinical testing generally or with respect to our technology or product candidates in particular; or
varying interpretations of data by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies, including the EMA.

23


 

Because CABs represent a new generation of antibodies, a delay or failure in development of any CAB product candidate could represent a major set-back for our patented technology platform and for our company generally.

Results from early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of results from late-stage or other clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

Positive and promising results from preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of results from late-stage clinical trials or from clinical trials of the same product candidates for the treatment of other indications. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. Late-stage clinical trials could differ in significant ways from early-stage clinical trials, including changes to inclusion and exclusion criteria, efficacy endpoints, dosing regimen and statistical design. Moreover, success in clinical trials in a particular indication does not guarantee that a product candidate will be successful for the treatment of other indications. Many companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials after achieving encouraging or positive results in early-stage development. We cannot assure you that we will not face similar setbacks in our ongoing or planned clinical trials or in any subsequent or post-marketing confirmatory clinical trials.

Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials nonetheless failed to obtain FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authority approval. We cannot guarantee that the FDA will agree with our clinical trial plans, and we cannot assure you that the FDA will agree that the results from our trials will be sufficient to support approval of any of our product candidates. For example, the objective response rates on our primary endpoints may not be sufficient, we may not demonstrate a sufficient duration of response, or there may be limitations with the total sample size of our studies and dose selection strategy. To the extent that the results of the trials are not satisfactory to the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for support of a marketing application, we may be required to expend significant resources, which may not be available to us, to conduct additional trials in support of potential approval of our product candidates. Even if regulatory approval is secured for any of our product candidates, the terms of such approval may limit the scope and use of our product candidate, which may also limit its commercial potential. Furthermore, the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval, which may lead to the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities delaying, limiting or denying approval of our product candidates.

Furthermore, in 2023, enrollment was completed in multi-center investigator-initiated clinical trials in Canada of mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer using the less intense dose of 1.8mg/kg Q2W of the two doses available. We do not control the design or administration of these or any other investigator-initiated trials that may be conducted, nor the submission or approval of any IND or foreign equivalent required to conduct any such trials. Any investigator-initiated trials could, depending on the actions of such third parties, jeopardize the validity of the clinical data generated, identify significant concerns with respect to our product candidates that could impact our findings or clinical trials, and adversely affect our ability to obtain marketing approval from the FDA or other applicable regulatory authorities. To the extent the results of these or other investigator-initiated trials are inconsistent with, or different from, the results of our ongoing or planned company-sponsored trials or raise concerns regarding our product candidates, the FDA or a foreign regulatory authority may question the results of the company-sponsored trial, or subject such results to greater scrutiny than it otherwise would. In these circumstances, the FDA or such foreign regulatory authorities may require us to obtain and submit additional clinical data, which could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates. In addition, while investigator-initiated trials could be useful to inform our own clinical development efforts, there is no guarantee that we will be able to use the data from these trials to form the basis for regulatory approval of our product candidates.

We are substantially dependent on the success of our patented CAB technology platform, and our future success depends heavily on the successful development of this platform.

We use our CAB technology platform to develop product candidates for cancer therapies. Any failures or setbacks involving our CAB technology platform, including adverse events, could have a detrimental impact on all of our product candidates and our research pipeline. For example, we may uncover a previously unknown risk associated with CABs or other issues that may be more problematic than we currently believe, which may prolong the period of observation required for obtaining, necessitate additional clinical testing or result in the failure to obtain, regulatory approval. If our CAB technology is not safe in certain product candidates, we could be required to abandon or redesign all of our current product candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may not be successful in our efforts to use and expand our patented CAB technology platform to continue to build a pipeline of product candidates and develop marketable products.

We are using our patented technology platform to develop CABs in oncology indications with our lead product candidates mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, evalstotug, and BA3182, as well as continuing to build our pipeline of product candidates.

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Our business depends not only on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and commercialize the product candidates we currently have in clinical and preclinical development, but to continue to generate new product candidates through our platform. Even if we are successful in continuing to build our pipeline and further progress the clinical development of our current product candidates, any additional product candidates may not be suitable for clinical development, including as a result of harmful side effects, manufacturing issues, limited efficacy or other characteristics that indicate that they are unlikely to be products that will succeed in clinical development, receive marketing approval or achieve market acceptance. If we cannot validate our technology platform by successfully commercializing CAB product candidates, we may not be able to obtain product, licensing or collaboration revenue in future periods, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may expend our resources to pursue particular product candidates and fail to capitalize on product candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

As a result of our limited financial and managerial resources, we must make strategic decisions as to which targets and product candidates to pursue and may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other targets or product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. For example, we are exploring potential strategic collaboration with third parties to accelerate development of certain assets. In addition, we have no plans to internally explore additional dosing regimens for certain indications, and do not intend to pursue ovarian cancer as an indication, and are focusing development on selected assets and indications. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Failure to properly assess potential product candidates could result in our focus on product candidates with low market potential, which would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and product candidates for specific targets or indications may not yield any commercially viable products. Our understanding and evaluation of biological targets for the discovery and development of new CAB product candidates may fail to identify challenges encountered in subsequent preclinical and clinical development. If we do not accurately evaluate the likelihood of clinical trial success, commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights.

If the market opportunities for any product that we develop are smaller than we believe they are, our revenue may be adversely affected and our business may suffer.

We focus our product candidate development on therapeutic CAB antibodies for the treatment of various oncology indications, such as soft tissue and bone sarcoma, NSCLC, melanoma, and head and neck cancer among others. Our projections of addressable patient populations that may benefit from treatment with our product candidates are based on our estimates. These estimates, which have been derived from a variety of sources, including scientific literature, surveys of clinics, physician interviews, patient foundations and market research, may prove to be incorrect. Further, new studies may change the estimated incidence or prevalence of these cancers. Additionally, the potentially addressable patient population for our product candidates may not ultimately be amenable to treatment with our product candidates. Our market opportunity may also be limited by future competitor treatments that enter the market. If any of our estimates prove to be inaccurate, the market opportunity for any product candidate that we or our strategic partners develop could be significantly diminished and have an adverse material impact on our business.

The market may not be receptive to our product candidates because they are based on our novel therapeutic modality, and we may not generate any future revenue from the sale or licensing of product candidates.

The product candidates that we are developing are primarily based on our patented CAB technology platform, which uses new technologies to create our novel therapeutic approach. Market participants with significant influence over acceptance of new treatments, such as physicians and third-party payors, may not adopt a product or treatment based on our patented technology platform, and we may not be able to convince patients, the medical community and third-party payors to accept and use, or to provide favorable reimbursement for, any product candidates developed by us or our existing or future collaborators. Market acceptance of our product candidates will depend on, among other factors:

the timing of our receipt of any marketing and commercialization approvals;
the terms of any approvals and the countries in which approvals are obtained;
the safety and efficacy of our product candidates;
the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects associated with our product candidates;
limitations or warnings contained in any labeling approved by the FDA or other regulatory authority, including the EMA;
the willingness of patients to obtain new biopsies or consent to provide existing tumor tissue specimens to support our clinical trials;

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relative convenience and ease of administration of our product candidates;
the willingness of patients to accept any new methods of administration;
the success of any physician education programs;
the availability of adequate government and third-party payor reimbursement;
the pricing of our products, particularly as compared to alternative treatments; and
availability of alternative effective treatments for the disease indications our product candidates are intended to treat and the relative risks, benefits and costs of those treatments.

If any product candidate we commercialize fails to achieve market acceptance, it could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Preliminary, preplanned interim and topline data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and/or are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary, preplanned interim or topline data from our clinical trials. These data and related findings and conclusions may only reflect certain endpoints rather than all endpoints and are subject to change. For example, we may report tumor responses in certain patients that are unconfirmed at the time and which do not ultimately result in confirmed responses to treatment after follow-up evaluations. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the preliminary results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline data remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, topline data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. In addition, we may report preplanned interim analyses of the clinical trials we may complete, which are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse changes between interim data and final data could significantly harm our business and prospects. Further, additional disclosure of interim data by us or by our competitors in the future could result in volatility in the price of our common stock.

In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically selected from a more extensive amount of available information. You or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product candidate or our business. If the preliminary preplanned interim or topline data that we report differ from later, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Delays in the commencement and completion of clinical trials could increase costs and delay or prevent regulatory approval and commercialization of our product candidates.

We cannot guarantee that clinical trials of our product candidates will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of the clinical trial process, and other events may cause us to temporarily or permanently stop a clinical trial. Events that may prevent successful or timely commencement and completion of clinical development include:

negative preclinical data;
delays in receiving the required regulatory clearance from the appropriate regulatory authorities to commence clinical trials or amend clinical trial protocols, including any objections to our INDs or protocol amendments from the FDA;
delays in reaching, or a failure to reach, a consensus with regulatory authorities on study design;
delays in reaching, or failure to reach, agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
difficulties in obtaining IRB approval at each site;
challenges in recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;

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the inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients in clinical trials to ensure adequate statistical power to detect statistically significant treatment effects;
difficulties in having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
our CROs or clinical trial sites failing to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all, deviating from the protocol or dropping out of a clinical trial;
unforeseen safety issues, including occurrence of treatment emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh the product candidate’s potential benefits;
difficulties in adding new clinical trial sites;
ambiguous or negative interim results;
lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial;
difficulties in manufacturing sufficient quantities of product candidate acceptable for use in clinical trials in a timely manner, or at all; or
health epidemics and outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which in the past has resulted in, and in the future may result in, delays to patient enrollment, patients discontinuing their treatment or follow up visits or changes to trial protocols.

We could encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by a Data Safety Monitoring Board, or DSMB, for such trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. If we experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates will be harmed, and our ability to generate product revenues from any of these product candidates will be delayed. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects significantly. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.

In addition, data obtained from trials and studies are susceptible to varying interpretations, and regulators may not interpret our data as favorably as we do, which may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Our clinical trial results may not be successful, or even if successful, may not lead to regulatory approval.

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control.

We may encounter delays or difficulties in enrolling, or be unable to enroll, a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our clinical trials on our current timelines, or at all, and even once enrolled, we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials. Enrollment in our clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate, leading to delays in our development timelines.

Patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including the size and nature of the patient population, the nature of the trial protocol, our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience, delays in enrollment due to travel or quarantine policies, or other factors related to health epidemics or pandemics, the existing body of safety and efficacy data with respect to the study drug, the number and nature of competing treatments and ongoing clinical trials of competing drugs for the same indication, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial and the proportion of patients screened that meets those criteria, including criteria related to biomarkers, our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents, including any additional consents necessary for enrollment of adolescent patients, and our ability to successfully complete prerequisite studies before enrolling certain patient populations. Furthermore, any negative results or new safety signals we may report in clinical trials of our product candidates may make it difficult or impossible to recruit and retain patients in other clinical trials we are conducting. Similarly, results reported by our competitors about their drug candidates may negatively affect patient recruitment in our clinical trials. Also, marketing authorization of competitors in this same class of drugs may impair our ability to enroll patients into our clinical trials, delaying or potentially preventing us from completing recruitment of one or more of our trials.

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Delays or failures in planned patient enrollment or retention may result in increased costs, program delays or both, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop our product candidates or could render further development impossible. In addition, we rely on clinical trial sites to ensure timely conduct of our clinical trials and, while we have entered into agreements governing their services, we are limited in our ability to compel their actual performance.

Our product candidates may cause undesirable and unforeseen side effects or have other properties impacting safety that could halt their clinical development, delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit their commercial potential or result in significant negative consequences.

Undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other regulatory authorities and potential product liability claims. Such side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial. Many compounds developed in the biopharmaceutical industry that initially showed promise in early-stage testing for treating cancer have later been found to cause side effects that prevented their further development. Any of these occurrences may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In our clinical trials for our antibody-drug conjugates mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin, we have observed adverse events such as reversible myelosuppression, transient liver enzyme elevations, pyrexia, or fever, metabolic disturbances and peripheral neuropathy. In our clinical trial for evalstotug, we have observed infusion-related reactions and immune related adverse events. We may also observe undesirable side effects in clinical trials for our other product candidates.

For our current and future clinical trials, we have contracted with and expect to continue to contract with CROs experienced in the assessment and management of toxicities arising during clinical trials. Nonetheless, they may have difficulty observing patients and treating toxicities, which may be more challenging due to personnel changes, shift changes, house staff coverage or related issues. This could lead to more severe or prolonged toxicities or even patient deaths, which could result in us or the FDA delaying, suspending or terminating one or more of our clinical trials and which could jeopardize regulatory approval.

Further, clinical trials by their nature test product candidates in only samples of the potential patient populations. With a limited number of patients and limited duration of exposure in such trials, rare and severe side effects of our product candidates may not be uncovered until a significantly larger number of patients are exposed to the product candidate. For example, while we believe that mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, and evalstotug have demonstrated manageable tolerability profiles thus far, we cannot assure you that these and our other product candidates will not cause more severe side effects in a greater proportion of patients.

In addition, mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, and evalstotug are being studied in combination with other therapies, which may exacerbate adverse events associated with the therapy. Patients treated with these or our other product candidates may have recently received surgical, radiation or chemotherapy treatments, which can cause side effects or adverse events that are unrelated to our product candidate but may still impact the success of our clinical trials.

The inclusion of critically ill patients in our clinical trials may result in deaths or other adverse medical events due to other therapies or medications that such patients may be using or due to the gravity of such patients’ illnesses. For example, some of the late-stage patients enrolled in our clinical trials may die or experience major clinical events either during the course of the clinical trials or after participating in such trials due mainly to the gravity of their illness, which has occurred in the past.

In the event that any of our product candidates receive regulatory approval, and we or others later identify undesirable and unforeseen side effects caused by such product, negative consequences, including any of the following, could occur:

regulatory authorities may suspend, limit or withdraw their approval of such product, or seek an injunction against its manufacture or distribution;
we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials or post-approval studies;
we may be requested or required to recall a product or change the way such product is administered to patients;
additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;
regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a boxed warning or a contraindication, or issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;
we may be required to implement a REMS and/or create a Medication Guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, a communication plan for healthcare providers and/or other elements to assure safe use;

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we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;
we may be subject to fines, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties;
the product may become less competitive; and
our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular product candidate, if approved, and result in the loss of significant revenues to us, which would materially and adversely affect our results of operations and business. In addition, if one or more of our product candidates prove to be unsafe, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We are developing certain of our product candidates in combination with other therapies, and regulatory approval, safety or supply issues with these other therapies may delay or prevent the development and approval of our product candidates.

Currently, we are evaluating the use of each of mecbotamab vedotin, ozuriftamab vedotin, and evalstotug in combination with an anti-PD-1 antibody. In the future, we may explore the use of these or our other product candidates in combination with other therapies. If we choose to develop a product candidate for use in combination with an approved therapy, we are subject to the risk that the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions could revoke approval of, or that safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with, the therapy used in combination with our product candidate. If the therapies we use in combination with our product candidates are replaced as the standard of care, the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may require us to conduct additional clinical trials. The occurrence of any of these risks could result in our product candidates, if approved, being removed from the market or being less successful commercially.

Where we develop a product candidate for use in combination with a therapy that has not been approved by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions, we will not be able to market our product candidate for use in combination with such an unapproved therapy, unless and until the unapproved therapy receives regulatory approval. In addition, other companies may also develop their products or product candidates in combination with the unapproved therapies with which we are developing our product candidates for use in combination. Any setbacks in these companies’ clinical trials, including the emergence of serious adverse effects, may delay or prevent the development and approval of our product candidates.

If the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions do not approve or revoke their approval of, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing, or supply issues arise with, therapies we choose to evaluate in combination with any of our product candidates, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval of or to commercialize such product candidates in combination with these therapies.

If safe and effective use of any of our product candidates, such as mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin, depends on a companion diagnostic test, then the FDA generally will require approval or clearance of that companion diagnostic before or at the same time that the FDA approves our product candidates, if at all. If we are unable to successfully develop companion diagnostic tests for our product candidates, experience significant delays in doing so, rely on third parties in the development of such companion diagnostic tests, or do not obtain or face delays in obtaining FDA approval of a companion diagnostic test, the full commercial potential of our product candidates and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

If use of a companion diagnostic test is determined to be essential for the safe and effective use of any of our product candidates, such as mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin, then the FDA generally will require approval or clearance of that companion diagnostic before or at the same time that the FDA approves our product candidates, if at all. The FDA has generally required in vitro companion diagnostics intended to select the patients who will respond to cancer treatment to obtain a PMA for that diagnostic simultaneously with approval of the therapeutic. The process of obtaining or creating such diagnostic and obtaining PMA approval is time-consuming and costly and a delay in diagnostic approval could delay drug approval. According to FDA guidance, if the FDA determines that a companion diagnostic device is essential to the safe and effective use of a novel therapeutic product or indication, the FDA generally will not approve the therapeutic product or new therapeutic product indication if the companion diagnostic is not also approved or cleared for that indication. If a satisfactory companion diagnostic is not commercially available, we may be required to create or obtain one that would be subject to regulatory approval requirements. For example, we have in the past explored predictive biomarkers, such as the Tumor Membrane Percent Score (“TmPS”), which measures AXL and ROR2 expression levels on the tumor membrane, to help inform which patients may be most suitable for treatment with mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin. Currently, patients with negative or only 1% TmPS scores appear to have experienced clinical benefit in our ongoing clinical trials. However, if the AXL and/or ROR2 TmPS scores predict those most likely to experience clinical benefit, we may be required to pursue the further use of a companion diagnostic in our mecbotamab vedotin or ozuriftamab vedotin clinical trials, and the available market for mecbotamab vedotin or ozuriftamab vedotin, both in patient numbers and patient acceptance of the protocol, could be

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limited. In addition, we expect to rely on third parties for the design, development and manufacture of companion diagnostic tests for any of our product candidates that require such tests.

On April 13, 2020, the FDA issued new guidance on developing and labeling companion diagnostics for a specific group of oncology therapeutic products, including recommendations to support a broader labeling claim rather than individual therapeutic products. We will continue to evaluate the impact of this guidance on our companion diagnostic development and strategy. This guidance and future policies from the FDA and other regulatory authorities may impact our development of a companion diagnostic for our product candidates and result in delays in regulatory approval. We may be required to conduct additional studies to support a broader claim. Also, to the extent other approved diagnostics are able to broaden their labeling claims to include our approved drug products, we may be forced to abandon our companion diagnostic development plans or we may not be able to compete effectively upon approval, which could adversely impact our ability to generate revenue from the sale of our approved products and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

If the FDA, EMA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority requires approval of a companion diagnostic for any of our product candidates, whether before or after it obtains marketing approval, we, and/or future collaborators, may encounter difficulties in developing and obtaining approval for such product candidate. If we or our third-party collaborators experience any delay in developing or obtaining regulatory approval of a companion diagnostic, we may be unable to enroll enough patients for our current and planned clinical trials, the development of our product candidates may be adversely affected or we may not obtain marketing approval, and we may not realize the full commercial potential of our product candidates, including mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin.

We face competition from entities that have developed or may develop product candidates for cancer, including companies developing novel treatments and technology platforms. If these companies develop technologies or product candidates more rapidly than we do or their technologies are more effective, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize product candidates may be adversely affected.

The development and commercialization of drugs and therapeutic biologics is highly competitive. We compete with a variety of multinational biopharmaceutical companies and specialized biotechnology companies, as well as technology being developed at universities and other research institutions. Our competitors have developed, are developing and will develop product candidates and processes competitive with our product candidates. We believe that a significant number of products are currently under development, and may become commercially available in the future, for the treatment of conditions for which we are developing product candidates. We believe that while our patented CAB technology platform, its associated intellectual property and our scientific and technical know-how give us a competitive advantage in this space, competition from many sources remains. Our success will partially depend on our ability to develop and protect therapeutics that are safer and more effective than competing products. Our commercial opportunity and success will be reduced or eliminated if competing products are safer, more effective or less expensive than the therapeutics we develop.

Although we do not believe competing companies have selective CAB technology, there is a wide array of activity in multiple areas of immune-based cellular therapies for oncology including CAR-T and T-cell receptor therapies. Certain companies are also pursuing antibody therapies in immuno-oncology, ADCs and various prodrug biologic products designed to be preferentially activated at tumor sites. There are several FDA approved ADC products and several companies in various stages of clinical development of ADCs mostly directed at oncology indications, a key feature of our product candidates mecbotamab vedotin and ozuriftamab vedotin. There are also companies developing technologies designed to deliver biologics and chemotherapeutic agents with some targeting capabilities. In addition, if any of our product candidates are approved in oncology indications, they may compete with existing biologics and small molecule therapies, or may be used in combination with existing therapies. There are also many other therapies under development that are intended to treat the same cancers that we are targeting or may target with our CAB platform, including through approaches that could prove to be more effective, have fewer side effects, be cheaper to manufacture, be more convenient to administer or have other advantages over any products resulting from our technologies.

Many of our competitors, either alone or with strategic partners, have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, sales and supply resources or experience than we do. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than us in obtaining approval for treatments and achieving widespread market acceptance, rendering our treatments obsolete or non-competitive. Accelerated merger and acquisition activity in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. These companies also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials and acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. The level of generic competition and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors will also significantly affect the pricing and competitiveness of our products. In addition, our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

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There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries. Sponsors of clinical trials of FDA-regulated products, including biologics, are required to register and disclose certain clinical trial information, which is publicly available at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, study sites and investigators, and other aspects of the clinical trial is then made public as part of the registration. Sponsors are also obligated to discuss the results of their clinical trials after completion. Disclosure of the results of these trials can be delayed in certain circumstances for up to two years after the date of completion of the trial. Competitors may use this publicly available information to gain knowledge regarding the progress of development of our programs.

Our commercial opportunity could be substantially limited in the event that our competitors develop and commercialize products that are more effective, safer, less toxic or more convenient than products we may develop. In geographies that are critical to our commercial success, competitors may also obtain regulatory approvals before us, resulting in our competitors building a strong market position in advance of our products’ entry. Such competitors could also recruit our employees, which could negatively impact our level of expertise and our ability to execute our business plan.

Our biologic product candidates for which we intend to seek approval may face competition through an abbreviated pathway.

The ACA includes a subtitle called the BPCIA, which created an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product may not be submitted to the FDA until four years following the date that the reference product was first licensed by the FDA. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first licensed. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still market a competing version of the reference product if the FDA approves a full BLA for the competing product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of their product. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have an adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our product candidates.

There is a risk that any product candidates we may develop that are approved as a biological product under a BLA would not qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity or that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider any product candidates we may develop to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for generic competition sooner than anticipated.

Our business entails a significant risk of product liability, and if we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage, such failure could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We expect to be exposed to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing and manufacturing of our product candidates and products, if approved. Product liability claims could delay or prevent completion of our development programs. If we succeed in marketing products, such claims could result in an FDA investigation of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our third-party manufacturer’s manufacturing processes and facilities or our marketing programs and potentially a recall of our products or more serious enforcement action, including limitations on the approved indications for which our product candidates may be used or suspension or withdrawal of approvals. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in decreased demand for our products, injury to our reputation, costs to defend the related litigation, a diversion of management’s time and our resources, substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients and a decline in our stock price. We currently have product liability insurance that we believe is appropriate for our stage of development and may need to obtain higher levels prior to marketing any of our product candidates. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. In addition, we may be subject to liability based on the actions of our existing or future collaborators in connection with their development of products using our CAB technology. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to maintain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks related to regulatory approval and other legal compliance matters

We may be unable to obtain U.S. or foreign regulatory approval and, as a result, unable to commercialize our product candidates.

Our product candidates are subject to extensive governmental regulations relating to, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, import, export, safety, effectiveness, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, record keeping, approval, advertising, promotion, marketing, post-approval monitoring and post-approval reporting of drugs and therapeutic biologics. Rigorous preclinical testing and clinical trials and an extensive regulatory approval process are required to be successfully completed in the United States and in many foreign jurisdictions before a new drug or therapeutic biologic can be marketed. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, lengthy, time-consuming, uncertain and subject to

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unanticipated delays. We have not previously submitted a BLA to the FDA, or similar drug approval filings to comparable foreign regulatory authorities, for any product candidate, and it is possible that none of the product candidates we may develop will obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for us or our existing or future collaborators to begin selling them.

We have not completed any large-scale or pivotal clinical trials nor managed the regulatory approval process with the FDA or any other regulatory authority. The time required to obtain FDA and other approvals is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials, depending upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidate, and numerous other factors including the substantial discretion of regulatory authorities. The standards that the FDA and its foreign counterparts, including the EMA, use when regulating us and our existing or future collaborators require judgment and can change, which makes it difficult to predict with certainty how they will be applied. Any analysis we perform of data from preclinical and clinical activities is subject to confirmation and interpretation by regulatory authorities, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. We may also encounter unexpected delays or increased costs due to new government regulations, for example, from future legislation or administrative action, or from changes in FDA policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and FDA regulatory review. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA or foreign regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be. For example, the Oncology Center of Excellence within the FDA has advanced Project Optimus, which is an initiative to reform the dose optimization and dose selection paradigm in oncology drug development to emphasize selection of an optimal dose, which is a dose or doses that maximizes not only the efficacy of a drug but the safety and tolerability as well. This shift from the prior approach, which generally determined the maximum tolerated dose, may require sponsors to spend additional time and resources to further explore a product candidate’s dose-response relationship to facilitate optimum dose selection in a target population. Other Oncology Center of Excellence initiatives have included Project FrontRunner, an initiative with a goal of developing a framework for identifying candidate drugs for initial clinical development in the earlier advanced setting rather than for treatment of patients who have received numerous prior lines of therapies or have exhausted available treatment options, and Project Equity, which is an initiative to ensure that the data submitted to the FDA for approval of oncology medical products adequately reflects the demographic representation of patients for whom the medical products are intended. We are considering these and other policy changes as they relate to our programs.

In addition, our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons including the following:

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe, pure and potent for its proposed indication;
the results of clinical trials may fail to achieve the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;
we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
we may be unable to demonstrate that the dose for the product candidate has been optimized;
we may be unable to demonstrate a sufficient response rate or duration of response for a product candidate;
the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data submitted in support of regulatory approval;
the data collected from preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of a BLA or other regulatory submission necessary to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere; and
we or our contractors may not meet the current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMPs, and other applicable requirements for manufacturing processes, procedures, documentation and facilities necessary for approval by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

Any delay or failure in obtaining required approvals could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to generate revenues from the particular product candidate for which we are seeking approval. Furthermore, any regulatory approval to market a drug may be subject to significant limitations on the approved uses or indications for which we may market the drug or the labeling or other restrictions. In addition, the FDA has the authority to require a REMS as part of approving a BLA, or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved drug. These requirements or restrictions might include limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry. These limitations and restrictions may significantly limit the size of the market for the drug and affect reimbursement by third-party payors.

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We are also subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements governing, among other things, the conduct of clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing authorization, pricing and third-party reimbursement. The foreign regulatory approval process varies among countries and may include all of the risks associated with FDA approval described above as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of local regulations in foreign jurisdictions. Moreover, the time required to obtain approval may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities outside the United States and vice versa.

We intend to seek approval from the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities through the use of accelerated approval pathways, if available. If we are unable to obtain such approval, we may be required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials beyond those that we contemplate, which could increase the expense of obtaining, and delay the receipt of, necessary marketing approvals. Even if we receive accelerated approval from the FDA, if our confirmatory trials do not verify clinical benefit or if we do not comply with rigorous post-marketing requirements, the FDA may seek to withdraw accelerated approval.

We intend to seek accelerated approval for mecbotamab vedotin, and we may seek accelerated approval for one or more of our other product candidates. Under the accelerated approval program, the FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product candidate designed to treat a serious or life-threatening condition that provides meaningful advantage over available therapies upon a determination that the product candidate has an effect on a surrogate endpoint or intermediate clinical endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The FDA considers a clinical benefit to be a positive therapeutic effect that is clinically meaningful in the context of a given disease, such as irreversible morbidity or mortality. For the purposes of accelerated approval, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a laboratory measurement, radiographic image, physical sign, or other measure that is thought to predict clinical benefit but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. An intermediate clinical endpoint is a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit. The accelerated approval pathway may be used in cases in which the advantage of a new drug over available therapy may not be a direct therapeutic advantage but is a clinically important improvement from a patient and public health perspective. We intend to seek accelerated approval for some of our product candidates on the basis of objective response rate, a surrogate endpoint that we believe is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. For products granted accelerated approval, sponsors are required to verify and describe the product’s clinical benefit generally in the form of confirmatory trials. These confirmatory trials must be completed with due diligence, and the FDA may require that the trial be designed, initiated, and/or fully enrolled prior to approval. If we were to pursue accelerated approval for a product candidate for a disease or condition, we would likely do so on the basis that there is no available therapy for that disease or condition. If any of our competitors were to receive full approval on the basis of a confirmatory trial for a drug for a disease or condition for which we are seeking accelerated approval before we receive accelerated approval, the disease or condition would no longer qualify as one for which there is no available therapy, and accelerated approval of our product candidate would not occur, unless we were able to demonstrate a meaningful advantage over the approved product. Many cancer therapies rely on accelerated approval, and the treatment landscape can change quickly as the FDA converts accelerated approvals to full approvals on the basis of successful confirmatory trials. Failure to conduct required post-approval studies, or to confirm a clinical benefit during post-marketing studies, would allow the FDA to withdraw the product from the market on an expedited basis. All promotional materials for product candidates approved under accelerated regulations are subject to prior review by the FDA.

Prior to seeking accelerated approval for any of our product candidates, we intend to seek feedback from the FDA and will otherwise evaluate our ability to seek and receive accelerated approval. We cannot assure you that after our evaluation of the feedback and other factors we will decide to pursue or submit a BLA for accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval. Similarly, we cannot assure you that after subsequent FDA feedback we will continue to pursue accelerated approval or any other form of expedited development, review or approval, even if we initially decide to do so. Furthermore, if we decide to submit an application for accelerated approval or receive an expedited regulatory designation (e.g., breakthrough therapy designation) for our product candidates, we cannot assure you that such application will be accepted or that any expedited development, review or approval will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. The FDA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities could also require us to conduct further studies prior to considering our application or granting approval of any type.

Recently, the accelerated approval pathway has come under scrutiny within the FDA and by Congress. The FDA has put increased focus on ensuring that confirmatory studies are conducted with diligence and, ultimately, that such studies confirm the benefit. For example, the FDA has convened its Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee to review what the FDA has called dangling or delinquent accelerated approvals where confirmatory studies have not been completed or where results did not confirm benefit.

The enactment of FDORA included provisions related to the accelerated approval pathway. Pursuant to FDORA, the FDA is authorized to require a post-approval study to be underway prior to approval or within a specified time period following approval. FDORA also requires the FDA to specify conditions of any required post-approval study and requires sponsors to submit progress reports for required post-approval studies and any conditions required by the FDA. FDORA enables the FDA to initiate enforcement action for the failure to conduct with due diligence a required post-approval study, including a failure to meet any required conditions specified by the FDA or to submit timely reports. In addition, the Oncology Center of Excellence has announced Project Confirm, which is an initiative to promote the transparency of outcomes related to accelerated approvals for oncology indications and provide a

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framework to foster discussion, research and innovation in approval and post-marketing processes, with the goal to enhance the balance.

Even if we receive regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense. Additionally, our product candidates, if approved, could be subject to labeling and other restrictions and market withdrawal and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with our products.

Any regulatory approvals that we or our existing or future collaborators obtain for our product candidates may also be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which a product may be marketed or to conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including “Phase 4” clinical trials, and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product candidate. Furthermore, any regulatory approval to market a product may be subject to limitations on the labeling of the product or may require safety warnings or other restrictions. In addition, the FDA has the authority to require a REMS plan as part of a BLA or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved biologic, such as limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry. These limitations and restrictions may limit the size of the market for the product and affect reimbursement by third-party payors.

In addition, if the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority approves any of our product candidates, the manufacturing processes, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, import, export, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance with cGMPs and GCPs for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. The manufacturer and manufacturing facilities we use to make a future product, if any, will also be subject to periodic review and inspection by the FDA and other regulatory agencies, including for continued compliance with cGMP requirements. Any product promotion and advertising will also be subject to regulatory requirements and continuing regulatory review. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product;
withdrawal of the product from the market or voluntary or mandatory product recalls;
fines, warning or untitled letters or holds on clinical trials;
delay of approval or refusal by the FDA or comparable regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us, our current collaborator or any future strategic partners;
suspension or revocation of product license approvals;
product seizure or detention or refusal to permit the import or export of products; and
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA’s policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates. We also cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If these regulations impose constraints on the FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if we are able to commercialize any product candidate, such product candidate may become subject to unfavorable pricing regulations or third-party coverage and reimbursement policies, which would harm our business.

The regulations that govern regulatory approvals, pricing and reimbursement for new drugs and therapeutic biologics vary widely from country to country. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug or therapeutic biologic before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription biopharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we might obtain regulatory approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact the revenues we are able to generate from the sale of the product in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more product candidates, even if our product candidates obtain regulatory approval.

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Our ability to commercialize any products successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Even if we succeed in bringing one or more products to the market, these products may not be considered cost-effective, and the amount reimbursed for any products may be insufficient to allow us to sell our products on a competitive basis. Because our programs are in the early stages of development, we are unable at this time to determine their cost effectiveness or the likely level or method of reimbursement. Increasingly, the third-party payors who reimburse patients or healthcare providers, such as government and private insurance plans, are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices, and are seeking to reduce the prices charged or the amounts reimbursed for biopharmaceutical products. If the price we are able to charge for any products we develop, or the reimbursement provided for such products, is inadequate in light of our development and other costs, our return on investment could be adversely affected.

There is significant uncertainty related to third-party payor coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. For example, in the United States, principal decisions about reimbursement for new products are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private third-party payors often follow CMS’s decisions regarding coverage and reimbursement to a substantial degree. However, one third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product candidate does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product candidate. As a result, the coverage determination process is often time-consuming and costly. This process will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each third-party payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

Moreover, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug products. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

In some countries, particularly member states of the European Union (EU), the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of marketing approval for a product. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various EU member states and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states, can further reduce prices. In some countries, we or our existing or future collaborators may be required to conduct a clinical trial or other studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of our product candidates to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries.

There may be significant delays in obtaining reimbursement for newly-approved drugs or therapeutic biologics, and coverage may be more limited than the purposes for which the drug or therapeutic biologic is approved by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside of the United States. Moreover, eligibility for reimbursement does not imply that any drug or therapeutic biologic will be reimbursed in all cases or at a rate that covers our costs, including research, development, manufacture, sale and distribution. Interim reimbursement levels for new drugs or therapeutic biologics, if applicable, may also be insufficient to cover our costs and may not be made permanent. Reimbursement rates may be based on payments allowed for lower-cost drugs or therapeutic biologics that are already reimbursed, may be incorporated into existing payments for other services and may reflect budgetary constraints or imperfections in Medicare data. Net prices for drugs or therapeutic biologics may be reduced by mandatory discounts or rebates required by government healthcare programs or private payors and by any future relaxation of laws that presently restrict imports of drugs or therapeutic biologics from countries where they may be sold at lower prices than in the United States. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. If reimbursement of any product candidate approved for marketing is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially and adversely affected, and our ability to commercialize such products, once approved, could be materially impaired.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If any of our product candidates are approved and we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of those products, we may become subject to significant liability. The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that

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may be made about prescription products, such as our product candidates, if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. For example, if we receive marketing approval for mecbotamab vedotin as a treatment for soft tissue and bone sarcoma, and we are found to have promoted off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability. Physicians may nevertheless use our pro