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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One) 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarter ended March 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the transition period from ____________to ____________
 Commission File Number 001-38598 
________________________________________________________________________
be-20220331_g1.jpg
BLOOM ENERGY CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
________________________________________________________________________
Delaware77-0565408
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
4353 North First Street, San Jose, California
95134
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(408) 543-1500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class(1)
Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par valueBENew York Stock Exchange
(1) Our Class B Common Stock is not registered but is convertible into shares of Class A Common Stock at the election of the holder.
________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  þ    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  
Large accelerated filer þ     Accelerated filer   ¨      Non-accelerated filer   ¨      Smaller reporting company        Emerging growth company   
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No  þ
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of May 2, 2022 was as follows:
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, 162,369,209 shares
Class B Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, 15,829,833 shares
1


Bloom Energy Corporation
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
Table of Contents
 Page
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1 - Financial Statements (unaudited)
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest, Stockholders' Equity (Deficit) and Noncontrolling Interest
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
Item 2 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3 - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4 - Controls and Procedures
PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1 - Legal Proceedings
Item 1A - Risk Factors
Item 2 - Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 3 - Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Item 4 - Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5 - Other Information
Item 6 - Exhibits
Signatures

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "we," "us," "our," and "Bloom Energy," each refer to Bloom Energy Corporation and all of its subsidiaries.


2

Part I
ITEM 1 - FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Bloom Energy Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share data and par values)
(unaudited)

March 31,December 31,
20222021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents1
$286,007 $396,035 
Restricted cash1
70,141 92,540 
Accounts receivable1
110,842 87,789 
Contract assets13,533 25,201 
Inventories183,066 143,370 
Deferred cost of revenue17,143 25,040 
Customer financing receivable1
5,875 5,784 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1
37,000 30,661 
Total current assets723,607 806,420 
Property, plant and equipment, net1
608,912 604,106 
Operating lease right-of-use assets98,119 106,660 
Customer financing receivable, non-current1
38,005 39,484 
Restricted cash, non-current1
137,748 126,539 
Deferred cost of revenue, non-current3,212 1,289 
Goodwill1,957 1,957 
Other long-term assets1
38,412 39,116 
Total assets$1,649,972 $1,725,571 
Liabilities, Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest, Stockholders’ (Deficit) Equity and Noncontrolling Interest
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$89,012 $72,967 
Accrued warranty14,671 11,746 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities1
92,170 114,138 
Deferred revenue and customer deposits1
94,044 89,975 
Operating lease liabilities11,598 13,101 
Financing obligations15,172 14,721 
Recourse debt12,355 8,348 
Non-recourse debt1
17,936 17,483 
Total current liabilities346,958 342,479 
Deferred revenue and customer deposits, non-current1
80,457 90,310 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current105,656 106,187 
Financing obligations, non-current452,229 461,900 
Recourse debt, non-current280,056 283,483 
Non-recourse debt, non-current1
212,465 217,416 
Other long-term liabilities18,356 16,772 
Total liabilities1,496,177 1,518,547 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Redeemable convertible preferred stock, Series A: 10,000,000 shares authorized and 10,000,000 shares and no shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
208,551 208,551 
Redeemable noncontrolling interest 300 
Stockholders’equity (deficit):
Common stock: $0.0001 par value; Class A shares - 600,000,000 shares authorized and 162,165,862 shares and 160,627,544 shares issued and outstanding and Class B shares - 600,000,000 shares authorized and 15,829,833 shares and 15,832,863 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
18 18 
Additional paid-in capital3,251,128 3,219,081 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(503)(350)
Accumulated deficit(3,341,434)(3,263,075)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)(90,791)(44,326)
Noncontrolling interest36,035 42,499 
Total liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interest, stockholders' (deficit) equity and noncontrolling interest$1,649,972 $1,725,571 
1We have variable interest entities, which represent a portion of the consolidated balances recorded within these financial statement line items in the condensed consolidated balance sheets (see Note 11 - Portfolio Financings).


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


Bloom Energy Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in thousands, except per share data)
(unaudited)

 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20222021
 
Revenue:
Product$133,547 $137,930 
Installation13,553 2,659 
Service35,239 36,417 
Electricity18,700 17,001 
Total revenue201,039 194,007 
Cost of revenue:
Product105,742 87,294 
Installation12,773 4,625 
Service41,826 36,118 
Electricity12,761 11,319 
Total cost of revenue173,102 139,356 
Gross profit27,937 54,651 
Operating expenses:
Research and development34,526 23,295 
Sales and marketing21,334 19,952 
General and administrative37,736 25,801 
Total operating expenses93,596 69,048 
Loss from operations(65,659)(14,397)
Interest income59 74 
Interest expense(14,087)(14,731)
Other income (expense), net(3,027)(85)
(Loss) gain on revaluation of embedded derivatives531 (518)
Loss before income taxes(82,183)(29,657)
Income tax provision564 124 
Net loss(82,747)(29,781)
Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest and redeemable noncontrolling interest(4,388)(4,892)
Net loss attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders$(78,359)$(24,889)
Net loss per share available to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.44)$(0.15)
Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share available to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted177,189 170,745 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


Bloom Energy Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20222021
 
Net loss$(82,747)$(29,781)
Other comprehensive loss, net of taxes:
Change in derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges (4,653)
Foreign currency translation adjustment(153)(228)
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of taxes(153)(4,881)
Comprehensive loss(82,900)(34,662)
Less: Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest and redeemable noncontrolling interest(4,388)(350)
Comprehensive loss attributable to Class A and Class B stockholders$(78,512)$(34,312)


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

5


Bloom Energy Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Convertible Redeemable Preferred Stock, Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest, Stockholders' Equity (Deficit) and Noncontrolling Interest
(in thousands, except share data) (unaudited)


Three Months Ended March 31, 2022
Convertible Redeemable Preferred StockRedeemable Noncontrolling InterestClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossAccumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)Noncontrolling Interest
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 202110,000,000$208,551 $300 176,460,407 $18 $3,219,081 $(350)$(3,263,075)$(44,326)$42,499 
Issuance of restricted stock awards— — — 964,937 — — — — — — 
ESPP purchase— — — 420,689 — 5,981 — — 5,981 — 
Exercise of stock options— — — 149,662 — 980 — — 980 — 
Stock-based compensation— — — — — 25,586 — — 25,586 — 
Distributions and payments to noncontrolling interests— — — — — (500)— — (500)(2,376)
Foreign currency translation adjustment— — — — — — (153)— (153)— 
Net loss— — (300)— — — — (78,359)(78,359)(4,088)
Balances at March 31, 202210,000,000$208,551 $ 177,995,695 $18 $3,251,128 $(503)$(3,341,434)$(90,791)$36,035 

6


Three Months Ended March 31, 2021
Convertible Redeemable Preferred StockRedeemable Noncontrolling InterestClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional Paid-In CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossAccumulated DeficitTotal Stockholders' Equity (Deficit)Noncontrolling Interest
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 2020 $ $377 168,002,726 $17 $3,182,753 $(9)$(3,103,937)$78,824 $62,195 
Cumulative effect upon adoption of new accounting standard (Note 2)— — — — — (126,799)— 5,308 (121,491)— 
Issuance of restricted stock awards— — — 1,140,502 — — — — — — 
ESPP purchase— — — 977,508 — 4,726 — — 4,726 — 
Exercise of stock options— — — 1,978,717 — 53,227 — — 53,227 — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — — 15,780 — — 15,780 — 
Change in effective portion of interest rate swap agreement— — — — — — — — — 4,653 
Distributions to noncontrolling interests— — (17)— — — — —  (3,863)
Cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment— — — — — — (117)— (117)(111)
Net loss— — (4)— — — — (24,889)(24,889)(4,888)
Balances at March 31, 2021 $ $356 172,099,453 $17 $3,129,687 $(126)$(3,123,518)$6,060 $57,986 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


Bloom Energy Corporation
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 2022
2021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(82,747)$(29,781)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization14,384 13,442 
Non-cash lease expense3,072 2,115 
Revaluation of derivative contracts2,407 290 
Stock-based compensation expense25,542 17,210 
 Amortization of warranty balance150  
Amortization of debt issuance costs and premium, net706 971 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(23,053)(7,135)
Contract assets11,668 (1,680)
Inventories(39,542)(10,820)
Deferred cost of revenue5,865 (13,952)
Customer financing receivable1,388 1,302 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(6,340)3,908 
Other long-term assets703 (687)
Accounts payable16,117 14,145 
Accrued warranty2,925 (4,305)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities(25,144)(24,941)
Operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities3,436 (2,474)
Deferred revenue and customer deposits(5,783)(48,036)
Other long-term liabilities1,803 1,393 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(92,443)(89,035)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchase of property, plant and equipment(18,510)(12,932)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(18,510)(12,932)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Repayment of debt(4,774)(4,862)
Proceeds from financing obligations 5,016 
Repayment of financing obligations(9,423)(3,077)
Distributions and payments to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests(2,876)(3,880)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock6,961 57,953 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(10,112)51,150 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalent and restricted cash (153)(229)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(121,218)(51,046)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash:
Beginning of period615,114 416,710 
End of period$493,896 $365,664 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Cash paid during the period for interest$14,405 $14,963 
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
Operating cash flows from operating leases2,464 2,830 
Operating cash flows from finance leases230 39 
Cash paid during the period for income taxes381 72 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Increase in recourse debt, non-current upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, net (Note 2)$ $121,491 
Liabilities recorded for property, plant and equipment6,775 1,172 
Recognition of operating lease right-of-use asset during the year-to-date period147 22,649 
Recognition of finance lease right-of-use asset during the year-to-date period 1,457 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


Bloom Energy Corporation
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Nature of Business, Liquidity and Basis of Presentation
Nature of Business
We design, manufacture, sell and, in certain cases, install solid-oxide fuel cell systems ("Energy Servers") for on-site power generation. Our Energy Servers utilize an innovative fuel cell technology and provide efficient energy generation with reduced operating costs and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to conventional fossil fuel generation. By generating power where it is consumed, our energy producing systems offer increased electrical reliability and improved energy security while providing a path to energy independence.
We continue to monitor and adjust as appropriate our operations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been a number of supply chain disruptions throughout the global supply chain as countries are in various stages of opening up and demand for certain components increases. Although we were able to find alternatives for many component shortages, we experienced some delays and cost increases with respect to container shortages, ocean shipping and air freight. We have not experienced any supply chain disruption as a result of the events occurring in Ukraine.
Liquidity
We have generally incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. With the series of new debt offerings, debt extensions and conversions to equity that we completed during 2020 and 2021, we had $292.4 million of total outstanding recourse debt as of March 31, 2022, $280.1 million of which is classified as long-term debt. Our recourse debt scheduled repayments will commence in June 2022.
On October 23, 2021, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “SPA”) with SK ecoplant Co., Ltd. (formerly known as SK Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd.) ("SK ecoplant") in connection with a strategic partnership. Pursuant to the SPA, on December 29, 2021, SK ecoplant purchased 10,000,000 shares of zero coupon, non-voting Series A redeemable convertible preferred stock ("RCPS") in Bloom Energy, par value $0.0001 per share, at a purchase price of $25.50 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $255.0 million, including an option to purchase Class A common stock. For more information about the SPA, please see Note 18 - SK ecoplant Strategic Investment, and for more information about our joint venture with SK ecoplant, please see Note 12 - Related Party Transactions.
In November 2021, PPA V entered into $136.0 million, 3.04% Senior Secured Notes due June 30, 2031, which replaced the LIBOR + 2.5% Term Loan due December 2021.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our rate of revenue growth, the timing and extent of spending on research and development efforts and other business initiatives, the rate of growth in the volume of system builds and the need for additional manufacturing space, the expansion of sales and marketing activities both in domestic and international markets, market acceptance of our product, our ability to secure financing for customer use of our Energy Servers, the timing of installations, and overall economic conditions including the impact of COVID-19 on our ongoing and future operations.
In the opinion of management, the combination of our existing cash and cash equivalents and operating cash flows is expected to be sufficient to meet our operational and capital cash flow requirements and other cash flow needs for the next 12 months from the date of issuance of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Basis of Presentation
We have prepared the condensed consolidated financial statements included herein pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), and as permitted by those rules, including all disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.
Principles of Consolidation
These condensed consolidated financial statements reflect our accounts and operations and those of our subsidiaries in which we have a controlling financial interest. We use a qualitative approach in assessing the consolidation requirement for
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each of our variable interest entities ("VIEs"), which we refer to as a tax equity partnership (each such VIE, also referred to as our power purchase agreement ("PPA") entities ("PPA Entities")). This approach focuses on determining whether we have the power to direct those activities of the PPA Entities that most significantly affect their economic performance and whether we have the obligation to absorb losses, or the right to receive benefits, that could potentially be significant to the PPA Entities. For all periods presented, we have determined that we are the primary beneficiary in all of our operational PPA Entities, as discussed in Note 11 - Portfolio Financings. We evaluate our relationships with the PPA Entities on an ongoing basis to ensure that we continue to be the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
The sale of an operating company with a portfolio of PPAs in which we do not have an equity interest is called a “Third-Party PPA.” We have determined that, although these entities are VIEs, we do not have the power to direct those activities of the Third-Party PPAs that most significantly affect their economic performance. We also do not have the obligation to absorb losses, or the right to receive benefits, that could potentially be significant to the Third-Party PPAs. Because we are not the primary beneficiary of these activities, we do not consolidate Third-Party PPAs.
Business Combinations
Acquisitions of a business are accounted by using the acquisition method of accounting. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including amounts attributed to noncontrolling interests, are recorded at the acquisition date at their fair values. Assigning fair values requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions regarding the fair value of identifiable intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, deferred tax asset valuation allowances and liabilities, such as uncertain tax positions and contingencies. We may refine these estimates if necessary over a period not to exceed one year by taking into consideration new information that, if known at the acquisition date, would have affected the fair values ascribed to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. The most significant estimates include the determination of the stand-alone selling price, including material rights estimates, inventory valuation, specifically excess and obsolescence provisions for obsolete or unsellable inventory and, in relation to property, plant and equipment (specifically Energy Servers), assumptions relating to economic useful lives and impairment assessments.
Other accounting estimates include variable consideration relating to product performance guaranties, lease and non-lease components and related financing obligations such as incremental borrowing rates, estimated output, efficiency and residual value of the Energy Servers, product performance warranties and guaranties and extended maintenance, derivative valuations, estimates for recapture of the U.S. Investment Tax Credit ("ITC") and similar federal tax benefits, estimates relating to contractual indemnities provisions, estimates for income taxes and deferred tax asset valuation allowances, stock-based compensation expense and the fair value of contingent consideration related to business combinations, and estimates of fair value of preferred stock and equity and non-equity items in relation to the SK ecoplant strategic investment. In addition, because the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic remains uncertain, certain of such estimates could require further judgment or modification and therefore carry a higher degree of variability and volatility. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
Concentration of Risk
Geographic Risk - The majority of our revenue and long-lived assets are attributable to operations in the United States for all periods presented. Additionally, we sell our Energy Servers in Japan, India and the Republic of Korea (collectively, the "Asia Pacific region"). In the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, total revenue in the Asia Pacific region was 65% and 43%, respectively, of our total revenue.
Credit Risk - At March 31, 2022, SK D&D Co., Ltd accounted for approximately 60% of accounts receivable and at December 31, 2021, SK ecoplant accounted for approximately 60% of accounts receivable. To date, we have not experienced any credit losses.
Customer Risk - During the three months ended March 31, 2022, revenue from two customers, SK ecoplant and SK D&D Co, Ltd, accounted for approximately 32% and 32% of our total revenue.
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2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Please refer to the accounting policies described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
Revenue Recognition

We primarily earn product and installation revenue from the sale and installation of our Energy Servers, service revenue by providing services under operations and maintenance services contracts, and electricity revenue by selling electricity to customers under PPAs and Managed Services Agreements (as defined below). We offer our customers several ways to finance their use of a Bloom Energy Server. Customers, including some of our international channel providers and Third Party PPAs, may choose to purchase our Energy Servers outright. Customers may also enter into contracts with us for the purchase of electricity generated by our Energy Servers (a "Managed Services Agreement"), which is then financed through one of our financing partners ("Managed Services Financings"), or as a traditional lease. Finally, customers may purchase electricity through our PPA Entities ("Portfolio Financings").
Revenue Recognition under ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2014-09"). We adopted ASU 2014-09 and its related amendments (collectively, “ASC 606”) as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method.
In applying Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, revenue is recognized by following a five-step process:
Identify the contract(s) with a customer. Evidence of a contract generally consists of a purchase order issued pursuant to the terms and conditions of a distributor, reseller, purchase, use and maintenance agreement, maintenance services agreements or energy supply agreement.
Identify the performance obligations in the contract. Performance obligations are identified in our contracts and include transferring control of an Energy Server, installation of Energy Servers, providing maintenance services and maintenance services renewal options which, in certain situations, provide customers with material rights.
Determine the transaction price. The purchase price stated in an agreed-upon purchase order or contract is generally representative of the transaction price. When determining the transaction price, we consider the effects of any variable consideration, which include performance guarantees that may be payable to our customers.
Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract. The transaction price in a contract is allocated based upon the relative standalone selling price of each distinct performance obligation identified in the contract.
Recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. We satisfy performance obligations either over time or at a point in time as discussed in further detail below. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control of the promised products or services to a customer.
We frequently combine contracts governing the sale and installation of an Energy Server with the related maintenance services contracts and account for them as a single contract at contract inception to the extent the contracts are with the same customer. These contracts are not combined when the customer for the sale and installation of the Energy Server is different in relation to the maintenance services contract customer. We also assess whether any contract terms including default provisions, put or call options result in components of our contracts being accounted for as financing or leasing transactions outside of the scope of ASC 606.
Most of our contracts contain performance obligations with a combination of our Energy Server product, installation and maintenance services. For these performance obligations, we allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price. Our maintenance services contracts are typically subject to renewal by customers on an annual basis. We assess these maintenance services renewal options at contract inception to determine whether they provide customers with material rights that give rise to separate performance obligations.
The total transaction price is determined based on the total consideration specified in the contract, including variable consideration in the form of a performance guaranty payment that represents potential amounts payable to customers. The expected value method is generally used when estimating variable consideration, which typically reduces the total transaction price due to the nature of the performance obligations to which the variable consideration relates. These estimates reflect our
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historical experience and current contractual requirements which cap the maximum amount that may be paid. The expected value method requires judgment and considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each performance obligation. Depending on the facts and circumstances, a change in variable consideration estimate will either be accounted for at the contract level or using the portfolio method.
We exclude from the transaction price all taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are both (i) imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and (ii) collected from customers. Accordingly, such tax amounts are not included as a component of net sales or cost of sales. These tax amounts are recorded in cost of electricity revenue, cost of service revenue, and general and administrative operating expenses.
We allocate the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation based on relative standalone selling prices. Given that we typically sell an Energy Server with a maintenance services agreement and have not provided maintenance services to a customer who does not have use of an Energy Server, standalone selling prices are estimated using a cost-plus approach. Costs relating to Energy Servers include all direct and indirect manufacturing costs, applicable overhead costs and costs for normal production inefficiencies (i.e., variances). We then apply a margin to the Energy Servers, which may vary with the size of the customer, geographic region and the scale of the Energy Server deployment. As our business offerings and eligibility for the ITC evolve over time, we may be required to modify the expected margin in subsequent periods and our revenue could be materially affected. Costs relating to installation include all direct and indirect installation costs. The margin we apply reflects our profit objectives relating to installation. Costs for maintenance services arrangements are estimated over the life of the maintenance contracts and include estimated future service costs and future material costs. Material costs over the period of the service arrangement are impacted significantly by the longevity of the fuel cells themselves. After considering the total service costs, we apply a lower margin to our service costs than to our Energy Servers as it best reflects our long-term service margin expectations and comparable historical industry service margins. As a result, our estimate of our selling price is driven primarily by our expected margin on both the Energy Server and the maintenance services agreements based on their respective costs or, in the case of maintenance services agreements, the estimated costs to be incurred.
We generally recognize product and installation revenue at the point in time that the customer obtains control of the Energy Server. For certain instances, such as bill-and-hold transactions, control of installations transfers to the customer over time, and the related revenue is recognized over time as the performance obligation is satisfied using the cost-to-total cost (percentage-of-completion) method. We use an input measure of progress to determine the amount of revenue to recognize during each reporting period when such revenue is recognized over time, based on the costs incurred to satisfy the performance obligation. We recognize maintenance services revenue, including revenue associated with any related customer material rights, over time as we perform service maintenance activities.
Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling activities are considered contract fulfillment activities and not a separate performance obligation of the contract. Shipping and handling costs are recorded within cost of revenue.
The following is a description of the principal activities from which we generate revenue. Our four revenue streams are classified as follows:
Product Revenue - All of our product revenue is generated from the sale of our Energy Servers to direct purchase customers, including financing partners on Third-Party PPAs and sale-and-leaseback transactions, international channel providers and traditional lease customers. We generally recognize product revenue from contracts with customers at the point that control is transferred to the customers. This occurs when we achieve customer acceptance, which typically occurs upon transfer of control to our customers, which depending on the contract terms is when the system is shipped and delivered to our customers, when the system is shipped and delivered and is physically ready for startup and commissioning, or when the system is shipped and delivered and is turned on and producing power. Certain customer arrangements include bill-and-hold terms under which transfer of control criteria have been met, including the passing of title and significant risk and reward of ownership to the customers. Therefore, the customers can direct the use of the bill-and-hold product while we retain physical possession of the product until it is delivered to a customer site at a point in time in the future.
Under our traditional lease financing option, we sell our Energy Servers through a direct sale to a financing partner who, in turn, leases the Energy Servers to the customer under a lease agreement. With our sales to our international channel providers, our international channel providers typically sell the Energy Servers to, or sometimes provide a PPA to, an end customer. In both traditional lease and international channel providers transactions, we contract directly with the end customer to provide extended maintenance services after the end of the standard warranty period. As a result, since the customer that purchases the server is a different and unrelated party to the customer that purchases extended warranty services, the product and maintenance services contract are not combined.
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Installation Revenue - Nearly all of our installation revenue relates to the installation of Energy Servers sold to customers as part of a direct purchase and to financing parties as part of a traditional lease or Portfolio Financing. Generally, we recognize installation revenue when the system is physically ready for startup and commissioning, or when the system is turned on and producing power. For instances when control for installation services is transferred over time, we use an input measure of progress to determine the amount of revenue to recognize during each reporting period based on the costs incurred to satisfy the performance obligation.
Payments received from customers are recorded within deferred revenue and customer deposits in the condensed consolidated balance sheets until control is transferred. The related cost of such product and installation is also deferred as a component of deferred cost of revenue in the condensed consolidated balance sheets until control is transferred.
Service Revenue - Service revenue is generated from maintenance services agreements. As part of our initial contract with customers for the sale and installation of our Energy Servers, we typically provide a standard one-year warranty which covers defects in materials and workmanship and manufacturing or performance conditions under normal use and service for the first year following commencement of operations. As part of this standard first-year warranty, we also monitor the operations of the underlying systems and provide output and efficiency guaranties. We have determined that this standard first-year warranty is a distinct performance obligation - being a promise to stand-ready to maintain the Energy Servers when and if required during the first year following installation. We also sell to our customers extended annual maintenance services that effectively extend the standard first-year warranty coverage at the customer’s option. These customers generally have an option to renew or cancel the extended maintenance services on an annual basis and nearly every customer has renewed historically. Similar to the standard first-year warranty, the optional extended annual maintenance services are considered a distinct performance obligation – being a promise to stand-ready to maintain the Energy Servers when and if required during the renewal service year.
Given our customers' renewal history, we anticipate that most of them will continue to renew their maintenance services agreements each year for the period of their expected use of the Energy Server. The contractual renewal price may be less than the standalone selling price of the maintenance services and consequently the contract renewal option may provide the customer with a material right. We estimate the standalone selling price for customer renewal options that give rise to material rights using the practical alternative by reference to optional maintenance services renewal periods expected to be provided and the corresponding expected consideration for these services. This reflects the fact that our additional performance obligations in any contractual renewal period are consistent with the services provided under the standard first-year warranty. Where we have determined that a customer has a material right as a result of their contract renewal option, we recognize that portion of the transaction price allocated to the material right over the period in which such rights are exercised.
Payments from customers for the extended maintenance contracts are generally received at the beginning of each service year. Accordingly, the customer payment received is recorded as a customer deposit and revenue is recognized over the related service period as the services are performed.
Electricity Revenue - We sell electricity produced by our Energy Servers owned directly by us or by our consolidated PPA Entities. Our PPA Entities purchase Energy Servers from us and sell electricity produced by these systems to customers through long-term PPAs. Customers are required to purchase all of the electricity produced by those Energy Servers at agreed-upon rates over the course of the PPAs' contractual term.
In addition, in certain Managed Services Financings pursuant to which we are party to a Managed Services Agreement with a customer in a sale-leaseback-sublease arrangement, we may recognize electricity revenue. We first determine whether the Energy Servers under the sale-leaseback arrangement of a Managed Services Financing were “integral equipment." As the Energy Servers were determined not to be integral equipment, we determine if the leaseback was classified as a finance lease or an operating lease.
Under ASC 840, Leases ("ASC 840"), our Managed Services Agreements with the financiers were classified as capital leases and were accordingly recorded as financing transactions, while the sub-lease arrangements with the end customer were classified as operating leases. We have determined that the financiers are our customers in our Managed Services Agreements. In these Managed Services Financings, we enter into an agreement with a customer for a certain term. In exchange for the use of the Energy Server and its generated electricity, the customer makes a monthly payment. The customer's monthly payment includes a fixed monthly capacity-based payment, and in some cases also includes a performance-based payment based on the performance of the Energy Server. The fixed capacity-based payments made by the customer are applied toward our obligation to pay down the financing obligation with the financier. The performance-based payment is transferred to us as compensation for operations and maintenance services and is recognized as service revenue. We allocate the total payments received based on
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the relative standalone selling prices to electricity revenue and to service revenue. Electricity revenue relating to PPAs was typically accounted for in accordance with ASC 840, and service revenue in accordance with ASC 606.
We adopted ASC 842, Leases ("ASC 842"), with effect from January 1, 2020. Managed Services Financings entered from January 1, 2020 until June 30, 2021, including some of our agreements with financiers are accounted for as financing transactions because the repurchase options in these agreements prevent the transfer of control of the systems to the financier. Additionally, some of our leaseback agreements with financiers are not operating leases and are therefore accounted for as failed sale-and-leaseback transactions. We also determined that the sub-lease arrangements under the Managed Services Agreements with the customer are not within the scope of ASC 842 because the customer does not have the right to control the use of the underlying assets (i.e., the Energy Servers). Accordingly, such agreements are accounted for under ASC 606. Under ASC 606, we recognize customer payments for electricity as electricity revenue.
The transition guidance associated with ASC 842 also permitted certain practical expedients. We elected the practical expedient, which allowed us to carryforward certain aspects of our historical lease accounting under ASC 840 for leases that commenced before the effective date, including not to reassess (i) whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, (ii) lease classification for any expired or existing leases, and (iii) initial direct costs for any existing leases. We also elected the practical expedient to not separate non-lease and lease components and instead account for them as a single lease component for all classes of underlying assets. Lastly, for all classes of underlying assets, we elected to adopt an accounting policy for which we will not record on our condensed consolidated balance sheets leases whose terms are 12 months or less. Instead, these lease payments are recognized in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
During the second half of fiscal 2021, we completed several successful sale-and-lease back transactions in which we transferred control of the Energy Server to the financier and leased it back as an operating lease to provide electricity to the end customer.
In order for the transaction to meet the criteria for sale-leaseback accounting, control of the Energy Servers must transfer to the financier, which requires, among other criteria, the leaseback to meet the criteria for an operating lease in accordance with ASC 842. Accordingly, for such transactions where control transfers and the leaseback is classified as an operating lease, the proceeds from the sale to the financier are recognized as revenue based on the fair value of the Energy Servers sold and are allocated between Product Revenue and Installation Revenue based on the relative standalone selling prices.
We recognize a lease liability for the Energy Server leaseback obligation based on the present value of the future payments to the financier that are attributed to the Energy Server leaseback using our incremental borrowing rate. We also record a right-of-use asset, which is amortized over the term of the leaseback, and is included as a cost of electricity revenue on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
For certain sale-leaseback transactions, we receive proceeds from the financier in excess of the fair value of the Energy Servers in order to finance our ongoing costs associated with the operation of the Energy Servers during the term of the end customer agreement to provide electricity. Such proceeds are recognized as a financing obligation.
We allocate payments we are obligated to make under the leaseback agreement with the financier between the lease liability and the financing obligation based on the proportion of the financing obligation to the total proceeds to be received.
We recognize revenue from the satisfaction of performance obligations under our PPAs and Managed Services Financings to provide electricity to our end customers as the electricity is provided over the term of the agreement in the amount invoiced, which reflects the amount of consideration to which we have the right to invoice and which corresponds to the value transferred under such arrangements.
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Modifications
Contract modifications are accounted for as separate contracts if the additional products and services are distinct and priced at standalone selling prices. If the additional products and services are distinct, but not priced at standalone selling prices, the modification is treated as a termination of the existing contract and the creation of a new contract. If the additional products and services are not distinct within the context of the contract, the modification is combined with the original contract and either an increase or decrease in revenue is recognized on the modification date.
Deferred Revenue
We recognize a contract liability (referred to as deferred revenue in our condensed consolidated financial statements) when we have an obligation to transfer products or services to a customer in advance of us satisfying a performance obligation and the contract liability is reduced as performance obligations are satisfied and revenue is recognized. The related cost of such product is deferred as a component of deferred cost of revenue in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Prior to shipment of the product or the commencement of performance of maintenance services, any prepayment made by the customer is recorded as a customer deposit. Deferred revenue related to material rights for options to renew are recognized in revenue over the maintenance services period.
A description of the principal activities from which we recognize cost of revenues associated with each of our revenue streams are classified as follows:
Cost of Product Revenue - Cost of product revenue consists of costs of our Energy Servers that we sell to direct purchase, including financing partners on Third-Party PPAs, international channel providers and traditional lease customers. It includes costs paid to our materials suppliers, direct labor, manufacturing and other overhead costs, shipping costs, provisions for excess and obsolete inventory and the depreciation costs of our equipment. For Energy Servers sold to customers pending installation, we provide warranty reserves as a part of product costs for the period from transfer of control of Energy Servers to commencement of operations.
Cost of Installation Revenue - Cost of installation revenue primarily consists of the costs to install our Energy Servers that we sell to direct purchase, including financing partners on Third-Party PPAs and traditional lease customers. It includes cost of materials and service providers, personnel costs, shipping costs and allocated costs.
Cost of Service Revenue - Cost of service revenue consists of costs incurred under maintenance service contracts for all customers. It includes personnel costs for our customer support organization, certain allocated costs, and extended maintenance-related product repair and replacement costs.
Cost of Electricity Revenue - Cost of electricity revenue primarily consists of the depreciation of the cost of the Energy Servers owned by us or the consolidated PPA Entities and the cost of gas purchased in connection with our first PPA Entity. The cost of electricity revenue is generally recognized over the term of the Managed Services Agreement or customer’s PPA contract. The cost of depreciation of the Energy Servers is reduced by the amortization of any U.S. Treasury Department grant payment in lieu of the energy investment tax credit associated with these systems.
Revenue Recognized from Portfolio Financings Through PPA Entities (See Note 11 - Portfolio Financings)
In 2010, we began selling our Energy Servers to tax equity partnerships in which we held an equity interest as a managing member, or a PPA Entity. The investors in a PPA Entity contribute cash to the PPA Entity in exchange for an equity interest, which then allows the PPA Entity to purchase the Operating Company and the Energy Servers.
The cash contributions held are classified as short-term or long-term restricted cash according to the terms of each PPA Entity's governing documents. As we identified customers, the Operating Company entered into a PPA with the customer pursuant to which the customer agreed to purchase the power generated by one or more Energy Servers at a specified rate per kilowatt hour for a specified term, which can range from 10 to 21 years. The Operating Company, wholly owned by the PPA Entity, typically entered into a maintenance services agreement with us following the first year of service to extend the standard one-year performance warranties and guaranties. This intercompany arrangement is eliminated on consolidation. Those PPAs that qualify as leases are classified as either sales-type leases or operating leases and those that do not qualify as leases are classified as tariff agreements or revenue arrangements with customers. For arrangements classified as operating leases, tariff agreements, or revenue arrangements with customers, income is recognized as contractual amounts are due when the electricity is generated and presented within electricity revenue on the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
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Sales-type Leases - Certain Portfolio Financings with PPA Entities entered into prior to our adoption of ASC 842 qualified as sales-type leases in accordance with ASC 840. The classification for such arrangements were carried over and accounted for as sales-type leases under ASC 842. We are responsible for the installation, operation and maintenance of the Energy Servers at the customers' sites, including running the Energy Servers during the term of the PPA which ranges from 10 to 15 years. Based on the terms of the PPAs, we may also be obligated to supply fuel for the Energy Servers. The amount billed for the delivery of electricity to customers primarily consists of returns on the amounts financed including interest revenue, service revenue and fuel revenue for certain arrangements.
As the Portfolio Financings through PPA Entities entered into prior to our adoption of ASC 842 contain a lease, the consideration received is allocated between the lease elements (lease of property and related executory costs) and non-lease elements (other products and services, excluding any derivatives) based on relative fair value. Lease elements include the leased system and the related executory costs (i.e. installation of the system, electricity generated by the system, maintenance costs). Non-lease elements include service, fuel and interest related to the leased systems.
Service revenue and fuel revenue are recognized over the term of the PPA as electricity is generated. For those transactions that contain a lease, the interest component related to the leased system is recognized as interest revenue over the life of the lease term. The customer has the option to purchase the Energy Servers at the then fair market value at the end of the PPA contract term.
Service revenue related to sales-type leases is included in electricity revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. We have not entered into any new Portfolio Financing arrangements through PPA Entities during the last three years.
Operating Leases - Certain Portfolio Financings with PPA Entities entered into prior to the adoption of ASC 842 that were deemed leases in substance, but did not meet the criteria of sales-type leases or direct financing leases in accordance with ASC 840, were accounted for as operating leases. The classification for such arrangements were carried over and accounted for as operating leases under ASC 842. Revenue under these arrangements is recognized as electricity sales and service revenue and is provided to the customer at rates specified under the PPAs.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no significant changes in our reported financial position or results of operations and cash flows resulting from the adoption of new accounting pronouncements.
Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted
Lessor with Variable Lease Payments - In July 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-05, Leases (Topic 842): Lessors - Certain Leases with Variable Lease Payments ("ASU 2021-05"), which modifies ASC 842 to require lessors to classify leases as operating leases if they have variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or rate and would have selling losses if they were classified as sales-type or direct financing leases. The amendments in ASU 2021-05 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2021-05 on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
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3. Revenue Recognition
Contract Balances
The following table provides information about accounts receivables, contract assets, customer deposits and deferred revenue from contracts with customers (in thousands):

March 31,December 31,
 20222021
Accounts receivable$110,842 $87,788 
Contract assets13,533 25,201 
Customer deposits71,013 64,809 
Deferred revenue 103,489 115,476 
Contract assets relate to contracts for which revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of performance obligations, however billing milestones have not been reached. Customer deposits and deferred revenue are payments received from customers or invoiced amounts prior to transfer of controls of performance obligations. Customer deposits, except for those related to the transaction with SK ecoplant, are refundable fees until certain milestones are met.
Contract Assets
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
 
Beginning balance$25,201 $3,327 
Transferred to accounts receivable from contract assets recognized at the beginning of the period(14,576)(4,277)
Revenue recognized and not billed as of the end of the period2,908 5,958 
Ending balance$13,533 $5,008 
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue activity, including deferred incentive revenue activity, during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 consisted of the following (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
 
Beginning balance$115,476 $135,578 
Additions166,676 156,586 
Revenue recognized(178,663)(171,521)
Ending balance$103,489 $120,643 

Deferred revenue is equivalent to the total transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, as of the end of the period. The significant component of deferred revenue at the end of the period consists of performance obligations relating to the provision of maintenance services under current contracts and future renewal periods. These obligations provide customers with material rights over a period that we estimate will be largely commensurate with the period of their expected use of the associated Energy Server. As a result, we expect to recognize these amounts as revenue over a period of up to 21 years, predominantly on a relative standalone selling price basis that reflects the cost of providing these services. Deferred revenue also includes performance obligations relating to product acceptance and installation. A significant amount of this deferred revenue is reflected as additions and revenue recognized in the same period and we expect to recognize substantially all amounts within a year.
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We do not disclose the value of the unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which we recognize revenue at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.
Disaggregated Revenue
We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into four revenue categories: product, installation, services and electricity (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Revenue from contracts with customers: 
Product revenue $133,547 $137,930 
Installation revenue 13,553 2,659 
Services revenue 35,239 36,417 
Electricity revenue 2,682 595 
Total revenue from contract with customers185,021 177,601 
Revenue from contracts accounted for as leases:
Electricity revenue16,018 16,406 
Total revenue$201,039 $194,007 
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4. Financial Instruments
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The carrying values of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash approximate fair values and were as follows (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
 20222021
As Held:
Cash$246,476 $318,080 
Money market funds247,420 297,034 
$493,896 $615,114 
As Reported:
Cash and cash equivalents$286,007 $396,035 
Restricted cash207,889 219,079 
$493,896 $615,114 

Restricted cash consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
 20222021
Current:  
Restricted cash$67,983 $89,462 
Restricted cash related to PPA Entities1
2,158 3,078 
Restricted cash, current70,141 92,540 
Non-current:
Restricted cash114,484 103,300 
Restricted cash related to PPA Entities1
23,264 23,239 
Restricted cash, non-current137,748 126,539 
$207,889 $219,079 
1 We have VIEs that represent a portion of the consolidated balances recorded within the "restricted cash" and other financial statement line items in the condensed consolidated balance sheets (see Note 11 - Portfolio Financings). In addition, the restricted cash held in the PPA II, PPA IIIa and PPA IIIb entities as of March 31, 2022, includes $41.2 million, $0.4 million and $1.5 million of current restricted cash, respectively, and $50.4 million, $6.1 million and $6.7 million of non-current restricted cash, respectively. PPA IIIa is no longer a VIE as of 03/31/2022. The restricted cash held in the PPA II and PPA IIIb entities as of December 31, 2021, includes $41.7 million and $1.2 million of current restricted cash, respectively, and $57.7 million and $6.7 million of non-current restricted cash, respectively. These entities are not considered VIEs.
Factoring Arrangements
We sell certain customer trade receivables on a non-recourse basis under factoring arrangements with our designated financial institution. These transactions are accounted for as sales and cash proceeds are included in cash used in operating activities. We derecognized $46.1 million of accounts receivable during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and none during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The costs of factoring such accounts receivable on our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 were not material.
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5. Fair Value
Our accounting policy for the fair value measurement of cash equivalents, the fair value of contingent consideration related to business combinations, natural gas fixed price forward contracts, embedded Escalation Protection Plan ("EPP") derivatives and interest rate swap agreements is described in Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies.
Financial Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
The tables below set forth, by level, our financial assets that are accounted for at fair value for the respective periods. The table does not include assets and liabilities that are measured at historical cost or any basis other than fair value (in thousands):
Fair Value Measured at Reporting Date Using
March 31, 2022Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$247,420 $ $ $247,420 
$247,420 $ $ $247,420 
Liabilities
Derivatives:
Option to acquire a variable number of shares of Class A Common Stock (Note 18)$ $16,198 $ $16,198 
Embedded EPP derivatives  5,929 5,929 
$ $16,198 $5,929 $22,127 

 Fair Value Measured at Reporting Date Using
December 31, 2021Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market funds$297,034 $ $ $297,034 
$297,034 $ $ $297,034 
Liabilities
Derivatives:
Option to acquire a variable number of shares of Class A Common Stock$ $13,200 $ $13,200 
Embedded EPP derivatives  6,461 6,461 
$ $13,200 $6,461 $19,661 
Money Market Funds - Money market funds are valued using quoted market prices for identical securities and are therefore classified as Level 1 financial assets.
Option to acquire a variable number of shares of Class A Common Stock - We estimated the fair value of the Option (as defined in Note 8) to acquire a variable number of shares of Class A Common Stock using a Monte Carlo simulation model using a stochastic volatility parameter, which is calibrated and considers the observable implied volatility, the stock price of our Class A Common Stock and market interest rates. As the fair value is determined based on observable inputs, the Option to acquire a variable number of shares of Class A Common Stock is classified as a Level 2 financial liability.
Embedded Escalation Protection Plan Derivative Liability in Sales Contracts - We estimate the fair value of the embedded EPP derivatives in certain sales contracts using a Monte Carlo simulation model, which considers various potential electricity price curves over the sales contracts' terms. We use historical grid prices and available forecasts of future electricity prices to estimate future electricity prices. We have classified these derivatives as a Level 3 financial liability.
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For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, we recorded the fair value of the embedded EPP derivatives and recognized an unrealized gain of $0.5 million and an unrealized loss of $0.5 million, respectively, in (loss) gain on revaluation of embedded derivatives on our condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands in the table below).
Embedded EPP Derivative Liability
Liabilities at December 31, 2021
$6,461 
Changes in fair value(532)
Liabilities at March 31, 2022$5,929 
To estimate the liabilities related to the EPP contracts an option pricing method was implemented through a Monte Carlo simulation. The unobservable inputs were simulated based on the available values for avoided cost and cost of electricity as calculated for March 31, 2022 and 2021, using an expected growth rate of 7% over the contracts' life and volatility of 20%. The estimated growth rate and volatility were estimated based on the historical tariff changes for the period 2008 to 2021. Avoided cost is the transmission and distribution cost expressed in dollars per kilowatt hours avoided in the given year of the contract, calculated using the billing rates of the effective utility tariff applied during the year to the host account for which usage is offset by the generator. If the billing rates within the utility tariff change during the measurement period, the average of the amount of charge for each rate shall be weighted by the number of effective months for each amount.
The inputs listed above would have had a direct impact on the fair values of the above derivatives if they were adjusted. Generally, an increase in natural gas prices and a decrease in electric grid prices would each result in an increase in the estimated fair value of our derivative liabilities.
Interest Rate Swap Agreements - Interest rate swap agreements are valued using quoted prices for similar contracts and are therefore classified as Level 2 financial assets. Interest rate swaps are designed as hedging instruments and are recognized at fair value on our condensed consolidated balance sheets. During the fourth quarter of 2021, we terminated our hedges.
Option - We revalued the Option to purchase Class A common stock to its fair value as of March 31, 2022, and recorded a loss of $3.0 million which is included in other income (expense), net in our condensed consolidated statements of operations. The fair value of the Option is reflected in Accrued expenses and other current liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
Financial Assets and Liabilities and Other Items Not Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
Customer Receivables and Debt Instruments - The fair value for customer financing receivables is based on a discounted cash flow model, whereby the fair value approximates the present value of the receivables (Level 3). The senior secured notes, term loans and convertible notes are based on rates currently offered for instruments with similar maturities and terms (Level 3). The following table presents the estimated fair values and carrying values of customer receivables and debt instruments (in thousands):
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