10-K 1 ben-20210930.htm 10-K ben-20210930
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(MARK ONE)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to      
Commission file number: 001-09318
FRANKLIN RESOURCES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware13-2670991
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Franklin Parkway, San Mateo, CA 94403
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

(650) 312-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.10 per shareBENNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes      No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.              Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).            Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes     No
The aggregate market value of the voting common equity (“common stock”) held by non-affiliates of the registrant, as of March 31, 2021 (the last business day of registrant’s second quarter of fiscal year 2021), was $8.5 billion based upon the last sale price reported for such date on the New York Stock Exchange.
Number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding at October 31, 2021: 501,795,099.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its annual meeting of stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after September 30, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.


INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FORM 10-K
ITEM
 PAGE
NUMBER
 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.


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PART I
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS.
This Annual Report on Form 10‑K (“Annual Report”) and the documents incorporated by reference herein may include forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. Such statements are provided under the “safe harbor” protection of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include all statements that do not relate solely to historical or current facts and generally can be identified by words or phrases written in the future tense and/or preceded by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “depends,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or other similar words or variations thereof, or the negative thereof, but these terms are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
Forward-looking statements involve a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause actual results and outcomes to differ materially from any future results or outcomes expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report or that are incorporated by reference herein are qualified in their entirety by reference to the risks and uncertainties disclosed in this Annual Report, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
While forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time that they are made, you should not rely on them and are cautioned against doing so. Forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions regarding our business, the economy and other possible future conditions. Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. They are neither statements of historical fact nor guarantees or assurances of future performance. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of them.
If a circumstance occurs after the date of this Annual Report that causes any of our forward-looking statements to be inaccurate, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, we undertake no obligation to announce publicly the change to our expectations, or to make any revision to our forward-looking statements, to reflect any change in assumptions, beliefs or expectations, or any change in events, conditions or circumstances upon which any forward-looking statement is based, unless required by law.
Item 1.    Business.
GENERAL
Franklin Resources, Inc. (“Franklin”) is a holding company with subsidiaries operating under our Franklin Templeton® and/or subsidiary brand names. Franklin’s common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “BEN” and is included in the Standard & Poors 500 Index. In this Annual Report, Franklin and its subsidiaries are collectively referred to as the “Company,” and words such as “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to the Company. We have one operating segment, investment management and related services.
We offer our services and products under our various distinct brand names, including, but not limited to, Franklin®, Templeton®, Legg Mason®, Benefit Street Partners®, Brandywine Global Investment Management®, Clarion Partners®, ClearBridge Investments®, Fiduciary Trust International™, Franklin Bissett®, Franklin Mutual Series®, K2®, LibertyShares®, Martin Currie®, Royce® Investment Partners and Western Asset Management Company®. Unless otherwise indicated, our “funds” means the funds offered under our various brand names.
We are a global investment management organization with $1,530.1 billion in assets under management (“AUM”) as of September 30, 2021. Our mission is to help people all over the world achieve the most important milestones of their lives through investment management expertise, wealth management and technology solutions. Through our specialist investment managers, we bring extensive capabilities in fixed income, equity, multi-asset solutions and alternatives. For more than 70 years, we have been committed to providing clients with exceptional investment management services and have developed a globally diversified business, including through strategic acquisitions.

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We provide our investment management and related services to retail, institutional and high-net-worth investors in jurisdictions worldwide. We deliver our investment capabilities through a variety of products and vehicles and multiple points of access, including directly to investors and through financial intermediaries. Our investment products include our sponsored funds, as well as institutional and high-net-worth separate accounts, retail separately managed account programs, sub-advised products, and other investment vehicles. Our funds include registered funds (including exchange-traded funds, or “ETFs”) and unregistered funds. In addition to investment management, our services include fund administration, sales and distribution, and shareholder servicing. Our sales and distribution services include distribution-related financial technology. We may perform services directly or through third parties. We also provide sub-advisory services to certain investment products sponsored by other companies that may be sold to investors under the brand names of those other companies or on a co-branded basis.
We offer our clients the combined experience of our investment professionals with expertise across asset classes and a sharp focus on managing risk. We are committed to delivering strong investment performance for our clients by offering a broad range of strategies and drawing on the extensive experience and perspective gained through our long history in the investment management business. We know that success demands smart and effective business innovation, solutions and technologies, and we remain focused on investment excellence, innovating to meet evolving client goals, and building strong partnerships by delivering superior client service. We continue to focus on the long-term investment performance of our investment products and on providing high quality customer service to our clients.
The business and regulatory environments in which we operate globally remain complex, uncertain and subject to change. We are subject to various laws, rules and regulations globally that impose restrictions, limitations, registration, reporting and disclosure requirements on our business, and add complexity to our global compliance operations. Incorporated herein by reference is certain financial information about our segment and geographic areas contained in Note 19 – Segment and Geographic Information in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.

Recent Developments
As previously announced, on November 1, 2021, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Lexington Partners L.P. (“Lexington”), a leading global manager of secondary private equity and co-investment funds. We expect this acquisition to bolster our alternative asset capabilities, complementing our existing strengths in real estate, private credit, and hedge fund strategies. The transaction is structured to provide continuity for Lexington’s experienced team and continued alignment with investors. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to close by the end of the second fiscal quarter of 2022.
On September 30, 2021, we also announced that we will acquire O’Shaughnessy Asset Management, LLC (“OSAM”), a leading quantitative asset management firm. Through this acquisition, we expect to add to our offerings in the separately managed account industry. OSAM’s capabilities are expected to serve as an important expansion and enhancement of our existing strengths in separately managed account and custom solutions capabilities. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to close in the first quarter of fiscal year 2022.
Company History
Since 1947, the Company and its predecessors have been engaged in the investment management and related services business. Franklin was incorporated in the State of Delaware in November 1969, and originated our mutual fund business with the initial Franklin family of funds, known for its fixed income funds and growth and value-oriented equity funds. Over the years, we have expanded and developed our business to meet evolving investor needs, in part, by acquiring companies engaged in investment management and related services. We have added, among others: (i) the Templeton investment firm, known for its global investing strategies and value style of investing, in 1992, (ii) the Franklin Mutual Series investment firm, known for its value-oriented equity funds, in 1996, (iii) the Franklin Bissett investment firm, known for its Canadian fixed income funds and growth-oriented equity funds, in 2000, (iv) the Fiduciary Trust International investment, trust and fiduciary services firm, in 2001, (v) the K2 Advisors hedge funds solutions firm, in 2012, (vi) the Benefit Street Partners U.S. alternative credit manager firm, in 2019, (vii) the Athena Capital Advisors investment and wealth management firm, in March 2020, (viii) The Pennsylvania Trust Company investment, trust and fiduciary services firm, in May 2020, and (ix) the Legg Mason global investment firm, including certain specialist investment managers, on July 31, 2020.

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OUR BUSINESS STRUCTURE
Through our subsidiaries, we are committed to helping investors navigate global markets, as well as continuing to evolve and build on our strengths to meet the needs of our clients. We generally derive our revenues and income from providing investment management and related services to our products and the products we sub-advise. Our investment management fees, which represent the majority of our revenues, depend to a large extent on the level and relative mix of our AUM and the types of services provided, which are subject to change.
Our business is conducted through our subsidiaries, including our specialist investment managers. Our specialist investment managers include subsidiaries registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Advisers Act”), as well as subsidiaries registered as investment adviser equivalents in jurisdictions including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Ireland, India, Japan, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, Switzerland, South Korea, Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom (“U.K.”).
Our U.S.-registered funds and most of our non-U.S.-registered funds operate as independent companies subject to the supervision and oversight of the funds’ own boards of directors or trustees. Most of our funds are registered open-end funds, or mutual funds, that continuously offer their shares to investors. We also offer or manage registered or listed closed-end funds that issue a set number of shares to investors in a public offering which shares are then traded on a public stock exchange. Our specialist investment managers manage a fund’s portfolio of securities in accordance with the fund’s stated objectives. To support the funds’ operations, our subsidiaries either provide or arrange for the investment and other management, shareholder servicing and administrative services required by the funds. We outsource certain administration and other services for our funds to third-party providers. An investor may purchase shares of a mutual fund directly from us or through a broker-dealer, financial adviser, bank or other similar financial intermediary that provides investment advice to the investor, or an investor may purchase shares of a closed-end fund or ETF on the stock exchange where the fund is traded. Financial intermediaries may earn fees and commissions and receive other compensation with respect to fund shares sold to investors.
Our AUM by Asset Class and Product Type
We offer a broad product mix under our fixed income, equity, multi-asset, alternative and cash management asset classes and solutions. Our fixed income capabilities include government, municipals, corporate credit, bank loans, securitized, multi-sector, currencies and other investments. Our equity capabilities include value, deep value, core value, blend, growth at a reasonable price (GARP), growth, convertibles, sector, Shariah, smart beta and thematic investments. Our multi-asset solutions capabilities include income, real return, balanced/hybrid, total return, target data/risk, absolute return, tactical asset allocation and managed volatility investments. Our alternative capabilities include private debt, hedge funds, private equity, real estate and infrastructure investments.
We believe, despite market risks, that we have a competitive advantage as a result of the economic and geographic diversity of our products available to our clients. Our U.S. funds include U.S. mutual funds, closed-end funds, ETFs and other products. Our non-U.S. funds include a variety of cross-border funds principally domiciled in Luxembourg or Ireland, registered for sale to non-U.S. investors in certain other countries, and international locally domiciled funds and products for the particular local market. Our institutional separate account services are provided to various institutions for which we serve as an investment adviser. Our retail separately managed accounts, commonly known as managed accounts or wrap programs, are sponsored by various financial institutions. We also offer and serve as investment adviser to various other products.
Our fees for providing investment management services are generally based on a percentage of AUM in the accounts that we advise, the asset classes of the accounts, and the types of services that we provide.

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AUM by asset class and product type was as follows (primarily based on where product is domiciled):
(in billions)
as of September 30, 2021
U.S. FundsNon-U.S. FundsInstitutional Separate AccountsRetail Separately Managed AccountsOtherTotalPercentage
of Total
AUM
Fixed Income$206.3 $55.5 $338.6 $34.3 $15.6 $650.3 43 %
Equity260.1 87.3 66.3 87.8 22.1 523.6 34 %
Multi-Asset96.5 8.7 4.3 2.9 40.0 152.4 10 %
Alternative7.4 10.8 34.2 — 92.8 145.2 %
Cash Management
34.9 22.9 0.8 — — 58.6 %
Total$605.2 $185.2 $444.2 $125.0 $170.5 $1,530.1 100 %
See “Assets under Management” under Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this Annual Report for additional information about our AUM. Broadly speaking, other than changes in AUM due to acquisitions or dispositions by us, changes in our AUM depend primarily upon two factors: (i) the increase or decrease in the market value of the securities and instruments held in the portfolio of investments, and (ii) the level of inflows as compared to the level of outflows. Changing market conditions and the evolving needs of our clients may cause asset volatility and a shift in our asset mix, potentially resulting in an increase or decrease in our revenues and income depending upon the nature of our AUM and the level of management fees we earn based on our AUM.
Our Specialist Investment Managers
Our specialist investment managers offer diverse perspectives and specialized expertise across asset classes and strategies. Across our business, our specialist investment managers generally focus on a portion of the asset management industry in terms of the types of assets managed (primarily fixed income, equity or alternatives) and each may differ in the types of products and services offered, the investment styles utilized, and the types and geographic locations of its clients. Each typically markets its products and services under its own brand name, with certain distribution functions provided by our corporate distribution subsidiaries. We have in place revenue sharing arrangements with certain of our specialist investment managers.
Our specialist investment managers include: Benefit Street Partners, Brandywine Global, Clarion Partners, ClearBridge Investments, Fiduciary Trust International, Franklin Templeton Equity, Franklin Templeton Fixed Income, Franklin Templeton Investment Solutions, Martin Currie, Royce Investment Partners, Templeton Global Macro, and Western Asset Management.
Our Broad Range of Services and Capabilities
1.    Investment Management Services
Through our specialist investment managers, we offer a broad range of services and capabilities under our fixed income, equity, multi-asset, alternative and cash management asset classes. We also offer diverse strategies across active, smart beta and passive approaches, in a broad range of vehicles. Our investment products are offered globally to retail, institutional and high-net-worth clients, which may include, among others, individual investors, institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds, defined benefit and contribution plans, endowments and charitable foundations, healthcare systems and insurance companies. Our investment products include mutual funds, closed-end funds, private funds, institutional separate accounts, retail separately managed accounts, and other products. Our products and capabilities are designed to accommodate a variety of investment goals and preferences, from capital appreciation to capital preservation, as well as certain environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) preferences.
We are committed to partnering closely with our clients to understand their challenges and aspirations, and drawing on our investment capabilities and resources to offer and/or design the right investment solutions for them. We distribute and market globally our different capabilities under our brand names through various subsidiaries and multiple points of access, including directly to investors and through financial intermediaries. We primarily engage new institutional business through our relationships with pension, defined contribution and management consultants, direct sales efforts and additional mandates from our existing client relationships, as well as from our responses to requests for proposals. We also market and distribute our products through various subsidiaries to institutional investors with separate accounts. A few of

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our subsidiaries also serve as direct marketing broker-dealers for institutional investors for certain of our private funds, and some of our private funds may utilize third-party placement agents. Our services also include management of our ETF platforms. Our ETF platforms include smart beta and actively managed ETFs, as well as additional lower fee passive ETF products. ETFs trade like stocks, fluctuate in market value and may trade at prices above or below the ETF’s net asset value.
Our specialist investment managers provide investment management services pursuant to agreements in effect with each of our investment products and/or clients, including products for which we provide sub-advisory services. Investment management fees are generally determined as a percentage of AUM pursuant to such contractual arrangements. Our investment management services include services to accounts for which we have full investment discretion and to accounts for which we have no investment discretion. Our services include fundamental investment research and valuation analyses, including original economic, political, industry and company research, and analyses of suppliers, customers and competitors. Our management fee on an account varies with the types of services that we provide for the account, among other things.
For our U.S. mutual funds, the board of directors or trustees of each fund and our management personnel regularly review the investment management fee structures for the funds in light of fund performance, the level and range of services provided, industry conditions and other relevant factors. Most of our investment management agreements between our subsidiaries and our U.S. mutual funds must be renewed each year after an initial two-year term, and must be specifically approved at least annually by a vote of each fund’s board of directors or trustees as a whole and separately by a majority of its directors or trustees who are not interested persons of the fund under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”), or by a vote of the holders of a majority of the fund’s outstanding voting securities. In addition, our U.S. agreements generally may be terminated by either party without penalty after prior written notice.
Our non-U.S. mutual funds, private funds, institutional and high-net-worth separate accounts, and the products for which we provide sub-advisory services, are typically subject to various termination rights and/or renewal provisions, which often provide for termination upon relatively short notice with little or no penalty. Investment management fees are at times waived or voluntarily reduced when, for example, a new fund/account is established, and then increased to contractual levels within an established timeline or as net asset values reach certain levels.
2.    Retail Separately Managed Account Programs
Certain of our specialist investment managers provide asset management services to retail separately managed account programs sponsored by various financial institutions. These programs typically allow securities brokers or other financial intermediaries to offer their clients the opportunity to choose from a number of asset management services pursuing different investment strategies provided by one or more investment managers, and generally charge an all-inclusive fee that can cover asset management, trade execution, asset allocation and custodial and administrative services.
3.    Alternative Strategies
Certain of our specialist investment managers manage alternative investment strategies. These strategies provide our clients with alternatives to traditional equity and fixed income products and services. Our alternative products include private credit funds and structured products, business development companies, hedge funds (funds of funds and custom advisory solutions), private equity funds, venture capital funds and real estate funds. These products employ various investment strategies and approaches, including loan origination, collateralized loan obligations, high-yield credit, hedge fund advisory, private equity and infrastructure transactions in emerging markets, global macro, financial technology, consumer loans, direct real estate investments, and custom-tailored investment programs.

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4.    High-Net-Worth Investment Management, Trust and Custody
Through our subsidiary Fiduciary Trust Company International (“Fiduciary Trust International”), including its trust company and investment adviser subsidiaries, and through certain other of our subsidiaries, we provide investment management and related services to, among others, high-net-worth individuals and families, family offices, foundations and institutional clients. Fiduciary Trust International offers investment management and advisory services across different investment styles and asset classes. The majority of these client assets are actively managed by individual portfolio managers, while a significant number of clients also seek multi-manager, multi-asset class solutions. Through our trust company subsidiaries, including Fiduciary Trust International, we also may provide separately managed accounts, private funds, and trust, custody and related services, including administration, performance measurement, estate planning and tax planning. In addition, through our subsidiary Fiduciary Trust Company of Canada (“FTCC”), we provide investment management, wealth planning, and trust and estate services, and offer products to high-net-worth individuals and families and institutional clients in Canada.
5.    Sales and Distribution
Our global distribution framework is organized into two groups. Our global advisory services group is responsible for sales, marketing and business development, and maintains a regional distribution model. Our global alliances and new business strategies group oversees our digital wealth management and distribution-related financial technology, joint ventures, seed capital allocations, and direct-to-consumer initiatives. Our groups work closely together to meet the needs of our advisors, clients and investors. There are many sales channels across each region, which may include retail, institutional, private wealth, retirement, insurance, and other specialty sales. Our global footprint and breadth of investment capability provides the opportunity for us to work with global financial institutions to add value through and beyond investing, including by building business relationships and global economic partnerships.
In addition, certain of our specialist investment managers have their own sales and marketing teams that distribute their products and services, primarily to institutional investors, both directly and through consultants. Consultants play a large role in institutional investment management by helping clients select and retain investment managers. Institutional investment management clients and their consultants tend to be highly sophisticated and investment performance-driven.
Our sales and distribution capabilities and related efforts are critical components of our business and may be impacted by global distribution trends and changes within the financial services industry. In the U.S., our corporate distribution subsidiaries generally serve as the principal underwriters and distributors of shares of most of our mutual funds. Outside the U.S., certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries provide sales, distribution and marketing services to our non-U.S. mutual funds. Some of our non-U.S. mutual funds, particularly our Luxembourg and Irish domiciled fund ranges, are distributed globally on a cross-border basis, while others are distributed exclusively in local markets.
We earn sales and distribution fees primarily by distributing our mutual funds pursuant to distribution agreements with the funds. Under our distribution agreements with our U.S. mutual funds, we offer and sell the fund shares on a continuous basis and pay certain costs associated with selling, marketing and distributing the fund shares, including the costs of developing and producing sales literature, shareholder reports and prospectuses. Our sales and distribution fees primarily consist of upfront sales commissions and ongoing distribution fees. Sales commissions are earned from the sale of certain classes of sponsored funds at the time of purchase and may be reduced or eliminated depending on the amount invested and the type of investor. Therefore, our sales fees generally will change with the overall level of gross sales, the size of individual transactions, and the relative mix of sales between different share classes and types of investors.
Our mutual funds generally pay us distribution fees in return for sales, marketing and distribution efforts on their behalf. The majority of our U.S. mutual funds, with the exception of certain money market funds and certain other funds specifically designed for purchase through separately managed account programs, have adopted distribution plans under Rule 12b-1 (the “Rule 12b-1 Plans”) promulgated under the Investment Company Act. The Rule 12b-1 Plans permit the funds to pay us for marketing, marketing support, advertising, printing and sales promotion services relating to the distribution of their shares, subject to the Rule 12b-1 Plans’ limitations on amounts based on daily average AUM. Similar arrangements exist for the distribution of non-U.S. mutual funds. The Rule 12b-1 Plans are established for one-year terms and must be approved annually by a vote of each fund’s board of directors or trustees as a whole and separately by a majority of its directors or trustees who are not interested persons of the fund under the Investment Company Act. The Rule 12b-1 Plans are subject to termination at any time by a majority vote of the disinterested fund directors or trustees or by the particular fund’s shareholders.

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We pay substantially all of our sales and distribution fees earned as revenues, including fees earned under the Rule 12b-1 Plans, to the financial advisers and other intermediaries that sell our funds on our behalf. The distribution agreements with our U.S. mutual funds generally provide for us to pay commission expenses for sales of fund shares to qualifying broker-dealers and other independent financial intermediaries. These financial intermediaries receive various sales commissions and other fees for services in matching investors with funds whose asset classes match such investors’ goals and risk profiles. The intermediaries also may receive fees for their assistance in explaining the operations of the funds and in servicing and maintaining investors’ accounts, and for reporting and various other distribution services. Other compensation may be offered to the extent not prohibited by federal or state laws or any self-regulatory agency, such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), applicable to our business. We are heavily dependent upon these third-party distribution and sales channels and business relationships. There is increasing competition for access to these channels, which has caused our distribution costs to rise and could cause further increases in the future as competition continues and service expectations increase.
Similar arrangements exist with the distribution of our non-U.S. mutual funds where, generally, our subsidiary that distributes the funds receives maintenance fees from the funds and pays commissions and certain other fees to financial advisers, banks and other intermediaries.
6.    Shareholder Servicing
We perform our shareholder servicing services directly or through third parties. Substantially all shareholder servicing fees are earned from our funds for providing transfer agency services, which include providing shareholder statements, transaction processing, customer service and tax reporting. Fees for U.S. funds are based on the level of AUM and the number of transactions in shareholder accounts, while outside of the U.S., the fees are based on the level of AUM and/or the number of shareholder accounts.
COMPETITION
The financial services industry is a highly competitive global industry. Competition is based on various factors, including, among others, business reputation, investment performance, product mix and offerings, service quality and innovation, distribution relationships, and fees charged. We face strong competition from numerous investment management companies, securities brokerage and investment banking firms, insurance companies, banks and other financial institutions, which offer a wide range of financial and investment management services and products to the same retail, institutional and high-net-worth investors and accounts that we are seeking to attract. We offer a broad product mix that meets a variety of investment goals and needs for different investors, and we may periodically introduce new products to provide investors with additional investment options.
Due to our international presence and varied product mix, it is difficult to assess our market position relative to other investment managers on a worldwide basis, but we believe that we are one of the more widely diversified investment managers based in the U.S. We believe that our fixed income, equity, multi-asset and alternative asset mix, coupled with our global presence, will serve our competitive needs well over the long term. We continue to focus on the long-term performance of our investment products, service to clients and extensive marketing activities through our strong broker-dealer and other financial institution distribution network as well as with high-net-worth and institutional clients.
The establishment of new investment management firms and continuous development of investment products increases the competition that we face. Many of our competitors have long-standing and established relationships with broker-dealers, investment advisers and their clients, and some have affiliated brokerage businesses. Others have focused on, offer and market specific product lines that provide strong competition to certain of our asset classes. In addition, consolidation in the financial services industry has created stronger competitors, some with greater financial resources and broader distribution channels than our own.


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REGULATION
General
We are subject to extensive regulation. Virtually all aspects of our business are subject to various U.S. federal and state, and/or international regulation and supervision. Our regulators have broad authority with respect to the regulation of investment management and other financial services, including among other things, the authority to grant or cancel required licenses or registrations, impose net capital and other financial or operational requirements on us, and other enforcement powers described below. The regulations to which we are subject continue to change and evolve over time. Consequently, there is uncertainty associated with the regulatory environments in which we operate. The rules and regulations applicable to investment management organizations are very detailed and technical. Accordingly, the discussion below is general in nature and does not purport to be complete.
With our global operations, certain of our subsidiaries are registered with or licensed by various U.S. and/or non-U.S. regulators, and our funds are subject to various U.S. and/or non-U.S. laws. In particular, we are subject to various securities, compliance, corporate governance, disclosure, privacy, anti-bribery and anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing, and economic, trade and sanctions laws and regulations, both domestically and internationally, as well as to various cross-border rules and regulations, such as the anti-bribery and anti-corruption rules under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (“FCPA”) and the data protection rules under the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) of the European Union (“EU”). We are subject to sanctions programs administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of Treasury (“USDT”), as well as sanctions programs adopted and administered by non-U.S. jurisdictions where our services and products are offered. Our subsidiaries with custody of client assets or accounts are also subject to the applicable laws and regulations of U.S. states and other non-U.S. jurisdictions regarding the reporting and escheatment of unclaimed or abandoned property. We also must comply with complex and changing tax regimes in the jurisdictions where we operate our business.
Failure to comply with applicable U.S. and non-U.S. laws, regulations, rules, codes, notices, directives, guidelines, orders, circulars and/or conditions in the various jurisdictions where we operate could result in a wide range of disciplinary actions against us, our subsidiaries and/or our business. Breaches of applicable laws and rules could result in regulatory enforcement, civil liability, criminal liability and/or the imposition of a range of sanctions or orders against us, including, as applicable, monetary damages, injunctions, disgorgements, fines, penalties, cease and desist orders, censures, reprimands, and the revocation, cancellation, suspension or restriction of licenses, registration status or approvals held by us or our business in a jurisdiction or market. In addition, a public regulatory issue can have a negative impact on our reputation, and as a result have indirect impacts on our business or growth.
See Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of this Annual Report, for financial information about our business, including certain regulatory financial impacts disclosed therein.
U.S. Regulation
U.S. Regulatory Framework. As a U.S. reporting company, we are subject to U.S. federal securities laws, state securities and corporate laws, state escheatment laws and regulations, and the rules and regulations of certain U.S. regulatory and self-regulatory organizations, such as the SEC and the NYSE. In particular, we are subject to various securities, compliance, corporate governance and disclosure rules adopted by the SEC. We are also subject to various other U.S. federal and state laws, including those affecting corporate governance and disclosure, such as the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001. As a NYSE-listed company, we are also subject to NYSE listing and disclosure requirements.
As a global investment management organization, certain of our subsidiaries are also subject to the rules and regulations of various U.S. regulatory and self-regulatory organizations, including the SEC, FINRA, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), the National Futures Association, the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), the U.S. Department of Labor, and the USDT. Our non-U.S. operations also may be subject to regulation by U.S. regulators, including the SEC, the CFTC and the DOJ (for example with respect to the FCPA).

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Certain of our subsidiaries are registered with the SEC under the Advisers Act and/or the CFTC, and many of our funds are registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act. These registrations, licenses and authorizations impose numerous obligations, as well as detailed operational requirements, on such subsidiaries and funds. The Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on our registered investment adviser subsidiaries, including record keeping, operating and marketing requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions against fraudulent activities. The Investment Company Act imposes similar obligations on the registered investment companies advised by our subsidiaries.
U.S. Regulatory Reforms. Over the years, the U.S. federal corporate governance and securities laws have been augmented substantially and made significantly more complex by various legislation. As we continue to address our legal and regulatory requirements or focus on meeting new or expanded requirements, we may need to expend a substantial amount of additional time, costs and resources. Regulatory reforms may add further complexity to our business and operations and could require us to alter our investment management services and related activities, which could be costly, impede our growth and adversely impact our AUM, revenues and income. Certain key regulatory reforms in the U.S. that impact or relate to our business, and may cause, or continue to cause, us to incur additional obligations, include:
Systemically Important Financial Institutions. Dodd-Frank authorized the establishment of the Financial Stability Oversight Council (“FSOC”), the mandate of which is to identify and respond to threats to U.S. financial stability. Similarly, the U.S. and other members of the G-20 group of nations have empowered the Financial Stability Board (“FSB”) to identify and respond, in a coordinated manner, to threats to global financial stability. The FSOC may designate certain non-bank financial companies as systemically important financial institutions (“SIFIs”), which are subject to supervision and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The FSB may designate certain non-bank financial companies as global systemically important financial institutions (“G-SIFIs”); the additional regulatory requirements triggered by any such designation are not yet established. The FSOC and the FSB, as well as other global regulators, are considering what threats to U.S. and global financial stability, if any, arise from asset management companies and/or the funds that they sponsor or manage, and whether such threats can be mitigated by treating such entities as SIFIs or G-SIFIs and/or subjecting them to additional regulation. To the extent that we or any of our funds are designated as a SIFI or G-SIFI, such designations add additional supervision and/or regulation, which could include requirements related to risk-based capital, leverage, liquidity, credit exposure, stress testing, resolution plans, early remediation, and certain risk management requirements, that could impact our business.
Derivatives and Other Financial Products. Dodd-Frank, as well as other legislation and regulations, impose restrictions and limitations on us related to our financial services and products, resulting in increased scrutiny and oversight. Regulators continue to review practices and regulations relating to the use of futures, swaps and other derivatives, which could result in further restrictions and limitations on the use of such products. In October 2020, the SEC adopted new rules governing the use of derivatives by certain registered investment companies, including certain mutual funds, designed to address investor protection concerns. Subject to its August 2022 compliance date, key aspects of the new framework will include, among other things, value at risk limits on a fund entering into derivatives transactions, required risk management program, and further fund board oversight, reporting and compliance requirements. The EU and other countries have adopted and implemented, or are in the process of adopting or implementing, similar and additional requirements. There is some risk that full mutual recognition may not be achieved between the various regulators, which may cause us to incur duplicate regulation and transaction costs.
Money Market Funds. SEC rules have changed the structure and operation for certain types of money market funds, and certain U.S.-registered funds are required to adopt liquidity management programs. In 2016, the regulatory structure governing U.S. money market funds was reformed to address perceived systemic risks of money market funds relating to fund stability and investor risks, including allowing certain funds to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates under certain circumstances. In addition, following market liquidity issues in March 2020 related to the COVID-19 pandemic, regulatory authorities remain focused on whether to implement further reform measures to improve the resiliency of money market funds and the broader short-term funding markets, which, if adopted, could significantly impact the money market fund industry.
Privacy and Data Protection. There also has been increased regulation with respect to the protection of customer privacy and data, and the need to secure sensitive customer, personnel and others’ information. A majority of the jurisdictions where we operate are covered, or we expect will be soon covered, by privacy and data protection laws and regulations. As the regulatory focus on privacy continues to intensify and laws and regulations concerning the management of personal data continue to expand, risks related to privacy and data collection within our business will increase. In addition to the EU’s GDPR data protection rules, we also are or may become subject to or affected by additional country,

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federal and state laws, regulations and guidance impacting consumer privacy, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) that provides for enhanced consumer protections for California residents, enforcement authority by the California Attorney General for CCPA violations, and the potential for private litigation, including statutory damages for data security breaches. The EU’s GDPR strengthened and unified data protection rules for individuals within the EU and addresses export of personal data outside the EU. The primary objectives of GDPR are to give citizens control of their personal data and to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying data protection regulation within the EU. Compliance with the stringent data protection rules under GDPR requires ongoing review of our global data processing systems. There are also new laws that have been adopted in recent years, including, for example, Brazil’s Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados with regulatory enforcement as of August 2021, and the California Privacy Rights Act with an effective date of January 1, 2023.
SEC Regulation Best Interest. In June 2019, the SEC adopted a package of new rules, amendments and interpretations, including Regulation Best Interest and a new form of relationship summary, designed to enhance investor protections for all retail customers. Since June 30, 2020, such rules, among other things: (i) require broker-dealers to act in the best interest of their retail customers when recommending securities and account types, (ii) raise the broker-dealer standard of conduct beyond existing suitability obligations, and (iii) require broker-dealers and registered investment advisers to provide their retail clients with a new relationship summary disclosure document to inform such clients of the nature of their relationships with the clients’ investment professionals, including a description of services offered, the legal standards of conduct that apply to such services, the fees a client might pay, and conflicts of interest that may exist.
U.S. and Global Tax Compliance. Our business may be directly or indirectly affected by tax legislation and regulation, or the modification of existing tax laws, by applicable tax and other governmental authorities. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, an intergovernmental organization, has focused on addressing the tax challenges of the digitalization of the economy, which may further impact multinational businesses by allocating a greater share of taxing rights to countries where consumers are located regardless of the current physical presence of a business, and by implementing a global minimum tax. We will continue to monitor developments regarding such matters and any significant impacts on our effective tax rate.
Non-U.S. Regulation
Our operations outside the U.S. are subject to the laws and regulations of various non-U.S. jurisdictions and non-U.S. regulatory agencies and bodies. Our international operations are subject to regulatory systems in various jurisdictions, comparable to those covering our operations in the U.S.
European Markets and Regulation. In Luxembourg, the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier (“CSSF”) currently regulates our substantial activities in Luxembourg, including our subsidiary Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l. (“FTIS Lux”). FTIS Lux is licensed as a management company for both the Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directive (“UCITS”) and alternative investment funds (“AIFs”) and, as such, it manages our Luxembourg-domiciled UCITS and our EU-domiciled AIFs. FTIS Lux’s license also covers certain MiFID (as defined below) investment services, such as discretionary portfolio management, investment advice and reception and transmission of orders in relation to financial instruments. The CSSF’s rules include capital resource, governance and risk management requirements, business conduct rules, remuneration rules and oversight of systems and controls.
Our international funds include two broad ranges of cross-border UCITS that are domiciled in Luxembourg and Ireland, respectively, and thereby subject to regulation by the CSSF and the Central Bank of Ireland. Both UCITS are also registered for public sale in many countries around the world, both in the EU and beyond, and thus are also subject to the laws of, and certain supervision by, the governmental authorities of those countries.
In the U.K., the Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) and the Prudential Regulation Authority (the “PRA”) currently regulate certain of our subsidiaries. Authorization by the FCA and the PRA is required to conduct any financial services-related business in the U.K. pursuant to the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. The FCA’s and PRAs rules under that act govern a firm’s capital resources requirements, senior management arrangements, business conduct, interaction with clients, and systems and controls.

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In addition to the above, certain of our other European subsidiaries and branches, must comply with the pan-European regime established by the EU Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID”), which regulates the provision of investment services and conduct of investment activities throughout the European Economic Area (“EEA”). MiFID sets out detailed requirements governing the organization and business conduct of investment firms and regulated markets. It also includes pre- and post-trade transparency requirements for equity markets and extensive transaction reporting requirements. Luxembourg and the U.K. have adopted the MiFID rules into national legislation, as have those other EU member states in which we have a presence.
A review of MiFID by the European Commission led to the creation of a replacement directive and regulation (together “MiFID II”) that extend the scope of the original MiFID. Changes apply to pre- and post-trade reporting obligations and there is an expansion of the types of instruments subject to these requirements, such as bonds, structured products and derivatives. A concept of trading venue was created and algorithmic trading is subject to specific regulations. There were also changes to business conduct requirements, including selling practices, intermediary inducements and client categorization, as well as the provision of investment advice and management within the EU by non-EU advisers, including ours. Powers have also been given to EU national regulators to ban certain services and products and to the European Securities and Markets Authority to restrict temporarily certain financial activities within the EU.
MiFID II also includes a ban on commission and other payments (“inducements”) to independent advisers and discretionary managers, which has changed the commercial relationships between fund providers and distributors. Arrangements with non-independent advisers have also been affected, as narrower rules around the requirement that any commission reflect an enhancement of the service to customers come into effect, along with a prescriptive list of permissible non-monetary benefits. The interpretation of the inducements rules has also resulted in major changes to how fund managers finance investment research with many firms, including ours, opting to pay for third-party investment research for client accounts covered by MiFID II.
The European Market Infrastructure Regulation sets out rules in relation to the central clearing of specified derivatives. Mutual recognition of central counterparties has been achieved between the EU regulatory authorities and other important jurisdictions including the U.S. In addition, there are rules relating to margin requirements for uncleared over-the-counter derivatives. Future regulatory policy reviews will decide whether these rules are extended to other types of derivative instruments, which could increase operational costs for our business and transactional costs for our clients.
The EU’s Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (“AIFMD”) regulates managers of, and service providers to, AIFs that are domiciled and offered in the EU and that are not authorized as retail funds under UCITS. The AIFMD also regulates the marketing within the EU of all AIFs, including those domiciled outside the EU. The introduction of a third-country passport to non-EU AIFs/AIF managers has been delayed until further positive advice is delivered to the European Commission regarding a sufficient number of non-EU countries to better evaluate the impact, including with respect to the withdrawal of the U.K. from the EU. Compliance with the AIFMD’s requirements may restrict AIF marketing and imposes compliance obligations in the form of remuneration policies, capital requirements, reporting requirements, leverage oversight, valuation, stakes in EU companies, the domicile, duties and liability of custodians and liquidity management.
The EU regulation on packaged retail investment and insurance products (“PRIIPs”) imposed new pre-contractual disclosure requirements under the form of a Key Information Document (“KID”) for the benefit of retail investors when they are considering the purchase of packaged retail investment products or insurance-based products. It requires PRIIP manufacturers to draw up a KID that can be no longer than three pages in length and must be written in simple language. The regulation allows UCITS providers, who are already required to produce the UCITS Key Investor Information Document, a transitional period until July 2022, during which period they will be exempt from its terms.
The EU’s Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulation (“SFDR”) came into effect in March 2021, imposing mandatory ESG disclosure obligations on asset managers and other financial markets participants. It requires all covered firms to disclose how financial products integrate sustainability risks in the investment process, including whether they consider adverse sustainability impacts, and, for those products promoting sustainable objectives, the provision of sustainability-related information. Related amendments to the MiFID, UCITS and AIFMD legislation require that all covered investment managers must consider in their investment process any ESG risks which are likely to have a material impact on the value of the investment, and require investment advisers to inquire as to the investor’s desire for ESG-focused products in their portfolio when assessing suitability. The availability of these sustainability disclosures may impact the investment decisions of European investors.

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British Exit from the EU (“Brexit”). The U.K. withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020, and a post-Brexit U.K./EU trade agreement was subsequently approved by the EU in April 2021. While we are continuing to monitor the impact and related developments for our clients from an investment perspective, we believe that Brexit will not have a material impact on the way our firm operates in the U.K. or within the EU. Our long-standing U.K. businesses are expected to continue to provide their services to U.K. and certain non-EU customers. Furthermore, we have regulated subsidiaries and branch offices across continental Europe to manage our EU business. Moreover, our primary cross-border UCITS, the Franklin Templeton Investment Funds Société d’Investissement à Capital Variable, or SICAV, investment fund range, which is the most widely-distributed such range in the world, is based in Luxembourg, and a smaller cross-border UCITS, also distributed throughout the EU and beyond, is based in Ireland. We have separate, U.K.-domiciled fund ranges that are, and will continue to be, distributed mainly in the U.K.
Australia. In Australia, our subsidiaries are subject to various Australian federal and state laws and are regulated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”). ASIC regulates companies, financial markets and financial services in Australia. ASIC imposes certain conditions on licensed financial services organizations that apply to our subsidiaries, including requirements relating to capital resources, operational capability and controls.
Canada. In Canada, our subsidiaries are subject to provincial and territorial laws and are registered with and regulated by provincial and territorial securities regulatory authorities. The mandate of Canadian securities regulatory authorities is generally to protect investors and to foster fair and efficient capital markets. Securities regulatory authorities impose certain requirements on registrants, including a standard of conduct, capital and insurance, record keeping, regulatory financial reporting, conflict of interest management, compliance systems and security holder reporting. In addition, as a federally licensed trust company, FTCC is subject to regulation and supervision by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions and another subsidiary, FTC Investor Services Inc., is a member of and regulated by the Mutual Fund Dealers Association of Canada. These regulatory bodies have similar requirements to those of the securities regulatory authorities with a view to ensuring the capital adequacy and sound business practices of the subsidiaries and the appropriate treatment of their clients.
In December 2019, rule amendments to implement the client focused reforms initiative of the Canadian Securities Administrators (“CSA”), the umbrella organization of provincial and territorial securities regulatory authorities, became effective, with reforms phased in during a two-year transition period. These rule amendments, among other things, enhance current registrant requirements in the areas of know your client, know your product, suitability, conflicts of interest and relationship disclosure information. In addition, the CSA has published final rule amendments to become effective in June 2022 in connection with its mutual fund fee reform project. The final amendments prohibit: (i) all forms of deferred sales charges in connection with the purchase of mutual fund securities, and (ii) the payment of trailing commissions to discount brokers in respect of their distribution of mutual fund securities.
Cayman Islands. In the Cayman Islands, the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”) is responsible for the regulation and supervision of financial services, the monitoring of compliance with anti-money laundering regulations, and the issuance of statements of principle and guidance. In February 2020, the Cayman Islands enacted the Private Funds Law 2020 (the “Private Funds Law”), which requires private funds that engage in business in or from the Cayman Islands to register with CIMA, unless an exemption applies. The Private Funds Law applies to any Cayman Islands closed-end fund. Open-end funds such as hedge funds continue to be regulated by the Mutual Funds Law in the Cayman Islands. The registration requirements applicable to our private funds domiciled in the Cayman Islands have posed, and may continue to pose, additional compliance costs and burdens on our business.
Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, our applicable subsidiaries are subject to the Securities and Futures Ordinance (“SFO”) and its subsidiary legislation, which governs the securities and futures markets and regulates, among others, offers of investments to the public and provides for the licensing of dealing in securities and asset management activities and intermediaries. This legislation is administered by the Securities and Futures Commission (“SFC”). The SFC is also empowered under the SFO to establish standards for compliance as well as codes and guidelines. Our subsidiaries and employees conducting any of the regulated activities specified in the SFO are required to be licensed with the SFC, and are subject to the rules, codes and guidelines issued by the SFC from time to time.
India. The Securities and Exchange Board of India, Reserve Bank of India, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion are the major regulatory authorities that are capable of issuing directions of a binding nature to our subsidiaries in India.

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Japan. In Japan, our subsidiaries are subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act and the Act on Investment Trusts and Investment Corporations. These laws are administered and enforced by the Japanese Financial Services Agency, which establishes standards for compliance, including capital adequacy and financial soundness requirements, customer protection requirements, and business conduct rules.
Singapore. In Singapore, our subsidiaries are subject to, among others, the Securities and Futures Act (“SFA”), the Financial Advisers Act (“FAA”) and the subsidiary legislation promulgated pursuant to these Acts, which are administered by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”). Our asset management subsidiaries and their employees conducting regulated activities specified in the SFA and/or the FAA are required to be licensed with the MAS.
Other Non-U.S. Jurisdictions. There are similar legal and regulatory arrangements in effect in many other non-U.S. jurisdictions where our subsidiaries, branches and representative offices, as well as certain joint ventures or companies in which we own minority stakes, are authorized to conduct business. We are also subject to regulation and supervision by, among others, the Securities Commission of The Bahamas, the Central Bank of Brazil and the Comissão de Valores Mobiliários in Brazil, the China Securities Regulatory Commission in the People’s Republic of China, the Financial Services Commission and the Financial Supervisory Service in South Korea, the Securities Commission in Malaysia, the Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores in Mexico, the Polish Securities and Exchange Commission, the Romanian Financial Services Authority, the Swiss Federal Banking Commission, the Financial Supervisory Commission in the Republic of China, the Dubai Financial Services Authority in the United Arab Emirates, and the State Securities Commission of Vietnam.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We have used, registered, and/or applied to register certain trademarks, service marks and trade names to distinguish our sponsored products and services from those of our competitors in the U.S. and in other countries and jurisdictions, including, but not limited to, Franklin®, Templeton®, Legg Mason®, Benefit Street Partners®, Brandywine Global Investment Management®, Clarion Partners®, ClearBridge Investments®, Fiduciary Trust International™, Franklin Bissett®, Franklin Mutual Series®, K2®, LibertyShares®, Martin Currie®, Royce® Investment Partners and Western Asset Management Company®. Our trademarks, service marks and trade names are important to us and, accordingly, we enforce our trademark, service mark and trade name rights. The Franklin Templeton® brand has been, and continues to be, extremely well received both in our industry and with our clients, reflecting the fact that our brand, like our business, is based in part on trust and confidence. If our brand is harmed, our future business prospects may be adversely affected.
HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES
As of September 30, 2021, we employed approximately 10,300 employees and operated offices in over 30 countries. We depend upon our key personnel to manage our business, including our portfolio managers, investment analysts, investment advisers, sales and management personnel and other professionals as well as our executive officers and business unit heads. Competition for experienced personnel is significant and from time to time we may experience a loss of valuable personnel. The retention of our key investment personnel is material to the management of our business.
At an enterprise level, we use employee surveys to understand sentiment and engagement in the organization. At a team level, our performance management system supports ongoing, active discussion about goals and objectives. We also host live forums for leaders to engage directly with employees to help reinforce our culture of open feedback. Our employees have access to a valuable set of equitable and competitive total rewards, which consists of a mix of monetary and non-monetary rewards designed to recognize their time, talents and results.
We believe that our ability to attract, develop and cultivate a sense of belonging and retain a diverse, highly skilled workforce is important to our long-term success and that creating and maintaining all aspects of diversity, including backgrounds and perspectives, makes us a better place to work and a more resilient business. To accomplish this, we have developed strategies and initiatives to diversify talent within our organization. We consider an inclusive culture that actively leverages the expertise and perspectives of our diverse workforce an important factor in our ability to deliver innovative and relevant client solutions in a dynamic marketplace.
AVAILABLE INFORMATION
The SEC maintains a website that contains current and periodic reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including Franklin, that file electronically with the SEC, at www.sec.gov. Additional information about Franklin’s filings can also be obtained through our website at www.franklinresources.com under “Investor Relations.” We make available free of charge on our website Franklin’s Annual Report on Form 10‑K, Quarterly

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Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Franklin periodically provides other information for investors on its website, such as press releases, presentations and other information about financial performance. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of, this Annual Report.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors.
PANDEMIC-RELATED RISKS
Our business and operations are subject to adverse effects from the outbreak and spread of contagious diseases such as COVID-19, which adverse effects may continue.
The outbreak and spread of contagious diseases such as COVID-19 has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread global public health crisis. Such infectious illness outbreaks or other adverse public health developments in countries where we operate, as well as local, state and/or national government restrictive measures implemented to control such outbreaks, could adversely affect the economies of many nations or the entire global economy, the financial condition of individual issuers or companies and capital markets, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen, and such impacts could be significant and long term. Such extraordinary events and their aftermaths can cause investor fear and panic, which can further adversely affect the operations and performance of companies, sectors, nations, regions and financial markets in general and in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected global economies and markets, and has resulted in disruptions in commerce that will continue to evolve, including with respect to financial and other economic activities, services, travel and supply chains. Global health concerns and uncertainty regarding the impact of COVID-19 could lead to further and/or increased volatility in global capital and credit markets, adversely affect our key executives and other personnel, clients, investors, providers, suppliers, lessees, and other third parties, and negatively impact our AUM, revenues, income, business and operations.
Our business has been and may continue to be negatively impacted by the current COVID-19 pandemic, including by the potential reoccurrence of periods of increased spread of COVID-19 and/or COVID-19 variants, and ensuing economic downturn in global financial markets. The global spread of COVID-19, and the various governmental actions and economic effects related to the pandemic, have had, and may continue to have, negative impacts on our business and operations, including volatility in asset values, reduced demand for our products and services, concerns for and restrictions on our personnel (including health concerns, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders and restrictions on travel), and increased privacy and cybersecurity risks. Past economic downturns, including in connection with COVID-19, have caused, and future economic downturns may cause, periods of significant volatility in our stock price; fluctuations in our AUM, revenues and income; increased liquidity risks and redemptions from our funds and other products; difficulties obtaining cash to settle redemptions; fund closures; poor investment performance of our products and corporate investments; and reputational harm, legal claims and other factors that may arise or develop. Increased liquidity risks and redemptions in our funds and other products have required, and may at times require, increased cash in the form of loans or other lines of credit for them to draw on to help settle redemptions and for other related purposes. We have in some cases voluntarily determined to, and without obligation could in the future, extend such loans to our products. In addition, such increased liquidity risks and redemptions have caused, and could continue to cause, fund closures and related regulatory and governmental reviews or investigations and legal claims or actions, subjecting us to legal and regulatory risks and potential financial exposure.
Our business operations are complex and conducted in numerous countries around the globe, and in order to remain competitive, we must continue to perform our asset management and related business responsibilities for our clients and investors properly and effectively throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, which, among other matters, is dependent on the health and safety of our personnel, the ability of our personnel to work remotely successfully, and our ability to have our personnel return to work at our offices safely and effectively in compliance with applicable requirements. We have implemented our business continuity plans globally to manage our business during this pandemic, including broad and extended work-from-home capabilities for our personnel where feasible and, as governmental health orders may allow in various jurisdictions based on applicable conditions, we have implemented and are continuing to implement measures for the return of personnel to our offices. We can provide no assurance that our efforts and planning for either environment will be sufficient to protect the health and safety of our personnel and maintain the success of our business. Further, we depend on a number of third-party providers to support our operations, and any failure of our

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providers to fulfill their obligations could adversely impact our business. Moreover, since implementing broad work-from-home measures during the pandemic, we have an increased dependency on remote equipment and connectivity infrastructure to access critical business systems that may be subject to failure, disruption or unavailability that could negatively impact our business operations. Additionally, multiple regions in which we operate have had, and as conditions change may again have or continue to have, movement restrictions on our personnel and third-party vendors and service providers that may impact our ability to satisfy or respond timely to potential technology issues or needs impacting our business and operations. Further, we, like many others during this time, have been subject to increased phishing and other social engineering attempts by malicious actors to manipulate individuals into divulging confidential or personal information. If our cybersecurity diligence and efforts to offset the increased risks associated with greater reliance on mobile, collaborative and remote technologies during this pandemic are not effective or successful, we will be at increased risk for cybersecurity or data privacy incidents.
Any inability to recover successfully following the COVID-19 pandemic with respect to the economic, investment or operational impacts to our company or industry could further negatively impact our business and operations. As of the time of this filing, as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, it is not possible to predict the full extent to which the pandemic may adversely impact our business, liquidity, capital resources, financial results and operations, which impacts will depend on numerous developing factors that remain uncertain and subject to change. The impacts and risks described herein relating to COVID-19 augment the discussion of overlapping risks in our risk factors below, which may be heightened by COVID-19.
MARKET AND VOLATILITY RISKS
Volatility and disruption of our business and financial markets and adverse changes in the global economy may significantly affect our results of operations and put pressure on our financial results.
We derive substantially all of our operating revenues and income from providing investment management and related services to investors in jurisdictions worldwide through our investment products, which include our funds, as well as institutional and high-net-worth separate accounts, retail separately managed account programs, sub-advised products, and other investment vehicles. In addition to investment management, our services include fund administration, sales and distribution, and shareholder servicing. We may perform services directly or through third parties. The asset management industry continues to experience disruption and challenges, including increased fee pressure, regulatory changes, an increasing and changing role of technology in asset management services, the continuous introduction of new products and services, and the consolidation of financial services firms through mergers and acquisitions. Further, financial markets have and may continue, from time to time, to experience volatility and disruption worldwide. Declines in global economic conditions have in the past resulted in significant decreases in our AUM, revenues and income, and future declines may further negatively impact our financial results. Such declines have had, and may in the future have, a material adverse impact on our business. We may need to modify our business, strategies or operations and we may be subject to additional constraints or costs in order to compete in a changing global economy and business environment.
Individual financial, equity, debt and commodity markets may be adversely affected by financial, economic, political, electoral, diplomatic or other instabilities that are particular to the country or region in which a market is located, including without limitation local acts of terrorism, economic crises, political protests, war, insurrection or other business, social or political crises. Global economic conditions, exacerbated by war, terrorism, social, civil or political unrest, natural disasters, public health crises, such as epidemics or pandemics, or financial crises, changes in the equity, debt or commodity marketplaces, changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates, inflation rates, the yield curve, defaults by trading counterparties, bond defaults, revaluation and bond market liquidity risks, geopolitical risks, the imposition of economic sanctions and other factors that are difficult to predict, affect the mix, market values and levels of our AUM. Changing market conditions could also cause an impairment to the value of our goodwill and other intangible assets.
The amount and mix of our AUM are subject to significant fluctuations, and a shift in our asset mix toward lower-fee products may negatively impact our revenues and income.
Fluctuations in the amount and mix of our AUM may be attributable in part to market conditions outside of our control that have had, and in the future could have, a negative impact on our revenues and income. The level of our revenues depends largely on the level and relative mix of AUM. Our investment management fee revenues are based primarily on a percentage of AUM and vary with the nature and strategies of our products. Any decrease in the value or amount of our AUM because of market volatility or other factors, such as asset outflows or a decline in the price of stocks,

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in particular market segments or in the securities market generally, negatively impacts our revenues and income. Changing market conditions and investor preferences may cause a shift in our asset mix toward certain lower fee products, such as fixed income products and ETFs, and away from higher fee equity and multi-asset products, which may cause a related decline in our revenues and income. In addition, increases in interest rates, particularly if rapid, as well as uncertainty in the future direction of interest rates, may have a negative impact on our fixed income products and decrease the total return on bond investments due to lower market valuations of existing bonds. Moreover, we generally derive higher investment management and distribution fees from our international products than from our U.S. products, and higher sales fees from our U.S. products than from our international products. Changing market conditions may cause a shift in our asset mix between international and U.S. products, potentially resulting in a decline in our revenues and income depending upon the nature of our AUM and the level of fees we earn on that AUM.
Our funds may be subject to liquidity risks or an unanticipated large number of redemptions and fund closures.
Due to market volatility or other events or conditions described above, our funds may need to sell securities or instruments that they hold, possibly at a loss, or draw on any available lines of credit, to obtain cash to maintain sufficient liquidity or settle these redemptions, or settle in-kind with securities held in the applicable fund. While we have no legal or contractual obligation to do so, we have in the past provided, and may in the future at our discretion provide, financial support to our funds to enable them to maintain sufficient liquidity in any such event. Changes in investor preferences regarding our more popular products have in the past caused, and could in the future cause, sizable redemptions and lower the value of our AUM, which would result in lower revenue and operating results. Increased market volatility and changes in investor preferences also increase the risk of fund closures. Any decrease in the level of our AUM resulting from market declines, credit or interest rate volatility or uncertainty, increased redemptions or other factors could negatively impact our revenues and income.
We may not effectively manage risks associated with the replacement of benchmark indices.
The withdrawal and replacement of widely used benchmark indices such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) with alternative benchmark rates may introduce a number of risks for our business, our clients and the financial services industry more widely. These include financial risks arising from potential changes in the valuation of financial instruments linked to benchmark indices, pricing and operational risks, and legal implementation and revised documentation risks. In March 2021, the FCA in the U.K., which regulates LIBOR, announced that LIBOR will no longer be provided for various currency settings after 2021, including all sterling, euro and certain U.S. dollar settings. Although the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) has been identified as a recommended alternative reference rate to LIBOR, the selection of SOFR presents certain market concerns because a term structure for SOFR has not yet developed and there is not yet a generally accepted methodology for adjusting SOFR. Accordingly, the withdrawal and replacement of LIBOR may pose financial risks and uncertainties to our business. We also may face operational challenges adopting successor benchmarks.
INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE AND REPUTATIONAL RISKS
Poor investment performance of our products could reduce the level of our AUM or affect our sales, and negatively impact our revenues and income.
Our investment performance, along with achieving and maintaining superior distribution and client service, is critical to the success of our business. Strong investment performance often stimulates sales of our products. Poor investment performance as compared to third-party benchmarks or competitive products has led, and could in the future lead, to a decrease in sales of our products and stimulate redemptions from existing products, generally lowering the overall level of AUM and reducing the management fees we earn. We can provide no assurance that past or present investment performance in our products will be indicative of future performance. If we fail, or appear to fail, to address successfully and promptly the underlying causes of poor investment performance, our future business prospects would likely be negatively affected.
Harm to our reputation may negatively impact our revenues and income.
Our reputation is critical to the success of our business. We believe that our brand names have been, and continue to be, well received both in our industry and with our clients, reflecting the fact that our brands, like our business, are based in part on trust and confidence. If our brands or reputation are harmed, existing clients may reduce amounts held in, or withdraw entirely from, our products, or our clients and products may terminate their management agreements with us,

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which could reduce the amount of our AUM and cause us to suffer a corresponding loss in our revenues and income. In addition, reputational harm may prevent us from attracting new clients or developing new business. Moreover, ESG topics and activities have been the subject of increased focus by certain investors and regulators in the asset management industry, and any inability to meet applicable requirements or expectations may adversely impact our reputation and business.
GLOBAL OPERATIONAL RISKS
Our completed acquisition of Legg Mason, Inc. remains subject to integration risks.
On July 31, 2020, we completed our acquisition of Legg Mason, Inc. pursuant to the terms and conditions of an agreement and plan of merger, and Legg Mason became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Franklin. Important ongoing integration-related risks related to our completed acquisition of Legg Mason include the risks that the anticipated benefits of the transaction, including the realization of revenue, tax benefits, financial benefits or returns and expense and other synergies, may not be fully realized, or may take longer to realize than expected, and that the integration may cost more than expected. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic-related risks may result in unanticipated regulatory, planning and/or operational delays that may adversely impact the anticipated timeline and achievement of our ongoing integration goals. The ongoing integration of Legg Mason is a time-consuming and expensive process that, without adequate planning and effective and timely implementation, could significantly disrupt our business. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in continuing to integrate the operations of Legg Mason or to otherwise realize any of the anticipated benefits of the acquisition could adversely impair our business and operations as noted above.
Our business operations are complex and a failure to perform operational tasks properly or comply with applicable regulatory requirements could have an adverse effect on our revenues and income.
Through our subsidiaries, we provide investment management and related services to investors globally. In order to be competitive and comply with our agreements, we must properly perform our fund and portfolio administration and related responsibilities, including portfolio recordkeeping and accounting, security pricing, corporate actions, investment restrictions compliance, daily net asset value computations, account reconciliations, and required distributions to fund shareholders. Many of our operations are complex and dependent on our ability to process and monitor a large number of transactions effectively, which may occur across numerous markets and currencies at high volumes and frequencies. Although we expend considerable resources on internal controls, supervision, technology and training in an effort to ensure that such transactions do not violate applicable guidelines, rules and regulations or adversely affect our clients, counterparties or us, our operations are ultimately dependent on our personnel, as well as others involved in our business, such as third-party vendors, providers and other intermediaries, and subject to potential human errors. Our personnel and others involved in our business may, from time to time, make mistakes that are not always immediately detected, which may disrupt our operations, cause losses, lead to regulatory fines or sanctions, litigation, or otherwise damage our reputation. In addition, any misrepresentation of our services and products in advertising materials, public relations information, social media or other external communications could also adversely affect our reputation and business prospects. Our investment management fees, which represent the majority of our revenues, are dependent on fees earned under investment management agreements that we have with our products and clients. Our revenues could be adversely affected if such agreements representing a significant portion of our AUM are terminated. Further, certain of our subsidiaries may act as general partner for various investment partnerships, which may subject them to liability for the partnerships liabilities. If we fail to perform and monitor our operations properly, our business could suffer and our revenues and income could be adversely affected.
Failure to establish adequate controls and risk management policies, or the circumvention of controls and policies, could have an adverse effect on our global operations, reputation and financial position.
Although we have adopted risk management, operational and financial controls and compliance policies, procedures and programs that are subject to regular review and update, we cannot ensure that these measures will enable us effectively to identify and manage internal and external risks including those related to fraudulent activity and dishonesty. We are subject to the risk that our personnel, contractors, vendors and other third parties may deliberately or recklessly circumvent or violate our controls to commit fraud against our business, products and/or client accounts, pay or solicit bribes, or otherwise act in ways inconsistent with our controls, policies, workplace culture and business principles. Continued attempts to circumvent our policies and controls or repeated incidents involving violation of controls and policies, fraud or conflicts of interests could negatively impact our business and reputation and result in adverse publicity, regulatory investigations and actions, legal proceedings and losses and adversely affect our operations, reputation, AUM and financial results.

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We face risks, and corresponding potential costs and expenses, associated with conducting operations and growing our business in numerous countries.
We sell our products and offer our strategies and investment management and related services in many different regulatory jurisdictions around the world, and intend to continue to expand our operations internationally. As we do so, we will continue to face challenges to the adequacy of our resources, procedures and controls to operate our business consistently and effectively. In order to remain competitive, we must be proactive and prepared to implement necessary resources when growth opportunities present themselves, whether as a result of a business acquisition or rapidly increasing business activities in particular markets or regions. Local regulatory environments may vary widely in terms of scope, adequacy and sophistication. Similarly, local distributors, and their policies and practices as well as financial viability, may vary widely and they may be inconsistent or less developed or mature than other more internationally focused distributors. Growth of our international operations has involved and may continue to involve near-term increases in expenses, as well as additional capital costs, such as information systems and technology costs, and costs related to compliance with particular regulatory or other local requirements or needs. Local requirements or needs also may place additional demands on sales and compliance personnel and resources, such as meeting local language requirements, while also integrating personnel into an organization with a single operating language. Finding, hiring and retaining additional, well-qualified personnel and crafting and adopting policies, procedures and controls to address local or regional requirements remain challenges as we expand our operations internationally.
Moreover, regulators in non-U.S. jurisdictions could also change their policies or laws in a manner that might restrict or otherwise impede our ability to distribute or authorize products or maintain their authorizations in their respective markets. Any of these local requirements, activities or needs could increase the costs and expenses we incur in a specific jurisdiction without any corresponding increase in revenues and income from operating in the jurisdiction. Certain laws and regulations both inside and outside the U.S. have extraterritorial application. This may lead to duplicative or conflicting legal or regulatory burdens and additional costs and risks.
Our focus on international markets as a source of investments and sales of our products subjects us to increased exchange rate and market-specific political, economic or other risks that may adversely impact our revenues and income generated overseas.
While we maintain a significant portion of our operations in the U.S., we also provide services and earn revenues in Asia-Pacific; Europe, Middle East and Africa; Latin America; and Canada. As a result, we are subject to foreign currency exchange risk through our non-U.S. operations. Fluctuations in the exchange rates to the U.S. dollar have affected, and may in the future affect, our financial results from one period to the next. While we have taken steps to reduce our exposure to foreign exchange risk, for example, by denominating a significant amount of our transactions in U.S. dollars, our situation may change in the future. Appreciation of the U.S. dollar could in the future moderate revenues from managing our products internationally, or could affect relative investment performance of certain of our products invested in non-U.S. securities. In addition, we have risk associated with the foreign exchange revaluation of U.S. dollar balances held by certain non-U.S. subsidiaries for which the local currency is the functional currency. Separately, management fees that we earn tend to be higher in connection with non-U.S. AUM than with U.S. AUM. Consequently, downturns in international markets have in the past had, and could in the future have, a significant effect on our revenues and income. Moreover, our emerging market portfolios and revenues derived from managing these portfolios are subject to significant risks of loss from financial, economic, political and diplomatic developments, currency fluctuations, social instability, changes in governmental policies, expropriation, nationalization, asset confiscation and changes in legislation related to non-U.S. ownership. International trading markets, particularly in some emerging market countries, are often smaller, less liquid, less regulated and significantly more volatile than those in the U.S. Any ongoing and future business, economic, political or social unrest affecting these markets, in addition to any direct consequences such unrest may have on our personnel and facilities located in the affected area, also may have a lasting impact on the long-term investment climate in these and other areas and, as a result, our AUM and the corresponding revenues and income that we generate from them may be negatively affected.

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COMPETITION AND DISTRIBUTION RISKS
We may review and pursue strategic transactions that could pose risks to our business.
As part of our business strategy, we regularly consider, and have discussions with respect to, potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions, dispositions, consolidations, joint ventures or similar transactions, some of which may be deemed material. There can be no assurance that we will find suitable candidates for strategic transactions at acceptable prices, have sufficient capital resources to accomplish our strategy, or be successful in entering into agreements for desired transactions. In addition, such transactions typically involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges. Acquisitions and related transactions pose the risk that any business we acquire may result in the loss of clients, customers or personnel or could underperform relative to expectations. We also may not realize the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, including with respect to revenue, tax benefits, financial benefits or returns, and expense and other synergies. We could also experience financial or other setbacks if transactions encounter unanticipated problems, including problems related to execution or integration. Entries into material transactions typically are announced publicly even though they may remain subject to numerous closing conditions, contingencies and approvals, and there is no assurance that any announced transaction will actually be consummated. Future transactions also may further increase our leverage or, if we issue equity securities to pay for acquisitions, dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders.
In addition, from time to time, we enter into joint ventures or take minority stakes in companies in which we typically do not have control. These investments may involve risks, including the risk that the controlling stakeholder or joint venture partner may have business interests, strategies or goals that are inconsistent with ours. The business decisions or other actions or omissions of the controlling stakeholder, joint venture partner or the entity itself may result in liability to us or harm to our reputation, or adversely affect the value of our investment in the entity.
Failure to properly address the increased transformative pressures affecting the asset management industry could negatively impact our business.
The asset management industry is facing transformative pressures and trends from a variety of different sources including increased fee pressure; a continued shift away from actively managed core equities and fixed income strategies towards alternative, passive and smart beta strategies; increased demands from clients and distributors for client engagement and services; a trend towards institutions developing fewer relationships and partners and reducing the number of investment managers they work with; increased regulatory activity and scrutiny of many aspects of the asset management industry, including ESG practices and related matters, transparency/unbundling of fees, inducements, conflicts of interest, capital, liquidity, solvency, leverage, operational risk management, controls and compensation; addressing the key emerging markets in the world, such as China and India, which often have populations with different needs, preferences and horizons than the more developed U.S. and European markets; and advances in technology and increasing client interest in interacting digitally with their investment portfolios. As a result of the trends and pressures discussed above, the asset management industry is facing an increased level of disruption. If we are unable to adapt our strategy and business to address adequately these trends and pressures, we may be unable to meet client needs satisfactorily, our competitive position may weaken, and our business results and operations may be adversely affected.
Strong competition from numerous and sometimes larger companies with competing offerings and products could limit or reduce sales of our products, potentially resulting in a decline in our market share, revenues and income.
We compete with numerous investment management companies, securities brokerage and investment banking firms, insurance companies, banks and other financial institutions. Our products also compete with products offered by these competitors, as well as with real estate investment trusts, hedge funds and other products. The periodic establishment of new investment management companies and other competitors increases the competition that we face. At the same time, consolidation in the financial services industry has created stronger competitors with greater financial resources and broader distribution channels than our own. Competition is based on various factors, including, among others, business reputation, investment performance, product mix and offerings, ESG strategies and considerations, service quality and innovation, distribution relationships, and fees charged. Further, although we may offer certain types of ETFs, to the extent that there is a trend among existing or potential clients in favor of lower-fee index and other ETFs, it may favor our competitors who may offer such products that are more established or on a larger scale than we do. Additionally, competing securities broker-dealers and banks, upon which we rely to distribute and sell certain of our funds and other products, also may sell their own proprietary funds and products, which could limit the distribution of our products. To the extent that existing or potential clients, including securities broker-dealers, decide to invest in or distribute the products of our competitors, the sales of our products as well as our market share, revenues and income could decline. Our ability to

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attract and retain AUM is also dependent on the relative investment performance of our products, offering a mix of products and strategies that meets investor demands, and our ability to maintain our investment management fees and pricing structure at competitive levels.
Increasing competition and other changes in the third-party distribution and sales channels on which we depend could reduce our revenues and income and hinder our growth.
We primarily derive our fund sales through third-party broker-dealers, banks, investment advisers and other financial intermediaries. Because we rely on third-party distribution and sales channels to sell our products, we do not control the ultimate investment recommendations given by them to clients. Increasing competition for these distribution and sales channels, and regulatory changes and initiatives, have caused our distribution costs to rise and could cause further cost increases in the future, or could otherwise negatively impact the distribution of our products. Higher distribution costs lower our revenues and income, and consolidations in the broker-dealer or banking industries could also adversely impact our revenues and income. A failure to maintain our third-party distribution and sales channels, or a failure to maintain strong business relationships with our distributors and other intermediaries, may impair our distribution and sales operations. Any inability to access and successfully sell our products to clients through such third-party channels could have a negative effect on our level of AUM and adversely impact our business.
Moreover, we can provide no assurance that we will continue to have access to the third-party financial intermediaries that currently distribute our products, or that we will continue to have the opportunity to offer all or some of our existing products through them. If several of the major financial advisers that distribute our products were to cease operations or limit or otherwise end the distribution of our products, it could have a significant adverse impact on our revenues and income.
Further, the standards of conduct and disclosure and reporting requirements, with respect to fees, products, services and possible conflicts of interest, applicable to broker-dealers and other financial intermediaries in the U.S., remain subject to change and enhancement pursuant to business and regulatory developments and requirements, including with respect to investor suitability obligations, enhanced investor protections for retail customers, and increased compliance requirements.
In addition, Canada, the U.K., the Netherlands and the EU, through MiFID II, have adopted regimes that ban, or may limit, the payment of commissions and other inducements to intermediaries in relation to certain sales to retail customers in those jurisdictions, and similar regimes are under consideration in several other jurisdictions. Depending on their exact terms, such regimes may result in existing flows of business moving to less profitable channels or even to competitors providing substitutable products outside the regime. Arrangements with non-independent advisers will also be affected as narrower rules related to the requirement that commissions reflect an enhancement of the service to customers come into effect, along with a prescriptive list of permissible non-monetary benefits. The interpretation of the inducements rules has also resulted in major changes to how fund managers, including us, finance investment research with many firms, by opting to pay for third-party investment research for client accounts covered by MiFID II.
THIRD-PARTY RISKS
Any failure of our third-party providers to fulfill their obligations, or our failure to maintain good relationships with our providers, could adversely impact our business.
We currently, and may in the future, depend on a number of third-party providers to support various operational, technology, administrative, market data, distribution, and other business needs of our company. In addition, we may, from time to time, transfer vendor contracts and services from one provider to another. If our third-party providers fail to deliver required services on a timely basis, or if we experience other negative service quality or relationship issues with our providers, we may be exposed to significant costs and/or operational difficulties, and our ability to conduct and grow our business may be impaired. In addition, we outsource certain administration and other services for our funds to third-party providers. Such administrative and functional changes are costly and complex, and may expose us to heightened operational risks. Any failure to mitigate such risks could result in reputational harm to us, as well as financial losses to us and our clients. The failure of any key provider or vendor to fulfill its obligations to us could result in outcomes inconsistent with our or our clients’ objectives and requirements, result in legal liability and regulatory issues for us, and otherwise adversely impact us.

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We may be adversely affected if any of our third-party providers is subject to a successful cyber or security attack.
Due to our interconnectivity with third-party vendors, advisors, central agents, exchanges, clearing organizations and other financial institutions, we may be adversely affected if any of them is subject to a successful cyber attack or other privacy or information security event, including those arising due to the use of mobile technology or a third-party cloud environment. Most of the software applications that we use in our business are licensed from, and supported, upgraded and maintained by, third-party vendors. Our third-party applications include enterprise cloud storage and cloud computing application services provided and maintained by third-party vendors. Any breach, suspension or termination of certain of these licenses or the related support, upgrades and maintenance could cause temporary system delays or interruption that could adversely impact our business. Our third-party applications may include confidential and proprietary data provided by vendors and by us, including personal employee and/or client data.
TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY RISKS
Our ability to manage and grow our business successfully can be impeded by systems and other technological limitations.
Our continued success in effectively managing and growing our business depends on our ability to integrate our varied accounting, financial, information, and operational systems on a global basis. Moreover, adapting or developing the existing technology systems we use to meet our internal needs, as well as client needs, industry demands and new regulatory requirements, is also critical for our business. The introduction of new technologies presents new challenges to us. On an ongoing basis, we need to upgrade and improve our technology, including our data processing, financial, accounting, shareholder servicing and trading systems. Further, we also must be proactive and prepared to implement new technology when growth opportunities present themselves, whether as a result of a business acquisition or rapidly increasing business activities in particular markets or regions. These needs could present operational issues or require significant capital spending, and may require us to reevaluate the current value and/or expected useful lives of the technology we use, which could negatively impact our results of operations. In addition, technology is subject to rapid advancements and changes and our competitors may, from time to time, implement newer technologies or more advanced platforms for their services and products, including digital advisers and other advanced electronic systems, which could adversely affect our business if we are unable to remain competitive.
Any significant limitation, failure or security breach of our information and cyber security infrastructure, software applications, technology or other systems that are critical to our operations could disrupt our business and harm our operations and reputation.
We are highly dependent upon the use of various proprietary and third-party information and security technology, software applications and other technology systems to operate our business. We are also dependent on the continuity and effectiveness of our information and cyber security infrastructure, management oversight and reporting framework, policies, procedures and capabilities to protect our computer and telecommunications systems and the data that reside on or are transmitted through them and contracted third-party systems. We use technology on a daily basis in our business to, among other things, support our business continuity and operations, process and transmit confidential communications, store and maintain data, obtain securities pricing information, process client transactions, and provide reports and other customer services to our clients. Any disruptions, inaccuracies, delays, theft, systems failures, data security or privacy breaches, cyber attacks or cyber-related fraud, or other security breaches in these and other processes could subject us to significant client dissatisfaction and losses and damage our reputation. We have been, and expect to continue to be, the subject of these types of risks, breaches and/or attacks, as well as attempts to co-opt our brand. Although we take protective measures, including measures to secure and protect information through system security technology and our internal security procedures, we can provide no assurance that any of these measures will prove effective or comply with evolving information security standards. The technology systems we use remain vulnerable to denial of service attacks, unauthorized access, computer viruses, potential human errors and other events and circumstances that may have a security impact, such as an external or internal hacker attack by one or more cyber criminals (including through the use of phishing attacks, malware, ransomware and other methods and activities maliciously designed to obtain and exploit confidential information and to cause system and service disruption and other damage) or our personnel or vendors inadvertently or recklessly causing us to release confidential information, which could materially harm our operations and reputation.
Potential system disruptions, failures or breaches of the technology we use or the security infrastructure we rely upon, including the third-party applications we use, could result in: (i) material financial loss or costs, (ii) delays in clients’ ability to access account information or in our ability to process transactions, (iii) the unauthorized disclosure or modification of sensitive or confidential client and business information, (iv) loss of valuable information, (v) breach of

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client and vendor contracts, (vi) liability for stolen assets, information or identity, (vii) remediation costs to repair damage caused by the failure or breach, (viii) additional security and organizational costs to mitigate against future incidents, (ix) reputational harm, (x) loss of confidence in our business and products, (xi) liability for failure to review and disclose applicable incidents or provide relevant updated disclosure properly and timely, (xii) regulatory investigations or actions, and/or (xiii) legal claims, litigation, and liability costs, any one or more of which may be material. Moreover, loss or unauthorized disclosure or transfer of confidential and proprietary data or confidential customer identification information could further harm our reputation and subject us to liability under laws that protect confidential data and personal information, resulting in increased costs or a decline in our revenues or common stock price. Further, although we take precautions to password protect and encrypt our laptops and sensitive information on our other mobile electronic devices, if such devices are stolen, misplaced or left unattended, they may become vulnerable to hacking or other unauthorized use, creating a possible security risk, which may require us to incur additional administrative costs and/or take remedial actions. In addition, failure to manage and operate properly the data centers and third-party cloud storage and computing application services we use could have an adverse impact on our business. Although we have in place certain disaster recovery plans, we may experience system delays and interruptions as a result of natural disasters, power failures, acts of war, and third-party failures.
Our inability to recover successfully, should we experience a disaster or other business continuity problem, could cause material financial loss, regulatory actions, legal liability, and/or reputational harm.
Should we experience a local or regional disaster or other business continuity problem, such as an earthquake, hurricane, tsunami, terrorist attack, public health crisis, pandemic or other natural or man-made disaster, our continued success will depend, in part, on the safety and availability of our personnel, our office facilities and infrastructure, and the proper functioning of our technology, computer, telecommunication and other systems and operations that are critical to our business. See “Pandemic-Related Risks” above for risks relating to COVID-19. While our operational size, the diversity of locations from which we operate, and our various back-up systems provide us with an advantage, should we experience a local or regional disaster or other business continuity event, we could still experience operational challenges, in particular depending upon how such a local or regional event may affect our personnel across our operations or with regard to particular aspects of our operations, such as key executives or personnel in our technology groups. Moreover, as we grow our operations in new geographic regions, the potential for particular types of natural or man-made disasters, political, economic or infrastructure instabilities, information, technology or security limitations or breaches, or other country- or region-specific business continuity risks increases. Past disaster recovery efforts have demonstrated that even seemingly localized events may require broader disaster recovery efforts throughout our operations and, consequently, we regularly assess and take steps to improve upon our existing business continuity plans. However, a disaster on a significant scale or affecting certain of our key operating areas within or across regions, or our inability to recover successfully following a disaster or other business continuity problem, could adversely impact our business and operations.
HUMAN CAPITAL RISKS
We depend on key personnel and our financial performance could be negatively affected by the loss of their services.
The success of our business will continue to depend upon our key personnel, including our portfolio managers, investment analysts, investment advisers, sales and management personnel and other professionals as well as our executive officers and business unit heads. Competition for qualified, motivated, and highly-skilled executives, professionals and other key personnel in the investment management industry remains significant. Our success depends to a substantial degree upon our ability to find, attract, retain and motivate qualified individuals, including through competitive compensation packages, and upon the continued contributions of these people. Global and/or local laws and regulations could impose restrictions on compensation paid by financial institutions, which could restrict our ability to compete effectively for qualified professionals. As our business develops, we may need to increase the number of individuals that we employ. Moreover, in order to retain certain key personnel, we may be required to increase compensation to such individuals and increase our key management succession planning, resulting in additional expense without a corresponding increase in potential revenues. There is no assurance that we will be successful in finding, attracting and retaining qualified individuals, and the departure of key investment personnel, in particular, could cause us to lose clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects. In addition, due to the global nature of our business, our key personnel may, from time to time, have reasons to travel to regions susceptible to higher risk of civil unrest, organized crime or terrorism, and we may be unable to ensure the safety of our personnel traveling to such regions.

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CASH MANAGEMENT RISKS
Our ability to meet cash needs depends upon certain factors, including the market value of our assets, our operating cash flows and our perceived creditworthiness.
If we are unable to obtain cash, financing or access to the capital markets in a timely manner, we may be forced to incur unanticipated costs or revise our business plans, and our business could be adversely impacted. Further, our access to the capital markets depends significantly on our credit ratings. A reduction in our long- or short-term credit ratings could increase our borrowing costs and limit our access to the capital markets. Volatility in the global financing markets also may impact our ability to access the capital markets should we seek to do so, and may have an adverse effect on investors willingness to purchase our securities, interest rates, credit spreads and/or the valuation levels of equity markets.
We are dependent on the earnings of our subsidiaries.
Substantially all of our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. As a result, our cash flow and our ability to fund operations are dependent upon the earnings of our subsidiaries and the distribution of earnings, loans or other payments by our subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation to fund our payment obligations, whether by dividends, distributions, loans or other payments. Any payments to us by our subsidiaries could be subject to statutory or contractual restrictions and are contingent upon our subsidiaries earnings and business considerations. Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulatory restrictions that may limit their ability to transfer assets to their parent companies. Our financial condition could be adversely affected if certain of our subsidiaries are unable to distribute assets to us.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
For a more extensive discussion of certain laws, regulations (including certain pending regulatory reforms) and regulators to which we are subject, as well as certain defined terms referenced below, see “Item 1 – Business – Regulation” in Part I of this Annual Report.
We are subject to extensive, complex, overlapping and frequently changing rules, regulations, policies, and legal interpretations.
There is uncertainty associated with the regulatory and compliance environments in which we operate. Our business is subject to extensive and complex, overlapping and/or conflicting, and frequently changing and increasing rules, regulations, policies and legal interpretations, around the world. Political and electoral changes, developments and conflicts have in the past introduced, and may in the future introduce, additional uncertainty. Our regulatory and compliance obligations impose significant operational and cost burdens on us and cover a broad range of requirements related to financial reporting and other disclosure matters, securities and other financial instruments, investment and advisory matters, accounting, tax, compensation, ethics, intellectual property, data protection, privacy, sanctions programs, and escheatment requirements. We may be adversely affected by a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and changes in the countries in which we operate.
We may be adversely affected as a result of new or revised legislation or regulations or by changes in the interpretation of existing laws and regulations, in the U.S. and other jurisdictions.
The laws and regulations applicable to our business generally involve restrictions and requirements in connection with a variety of technical, specialized, and expanding matters and concerns. Over the years, the U.S. federal corporate governance and securities laws, and laws in other jurisdictions, have been augmented substantially and made significantly more complex by various legislation. As we continue to address our legal and regulatory requirements or focus on meeting new or expanded requirements, we may need to continue to expend a substantial amount of additional time, costs and resources. Regulatory reforms may add further complexity to our business and operations and could require us to alter our investment management services and related activities, which could be costly, impede our growth and adversely impact our AUM, revenues and income. Regulatory reforms also may impact our clients, which could cause them to change their investment strategies or allocations in a manner adverse to our business. Certain key regulatory reforms in the U.S. and other jurisdictions that may impact or relate to our business, and may cause us to incur additional obligations, include regulatory matters related to systemically important financial institutions, derivatives and other financial products, privacy and data protection, retail and other investor protections, ESG topics and disclosure, and other asset management disclosure and compliance requirements. The impacts of these and other regulatory reforms on us, now and in the future, could be significant. We expect that the regulatory requirements and developments applicable to us will cause us to continue to incur

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additional compliance and administrative burdens and costs. Any inability to meet applicable requirements within the required timeframes may subject us to sanctions or other restrictions by governments and/or regulators that could adversely impact our broader business objectives.
Global regulatory and legislative actions and reforms have made compliance in the regulatory environment in which we operate more costly and future actions and reforms could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
As in the U.S., regulatory and legislative actions outside the U.S. have been augmented substantially and made more complex by measures such as the EU’s Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive and MiFID II. Further, ongoing changes in the EU’s regulatory framework applicable to our business, including changes related to Brexit and any other changes in the composition of the EU’s member states, may add further complexity to our global risks and operations. Moreover, the adoption of new laws, regulations or standards and changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws, regulations or standards have directly affected, and will continue to affect, our business. With new laws and changes in interpretation of existing requirements, the associated time we must dedicate to and related costs we must incur in meeting the regulatory complexities of our business have increased. We may be required to continue to invest significant additional management time and resources to address new and changing regulations pursuant to MiFID II and other laws. For example, MiFID II requires the unbundling of research and execution charges for trading. Outlays associated with meeting regulatory complexities have also increased as we expand our business into new jurisdictions.
The EU’s GDPR strengthened and unified data protection rules for individuals within the EU and addresses export of personal data outside the EU. The failure to comply properly with GDPR rules on a timely basis and to maintain ongoing compliance with such rules may subject us to enforcement proceedings and significant fines and costs. For example, a failure to comply with GDPR could result in fines up to 20 million Euros or 4% of our annual global revenues, whichever is higher.
Compliance activities to address these and other new legal requirements have required, and will continue to require, us to expend additional time and resources, and, consequently, we are incurring increased costs of doing business, which potentially negatively impacts our profitability and future financial results. Finally, any further regulatory and legislative actions and reforms affecting the investment management industry, including compliance initiatives, may negatively impact revenues by increasing our costs of accessing or operating in financial markets or by making certain investment offerings less favorable to our clients.
Failure to comply with the laws, rules or regulations in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate could result in substantial harm to our reputation and results of operations.
As with all investment management companies, our activities are highly regulated in almost all countries in which we conduct business. Failure to comply with the applicable laws, rules, regulations, codes, directives, notices or guidelines in any of our jurisdictions could result in regulatory enforcement, civil liability, criminal liability and/or the imposition of a range of sanctions or orders against us, including, as applicable, monetary damages, injunctions, disgorgements, fines, penalties, cease and desist orders, censures, reprimands, and the revocation, cancellation, suspension or restriction of licenses, registration status or approvals held by us or our business in a jurisdiction or market, any of which could adversely affect our reputation and operations. Moreover, any potential accounting or reporting errors, whether financial or otherwise, if material, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business. While management has focused attention and resources on our compliance policies, procedures and practices, the regulatory environments of the jurisdictions where we conduct our business, or where our products are organized or sold, are complex, uncertain and subject to change. Local regulatory environments may vary widely and place additional demands on our sales, investment, legal and compliance personnel. In recent years, the regulatory environments in which we operate have seen significant increased and evolving regulations, which have imposed and may continue to impose additional compliance and operational requirements and costs on us in the applicable jurisdictions. Regulators could also change their policies or laws in a manner that might restrict or otherwise impede our ability to offer our services and products in their respective markets, or we may be unable to keep up with, or adapt to, the ever changing, complex regulatory requirements in such jurisdictions or markets, which could further negatively impact our business.
Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
We are subject to complex tax regimes, changing tax laws, income taxes, non-income-based taxes, and ongoing tax audits, in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken

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and assess additional taxes. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of these audits in order to determine the appropriateness of our tax provision. However, there can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these audits and the actual outcomes could have a material impact on our financial condition. Changes in tax laws or rulings, including corporate tax rate increases, capital gains rate increases for fund investors and other tax rate increases impacting our clients and their willingness to invest in our products, may at times materially impact our financial condition.
Regulatory and governmental examinations and/or investigations, litigation and the legal risks associated with our business, could adversely impact our AUM, increase costs and negatively impact our profitability and/or our future financial results.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and routinely receive and respond to regulatory and governmental requests for documents or other information, subpoenas, examinations and, in some instances, investigations in connection with our business activities. Further, regulatory or governmental examinations or investigations that have been inactive could become active. In addition, we are named as a party in litigation in the ordinary course of business. Even if claims made against us are without merit, they can result in reputational harm and responding to such matters typically is an expensive process. Risks associated with legal liability often are difficult to assess or quantify and their existence and magnitude can remain unknown for significant periods of time. Regulatory enforcement and civil litigation matters can result in the imposition of a range of sanctions or orders against us, including, as applicable, monetary damages, injunctions, disgorgements, fines, penalties, cease and desist orders, censures, reprimands, and the revocation, cancellations, suspension or restriction of licenses, registration status or approvals held by us or our business. In addition, we may be obligated, and under our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and standard form of director indemnification agreement are obligated under certain conditions, or may choose, to indemnify directors, officers or personnel against liabilities and expenses they may incur in connection with such matters to the extent permitted under applicable law. Eventual financial exposures from and expenses incurred relating to any examinations, investigations, enforcement actions, litigation, and/or settlements could adversely impact our AUM, increase costs, and negatively impact our reputation, profitability, and revenue any of which could have a material negative impact on our financial results. For a discussion of certain legal proceedings and regulatory matters in which we are involved, see the “Legal Proceedings” section in Note 16 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.
Our contractual obligations may subject us to indemnification costs and liability to third parties.
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into contracts with third parties, including, without limitation, clients, vendors, and other service providers, that contain a variety of representations and warranties and that provide for indemnifications by us in certain circumstances. Pursuant to such contractual arrangements, we may be subject to indemnification costs and liability to third parties if, for example, we breach any material obligations under the agreements or agreed standards of care, or in the event such third parties have certain legal claims asserted against them. The terms of these indemnities vary from contract to contract, and future indemnification claims against us could negatively impact our financial condition.
Failure to protect our intellectual property may negatively impact our business.
Although we take steps to safeguard and protect our intellectual property, including but not limited to our trademarks, patents, copyrights and trade secrets, there can be no assurance that we will be able effectively to protect our rights. If our intellectual property rights were violated, we could be subject to economic and reputational harm that could negatively impact our business and competitiveness in the marketplace. Conversely, while we take efforts to avoid infringement of the intellectual property of third parties, if we are deemed to infringe on a third party’s intellectual property rights it could expose us to litigation risks, license fees, liability and reputational harm.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.

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Item 2.    Properties.
We conduct our worldwide operations using a combination of owned and leased facilities. While we believe our facilities are suitable and adequate to conduct our business at present, we will continue to acquire, lease and dispose of facilities throughout the world as necessary.
We own our San Mateo, California corporate headquarters and various other office buildings in the U.S. and internationally. We lease excess owned space to third parties under leases with terms through 2030. Our owned properties consist of the following:
LocationOwned Square
Footage
Owned Square
Footage Leased
to Third Parties
San Mateo, California743,793 357,383 
St. Petersburg, Florida560,948 320,477 
Rancho Cordova, California445,023 26,962 
Hyderabad, India379,052 — 
Poznan, Poland 284,436 — 
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida102,246 20,264 
Edinburgh, Scotland87,016 26,210 
Other78,391 9,724 
Total2,680,905 761,020 
We lease office space in 15 states in the U.S. and Washington, D.C., and internationally, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, the People’s Republic of China (including Hong Kong), Germany, India, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, United Arab Emirates and the U.K. As of September 30, 2021, we leased and occupied approximately 2,029,000 square feet of office space worldwide, and subleased to third parties approximately 460,000 square feet of excess leased space.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings.
Incorporated herein by reference is information regarding certain legal proceedings and regulatory matters in which we are involved as set forth under “Legal Proceedings” contained in Note 16 – Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following description of our executive officers is included as an unnumbered item in this Part I of this Annual Report in lieu of being included in our definitive proxy statement for our annual meeting of stockholders. Set forth below are the name, age, present title, and certain other information for each of our executive officers as of the filing date of this Annual Report. Each executive officer is appointed by our board of directors and holds his or her office until the earlier of his or her death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal.
Jennifer M. Johnson
Age 57
President of Franklin since December 2016, and Chief Executive Officer and director of Franklin since February 2020; formerly, Chief Operating Officer of Franklin from February 2017 to February 2020, Co-President of Franklin from October 2015 to December 2016, Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Franklin from March 2010 to September 2015, Executive Vice President–Operations and Technology of Franklin from December 2005 to March 2010, and Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer of Franklin from May 2003 to December 2005; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin; officer, director and/or trustee of certain funds registered as investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
Gregory E. Johnson
Age 60
Executive Chairman of Franklin since February 2020, Chairman of the Board of Franklin since June 2013 and director of Franklin since January 2007; Chairman of the San Francisco Giants, a professional baseball organization, since November 2019; formerly, Chief Executive Officer of Franklin from July 2005 to February 2020, Co-Chief Executive Officer of Franklin from January 2004 to July 2005, and President of Franklin from December 1999 to September 2015; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin; officer, director and/or trustee of certain funds registered as investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
Rupert H. Johnson, Jr.
Age 81
Vice Chairman of Franklin since December 1999 and director of Franklin since 1971; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin; officer, director and/or trustee of certain funds registered as investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
Matthew Nicholls
Age 49
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Franklin since May 2019; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin. Formerly, with Citigroup, Inc. (a financial services firm) from 1995 to May 2019, as Managing Director, Global Head of Financial Institutions, Corporate Banking, and Global Head of Asset Management, Corporate and Investment Banking, from 2017 to May 2019, as Managing Director, Co-Head, Financial Institutions Corporate and Investment Banking, North America, and Global Head of Asset Management, Corporate and Investment Banking, from 2014 to 2017, as Managing Director, Co-Head, North America, Financial Institutions Corporate and Investment Banking from 2011 to 2014, as Managing Director and Co-Head, North America, Financial Institutions Corporate Banking from 2007 to 2011, and as Managing Director and Co-Head of Asset Management Banking from 2006 to 2007.
Jed A. Plafker
Age 50
Executive Vice President of Franklin since April 2019, formerly, Senior Vice President from June 2018 to April 2019; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin, including as Manager of Brandywine Global Investment Management, LLC and Director of Clarion Partners Holdings LLC, ClearBridge Investments, LLC and Western Asset Management Company, LLC since August 2020; as well as Executive Vice President of Franklin Templeton Institutional, LLC since April 2009, President and director of Templeton Institutional, Inc. since September 2009, and President since February 2017 and director since December 2016 of Templeton Worldwide, Inc.

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Alok Sethi
Age 60
Executive Vice President, Technology and Operations, of Franklin since October 18, 2021; officer and/or director of various investment adviser, operations, and technology related subsidiaries of Franklin for more than the past five years, including as Senior Vice President of Franklin Advisers, Inc., Franklin Templeton Institutional, LLC and Templeton Investment Counsel, LLC since July 2014, Vice President of FASA, LLC since June 2014, and Vice President of Franklin Templeton Companies, LLC since June 2010.
Gwen L. Shaneyfelt
Age 59
Chief Accounting Officer of Franklin since April 2019; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin, including as Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Legg Mason, Inc., Director of ClearBridge Investments, LLC and Manager of Royce & Associates GP, LLC since August 2020; as well as Director of Franklin Templeton Fund Management Limited since May 2019, Manager of Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l. since November 2013, and Senior Vice President of Franklin Templeton Companies, LLC since March 2011.
Adam B. Spector
Age 53
Executive Vice President, Global Advisory Services, of Franklin since October 2020, and Head of Global Distribution, responsible for global retail and institutional distribution, including marketing and product strategy, and Managing Partner of Brandywine Global Investment Management, LLC since November 2014, responsible for the overall management of Brandywine including infrastructure, legal and compliance, business strategy, and sales and client service; formerly, Managing Director of Brandywine from 2012 to 2014, Head of Marketing, Sales and Client Service of Brandywine from 2003 to 2014, and Senior Vice President of Client Service of Brandywine from 1997 to 2003; officer and/or director of certain other subsidiaries of Franklin.
Craig S. Tyle
Age 61
Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Franklin since August 2005; formerly, a partner at Shearman & Sterling LLP (a law firm) from March 2004 to July 2005 and General Counsel for the Investment Company Institute (a trade group for the U.S. fund industry) from September 1997 through March 2004; officer and/or director of certain subsidiaries of Franklin; officer of certain funds registered as investment companies managed or advised by subsidiaries of Franklin.
Family Relationships
Jennifer M. Johnson and Gregory E. Johnson are siblings, and their uncle is Rupert H. Johnson, Jr. Each serves as both a director and an executive officer of Franklin.

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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “BEN.” At October 31, 2021, there were 2,645 stockholders of record of our common stock.
The following table provides information with respect to the shares of our common stock that we repurchased during the three months ended September 30, 2021.
MonthTotal Number of
Shares Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
As Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Plans or
Programs
July 2021181,621 $29.55 181,621 32,899,416 
August 20211,431,110 32.25 1,431,110 31,468,306 
September 2021600,434 31.35 600,434 30,867,872 
Total2,213,165 2,213,165 
Under our stock repurchase program, which is not subject to an expiration date, we can repurchase shares of our common stock from time to time in the open market and in private transactions in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, including without limitation applicable federal securities laws. In order to pay taxes due in connection with the vesting of employee and executive officer stock and stock unit awards, we may repurchase shares under our program using a net stock issuance method. In April 2018, we announced that our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to 80.0 million additional shares of our common stock under the stock repurchase program.
Item 6.    [Reserved]
Item 7.    Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
The following discussion and analysis of the results of operations and financial condition of Franklin Resources, Inc. (“Franklin”) and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”) should be read in conjunction with the “Forward-looking Statements” disclosure set forth in Part I and the “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K (this “Annual Report”) and in any more recent filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), each of which describe our risks, uncertainties and other important factors in more detail.
OVERVIEW
Franklin is a holding company with subsidiaries operating under our Franklin Templeton® and/or subsidiary brand names. We are a global investment management organization that derives operating revenues and net income from providing investment management and related services to investors in jurisdictions worldwide. We deliver our investment capabilities through a variety of investment products, which include our sponsored funds, as well as institutional and high-net-worth separate accounts, retail separately managed account programs, sub-advised products, and other investment vehicles. In addition to investment management, our services include fund administration, sales and distribution, and shareholder servicing. We may perform services directly or through third parties. We offer our services and products under our various distinct brand names, including, but not limited to, Franklin®, Templeton®, Legg Mason®, Benefit Street Partners®, Brandywine Global Investment Management®, Clarion Partners®, ClearBridge Investments®, Fiduciary Trust International™, Franklin Bissett®, Franklin Mutual Series®, K2®, LibertyShares®, Martin Currie®, Royce® Investment Partners and Western Asset Management Company®. We offer a broad product mix of fixed income, equity, multi-asset, alternative and cash management asset classes and solutions that meet a wide variety of specific investment goals and needs for individual and institutional investors. We also provide sub-advisory services to certain investment products sponsored by other companies which may be sold to investors under the brand names of those other companies or on a co-branded basis.

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The level of our revenues depends largely on the level and relative mix of assets under management (“AUM”). As noted in the “Risk Factors” section set forth above in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report, the amount and mix of our AUM are subject to significant fluctuations that can negatively impact our revenues and income. The level of our revenues also depends on the fees charged for our services, which are based on contracts with our funds and customers, fund sales, and the number of shareholder transactions and accounts. These arrangements could change in the future.
As further noted in the “Risk Factors” section, the outbreak and spread of contagious diseases such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”), a highly transmissible and pathogenic disease, has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations. Ongoing global health concerns, and uncertainty regarding the impact of COVID-19, could lead to further and/or increased volatility in global capital and credit markets, adversely affect our key executives and other personnel, clients, investors, providers, suppliers, lessees, and other third parties, and negatively impact our AUM, revenues, income, business and operations. As of the time of this filing, as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, it is not possible to predict the full extent to which the pandemic may adversely impact our business, liquidity, capital resources, financial results and operations, which impacts will depend on numerous developing factors that remain uncertain and subject to change.
During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 (“fiscal year 2021”), the global equity markets continued to provide strong positive returns, reflecting among other things, an accelerated rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in most developed economies, government stimulus and other support in many countries, and a decline in U.S. 10-year treasury yields. The S&P 500 Index and MSCI World Index increased 30.0% and 29.4% for the fiscal year. The global bond markets declined as the Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Index decreased 0.9% for the fiscal year.
Our total AUM was $1,530.1 billion at September 30, 2021, which was 8% higher than at September 30, 2020 driven by $148.0 billion from net market change, distributions and other, and $3.5 billion from an acquisition, partially offset by $25.2 billion of long-term net outflows and $15.1 billion of cash management net outflows. Simple monthly average AUM (“average AUM”) increased 81% during fiscal year 2021, reflecting a full year of AUM from the acquisition of Legg Mason.
The business and regulatory environments in which we operate globally remain complex, uncertain and subject to change. We are subject to various laws, rules and regulations globally that impose restrictions, limitations, registration, reporting and disclosure requirements on our business, and add complexity to our global compliance operations.
Uncertainties regarding the global economy remain for the foreseeable future. As we continue to confront the challenges of the current economic and regulatory environments, we remain focused on the investment performance of our products and on providing high quality service to our clients. We continuously perform reviews of our business model. While we remain focused on expense management, we will also seek to attract, retain and develop personnel and invest strategically in systems and technology that will provide a secure and stable environment. We will continue to seek to protect and further our brand recognition while developing and maintaining broker-dealer and client relationships. The success of these and other strategies may be influenced by the factors discussed in the “Risk Factors” section.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(in millions, except per share data)
2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
for the fiscal years ended September 30,202120202019
Operating revenues$8,425.5 $5,566.5 $5,669.4 51 %(2 %)
Operating income1,875.0 1,048.9 1,466.9 79 %(28 %)
Operating margin1
22.3 %18.8 %25.9 %
Net income attributable to Franklin Resources, Inc.$1,831.2 $798.9 $1,195.7 129 %(33 %)
Diluted earnings per share$3.57 $1.59 $2.35 125 %(32 %)
As adjusted (non-GAAP):2
Adjusted operating income$2,379.3 $1,491.1 $1,654.2 60 %(10 %)
Adjusted operating margin37.7 %38.5 %42.6 %
Adjusted net income$1,915.2 $1,311.0 $1,331.3 46 %(2 %)
Adjusted diluted earnings per share$3.74 $2.61 $2.62 43 %%
__________________
1Defined as operating income divided by total operating revenues.
2“Adjusted operating income,” “adjusted operating margin,” “adjusted net income” and “adjusted diluted earnings per share” are based on methodologies other than generally accepted accounting principles. See “Supplemental Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for definitions and reconciliations of these measures.
Operating income increased $826.1 million in fiscal year 2021 as a 51% increase in operating revenues was partially offset by a 45% increase in operating expenses. The increase in operating revenues and operating expenses was primarily due to the acquisition of Legg Mason. Net income attributable to Franklin Resources, Inc. increased $1,032.3 million due to the increase in operating income and higher other income, net, less the portion attributable to noncontrolling interests, partially offset by higher taxes on income.
The Company acquired Legg Mason effective July 31, 2020, and the results of operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 (“fiscal year 2020”) include two months of Legg Mason’s results. Operating income decreased $418.0 million in fiscal year 2020 due to a 2% decrease in operating revenues and a 7% increase in operating expenses which reflected higher levels of compensation and benefits expense, including acquisition-related retention costs, other acquisition-related expenses, and amortization and impairments of intangible assets and goodwill. Net income attributable to Franklin Resources, Inc. decreased $396.8 million primarily due to the decrease in operating income, as the impact of declines in market valuations amid global concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in net investment and other losses of $38.4 million, as compared to net gains of $141.4 million in the prior year, less the portion attributable to noncontrolling interests, which was largely offset by lower taxes on income.
Diluted earnings per share increased in fiscal year 2021 and decreased in fiscal year 2020, consistent with the changes in net income attributable to Franklin Resources, Inc.
Adjusted operating income increased $888.2 million in fiscal year 2021 primarily due to a 66% increase in investment management fees, partially offset by a 69% increase in compensation and benefits expense. The increase in investment management fees and compensation and benefits expenses was primarily due to the acquisition of Legg Mason. Adjusted net income increased $604.2 million primarily due to the increase in adjusted operating income, partially offset by lower other income, net, less the portion attributable to noncontrolling interests.
Adjusted operating income decreased $163.1 million in fiscal year 2020 primarily due to a 10% increase in compensation and benefits expense, excluding non-GAAP adjustments. Adjusted net income decreased $20.3 million primarily due to the decrease in adjusted operating income substantially offset by lower taxes on income, excluding the net income tax expense of non-GAAP adjustments.

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Adjusted diluted earnings per share increased in fiscal year 2021 and decreased in fiscal year 2020, consistent with the changes in adjusted net income.
ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT
AUM by asset class was as follows:
(in billions)2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
as of September 30,202120202019
Fixed Income$650.3 $656.9 $250.6 (1 %)162 %
Equity523.6 438.1 263.9 20 %66 %
Multi-Asset152.4 129.4 123.6 18 %%
Alternative145.2 122.1 45.0 19 %171 %
Cash Management58.6 72.4 9.5 (19 %)662 %
Total$1,530.1 $1,418.9 $692.6 8 %105 %
Average for the Year$1,504.1 $832.9 $697.0 81 %19 %
In the first quarter of the fiscal year 2021, we revised our presentation of AUM to reflect changes in asset class of certain legacy Legg Mason AUM as part of our post-acquisition onboarding process.
Changes in average AUM are generally more indicative of trends in revenue for providing investment management services than the year-over-year change in ending AUM.
Average AUM and the mix of average AUM by asset class are shown below.
(in billions)Average AUM2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
for the fiscal years ended September 30,202120202019
Fixed Income$657.5 $330.5 $256.1 99 %29 %
Equity502.9 290.8 275.5 73 %%
Multi-Asset146.4 122.7 122.2 19 %%
Alternative132.6 63.7 33.7 108 %89 %
Cash Management64.7 25.2 9.5 157 %165 %
Total$1,504.1 $832.9 $697.0 81 %19 %
Mix of Average AUM
for the fiscal years ended September 30,202120202019
Fixed Income44 %39 %37 %
Equity33 %35 %40 %
Multi-Asset10 %15 %17 %
Alternative%%%
Cash Management%%%
Total100 %100 %100 %

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Components of the change in AUM are shown below. Net market change, distributions and other includes appreciation (depreciation), distributions to investors that represent return on investments and return of capital, and foreign exchange revaluation.
(in billions)2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
for the fiscal years ended September 30,202120202019
Beginning AUM$1,418.9 $692.6 $717.1 105 %(3 %)
Long-term inflows364.7 182.4 175.0 100 %%
Long-term outflows(389.9)(244.0)(206.8)60 %18 %
Long-term net flows(25.2)(61.6)(31.8)(59 %)94 %
Cash management net flows(15.1)(9.9)0.9 53 %NM
Total net flows(40.3)(71.5)(30.9)(44 %)131 %
Acquisitions3.5 806.5 26.4 (100 %)NM
Net market change, distributions and other148.0 (8.7)(20.0)NM(57 %)
Ending AUM$1,530.1 $1,418.9 $692.6 8 %105 %
Components of the change in AUM by asset class were as follows:
(in billions)
for the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2021
Fixed
Income
EquityMulti-AssetAlternativeCash
Management
Total
AUM at October 1, 2020$656.9 $438.1 $129.4 $122.1 $72.4 $1,418.9 
Long-term inflows176.5 132.1 36.3 19.8 — 364.7 
Long-term outflows
(188.2)(154.2)(35.7)(11.8)— (389.9)
Long-term net flows(11.7)(22.1)0.6 8.0 — (25.2)
Cash management net flows
— — — — (15.1)(15.1)
Total net flows
(11.7)(22.1)0.6 8.0 (15.1)(40.3)
Acquisition3.5 — — — — 3.5 
Net market change, distributions and other
1.6 107.6 22.4 15.1 1.3 148.0 
AUM at September 30, 2021$650.3 $523.6 $152.4 $145.2 $58.6 $1,530.1 
AUM increased $111.2 billion or 8% during fiscal year 2021 due to $148.0 billion of net market change, distributions and other, and $3.5 billion from an acquisition, partially offset by $25.2 billion of long-term net outflows and $15.1 billion of cash management net outflows. Net market change, distributions and other primarily consists of $176.3 billion of market appreciation, partially offset by $29.1 billion of long-term distributions. The market appreciation occurred in all asset classes, most significantly in the equity and multi-asset asset classes and reflected positive returns in global equity markets.
Long-term inflows increased 100% to $364.7 billion, as compared to the prior year, and long-term outflows increased 60% to $389.9 billion due to higher inflows and outflows in all long-term asset classes primarily due to the acquisition of Legg Mason. Long-term net outflows included outflows of $35.7 billion from sixteen institutional products, including two fixed income redemptions of $5.9 billion and $2.0 billion and two equity redemptions of $3.7 billion and $2.2 billion, $12.5 billion from seven fixed income funds, including $3.3 billion from five India credit funds that were non-management fee earning which are in the process of winding up, $5.4 billion from a 529 plan redemption, $3.9 billion from two equity funds and $3.1 billion from a multi-asset fund, partially offset by inflows of $12.3 billion in three fixed income funds, $6.7 billion in three institutional products, $3.7 billion in an equity fund, $3.1 billion in a multi-asset fund and $3.0 billion in two alternative funds.

35

(in billions)
for the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2020
Fixed
Income
EquityMulti-AssetAlternativeCash
Management
Total
AUM at October 1, 2019$250.6 $263.9 $123.6 $45.0 $9.5 $692.6 
Long-term inflows79.7 64.6 27.5 10.6 — 182.4 
Long-term outflows
(112.9)(90.6)(33.2)(7.3)— (244.0)
Long-term net flows(33.2)(26.0)(5.7)3.3 — (61.6)
Cash management net flows
— — — — (9.9)(9.9)
Total net flows
(33.2)(26.0)(5.7)3.3 (9.9)(71.5)
Acquisitions449.6 189.2 18.2 73.9 75.6 806.5 
Net market change, distributions and other
(10.1)11.0 (6.7)(0.1)(2.8)(8.7)
AUM at September 30, 2020$656.9 $438.1 $129.4 $122.1 $72.4 $1,418.9 
AUM increased $726.3 billion or 105% during fiscal year 2020 as $806.5 billion from acquisitions was partially offset by $61.6 billion of long-term net outflows, $9.9 billion of cash management net outflows and $8.7 billion of net market change, distributions and other. Acquisitions included $797.4 billion from the acquisition of Legg Mason and $9.1 billion from other acquisitions. Long-term inflows increased 4% to $182.4 billion due to higher inflows in all the long-term asset classes except multi-asset. Long-term outflows increased 18% to $244.0 billion due to higher outflows in all long-term asset classes except multi-asset, most significantly in fixed income products. Long-term net outflows included outflows of $27.6 billion from six fixed income funds, $7.3 billion from seven institutional products, $6.2 billion from three equity funds, and $3.6 billion from a multi-asset fund, partially offset by inflows of $6.0 billion in two equity funds, $4.0 billion in three fixed income funds, $2.0 billion in two institutional products and $1.3 billion in a private open-end product. Net market change, distributions and other primarily consists of $24.8 billion of long-term distributions, partially offset by $15.8 billion of market appreciation. The market appreciation occurred primarily in the equity asset class and reflected positive returns in global equity markets.
(in billions)
for the fiscal year ended
September 30, 2019
Fixed
Income
EquityMulti-AssetAlternativeCash
Management
Total
AUM at October 1, 2018$258.5 $304.6 $126.7 $18.0 $9.3 $717.1 
Long-term inflows75.6 58.5 34.8 6.1 — 175.0 
Long-term outflows
(81.9)(83.5)(35.9)(5.5)— (206.8)
Long-term net flows(6.3)(25.0)(1.1)0.6 — (31.8)
Cash management net flows
— — — — 0.9 0.9 
Total net flows
(6.3)(25.0)(1.1)0.6 0.9 (30.9)
Acquisition
— — — 26.4 — 26.4 
Net market change, distributions and other
(1.6)(15.7)(2.0)— (0.7)(20.0)
AUM at September 30, 2019$250.6 $263.9 $123.6 $45.0 $9.5 $692.6 

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AUM by sales region was as follows:
(in billions)2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
as of September 30,202120202019
United States$1,140.2 $1,024.0 $477.9 11 %114 %
International
Asia-Pacific155.6 168.6 89.0 (8 %)89 %
Europe, Middle East and Africa153.9 141.8 87.9 %61 %
Latin America53.5 59.4 13.5 (10 %)340 %
Canada26.9 25.1 24.3 %%
Total international$389.9 $394.9 $214.7 (1 %)84 %
Total$1,530.1 $1,418.9