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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2024
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File Number: 001-41715
Beneficient
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Nevada72-1573705
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
325 North St. Paul Street, Suite 4850
Dallas, TX 75201
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(214) 445-4700
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per shareBENF
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock, par value $.001 per share, and one share of Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share
BENFW
Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☒ No
As of September 29, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock was $78,937,585, computed by reference to the closing sales price of $207.20 per share and number of shares outstanding held by non-affiliates of the registrant (each as adjusted for the registrant’s reverse stock split).
As of July 5, 2024, Beneficient had 4,006,365 shares of Class A common stock outstanding and 239,257 shares of Class B common stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
None.



BENEFICIENT
Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended March 31, 2024
Table of Contents

Page No.
F-1
i


EXPLANATORY NOTE
The number of outstanding units, weighted average number of outstanding units, loss per common unit, equity-based compensation and other financial amounts previously expressed on the basis of common units have been retroactively restated on the basis of Common Stock (as defined below) to reflect the conversion of the BCG (as defined below) common units to Common Stock. This “Explanatory Note” details the series of transactions necessitating the retroactive restatement. For further information, see Note 4, De-SPAC Merger Transaction, to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of the conversion of certain BCG equity instruments to Common Stock.
On June 6, 2023, the registrant converted from a Delaware limited partnership called The Beneficient Company Group, L.P. (“BCG”) to a Nevada corporation called “Beneficient” (the “Conversion”) in connection with the closing of its merger with Avalon Acquisition Inc. (such transaction, the “Business Combination”), a special purpose acquisition vehicle and a Delaware corporation. References to “BCG,” “Ben,” “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and similar terms, prior to the effective time of the Conversion, refer to the registrant when it was a Delaware limited partnership and such references following the effective time of the Conversion, refer to the registrant in its current corporate form as a Nevada corporation called “Beneficient.”
On June 6, 2023, immediately prior to the Conversion, BCG was recapitalized (the “BCG Recapitalization”) as follows: (i) the limited partnership agreement of BCG was amended to create one new subclass of BCG common units, the Class B Common Units (the “BCG Class B Common Units”), and the existing common units were renamed the Class A Common Units (the “BCG Class A Common Units”); and (ii) certain holders of the Preferred Series A Subclass 1 Unit Accounts of Beneficient Company Holdings, L.P. (“BCH” and such units, the “BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts”) entered into conversion and exchange agreements (the “BCG Conversion and Exchange Agreements”) with BCG and BCH, pursuant to which they converted certain BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts to Class S Ordinary Units of BCH (“BCH Class S Ordinary Units”), which were then contributed to BCG in exchange for BCG Class A Common Units.
Prior to the Conversion, the Company’s outstanding equity interests consisted of common units, one series of preferred units, and noncontrolling interests. Pursuant to the Conversion, each BCG Class A Common Unit converted into 1.25 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Class A common stock”), each BCG Class B Common Unit converted into 1.25 shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Class B common stock” and together with the Class A common stock, the “Common Stock”), and the capital account balance of the Preferred Series B Subclass 2 Unit Accounts of BCG (“BCG Preferred B.2 Unit Accounts”) converted into shares of Class A common stock at a rate based on a 20% discount to the $800.00 valuation of the Class A common stock (or $640.00). As a result, in the Conversion, we issued 1,076,462 shares of Class A common stock with respect to the BCG Class A Common Units, 239,256 shares of Class B common stock with respect to the BCG Class B Common Units and 1,175,632 shares of Class A common stock with respect to the BCG Preferred B.2 Unit Accounts.

In order to maintain its listing on The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC (“Nasdaq”), the Company effected a reverse stock split of its Common Stock at a ratio of eighty (80) to one (1) and a simultaneous proportionate reduction in the authorized shares of each class of Common Stock as required by Nevada Revised Statues (“NRS”) Section 78.207 (the “Reverse Stock Split”). The Company’s Class A common stock commenced trading on a post-reverse stock split basis at market open on April 18, 2024. Proportional adjustments were made to the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise or conversion of the Company’s equity award, warrants, and other equity instruments convertible into common stock, as well as the applicable exercise price. All share and per share amounts of our Common Stock presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements as defined under U.S. federal securities laws. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical statements of fact and statements regarding, but not limited to, our expectations, hopes, beliefs, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. In addition, any statements that refer to projections, forecasts, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements are predictions, projections and other statements about future events that are based on current expectations and assumptions and, as a result, are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. Readers are cautioned not to put undue reliance on forward-looking statements, and we assume no obligation and do
ii


not intend to update or revise these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
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Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations:
we do not have a significant operating history or an established customer base;
our fair value estimates of illiquid assets may not accurately estimate prices obtained at the time we enter into any liquidity transaction, and we cannot provide assurance that the values of the alternative assets underlying the liquidity transactions that we report from time to time will be realized;
our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in our Class A common stock being delisted from Nasdaq;
the resulting market price of our Class A common stock following the Reverse Stock Split may not attract new investors, and it is not certain that the Reverse Stock Split will result in a sustained proportionate increase in the market price of our Class A common stock;
the transfer of GWG Holdings Inc.’s (“GWG Holdings” or “GWG”) assets to the GWG Wind Down Trust and the Litigation Trust (each as defined herein) pursuant to the Second Amended Plan (as defined herein) could create significant uncertainties and risks for our continued operations and materially and adversely impact our financial operating results;
future resales of Class A common stock may cause the market price of Class A common stock to drop significantly;
the market price for Class A common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult for stockholders to sell shares at the volumes, prices, and times desired;
the GWG Wind Down Trust currently owns a substantial percentage of the Company and continues to have voting power with respect to those matters on which our stockholders have the right to vote;
we may be adversely affected by negative publicity;
we have been involved in a now-terminated SEC investigation and may be subject to other regulatory investigations and proceedings;
a determination that we are an unregistered investment company would have serious adverse consequences;
the Company is currently involved in legal proceedings and government investigations and may be a party to additional claims and litigation in the future;
our liquidity, profitability and business may be adversely affected by concentrations of assets, which are collateralized by a portion of the cash flows from the exchanged alternative assets (the “Collateral”);
we engage in related party transactions, which may result in conflicts of interest involving our senior management;
Brad K. Heppner, our founder and CEO, may have financial interests that conflict with the interests of Beneficient and its stockholders;
usage of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into Class A common stock as consideration for the Customer ExAlt Trusts’ (as defined herein) investments in alternative assets may create significant volatility in our investment income and the price of our Class A common stock;
our current inability to raise sufficient capital, recurring losses from operations, negative cash flows from operations, delays in executing our business plans, and the results of the recent equity awards arbitration in which over $55 million in compensatory damages were awarded to the claimant raises substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to obtain sufficient additional funding, do not have access to capital, or are not successful in negotiating a settlement with the claimant or otherwise reducing the potential current cash requirements associated with the arbitration, we may be required to terminate or significantly curtail our operations;
our liquidity, profitability and business may be adversely affected by an inability to access, or ability to access only on unfavorable terms, the capital markets, and we may never obtain the maximum anticipated proceeds contemplated under the current capital raising agreements such as the SEPA (as defined herein);
the due diligence process that we undertake in connection with any liquidity transaction may or may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with such liquidity transaction;
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poor performance of our Collateral would cause a decline in our revenue, income and cash flow and could adversely affect our ability to raise capital for future liquidity transactions;
we historically had a substantial amount of goodwill and intangible assets, which we have been, and may in the future be, required to write down the value of our intangible assets and goodwill due to impairment;
we are subject to repayment risk in connection with our liquidity transactions;
transfer restrictions applicable to alternative assets may prevent us from being able to attract a sufficient number of Customers (as defined herein) to achieve our business goals;
our operations, products and services may be negatively impacted by changes in economic and market conditions;
shares of Class A common stock and Series A and Series B preferred stock issued by Beneficient are structurally subordinated to interests in BCH, a subsidiary of Beneficient;
allocations of write downs in the value of our intangible assets and goodwill due to impairment will result in a decrease in the capital account balance of the Class A Units of BCH (the “BCH Class A Units”) indirectly held by the Company;
we are or will become subject to comprehensive governmental regulation and supervision;
we may incur fines, penalties and other negative consequences from regulatory violations;
we may be impacted adversely by claims or litigation, including claims or litigation relating to our fiduciary responsibilities;
if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our business could be negatively affected;
Beneficient’s board of directors (the “Board”) and management have significant control over Beneficient’s business;
we may issue additional shares of authorized Common Stock or preferred stock without stockholder approval subject to the applicable rules of Nasdaq and Nevada law, which would dilute existing stockholder interests;
the holders of Class B common stock have the right to elect a majority of the Board and the ability to vote with Class A common stock in director elections for the remaining directors, with each share of Class B common stock having 10 votes per share;
the Company may engage in transactions that represent a conflict of interest, with the review of such transactions subject to the Nevada statutory business judgment rule; and
other risks, uncertainties and factors set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including those set forth under the section titled “—Risk Factors.”
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Many of the important factors that will determine these results are beyond our ability to control or predict. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and, except as otherwise required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
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PART I
ITEM 1 — BUSINESS
Overview
We are a technology-enabled financial services holding company that provides simple, rapid, and cost-effective liquidity solutions and related trustee, custody and trust administrative services to participants in the alternative asset industry. Through our business line operating subsidiaries (each a “Ben Business Unit” and collectively, the “Ben Business Units”), Ben Liquidity, Ben Custody, and Ben Markets, we seek to provide solutions in the alternative asset investment market for individual and institutional investors, general partners and sponsors (“GPs”) and the alternative asset funds they manage (“Customers”). Following receipt of regulatory approval, our Ben Business Units are expected to include an additional business line, Ben Insurance Services.
Through Ben Liquidity, we finance liquidity and primary capital transactions for our Customers through our subsidiary, Beneficient Fiduciary Financial, L.L.C. (“BFF”), a Kansas trust company regulated by the Office of the State Banking Commission (“OSBC”) and operated as a Technology-Enabled Fiduciary Financial Institution (“TEFFI”), under the Kansas Technology-Enabled Fiduciary Financial Institutions Act (the “TEFFI Act”) using a proprietary trust structure that we implement for our Customers (we refer to such trusts collectively as the “Customer ExAlt Trusts”). Through Ben Custody, we offer an extensive line of trustee and custody services, alternative asset trust administration, and data management services to the trustees of the Customer ExAlt Trusts and other Customers through BFF, and other of our subsidiaries. Through Ben Markets, we provide broker-dealer services through our subsidiary, AltAccess Securities Company, L.P. (“AltAccess Securities”), a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) member and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) registered broker-dealer, and transfer agent services through our subsidiary, Beneficient Transfer and Clearing Company, L.L.C. (“Beneficient Transfer”), an SEC registered transfer agent, each in connection with offering our liquidity products. Additionally, Ben Insurance Services plans to provide insurance products and services to certain “affiliates” (as defined in the Kansas Captive Insurance Act), including the Customer ExAlt Trusts, custody accounts and other trusts for which BFF serves as trustee or custodian, to cover risks attendant to the ownership, management and transfer of alternative assets and financings related to alternative asset transactions. Our subsidiary, Beneficient Insurance Company, L.L.C. (“BIC”), has filed an application for an insurance charter with the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas. Additionally, BIC’s wholly-owned subsidiary, PEN Indemnity Insurance Company, LTD. (“PEN”) has been registered and licensed as a Class 3 insurer with the Bermuda Monetary Authority under the Bermuda Insurance Act of 1978, and Ben Insurance Services plans to seek approval from the Bermuda authorities for PEN to become operational. Pending approval from the Bermuda authorities, PEN would advise on, retrocede and re-insure policies consistent with those policies underwritten domestically by BIC.
Each of our liquidity, primary capital, custody, trustee, trust administration, transfer agent and broker-dealer products and services are structured to be deliverable to our Customers through our online digital platform, AltAccess. AltAccess serves as the centralizing hub of our business and is an interactive, secure, end-to-end portal through which Customers select among our products and services and complete transactions in a regulated environment. Our internal technology team developed Ben’s AltAccess enterprise software systems and managed services, which consist of an integrated array of proprietary and third-party software solutions curated together to power the AltAccess platform enabling our Customers to access our products and services, select those that fit their specific needs and close transactions with Ben. The AltAccess platform is designed to ultimately be provided through a software as a service (“SaaS”) model to multiple intermediaries, including commercial lenders, and to be accessed through an application programming interface (“API”) for these intermediaries to deploy in their businesses.
AltAccess is designed to operate seamlessly across the Ben Business Units, each of which are subject to regulation by various state and federal regulatory agencies. We believe Ben’s utilization of a centralized portal as a core capability and tool for our Customer’s seamless access to a range of alternative assets products and services is unique in the industry. In conducting its trustee, custodial, fiduciary financing and other authorized operations, BFF is regulated by the OSBC (the OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient). As a result, our AltAccess platform is periodically examined by the OSBC, and is further assessed by a third-party organization to ensure System and Organizational Controls (“SOC”) 2 type 2 and SOC 3 compliance for the benefit of our Customer users.
Our Market
Ben is on a mission to profoundly innovate the approximately $15.31 trillion global alternative asset investment market by disrupting what we consider outdated, inefficient, cost prohibitive and time-consuming processes to access early liquidity and for capital formation in our market. Investments in these types of alternative assets are inherently illiquid and thus require an investor
1 Source: Preqin, all private capital assets under management as of September 30, 2023.

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to have unique skills, resources and flexible and extended timelines to realize liquidity. However, our Customers that invest in alternative assets often require near-term liquidity, long-term primary capital and continuously evolving tools because an investor’s investment capital is typically locked-up for ten or more years.
We estimate that the unmet demand for liquidity from our target market of mid-to-high-net-worth (“MHNW”) and small-to-mid-sized (“STMI”) institutional investors is over $61 billion2,3 annually. And as our target markets grow in size and increase their allocations to alternative investments, we estimate the unmet demand for liquidity to grow to over $100 billion4 within the next five years. Further, as fund sponsors continue to launch new products and face an increasingly competitive and challenging fund-raising environment, Ben estimates the potential demand for primary commitments to meet fundraising needs, which we can finance from our balance sheet, to be up to $330 billion5. Lastly, general partner-led restructurings continue to drive a meaningful share of the overall secondary market deal flow. Ben is well positioned to compete for opportunities in this $106 billion6 market based on several factors that help define this large and growing target market. Our focus is to continually disrupt the old ways of operating in the alternative investment industry by introducing innovative new solutions for the future to address this unmet demand for liquidity, primary capital and tools to successfully navigate the alternative asset markets.
As alternative investments have proliferated globally among investor types, so has the need and demand for innovation relating to liquidity and capital formation. Increased industry innovation helped capital formation and democratize access into alternative investments. In fact, there is now over $2.7 trillion7 of net asset value owned by Ben’s target markets in the U.S. alone. While this industry has been slow to innovate for the democratization of early liquidity from alternative investments, Ben’s innovations are designed to fill that void and continue to meet the growing demand for capital formation.
Recent Products and Services Innovations
Over the past several years, our innovation has resulted in the development and introduction of a series of new market solutions to address this unmet demand with our three core liquidity and primary capital products, ExchangeTrust, LiquidTrust and InterchangeTrust, each of which employ our fiduciary and other services. These solutions are made available to our target markets through our dedicated Originations group, which identifies and engages Customers in need of early liquidity and our General Partner Solutions (“GP Solutions”) group, which is specifically focused on partnering with GPs navigating the myriad of options that exist for fund restructurings, limited partnership liquidity and primary commitments. Alternative asset investors and fund sponsors may choose from among our ExchangeTrust, LiquidTrust and Interchange Trust product line-up, as available, and transact directly with Ben as principal and not as an intermediary.
Our ExchangeTrust product was developed to facilitate the exchange of our Customers’ alternative assets for our publicly traded securities (or securities convertible into our publicly traded securities), which may provide for earlier liquidity opportunities and assist with fund management objectives. By offering ExchangeTrust products through our General Partner Solutions group, we are also able to assist GPs with their fundraising objectives while immediately deploying capital into our equity.
Our LiquidTrust product facilitates that delivery of cash consideration in exchange for Customers’ alternative assets. This product is not currently available and is only offered as BFF’s available cash permits.
Combining the features of both our ExchangeTrust and our LiquidTrust products, our InterchangeTrust product allows our Customers to exchange their alternative assets for a mix of cash and our publicly traded securities (or securities convertible into our publicly traded securities) to gain earlier liquidity or primary capital that meets their unique needs.
In support of our core liquidity and primary capital products, we provide the Customer ExAlt Trusts and our other Customers an extensive line of complementary trustee and custody services, trust administration, transfer agent and broker-dealer services – all in a regulated environment.
Our flagship service includes our online Customer experience and journey on our proprietary AltAccess platform that our technology team specifically developed for Customers to achieve earlier liquidity, secure primary capital
2 Data from Preqin, a widely accepted commercial private equity database and Ben’s own proprietary assumptions and calculations of MHNW and STMI alternatives AUM and turnover, which use data from Spectrum Group, Setter Capital, Capgemini, KKR, RBC-Campden, Cerulli, Goldman Sachs, Preqin, With Intelligence, and Credit Suisse.
3 This estimate relies on certain of our assumptions regarding the U.S. market, including, but not limited to, the amount of wealth held by MHNW investors, the amount of MHNW wealth allocated to alternative assets, the size of the private equity market, the share of the private equity market held by MHNW investors, the share of the private equity market held by STMI investors, the share of STMI assets in hedge fund assets, the value of STMI investors’ alternative assets, the turnover rate for alternative assets in the secondary market, and the secondary market demand.
4 Ben proprietary assumptions and calculations using data from Setter Capital and Preqin (for MHNW and STMI turnover rate) and calculations using data from Setter Capital and Preqin (for large institutional and UHNW turnover rate).
5 Preqin database, accessed in 2024.
6 Setter Capital Volume Report FY 2023.
7 Supra notes 2 and 3.

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and is under development to ultimately provide Customer access to an array of fiduciary and other services expected to be available for which Customers would pay a platform subscription fee at the time they select and purchase a particular product or service.
In the near future, AltAccess is also expected to be able to provide our Customers access to our trustee services for alternative asset digitization. Ben’s proprietary process would digitize alternative assets through the creation of a controllable electronic record (“CER”) representing a transferable digital twin of the alternative asset. Concurrently, we expect to launch online services that would facilitate, as necessary, the attachment of security encumbrances and lien interests with respect to CERs representing ownership of a Customer’s alternative assets and provide for the associated electronic filing under the Uniform Commercial Code with each applicable Secretary of State. We are not aware of any other company providing this unique online service to commercial lenders and, once brought to market, we believe this would represent the first online opportunity for owners of alternative assets to efficiently borrow against or margin their alternative assets in a regulated environment with commercial lenders and brokerage firms who require a perfected security interest as a condition to lending.
Whether it’s traditional custody, sub-custody or safekeeping of physical alternative asset securities or alternative assets digitized by Ben, we offer each of these services under the regulatory supervision of our subsidiary’s banking regulator, the OSBC (the OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient). Our alternative asset data management capabilities include the ability to produce near-time estimated valuation quotations and investment reporting data analytics on most alternative assets under our custody or sub-custody.
We are exploring ways to leverage our intellectual property to expand these complementary products and services in order to offer novel insurance products and services designed to cover risks attendant to owning, managing and transferring alternative assets. We are not aware of any other company solely focused on serving as a fiduciary to provide both liquidity and primary capital with an embedded array of services for our Customers.
Our Customers
Over 3,400 U.S. companies and investment managers8 seek providers of near-term liquidity and primary capital providers who are regulated to serve in a fiduciary capacity and are dedicated to serving the needs of participants in the alternative asset investment industry today. In contrast to the current Alternatives Market, we have engineered Ben to focus on the unmet needs of the emerging segment of the market for liquidity and primary capital comprised of MHNW investors, STMI investors, FAMOs and investment advisers, sponsors, general partners and the funds that they manage. We estimate the subset of MHNW and STMI investors to be an addressable market of approximately $61 billion. To ensure that Ben becomes relevant to all target markets that we have been built to serve, we have created a team, developed technologies and aligned resources to specifically focus on three distinct channels of distribution for our products and services. These selected channels include wealth advisory platforms, fund sponsor networks and direct-to-investor applications. In the near term, Ben continues its focus on the fund sponsor network distribution channel through which we provide our suite of GP Solutions and in the future plans to extend its focus to MHNW investors, SMTI investors and FAMOs. These solutions include liquidity products structured for funds managed by general partners looking to extend the holding period or restructure the ownership of their fund-held investments, in both cases, to provide earlier liquidity to the limited partners in their funds. Our primary capital products include funding commitments through our ExAlt Plan loan structure to assist general partners and their funds in reaching their fund-raising objectives while immediately deploying capital into our equity. Our suite of GP Solutions integrates with Ben’s other products and services tailored to meet the needs of participating general partners and the funds they manage. Our GP Solutions and products and services for MHNW and STMIs deliver liquidity and primary capital for 7 asset classes of alternative assets that our Customers may hold.
Our Key Differentiators
Ben’s Tech Platform for Customer Engagement & Transactions: AltAccess Enterprise Software Systems
Because we envisioned Ben predominantly engaging and transacting with Customers online, we operate as a technology-enabled fiduciary financial services holding company. BFF serves our Customers in a regulated fiduciary capacity providing financing for secure, rapid, and cost-effective liquidity and primary capital solutions and other fiduciary services, including related custody, trustee, data management and trust administrative services to the Customer ExAlt Trusts and participants in the alternative asset industry – all of which we expect to ultimately be available online. Our liquidity and primary capital, custody, trustee, trust administration, transfer agent and broker-dealer services are designed to be deliverable to our Customers through our digital platform, AltAccess. AltAccess serves as the centralizing hub of our business and is an interactive, secure online entry point through which our Customers receive end-to-end delivery of liquidity, primary capital
8 Number of U.S.-based private markets investors estimated as all SEC-registered advisers that have filed a Form ADV to report private funds multiplied by the concentration (by percentage of NAV) of U.S.-based advisers’ main office location. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Division of Investment Management Analytics Office “Private Fund Statistics: First Calendar Quarter 2023” (October 16, 2023), Table 2, at p. 4 & Table 12 at p. 14. value of STMI investors’ alternative assets, the turnover rate for alternative assets in the secondary market, and the secondary market demand.

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and our other services. BFF and our other subsidiaries deliver these products to our Customers through secure transactions subject to regulation through every step of the transaction process. AltAccess facilitates a seamless and efficient transaction experience through an online and customer-friendly portal. We have identified the aspects of each liquidity transaction that can be automated through the AltAccess portal and to date have automated 77% of those items and are working towards automating the remainder. We believe the automation of the transaction process may improve internal controls compliance, accuracy, and accelerated closing timelines.
Our Intellectual Property (“IP”) and Technology Solutions
Our operating subsidiaries employ Ben’s patent-pending systems and methodologies in connection with delivering financing for liquidity and primary capital coupled with other fiduciary and other services in a seamless, efficient manner. Our key intellectual property is embedded in Ben’s system-wide intelligence, which currently includes computer implemented algorithmic systems forming the basis for our seven patent-pending inventions, our copywritten AltAccess software enterprise application and Ben’s patent-pending ExAlt Plan product loan structure for delivering liquidity and primary capital to our Customers. We believe that this system-wide intelligence will ultimately drive Customer engagement, efficient transaction management processes and the delivery of our products and services. Our intellectual property has been engineered to facilitate superior Customer experiences for early exit solutions and primary capital commitments, alternative asset custody services, as well as alternative asset indicative quotes on more than 80,000 alternative asset funds within seconds. Ben is subject to regulatory oversight and proactively obtains other certification to ensure the soundness and security of our systems and processes that depend on our intellectual property. By continuing to expand and enhance our system-wide intelligence, Ben aims to continuously improve our internal transaction management processes and cost efficiency when transacting with our Customers.
Our Statutory and Regulated Customer Transaction EcoSystem
Our Customers benefit from AltAccess’ design to facilitate rapid and efficient transactions with Ben within a secure customer transaction ecosystem subject to regulatory oversight. In order to promote Customer confidence, Ben openly sought and embraced regulation, transparency and oversight as we introduced our capabilities to the alternative asset market. We believe these operating principals results in better outcomes for all participants. We finance liquidity and primary capital transactions for our Customers and provide an attendant series of fiduciary and other services through our subsidiary, BFF, a Kansas-regulated trust company operating as a TEFFI, under the TEFFI Act using a proprietary trust structure that we implement for our Customers. As a Fiduciary Financial Institution and trust company, BFF is subject to regular examinations by the OSBC of its fiduciary financing, services and other authorized activities and Kansas legislative joint committee oversight. Additionally, to facilitate the delivery of our products and services, AltAccess Securities operates as a FINRA member and SEC registered broker-dealer and Beneficient Transfer operates as an SEC-registered transfer agent. Ben remains committed to delivering our products and services in a manner that provides our Customers with the confidence that comes with working with a fiduciary in a secure customer transaction ecosystem subject to regulatory oversight, which we believe differentiates Ben from other competitors.
OptimumAlt Endowment Model
Ben’s balance sheet strategy for ExAlt Loan origination is built on the theory of the portfolio endowment model for the fiduciary financings we make by utilizing our patent-pending computer implemented technologies branded as OptimumAlt. Our OptimumAlt endowment model balance sheet approach guides diversification of our fiduciary financings across seven asset classes of alternative assets, over 11 industry sectors in which alternative asset managers invest, and at least six country wide exposures and multiple vintages of dates of investment into the private funds and companies. Proper diversification has aided in generating past revenues consistent with Ben’s managed revenue strategy and has provided economic exposure to some of the most exciting, sought after private funds and private company names worldwide, currently including:
The largest private space exploration company;
An innovative software and payment systems provider;
A designer and manufacturer of shaving products;
A large online store for women’s clothes and other fashionable accessories that has announced intentions to go public; and
A mobile banking services provider, among others.
ExchangeTrust Product Plan
As Ben Liquidity closes liquidity and primary capital transactions with our Customers, the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio is expected to proportionately increase. Our plan is to grow and scale our capital commensurate with the demand for liquidity and primary capital products and in a manner that strengthens Ben’s balance sheet over time. In order to achieve an optimized risk adjusted return and diversification under our OptimumAlt endowment model, operational economies of scale, improved margins and tangible book value for our shareholders, the Board has approved the launch of a plan (the “ExchangeTrust

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Product Plan”) to complete up to $5 billion of fiduciary financings to Customer ExAlt Trusts through ExchangeTrust transactions. The ExchangeTrust Product Plan requires that each fiduciary financing to a Customer ExAlt Trust under the plan would be subject to pre-qualification and be priced based on an automated formula-based pricing model (the “Formula-Based Financing”). Once an ExchangeTrust transaction has cleared underwriting and risk pre-qualification, the formula is designed to automatically price the fiduciary financing to the Customer ExAlt Trust to achieve a required risk-adjusted return expected to be accretive to our stockholders. Our objective is to further facilitate market adoption of our fiduciary services, including our liquidity and primary capital products, and potentially improve the economic efficiency of effecting the OptimumAlt endowment model balance sheet strategy. As a result of the adoption of the ExchangeTrust Product Plan and efficiencies in connection with the Formula-Based Financing, we believe we will ultimately be able to reduce our transaction closing timeline to 15 days, in contrast to the up to 15 months it could take to close a transaction through existing market solutions.
Simpler, Cost-effective and Accelerated Timelines that Outpace the Industry
Central to our business model is the belief that it is possible to provide MHNW individuals, STMI and GP Customers with a simple, rapid and cost-effective liquidity and primary capital experience through technological innovation and ingenuity in as few as 15 days. Existing competitors generally deliver complex, heavily negotiated transactions that involve significant time and cost. The complexity and cost of these existing approaches render the current market solutions impractical or impossible for smaller holders of alternative assets to achieve liquidity or secure primary capital on acceptable terms. By deploying our modernized, digital and regulated AltAccess platform and our patent-pending ExAlt Plan loan structure, we can provide earlier exit options and primary capital financing in as little as 15 days for most sub-classes of alternative assets and vehicle types. Our ExAlt Plan products utilize simplified and standardized transaction documents that meet applicable regulatory standards to ease the administrative burden on our Customers. Moreover, as a result of the approval of the ExchangeTrust Product Launch (as defined below), we believe we may be able to ultimately reduce transaction closing timeline to as few as 15 days, in contrast to the up to 15 months it could take to close a transaction through existing market solutions. This accelerated transaction process compared to industry averages provides certainty on price, cost and closing timelines and stands in contrast to other liquidity solutions that typically implement an auction-based process.
Diversified Revenue Strategy
Our primary business of financing liquidity and primary capital is coupled with a suite of complementary fiduciary and other financial products and services designed to address many of the challenges alternative asset market participants face in connection with their ownership, management and transfer of alternative assets. Our revenue model leverages our differentiating ExAlt PlanTM structure and unique competitive advantages to generate diversified revenue streams through our Ben Business Units. The economics of our suite of products and services not only reflects Ben Liquidity’s diversified revenue strategy that aims to generate up to 30% in service fees from the transactions and services offered separately to Customers, but also embeds our liquidity and primary capital products that generate the other 70% or more of our revenues. Our service revenues include fees for providing custody, trustee, data and administrative services along with transaction-oriented fees for providing transfer agency and brokerage services related to our fiduciary financings. Additionally, Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody earn revenue from interest and fees, which are eliminated in consolidation, on the ExAlt Loans between Ben Liquidity and the Customer ExAlt Trusts. We offer our liquidity and primary capital products for our Customers as fiduciary financings, which are collateralized by alternative assets pursuant to the TEFFI Act under which BFF is chartered. The ExAlt Loans structure creates relatively stable net interest income that is partially insulated from changes in the net asset value of the alternative assets held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts.
Market Awareness Strategy
At Ben, we employ a cost effective, data driven approach designed to identify potential Customers. Using third-party data, internal system intelligence and Ben’s own networks, Ben creates awareness campaigns to engage with Customers who we believe could benefit from our products and services. Unlike some secondary fund liquidity market competitors who may be only in the market for a limited period of time and market to a limited number of investors, as a permanent capital company, Ben believes it will be able to leverage building long term brand and product awareness to a larger target market through strategic marketing initiatives. Our initiatives include targeted awareness campaigns to potential Customers through media, print and online channels. Following such campaigns, Ben utilizes industry-leading technology to evaluate the campaign’s (i) brand and product awareness, (ii) general Customer engagement with Ben’s platform, and (iii) the likelihood that a potential Customer intends to purchase Ben’s products and services. The analytic tools produce the conversion results from one stage to the next for each of the above items. We believe these initiatives and analytical tools for evaluating the success of our awareness campaigns will enable us to reach a meaningful percentage of our target customer market in a cost-efficient manner.

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Leadership Driven Results
We built Ben from the ground up as a scalable, technology-enabled fiduciary financial services company to address what we estimate to be $61 billion in emerging demand for liquidity and primary capital for alternative asset investment by our Customers. Ben’s business success to date demonstrates the demand for and relevance of our products and services for our Customers. Our management team has closed over $1.1 billion in transactions with our liquidity and primary capital products with MHNW and STMI investors and our suite of GP Solutions. Our leadership team is not content with the current state of the alternative asset investment industry and intends to disrupt the status quo. Driven by our founder’s strategically disruptive approach, we are focused on profound innovation in areas across our industry and are committed to continuing the development of new, innovative and diverse products and services. Furthermore, our leadership team includes many industry veterans with broad fiduciary, investing and operating experience in relevant industries, and the benefit of guidance of a world-class Board representing fiduciary, legal, investment, capital markets and economic policy expertise.
Elimination of Fee and Interest Income in Consolidation
Certain of our operating subsidiary products and services involve or are offered to certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which are consolidated subsidiaries of Ben solely for financial reporting purposes, and therefore transactions between our operating subsidiaries and the Customer ExAlt Trusts are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements.
As a result, Ben’s primary tangible assets reflected on our consolidated statements of financial condition are investments, mainly comprised of alternative assets, held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts and the primary sources of revenue reflected on our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) are investment income (loss), net, which represents changes in the net asset value of these investments held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts, and gain (loss) on financial instruments, net, which represents changes in fair value of equity securities, debt securities, a derivative liability, and put options, primarily held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts. Such investment income (loss), net, and gain (loss) on financial instruments that are held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts, including debt and equity securities issued by GWG Holdings, is included in the net income (loss) allocated to noncontrolling interests – Customer ExAlt Trusts in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss). The revenues and expenses recognized in these line items for the activities of the Customer ExAlt Trusts do not directly impact net income (loss) attributable to Ben’s or BCH’s equity holders.
Instead, the interest and fee income earned by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody (each as described below) from the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements, directly impact the share of net income (loss) attributable to Ben’s equity holders and BCH’s equity holders. First, such eliminated amounts are earned from, and funded by, the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which are a noncontrolling interest. As a result, the eliminated amounts earned by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody from the Customer ExAlt Trusts serve to increase the attributable share of net income (loss) to Ben and BCH equity holders. Second, the terms of the BCH limited partnership agreement provide that certain BCH income constituting the Excluded Amounts (as defined in the Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement, as amended, the “BCH A&R LPA”) (references to the “BCH A&R LPA” refer to the Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of BCH currently in effect unless otherwise indicated) are allocated to certain BCH equity holders that are noncontrolling interests. Excluded Amounts are directly impacted by the interest and/or fee income earned by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody from the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements.
Additionally, Ben Liquidity’s and Ben Custody’s provision for credit losses are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impacts the net income (loss) attributable to the various equity securities of Ben and BCH. Likewise, the amounts expensed by the Customer ExAlt Trusts for interest and fees owed to Ben’s operating subsidiaries are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but are recognized for purposes of the allocation of net income (loss) attributable to the beneficial owners of the Customer ExAlt Trusts. For additional information, see the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Basis of Presentation” and Note 3, “Understanding our Financial Statements and the Impact to the Common Unitholder, to the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Business Lines
Ben Liquidity, which delivers our liquidity products and services through ExAlt PlanTM transactions, is our primary Ben Business Unit pursuant to which each of the other Ben Business Units is engaged to provide complementary products and services necessary to effect liquidity transactions and other matters in connection therewith. Our other principal Ben Business Units are Ben Custody and Ben Markets.


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BenLiquidityLogo.jpg    As our primary business line, Ben Liquidity, through its TEFFI chartered trust company subsidiary, BFF, offers Ben’s alternative asset liquidity and fiduciary financing products and services and primary capital products. Through AltAccess, Customers are able to quickly make an alternative asset liquidity or primary capital request and product selection, which launches BFF’s underwriting and risk processes culminating in a qualification determination, proposed fiduciary financing terms based on regulatory guidelines and internal policies and procedures, and, upon Customer acceptance, online transaction document execution and liquidity or capital delivery. Ben AltAccess serves as the online access point through which Customers access information relating to their custody account, alternative asset holdings, and our suite of products and services.
BenCustodyLogo.jpg    Ben Custody addresses the administrative, regulatory and other burdens of holding alternative assets by offering bespoke full-service custody and trust administration services to trustees of the Customer ExAlt Trusts and alternative asset custodial account administration and related services to Customers and others. Ben Data was recently launched and plans to provide the Customer ExAlt Trusts certain data collection, evaluation, and analytics products and services.
BenMarketsLogo.jpg    Ben Markets provides broker-dealer services through its Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”)-member, Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”)-registered broker-dealer subsidiary and transfer agent services through its SEC-registered transfer agent subsidiary, each in connection with offerings of our liquidity products. Operational efficiencies created by having an “in-house” broker-dealer are expected to allow us to streamline our ExAlt PlanTM liquidity transactions, have an affiliate that is knowledgeable about our business and specializes in our product offerings, to benefit from broker-dealer derived revenue and reduce certain transaction and other third-party costs.
Following receipt of regulatory approval, our Ben Business Units are expected to include an additional business line, Ben Insurance Services.
BenInsuranceLogo.jpg    Ben Insurance Services plans to provide insurance products and services to certain “affiliates” (as defined in the Kansas Captive Insurance Act), including the Customer ExAlt Trusts and other trusts for which BFF serves as the trustee or custodian, to cover risks attendant to ownership, management and transfer of alternative assets and financings related to alternative asset transactions. Ben Insurance Services has filed an application for an insurance charter from the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas. Subject to the approval of such application, Ben expects to begin transacting business as a “captive insurer” under the Kansas Captive Insurance Act promptly upon receipt of a charter.

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The following table provides additional information concerning the Ben Business Units:
BusinessUnit.jpg
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(1) Currently provides its products and services to the Customer ExAlt Trust and Customers in connection with liquidity and primary capital transactions and Customer custody accounts.
(2) In conducting its trustee, custodial, and other authorized operations, BFF is regulated by the Kansas Office of the State Bank Commissioner, (the “OSBC”). Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient.
(3) Currently offers its products and services to the Customer ExAlt Trusts and plans to offer additional products and services to Customers and others in the future.
(4)    In conducting its fiduciary lending, and other authorized operations, BFF is regulated by the OSBC. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient.
(5) Ben Insurance Services is not yet operational and requires regulatory approval to become operational.
(6) Filed application for an insurance charter under the laws of the state of Kansas to operate as a Kansas E-Commerce Fidfin Insurance Company.
(7) If issued an insurance charter, the authorized activities would be regulated by the Kansas Insurance Department.
(8) Currently provides broker-dealer and transfer agent services.
(9) In conducting its authorized activities, AltAccess Securities Company, L.P. (“AltAccess Securities”) is regulated by FINRA.
(10)In conducting its transfer agent business and other authorized activities Beneficient Transfer and Clearing Company is regulated by the SEC.
AltAccess
Ben AltAccess is the central hub through which we interface with Customers. The AltAccess platform provides for the secure, online, end-to-end delivery of each of the Ben Business Units’ products and services. Customers using AltAccess can upload documents, work through tasks and complete their transactions with standardized transaction agreements at no additional cost or hidden fees. To our knowledge, AltAccess is the first and only online portal designed specifically for Customers to access a range of liquidity and capital solutions along with all the complementary products and services that address critical needs related to the ownership, management, and transfer of their alternative assets.
AltAccess facilitates our delivery of liquidity solutions by providing our Customers with the opportunity to choose the timing and method of their exit from alternative asset investments rather than wait for the expiration of their alternative asset lock-up. Similarly, AltAccess facilitates our delivery of primary capital solutions in a similar manner. Additionally, because Ben acts as the principal in liquidity and primary capital transactions, AltAccess is able to quickly and efficiently deliver liquidity and/or capital directly to our Customers from our balance sheet, without requiring the involvement of third-party financiers, intermediaries, agents, brokers or other middlemen.
Ben’s internal technology team programmed in the flexibility to allow Ben to deliver the AltAccess platform using a software as a service (“SaaS”) provider model to multiple intermediaries who could source Customers and transactions for Ben to process through application programming interface (“API”) options as a white label platform for these intermediaries to also deploy in their businesses. Ben’s objectives of focusing on regulator oversight, SOC compliance, a SaaS provider model and API options for intermediaries supports our objectives of creating scale and leverage for Ben’s business with intermediary counterparties. We believe that the managed services delivered over AltAccess is the fintech efficient solution for addressing

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the substantially unmet demand from our Customers seeking primary capital and an early exit from their alternative asset investments. Through the aspects identified of each liquidity transaction that can be automated using the AltAccess portal, we have automated approximately 77% of those items to-date and we are working towards automating the remainder. We believe the automation of the transaction process may improve internal controls compliance, accuracy, and accelerated closing timelines.
We have obtained a copyright from the U.S. Patent Office pertaining to the software coding of AltAccess. Further, our AltAccess platform has earned the AT&T NetBond® Certification for Cybersecurity, and was subject to a SOC 2 Type 2 examination, in which it received an unmodified attestation opinion from an independent third party for the year ended March 31, 2024.
AltAccess.jpg
In order to effectively deliver our products and services to our Customers in an intuitive and efficient manner, AltAccess leverages an array of proprietary digital technologies, quantitative methods, and systems that work symbiotically. For example, we use a combination of statistical methods leveraging machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms in connection with our underwriting and risk processes to review certain key alternative asset valuations, investment information, and limited partnership agreement terms (e.g., net asset values, net asset value as of dates, commitment periods, permitted investments and expenses). The combination of such quantitative methods and machine learning algorithms can produce results in a standardized format for internal review in a fraction of the time required through manual processes. These systems and quantitative processes have been built to support increases in transaction growth as we scale the business and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness through which we deliver our products and services.
Our structure is intended to provide our Customers with liquidity or primary capital in as little as 30 days – and within two to three days for certain qualifying assets for which we have current underwriting data. Our transaction process is substantially different than currently available market capabilities, which we believe to be too complex, slow and cost-prohibitive for our Customers. We believe our simple, rapid and cost-effective Customer digital experience provides us with a significant competitive advantage in the marketplace for alternative asset liquidity by reducing our transaction closing timeline substantially ,in contrast to the up to 15 months it could take to close a transaction through existing market solutions.
10-K slide 772024 (2).jpg


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ExAlt Plan Exchange
Central to our ability to transact online is our patent-pending ExAlt Plan liquidity and primary capital products, which are designed to facilitate the delivery of liquidity to our Customers when exiting alternatives (which is the basis for the term “ExAlt”) or capital to our Customers. The ExAlt Plan is our unique fiduciary financing structure that is effected through specialized Customer ExAlt Trusts, which are the vehicles through which AltAccess delivers simple, rapid and cost-effective liquidity and primary capital. The ExAlt Plan provides Customers with liquidity solutions that are designed to be able to be offered as either taxable or non-taxable transactions to the Customer.
Our ExAlt Plan is designed to provide financing and primary capital for a range of flexible solutions for our Customers by the following core products: (i) The Ben ExchangeTrust™, (ii) The Ben InterchangeTrust™ and (iii) The Ben LiquidTrust®. Collectively, these offerings empower our Customers to select the type and nature of the consideration they receive in exchange for their alternative assets (each, an “ExAlt Plan Exchange”):
The Ben ExchangeTrust™ offers consideration consisting of our equity or debt securities.
The Ben InterchangeTrust™ offers consideration consisting of a mix of cash from our balance sheet plus our equity or debt securities.
The Ben LiquidTrust® offers consideration consisting of cash from our balance sheet.
Subject to our extensive proprietary underwriting and risk management processes, we provide liquidity and primary capital with respect to interests in most types of professionally-managed alternative assets, including funds that pursue a wide range of strategies, including but not limited to:
Screenshot 2024-06-14 125344.jpg
Through the ExAlt Plan Exchange, Ben Liquidity is able to deliver our ExAlt Plan liquidity and primary capital products to Customers efficiently and quickly through the use of customized trust vehicles, the Customer ExAlt Trusts, that facilitate the exchange of our Customer’s alternative assets for consideration. Each ExAlt Plan Exchange commences when a Customer seeking liquidity or capital selects a liquidity product offering, and includes, among other items, the Customer’s execution of a standardized short form agreement. Once executed, Ben Liquidity finances the transaction by making an ExAlt Loan to certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which, in turn, use the loan proceeds to deliver the agreed upon consideration to the Customer in exchange for their alternative assets, pay all fees, expenses and distributions incurred in connection with the transaction. In connection with closing of the transaction, Ben Custody is engaged to serve as administrator of the Customer ExAlt Trusts to provide full service administrative services attendant to the ongoing custody and administrative needs of the Customer ExAlt Trusts with respect to their ownership of the exchanged alternative asset and obligations created under the ExAlt Plan.

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The following diagram depicts the process for ExAlt Plan Exchange transactions beginning December 7, 2021:
OperationalOverview.jpg
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(1) Interest and fee revenue received by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody and interest and fee expense of the Customer ExAlt Trusts are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impact the income (loss) allocable to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders.
The Customer ExAlt Trusts are beneficially owned by certain charities in Kansas (or, for loans prior to December 7, 2021, by certain charities in Texas) (each a “Charity” and collectively, the “Charities”). In accordance with the terms of the applicable trust and other agreements and, for loans originated after December 7, 2021, the TEFFI Act, such Charities are entitled to receive $0.025 of every $1.00 received by an ExAlt Trust from the corresponding alternative assets. For loans originated prior to December 7, 2021, such Charities are entitled to receive $0.05 of every $1.00 in payments to Ben Liquidity on the ExAlt Loans.
Each ExAlt Plan Exchange transaction creates (i) an ExAlt Loan that is collateralized by and intended to be repaid from cash flows generated from the exchanged alternative asset; and (ii) an ExAlt Trust customer for Ben Custody, which provides for the ongoing custody and administration of the Customer ExAlt Trusts for the duration of the life of the trusts in return for an annual fee equal to a percentage of the combined net asset value and unfunded commitment of the exchanged alternative asset, payable quarterly.
Our Business Model
Ben Liquidity currently generates revenue through monthly interest income and transaction fees earned from the Customer ExAlt Trusts in connection with providing its liquidity and primary capital products to Customers. Ben Custody generates revenue through transaction fees and quarterly fee income earned by providing full-service trust administration services to the trustees of the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which have BFF appointed as their trustee following the issuance of BFF’s charter. The transaction and quarterly trust administration fees are based on a percentage of the net asset value and unfunded capital commitment of the alternative assets exchanged in connection with our liquidity transactions, and the interest income is based on a percentage of the balance of the loan made from Ben Liquidity to the Customer ExAlt Trusts. While the amounts earned by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements, these amounts directly impact the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s or BCH’s equity holders. Likewise, while Ben Liquidity’s provision for loan losses is eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements, such amount directly impacts the allocation of income (loss) to the various equity securities. Additionally, the amounts expensed by the Customer ExAlt Trusts for interest and fees owed to Ben’s operating subsidiaries impact the allocation of income (loss) to the beneficial owners of the Customer ExAlt Trusts.

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BusinessModel.jpg
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(1) For Customer ExAlt Trusts formed prior to December 7, 2021, certain charities in Texas are the ultimate beneficial owner.
AltAccess is set up to generate platform fees for the use of the platform in connection with the delivery of our products and services. Subject to the approval by the Kansas Insurance Commissioner of Ben Insurance Services’ captive insurance application and the commencement of operations, Ben Insurance Services plans to generate insurance premium income by providing insurance services to certain affiliates (as defined under the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws), including the Customer ExAlt Trusts and other trusts for which BFF serves as the trustee or custodian, to cover risks attendant to the ownership, management and transfer of alternative assets and the financings related to alternative asset purchases. Such fees are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impact the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s or BCH’s equity holders.
We believe that the growth of our core liquidity and primary capital business will enhance our ability to offer other unique and differentiated products and services previously unavailable to participants in the alternative assets marketplace and creating additional revenue opportunities. In fact, each ExAlt Plan Exchange transaction drives synergies that would potentially lead to the engagement of each of our current and potential future business lines. The following tables describe the revenue types expected to be generated from ExAlt Plan Exchanges under our model for ExAlt Plan transactions once our planned Ben Business Units are operational:
PlannedEconomics.jpg
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(1) Ben Insurance is not operational and requires regulatory approval prior to becoming operational.

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Such fees and expenses related to an ExAlt Plan Exchange transaction and the repayment of the corresponding ExAlt Plan Loan are paid by the income the Customer ExAlt Trusts earn on the distributions from the corresponding alternative asset. As required under the TEFFI Act, for all ExAlt Loans originated on or after December 7, 2021, 2.5% of all distributions received by an ExAlt Trust from the corresponding alternative asset must be distributed to the Charities. For ExAlt Loans originated prior to December 7, 2021, the applicable ExAlt Trust documents or other agreements provide that 5.0% of the payments to Ben Liquidity on the ExAlt Loans must be distributed to the Charities. All transaction-related fees are embedded into the pricing offered for the exchange of the alternative asset, allowing such Customer to avoid out-of-pocket payment of fees.
As an additional funding source, Ben Liquidity has sold, and expects to continue to sell in the future, participation interests in certain ExAlt Loans (each such loan a “Participation ExAlt Loan”) to Customers or other third parties in exchange for cash.
As we build our customer base through Ben Liquidity’s fiduciary financing, liquidity operations and primary capital operations, we believe that there will be significant opportunities to offer adjacent products and services in a non-captive fashion to future Customers, bringing our digital customer experience to products and services in these areas as well. Along the way, we intend to build the infrastructure to become a digital superhighway for the custodying, financing, insuring, transferring and assigning of all forms of alternative assets for use by the 14.5 million U.S. households9 we expect10 to hold these assets in the future.11
Loan Portfolio and ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio
ExAlt Plan liquidity and primary capital transactions are affected in part by ExAlt Loans that Ben Liquidity makes to certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts, which, in turn, use the loan proceeds for the Customer ExAlt Trusts’ acquisition of a Customer’s alternative assets. ExAlt Loans are supported and primarily collateralized by the cash flows (net of the qualified charitable distributions and certain fees and expenses) (the “Collateral”) received by the Customer ExAlt Trusts from their acquired interests in alternative assets, which primarily include direct and indirect interests (through various investment vehicles, including, limited partnership interests and private and public equity and debt securities, which include our and our affiliates’ securities) in professionally-managed private funds. The Customer ExAlt Trusts effect the qualified charitable distributions, pursuant to which 2.5% of such cash flows for loans originated on or after December 7, 2021 and 5.0% percent of the payments to Ben Liquidity on the ExAlt Loans for loans originated before December 7, 2021, is distributed to the Charities or Economic Growth Zones.
In aggregate, as of March 31, 2024, Ben Liquidity has closed liquidity financings resulting in its loan portfolio, which is comprised of loans with aggregate original loan balances of approximately $906.8 million (which included $72.5 million in original principal loan balance that was subsequently sold to Participant (as defined below) pursuant to the Participation Agreement (as defined below)), backed primarily by Collateral generated from alternative assets with an aggregate net asset value of approximately $1.2 billion at the time of their initial issuance (which includes approximately $103.6 million of Collateral supporting the repayment of the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan (as defined below)). In aggregate, through March 31, 2024, Ben Liquidity has earned stated interest income in the amount of approximately $427.7 million from the ExAlt Loans issued in connection with the liquidity financings resulting in the ExAlt Loans comprising the loan portfolio. Stated interest earned represents accrued but unpaid interest that is capitalized on the principal of the ExAlt Loans and is eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impacts the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders. The Collateral for the ExAlt Loans in the loan portfolio has resulted in a collateral portfolio primarily comprised of a portion of the cash flows received through the Customer ExAlt Trusts from a diverse portfolio of direct and indirect interests (through various investment vehicles, including, limited partnership interests and private and public equity and debt securities, which include our and our affiliates’ securities) in professionally managed private funds. We refer to the interests underlying the cash flows comprising the Collateral as the “ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio.”
9 Calculated as sum of total 2022 Ultra High Net Worth (“UHNW”) U.S. households and 2022 Millionaire U.S. households per CEG Insights “Wealth Market Sizing” (2023), at pg. 2-3.
10 Ben Internal expectation based on industry expert observations, commentary, and projections. For instance, McKinsey highlights the changing LP base towards the inclusion of retail investors, “Beyond growing institutional investor allocations to private equity, new sources of capital are helping to fuel growth. For example, GPs have been ramping up fundraising efforts with retail investors.” McKinsey Global Private Markets Review 2021 (2021), at pg. 20.
11 CEG Insights defines UHNW investors as individuals with $5 million to $25 million net worth, not including primary residence.

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Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolio consisted of loans to the Customer ExAlt Trusts with a carrying value (including capitalized interest) of $256.2 million as of March 31, 2024. The ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio consisted of interests in professionally managed funds and other investments held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts with an aggregate value of $329.1 million as of March 31, 2024, including interests in alternative assets with a NAV of $293.9 million and investments in debt and equity securities as of $35.2 million. As of March 31, 2024, the vintages of the funds in the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio ranged from 1993 to 2024.12 Through such funds, the liquidity financings had aggregate exposure to 255 funds13 comprised of 851 underlying investments.14 Such funds are managed by a group of unaffiliated U.S. and non-U.S. based alternative asset management firms that invest in a variety of financial markets and utilize a variety of investment strategies.
As of March 31, 2024, the charts below present the relative exposure of Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolio by certain characteristics (percentages determined by aggregate loan portfolio principal balance, which includes the exposure to interests in certain of our former affiliates’ equity and debt securities and other investments in debt and equity securities composing part of the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio):
Screenshot 2024-06-20 115624 2024.jpg____________
As of March 31, 2024. Represents the characteristics of professionally managed funds and investments in the Collateral portfolio, which is comprised of a diverse portfolio of direct and indirect interests (through various investment vehicles, including, limited partnership interests and private and public equity and debt securities, which include our and our affiliates’ or our former affiliates’ securities that on August 1, 2023 became interests in the GWG Holdings Wind Down Trusts), primarily in third-party, professionally managed private funds and investments. Loan balances used to calculate the percentages reported in the pie charts are loan balances net of allowance for credit losses, and as of March 31, 2024, the total allowance for credit losses on the ExAlt Loans was $303.6 million, for a total gross loan balance of $559.8 million and a loan balance net of allowance for credit losses of $256.2 million.
(1)    Industry sector based on GICS® Level 2 classification. “Other” classification reflects companies in the GICS® classifications categories of Automobiles & Components, Consumer Services, Commercial & Professional Services, Insurance, Tech Hardware & Equipment, Media & Entertainment, Transportation, Retailing, Telecommunication Services, and Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnology & Life Sciences. N/A includes investments assets that Ben management has determined do not have an applicable GICS® Level 2 classification, such as Net Other Assets, Escrows and Earnouts.
(2)    Geography reflects classifications determined by our management, based on each underlying investment.
(3)    Investment Strategy Type reflects classifications based on each company’s current investment strategy stage as determined by our management.
(4)    Included in the 92% classified as “Private” is approximately 6% (of the total) that are limited partnership interests in other funds where further detail on the underlying holdings of these funds is not available.

12 As of March 31, 2024, such funds comprise 100% of the Collateral.
13 Includes limited partnership interests in funds held directly in the Collateral and funds held indirectly in the Collateral through other entities, including special purpose vehicles and other funds.
14 Investments reflect the assets listed by the general partner of a fund as held by the fund and have a positive or negative net asset value. Typical assets include portfolio companies, limited partnership interests in other funds, and net other assets, which are a fund’s cash and other current assets minus liabilities.

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As of March 31, 2024, the charts below present certain characteristics of the professionally-managed private funds composing part of the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio (percentages determined by net asset value and excludes interests in certain of our former parent’s and its subsidiaries’ equity and debt securities, which on August 1, 2023 became interests in the GWG Holdings Wind Down Trust, composing part of the collateral of the Fiduciary Loans):15
Screenshot 2024-06-20 124907 2024-2.jpg
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As of March 31, 2024. Represents the characteristics of the third-party, professionally managed funds and investments in the Collateral. Excludes interests in certain of our and our affiliates or former affiliates’ equity and debt securities. The Collateral for the ExAlt PlanTM Loans in the loan portfolio is comprised of a diverse portfolio of direct and indirect interests (through various investment vehicles, including, limited partnership interests and private and public equity and debt securities, which include our and our affiliates’ securities that on August 1, 2023 became interests in the GWG Holdings Wind Down Trust), primarily in third-party, professionally managed private funds and investments. As of March 31, 2024, such third-party, professionally managed private fund and investments comprise 100% of the Collateral. The vintages of these funds and investments in the Collateral portfolio ranged from 1993 to 2024.
(1)    Includes limited partnership interests in funds held directly in the collateral portfolio and funds held indirectly in the collateral portfolio through other entities, including special purpose vehicles and other funds.
(2)    Investments reflect the assets listed by the general partner of a fund as held by the fund and have a positive or negative net asset value. Typical assets include portfolio companies, limited partnership interests in other funds, and net other assets, which are a fund’s cash and other current assets minus liabilities.
(3)    Industry sector based on GICS® Level 2 classification. “Other” classification reflects companies in the GICS® classifications categories of Transportation, Automobiles & Components, Consumer Services, Commercial & Professional Services, Retailing, Household & Personal Products, Pharmaceuticals, Biotechnology & Life Sciences, Banks, Insurance, Technology Hardware & Equipment, Telecommunication Services, Media & Entertainment. N/A includes investments assets that Ben management has determined do not have an applicable GICS® Level 2 classification, such as net other assets, and investments that are not operating companies.
(4)    Geography reflects classifications determined by our management, based on each underlying investment. Investments reflect the assets listed by the general partner of a fund as held by the fund and have a positive or negative net asset value. Typical assets include portfolio companies, limited partnership interests in other funds, and net other assets, which are a fund’s cash and other current assets minus liabilities.
(5)    Investment Strategy Type reflects classifications based on each company’s current investment strategy stage as determined by our management.
(6)    Included in the 92% classified as “Private” is 6% (of the total) that are limited partnership interests in other funds where further detail on the underlying holdings of these funds is not available.
15 The data presented in the graphic includes third-party information regarding the net asset value of private funds composing part of the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio. Generally, Ben leverages the most recently-received net asset value report from each respective investment manager, which may be adjusted for certain cash and non-cash items including capital calls, distributions, updated material events, and currency valuation adjustments. Ben is not affiliated with, and has no control over, any portfolio investment manager, including with respect to the timing, accuracy and completeness of their reporting of financial and other data.

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Ben Liquidity’s ExAlt Loans are structured as loans with a maturity date of 12 years that bear contractual interest at a variable rate or fixed rate that compounds monthly. The ExAlt Loans made prior to December 31, 2020 (which constitute the majority of our loan portfolio) have a variable interest rate established off a base rate of 14%, and ExAlt Loans made from December 31, 2020 to date have a variable interest rate established off a base rate of 10%, or a fixed rate of 5%. Ben Liquidity may make ExAlt Loans in the future with a variable interest rate, established of different base rates, or with different fixed rates. Ben has continuing engagements supporting its internal work, including independent credit loss analysis performed by a global accounting firm.
The primary source of repayment for the ExAlt Loans is the Collateral. In the event that an ExAlt Loan’s principal balance is paid down to zero dollars ($0), any remaining Collateral supporting such ExAlt Loan effectively cross-collateralizes other ExAlt Loans, as any such excess cash flows must be applied to pay off the outstanding balances of other ExAlt Loans pursuant to the terms of the trust agreements governing certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts. The ExAlt Loans also include a commitment to fund additional amounts required to pay ordinary course third-party expenses incurred in connection with the administration of the alternative assets and to fund capital calls. The interest income recognized by Ben Liquidity as unpaid interest is capitalized on the ExAlt Loans, and when combined with the amortized transaction fees and trust administration fees charged by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody, are generally expected to provide annual revenue at a rate of approximately 7% to 14% of the balance of each ExAlt Loan. Such revenue is eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impacts the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders. See “—Business of Beneficient — ExAlt Plan Exchange” for additional detail regarding fees charged by the Ben Business Units.
Initial ExAlt Loan Participation
Ben Liquidity has previously sold, and may in the future continue to offer and sell to Customers or other third parties, Participation ExAlt Loans in exchange for cash. Ben Liquidity successfully sold its first Participation ExAlt Loan in the first calendar quarter of 2022. Future Participation ExAlt Loans may have terms and conditions different than the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan described below. The sale of the loan allows Ben to retain transaction, custody and other non-interest fees.
BFF, as lender, and a third party (“Participant”), entered into a Participation Interest Purchase Agreement, dated as of March 24, 2022 (the “Participation Agreement”), pursuant to which Participant purchased from BFF for an aggregate purchase price of $72.5 million a 100% participation interest (the “Participation Interest”) in a $72.5 million loan (the “Initial Participation ExAlt Loan”) made by BFF to The EP-00117 Funding Trust, a common law trust formed under Texas law (“Borrower”). The purchase price was paid in cash by Participant to BFF on March 25, 2022.
Following the closing of the sale of the Participation Interest, BFF paid to Participant a credit in the amount of $7.9 million representing the payment that would have been made on the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan as of March 24, 2022 had the Participation Agreement been effective on December 7, 2021. Pursuant to the Participation Agreement, the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan generally ranks pari passu with a loan (the “Ben Loan”) made by BFF to Borrower on December 7, 2021 in the original principal amount of $246.8 million, subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in the Participation Agreement. Concurrently with the closing of the purchase and sale of the Participation Interest, Borrower applied 100% of the proceeds of the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan to the repayment of the Ben Loan.
The Ben Loan and the Initial Participation ExAlt Loan are secured by a pledge (the “Pledge”) by the Borrower of its right to receive distributions, and the distributions the Borrower actually receives (in each case excluding amounts required to be distributed by Borrower as a qualified charitable distribution), with respect to Borrower’s interest in an associated ExAlt Trust holding the right to receive cash ultimately distributed from alternative assets originally acquired in connection with the Ben Loan (the “Acquired Assets”) in accordance with terms and conditions of the trust agreements of each associated ExAlt Trust. Each ExAlt Trust associated with the Borrower executed certain consents pursuant to which it agreed to distribute 100% of the proceeds it receives on the Acquired Assets to its associated ExAlt Trust beneficial owner, and ultimately to Borrower. Pursuant to that certain Guaranty, dated as of March 24, 2022 (the “Guaranty”), by certain special purpose vehicles formed in connection with the Ben Loan for the purpose of owning the Acquired Assets and which are wholly owned, indirectly, by the Borrower (the “Acquired Assets Holding Vehicles”) in favor of Participant, the Acquired Alternative Asset Holding Vehicles have guaranteed to Participant the payment and performance of all contractual obligations (but not the financial obligations) of the Acquired Asset Holding Vehicles, each ExAlt Trust associated with the Borrower, and the Borrower under their respective trust agreements and all obligations of lender under the Participation Agreement, subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in the Guaranty.
Each ExAlt Trust associated with the Borrower and the Acquired Asset Holding Vehicles has made certain additional representations, warranties and covenants pursuant to certain trust consents or the Guaranty (as applicable), which include, among other things, limitations on the right of such trusts or the Acquired Asset Holding Vehicles to incur or guarantee indebtedness for borrowed money, business activities, and assets, liabilities and investments.

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The initial ExAlt Participation Loan was settled on October 18, 2023 as further described in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements.
Market Opportunity
Beneficient’s business is designed to provide secondary liquidity solutions for alternative asset investors and primary capital to general partner or investment sponsors; and in particular, for the sub-segments of investors that are currently most underserved. We believe our addressable markets are rapidly growing, while also lacking dedicated service providers to adequately support the trends underlying the secular expansion. We seek to address this underserved market by utilizing our competitive advantages of our proprietary, patent-pending technology, our ability to use our own balance sheet capital to provide secondary liquidity solutions and lower our cost of capital through our public listing, our statutory status as a trust company under the TEFFI Act, and our regulated status.
Our addressable market for liquidity and other services within the alternative investment market is large, underserved and growing.
The global alternative investment market is estimated to consist of more than $12 trillion of assets under management.16 Of this market, approximately $8.3 trillion17 of assets are held by U.S.-based investors. We currently estimate that of this, our current focus markets of MHNW investors comprise approximately $1.3 trillion18 and that U.S.-based STMI investors also comprise approximately $1.4 trillion.19
As the total alternative investment market has grown, so too has the need for secondary liquidity. Transaction volume in the U.S. secondary liquidity market was approximately $106 billion20 in 2023, growing from approximately $2621 billion in 2013 at a compound annual growth rate of 15.3% during the 10-year period. We believe that most all of the volume in secondary liquidity transactions is driven by the largest and most well-resourced investor classes — large institutional investors and ultra-high net worth investors — due to their ability to access legacy secondary liquidity solutions. MHNW individual investors and U.S.-based STMI investors, which combined hold approximately $2.7 trillion of assets, have been virtually shut out from the secondary liquidity market due to a lack of cost efficient, transparent, and seamless technology-enabled solutions.
MHNW individual investors face needs for secondary liquidity which are non-existent in the institutional market. The need for liquidity among MHNW individual investors stems from, among other things, life events, estate and tax planning, risk management, the desire to pursue other financial opportunities or investments, retirement and liability protection objectives. Additionally, given that 84%22 of MHNW individual investors are self-made and are most likely private business owners, these investors may need or welcome the opportunity for liquidity to help support their own businesses, either if facing financial distress or if presented with attractive growth opportunities that require capital. Similar to MHNW individual investors, we believe that STMI investors holding mature alternative assets have historically faced challenges in accessing the market for secondary liquidity. This is mostly due to traditional liquidity service providers being unwilling or unable to service potential clients in this market segment in a profitable manner given STMI investors holding alternative assets generally do not seek transactions that are sufficiently large for legacy solutions to generate adequate profitability. This is partially due to the antiquated process utilized by legacy solutions providers.
16 Based on global private capital AUM data exported from Preqin, excluding funds of funds and secondaries to avoid double counting.
17 Estimated based on (i) historical North American private capital AUM data from Preqin (excludes hedge funds) and historical North America hedge fund AUM data from With Intelligence; (ii) market segment data including the percentage of hedge fund assets held by individuals (CitiBusiness Advisory), the percentage of private capital assets held by family offices and wealthy individuals (Preqin, Private Equity Spotlight, February 2016), the percentage of total global assets held by small, mid- and ultra-high net worth individuals (Capgemini and Credit Suisse); and (iii) assets held by North American high net worth individuals, including the percentage of such assets held by MHNW investors (Capgemini). Includes the following assumptions of Ben: (i) calculations of market segmentation based on estimates from third-party sources described above; (ii) large institutions hold 80% of the total institutional AUM; (iii) the percentage of MHNW wealth allocated to alternative assets is 22.4% (based on a range of estimates from CapGemini, KKR, RBC-Campden, Cerulli, and Goldman Sachs); and (iv) MHNW and UHNW alternative asset AUM may be understated, and large institution and STMI alternative asset AUM may be proportionally overstated and, therefore, require adjustment.
18 Id.
19 Id.
20 Setter Capital Volume Report FY 2023.
21 Coller Capital Private Equity Secondary Market Report 2017.
22 Wealth-X Very High Net Worth Handbook 2021.

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Based on the pace of historical alternative secondary liquidity transactions overall, we estimate that MHNW individual investors and STMI investors in total could seek liquidity between 2 and 3%23 of their aggregate outstanding alternative investment holdings each year if they were provided with greater access to attractive secondary liquidity solutions. As a result, we estimate the annual market demand for liquidity by MHNW individual investors and STMI could exceed $60 billion.
Competitive Strengths
We have built a new and innovative technology-enabled financial services company to address the unmet needs of a growing segment of a rapidly expanding alternative investment market. We estimate that the total market for liquidity in this asset class stands at $200 billion24 , with $61 billion of current estimated liquidity demand going underserved today.
To address this market, we believe that we have the following competitive advantages that give us an early mover advantage in the market:
Ben's Competitive Advantages Image (002).jpg
Together, these three competitive advantages create a powerful value proposition for our Customers and an early mover advantage for us. These advantages are the result of significant investment and years of hard work. We have also built a portfolio of products, marketing operations, a corporate culture and team to leverage these advantages on behalf of our Customers.
Technology
We believe that we are the only liquidity and financial services provider serving alternative asset investors in the market with a technological solution for sourcing, processing and completing transactions online. Our structure, facilitated by our end-to-end, tech-enabled, Customer-facing technology and applications, is intended to provide our Customers with liquidity in as little as 30 days — and within two to three days for certain qualifying assets. Our rapid transaction process stands in stark contrast to the current market capabilities, which we believe continue to rely on complex transactions with no centralized platform for workflow and customer service. The complexity and cost of these existing approaches can render it impractical for smaller holders of alternative assets to achieve liquidity on acceptable terms.
Central to our business model and disruptive strategy to address the unserved market for MHNW individuals and STMI is the belief that despite the enormous complexity that exists in the alternative investment market, it is possible to provide Customers with a simple, rapid and cost-effective experience through technological innovation and ingenuity. Existing competitors rely on complex transactions with no centralized platform for workflow and customer service. Their transactions are typically heavily negotiated transactions involving a significant amount of personal interaction and volumes of complex and difficult to understand papers. Through AltAccess, and the technological infrastructure underpinning AltAccess, we seek to provide our Customers with the opportunity to access our capital and achieve liquidity out of their alternative assets via an online portal in as little as 30 days — and within two to three days for certain qualifying assets. Customers using AltAccess
23 Estimate based on the turnover rate of large institutional investors, calculated based on global private assets under management by vintage (excluding funds of funds and secondaries) reported by Preqin and the total secondary market volume reported in the Setter Capital Volume Report, FY 2022. Ben assumes (i) that MHNW investors would seek approximately two times the turnover rate of large institutional investors and (ii) that STMI investors would seek approximately one-and-a-half times the turnover rate of large institutional investors.
24 Supra notes 2 and 3.

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can upload documents, work through tasks and complete their liquidity transactions with standardized transaction agreements at no additional cost or hidden fees to our Customers.
AltAccess2.jpg
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(1) Under development and not in the market.
Our liquidity and primary capital products are designed to facilitate the delivery of, at a Customer’s election, cash, equity securities or debt securities, or a combination of cash and equity or debt securities.
The foundation of the technologies and systems built into AltAccess includes those covered non-provisional patent applications we filed and that are pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We developed these patent-pending digital technologies to facilitate underwriting financings, managing risk and simplifying the closing process:
Proprietary Tech: Ben’s Copyright & Patent-Pending Portfolio
Screenshot 2024-06-14 125539.jpg
Our patent-pending technologies and unique business model give us the ability to offer a simple, rapid and cost-effective customer experience.
Publicly Traded Stock As Currency
On June 8, 2023, our Class A common stock began trading on Nasdaq, and our warrants, with each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock and one share of Series A preferred stock at an exercise price of $920.00 (each a “Warrant” and collectively, the “Warrants”), began trading on Nasdaq. We anticipate an acceleration in the growth in demand for our core products and the public listing differentiates us from our competitors. Accessing public capital can bolster our balance sheet, which serves as the source of funding — cash, equity and debt instruments — for our full suite of liquidity products. With DTC eligibility, our securities could be held at custodial firms and transferred between brokerage accounts electronically, providing greater liquidity for our Customers. Further, using our publicly listed securities as part of the

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funding for our liquidity products and primary capital products reduces our cost of capital, which in turn could allow us to offer more attractive pricing on our liquidity products to our Customers.
Statutory/Regulatory
Statutory
We commenced our core liquidity operations through Ben Liquidity in September 2017. Since day one, we sought to become regulated as a trust company so our Customers could have additional confidence in transactions they conduct with Ben as a result of regulatory oversight. On December 31, 2021, our subsidiary, BFF, received a charter from the State of Kansas under a new set of industry regulations enacted within the State of Kansas through the TEFFI Act, which was signed into law on April 21, 2021. The TEFFI Act allows for the chartering and creation of Kansas trust companies with fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency, referred to under Kansas law as TEFFIs, which — in each case in their capacity as fiduciaries — may provide financings with respect to alternative assets held in Kansas trusts (referred to as “fidfin trusts” under the TEFFI Act) and provide qualified custodial and trustee services. As such, through its charter, BFF is authorized to exercise fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency, including as lender and custodian and trustee of, and with respect to, fidfin trusts holding alternative assets.
As a result of the issuance of the operating charter, we believe that we have a significant competitive advantage under the TEFFI Act, which aims to position Kansas as the preferred low-tax jurisdiction in the United States for TEFFIs that will operate as specialized trust companies chartered in Kansas offering alternative asset financial products and services. Trust companies chartered under the TEFFI Act must operate as financial fiduciaries in the financial technology space – FidFinTech – offering liquidity solutions and trust and custody services under a consolidated and unified regulatory framework, a first for our industry. Pursuant to the provisions of the TEFFI Act, BFF was the only company permitted to offer such services under the TEFFI Act through 2023. We strongly believe operating as a regulated trust company will enhance our overall value proposition by bringing, among other benefits, the comfort of our oversight by regulators to our Customers who rely on us to deliver timely liquidity and related financial products and services.
Critically, we believe that Ben is the first company with the ability to provide liquidity to alternative asset investors through a regulated trust company. We act as a principal using our own balance sheet to provide liquidity or other solutions to our Customers, while competing firms typically act as intermediaries brokering transactions between parties or funds representing other people’s money. This differentiation can provide us with three significant cost advantages: lower cost of capital, lower execution costs and lower holding costs, thus allowing us to offer our Customers cost-effective liquidity solutions. BFF’s role as a regulated Kansas TEFFI using our own balance sheet to facilitate liquidity solutions also allows us to form direct relationships with each of our Customers, which incentivizes us to prioritize the customer experience and deploy our capital in ways that enhance our balance sheet. We believe this alignment of interests will be critical and will fuel our ability to grow our core liquidity products and expand into adjacent products and services.
Prior to the TEFFI Act, there was no single jurisdiction in the United States that we believe allowed the alternative asset industry to operate at full efficiency. Regulations in states such as Delaware, Wyoming and Nevada have enacted certain operating provisions, but we believe the TEFFI Act includes specific elements that create a holistic framework for companies providing liquidity in the alternative investment market. The new law in Kansas addresses this issue and creates a “home” for this multi-trillion-dollar industry and is designed to be business friendly, promote regulator cooperation and offer tax incentives for companies who move assets to Kansas under the new legislation.
Regulatory
We believe that the multiple layers of regulatory oversight built into our business model will instill confidence in our Customers in their dealings with us. Our regulated business lines help to deliver a suite of products and services in an environment of safety, soundness and security. Our regulators currently include: (1) the SEC, (2) FINRA, and (3) the OSBC, as a regulator of BFF. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient.

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Regulatory.jpg
Leadership
Our management team has worked together for years and is grounded by our core values of trailblazing, trust and teamwork. We are led by Brad Heppner, our founder and CEO, a 30+ year industry-veteran who has previously founded successful alternative investment companies, including The Crossroads Group, L.P. (a pioneering alternative asset fund-of-funds) and Capital Analytics (an administrative and data analytics platform for the administration of alternative assets). Our leadership team includes other industry veterans with broad fiduciary, investing and operating experience in relevant industries. We also benefit from the guidance of a world-class Board of Directors with deep experience in financial markets, including former Atlanta Federal Reserve President Dennis P. Lockhart.
Our Strategic Growth Initiatives
Continue our Technological Innovation
We intend to continue pursuing growth through technological innovation. We expect to use a blended approach of proprietary and third-party enterprise applications to provide a robust and scalable systems infrastructure to support underwriting, risk management, compliance and audit functions, as well as client development and timely reporting functions. Our technology systems and infrastructure have been, and are expected to be, developed focusing primarily on the following:
Scale. Technology that is scaled to support the expansion of our products, with a focus on solutions that seek to enable straight-through processing.
Customization. Custom proprietary software solutions that may be leveraged along with widely used industry solutions that can be configured or customized for our business processes.
Security. IT infrastructure that supports the alignment of technology with security.
Expansion into Complementary Lines of Business
Ben Liquidity is our core business and is supported by the services offered by Ben Custody and Ben Markets. As our business matures, we intend to explore and carefully consider expansion of our product offerings to include other complementary products and services that are critical to the alternative investment market and represent adjacent growth opportunities in a highly fragmented, competitive landscape.
In particular, Ben Custody plans to offer additional products and services to Customers other than the Customer ExAlt Trusts in the future. These additional products and services may include consolidating Customers’ alternative assets into a secure custody account, custodying electronic data or physical securities certificates, and providing specialized trust administrative services for MHNW and STMI investors. Ben Data plans to provide the Customer ExAlt Trusts with certain data collection, evaluation, and analytics products and services. We anticipate expanding Ben Data to offer these products and services to third parties.
In addition, Ben Insurance Services has filed an application for an insurance charter from the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas. Subject to the approval of such application, Ben expects to begin transacting business as a captive insurer under the Kansas Captive Insurance Act. Upon receipt of a charter, Ben may begin offering the following types of insurance policies to affiliates and the Customer ExAlt Trusts: (i) Fiduciary Guardian insurance policy designed to insure against risks of loss related to asset manager malfeasance and contractual indemnification and exculpation obligations; (ii) surety insurance policy intended to insure against risks of loss attendant to the transfer of alternative assets; (iii) representation and warranty insurance policy intended to insure against risk of loss related to certain representations and warranties made in

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connection with liquidity transactions; and (iv) credit risk insurance policy intended to insurance against losses related to certain loan default.
As we build our Customer base through our liquidity and financing operations, we believe that there are significant opportunities to offer adjacent products and services to these same Customers. In doing so, we would hope to build the pipes to become a digital superhighway for the financing, transferring and assigning of all forms of alternative assets for use by the 14.5 million U.S. households25 we expect26 to hold these assets in the future.
Competition
We may encounter significant competition from numerous companies in the products and services we provide and seek to develop in the alternative assets industry. Several companies, including secondary funds and other intermediaries, provide liquidity offerings to large institutional investors and ultra high-net worth investors, and they may decide to target the same target market as us. Many of these competitors may have greater resources and significantly lower costs of funds than we do because, for example, they may have access to insured deposits or greater access to the capital markets. They may also have greater market share in the markets in which we operate.
In addition, as we enter new markets such as the newly entered primary capital market, we would expect to experience significant competition from incumbent market participants. Our ability to compete in these markets will depend on our ability to deliver value-added products and services to the Customers we serve. These factors could also adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to implement our growth strategies.
25 Calculated as sum of total 2022 UHNW U.S. households and 2022 Millionaire U.S. households per CEG Insights “Wealth Market Sizing” (2023), at p. 2-3. CMG Insights defines UHNW investors as those with $5 million to $25 million net worth, not including primary residence.
26 Ben Internal expectation based on industry expert observations, commentary, and projections. For instance, McKinsey highlights the changing LP base towards the inclusion of retail investors, “Beyond growing institutional investor allocations to private equity, new sources of capital are helping to fuel growth. For example, GPs have been ramping up fundraising efforts with retail investors.” McKinsey Global Private Markets Review 2021 (2021), at pg. 20.

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Organizational Structure
Current Structure
The following simplified diagram, which excludes multiple legal entities, illustrates our organizational structure as of July 5, 2024.
Screenshot 2024-06-27 214124.jpg
We are unable to show the percent voting interest for certain entities with respect to their interests in BCH. The BCH A&R LPA provides that the business, property and affairs of BCH shall be managed under the sole, absolute and exclusive direction of its general partner, Beneficient Company Group, L.L.C. (“Ben LLC”), and the conduct, control and management of BCH shall be vested exclusively in the general partner. The BCH A&R LPA also provides that except as expressly set forth in the agreement, no limited partner shall have any right to vote on any matter affecting BCH. In the limited circumstances where the limited partners, or a class thereof, do have voting or consent rights, the voting standard varies based on the provisions in the BCH Eighth A&R LPA. Therefore, we are unable to include a percent voting interest for each entity relationship as the voting standards are not uniform.

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Eco percentage of Beneficient is based on the number of shares Class A common stock outstanding as of July 5, 2024.
Eco percentage of BCH is based upon estimated capital account balances as of March 31, 2024 as determined pursuant to Section 704 of the Internal Revenue Code, and such estimates are subject to adjustment. The estimated amounts are based on a deemed liquidation value of BCH of $1.1 billion. As a result of the consummation of the Business Combination, an adjustment to the carrying value of BCH’s assets of $321.9 million occurred. As of March 31, 2024, there has been no allocation of the carrying value adjustment among the holders of the Subclass 1 FLP Unit Accounts of BCH (“BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts”) and Subclass 2 FLP Unit Accounts of BCH (“BCH FLP-2 Unit Accounts” and together with the BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts and the BCH FLP-3 Unit Accounts (as defined herein), the “BCH FLP Unit Accounts”) and no issuance of any Class S Ordinary Units of BCH (the “BCH Class S Ordinary Units”) as a result of such adjustment. Pursuant to the BCH A&R LPA, approximately 402,382 Class S Ordinary Units would be issuable as a result of the carrying value adjustment. However, due to the Company’s Compensation Policy (as defined herein), unless waived or amended, the number of Class S Ordinary Units that may be issued in 2024 or any subsequent year in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination will be restricted and require approval of the Company’s board of directors; provided that any such Class S Ordinary Units that may not be issued in 2024 may be issued in subsequent years in accordance with the Compensation Policy. Additionally, subsequent to the Business Combination, additional carrying value adjustments occurred, and approximately 260,000 BCH Class S Ordinary Units would be issuable as a result of such carrying value adjustments, subject to the Compensation Policy. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, there has been no allocation of such carrying value adjustments among the holders of the FLP Subclass 1 Unit Accounts of BCH and the FLP Subclass 2 Unit Accounts of BCH, and no issuance of any BCH Class S Ordinary Units as a result of such adjustments.
Eco percentage illustrates economics in a liquidation scenario. Allocations of income and non-liquidating distributions are subject to differing calculations and priorities and may impact the value of economic interests. For additional information, see “Description of Securities,” which is filed as Exhibit 4.6 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(1) Each holder of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per each share of Class A common stock held of record by such holder on all matters on which stockholders generally are entitled to vote. Class A Directors will be elected by holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, voting together as a single class (the “Class A Directors”). Each share of Series A preferred stock that is then issued and outstanding is convertible, at the option of the holder thereof, into one-fourth (1/4) of a share of Class A common stock (the “Conversion Rate”) on, and only on, the later of (i) 90 days after the consummation of the Business Combination and (ii) 30 days after a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) has been declared effective with respect to the issuance of Class A common stock and Series A preferred stock upon the exercise of the Warrants (the “Conversion Date”); provided that prior to the Conversion Date, if at the time a share of Series A preferred stock is issued, the Series A preferred stock is not listed on Nasdaq, then such shares of Series A preferred stock shall automatically and immediately upon issuance convert into shares of Class A common stock at the Conversion Rate. Each holder of Series A preferred stock shall be deemed to have elected to convert those shares under such optional conversion right from Series A preferred stock into Class A common stock unless they have delivered written notice addressed to investor relations of Beneficient prior to the Conversion Date, stating that they do not wish to elect to participate in such optional conversion. For additional information, see “Description of Securities,” which is filed as Exhibit 4.6 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2) Shares of our Class B common stock are entitled to 10 votes per share in all matters on which stockholders of Beneficient generally are entitled to vote. Pursuant to the terms of the Stockholders Agreement (as defined herein), the holders of Class B common stock are also entitled to elect at least five directors to the Company’s board of directors (the directors elected by the Class B Holders, the “Class B Directors”) so long as they continue to hold a threshold number of shares of Class B common stock. For additional information, see “Description of Securities,” which is filed as Exhibit 4.6 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3) See Item 12 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more details on the current classes and series of securities of Beneficient and its subsidiaries.
(4) Certain Charities are the ultimate beneficiaries of the Customer ExAlt Trusts. For ExAlt Loans originated prior to December 7, 2021, for every $0.95 paid on each such ExAlt Loan, $0.05 is also distributed by the Customer ExAlt Trusts to a Charity. For ExAlt Loans originated on or after December 7, 2021, for every $1.00 the Customer ExAlt Trusts receive on its ownership of the exchanged Alternative Asset, $0.025 is distributed by the Customer ExAlt Trusts to an Economic Growth Zone.

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(5) Beneficient Management Partners, L.P. (“BMP”), which is owned by certain of Beneficient’s directors and senior employees, is a holder of equity interest in BCH and owns BCH FLP-2 Unit Accounts, BCH Class S Ordinary Units and the Class S Preferred Units of BCH (the “BCH Class S Preferred Units”), as described in the BCH A&R LPA. The BCH FLP-2 Unit Accounts are allocated 49.5% of (1) 15% of profits from financing activities of BCH and (2) Excess EBITDA Margin (as defined herein), which generally relates to the fee-generating businesses of Ben. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation - Basis of Presentation - Noncontrolling Interests.”
(6) Beneficient Holdings, Inc. (“BHI”), which is owned by The Highland Business Holdings Trust, of which Mr. Heppner is the trustee, and Mr. Heppner and his family are the beneficiaries, is a holder of equity interests in BCH and owns a majority of BCH Class S Ordinary Units, the BCH Class S Preferred Units, BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts, BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts and all BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts and Subclass 3 FLP Unit Accounts of BCH (“BCH FLP-3 Unit Accounts”), as described in the BCH A&R LPA. The BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts are allocated 50.5% of (1) 15% of profits from financing activities of BCH and (2) Excess EBITDA Margin, which generally relates to the fee-generating businesses of Ben. The BCH FLP-3 Unit Accounts are allocated profits from financing activities of Ben equal to the lesser of 5% of quarterly net financing revenues and 10% of the average annualized stated interest (to the extent constituting net financing revenues) of the quarterly average of new loans issued during the previous 12 months. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation - Basis of Presentation - Noncontrolling Interests.”
(7) Ben Liquidity is our primary business line operating subsidiary. Our other Ben Business Units are our complementary business lines, Ben Custody and Ben Markets.
(8) Interest and fee revenue received by Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody and interest and fee expense of the Customer ExAlt Trusts are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements.
(9) All losses attributable to downward adjustments to the carrying value of any assets of BCH and its subsidiaries, such as the goodwill impairments at the Ben Liquidity, Ben Custody, Ben Insurance, and Ben Markets reporting units of $2.4 billion for the year ended March 31, 2024, are allocated pro rata among all holders of BCH units other than the BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts, BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts and the BCH FLP Unit Accounts, until those capital accounts are reduced to zero. As a result of these allocations, the capital account balance of the BCH Class A Units indirectly held by the Company fluctuates as a result of impairments, which may reduce the amount, if any, the Company would receive upon a liquidation of BCH.
Government Supervision and Regulatory Authority
Overview. We currently are and may become further subject to extensive regulation under federal, state and international law. These laws and regulations affect the operation and performance of us and our subsidiaries. In many cases, the applicable regulatory authorities have broad enforcement powers including the power to impose substantial fines and other penalties for violations of laws and regulations. Further, these regulations impose reporting and information collections obligations. We may incur significant costs relating to compliance with these laws and regulations. The following discussion summarizes the material elements of the regulatory framework that applies, or that we expect will apply, to us and our subsidiaries. References to the applicable statutes and regulations are brief summaries thereof, do not purport to be complete, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to such statutes and regulations. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed regulation or statute will be adopted or the extent to which our business may be affected by any new regulation or statute.
In April 2021, the Kansas Legislature adopted, and the governor of Kansas signed into law, a bill that would allow for the chartering and creation of Kansas TEFFIs that provide fiduciary financing, custodian and trustee services to participants in the alternative assets market, as well as the establishment of alternative asset trusts. This legislation became effective on July 1, 2021 and designates Ben as the pilot TEFFI; however, we were not authorized to operate under the pilot program until December 31, 2021, at which time our subsidiary, BFF, was granted an operational TEFFI charter from the State of Kansas. We intend to carry on much of our business through our TEFFI. As a result of the issuance of an operating charter under the TEFFI Act to BFF on December 31, 2021, BFF has become subject to further regulation by the OSBC, including new rules and regulations that it would be expected to adopt in the near future. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. Such regulations could prove to be burdensome on our business and could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. AltAccess Securities is registered as a securities broker-dealer with the SEC, FINRA, and certain states as determined by its business. We further are seeking to obtain a license to offer insurance products, which would also result in further regulation.
On March 28, 2022, we completed the acquisition of MHT Securities, L.P. (“MHTS”), an SEC-registered broker-dealer and FINRA member, and on May 3, 2022, FINRA issued its full approval of the change in ownership of MHTS for the remaining

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change in ownership of MHTS to Ben Markets Management Holdings, L.P. and Ben Markets Corporate Holdings, L.L.C. MHTS’s name has since been changed to Beneficient Securities Company, L.P. and subsequently changed to AltAccess Securities Company, L.P. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Beneficient Capital Markets, L.L.C. (“BCM”) has not completed its New Member Application with FINRA as a broker-dealer, is not SEC-registered and has not been admitted as a FINRA member.
In addition, we are further seeking to obtain a license to offer insurance products, through another subsidiary, Ben Insurance Services, which would also result in further regulation. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Ben Insurance Services is not operational. We have filed for an insurance charter from the Commissioner of Insurance for the State of Kansas as a result of the recent adoption of legislative amendments concerning captive insurers in the State of Kansas. While another one of our subsidiaries, PEN Indemnity Insurance Company, LTD. (“PEN”), has been registered and licensed as a Class 3 insurer under the Bermuda Insurance Act of 1978, we have not sought approval from the Bermuda authorities for PEN to become operational.
Data Privacy Laws. We will collect, store, share, transfer, use and otherwise process personal data as part of our business. Privacy laws and regulations impose stringent data protection requirements on our businesses and grant residents in certain jurisdictions various rights with regard to personal information relating to them. Laws in all 50 states and other jurisdictions require businesses to provide notice to customers whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. These privacy and notification laws are not consistent, as certain laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to sensitive and personal information than other laws, and such laws may differ from each other. These privacy laws and regulations may be updated to impose additional requirements, and new laws may go into effect.
Impact of Current Laws and Regulations. The cumulative effect of the laws and regulations described in this filing, while providing certain benefits, could add significantly to the cost of our operations and thus could have a negative impact on our profitability. There has also been an expansion in recent years of financial service providers, some of which may not be subject to the examination, oversight, and other rules and regulations to which we are subject. Those providers, because they may not be so highly regulated, may have a competitive advantage over us and may continue to draw large amounts of funds away from our business, with a continuing adverse effect on the regulated financial industry in general.
Future Legislation and Regulatory Reform. From time to time, various legislative and regulatory initiatives are introduced in Congress and state legislatures. New regulations and statutes are regularly proposed that contain wide-ranging proposals for altering the structures, regulations and competitive relationships of financial institutions operating in the United States. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed regulation or statute will be adopted or the extent to which our business may be affected by any new regulation or statute. Future legislation, regulation and policies, and the effects of that legislation and regulation and those policies, may have a significant influence on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans or future prospects and the overall growth and distribution of our products and services. Such legislation, regulation and policies have had a significant effect on the operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans and future prospects of financial institutions in the past and are expected to continue to do so.
Legal and Regulatory Requirements Applicable to Kansas State Trust Companies
Overview. In April 2021, the Kansas Legislature adopted, and the governor of Kansas signed into law, the TEFFI Act, that allows for the chartering and creation of Kansas TEFFIs with fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency that provide fiduciary financing, custodian and trustee services to participants in the alternative assets market as well as the establishment of alternative asset trusts. The legislation became effective on July 1, 2021 and designates Beneficient as the pilot TEFFI.
In accordance with the above-described legislation, effective December 31, 2021, the State of Kansas issued an operating TEFFI charter to BFF. As a result of BFF’s receipt of the operating Kansas TEFFI charter, Ben’s liquidity transactions through BFF and their associated documents and agreements are subject to periodic review by the OSBC to ensure that we have complied with our fiduciary duties to our customers. In the future, BFF may become subject to further regulation by the OSBC, including new rules and regulations. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. Such regulations could prove to be burdensome on our business and could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Under the TEFFI Act, a “Technology-Enabled Fiduciary Financial Institution” or “fiduciary financial institution” means any limited liability company, limited partnership, or corporation that:
is organized to perform any one or more of the activities and services authorized by the TEFFI Act;
has been authorized to conduct business as a fiduciary financial institution under the Kansas Banking Code;

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has made, committed to make, or caused to be made a qualified investment for its principal offices within a Kansas economic growth zone; and
has committed to conduct any fiduciary financial (“fidfin”) transactions in accordance with the TEFFI Act, including the distributions required therein.
Capital Requirements. The TEFFI Act defines “capital” to mean the total of the aggregate par value of a TEFFI’s outstanding membership units, its surplus, and its undivided profits. The TEFFI Act provides the required capital for a TEFFI must be at least $250,000 when:
the TEFFI does not accept deposits, other than alternative asset custody accounts;
the TEFFI maintains no third-party debt except debts owed to the members of the fiduciary financial institution or its affiliates; and
the TEFFI has secured an agreement from its members whereby such members agree to contribute additional capital to the TEFFI if needed to ensure its safety and soundness.
A TEFFI that fails to satisfy the above-described capital requirements is subject to the capitalization requirements of Section 9-901a of the Kansas Banking Code, as generally applicable to non-TEFFI trust companies. Kansas law provides that the capital of a TEFFI shall be divided, with 60% of the amount as aggregate par value of outstanding membership units, 30% as surplus, and 10% as undivided profits.
Distributions. Pursuant to requirements of the TEFFI Act, each TEFFI must commit to structure fidfin transactions to ensure that qualified charitable distributions are made each calendar year in an aggregate amount equal to at least 2.5% of the TEFFI’s transactions originated during the taxable year.
Management and Control. The TEFFI Act requires the business of any TEFFI to be managed and controlled by such fiduciary financial institution’s board of directors. The TEFFI Act provides this board must consist of not fewer than 5 nor more than 25 members who are elected by the members at any regular annual meeting. The TEFFI Act specifies at least one director must be a resident of Kansas. The TEFFI Act also provides provisions pertaining to holding meetings that cannot occur on the date specified in the operating agreement or bylaws and meeting notice requirements. The TEFFI Act requires annual meetings of fiduciary financial institutions to be held in Kansas. The TEFFI Act permits any other meetings of such institution’s management or directors, including a meeting required by Section 9-1116 of the Kansas Banking Code (quarterly meetings), to be held in any location determined by the fiduciary financial institution’s officers or directors.
Privacy. The TEFFI Act establishes privacy protections for those establishing a fidfin trust or alternative asset custody account, in court proceedings, upon petition of the acting trustee, custodian, trustor, or any beneficiary. Upon the filing, documents would be sealed and not be part of the public record, except that the petition would be available.
Impact of Additional State and Federal Rules and Regulations applicable to TEFFIs. The TEFFI Act requires the OSBC to promulgate such rules and regulations as are necessary to administer the TEFFI Act. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. In addition, due to the relatively unique nature of TEFFIs, it is not yet clear whether or to what extent existing federal regulations that are applicable to more traditional non-depository trust companies may be determined to be applicable to TEFFIs. Future state and potentially federal rulemaking is expected to provide more clarity regarding the supervision and regulation process for TEFFIs, and may include additional regulatory requirements or obligations that are not described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed regulation will be adopted or the extent to which our business may be affected by any new regulation or governmental agency interpretation. Those regulations or interpretations may have a significant influence on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans or future prospects and the overall growth and distribution of our products and services.
Legal and Regulatory Requirements Applicable to Kansas Captive Insurers
Overview. As a result of the recent adoption of legislative amendments concerning captive insurers in the State of Kansas, Ben Insurance Services filed an application for an insurance charter from the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas. Subject to the approval of such application, Ben expects to begin transacting business as a captive insurer in Kansas promptly upon receipt of such charter. Accordingly, upon receipt of such charter, Ben Insurance Services will become subject to extensive regulation and supervision by the Kansas Insurance Department.
Generally, Kansas law provides the Kansas Insurance Department with broad authority to oversee the operations of a captive insurer, including powers over matters such as licensure, standards of solvency, investments, methods of accounting, form and content of financial statements, reinsurance, minimum capital and surplus requirements, dividends and other distributions to shareholders, payment of premium taxes, periodic examinations and annual and other report filings. Also, under certain circumstances, transactions among affiliates, including reinsurance agreements or arrangements, as well as certain third-party

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transactions, require prior regulatory approval from, or prior notice to and non-disapproval by, the Kansas Insurance Department. Certain insurance regulatory requirements are highlighted below.
In addition, increased federal or state regulatory scrutiny could lead to new legal precedents, new regulations, new practices or regulatory actions or investigations which could impact Ben Insurance Services, including with respect to its financial condition or operations.
Current Regulatory Background. Upon receipt of approval of its charter, Ben Insurance Services would be primarily governed by Article 40 of the Kansas Insurance Code (the “Kansas Captive Insurance Laws”). The Kansas Insurance Department, in deciding whether to grant Ben Insurance Service’s request for a charter, has broad discretion to determine whether Ben Insurance Services meets the applicable requirements of the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws, including whether Ben Insurance Services will have adequate premiums, assets and capital and surplus levels relative to the risks to be insured or reinsured. Further, the Kansas Insurance Department has the authority to impose other conditions to licensure in order to ensure that a captive insurer has the adequate ability to meet its obligations. A failure to meet any conditions imposed by the Kansas Insurance Department could result in a disapproval of Ben Insurance Service’s request for a charter, which would mean that Ben Insurance Services could not operate as a captive insurer in Kansas until any concerns that the Kansas Insurance Department may have are resolved.
Should the Kansas Insurance Department approve an application of Ben Insurance Services to become a Kansas captive insurer, Ben Insurance Services would need to comply with the terms of any approval order and any other conditions imposed by the Kansas Insurance Department in connection with such approval. The Kansas Captive Insurance Laws permit the Kansas Insurance Department to impose additional conditions or requirements, from time to time, on the captive insurers that it regulates, in addition to broad powers to supervise, investigate and intervene in the affairs of such companies.
Amendments to Kansas Captive Insurance Laws. In 2022, the Kansas Legislature adopted, and the governor of Kansas signed into law, certain amendments to the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws (“the TEFFI Captive Amendments”). The TEFFI Captive Amendments created a new subcategory of Kansas captive insurer called a “technology-enabled fiduciary financial institution insurance company” or “TEFFI insurance company.” Under the TEFFI Captive Amendments, a TEFFI insurance company is permitted to provide contracts of suretyship or credit insurance where the obligee under the contract of suretyship or the insured under the contract of credit insurance, as the case may be, is:
an affiliated TEFFI;
an affiliated fidfin trust; or
any other affiliated company.
In addition, a TEFFI insurance company is permitted to insure affiliated companies that are investors in an investment fund against liability, loss or damage resulting from owning an interest in an investment fund from any of the following risks:
fraud, theft or conversion of assets by a manager of an investment fund;
the obligation of an investor in an investment fund to indemnify or exculpate a manager of such investment fund;
any obligation of an affiliated technology-enabled fiduciary financial institution, affiliated fidfin trust or affiliated company to indemnify or exculpate an affiliated company or an investment fund in which any affiliated fidfin trust is an investor, or of which an affiliated fidfin trust is an affiliated company or of which any affiliated fidfin trust is a manager;
the inability of an investor to recover damages from a manager of such investment fund as a result of exculpation provisions in the governing documents of such investment fund;
breach of representations or warranties made by a transferor, assignor or investor in an investment fund in connection with a transfer or assignment of an interest in an investment fund; or
breach of an obligation of a transferor, assignor or investor in an investment fund to pass through to the transferee, assignee or substitute investor in an investment fund any and all economic benefits of a transferred or assigned interest in an investment fund.
The TEFFI Captive Amendments also permit TEFFI insurance companies to issue “payment-in-kind policies” to qualified policyholders, under which the TEFFI insurance company would have the option, in its sole discretion, to make claim payments, in whole or in part, in cash or in the form of in-kind assets rather than cash pursuant to schedules attached to the policy and agreed to in writing by the qualified policyholder.
As noted above, Ben Insurance Services has applied for a certificate of authority as a TEFFI insurance company.

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Credit for Reinsurance. Except for certain mandated provisions that must be included in order for a ceding insurer to obtain credit for reinsurance ceded, the terms and conditions of reinsurance agreements generally are not subject to regulation by any governmental authority, including the Kansas Insurance Department. This contrasts with primary insurance policies issued by licensed insurers, the rates and terms of which are regulated under Kansas law by the Kansas Insurance Department.
Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), provide that only the state in which a ceding insurer is domiciled may regulate the financial statement credit for reinsurance taken by that ceding insurer. A ceding insurer ordinarily will enter into a reinsurance agreement only if it can obtain credit for the reinsurance ceded on its U.S. statutory-basis financial statements. In general, credit for reinsurance is allowed in the following circumstances: if the reinsurer is licensed in the state in which the ceding insurer is domiciled; if the reinsurer is an “accredited” or otherwise approved reinsurer in the state in which the ceding insurer is domiciled; in some instances, if the reinsurer (a) is domiciled in a state that is deemed to have substantially similar credit for reinsurance standards as the state in which the ceding insurer is domiciled and (b) meets certain financial requirements; or if none of the above applies, to the extent that the reinsurance obligations of the reinsurer are collateralized appropriately, typically through the posting of a letter of credit for the benefit of the ceding insurer or the deposit of assets into a trust fund established for the benefit of the ceding insurer.
Should the Kansas Insurance Department approve the application of Ben Insurance Services to become a Kansas captive insurer, Ben Insurance Services will be domiciled in Kansas for credit for reinsurance purposes.
Kansas Holding Company Act. Kansas primarily regulates insurance holding company systems through Article 33 of the Kansas Insurance Code (the “Kansas Holding Company Act”). The Kansas Holding Company Act and related regulations generally provide that each insurance company in an insurance holding company system that is domiciled in Kansas is required to register with the Kansas Insurance Department and furnish information concerning the operations of companies within the holding company system that may materially affect the operations, management or financial condition of the insurers within the system. All transactions within a holding company system affecting insurers must be fair and reasonable. Notice to the Kansas Insurance Department is required prior to the consummation of certain material transactions between a Kansas-domiciled insurer and any entity in its holding company system. In addition, certain of such transactions cannot be consummated without the Kansas Insurance Department’s prior approval, or its non-disapproval after receiving the required prior notice.
The Kansas Holding Company Act generally applies to captive insurers, though in many respects the requirements of the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws supersede requirements that would otherwise be imposed by the Kansas Holding Company Act, particularly with respect to changes of control of captive insurers.
Regulation of Dividends and Similar Payments from Captive Insurers. The ability of a captive insurer to pay dividends or make other distributions to its owners is subject to prior approval from the Kansas Insurance Department. For insurers generally, Kansas law only imposes prior regulatory approval on the payment of dividends or other distributions above a specified level, but in the case of captive insurers the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws require prior regulatory approval for any distribution or dividend by a captive insurer. Such dividends or distributions may be subject to applicable withholding or other taxes.
Financial Regulation Accreditation Standards Program. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (the “NAIC”), a standard-setting and regulatory support organization governed by the insurance commissioners of all 50 U.S. states, U.S. territories and the District of Columbia, has instituted its Financial Regulation Accreditation Standards Program, (“FRASP”), in response to federal initiatives to regulate the business of insurance. FRASP provides a set of standards designed to establish effective state regulation of the financial condition of insurance companies, including captive insurers. Under FRASP, a state must adopt certain laws and regulations, institute required regulatory practices and procedures, and have adequate personnel to enforce such items in order to become an “accredited” state. If a state is not accredited, other states may not accept certain financial examination reports of insurers prepared solely by the regulatory agency in such unaccredited state. Kansas is an accredited state.
Effect of Certain Federal Laws. A number of federal laws affect and apply to the insurance industry, including various privacy laws and the economic and trade sanctions implemented by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). OFAC maintains and enforces economic sanctions against certain foreign countries and groups and prohibits U.S. persons from engaging in certain transactions with certain persons or entities. OFAC has imposed civil penalties on persons, including insurance and reinsurance companies, arising from violations of its economic sanctions program.
Legislative and Regulatory Proposals. From time to time, various regulatory and legislative changes have been, and will be, proposed in the insurance and reinsurance industry. Among the proposals that have been considered is the possible introduction of federal regulation in addition to, or in lieu of, the current system of state regulation of insurers and the NAIC.

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In addition, there are a variety of proposals being considered by various state legislatures. An ongoing area of work at the NAIC is the consideration of enhanced methods of group supervision. It is not possible to predict the future impact of any potential state or federal laws or regulations on Ben Insurance Services’ capital and operations, and such laws or regulations could materially adversely affect Ben Insurance Services’ business.
Legal and Regulatory Requirements Applicable to Broker-Dealers
AltAccess Securities is registered as a securities broker-dealer with the SEC, FINRA, and certain states as determined by its business operations.
Much of the regulation of broker-dealers has been delegated by the SEC to self-regulatory organizations such as FINRA. FINRA adopts rules (which are subject to approval by the SEC) for governing its members and the industry. Broker-dealers are also subject to federal securities laws and SEC rules, as well as the laws and rules of the states in which a broker-dealer conducts business. The laws and regulations to which broker-dealers are subject cover all aspects of its securities business, including, but not limited to, sales and trading practices, net capital requirements, record keeping and reporting procedures, relationships and conflicts with customers, restrictions on new business lines without regulatory approval, restrictions on cash withdrawals and distributions, investment banking activities, experience and training requirements for certain employees, and the conduct and supervision of registered persons, officers and employees. Broker-dealers are also subject to privacy, disaster recovery and anti-money laundering laws and regulations.
The principal purpose of regulation, oversight and discipline of broker-dealers is the protection of customers and the securities markets rather than protection of creditors and stockholders of broker-dealers. Additional legislation, changes in rules promulgated by the SEC, securities exchanges, self-regulatory organizations such as FINRA or states, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, often directly affect the method of operation and profitability of broker-dealers. These governmental and self-regulatory organizations may conduct routine examinations, for-cause examinations, investigations and administrative and enforcement proceedings that can result in censure, fine, profit disgorgement, monetary penalties, suspension, revocation of registration or expulsion of broker-dealers, their registered persons, officers or employees.
Changing Regulatory Environment. The regulatory environment in which AltAccess Securities operates is subject to frequent change. Our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected as a result of new or revised legislation or regulations imposed by the U.S. Congress, the SEC, FINRA or other U.S. and state governmental and regulatory authorities. The business, financial condition and operating results of AltAccess Securities also may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing laws and rules by these governmental and regulatory authorities. In the current era of heightened regulation of financial institutions, including broker-dealers, AltAccess Securities can expect to incur increasing compliance costs, along with the industry as a whole.
Regulation Best Interest (“Regulation BI”) and Form CRS Relationship Summary. Effective beginning June 2020, the SEC elevated the standard of care for broker-dealers from the current “suitability” requirement to a “best interest” standard when making a recommendation of any securities transaction, or investment strategy involving securities, to a retail customer. The “best interest” standard requires a broker-dealer to make recommendations to retail customers without putting its financial interests ahead of the interests of a retail customer. In connection with Regulation BI, the SEC also adopted a related form called a Form CRS Relationship Summary (“Form CRS”), which requires broker-dealers to deliver to retail investors a succinct, plain English summary about the relationship and services provided by the firm and the required standard of conduct associated with the relationship and services. In connection with adopting Regulation BI, the SEC added new record-making and recordkeeping rules. While the SEC and FINRA have provided some guidance regarding Regulation BI, including findings from certain exams, the interpretation and enforcement of such new regulations carry uncertainties and AltAccess Securities compliance with Regulation BI may result in increased compliance costs and potential future liability if the SEC or FINRA disagree with how AltAccess Securities has interpreted or implemented compliance with Regulation BI.
1940 Act Considerations
The Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), defines an “investment company” as an issuer that is engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns investment securities having a value exceeding 40 percent of the issuer’s unconsolidated assets, excluding cash items and securities issued by the federal government. While we believe that a reasonable investor would conclude that we are not engaged primarily in investing in securities based on our business plan, since our subsidiary, BFF, received an operating trust company charter from the State of Kansas as a fiduciary financial institution within the State of Kansas, we currently fall under the Section 3(c)(3) exemption under the 1940 Act applicable to banks and insurance companies.

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Intellectual Property
We protect the intellectual property associated with our liquidity products, trust services, Ben Markets portal, and other aspects of our business described in the “Business Lines” section above through trademarks, copyrights, domain names, and patents.
As of July 5, 2024, we own 19 trademark registrations in the United States for our BEN house mark and for several sub-brands related to our business. These registrations will continue in force as long as we file the necessary maintenance documents required by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”). It is our customary practice to maintain all registrations for marks that remain in use. We also own 9 active trademark applications in the United States that we are currently prosecuting through the trademark office towards registration.
As of July 5, 2024, we own three copyright registrations in the United States for our proprietary software platforms.
We also have registered domain names for websites that we use in our business, including the domain name <trustben.com>.
As of July 5, 2024, we have 8 pending non-provisional U.S. utility patent applications on certain of our systems and processes underlying our liquidity products and trust services. These U.S. utility patent applications are pending and cover the liquidity structure, underwriting, and risk assessment and reduction aspects of our business. If granted, each U.S. utility patent will have a limited duration of twenty years from its respective non-provisional application priority date.
Human Capital Management
Total Compensation and Rewards
We seek to provide competitive compensation and benefits, which is intended to include market-based pay that is competitive for our industry. We offer a full complement of health and welfare benefits such as health, dental, vision, life insurance and AD&D. A 401(k)-retirement plan is also offered. In addition, we promote equity ownership for our employees through various programs, including the Beneficient 2023 Long Term Incentive Plan (the “2023 Incentive Plan”). The Beneficient Company Group, L.P. 2018 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2018 Equity Incentive Plan” or the “2018 Plan”), which was assumed by Beneficient in connection with the Conversion and the BMP Equity Incentive Plan (the “BMP Equity Incentive Plan”), as amended from time to time.
Workforce Culture
We focus on building a workforce that is responsive to customer needs, attentive to being efficient and cost conscious for our financial stakeholders, and innovative in seeking to create new products and services in the industry. We recruit from a variety of channels to search for diverse talent and seek to build a culture reflective of our core values of teamwork, trust and trailblazing. We actively support equal opportunity employment and provide a working environment of equity and inclusion for all employees.
Employees
We employed approximately 80 employees as of June 3, 2024.
Reverse Stock Split
On November 28, 2023, we received a letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of Nasdaq (the “Nasdaq Staff”) notifying the Company that, because the bid price for our Class A common stock had closed below $1.00 per share for the prior 30 consecutive business days, we were not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1), which is the minimum bid price requirement for continued listing on the Nasdaq Global Market. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we were provided a 180-calendar day period, or until May 28, 2024, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. Effective February 26, 2024, the Company transferred from the Nasdaq Global Market to the Nasdaq Capital Market. To regain compliance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules, following stockholder approval, the Company effected the Reverse Stock Split at a ratio of eighty (80) to one (1) on April 18, 2024, at which time our Class A common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market on a post-split basis. The Company regained compliance with the minimum bid price requirement of the Nasdaq Listing Rules on May 2, 2024, by having the closing bid price of our Class A common stock exceed $1.00 for a minimum of ten consecutive trading days during the compliance period.
In connection with the Reverse Stock Split, on April 11, 2024, the Company, in its capacity as the sole managing member and the sole non-managing member of Ben LLC, entered into and adopted the Second Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of Beneficient Company Group, L.L.C. (the “Ben LLC A&R LLCA”), which became effective on April 18, 2024, simultaneously with the effectiveness of the Reverse Stock Split. The Ben LLC A&R LLCA provides that, among other things, in the event that the Company at any time (i) subdivides (by any stock split, dividend, recapitalization or otherwise), the outstanding shares of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock, as applicable) of the Company into a greater number of shares, Ben LLC shall (A) cause the issuance of additional Class A Units of Ben

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LLC (the “Ben LLC Class A Units”) and (B) cause BCH to issue additional BCH Class A Units (and such other limited partner interests, if any, as determined by Ben LLC in its capacity as general partner of BCH to be appropriate), in both cases to reflect the increase in the number of shares of Common Stock of the Company outstanding, and (ii) combines (by combination, reverse split or otherwise) the outstanding shares of Class A common stock (and Class B common stock, as applicable) of the Company into a smaller number of shares, Ben LLC shall (A) cause a reduction in the number of Ben LLC Class A Units outstanding and (B) cause BCH to reduce the number of BCH Class A Units (and such other limited partner interests, if any, as determined by Ben LLC in its capacity as the general partner of BCH to be appropriate), in both cases to reflect the decrease in the number of shares of Common Stock of the Company outstanding.
Also in connection with the Reverse Stock Split, on April 11, 2024, Ben LLC, in its capacity as the sole general partner of BCH, entered into and adopted the Ninth Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of BCH, which became effective on April 18, 2024 (the “BCH Ninth A&R LPA”), simultaneously with the effectiveness of the Reverse Stock Split. The BCH Ninth A&R LPA provides for, among other things, (i) the combination of certain units of BCH in connection with the Reverse Stock Split and the corresponding reverse unit split of the Ben LLC Class A Units as well as amendments to the definition of the Preferred Series A Subclass 0 Unit Conversion Price and Preferred Series A Subclass 1 Unit Conversion Price (each as defined in the BCH Ninth A&R LPA) and (ii) remove references to the previously authorized BCH Preferred C-1 Unit Accounts, which are no longer outstanding.
ITEM 1A — RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a variety of risks, some of which are specific to us and some of which are inherent to the industry in which we operate. The following risks and other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” should be read carefully before investing in our securities. These risks may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. Many of these risks are out of our direct control, though efforts are made to manage those risks while optimizing financial results. These risks are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are not aware of or focused on or that we currently deem immaterial may also adversely affect our business and operations. This Annual Report on Form 10-K is qualified in its entirety by all these risk factors. References in this section to the “Company,” “Ben,” “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Beneficient and its subsidiaries.
Risks Related to Our Business
Risks Related to Our Liquidity Products Business
We have experienced net losses, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We have a history of net losses. We generated a net loss, calculated in accordance with U.S generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), of approximately $2.7 billion and $252.1 million for the years ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
We have not achieved profitability, and we may not realize sufficient revenue to achieve profitability in future periods. Our expenses will likely increase in the future as we develop and launch new offerings and platform features, expand into existing and new markets, increase our marketing efforts and continue to invest in our platform. These efforts may be more costly than we expect and may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and manage our expenses, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We may not be able to grow, effectively manage our growth, or achieve profitability.
A principal focus of our strategy is to serve our Customer’s unmet need for liquidity for their otherwise illiquid alternative assets. Our future growth depends upon a number of factors, many of which are beyond our ability to control. These factors include our ability to:
compete against other Customer liquidity solutions and other vendors;
maintain the quality of our trust administration products and services;
effectively manage our financing underwriting and risk criteria and collateral diversification, including with effective risk management discipline;
update our products and offerings and develop new products and offerings for which our Customers will be willing to exchange their alternative assets;

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properly scale our internal organization and infrastructure to accommodate the development and commercialization of our existing products and products in development; and
hire, train and retain qualified personnel to manage and operate our business as it is expected to grow.
A deficiency in any of these factors could adversely affect our ability to achieve or manage growth or profitability and generate distributable cash flow.
Difficult market conditions can cause investors to reduce or suspend their investments in alternative assets or their desire to liquidate alternative assets they hold, which could adversely affect our business.
Our business depends upon the health of the market for investments in alternative assets. During economic downturns, alternative asset owners may suffer from decreasing returns (including negative returns and loss of principal investment), liquidity pressure, increased volatility and difficulty maintaining targeted asset allocations, and investors may decrease or suspend making new fund investments during and after such periods. As the economy begins to recover from these periods, investors may elect to reduce their exposure to alternative investments, resulting in a smaller overall pool of potential future Customers in the industry and Customers for our products and services in the future. In the event all or part of this occurs, when trying to find new Customers, we will be competing for fewer available alternative assets to administer in an increasingly competitive environment, which could lead to terms less favorable to us as well as difficulty in reaching new Customers. Such changes could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
The due diligence process that we undertake in connection with any liquidity transaction may or may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with such liquidity transaction.
In deciding whether to enter into a liquidity transaction with a Customer, we conduct due diligence that we deem reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each transaction. When conducting due diligence, we may be required to evaluate important and complex business, financial, tax, accounting, technological, governance, legal and regulatory issues. In addition to our employees, outside consultants, legal advisors and accountants may be involved in the due diligence process in varying degrees depending on the type of alternative asset and the parties involved. Further, after Ben Liquidity has closed on certain liquidity transactions, some private fund managers have not consistently provided us with all requisite information to value and monitor collateral positions effectively. Despite our efforts, the results of our due diligence may not be complete and accurate or, even if complete and accurate, may not be sufficient to identify the appropriate underwriting criteria. Additionally, we could be provided with insufficient ongoing information to value and monitor our positions on an ongoing basis, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information from and about our Customers.
When making an assessment regarding the alternative assets underlying a potential liquidity transaction, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of our Customers, including financial statements and other financial information with respect to the character, value and other aspects of the alternative assets. We also may rely on representations of our Customers as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. For example, in connection with liquidity transactions, we may rely on documents provided by a Customer that provide information such as the net asset value of an underlying alternative asset. We also rely, and will continue to rely, on Customer representations and certifications, or other audit or accountants’ reports, with respect to the business and financial condition of the alternative assets underlying liquidity transaction. While we believe that our underwriting process is thorough and robust, our necessary reliance on Customers may not include, reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including bribery, fraud or other illegal activities) or risks that are necessary or helpful in evaluating such transaction opportunity. Instances of bribery, fraud, accounting irregularities and other improper, illegal or corrupt practices can be difficult to detect and may be more widespread in certain jurisdictions. Our financial condition, results of operations, financial reporting and reputation could be negatively affected if we rely on materially misleading, false, inaccurate or fraudulent information.
Our fair value estimates of illiquid alternative assets may not accurately estimate prices obtained at the time we enter into a liquidity transaction, and we cannot provide assurance that the values of the alternative assets underlying such liquidity transactions that we report from time to time will be realized.
Asset valuations for which there is no readily available market, such as the illiquid alternative assets comprising the Collateral, require estimates and assumptions about matters that are inherently uncertain. Given this uncertainty, the fair values of such assets as reflected in estimated net asset value may not reflect the prices that would actually be obtained if and when such assets are sold.
Our valuation of the assets underlying a potential liquidity transaction may be incorrect due to beliefs or assumptions underlying the data upon which we rely or because such data is stale or incomplete. We base our estimates of the fair value of

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the alternative assets in the collateral on the fund reported net asset value reported to us by the underlying fund managers, who may employ a number of methodologies and policies, including the nature of the investment, the expected cash flows from the investment, the length of time the investment has been held, restrictions on transfer and other valuation methodologies. As there is no single method for determining fair value, there may be significant variations in the valuation policies used by different fund managers for the Collateral. Due to time lags in receiving valuation information from fund managers, we typically do not and will not have up-to-date information from all underlying funds at the time we calculate the fair value of the alternative assets underlying the liquidity transactions. As such, our ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio may, at any given time, have exposures that are outside of our concentration guidelines to reflect, among other things, attractive financing opportunities, limited availability of assets, or other business reasons. We typically are not aware of all material developments at a fund or our underlying portfolio companies that could adversely affect the value of the interests in funds comprising the Collateral.
Even if market quotations are available for the alternative assets underlying any liquidity transaction, such quotations may not reflect the value that could actually be realized due to various factors, including the possible illiquidity associated with a large ownership position, subsequent illiquidity in the market for a company’s securities, future market price volatility or the potential for a future loss in market value. For example, because the alternative assets held by our potential Customers may be in industries or sectors that are unstable, in distress or undergoing some uncertainty, such alternative assets are subject to rapid changes in value caused by sudden company-specific or industry-wide developments. Realizations at values significantly lower than the fair values recorded in our financial statements could have a material adverse effect on the net asset value of the alternative asset, and therefore the value of the beneficial interests and the corresponding liquidity transactions and the ability to receive payment on our loans.
We depend on the use of data and modeling in our decision-making, and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is endemic to financing decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is intrinsic to our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, risk management efforts, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. We often utilize qualitatively driven stress testing of financial health under various market scenarios and anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision- making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.
Restrictions on our ability to collect and analyze data regarding our customers’ alternative assets could adversely affect our business.
The collateral includes cash flows relating to interests in alternative assets. We depend on the continuation of our relationships with the GPs and sponsors of the underlying funds and investments in order to maintain current data on these alternative assets and realize the value of our interest. The deterioration or termination of such relationships or the imposition of restrictions on our ability to use the data we obtain for our reporting and monitoring services could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be required to omit alternative asset limited partnership agreement information from our underwriting process.
As a part of our underwriting process, we collect information available to us about funds and their performance, and we use machine learning to process it and make it available to us when making underwriting decisions. It is possible that a general partner or other investor in the respective limited partnership could deem this analysis as outside of the agreement’s permitted use and require us to remove this information from our underwriting process. Removing these terms could slow and negatively impact the underwriting process, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and business operations.
Our liquidity, profitability and business may be adversely affected by concentrations of assets comprising the Collateral.
The collateral base backing Ben Liquidity’s portfolio of loans is held in a special purpose collective collateral trust or series of such trusts (the “Collective Trust”) designed to manage and risk-optimize the collateral as it grows over time. In seeking to mitigate balance sheet risk, we intend to maintain concentration limits of our collateral by Ben Liquidity’s management of its loan inventory and prioritizing underwriting based on portfolio and asset risk ratings as well as evaluations of asset type and class, fund manager, stage of investment, industry segment, geography, maturity, vintage year and public versus private

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exposure, among other factors, to result in an endowment-based model for diversification. However, our efforts may not be effective, or our risk management guidelines or other underwriting tools may be flawed, and as a result, the collateral may be concentrated in certain issuers, funds, sectors, geographic regions, countries, or asset types, among other factors, which could negatively affect performance as well as our financial results, including our capital position, earnings, cash flows, and growth. Because of such concentrations, we may suffer losses even when economic and market conditions are generally favorable. In addition, although we seek to reduce volatility through the use of our proprietary ExAlt Plan structure that aggregates a diversified pool of alternative asset collateral in the Collective Trust so as to avoid reliance from a cash flow perspective in any one loan on any one underlying alternative asset, we may not obtain optimal diversification due to market and other factors out of our control.
Usage of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into Class A common stock as consideration for investments in alternative asset funds may create significant volatility in our investment income and the price of our Class A common stock.
Since becoming a public company, we have issued shares of our Class A common stock and various series of our convertible preferred stock as consideration in our liquidity financing transactions. To the extent the Customer ExAlt Trusts utilize our Class A common stock or securities convertible into Class A common stock as consideration for investments in alternative asset funds, our investment income and the price of Class A common stock may become more volatile. In the event the value of our securities becomes a larger portion of the total assets of the alternative asset funds with which we transact, distributions from such funds may be affected by changes in value of our Class A common stock. As a result, while an increase in the price of our Class A common stock may result in additional distributions and investment income to us as a result of an increase in the aggregate value of the assets held by alternative asset funds with which we transact, a decline in our Class A common stock price could result in significant decreases in the aggregate value of the assets held by such alternative asset funds with which we transact, resulting in fewer distributions to us and/or a decrease in investment income, which could even further depress the trading price of our Class A common stock.
We have historically had a substantial amount of goodwill and intangible assets, and we have been, and may in the future be, required to write down any remaining value of our intangible assets and goodwill due to impairment, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our total assets historically have been comprised of goodwill and intangible assets that arose from a series of transactions with GWG and relate principally to our Ben Liquidity business. We perform goodwill and intangible asset impairment annually, during the fourth quarter of each year, or when events occur, or circumstances change that would more likely than not indicate impairment has occurred, including a significant substantial decline in the prevailing price of our Class A common stock. Subsequent to our public listing on June 8, 2023, and through the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company has experienced a significant sustained decline in the price of its Class A common stock and its related market capitalization. We believe that these factors indicated that the fair value of our reporting units had more likely than not fallen below their carrying values as of June 30, 2023, September 30, 2023, December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2024. As such, management performed impairment tests of goodwill as of June 30, 2023, September 30, 2023, December 31, 2023 and March 31, 2023, which resulted in $1.1 billion, $306.7 million, $883.2 million and $68.1 million, respectively, of impairment impacting the Ben Liquidity, Ben Custody, Ben Insurance, and Ben Markets reporting units. Because a number of factors may influence determinations of fair value of goodwill and our intangible assets, including the price of our Class A common stock, which has continued to decline since our public listing, there can be no assurance that our future evaluations of goodwill and intangible assets will not result in findings of significant impairment and related write-downs, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. As of March 31, 2024, remaining goodwill totaled $13.6 million.
In assessing impairment, the Company computed the fair value of each reporting unit by computing the overall enterprise value of the Company by valuing its various equity instruments, primarily based on the Class A common stock price per share. The overall enterprise value was allocated to each reporting unit using the discounted cash flow method to estimate the relative value of each reporting unit based on their future cash flows using a multi-year forecast, and a terminal value calculated using a long-term growth rate that was informed based on our industry, analyst reports of a public company peer set, current and expected future economic conditions and management expectations. The discount rate used to discount these future cash flows was determined using a capital asset pricing model based on the market value of equity of a public company peer set, adjusted for risk characteristics and expectations specific to the reporting unit, combined with an assessment of the cost of debt. The discount rates used for each reporting unit ranged from: 24.8% to 25.6% for June 30, 2023; from 25.3% to 26.2% for September 30, 2023; from 26.3% to 27.2% for December 31, 2023; and from 28.0% to 29.3% for March 31, 2024. The Company applied a terminal year long-term growth rate of 3.0% for each reporting unit during each of the interim impairment assessments. Subsequent to the impairment through March 31, 2024, remaining goodwill relates to Ben Custody and Ben Markets. There was no excess of reporting unit fair value over carrying value for Ben Custody or Ben Markets as of March 31, 2024.

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Future valuations, to the extent necessary, of the enterprise value may use different valuation methodologies than the methodology employed during the impairment tests conducted in fiscal 2024, including the income approach, which would heavily incorporate management’s estimate of discounted cash flow. With all valuations, our assumptions reflect management’s best estimates of future performance. Further valuations involving estimates, specifically to the extent they may utilize management’s estimates of discounted cash flow, could assume that we capture a significant market share of liquidity transactions leading to a substantial rate of growth of new service offerings and products, revenues and assets. These estimations are uncertain to occur, and to the extent we fall short of achieving our expected growth in revenues and assets, material impairments of our goodwill or intangibles may occur in the near term. Additionally, any litigation relating to our transactions with GWG could have a material adverse on our ability to execute on our business plan, which could have an effect on the value of our goodwill and intangibles. While management can and has implemented its business plans, a failure to further execute our business plans or adverse changes in management’s forecasts, to the extent used in future valuations, could result in a decline in our estimated fair value and could result in an impairment of our goodwill or intangible assets. A significant sustained decrease in the Company’s common stock has in the past been an indicator, and in the future may indicate, that impairment is present and may require a quantitative impairment assessment of the Company’s assets, including goodwill and intangible assets. Any such future impairment charges for goodwill or other intangibles may reduce the overall assets and may result in a change in the perceived value of the Company and ultimately may be reflected as a reduction in the market price of our securities. Any impairment charge would adversely impact the income (loss) allocable to Ben’s equity holders. Additionally, an impairment charge may also adversely influence our ability to raise capital in the future. Further, primarily as a result of the impairment of our goodwill, we have a negative amount of stockholders’ equity as of March 31, 2024. To the extent the negative stockholders’ equity balance persists, the ability of the Company to remain listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market may be impacted.
Allocations of write downs in the value of our intangible assets and goodwill due to impairment will result in a decrease in the capital account balance of the BCH Class A Units indirectly held by the Company.
Pursuant to the terms of the BCH A&R LPA, upward adjustments to the carrying value of any assets of BCH and its subsidiaries are first, allocated to the holders of the BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts (50.5%) and the BCH FLP-2 Unit Accounts (49.5%) up to an amount equal to 15% of the aggregate capital account balances of all outstanding BCH Class A Units and BCH Class S Ordinary Units and the BCH Class S Preferred Units (together, the “BCH Class S Units”), inclusive of the amount of such upward adjustment, less any prior allocations of upward adjustments; second, allocated among the holders of the BCH Class A Units and the BCH Class S Units in an amount necessary to cause the capital account balances of each series of the BCH Class A Units to be equal to the capital account balances of each series of the BCH Class S Units; and third, pro rata among all outstanding units of BCH, except the BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts, BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts and the BCH FLP Unit Accounts.
However, all losses attributable to downward adjustments to the carrying value of any assets of BCH and its subsidiaries, such as when equity securities of BCH are issued at a lower price than the prior issuance, are allocated pro rata among all holders of BCH Units other than the BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts, BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts and the BCH FLP Unit Accounts. As a result of these allocations, the capital account balance of the BCH Class A Units indirectly held by the Company, as well as the capital account balances of the BCH Class S Ordinary Units and the BCH Class S Preferred Units, may decrease due to downward adjustments to the carrying value, which may reduce the amount, if any, the Company would receive upon a liquidation of BCH.
Our business may face substantial competition from a variety of financial solution companies and other liquidity providers.
We may face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of competitors, many of which are larger, have an established track record and reputation, and may have more financial resources. We are aiming to serve a largely untapped emerging market for individuals and STMI, and other providers of financial products and services and trust administration could seek to compete with us, such as asset managers and their private equity affiliates, insurance companies and a growing list of other local, regional and national institutions which offer financial products and services and trust administration. For instance, one or more of our competitors providing liquidity for alternative assets to larger institutions could enter our market and may seek to obtain a Kansas TEFFI charter, which would limit one of our significant competitive advantages.
While we believe that our ability to finance liquidity transactions through the issuance of securities and potentially from our balance sheet, transaction efficiency, underwriting and risk management processes and low holding cost structure allow us to provide fair liquidity value to Customers whose needs are unmet by the current market, there can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve or maintain a cost advantage over our competitors. If we are not able to achieve, or if our cost structure changes, and as a result, we are not able to maintain a cost advantage over our competitors, this could have a material adverse effect on our ability to execute our strategy, as well as on our results of operations and financial condition. Even if our cost

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structure does not increase, other providers of financial products and services, trust administration and other institutions that do not currently compete with us could become a direct competitor and may leverage their established track record, reputation and extensive resources. If we are unable to compete effectively, we could lose market share and income.
Poor performance of our collateral would cause a decline in our revenue, income and cash flow and could adversely affect our ability to raise capital for future liquidity transactions.
Ben Liquidity’s liquidity transactions are structured whereby a subsidiary of Ben Liquidity extends loans to Customer ExAlt Trusts collateralized by the collateral and a subsidiary of Ben Custody provides administrative services to the trustees who administer the exchanged alternative assets and Collateral. The proceeds of such loan received by the Customer ExAlt Trusts are ultimately delivered to the Customer in the form of consideration required by the specific liquidity product selected by such Customer. The cash flows from the alternative asset that the Customer ExAlt Trusts acquire from the Customer support the repayment of the loans plus any related interest and fees.
The primary source of repayment for the ExAlt Loans and related fees is cash flows from the interests comprising the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio underlying the Collateral. Should the performance of the collateral underlying our loan portfolio generate insufficient returns to repay the outstanding principal and interest of a loan, the Customer ExAlt Trusts may default on the loan. Although Ben Liquidity uses a comprehensive approach to price the net value of liquidity transactions before entering into them and elects to finance liquidity transaction that will promote collateral diversity among the pooled interests held in the Collective Trusts, there is no guarantee that the collateral will perform well or that, even if most of the collateral performs well, that the Collective Trusts will generate positive returns over a particular time period. If the collateral does not perform well or if the Collective Trusts as a whole does not perform well, our revenue, income, cash flow and resources available for operations would decline and Ben Liquidity’s ability to enter into new liquidity transactions would be impaired.
Transfer restrictions applicable to alternative assets may prevent us from being able to attract a sufficient number of Customers to achieve our business goals.
Many alternative assets contain stringent transfer restrictions imposed by the issuing entity, which may prevent the transfer of alternative assets following a liquidity transaction or from entering into liquidity transactions with our Customers. Such restrictions may result in us not being able to attract a sufficient number of Customers or liquidity transactions and, as a result, our revenues and profitability could be adversely affected.
We are subject to repayment risk in connection with our liquidity transactions.
Ben Liquidity’s loans do not require repayment prior to maturity, and we are exposed to the risk that certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts indebted to BFF or other subsidiaries will not fulfill their obligations. These parties may default on their obligations to us due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure or other reasons. A failure of a significant market participant, or even concerns about a default by such an institution, could lead to significant liquidity problems, losses or defaults by other institutions, which in turn could adversely affect our business and/ or financial position.
We have debt outstanding that could adversely affect our financial flexibility and subjects us to restrictions and limitations that could significantly impact our ability to operate our business.
As of March 31, 2024, we had approximately $120.5 million of debt (including unamortized premium thereon), which is derived from (i) borrowings under that certain Credit and Guaranty Agreement, dated October 19, 2023 (the “HH-BDH Credit Agreement”), with HH-BDH LLC (“HH-BDH”), as administrative agent, an entity affiliated with Mr. Thomas O. Hicks, who is a member of our board of directors; and (ii) borrowings under the Second Amended and Restated First Lien Credit Agreement (as amended, “First Lien Credit Agreement”) and the Second Amended and Restated Second Lien Credit Agreement (as amended, “Second Lien Credit Agreement,” collectively, the “HCLP Loan Agreement” or the “HCLP Loan”) with its lender, HCLP Nominees, L.L.C (“HCLP”), which is an indirect subsidiary of Highland Consolidated, LP. The majority of HCLP is indirectly owned by The Highland Investment Holdings Trust, of which Mr. Heppner and his family are the beneficiaries. Mr. Heppner is a trustee but does not possess any discretionary authority with respect to the management, distribution or administration of the trust’s current assets (including HCLP). The level of debt outstanding each period could adversely affect our financial flexibility. We also bear risk at the time our debt matures. Our ability to make interest and principal payments, to refinance our debt obligations and to fund our purchase of alternative assets and planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash from operations. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control, such as an environment of rising interest rates.
Furthermore, in the past, we have sought to extend the maturity date of our secured loans with HCLP and have paid fees in connection with this extension. We may need to amend our HH-BDH Credit Agreement and the HCLP Loan Agreement in the future and may incur additional amendment fees as a result. If the Company incurs additional debt or liabilities, or if we

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are unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities, the Company’s ability to pay its obligations on its debt could be adversely affected.
We face risks related to the total return interest aspect of our business model.
For substantially all of Ben Liquidity’s liquidity transactions to date, in exchange for agreed-upon consideration, all of our Customer’s total economic and contractual interests (collectively, the “Total Return Interest”) are initially transferred to certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts in advance of the approval for the transaction by the underlying alternative assets’ general partner. Although the Customer establishes a depository bank account administered by Ben Custody that receives distributions on the exchanged alternative asset following closing and executes a power of attorney permitting Ben Custody to work to secure appropriate consent to transfer the underlying alternative assets and agrees to cooperate with us with respect to the transfer title of alternative assets, we still face risks with respect to the Total Return Interest.
A substantial portion of the interests of the Customer ExAlt Trusts are governed by these arrangements and have yet to be transferred on the books and records of the applicable fund, and they may not be transferred for lengthy periods of time following the closing of a liquidity transaction. In the event that one of our Customers is insolvent at or following entry into a liquidity transaction, there is a risk that the transfer of the Customer’s alternative assets could be deemed a fraudulent conveyance and could be unwound, which could require certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts to return the alternative asset or forfeit its right to the Total Return Interest, both of which provide the cash flow comprising part of the Collateral, in exchange for the consideration originally provided to the Customer, among other possibilities. Furthermore, in the event that a Customer breaches their obligations to us or otherwise tries to defraud us Ben Liquidity or certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts may be required to resort to legal remedies to enforce the terms of the Customer agreements under such circumstances, and such legal remedies may not succeed or could be expensive to enforce, which could impact the value of the collateral and the performance of Ben Liquidity’s loans.
Certain of our ordinary course liquidity transactions utilizing the issuance of shares of Class A Common Stock are subject to Nasdaq listing rules and require stockholder approval under certain circumstances.
Our ability to issue shares of our Class A common stock to provide liquidity for holders of alternative assets are subject to Nasdaq’s listing rules and stockholder approvals may be required for (a) certain issuances of equity in connection with the acquisition of stock or assets of another company or (b) any transaction for cash that is not considered a public offering (as defined in Nasdaq listing rules).
Shareholder approval is required prior to the issuance of securities in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company if: (1) where, due to the present or potential issuance of common stock, including shares issued pursuant to an earn-out provision or similar type of provision, or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock, other than a public offering for cash: (A) the common stock has or will have upon issuance voting power equal to or in excess of 20% of the voting power outstanding before the issuance of stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock; or (B) the number of shares of common stock to be issued is or will be equal to or in excess of 20% of the number of shares of common stock outstanding before the issuance of the stock or securities; or (2) any director, officer or substantial shareholder of the Company (as defined in the Nasdaq listing rules) has a 5% or greater interest (or such persons collectively have a 10% or greater interest), directly or indirectly, in the Company or assets to be acquired or in the consideration to be paid in the transaction or series of related transactions and the present or potential issuance of common stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock, could result in an increase in outstanding common shares or voting power of 5% or more.
For transactions other than public offerings, Nasdaq also requires stockholder approval prior to the issuance or potential issuance of common stock (or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock) at a price per share that is less than the “Minimum Price” if the issuance (together with sales by our officers, directors and substantial shareholders (as defined in Nasdaq listing rules)) would equal 20% or more of our Class A common stock outstanding before the first issuance in the transaction. Under Nasdaq rules, the “Minimum Price” means a price that is the lower of (i) the closing price of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement; or (ii) the average closing price of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market for the five trading days immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement. If we are required to seek stockholder approval for our liquidity transactions, it would require substantial resources and could delay such transactions, which may materially and adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan, and there is no guarantee our stockholders ultimately would approve a proposed transaction.

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We are subject to U.S. federal, state and other securities laws and regulations which, among other things, limit or place certain requirements on the use of debt or equity securities as part of the consideration to be received by Customers in exchange for their alternative assets or Total Return Interest thereon; failure to comply with these laws, or changes to these laws may have a material adverse effect on our operations and our profitability.
Federal and state securities laws and regulations place limitations, registration requirements and other requirements on the use of debt or equity securities as part of the consideration to be received by Customers in exchange for their alternative assets or Total Return Interest thereon. Such securities either need to be registered under the Securities Act or issued or offered in reliance upon an exemption therefrom, such as the exemptive provisions of Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act and Regulation D under the Securities Act. Reliance on such exemptions may limit the types of Customers who may participate in certain of our ExAlt Plan Exchange product offerings and the scope of marketing or solicitation efforts which we may engage in connection therewith.
Similar securities registration or qualification requirements, and exemptions, may be applicable under state securities laws. No assurance can be given that any offering of the type contemplated by us under our ExAlt Plan Exchange products currently qualifies or will continue to qualify under one or more of such exemptive provisions due to, among other things, the adequacy of disclosure and the manner of distribution, the existence of similar offerings in the past or in the future, or a change in any securities law or regulation that has retroactive effect. If, and to the extent that, claims or suits for rescission are brought and successfully concluded for failure to register any offering or other offerings or for acts or omissions constituting offenses under the Securities Act, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or applicable state securities laws, we could be materially adversely affected, jeopardizing our ability to operate successfully. Furthermore, our human and capital resources could be adversely affected by the need to defend actions under these laws, even if we are ultimately successful in our defense.
The custody trusts may require additional liquidity to fund capital contributions. If adequate capital is not available, our business, operating results and financial condition may be negatively affected.
Our Customers, or following closing of liquidity transactions, certain of the custody trusts, are contractually obligated to contribute capital to certain alternative assets comprising the collateral supporting Ben Liquidity’s loans. Our financing subsidiary has committed to lend money to Customer ExAlt Trusts to fund certain capital calls of the exchanged alternative assets. The timing of the obligation to contribute capital is at the discretion of the sponsors on the alternative assets and is typically triggered by the issuance of a “capital call.” Although the Customer ExAlt Trusts reserve certain funds for anticipated capital contributions as part of each liquidity transaction, and Ben Liquidity factors in the likelihood and extent of future capital calls when engaging in our underwriting process, the size or timing of future capital calls may not be accurately forecasted, or insufficient amounts may be reserved. In addition, Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody may change our fee structure at any time, which could affect our cash position. Additional funds may not be available when needed or may be unavailable on terms that our Customers or the Customer ExAlt Trusts deem acceptable. Failure to make a capital contribution following a capital call could have adverse effects on our operations including that the interest represented by the alternative asset, which is part of the Collateral, may be diluted or forfeited in whole or in part under the terms of the governing documents of the relevant alternative asset, and funding a capital call may not be a fruitful investment. Even if our Customers or the Customer ExAlt Trusts are able to make capital contributions on time, doing so may divert a substantial portion of the funds available for future liquidity transactions, general corporate purposes or expenses within the ExAlt Plan structure that serves Ben Liquidity’s loans.
We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, Ben Liquidity is exposed to the risk that the principal of, or interest on, loans will not be repaid timely or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting the loans will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. In addition, we are exposed to risks with respect to the period of time over which Ben Liquidity’s loan may be repaid, risks relating to Ben Liquidity’s proper loan underwriting and risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or our market areas, specifically, experiences material disruption, the value of the collateral may decrease, liquidity events for the collateral may take longer to occur, borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses for Ben Liquidity.
Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of Ben Liquidity’s loans within specific industries and our credit approval, review and administrative practices, may not adequately reduce credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting the collateral and the quality of Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit the credit risk associated with Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolio may result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs, and may necessitate that Ben Liquidity significantly increase its allowance for credit losses, each of which could adversely affect our net income.

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As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our results of operations may fluctuate from period to period.
We expect that our results of operations may vary significantly from period to period for a variety of reasons, many of which are outside of our control and difficult to predict, including demand for our liquidity products and trust administration services, performance of Ben Liquidity’s loans against the collateral supporting our liquidity transactions and concentration of risk in Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolios. For example, the primary source of repayment for the ExAlt Loans and related fees is cash flows from the interests comprising the ExAlt Loan Collateral Portfolio underlying the collateral. Even if the collateral proves to be profitable, it may be several years before any profits can be realized in cash. We may also create new products or vary the terms of our existing products, which may alter the composition or mix of our income from time to time. Because our results of operations may vary significantly from period to period, the results of any one period should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance.
A decline in the pace or size of our liquidity transactions would result in Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody receiving less revenue from interest income and fees.
Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody generate revenue primarily through loan interest income, transaction fees and administrative service fees related to our liquidity transactions, which are more fully described in the Business section above. The interest income and fees that Ben Liquidity and Ben Custody earn are driven in part by the pace at which we enter into liquidity transactions and the size of the net asset value of the underlying alternative asset involved in such transaction. Many factors could cause a decline in the pace or size of our liquidity transactions, including:
the inability of our marketing teams to successfully solicit Customers;
unfavorable market and economic conditions;
decreased availability of capital; and
new regulations, guidance or other actions provided or taken by regulatory authorities.
Any decline in that pace or the size of our liquidity transactions would reduce Ben Liquidity’s and Ben Custody’s revenue from loan interest income, transaction fees and administrative service fees, which would have a negative impact on the results of operations attributable to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders.
Decisions made by an individual trustee could materially affect our custody business and the assets held in certain of our trusts.
Historically, we have been dependent upon the services of John Stahl, an individual who, prior to our receipt of the operating TEFFI charter in Kansas, served as trustee of most of our Customer ExAlt Trusts, excluding the custody trusts that are Delaware statutory trusts, which are trusts with the Delaware Trust Company serving as trustee. Mr. Stahl will continue to serve as trustee of the Customer ExAlt Trusts established in our formative transactions until July 7, 2024, at which point a successor trustee will be appointed. We have replaced Mr. Stahl as trustee on certain other trusts, and BFF was appointed as trustee of the Customer ExAlt Trusts following the receipt of BFF’s TEFFI charter. Although Mr. Stahl is, and his successor trustee will be, subject to fiduciary duties and other restrictions included in our trust agreements and as a matter of law, as a trustee, Mr. Stahl has, and his successor trustee will have, broad discretion and authority to take actions permitted by the trust agreements and applicable law.
Accordingly, decisions made by Mr. Stahl and his successor trustee could materially affect our business and the assets held in such trusts. It is impossible to determine how these decisions may affect the value of the Company and therefore our securities.
We will experience costs associated with the Customer ExAlt Trust payments to certain charities that are the ultimate beneficiaries of the Customer ExAlt Trusts.
The Customer Exalt Trusts’ Collateral supports the repayment of the ExAlt Loans plus any related interest and fees. Under the applicable trust and other agreements, certain charities are the ultimate beneficiaries of the Customer ExAlt Trusts. The TEFFI Act and our policies require that two and a half percent (2.5%) of the cash distributions from alternative assets serving as collateral to Ben Liquidity loans be charitably contributed by certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts to a designated Kansas economic growth zone. In accordance with the terms of the applicable trust and other agreements, certain of the Charities, which are the ultimate beneficiaries of Customer ExAlt Trusts formed prior to 2021, are paid $0.05 for every $0.95 paid to the ExAlt Loan lender (i.e., subsidiaries of the Company). Following December of 2021, the Charities are paid $0.025 for every $1.00 received by an ExAlt Trust from the corresponding alternative assets. To account for these payments to the

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Charities, we take such Customer ExAlt Trust payment obligations into account in our underwriting process. As our business expands, these costs could grow and cause a material adverse effect.
We may be required to seed a new fund for Hatteras Investment Partners, LP (“Hatteras”).
Pursuant to the agreements we entered into in connection with our ExAlt Plan Exchange transaction with Hatteras, subject to certain limitations and restrictions, Hatteras may require us or our affiliate to cause the transfer of up to 70% of the then-current fair value of certain specified assets (the “Contributed Assets”) contributed by Hatteras to Hatteras Ben Legacy LP and/or Hatteras Ben Private Legacy LP, which are holdings vehicles wholly owned by us, and potentially additional Contributed Assets from those holdings vehicles as may be requested by Hatteras and agreed to by us or our affiliate, to an investment vehicle sponsored, managed or advised by Hatteras or its affiliate (such vehicle, a “New Fund”) for the purpose of making a seed investment in such New Fund. Any such New Fund would be earlier in its life cycle than we would typically consider for a liquidity transaction and the interest in such New Fund received in return for such in-kind contribution of such seed assets would result in the exposure to a potentially different and broader set of underlying Contributed Assets than those seed assets contributed to such New Fund, which could expose us to risk on the quality of and changes to the collateral.
In the event that we make a seed investment of such Contributed Assets in any such New Fund sponsored by Hatteras, a priority distribution right is required to be provided for the interest we or our affiliate receives in such New Fund in consideration for any such Contributed Assets transferred to a New Fund launched by Hatteras.
Accordingly, the nature of the collateral underlying the ExAlt Loan relating to the Contributed Assets may change to an interest in such New Fund formed Hatteras instead of those Contributed Assets being directly held by us or our affiliate. We would not have the ability to underwrite such collateral as we would have an undivided interest in such New Fund and may not have control over or sufficient visibility into its underlying portfolio of assets and any subsequent changes thereto. Further, the right to the collateral underlying the ExAlt Loan relating to the Contributed Assets would be structurally subordinated, would be subject to change as the New Fund makes new investments or realizes existing investments, and we may not receive the priority distribution right with respect to such New Fund and any transfer of Contributed Assets thereto.
We may not be able to sustain our accelerated growth, and the continuation of rapid growth may strain our resources.
We have a limited operating history. Although we have experienced significant growth since our inception, our historical growth rate may not be indicative of our future performance due to our limited operating history and the rapid evolution of our business model. We may not be able to achieve similar results or accelerate growth at the same rate as we have historically. As our business continues to develop, we may adjust our strategy and business model. This level of significant growth may not be sustainable or achievable at all in the future. We cannot assure you that we will achieve any of our business objectives, and our failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our organizational documents do not limit our ability to enter into new lines of business, and we may expand into new liquidity product strategies, transaction structures, geographic markets and businesses, each of which may result in additional risks and uncertainties.
Ben Liquidity, which delivers our liquidity products and services through its ExAlt Plan transactions, is our primary Ben Business Unit pursuant to which each of the other Ben Business Units is engaged to provide complementary products and services necessary to effect liquidity transactions and other matters in connection therewith. Our other Ben Business Units are our complementary business lines, Ben Custody and Ben Markets. We intend to grow our existing and planned products and services and, to the extent market conditions warrant, expand into new liquidity product strategies, transaction structures, geographic markets and businesses, which may require a different marketing approach than our current operations. Such actions may subject us to new laws and regulations with which we are not familiar or from which we are currently exempt, and may lead to increased liability, litigation, regulatory risk and expense.
If a new line of business generates insufficient revenue or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations, our results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, our new product offerings could create conflicts of interests with existing products and may require significant management time and effort, which could divert management’s attention from our core business.
Our transfer agency solutions may be adversely affected if we do not comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements.
Our transfer agency solutions as well as the entities providing those services are subject to regulatory oversight. Our provision of these services must comply with applicable rules and regulations of the SEC and other regulatory bodies. If we fail to comply with any applicable regulations in performing these services, we could be subject to suits for breach of contract or to governmental proceedings, censures and fines.

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We have an evolving business model.
Our business model is one of innovation, including continuously working to expand our product lines and services to our customers. For example, we have recently expanded into the transfer agent space. It is unclear whether this service will be successful. Further, we continuously try to offer additional types of services, and we cannot offer any assurance that any of them will be successful. From time to time, we may also modify aspects of our existing business model relating. We cannot offer any assurance that these or any other modifications will be successful or will not result in harm to the business. We may not be able to manage growth effectively, which could damage our reputation, limit our growth, and negatively affect our operating results.
We may incur significant losses as a result of ineffective risk management processes and strategies.
We seek to monitor and control our risk exposure by developing an effective risk and control framework, which encompasses a variety of separate but complementary financial, credit, operational, compliance, and legal reporting systems, internal controls, management review processes and other mechanisms. However, as of March 31, 2024, because we have closed only a limited amount of liquidity transactions, Ben Liquidity’s loan portfolio is not fully diversified, and we may be over-exposed to certain areas of the market. While we employ and will continue to develop and deploy risk monitoring and risk mitigation techniques, those techniques and the judgments that accompany their application may not be effective and may not anticipate every risk event in all market environments or the specific nature of the impact and timing of such outcomes. Our failure to manage risk effectively could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We may be able to offer only a limited number of products and solutions.
We may be able to offer only a limited number of products and solutions due to regulatory, capital or other restrictions. Accordingly, the prospects for our success may be solely dependent upon the performance of a single or limited products or solutions, or dependent upon the development or market acceptance of a single or limited number of products or solutions. A lack of diversification in our offerings may make our results of operations susceptible to numerous economic, competitive and regulatory conditions, any or all of which may have a substantial adverse impact upon our ability to operate our business and/or grow our business in the future. Further, we would not be able to diversify our operations or benefit from the possible spreading of risks or offsetting of losses that offering a comprehensive suite of solutions could provide.
Risks Related to Our Broker-Dealer Business
We have limited experience in operating a broker-dealer to place securities of our Company, and our entry into and operating in this market may not be successful.
We offer broker-dealer services to the Company through a subsidiary of Ben Markets, AltAccess Securities. We expect that operational efficiencies created by having an in-house broker-dealer will allow us to streamline our ExAlt Plan liquidity transactions and reduce certain transaction and other third-party costs, although, there is no assurance that this will occur. The broker-dealer industry is heavily regulated and has regulatory and business barriers to entry. Entering into the broker-dealer business subjects us to additional laws and regulations and involves additional risks, including risks relating to regulatory oversight and examinations and increased risks of enforcement proceedings and litigation. Although certain of our directors and management have experience operating and advising broker-dealer businesses, we have limited experience in operating a subsidiary broker-dealer to help the Company issue its securities, which enhances these risks. To the extent we expand our broker-dealer business, particularly if we expand our broker-dealer business to serve third parties in addition to our subsidiaries and affiliates, it could involve a number of risks, including risk of denial or delay in regulatory approval, the required investment of capital and other resources, increasing demands on our operational and management systems and controls, the diversion of management’s attention from our core business, risks when dealing with third-parties (based on their actions, omissions or disclosures), and our ability to implement an effective marketing strategy to promote awareness of and sell our broker-dealer products, including in conjunction with our ExAlt Plan. There can be no assurance that our entrance into, and ongoing efforts involving, the broker-dealer market will be successful. The regulatory environment in which our broker-dealer business operates is continually evolving, and the level of financial regulation to which we are subject has generally increased in recent years, which generally results in increased costs of compliance and operations. Regulators have adopted, proposed to adopt, and may in the future adopt regulations that could impact the manner in which we will market products and services, conduct compliance and operations, interact with regulators and manage our business.
Our broker-dealer is also not a full-service broker-dealer and pursuant to its agreement with FINRA conducts only private placements of securities and if it in the future has the appropriately licensed persons, it may also conduct investment banking-related activities. If our broker-dealer business does not generate sufficient revenue, source sufficient number or type of investors or purchasers, or provide expected efficiencies and third-party cost reduction, or if we are unable to efficiently manage the existing and future regulatory environment, or our existing or expanded operations, our business and financial condition will be adversely affected.

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Our broker-dealer business is subject to extensive and evolving regulations and our failure to be fully compliant with applicable regulations could have a material adverse effect on our future business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
AltAccess Securities is a subsidiary of Ben Markets, is registered with the SEC and various states and is a member of FINRA. Although subject to federal, SEC and state laws and rules, much of the oversight of broker-dealers has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations, including FINRA. AltAccess Securities business is also governed by its agreement with FINRA and the specific registrations of its registered persons. Self-regulatory organizations like FINRA adopt rules (which are subject to approval by the SEC) for governing its members and the industry. AltAccess Securities is a member of, and is primarily subject to regulation, supervision and regular examination, by FINRA. AltAccess Securities is also subject to cycle SEC or state exams, as well as, if applicable, for-cause exams, special inquiries, and investigations by the SEC, FINRA or a state.
The regulations (including laws, rules and interpretations) to which broker-dealers like AltAccess Securities are subject are extensive, change over time and cover all aspects of their securities business, including, but not limited to, changes in direct and indirect control, business expansions, dealings with affiliates, sales and trade practices, net capital and financial requirements, disclosures, conflicts of interests, record keeping and reporting procedures and filings, relationships and conflicts with customers, the handling of customer funds, experience and training requirements for certain employees, the conduct of investment banking activities and the conduct of registered persons, directors, officers and employees. Broker-dealers are also subject to the federal and state privacy laws regarding safeguarding of customer information (such as Regulation S-P) and anti-money laundering laws, and related regulations, including the recently adopted Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020, for which various implementing measures will be taking effect, including expanded beneficial ownership reporting. Compliance with applicable regulations involves considerable allocations of time, resources and costs.
Additional legislation, changes in rules promulgated by the SEC, FINRA or states or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules often increase costs, take time and resources to evaluate and directly affect the method of operation and profitability of broker-dealers, including any business expansions we may undertake. In addition to regular and special reviews of our business, the SEC, FINRA and states may conduct administrative and enforcement proceedings alleging violations of law and rules by AltAccess Securities that can result in a change of our businesses practices, an increase of compliance and training costs and in significant adverse regulatory consequences such as censure, fine, profit disgorgement, monetary penalties, suspension, revocation of registration or expulsion of broker-dealers, their registered persons, officers or employees. Customers may also bring arbitration actions and civil lawsuits against AltAccess Securities as a result of alleged violations of law and rules by AltAccess Securities, the results of which may also have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. Therefore, if we fail to comply with applicable regulations, such failure could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. In addition, even if AltAccess Securities is successful in whole or part in any regulatory matter or civil lawsuit or arbitration, the cost of representation and defending itself is often significant, which cost could have a material adverse effect of our financial condition. The principal purpose of regulation and discipline of broker-dealers is the protection of customers and the securities markets rather than protection of creditors and stockholders of broker-dealers.
In addition, as a registered broker-dealer and member of a self-regulatory organization, AltAccess Securities is subject to the SEC’s uniform net capital rule. Rule 15c3-1 of the Exchange Act specifies the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a significant part of a broker-dealer’s assets be kept in relatively liquid form. The SEC and FINRA impose rules that require notification when net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, limit the ratio of subordinated debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer and constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances. Additionally, the SEC’s uniform net capital rule imposes certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker-dealer from distributing or withdrawing capital and requiring prior notice to the SEC for certain withdrawals of capital. AltAccess Securities is subject to such requirements. Compliance with the net capital requirements may limit our operations or require increased use of capital to meet the operating needs and capital requirements of AltAccess Securities. Any change in such rules or the imposition of new rules affecting the scope, coverage, calculation or amount of capital requirements, or a significant operating loss or any unusually large charge against capital, could adversely affect us.
Effective beginning June 2020, the SEC elevated the standard of care for broker-dealers from the current “suitability” requirement to a “best interest” standard when making a recommendation of any securities transaction, or investment strategy involving securities, to a retail customer pursuant to Regulation Best Interest (“Regulation BI”). The “best interest” standard requires a broker-dealer to make recommendations to retail customers without putting its financial interests ahead of the interests of a retail customer. In connection with Regulation BI, the SEC also adopted a related form called a Form CRS Relationship Summary (“Form CRS”), which requires broker-dealers to deliver to retail investors a succinct, plain English summary about the relationship and services provided by the firm and the required standard of conduct associated with the relationship and services. In connection with adopting Regulation BI, the SEC added new record-making and recordkeeping

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rules. The burden of complying with Regulation BI could also affect what customers AltAccess Securities solicits for its products and services (for example, limiting customers to only non-retail customers), which could have a material adverse effect of our business or financial condition.
While the SEC and FINRA have provided some guidance regarding Regulation BI, including findings from certain exams, the interpretation and enforcement of such new regulations carry uncertainties and AltAccess Securities compliance with Regulation BI may result in increased compliance costs and potential future liability if the SEC or FINRA disagree with how AltAccess Securities has interpreted or implemented compliance with Regulation BI. If the SEC does not believe we have sufficiently complied or if we fail to continue to comply with the requirements of Regulation BI and Form CRS, we would be subject to fines and other regulatory actions that could result in a material adverse effect on our business or financial condition.
Legislatures and securities regulators in certain states in which we may do business have enacted (or are considering enacting) their own standard of conduct rules for broker-dealers, insurance agents, and investment advisers as well as new or expanded privacy obligations related to safeguarding information about their residents. The requirements and scope of these state rules are not uniform. Accordingly, we may have to adopt different policies and procedures in different states, which could create added compliance, supervision, training and sales costs for AltAccess Securities. Should more states enact similar legislation or regulations, it could result in material additional compliance costs and could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
The costs (including compliance, training and operations) related to existing and future securities and related laws and rules (including Regulation BI) can be significant, which could have a material adverse effect of our financial condition. Any failure to meet these or other current or future regulatory conditions or requirements may result in material adverse consequences, such as the imposition of a censure, significant fine, denial of business expansion or changes in control, disgorgement of profits, suspension or revocation of AltAccess Securities’ broker-dealer license and/or the licenses of AltAccess Securities registered persons, which would mean that we would not be able to provide the current and planned broker-dealer products and services or otherwise conduct our intended broker-dealer business and, therefore, restrict or prevent us from conducting ExAlt Plan transactions, until the applicable matter is resolved or the approvals are obtained, and/or any suspension or revocation of the required approvals has passed or is otherwise resolved. Any censure, fine, disgorgement, or suspension or revocation of regulatory approvals would negatively impact our reputation in the marketplace and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct a broker-dealer business or grow our liquidity business.
Our broker-dealer business is subject to various risks associated with the securities industry.
Our broker-dealer business is subject to uncertainties that are common in the securities industry. These uncertainties include, among others:
intense competition in the securities industry;
the volatility of domestic and international financial, bond and stock markets, including changing interest rates;
extensive or changing governmental regulation;
regulatory exams, investigations and enforcement proceedings, investor complaints and civil litigation; and
substantial fluctuations in the volume and price level of securities.
As a result of such uncertainties, the revenues and operating results of AltAccess Securities may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year. Unfavorable financial or economic conditions could reduce the number and size of transactions in which we provide services. Disruptions in fixed income and equity markets and changes in interest rates could lead to a decline in the volume of transactions executed for customers and, therefore, to declines in revenues from transactions.
We are subject to certain limitations that could prevent AltAccess Securities from entering new businesses.
The businesses that AltAccess Securities conducts is limited by its agreements with, and its oversight by, FINRA, other regulatory authorities and federal and state law. Currently, AltAccess Securities is permitted to only conduct private placements of securities and if it has the appropriate licensed persons, investment banking-related activities. Participation in new business lines, including trading of new products, often requires governmental and/or regulatory approvals, which may take significant time and resources. As a result, AltAccess Securities may be prevented from entering new businesses that may be profitable in a timely manner, if at all.

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Several of our broker-dealer segment’s product lines rely on favorable tax treatment and changes in federal tax law could impact the attractiveness of these products to our customers.
We offer a variety of services and products that rely on favorable federal income tax treatment to be attractive to our customers. Should favorable tax treatment of these products be eliminated or reduced, sales of these products could be materially impacted, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
The actions of a third-party broker-dealer or financial intermediary may cause a material adverse effect.
We may enter into selling or similar agreements with third-party U.S. and non-U.S. broker-dealers (and similar entities). We cannot control how such additional broker-dealers will sell our products. The addition of third-party broker-dealers to a selling network may subject us to additional risk, as broker-dealers in a selling network may be subject to liability in connection with the actions or omissions of other broker-dealers in the selling network. This liability could also adversely affect the issuer.
AltAccess Securities also may enter into referral and similar agreements with financial intermediaries such as third-party broker-dealers, investment advisers and foreign finders, in which case, the success of AltAccess Securities would depend in part on the success of our referral partners and their ability to market our products and services successfully, and such entities may have different standards, obstacles or risks than AltAccess Securities, which may cause a material adverse effect to our broker-dealer business. Also, similar to a selling network above, we could be subject to liability based on the actions or omissions of these financial intermediaries, which also could adversely affect the issuer.
These risks include regulatory actions by the SEC, FINRA or the states against these other broker-dealers, financial intermediaries and AltAccess Securities, as well as arbitration and civil litigation, including class action suits against the selling network or groups of broker-dealers and financial intermediaries, including AltAccess Securities.
AltAccess Securities is subject to various conflicts of interest, incentives and risks given its affiliation with the Company, including that decisions related to the Company’s offerings may be influenced by such affiliation.
In addition to AltAccess Securities being an affiliate of the Company, certain employees of the Company or its affiliates are registered persons of AltAccess Securities. We have an incentive to use AltAccess Securities and its registered persons instead of other unaffiliated third parties because of such affiliation and because such employees of the Company or its affiliates are registered persons of AltAccess Securities. The success of AltAccess Securities depends in part on the success of its registered persons and the selling group members and referral partners and their ability to market our products and services successfully. When the Company uses AltAccess Securities as its broker-dealer to conduct its transactions, such use of AltAccess Securities creates various conflicts of interest, incentives and risks as set forth herein, which may be in conflict with the best interests of customers of AltAccess Securities, including that AltAccess Securities does not offer a diverse or alternative group of products and only offers securities and products of its affiliates. Because of these relationships, transactions between AltAccess Securities and the Company are generally not arm’s-length and the Company has an incentive to use AltAccess Securities and its registered persons to sell the Company’s securities instead of AltAccess Securities selling or seeking to sell products of unaffiliated third parties.
This may result in the Company paying higher costs for broker-dealer services than if the Company engaged the services of a non-affiliated broker dealer. Increased costs could negatively impact our results of operations and our business. Through its ownership of AltAccess Securities, the Company, its owners, and employees receiving profit participation, equity incentives or similar benefits (including our Chief Executive Officer and other employees) indirectly benefit from and/or share in the revenue earned by AltAccess Securities. Individuals registered with AltAccess Securities that are employees of the Company or its affiliates receive a portion of the transaction compensation or other fees earned by AltAccess Securities for transactions in which such registered persons participate in addition to compensation they receive as employees of the Company or its affiliates. Certain allocations based upon the revenues of AltAccess Securities are made pursuant to the BCH LPA to BHI, as a result of its ownership of the BCH FLP-1 Unit Accounts, and to BMP, as a result of its ownership of the BCH FLP-2 Unit Accounts. BHI is directly owned by The Highland Business Holdings Trust, of which Mr. Heppner is the trust advisor, and Mr. Heppner and his family are the beneficiaries. BMP is owned by certain of the directors, officers and employees of Ben and a limited number of former employees. Compensation paid to AltAccess Securities and therefore to such registered persons of AltAccess Securities may be significant depending upon the aggregate amount of securities sold in an offering. Related risks include that AltAccess Securities and its registered persons are incentivized to sell the Company’s securities and products, maximize the amount of subscriptions in any offering, favor the Company’s offerings over offerings of unaffiliated third parties and to take greater risks regarding such offerings, and that their decisions relating to offerings of the Company may be influenced by such persons being registered with AltAccess Securities and/or being employees of the Company or its affiliates and the extent of the compensation they may receive by participating in an offering of the Company. This influence and risk may include affecting it or their independence regarding reviewing any offering (including not fully resolving an

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offering conflict of interest that could impair its ability to conduct a thorough and independent investigation), not treating as a red flag something that another broker-dealer may treat as such, giving different weight to such red flags or accepting an explanation for such red flag that another broker-dealer may not fully accept. Its affiliation with the Company may also present a risk of raised expectations by an investor that AltAccess Securities has special expertise concerning the Company. While AltAccess Securities and its registered persons endeavor to handle these conflicts of interest, incentives and risks in good faith and in a manner that they deem to be fair and equitable under the circumstances, there can be no assurance that this may be the case in a particular circumstance or on an overall basis, including that they may receive or be deemed to receive more favorable treatment, benefits, pricing and/or information than unaffiliated or unrelated third parties.
The Company is subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment advisor under the Investment Advisers Act.
The Investment Advisers Act is a U.S. federal law that defines the role and responsibilities of an investment advisor/adviser. Section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act defines an investment adviser as any person or firm that: (1) for compensation; (2) is engaged in the business of; (3) providing advice to others or issuing reports or analyses regarding securities. A person must satisfy all three elements to fall within the definition of “investment adviser.” As a result of certain of AltAccess Securities’ operations, specifically as it relates to the loan participation transactions, AltAccess Securities runs the risk of inadvertently becoming an investment adviser, which would require AltAccess Securities to register under the Investment Advisers Act. Registered advisers are subject to extensive, restrictive and potentially adverse regulations. Registered investment advisers are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which AltAccess Securities operates its business. If it were established that AltAccess Securities were an investment company, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that it could become subject to monetary penalties, regulatory actions and injunctive relief in an action brought by the SEC, that AltAccess Securities would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with AltAccess Securities undertaken during the period it was established that AltAccess Securities was an unregistered investment adviser. If it were established that AltAccess Securities were an investment adviser, this would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial operations. Based on the facts and circumstances of our business model, we do not believe that AltAccess Securities is an investment adviser as defined within the Investment Advisers Act. The predominant reason for our view is based on various SEC interpretations and our view that the company is not engaged in the business of providing advice to others or issuing reports or analyses regarding securities for separate advisory compensation.
Risks Related to Our Proposed Ben Insurance Business
We have no experience in operating an insurance business, and our entry into the insurance market may not be successful.
Our business plan involves, through Ben Insurance, entering into the business of providing insurance policies to certain affiliates (as defined under the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws), including the Customer ExAlt Trusts and other trusts for which BFF serves as the trustee or custodian, to cover the risks related to the ownership, management and transfer of alternative assets and the financings related to alternative asset purchases. Entering the insurance business will subject us to additional laws and regulations and involves additional risks, including risks relating to regulatory oversight and examinations, risks related to compliance with capital maintenance requirements, and increased risks of litigation. Although certain of our directors and management have experience operating insurance businesses, Beneficient has no experience in operating an insurance business, which would enhance these risks. Expanding our business into the realm of insurance involves a number of risks, including the required investment of capital and other resources, increasing demands on our operational and management systems and controls, the diversion of management’s attention from our core business, and our ability to implement an effective marketing strategy to promote awareness of our insurance products. The insurance industry is highly competitive and there can be no assurance that our plans to enter the insurance market will be successful. If our proposed insurance business does not generate sufficient revenue or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
Our failure to obtain or maintain approval of insurance regulators and other regulatory authorities as required for the operations of our planned insurance subsidiary may have a material adverse effect on our future business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As a part of our business plan, and as a result of the recent adoption of legislative amendments concerning captive insurers in the State of Kansas, Ben Insurance applied to Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas for a certificate of authority to transact business as a captive insurer under the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws. If and when we receive the necessary regulatory approvals, we intend to offer (1) an insurance line insuring certain affiliates, including Customer ExAlt Trusts, against losses in the value of their ownership interests in an alternative asset resulting from (i) such alternative asset having to make payments under contractual indemnification provisions or being unable to recover damages due to contractual exculpation provisions or (ii) fraud, theft or conversion of assets by the manager or general partner of the respective alternative asset; (2) a surety line insuring the risks attendant to the transfer of alternative assets from a transferor to a

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transferee; (3) a credit risk insurance line insuring the risk of default on the repayment of loans made to Customer ExAlt Trusts for the purpose of acquiring alternative assets; and (4) a representations and warranties insurance line insuring against losses incurred by a transferee arising from breaches of the representations and warranties made by a transferor in the definitive documents effecting the transfer of the applicable alternative asset from such transferor to such transferee. Kansas insurance statutes and regulations and the policies of the Kansas Insurance Department may require Ben Insurance to, among other things, maintain a minimum level of capital and surplus, satisfy solvency standards, restrict dividends and distributions, obtain prior approval for or provide notification of certain transactions, have at least one director or manager be a resident of Kansas, maintain a principal place of business in Kansas and hold at least one board meeting in Kansas annually, and provide for the performance of certain periodic examinations of Ben Insurance and its financial conditions.
In addition, we may or may not apply for regulatory approval for our existing Bermuda insurance subsidiary, Pen, to commence operations as a Bermuda Class 3 insurer. If we choose to seek such approval, subject to receiving the necessary regulatory approvals, we would intend to offer similar insurance products to those described above for the Kansas captive insurer, through PEN to managers of, and investors in, alternative asset funds, such as private equity funds. Bermuda insurance statutes and regulations, and the policies of the Bermuda Monetary Authority (“BMA”) require PEN, among other things, maintain a minimum level of capital and surplus, satisfy solvency standards, restrict dividends and distributions, obtain prior approval or provide notification to the BMA of certain transactions, maintain a head office in Bermuda, have a representative, secretary or director resident in Bermuda, appoint and maintain a principal representative in Bermuda, annual reporting requirements and provide for the performance of certain periodic examinations of itself and its financial conditions.
A failure to meet these conditions may subject us to examination or corrective action by the BMA or result in the failure to obtain the required regulatory approvals or, if obtained, a suspension or revocation of our authority to do business as an insurance company, which would mean that we would not be able to provide the planned insurance products until the approvals are obtained or any suspension or revocation of the required approvals is resolved. If obtained, any suspension or revocation of regulatory approvals would negatively impact our reputation in the marketplace and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to grow our exposure to alternative assets.
The insurance and reinsurance regulatory framework have been subject to increased scrutiny in the United States at the federal and state levels. In the past, there have been congressional and other initiatives in the United States regarding increased supervision and regulation of the insurance industry, including proposals to supervise and regulate alien reinsurers. We cannot predict the future impact, if any, of changing law or regulation on our operations.
If we seek authority to operate our proposed international insurance business, for which we have no prior experience, we may be subject to additional costs and economic, political, currency and other risks that could adversely affect our revenues or financial position.
We have no experience in operating our business internationally, which increases the risk that our proposed insurance business and any potential future expansion efforts that we may undertake may not be successful. If we seek authorization from the BMA to operate Pen, we may face adverse financial consequences and operational problems due to political or economic changes, such as changes in political or economic conditions in Bermuda and the surrounding region, laws and regulations that restrict repatriation of earnings or other funds or that could subject repatriated earnings or other funds to additional taxes, or changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If we invest substantial time and resources to grow our proposed insurance business and are unable to manage these risks effectively, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, international expansion may increase our risks in complying with various laws and standards in Bermuda, including with respect to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, export controls, and trade and economic sanctions. Expansion into new markets abroad will require additional investments by us in both regulatory approvals and marketing. These incremental costs may include hiring additional personnel, as well as engaging third-party service providers and other research and development costs. If we fail to grow our international insurance business, or if growth occurs at a slower rate than expected, our business, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History
We do not have significant operating history or an established customer base.
We commenced commercial operations in September 2017, and we do not have significant operating history under our current business plan. Additionally, our Kansas trust company subsidiary received its charter at the end of calendar year 2021 and our broker-dealer business received authorization to conduct business in 2021, while our proposed insurance line of business has not received an operational charter or authorization to conduct business and has no operating history.
While we believe that the market demand for liquidity for alternative assets held by MHNW investors, STMI investors, FAMOs and GPs is high and that our liquidity and other products are unique and designed to address Customers who have historically possessed few attractive options to access early liquidity from their alternative assets, we do not have an

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established customer base. Our operating business and structure are novel, including the issuance of our own securities as part of our business plan, which involves risk. In addition, we cannot predict whether our products will be attractive to our target market. The success of our liquidity, financing and custody products will depend upon, among other things, their acceptance by MHNW investors, STMI investors, FAMOs and GPs. In addition to our direct marketing efforts, we seek to enter into arrangements with larger financial institutions, private banks, fund managers and their managed funds and other institutions appointing the Company as a preferred liquidity provider with respect to the MHNW investors, STMI investors, FAMOs and GPs who are clients of or investors in such institutions. Our business must be considered in light of these and other risks, expenses and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in their early stages of operation. If any of our products do not achieve and maintain an adequate level of acceptance among MHNW investors, STMI investors, FAMOs and GPs, or if such preferred liquidity provider arrangements are not successful, we may not generate material revenues from sales of these products.
We may be unable to operate our business successfully, which would negatively impact the results of operations and our ability to generate distributable cash flow.
We operate our business through our operating subsidiaries, which include Ben Custody, Ben Liquidity, and Ben Markets. Our success will depend primarily on our operating subsidiaries’ ability to operate our business successfully and generate earnings and positive cash flow. In general, companies that seek to implement business plans similar to ours present substantial business and financial risks and uncertainties. Furthermore, to date, Ben Liquidity’s originations of liquidity products have been transacted primarily with a limited number of FAMOs, GPs, and fund-of-funds. Institutional Customers may not represent the primary target market of our liquidity products in the future, and we have only recently begun transactions with individual investors. In addition, the TEFFI Act, our policies require that two and a half percent (2.5%) of the cash distributions from alternative assets serving as collateral to Ben Liquidity loans be charitably contributed by certain of the Customer ExAlt Trusts to a designated Kansas economic growth zone. If we are unable to operate our business successfully and generate earnings and positive cash flow in the future, such inability will negatively impact our operations and liquidity and may result in an impairment of goodwill.
While BFF has received an unconditional Kansas TEFFI charter, we may continue to encounter delays in effecting certain parts of our current business plan related to BFF’s operating Kansas TEFFI charter, which could hinder our ability to successfully pursue our current business plan.
Through Ben Liquidity, our ExAlt Plan liquidity products are designed to facilitate the delivery of, at a Customer’s election, cash, equity securities or debt securities, or a combination of cash and equity or debt securities for their alternative assets. Our structure is intended to provide our Customers with liquidity for alternative assets in as little as 30 days – and within two to three days for certain qualifying assets. Ben Custody presently provides services to the trustee of Customer ExAlt Trusts for the ongoing administration of the exchanged alternative assets following closing of a liquidity transaction. In order to further grow these businesses, BFF has obtained an operating TEFFI charter in Kansas. BFF has only recently commenced operations.
In April 2021, the Kansas Legislature adopted, and the governor of Kansas signed into law, a bill that allows for the chartering and creation of Kansas financial institutions that provide fiduciary financing, custodian and trustee services to participants in the alternative assets market known as TEFFIs, as well as the establishment of alternative asset trusts. The legislation, which names us as the pilot TEFFI, became effective on July 1, 2021. As part of the pilot program, BFF received a conditional charter on July 1, 2021 and BFF received a formal operating charter on December 31, 2021. We currently conduct our liquidity business through BFF as a Kansas TEFFI. As a result of BFF’s receipt of the operating TEFFI charter in Kansas, BFF has become subject to regulation by the OSBC and new rules and regulations that it is expected to promulgate throughout and following the pilot program. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. Such regulations could prove to be burdensome on our business and could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Because our current business plans are based in part on obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval to operate one or more regulated trust subsidiaries, a failure to do so may materially and adversely impact our financial performance and prospects, which would likely diminish our ability to effect certain parts of our business plan and growth strategies. While BFF has received the operating TEFFI charter in Kansas, it is subject to certain conditions including, among others, that BFF satisfy certain minimum restricted capital requirements. There is no assurance that BFF will be able to satisfy all the conditions imposed by the OSBC. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient.

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Additional legislation passed by the Kansas legislature or any repeal or amendment to the TEFFI Act could materially and adversely affect our ability to successfully pursue our business plan and our financial performance and prospects.
Notwithstanding the adoption of the TEFFI Act in Kansas and BFF’s receipt of a formal operating charter on December 31, 2021, it is possible that the Kansas legislature could adopt further amendments to the TEFFI Act, could pass additional legislation and/or the OSBC may promulgate rules and regulations that may adversely affect our business plans and operations which could adversely affect our financial performance and prospects. For example, we are aware that legislation has been introduced that seeks to provide the OSBC the authority to deny, suspend, revoke or refuse to approve any TEFFI charter and to authorize the OSBC to assess a civil monetary penalty of not less than $5,000 per violation of state law or regulation. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. In addition, we are also aware that one Kansas state legislator has suggested the repeal of the TEFFI Act. Because our business plans are based in part on obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval to operate one or more regulated trust companies, whether under the Kansas TEFFI Act or otherwise, a failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our ability to successfully pursue our business plan and our financial performance and prospects.
Risks Related to the Company’s Organizational Structure
The Company may engage in transactions that represent a conflict of interest, with the review of such transactions subject to the Nevada statutory business judgment rule.
As part of its business plan, the Company intends to engage in transactions that may be deemed to represent a conflict of interest, including transactions between Beneficient and its non-wholly owned subsidiary, BCH. Certain officers and directors of Beneficient hold interests in BCH, directly or indirectly, in different proportions than they hold in Beneficient. Therefore, they could be seen as benefiting from transactions that will invest money in the Company’s operating subsidiaries. Beneficient will be a Nevada corporation, and under Nevada law, the statutory liability standard of the Nevada business judgment rule codified in Chapter 78.138 of the NRS is the principal avenue to hold directors and officers individually liable for damages arising from official conduct. Nevada does not use the “entire fairness” doctrine in evaluating transactions, which doctrine may be applicable if Beneficient was incorporated in another jurisdiction, and the Nevada Supreme Court has rejected the “entire fairness” doctrine, even when the challenged transaction involves a controlling stockholder and there are allegations of conflicts of interest. In Nevada, the existence of a conflict of interest, in and of itself, does not rebut the codified business judgment rule and shifts the burden of proof to directors.
A determination that we are an unregistered investment company would have serious adverse consequences.
The 1940 Act defines an “investment company” as an issuer that is engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities and owns “investment securities” having a value exceeding 40 percent of the issuer’s unconsolidated assets, excluding cash items and securities issued by the federal government. We believe that we are not an investment company. We do not hold ourselves out as an investment company. On December 31, 2021, BFF was issued an operating trust company charter from the State of Kansas to establish a fiduciary financial institution within the State of Kansas. We believe that BFF’s operations following receipt of the operating charter as a Kansas trust company exempts us from being deemed an investment company subject to registration under the 1940 Act. In addition, we filed an application for an insurance charter from the Commissioner of Insurance of the State of Kansas to transact business as a captive insurer under the Kansas Captive Insurance Laws. If we receive such insurance charter, we believe that our receipt of such insurance charter will provide us a further exemption under the 1940 Act. However, there is no assurance we will be able to obtain an insurance company charter.
A determination that we, or any of the proposed trust subsidiaries, are required to register as an investment company under the 1940 Act would have serious adverse consequences. We do not believe we could operate our business effectively as a registered investment company. As a result, we would have to change our operations so as not to be an investment company. Changes could include refraining from raising capital, being unable to participate in liquidity transactions as they are currently structured, changing the types of products and services that we provide, and changing the nature of the Collateral. Furthermore, if at any time it were established that we, or any of the proposed trust subsidiaries, have been operating as an investment company in violation of the registration requirements of the 1940 Act, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that (i) we could become subject to SEC enforcement and investigation, monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, (ii) we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with such company undertaken during the period in which it was established that we were an unregistered investment company, and (iii) BFF would face adverse action from the OSBC in connection with our regulated subsidiary. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. Such developments would be likely to have material and adverse consequences for us.

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The Company’s only cash-generating assets are its indirect interests in BCH and the Company’s cash flow is dependent on the ability of BCH to make distributions. In addition, the Company’s ability to pay periodic distributions to its common and preferred stockholders may be limited by the Company’s holding company structure, applicable provisions of Nevada law and contractual restrictions and obligations, and the Company’s stockholders may be liable to repay dividends.
The Company is Ben’s holding company and has no material assets other than the indirect ownership of the BCH Class A Units. As a holding company, the Company conducts its business through its subsidiaries. The Company has no independent means of generating revenue and therefore its cash flow is completely dependent on BCH making distributions to its partners, including Ben LLC, which is the general partner of BCH and owned by the Company. Accordingly, the Company intends, to the extent permitted under the terms of the BCH A&R LPA, to cause BCH to make distributions to its partners, including Ben LLC, to fund any distributions the Company may declare on the Beneficient common stock or preferred stock. If the Company’s subsidiaries are unable to make dividend payments or distributions to the Company and sufficient cash or liquidity is not otherwise available, the Company may not be able to pay dividends. If BCH makes such distributions, certain limited partners of BCH will have priority with respect to such distributions and will be entitled to receive distributions in accordance with the terms of the BCH A&R LPA.
The Company’s ability to pay dividends is also limited by the laws of Nevada. Under Nevada law, a Nevada corporation generally may not make a distribution if, after giving effect to the distribution, the corporation would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the usual course of business, or the corporation’s total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus, unless the corporation’s charter provides otherwise, the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. Accordingly, the Company generally may not make a distribution if, after giving effect to the distribution, the Company would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the usual course of business or its total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus, unless the terms of such class or series of stock provide otherwise, the amount that would be needed to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of the holders of shares of any class or series of stock then outstanding, if any. In addition, the terms of any credit facility or other financing arrangements involving the Company, or BCH, as a party to or may enter into in the future may include covenants or other restrictions that could constrain the Company’s, or BCH’s ability to make distributions.
Shares of our Class A common stock, Series A preferred stock, Series B preferred stock, and any additional series of preferred stock we issue are and will be structurally subordinated to interests in BCH.
Because the Company has a holding company structure, as an interest in the Company, Class A common stock, Series A preferred stock, Series B preferred stock and any additional series of preferred stock we issue are and will be structurally subordinated to interests in BCH, including creditors and holders of certain equity interests. With respect to BCH, upon its sale, liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the Class A Units the Company indirectly owns in BCH will be entitled to distributions ranking junior to all other currently issued and outstanding classes and series of BCH’s preferred units, which as of March 31, 2024, had an aggregate estimated capital account balance determined in accordance with Section 704 of the Internal Revenue Code of $1.1 billion, other than the BCH Class S Ordinary Units, which will share any such distributions with the Class A Units held by the Company on a pro rata basis. In addition, BCH or Ben LLC could issue securities in the future that have a senior preference on payment to the BCH Class A Units indirectly owned by the Company or that are otherwise structurally senior to Class A common stock or any preferred stock we issue.
Therefore, in any bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceeding, all claims of creditors (including trade creditors) of BCH will have priority over the Company’s equity interests in BCH (and therefore the claims of the Class A common stock and any preferred stock we issue) with respect to the assets of BCH. Even if the Company is recognized as a creditor of BCH, the Company’s claims would still be effectively subordinated to any security interests in the assets of BCH and to any indebtedness or other liabilities of BCH senior to the Company’s claims. Consequently, Class A common stock, Series A preferred stock and Series B preferred stock are structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of BCH and any subsidiaries that we may in the future acquire or establish as financing vehicles or otherwise. In addition, future debt and security agreements entered into by BCH may contain various restrictions, including restrictions on payments by BCH to the Company and the transfer by BCH of assets pledged as collateral.
The Class A Units the Company indirectly owns in BCH are junior to certain existing classes of limited partner interests in BCH.
The Company’s indirect interest in BCH is structurally subordinate to certain outstanding classes of limited partner interests in BCH that have priority over the BCH Class A Units the Company indirectly owns in BCH with respect to any distributions made by BCH. The distributions payable to such senior non-controlling equity interests in BCH are based, in part, upon the capital accounts of the holders of such senior equity interests, which in turn may be increased by the preferred returns that accrue with respect to certain senior limited partner interests and the amount included in the hypothetical capital account with respect to such senior limited partner interests.

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Pursuant to the terms of the Eighth Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of BCH (the “BCH Eighth A&R LPA”) that became effective on June 7, 2023 in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination, the preferred returns on the BCH Class S Preferred Units and the BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts have been waived and shall not accrue until December 31, 2024, unless there are allocations of income up to the amount of such quarterly returns, in which event such returns have not be waived. This waiver continued under the terms of the BCH Ninth A&R LPA. As of March 31, 2024, there are substantial amounts in the capital accounts and hypothetical capital accounts of the senior limited partner interests in BCH that continue to exist and have priority over the BCH Class A Units indirectly held by the Company. As of March 31, 2024, the estimated capital account balances and the estimated hypothetical capital account balances of the limited partner interests entitled to preferred returns are as follows: BCH Class S Preferred Units – capital account $0.6 million and hypothetical capital account $0.8 million; and BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts – capital account $813.5 million and hypothetical capital account $919.6 million. In addition, the aggregate estimated capital account balance as of March 31, 2024 for the remaining limited partner interests (BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts) that are senior to the BCH Class A Units indirectly held by the Company is $252.8 million.
The estimated capital account balances and estimated hypothetical capital account balances disclosed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have been prepared and disclosed for informational purposes only to provide an indication of the amounts that will have priority over the BCH Class A Units that are held indirectly by Beneficient. The estimates are based upon a deemed liquidation value of $1.1 billion and are subject to adjustment based upon actual results of operations, including the financial performance of BCH’s underlying investments and an adjustment to the carrying value of the assets of BCH in connection with Beneficient’s Business Combination. The holders of these senior limited partner interests in BCH with such capital account and hypothetical capital account balances will have priority over any distributions payable to the Company as the indirect holder of the BCH Class A Units.
Beneficient’s Articles of Incorporation (the “Charter”) and Bylaws (“Bylaws”) provide for the indemnification of our officers and directors at our expense to the fullest extent allowed by Nevada law, and Nevada law correspondingly limits their liability, which may result in a major cost to us and harm the interests of our stockholders because corporate resources may be expended for the benefit of officers and/or directors.
Beneficient’s Charter and Bylaws provide for the indemnification of our officers and directors at our expense to the fullest extent allowed by Nevada law and include provisions that eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent possible under Nevada law. Nevada law generally permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer who acted in good faith and in a manner in which he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation. Under Nevada law, the person seeking indemnity may also be indemnified if he or she is not liable for his or her actions under Nevada law. Furthermore, under Nevada law, a director or officer is not liable for damages as a result of an act or failure to act in his or her capacity as a director or officer unless a statutory presumption that such person acted in good faith, on an informed basis and with a view to the interests of the corporation, has been rebutted. For a director or officer to be personally liable, it must be proven that (i) the act or omission constituted a breach of the director’s or officer’s fiduciary duties and (ii) the act or omission involved intentional misconduct, fraud or a knowing violation of law. Subject to our obligations to indemnify our directors and officers, these provisions do not affect a director’s or officer’s liabilities under the federal securities laws or the recovery of damages by third parties.
Stockholders will experience dilution of their ownership interests upon the issuance of additional shares of the Company’s common stock or securities convertible into shares of Company common stock.
As a part of its business plan, the Company expects to issue additional equity securities in capital raising transactions or otherwise, resulting in the dilution of the ownership interests of its present stockholders. The Charter, as amended, authorizes the issuance of 269,000,000 shares of capital stock, consisting of: 18,750,000 shares of Class A common stock, 250,000 shares of Class B common stock and 250,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with 50,000,000 shares being shares of Series A preferred stock and 3,768,995 shares of Series B preferred stock, which consist of 3,542,063 shares of Series B-1 preferred stock, 200,000 shares of Series B-2 preferred stock, 20,000 shares of Series B-3 preferred stock and 6,932 shares of Series B-4 preferred stock pursuant to the respective the respective certificates of designation.
The Company may in the future raise additional capital through public or private offerings of its common stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for its common stock. Additionally, the Board approved the launch of the ExchangeTrust Product Plan to complete up to $5 billion of fiduciary financings to Customer ExAlt Trusts through ExchangeTrust transactions, which would be priced using the Formula-Based Financing. We believe completing ExchangeTrust transactions is critical for the long-term success of the Company. Any future issuance of the Company’s equity or equity-linked securities may dilute then-current stockholders’ ownership percentages and could also result in a decrease in the fair market value of the Company’s equity securities, because the Company’s assets would be owned by a larger pool of outstanding equity. As a result of the Formula-Based Financing for transactions pursuant to the ExchangeTrust Product Plan, dilution to existing stockholders may be substantially increased if the trading price of our Class A common

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stock is lower at the time of any ExchangeTrust transaction. Given the importance of ExchangeTrust transactions, the Company may enter into such transactions even if the trading price of our Class A common stock is significantly lower than historic prices. In addition, the implementation of Formula-Based Financing introduces risks that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. These risks include that the formula is based on certain assumptions that may not accurately or reliably predict market outcomes, our cost of capital, or the present value of the Collateral backing a fiduciary financing, potentially leading to mispricing of fiduciary financings and financial losses. Despite our efforts to monitor and mitigate these risks, there can be no assurance of success, and any of these factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company may also issue such securities in connection with hiring or retaining employees and consultants, as payment to providers of goods and services, in connection with future acquisitions and investments, development, redevelopment and repositioning of assets, or for other business purposes. Subject to the rights of certain holders of preferred stock, the Company’s board of directors may at any time authorize the issuance of additional common stock without stockholder approval, unless the approval of its common stockholders is required by applicable law, rule or regulation, including Nasdaq regulations, or the Company’s Charter. The terms of preferred or other equity or equity-linked securities we may issue in future transactions may be more favorable to new investors, and may include dividend and/or liquidation preferences, anti-dilution protection, pre-emptive rights, superior voting rights and the issuance of warrants or other derivative securities, among other terms, which may have a further dilutive effect. Also, the future issuance of any such additional shares of common stock or other securities may create downward pressure on the trading price of our common stock. There can be no assurance that any such future issuances will not be at a price or have conversion or exercise prices below the price at which shares of the common stock are then traded.
The protective provisions contained in the Stockholders Agreement may have unintended negative effects.
On June 6, 2023, in connection with the Business Combination, certain holders of Class B common stock entered into that certain Stockholders Agreement, which includes certain protective provisions on behalf of the holders of the Class B common stock (the “Stockholders Agreement”). Pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement, Beneficient agreed not to authorize, approve or ratify certain matters without the approval of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of Class B common stock, including (but not limited to) certain actions related to Ben LLC, Beneficient, and the BCH A&R LPA, and certain additional issuances of shares of Class B common stock (the “Protective Provisions”). These Protective Provisions vest control over certain matters to the holders of Class B common stock and may have an unintended “anti-takeover” effect if the holders of Class B common stock do not approve such a transaction, which could cause the value of the Class A common stock to suffer.
We have, and may continue to, offer certain investors the opportunity to acquire participation interests in ExAlt Loans.
Ben Liquidity has sold participation interests in certain ExAlt Loans to certain investors and may continue to offer and sell to certain investors the opportunity to acquire participation interests in ExAlt Loans. This participation has allowed, and may allow in the future, these investors to purchase, on a pro rata basis, interests in these loans resulting in their receipt of a portion of the amounts payable under such loans. This may result in our receipt of less fees on such ExAlt Loans compared to what we would receive if we did not sell participation interests in such ExAlt Loans. Our right to receive payment of our fees as they relate to the portions of the ExAlt Loans sold as participation interests will be subordinate to the amounts due under such participation interests.
Our Charter designates certain courts as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by Company stockholders, which could limit the ability of the Company’s stockholders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with the Company or its directors, officers or other employees.
Our Charter provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada (or, if such court does not have jurisdiction, any other state district court located in the State of Nevada, or, if no state court located within the State of Nevada has jurisdiction, a federal court located in the State of Nevada) will be the sole and exclusive forum for any or all actions, suits and proceedings, other than actions, suits and proceedings brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction, (i) brought in the name or right of the Company or on its behalf, (ii) asserting a claim for breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or agent of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) arising or asserting a claim pursuant to any provision of the NRS Chapters 78 or 92A or any provision of the Company’s organizational documents, (iv) to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of the Company’s organizational documents or (v) asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. In addition, the Charter provides that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with the Company or the Company’s directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against the Company and the

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Company’s directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more covered proceedings, the Company may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect the Company’s business and financial condition.
The Company depends upon cash distributions from its subsidiaries, and regulatory requirements, contractual restrictions on distributions to the Company or adverse events at one of our operating subsidiaries could materially and adversely affect our ability to pay our debts and the Company’s ability to continue operating its business.
The Company conducts its operations through operating subsidiaries, and as such its most significant assets are cash and its ownership interests in its subsidiaries, controlled affiliates and equity investees. Accordingly, our ability to meet our obligations, including our debt-related and dividend-payment obligations, materially depends upon the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute cash to us. In this regard, the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to distribute cash to the Company is, and will continue to be, restricted by certain negative covenants contained in the HCLP Loan Agreement and the HH-BDH Credit Agreement.
The negative covenants in the HCLP Loan Agreement include, among others, subject to certain exceptions:
incurring any lien, including any pledge, upon any of BCH’s property;
incurring any indebtedness;
disposing of any Funding Trust loan or loan agreement;
making any restricted payment, including dividends or other distributions with respect to any equity interests of any person, including the Company; and
issuing any securities that are senior to the BCH Preferred A-1 Unit Accounts or the BCH Preferred A-0 Unit Accounts.
The negative covenants in the HH-BDH Credit Agreement include, among others, subject to certain exceptions:
incurring any indebtedness;
incurring any liens on its property, assets or revenues;
becoming a party to a merger or consolidation;
making certain loans and other investments;
disposing of certain assets;
making any restricted payment;
engaging in certain other transactions with affiliates;
engaging in any business other than their current business;
making changes to its accounting treatment or tax reporting treatment;
entering into certain agreements that would prevent performance under the HH-BDH Credit Agreement or restrict the creation of a lien to secure the Secured Obligations (as defined in the HH-BDH Credit Agreement);
acquiring any subsidiary; and
amending certain organizational documents.
Certain of the negative covenants listed above apply to both the Loan Parties and to the Beneficient Parties (as defined in the HH-BDH Credit Agreement), which may have the effect of limiting the Company and its subsidiaries’ ability to make dividend payments or certain other distributions. In addition, the HH-BDH Credit Agreement contains certain financial maintenance covenants, including a debt service coverage ratio. If any of these limitations were to materially impede the flow of cash to us, our ability to service and repay our debt and pay dividends would be materially and adversely affected. In addition, any adverse corporate event at the subsidiary level, such as a declaration of bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization or any other event of default under the credit agreements governing our secured loans from HCLP or under the HH-BDH Credit Agreement, could adversely affect the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute cash to us, and thereby materially and adversely affect our ability to service and repay our debt and make cash dividend payments, and negatively impact our ability to continue operations.
Furthermore, our subsidiaries BFF and AltAccess Securities are subject to significant regulatory restrictions limiting their ability to declare and pay dividends to the Company. For more information regarding the regulations with which we and our

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subsidiaries must comply, see the risks set forth under the heading “Legal and Regulatory Risks” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our ability to receive payment on the ExAlt Loans and fee income from the Customer ExAlt Trusts is limited by the distributions the Customer ExAlt Trusts receive.
The primary source of funds for the Customer ExAlt Trusts to repay our ExAlt Loans is distributions from the alternative assets held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts. Any delay in receiving such distributions could adversely impact our liquidity and ability of the Customer ExAlt Trusts to repay the ExAlt Loans. To the extent the Customer ExAlt Trusts do not receive distributions, such as if managers of the professionally managed funds comprising the alternative assets determine to delay distributions or transactions that would result in cash distributions to their limited partners, the Customer ExAlt Trusts’ ability to repay the ExAlt Loans, and therefore, Ben Liquidity’s ability to receive principal and interest payments, may be adversely impacted. For example, during the year ended March 31, 2024, largely as a result of macro-economic conditions, the Customer ExAlt Trusts received fewer distributions from their alternative assets than was originally anticipated, which adversely impacted the Customer ExAlt Trusts’ ability to repay the ExAlt Loans and our liquidity.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with GWG
The transfer of GWG’s assets to the GWG Wind Down Trust and the Litigation Trust pursuant to the Second Amended Plan could create significant uncertainties and risks for our continued operations and materially and adversely impact our financial operating results.
On April 20, 2022 and October 31, 2022, GWG and certain of its subsidiaries (the “Debtors”) filed voluntary petitions for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas (the “Bankruptcy Court”) thereby commencing those certain Chapter 11 cases (the “Chapter 11 Cases”). On June 20, 2023, the Bankruptcy Court entered an order confirming the Debtors’ Second Amended Joint Chapter 11 Plan (the “Second Amended Plan”), which became effective on August 1, 2023, (the “Effective Date”).
The Second Amended Plan provides for the creation of two liquidating trusts to effectuate a liquidation of the Debtors: (i) the GWG Wind Down Trust, a common law trust created under the laws of the state of Texas (“GWG Wind Down Trust”); and (ii) the Litigation Trust (the “Litigation Trust”). The Second Amended Plan provides that the GWG Wind Down Trust will take all necessary steps to wind down the business affairs of the Debtors and maximize the value of the Debtors’ non-litigation assets, including the Debtors’ equity interests in the Company. Under the Second Amended Plan, the trustee for the GWG Wind Down Trust is Elizabeth C. Freeman. Pursuant to the terms of the Second Amended Plan, all potential claims and causes of action of the Debtors’ estates against the Company have been assigned to and, potentially may be pursued by, the Litigation Trust. The initial funding amount of the Litigation Trust under the Second Amended Plan was $3 million in cash, and the Litigation Trust received all non-released litigation assets of the Debtors as well as the Debtors’ interest in any insurance policies covering directors and officers of the Debtors. The Second Amended Plan further provides that the trustee for the Litigation Trust is Michael I. Goldberg (the “Litigation Trustee”), who has the sole authority to make decisions and act with respect to the Litigation Trust assets. Proceeds from the Litigation Trust will be distributed to the GWG Wind Down Trust for distribution to holders of trust interests in accordance with the waterfall set forth in the Second Amended Plan and the trust agreement governing the GWG Wind Down Trust.
The Second Amended Plan also incorporates the terms of a mediated settlement (the “Mediated Settlement”) between the Official Committee of Bondholders (the “OCB”) and L Bond Management, LLC (the “LBM”). As a result, Pursuant to the Second Amended Plan, the Company did not receive a release, and all potential claims and causes of action of the Debtors’ estates against the Company, including the potential claims and causes of action described in the OCB’s Standing Motion (as defined below), have been assigned to and, potentially may be pursued by, the Litigation Trust. As described below, on April 19, 2024, the Litigation Trustee filed a complaint against Beneficient and certain other parties (the “LT Compliant”), and it is possible that further claims or causes of action arising from the Company’s transactions with GWG, the OCB Standing Motion and the LT Complaint could be advanced against the Company in the future. Any attendant litigation, including the LT Complaint, depending on its outcome, or the potential for additional claims, could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition and could result in a decline of the value or perceived value of the Company, which could ultimately be reflected as a reduction in the market prices of our securities
The transfer of GWG’s assets to the GWG Wind Down Trust and Litigation Trust and their subsequent liquidation pursuant to the Second Amended Plan could create significant uncertainties and risks for our continued operations and/or materially and adversely impact our financial operating results. Among other things, as of the Effective Date, the Company held approximately 2.5 million shares of GWG common stock, and the Customer ExAlt Trusts held 9.8 million shares of GWG common stock and $94.8 million of outstanding principal amount of L Bonds. On the Effective Date, all securities issued by GWG, including GWG’s common stock, preferred stock and debt securities (including all L Bonds) were cancelled. Holders of such cancelled securities, including the Company and the Customer ExAlt Trusts, were delivered trust interests (the “New

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WDT Interests”) in GWG Wind Down Trust. As of March 31, 2024, Ben held 0.8 million interests of Series A1 and 2.5 million interests of Series E of the GWG Wind Down Trust, and the Customer ExAlt Trusts held 82.0 million, 14.5 million, and 9.8 million interests of Series A1, Series A2, and Series E, respectively, of the GWG Wind Down Trust. During the years ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company has recognized net losses of $1.4 million and $12.9 million, respectively, related to its interests in the GWG Wind Down Trust (or GWG Holdings, as applicable), and the Customer ExAlt Trusts have recognized net losses of $66.1 million and $50.7 million related to its interest in the GWG Wind Down Trust (or GWG Holdings, as applicable), all of which is reflected in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss). If the value of such New WDT Interests received by the Company and the ExAlt Trusts in exchange for their GWG common stock and L Bonds were to continue to significantly drop, the value of the Company’s or the Customer ExAlt Trusts’ holdings of such New WDT Interests would also continue to significantly drop, which could result in a decline in our value and/or have a negative impact on our operating results. Such a decline in the perceived value or operating results of the Company, on a consolidated basis, could ultimately be reflected as a reduction in the market price of our securities, which could adversely influence our ability to raise capital in the future.
Additionally, a subsidiary of the Company has loans to certain Customer ExAlt Trusts in the approximate aggregate principal amount of $145.9 million (net of unamortized discounts), which are collateralized by the New WDT Interests held by these certain Customer ExAlt Trusts. The value and/or availability of such New WDT Interests to satisfy the loans have been materially impacted as a result of the Chapter 11 Cases and the Second Amended Plan and may also be materially impacted as a result of potential litigation against the Company relating to its transactions with GWG. As of March 31, 2024, an allowance for credit losses of $145.9 million was recorded on these loans, principally related to the decline in the value of the GWG common stock and L Bonds (prior to their cancellation). In addition, we have recorded an allowance for credit losses of $25.3 million on fees receivables related to these Customer ExAlt Trusts. The allowance for credit losses on both the loans and fee receivables are eliminated in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but directly impacts the income (loss) allocable to the Company’s and BCH’s equity holders. We may be required to record additional impairment charges on the loans and a further reduction in the value of the New WDT Interests received in exchange for such L Bonds or GWG common stock could have a material adverse effect on the Customer ExAlt Trust’s ability to repay the current carrying value of the loans.
As a result of the issuance of the New WDT Interests, the Company or the ExAlt Trusts may receive distributions via the GWG Wind Down Trust as set forth in the Second Amended Plan and the trust agreement governing the GWG Wind Down Trust. Any further impairment charges related to the New WDT Interests would be reflected in our consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) and would impact the income (loss) allocatable to Beneficient’s equity holders, each of which could result in a decline in our value. Such a decline in the perceived value of the Company could ultimately be reflected as a reduction in the market price of our securities, which could adversely influence our ability to raise capital in the future.
We may face risks related to allegations in the Chapter 11 Cases, which could damage our reputation and otherwise be disruptive to our business.
We have had numerous transactions with GWG since 2018. As part of the Chapter 11 Cases, GWG adopted resolutions (the “Resolution”), which, among other things, formed the Special Committee and the Investigations Committee of the GWG board of directors, comprised of certain independent directors (the “Independent Directors”). The Resolutions gave (i) the Special Committee the authority to, among other things, examine, investigate, analyze, assess, evaluate and negotiate the terms and conditions of any proposed plan of reorganization or liquidation submitted by GWG and its debtor-affiliates to the Bankruptcy Court for confirmation in connection with the Chapter 11 Cases and (ii) the Investigations Committee the authority to, among other things, conduct an investigation of claims and causes of action that arise under or relate to any transactions, relationships or conduct involving the Debtors and any third party, including, without limitation, the Company, as well as its officers and directors, relating to the Company’s transactions with GWG.
Furthermore, in connection with GWG’s Chapter 11 Cases, the OCB filed a motion seeking standing (the “Standing Motion”) to pursue causes of action that include (i) avoidance actions including challenges to transactions between GWG and the Company under theories of actual or constructive fraudulent transfer, (ii) allege claims for breach of fiduciary duty against former and current Company directors and officers, including Ben’s CEO, for approving such transactions, (iii) advance a basis for the claims that GWG did not receive reasonably equivalent value in these transactions, and (iv) seek recovery from the Company and the other named individuals, including Ben’s CEO. More specifically, such challenged transactions relate to (i) GWG’s commitment to loan the Company $65 million that GWG funded in two tranches on May 31, 2019 ($50 million on June 3, 2019 and $15 million on November 22, 2019), (ii) GWG’s purchase of $10 million of equity in the Company on June 12, 2019, (iii) GWG’s capital contribution to the Company of $79 million on December 31, 2019, (iv) $130.2 million in contributions by GWG to the Company pursuant to a Preferred Series C Unit Purchase Agreement, and (v) the Company’s ultimate decoupling from GWG. Additionally, the motion included proposed claims against certain of GWG’s former directors for an illegal dividend under Delaware law and claims for unjust enrichment against certain of GWG’s former directors, individuals and corporate entities affiliated with or controlled by Ben’s CEO, transferees of certain allegedly

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fraudulent transfers, and certain broker-dealers who marketed and sold L Bonds. The OCB’s Standing Motion stated that the proposed claims could add in excess of $500 million worth of additional value to the Debtors’ estate.
On February 22, 2023, the Company and the Company’s CEO, Brad K. Heppner, filed motions to object to the OCB’s Standing Motion that refutes the allegations. On March 9, 2023, the Debtors, the OCB and LBM entered into the Mediated Settlement in the Chapter 11 Cases, the terms of which were incorporated into the Second Amended Plan. The Second Amended Plan provides for the creation of a Litigation Trust with an initial funding amount of $3 million in cash, and all potential claims and causes of action of the Debtors’ estates against the Company were, unless otherwise settled, assigned to and, potentially may be pursued by the Litigation Trust, including those claims related to the OCB’s Standing Motion. On June 20, 2023, the Bankruptcy Court entered an order confirming the Second Amended Plan, which became effective on August 1, 2023, and the Standing Motion was deemed to be withdrawn.
On the effective date of the Second Amended Plan, which occurred on August 1, 2023, GWG transferred any potential claims against the Company and certain other parties to the Litigation Trust. On April 19, 2024, the Litigation Trustee filed the LT Complaint as an Adversary Proceeding in the bankruptcy of GWG Holdings, Inc. currently pending in the Bankruptcy Court against Ben Management, the Company, BCH, Beneficient Capital Company II, L.L.C., f/k/a Beneficient Capital Company, L.L.C. (together with New BCC, defined herein, “BCC”), Beneficient Capital Company, L.L.C. (“New BCC”), BHI, various current or former officers and directors of the Company, HCLP and certain of its affiliates, former officers and directors of the Company’s former parent company, trustees of certain trusts that are directly or indirectly controlled by, or operate for the benefit of, Ben’s CEO and founder or his family, entities directly or indirectly held by, or that are under common control with, such trusts, and in which Ben’s CEO and his family members are among classes of economic beneficiaries, whether or not Ben’s CEO is entitled to economic distributions from such trusts, and others. The LT Complaint alleges causes of action that include (i) actual or constructive fraudulent transfer for certain transactions between GWG and the Company or its affiliates, (ii) breaches of fiduciary duty, aiding and abetting breaches of fiduciary duty, and civil conspiracy, (iii) unjust enrichment, (iv) avoidance of any purported releases of the defendants, and (v) disallowance of the claims filed by certain defendants, including the Company, in the GWG bankruptcy case.
More specifically, such challenged transactions relate to (i) GWG’s purchase of $10 million of equity in the Company on June 12, 2019, (ii) GWG’s commitment on May 31, 2019 to loan trusts affiliated with the Company $65 million that GWG funded in two tranches ($50 million on June 3, 2019 and $15 million on November 22, 2019) and the repayment of such loan, (iii) GWG’s capital contribution to the Company of $79 million on December 31, 2019, (iv) approximately $145 million in capital contributions by GWG to the Company pursuant to a Preferred Series C Unit Purchase Agreement, and (v) the Company’s ultimate decoupling from GWG. Additionally, the LT Complaint seeks to avoid the debts owed by the Company to HCLP. The LT Complaint seeks to, among other things, avoid certain of the transactions and/or recover damages, attorney’s fees and expenses, pre-judgment and post-judgment interest. The LT Complaint does not purport to estimate the damages sought. The Company, its affiliates and its officers and directors intend to vigorously defend themselves against these claims.
In light of the LT Compliant and any possible future claims brought by the Litigation Trustee, whether related to the causes of action described in the LT Compliant and/or the Standing Motion or not, we may face significant risk, including the cost of protracted litigation. Even if we prevail in any litigation brought by the Litigation Trustee, the existence of the allegations alone could result in reputational harm as a result of negative public sentiment, increased scrutiny from our regulators, and reduced investor and stakeholder confidence. Additionally, the negative publicity, uncertainty, and risks associated with the Chapter 11 Cases, the OCB’s Standing Motion and the LT Complaint have negatively impacted and may continue to negatively impact investors’ willingness to engage with us until any related claims are resolved. More specifically, these uncertainties and risks have resulted in an investor advising us that it has refused to invest in connection with the Business Combination, and we have received indications from other potential investors that they would withhold their potential investments in the Company until these matters are resolved or until further clarity is available. Additionally, the allegations may impact the willingness of our customers and other parties to transact business with us. The Company, its affiliates and its officers and directors intend to vigorously defend themselves against the claims brought by the Litigation Trustee in the LT Complaint and any claims that may be brought in the future.
The GWG Wind Down Trust owns a substantial percentage of the Company and continues to have voting power with respect to those matters on which our common stock has the right to vote.
Based on the information reported on a Schedule 13G/A filed by the GWG Wind Down Trust on April 17, 2024, the GWG Wind Down Trust held approximately 60% of the shares of Class A common stock of the Company, which represents approximately 34% of the total voting power of the Class A and Class B common stock. As long as the GWG Wind Down Trust continues to own a significant percentage of our securities, it may have the ability to affect the outcome of certain matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders and its interests may differ from the interests of other stockholders.

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A regulatory investigation involving GWG has diverted and may continue to divert time and attention of our management.
GWG, Beneficient’s former parent company and current holder of limited partner interests in the Company and BCH, received a subpoena in October 2020 from the SEC’s Division of Enforcement indicating the existence of a nonpublic investigation involving GWG. As GWG publicly disclosed, GWG is cooperating in the investigation. According to press reports, GWG received at least 16 subpoenas from the SEC requesting information primarily related to GWG’s investment products, including L Bonds issued by GWG, the consolidation for financial reporting purposes of the Company by GWG, goodwill valuation, and the accounting related to the Customer ExAlt Trusts, related party transactions, life insurance policies, and the calculation of the debt-coverage ratio.
Additionally, according to public information including bankruptcy filings by GWG, the SEC has issued subpoenas to and may be investigating certain brokerage firms and registered persons for violative sales of the L Bonds issued by GWG. One such firm and its representatives have been charged by the SEC for violations of Regulation Best Interest in selling the L Bonds to retail investors despite GWG’s disclosure that “the L bonds were high risk, illiquid, and only suitable for customers with substantial financial resources.” Beneficient does not know what action may result, if any, from the SEC’s investigations nor whether the bankruptcy of GWG and other litigation matters may result in actions against Beneficient. The investigations regarding GWG and its selling brokers has taken and may continue to take significant time, attention and resources of our directors and management, which has resulted and may continue to result in substantial costs to us.
Risks Related to Litigation and Government Investigations
The Company has been involved in a now-terminated SEC investigation and may be subject to other regulatory investigations and proceedings.
On June 29, 2023, the Company received a “Wells Notice” from the staff (the “Staff”) of the SEC’s Division of Enforcement, stating that the Staff has made a preliminary determination to recommend that the SEC file a civil enforcement action against the Company alleging violations of certain provisions of the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act. We maintain that our actions were appropriate and that we vigorously defended ourselves in this matter. On July 1, 2024, the Company and Mr. Heppner received termination letters from the SEC Staff advising them that the SEC’s investigations related to the Company and Mr. Heppner had concluded and that the Staff does not intend to recommend any enforcement actions by the SEC. While there have been no further actions to date, there can be no assurance that there will not be any further action on this or other matters by the SEC, and the Company may also be subject to further examinations, investigations, proceedings and orders by other regulatory authorities in the future.
The Company is currently involved in legal proceedings and may be a party to additional claims and litigation in the future.
On February 18, 2022, Paul Capital Advisors (“PCA”) filed a lawsuit against MHT Financial, L.L.C. (“MHT”), BCG, and two trust advisors (the “Trust Advisors”), Murray Holland (part-owner of MHT and former Chairman, President and CEO of GWG) and James Turvey (an employee of BCG) in the Delaware Court of Chancery (the “Court” or the “Court of Chancery”). While BCG was named as a defendant, PCA did not assert claims against or seek relief from BCG but instead asserted one cause of action that only sought the removal and replacement of the Trust Advisors. The lawsuit concerns a set of transactions that utilized a trust structure with MHT as the sole beneficiary. Through this trust structure, PCA sold illiquid investments with a net asset value of approximately $500 million to MHT in exchange for a contractual right from MHT to receive proceeds derived from an auction of BCG securities held in certain trusts (the “Trusts”). Pursuant to a separate contingent value right (“CVR”) contract (the “CVR Contract”) between BCG, affiliates of BCG (collectively, the “BEN CVR Parties”), and MHT, BCG agreed to undertake certain obligations if consideration from the auction of the BCG securities held in the Trusts resulted in an amount less than the net asset value of the illiquid investments MHT purchased from PCA (a “Shortfall ET Amount”), and other precedent conditions occurred. These obligations included, among other things, making quarterly distributions of “Available Cash” to the Trusts until the distributions equaled the Shortfall ET Amount.
Ultimately, GWG won the auction of the Company securities with a winning bid comprised of cash, GWG common stock, and L Bonds. While the cash consideration has been paid to PCA, the GWG stock and L Bonds remain in the Trusts until they are liquidated. The original complaint asserted one cause of action: that the Trust Advisors had breached their purported fiduciary duties to PCA. The sole relief PCA sought was the removal and replacement of the Trust Advisors. On March 14, 2022, the defendants moved to dismiss the original complaint, disputing in their briefs filed on March 28, 2022 that PCA is a beneficiary of any kind to the Trusts, and therefore not owed fiduciary duties by the Trust Advisors, and that PCA has no right to remove and replace the Trust Advisors. Further, the Company sought to dismiss the original complaint on the grounds that no claims were asserted against the Company and no relief was sought from it.
On April 18, 2022, PCA amended its original complaint. The amended complaint asserted six new causes of action arising out of the same set of transactions, including: (1) purported breaches of contract against BCG, MHT, and the Trust Advisors, including a purported breach of the CVR Contract; (2) purported fraud by the Company and MHT pertaining to the execution

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of the Second Amendment to the CVR Contract; and (3) promissory estoppel against MHT, the Company, and Murray Holland in his capacity as a Trust Advisor. The amended complaint also sought additional relief in the form of (1) damages “in an amount to be proven at trial” and (2) an order granting rescission of an amendment to the CVR Contract or a holding declaring it invalid. On April 18, 2022, Mr. Holland and Mr. Turvey resigned as Trust Advisors to the Trusts that were the subject matter of the complaint. On April 19, 2022, MHT, as the sole beneficiary of the Trusts, appointed Dr. John Stahl as the new Trust Advisor. On April 28, 2022, the Court found that PCA’s original cause of action to remove Mr. Holland and Mr. Turvey as Trust Advisors was moot. On May 6, 2022, PCA amended its complaint again to request that Dr. Stahl be removed as Trust Advisor.
Additionally, while the second amended complaint maintains the prior causes of action, it retracts PCA’s prior, false statements claiming that the Company had not supplied PCA’s representative the relevant documents before he signed an amendment to the CVR Contract. PCA still, however, requests that the Court rescind this amendment which memorialized the parties’ prior agreements regarding certain definitions negotiated and approved by PCA and its counsel. On August 17, 2022, the Court issued a memorandum opinion that dismissed count I of PCA’s complaint, which requested Dr. Stahl’s removal, after finding that PCA is not a beneficiary of the Trusts and, therefore, lacks standing to request the removal of any Trust Advisor. Additionally, because the Court held that PCA is not a beneficiary of the Trusts, the parties agreed that count II, which alleged breach of fiduciary duty against the Trust Advisors, should also be dismissed. On October 3, 2022, the Court entered an order dismissing count I of PCA’s complaint in accordance with its memorandum opinion and count II in light of the parties’ agreement that it should also be dismissed.
On November 1, 2022, defendants filed their opening briefs in support of their motions to dismiss the remaining counts. On December 20, 2022, PCA filed its answering brief in opposition to defendants’ motions to dismiss the remaining counts. On January 24, 2023, defendants filed their reply briefs. Oral argument on the motions to dismiss was held on May 8, 2023. On August 29, 2023, the Court issued a letter opinion that denied defendants’ motions to dismiss with respect to most of the remaining counts, explaining that the Court was unwilling to determine the parties’ rights under the various agreements at the pleadings stage and that discovery may make these issues ripe for summary judgment. The Court did, however, grant defendants’ motions to dismiss as to one of PCA’s promissory estoppel claims and its claim for equitable fraud. On October 25, 2023, defendants filed their respective answers to PCA’s second amended complaint.
On November 9, 2023, defendants filed a motion to bifurcate, requesting that the Court of Chancery first resolve the threshold issue of PCA’s standing under the CVR Contract and Exchange Trust Agreements before proceeding on the merits. On November 29, 2023, PCA filed its opposition to defendants’ motion to bifurcate, and on December 8, 2023, defendants filed their reply brief. On June 24, 2024, the Court of Chancery heard oral argument and issued its ruling granting defendants’ motion to bifurcate. In its ruling, the Court of Chancery ordered the parties to promptly conduct limited standing-related discovery to allow final resolution of the standing issue on summary judgment by January 2025.
This litigation can subject us to substantial costs and divert resources and the attention of management from our business. If these claims are successful, our business could be seriously harmed. Even if the claims do not result in protracted litigation or are resolved in our favor, the time and resources needed to resolve such claims could divert our management’s resources and adversely affect our business.
The CVR Contract is an agreement between the BEN CVR Parties, and MHT, which was dated as of September 1, 2017. PCA is not a party to the CVR Contract nor an intended third-party beneficiary of the CVR Contract. In the CVR Contract, among other things, the Company agreed to undertake certain obligations if: (1) the consideration from the auction of the Company securities held in the Trusts resulted in an amount less than the net asset value of the illiquid investments MHT purchased from PCA (a Shortfall ET Amount) and (2) certain other conditions were not satisfied, resulting in what the CVR Contract referred to as a “Distribution Trigger Event.” Under the CVR Contract, a Distribution Trigger Event could potentially occur if the BEN CVR Parties failed to undertake an Initial Public Listing (as defined in the CVR Contract) within 24 months of the auction closing date of the Company securities, which was defined to include a transaction or event resulting in the listing of the Company’s common units (or any securities into which the common units may be exchanged in a business combination or similar transaction) on a national stock exchange or quotation in an automated quotation system. In the event of the occurrence of a Distribution Trigger Event, the BEN CVR Parties potentially would have had to comply with specified obligations arising in certain circumstances, including making quarterly distributions of “Available Cash” to the Trusts until the distributions equaled the Shortfall ET Amount, if any (a “Mandatory Distribution Period”).
During such a Mandatory Distribution Period, the CVR Contract may have also required the BEN CVR Parties to cease certain business activities, including the financing or acquisition of future private equity or other alternative asset loans unless financed through the issuance of equity or debt that is subordinate to the obligations under the CVR Contract. Except where the description of the CVR Contract expressly refers to PCA, the description of the CVR Contract’s terms is as asserted by the Company, and they are currently in dispute and being litigated in the Delaware Court of Chancery.

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As a threshold matter, the parties disagree about whether PCA is an intended third-party beneficiary of the CVR Contract. PCA asserts it is an intended third-party beneficiary with standing to enforce the CVR Contract. The BEN CVR Parties disagree with PCA because Section 4.9 of the CVR Contract expressly disclaims that there are any third-party beneficiaries of CVR Contract other than the Trusts. In addition to the threshold issue of standing, the parties disagree about (1) whether there is a Shortfall ET Amount under the CVR Contract’s definition of Net Auction Consideration, (2) whether there was an Initial Public Listing as defined in the CVR Contract, and (3) whether the CVR Contract terminated under these disputed definitions.
First, PCA asserts that a Shortfall ET Amount exists because it alleges that the Trusts have not received Net Auction Consideration, which PCA argues is defined to only include cash, in an amount equal to the net asset value of the illiquid investments MHT purchased from PCA (NAV of ~$500 million). As a result, PCA claims damages in the amount of $350 million. In contrast, the BEN CVR Parties believe there is no Shortfall ET Amount because the Trusts have received Net Auction Consideration that PCA’s valuation expert determined had a value exceeding the NAV of the investments purchased from PCA (valued at ~$550 million), which was comprised of $150 million in cash and approximately $400 million in GWG L-Bonds and GWG common stock. The BEN CVR Parties disagree that Net Auction Consideration only includes cash received by the Trusts in light of (1) an acknowledgement in which PCA agreed that “for all purposes Net Auction Consideration included all Auction Consideration” and that “the fair market value of all Auction Consideration shall be the fair market value as reflected [by PCA’s valuation expert]” and (2) an amendment to the CVR Contract that amended the definition of Net Auction Consideration to include non-cash consideration received by the Trusts and that was signed by a PCA general partner serving as a Ben director for purposes of approving such an amendment.
Second, PCA asserts the BEN CVR Parties failed to undertake an Initial Public Listing, alleging the BEN CVR Parties never filed a registration statement. The BEN CVR Parties disagree because they did exchange common units for GWG common stock, satisfying the CVR Contract’s definition of an Initial Public Listing. Third, as a result of the disputed terms above, the parties disagree about whether the CVR Contract terminated. Under the BEN CVR Parties’ view of the disputed terms, the CVR Contract terminated under its terms. But because PCA asserts that a Shortfall ET Amount exists, PCA disagrees that the CVR Contract has terminated and claims that the amendment to the CVR Contract was fraudulently induced.
To date, PCA has not sought any equitable relief with respect to the CVR Contract and instead has only requested monetary damages. If PCA is successful in its claim that it has standing to enforce the CVR Contract, that the CVR Contract has not terminated on its terms, and that the Company and its related parties have breached certain obligations under the CVR Contract, PCA may be able to recover substantial damages from the Company. Such damages could include an award to PCA of monetary damages in an amount of up to $350 million, the alleged Shortfall ET Amount, plus costs and expenses. Any such recovery against the Company (or Beneficient) could materially affect the ability of the Company (or Beneficient) to continue its operations.
Additionally, on December 16, 2022, a former member of the board of directors of Ben Management initiated a private arbitration in the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, challenging the termination of certain equity awards under two incentive plans by the administrator of the incentive plans. The claimant seeks total damages of $36.3 million plus attorney’s fees and punitive damages. On April 23, 2024, the sole arbitrator held that in terminating the claimant’s equity awards, the Company had breached its contractual obligations, and as a result, awarded the claimant $55.3 million in compensatory damages, including pre-judgment interest. Post-judgment interest was also awarded to claimant. Neither attorneys’ fees nor punitive damages were awarded to the claimant. The Company was also asked to pay arbitration-related costs in the amount of approximately $0.1 million. The Company is exploring available options with respect to the award, which, should the Company be unable to negotiate a settlement with the claimant, may include the filing of a petition or motion to vacate the award under applicable law. The Company has and will continue to devote significant time and resources needed to explore options related to such matter, which has and is expected to continue to divert our management’s resources and adversely affect our business.
On February 18, 2022, Shirin Bayati and Mojan Kamalvand, on behalf of themselves and of all others similarly situated, filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for Northern District of Texas against GWG, its former President and Chief Executive Officer, Murray Holland, its former Chief Financial Officer, Timothy Evans, and certain past and present members of the board of directors of GWG and BCG (Roy Bailey, Peter T. Cangany, Jr., David Chavenson, Brad K. Heppner, Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, Bruce W. Schnitzer, and David H. de Weese). The suit alleges that the defendants violated Sections 11, 12, and 15 of the Securities Act by issuing materially misleading statements in a June 3, 2020 registration statement. On April 20, 2022, GWG filed for bankruptcy protection in the Southern District of Texas. On April 21, 2022, the district court ordered all parties to submit statements by May 5, 2022 on whether the automatic stay in bankruptcy extends to the non-debtor defendants. On April 25, 2022, the Lead Plaintiffs filed a Motion for Appointment as Lead Plaintiff and Approval of Their Selection of Lead Counsel. On May 2, 2022, a notice of dismissal was filed, dismissing defendants Peter T. Cangany, Jr., Brad K. Heppner, Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, and Bruce W. Schnitzer. On May 12, 2022, the district court extended the bankruptcy stay to all non-debtor defendants, although it permitted a limited

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modification of lifting of the stay to allow the court to consider the pending lead plaintiff motion. On August 5, 2022, the district court entered an order appointing Thomas Horton and Frank Moore as lead plaintiffs for the putative class. On May 26, 2023, Thomas Horton and Frank Moore, on behalf of themselves and other similarly situated, filed a second class action lawsuit against the Company, Brad K. Heppner, Peter T. Cangany, Jr., Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, Bruce W. Schnitzer and Whitley Penn LLP, alleging Securities Act violations arising out of the Offering.
On March 30, 2023, David Scura and Clifford Day, on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for Northern District of Texas against Ben, certain members of the Board (Brad K. Heppner, Peter T. Cangany, Jr., Richard W. Fisher, Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, and Bruce W. Schnitzer), certain past members of the board of directors of GWG (Jon R. Sabes and Steven F. Sabes), FOXO and Emerson Equity LLC (“Emerson”) (the “Scura Action”). The suit alleges that the defendants defrauded GWG investors in connection with the sale of GWG’s L Bonds and preferred stock, and it asserts claims on behalf of a putative class consisting of all persons and entities who purchased or otherwise acquired GWG’s L Bonds or preferred stock of GWG between December 23, 2017 and April 20, 2022. The suit alleges that (i) the Company, the individual defendants, and FOXO violated Sections 10(b) of the Exchange Act and SEC Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder, (ii) that the individual defendants violated Section 20(a) of the Exchange Act and (iii) that Emerson violated Section 15(c)(1)(A) of the Exchange Act. On May 3, 2023, Thomas Horton and Frank Moore, in their capacities as the lead plaintiffs in the Bayati Action, filed a motion to lift the automatic stay in the Chapter 11 Cases in order to file a motion in the Northern District of Texas seeking to consolidate the Bayati and Scura Actions under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. On June 8, 2023, the plaintiffs in the Scura Action filed a voluntary notice of dismissal without prejudice.
On August 16, 2023, Thomas Horton and Frank Moore, in their capacities as the Lead Plaintiffs in the Bayati Action, filed a notice regarding the confirmation of the Debtors’ Chapter 11 plan in the GWG bankruptcy, a motion seeking to lift the bankruptcy stay and a motion to consolidate the Bayati and Horton Actions. On September 12, 2023, the court entered an order consolidating the Bayati and Horton Actions. The court ordered that the consolidated action shall bear the caption In re GWG Holdings, Inc. Securities Litigation. The court lifted the bankruptcy stay and ordered the Lead Plaintiffs to file a new consolidated complaint within 20 days. On October 2, 2023, the Lead Plaintiffs filed a Consolidated Class Action Complaint against the Company, Brad K. Heppner, Peter T. Cangany, Jr., Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, Bruce W. Schnitzer (the “Ben Individual Defendants”), Murray T. Holland, Timothy L. Evans, David H. de Weese, Roy W. Bailey, David F. Chavenson, and Whitley Penn LLP, alleging Securities Act violations arising out of the Offering. The complaint alleges that the individual defendants violated Sections 11, 12(a)(2), and 15 of the Securities Act, and further alleges that the Company violated Section 15 of the Securities Act. The Company and the Ben Individual Defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on November 7, 2023. On January 4, 2024, defendants Murray Holland, Roy Bailey, Tim Evans, Whitley Penn, David Chavenson and David H. de Weese filed motions to dismiss. The Lead Plaintiffs’ responded to the various motions to dismiss on February 20, 2024, and the defendants (other than Whitley Penn) filed replies in support of the motions to dismiss on March 21, 2024. The Company and the Ben Individual Defendants intend to vigorously defend themselves in the litigation.
On October 27, 2023, David Scura filed a petition in Dallas County District Court against Brad K. Heppner, Jon R. Sabes, Steven F. Sabes, Peter T. Cangany, Jr., Thomas O. Hicks, Dennis P. Lockhart, Bruce W. Schnitzer, the Company and FOXO, alleging violation of the Texas Securities Act, common law fraud, unjust enrichment, and civil conspiracy to defraud. Also on October 27, 2023, Clifford Day and Carla Monahan filed a petition in Dallas County District Court against the same defendants, alleging the same claims. The parties agreed to move the defendants’ deadline to respond to the petition to February 19, 2024. On April 10, 2024, the plaintiffs and Ben parties entered into a twelve-month tolling agreement, and the plaintiffs filed motions to nonsuit their claims that the courts granted on April 12, 2024 and April 16, 2024, respectively. The Company and the Ben Individual Defendants intend to vigorously defend themselves in the litigation.
Risks Related to Reliance on Technology, Third Parties and Our Employees
We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.
Third-party vendors provide, and are expected to continue to provide, key components of our business infrastructure, including for certain information systems, legal services, technology, administration, tax and compliance matters. The failure of any such third-party vendors to provide their services for any reason or to perform their services adequately could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to Customers, impair our ability to conduct our business efficiently and effectively, and/or result in regulatory action, financial loss, litigation, and loss of reputation. We may be unsuccessful in seeking reimbursement or indemnification from these third parties, and replacing any third-party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense.

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A failure in our operational systems could impair our liquidity, disrupt our business, result in the disclosure of confidential information, damage our reputation, and cause losses.
Our financial, accounting, data processing or other operational systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control. Although we have backup systems in place, including backup data storage, our backup procedures and capabilities in the event of a failure or interruption may not be adequate. We must continuously update such systems to support our operations and growth, and to avoid disruption of, or constraints on, our operations. Enhancements and updates to systems, as well as the requisite training, including in connection with the integration of new businesses, entail significant costs and create risks. We may experience malfunctions in such systems, which may be severe. If, for example, our secure online portal experiences a glitch or other program-related error, Ben Liquidity could experience delays in processing liquidity transactions, which could result in negative reputational effects, and/or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are not able to innovate and develop enhancements to our products and services, keep pace with technological developments or respond to future disruptive technologies, our business could be adversely affected.
As a technology-enabled company, we heavily rely on technology and innovation to support and build our business. In order to attract new customers and increase revenue from customers that currently use our products and services, we will need to continually adapt, develop, innovate, enhance, add new features and improve upon our products and services. The success of our products and services and any enhancements or new features in the future will depend on several factors, including timely completion and market acceptance of such enhancements and new features. We may expend significant time and resources developing and pursuing Customers that may not result in revenues in our anticipated time frame or at all, or may not result in revenue growth sufficient to offset any increased expenses due to enhancements or new features. If we are unable to successfully develop enhancements or new features to meet our customers’ needs in the future, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
In addition, because our products and services will be designed to operate on a variety of network, hardware and software platforms using internet tools and protocols, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our products and services to keep pace with changes in internet-related hardware, software, communication, browser and database technologies. If we are unable to respond in a timely and cost-effective manner to these rapid technological developments, our products and services may become less marketable and less competitive or even obsolete.
Our success depends on certain key personnel and the ability to attract, retain, and develop new professionals.
Our success depends in large part upon the skills, experience, personal reputations and network of business relationships of our executives, and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by such executives. Our key personnel are directly responsible for setting our strategic direction, operating our business, maintaining and expanding business and other critical relationships with Customers and business partners and identifying expansion opportunities.
Competition for qualified personnel in the financial services industry is intense. Under the Kansas TEFFI charter, BFF is required to notify the OSBC of any change in the chief executive officer, president or directors of BFF. Only BFF, our subsidiary, is regulated by the OSBC. The OSBC does not regulate the entirety of Beneficient. We may not be successful in retaining our key personnel, and the unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could have an adverse effect on our business because of their skills, knowledge of our primary markets, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. The loss of any of these key personnel, or our inability to recruit and retain qualified replacements, could cause disruption in our business and could prevent us from fully implementing our business strategy.
Our employees may take excessive risks, which could negatively affect our financial condition and business.
We accept certain risks in the ordinary course of our business. The employees who conduct our business, including executive officers and other members of management, sales intermediaries, investment professionals and other associates, do so in part by making decisions and choices that involve exposing us to risk. These include decisions such as setting underwriting guidelines and standards, pricing and other decisions. We endeavor, in the design and implementation of our compensation programs and practices, to avoid giving our employees incentives to take excessive risks; however, employees may take such risks regardless of the structure of our compensation programs and practices. Similarly, although we employ controls and procedures designed to monitor employees’ business decisions and prevent them from taking excessive risks, and to prevent employee misconduct, these controls and procedures may not be effective. If our employees take excessive risks, the impact of those risks could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and business operations.

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Our Chief Executive Officer’s and employees’ ability to participate in our equity incentive programs, our profit participation programs and awards of restricted stock units may create an incentive for them to effect more speculative liquidity transactions and determinations than would be the case in the absence of such arrangement.
Our employees sometimes receive equity awards or other Company performance-based fees or allocations, and our Chief Executive Officer receives profit participation through interests in BCH held by Beneficient Holdings, Inc. (“BHI”), that may create an incentive for them to effect more speculative liquidity transactions and determinations, directly or indirectly on behalf of our Customers, or otherwise take or refrain from taking certain actions than it would otherwise make in the absence of such equity units or performance-based fees or allocations. In addition, we may have an incentive to make exit determinations based on factors that maximize economics in favor of us or our employees. Certain of our senior management employees or related persons may receive a portion of our equity interests or Company performance-based fees or allocations with respect to one or more of our subsidiaries, which may similarly influence such employees’ or related persons’ judgments. Our failure to appropriately manage any actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest resulting from such employees’ ability to receive equity interests could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including an inability to effect liquidity transactions, attract new Customers or retain existing Customers.
Misconduct by our employees, advisors or third-party service providers could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain Customers and subjecting us to significant legal liability and reputational harm.
There is a risk that our employees, advisors or third-party service providers could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. We are subject to a number of laws, regulations and other obligations arising from our businesses and expect to become subject to additional laws and regulations as a result of the issuance of our operational TEFFI charter in Kansas. The violation of such laws, regulations or obligations by any of BFF’s employees, advisors or third-party service providers could adversely affect Customers and us. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to Customers. It is not always possible to detect or deter misconduct, and the extensive precautions we take that seek to detect and prevent undesirable activity may not be effective in all cases. If our employees, advisors or third-party service providers were to engage in fraudulent activity, violate regulatory standards or improperly use or disclose confidential information, we could be subject to legal or regulatory action and suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships.
Any cybersecurity attack or other security breach of our technology systems, or those of third-party vendors we rely on, could subject us to significant liability and harm our business operations and reputation.
Cybersecurity attacks and security breaches of our technology systems, including those of Customers and third-party vendors, may subject us to liability and harm our business operations and overall reputation. Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks. Threats to information technology systems associated with cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents continue to grow, and there have been a number of highly publicized cases involving financial services companies, consumer-based companies and other organizations reporting the unauthorized disclosure of Customer or other confidential information in recent years.
We conduct the majority of our business through our information technology systems and process Customers’ personally identifiable information through certain of such systems. In addition, we and our employees have been and expect to continue to be the target of “phishing” attacks, and the subject of impersonations and fraudulent requests for money, and other forms of such activities. Cybersecurity risks could result in the theft of our proprietary information and our Customers’ personally identifiable information, disrupt our operations, negatively impact our ability to compete and result in injury to our reputation, downtime, loss of revenue, and increased costs to prevent, respond to or mitigate cybersecurity events. We may also need to commit additional management, operational and financial resources to identify new professionals to join our firm and to maintain appropriate security systems and policies to adequately support expansion. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or maintain sufficient insurance on commercially reasonable terms or with adequate coverage levels against potential liabilities we may face in connection with potential claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Although we have developed, and continue to invest in, systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent security breaches and cyber-attacks, and while we expect to periodically test this security, there can be no assurance that our security measures, information technology and infrastructure will be sufficient to prevent disruptions to our systems, especially because the cyber-attack techniques used change frequently or are not recognized until launched, and because cyber-attacks can originate from a wide variety of sources. In addition, cybersecurity has become a top priority for regulators around the world. Many jurisdictions in which we operate or that manage one or more interests in alternative investment vehicles underlying our collateral portfolio have laws and regulations relating to data privacy, cybersecurity and protection of personal information, including the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union.
If any of our systems do not operate properly or are disabled for any reason or if there is any unauthorized disclosure of data, whether as a result of tampering, employee error, a breach of our network security systems, a cyber-incident or attack or

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otherwise, we could experience unauthorized disclosure or loss of sensitive information, damage to our reputation, the incurrence of additional expenses, additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties, or our exposure to civil or criminal litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Third parties upon whom we rely face similar threats, which could directly or indirectly impact our business and operations. The occurrence of a cybersecurity-incident or attack on our third-party vendors could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our business could be negatively affected.
Our commercial success will be impacted by our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection in the United States and other countries covering our technology, products and product candidates. Obtaining, maintaining and enforcing this protection is costly and uncertain. The patentability of our structures and processes, including the ExAlt Plan Exchange, generally is highly uncertain and involves complex legal questions. We cannot be certain that any patents will be granted to us, or that we will be able successfully to enforce any patents we obtain. Our success protecting our intellectual property depends significantly on our ability to:
obtain and maintain U.S. and foreign patents, including defending those patents against adverse claims of invalidity or unenforceability;
protect trade secrets relating to our technology, data and products;
operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others; and
prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights.
We may not be able to obtain issued patents relating to our technology or products. All of the patents we have applied for with the USPTO are for utility patents. There is no guarantee that the USPTO will issue us patents based on our patent applications. Further, obtaining a utility patent may present additional difficulty due to the current legal and political climate.
Even if issued, patents may inadvertently lapse or be challenged, narrowed, invalidated or circumvented, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing similar products or limit the duration of patent protection we may have for our products. Furthermore, if issued, we may face disputes over the ownership of our intellectual property. We may not own all of the patents that we use, and certain of our employees may have the right to utilize our patents.
The cost of litigation to enforce patents, trade secrets, and other intellectual property could be substantial. Some of our competitors may be better able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation because they may have substantially greater financial resources. Intellectual property lawsuits are expensive and unpredictable and would consume management’s time and attention and other resources, even if the outcome is successful. In addition, there is a risk that a court would decide that our patents or trade secrets are not valid or enforceable, and that we do not have the right to stop the other party from offering competing products or services. There is also a risk that, even if the validity of a patent or trade secret were upheld, a court would refuse to stop the other party from using the patented invention(s), including on the grounds that its activities do not infringe the patent, or did not misappropriate the trade secret. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition to patent litigation in court, for any patent we obtain we may be a party to later adversarial proceedings before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “PTAB”). Potential proceedings before the PTAB include inter parties review proceedings, post-grant review proceedings and interference proceedings. Depending on our level of success at the PTAB, these proceedings could adversely impact our intellectual property rights with respect to our products and technology.
We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
Considerable intellectual property development activity exists in our industry, and we expect that we will increasingly be subject to infringement claims as our business grows and its functionality overlaps with different industry segments. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, may own or claim to own intellectual property in technology areas relating to our technology, products and product candidates. In addition, we may increasingly be subject to trademark infringement claims as our presence grows in the marketplace. From time to time, third parties may assert that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing upon such rights. A claim of infringement may also be made relating to technology that we acquire or license from third parties. However, we may be unaware of the intellectual property rights of others that may cover, or may be alleged to cover, some or all of our technology, products and product candidates.

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The outcome of litigation is inherently unpredictable and, as a result, any future litigation or claim of infringement could (i) cause us to enter into an unfavorable royalty or license agreement, pay ongoing royalties or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms, (ii) require us to discontinue the sale of our technology, products and product candidates, (iii) require us to indemnify our clients or third-party service providers or (iv) require us to expend additional development resources to redesign our platform. Any of these outcomes could harm our business. Even if we were to prevail, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business and operations.
Risks Related to Accounting Policies
Changes in accounting standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard-setting bodies may adversely affect our financial statements.
Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP as defined in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) of the FASB. From time to time, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or guidance that are incorporated into the ASC. It is possible that future accounting standards we are required to adopt could change the current accounting treatment that we apply to our combined and consolidated financial statements and that such changes could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the FASB is working on several projects with the International Accounting Standards Board, which could result in significant changes as GAAP converges with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), including how our financial statements are presented. Furthermore, the SEC is considering whether and how to incorporate IFRS into the U.S. financial reporting system. The accounting changes being proposed by the FASB will be a complete change to how we account for and report significant areas of our business. The effective dates and transition methods are not known; however, issuers may be required to or may choose to adopt the new standards retrospectively. In this case, issuers would report results under the new accounting method as of the effective date, as well as for all periods presented. Any such changes to GAAP or conversion to IFRS would impose special demands on issuers in the areas of governance, employee training, internal controls and disclosure and would likely affect how we manage our business.
Our financial results depend on management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of certain assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amount of related revenues and expenses. Certain accounting policies are inherently based to a greater extent on estimates, assumptions and judgments of management and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally estimated. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to change, in the near term, relate to the fair value determination of investments in alternative assets held by the Customer ExAlt Trusts, the determination of the allowance for credit losses, principally relevant as an input to the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders, the allocation of income (loss) to Ben’s and BCH’s equity holders, and evaluation of potential impairment of goodwill and other intangibles. Management’s judgment and the data relied upon by management may be based on assumptions that prove to be inaccurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if the relevant factual assumptions are accurate, our decisions may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in the design or use of analytical tools used by management. Any such failures in our processes for producing accounting estimates and managing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The accuracy of the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures could be adversely affected if the judgments, assumptions or estimates used in the Company’s critical accounting policies are inaccurate.
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosure in conformity with GAAP requires us to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the amounts reported in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related notes. the Company’s critical accounting policies, which are included in the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, describe those significant accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements that the Company considers “critical” because they require judgments, assumptions and estimates that materially affect the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. As a result, if future events differ significantly from the judgments, assumptions and estimates in the Company’s critical accounting policies, those events or assumptions could have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In addition, changes in accounting interpretations or assumptions could impact the Company’s financial statements and the Company’s ability to timely prepare the Company’s financial statements. The Company’s inability to timely prepare the Company’s financial statements in the future could materially and adversely affect the Company’s share price.

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The implementation of the Current Expected Credit Loss accounting standard required us to increase our allowance for loan losses and may continue to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, including the allocation of income (loss) to the Company’s and BCH’s equity holders.
We adopted on April 1, 2023, the Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”) accounting standard that superseded the previous standard for establishing allowances for loan and lease losses that we were utilized prior to adopting CECL and as an input to the allocation of income (loss) to the Company’s and BCH’s equity holders with respect to the ExAlt Loans, which eliminate in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements. The prior methodology generally considered only past events and current conditions and was replaced with a forward-looking methodology that reflects the expected credit losses over the lives of financial assets, starting when such assets are first originated or acquired. Upon adoption on April 1, 2023, the CECL standard requires us to record, at the time of origination, credit losses expected throughout the life of the asset portfolio on loans and held-to-maturity securities, as opposed to the prior practice of recording losses when it is probable that a loss event has occurred. The accounting standard also required us to record a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity on the adoption. The adoption of the CECL standard may result in materially different results as compared to the previous method impacting how we determine allowance for credit losses and has to-date required us to significantly increase the allowance, including those allowances that eliminate in the presentation of our consolidated financial statements but are utilized as an input in determining the allocation of income (loss) to the Company’s and BCH’s equity holders. Moreover, the CECL standard may create more volatility in the level of the allowance. Material increases to the level of the allowance for any reason could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the allocation of income (loss) to the Company’s and BCH’s equity holders.
If we fail to develop, implement and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting in future periods may be adversely affected.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and related rules and regulations require that management report annually on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and assess the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures on a quarterly basis. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide timely and reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud.
To comply with the requirements of being a public company, the Company has undertaken various actions, and may continue to take additional actions, such as implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring internal audit staff or consultants. Testing and maintaining internal controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. If we fail to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements could be impaired, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, failure to maintain adequate financial and management processes and controls could lead to fraud or errors in our financial reporting and could harm our ability to manage our expenses or collect on our service agreements. Implementing any necessary and appropriate changes to our internal controls may entail substantial costs in order to modify our existing accounting and information technology systems, may take a significant period of time to complete and may distract our officers, directors and employees from the operation of our business. Any failure to maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements, could increase our operating costs and could materially impair our ability to operate our business.
Additionally, when evaluating internal controls over financial reporting, the Company may identify material weaknesses that it may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If the Company identifies any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting or if the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting once it is no longer an emerging growth company, or if the Company is unable to conclude in our quarterly and annual reports that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of the Company’s financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and the Company could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources. In addition, if the Company fails to remediate any material weakness, our financial statements could be inaccurate, and the Company could face restricted access to capital markets.
Risks Related to Our Growth Strategy
Our failure to correctly identify mergers, acquisitions, divestitures or other strategic transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may seek to facilitate our growth through mergers, acquisitions or other strategic transactions. Mergers, acquisitions, and other strategic transactions involve inherent risks that could compromise the success of the combined business and dilute the holdings of our unitholders. If we are incorrect when assessing the value, strengths, weaknesses, liabilities and potential

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