ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 001-13349
BAR HARBOR BANKSHARES
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
PO Box 400
82 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (207) 288-3314
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $2.00 per share
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, or "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)
Large Accelerated Filer o Accelerated Filer ý Non-Accelerated Filer o Smaller Reporting Company o Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act) Yes o No ý
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of Bar Harbor Bankshares was $469,384,260 based on the closing sale price of the common stock on the NYSE American on June 30, 2018, the last trading day of the registrant’s most recently completed second quarter.
The Registrant had 15,523,628 shares of common stock, par value $2.00 per share, outstanding as of March 8, 2019.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 21, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10-14 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company conducts business operations principally through Bar Harbor Bank & Trust, which may be referred to as the Bank and which is a subsidiary of Bar Harbor Bankshares. Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this report to "our company, "our," "us," "we" and similar terms refer to Bar Harbor Bankshares and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, collectively.
Certain statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical facts may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 ("Securities Act") and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("Exchange Act") and are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these statements from the use of the words “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “plan,” “potential,” “estimate,” “project,” “believe,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “target” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are subject to significant risks, assumptions and uncertainties, including among other things, changes in general economic and business conditions, increased competitive pressures, changes in the interest rate environment, legislative and regulatory change, changes in the financial markets, and other risks and uncertainties disclosed from time to time in documents that Bar Harbor Bankshares files with the Securities and Exchange Commission. All risk factors set forth in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be considered in evaluating forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the dates on which they were made. The Company is not undertaking an obligation to update forward-looking statements, even though its situation may change in the future, except as required under federal securities law. The Company qualifies all of its forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
Throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Bar Harbor Bankshares is referred to as “BHB”, “the Company", “we”, “our”, or “us.” Bar Harbor Bank & Trust (“the Bank”) was established in 1887, and is the only community bank headquartered in Northern New England with branches in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. The Bank is a true community bank providing exceptional commercial, retail and wealth management banking services through a network of 48 full-service branches.
The Company’s corporate goal is to be among the most profitable banks in New England, and its business model is centered on the following:
Employee and customer experience is the foundation of superior performance, which leads to significant financial benefit to shareholders
Geography, heritage and performance are key while remaining true to a community culture
Strong commitment to risk management while balancing growth and earnings
Service and sales driven culture with a focus on core business growth
Fee income is fundamental to the Company's profitability through trust and treasury management services, customer derivatives and secondary market mortgage sales
Investment in processes, products, technology, training, leadership and infrastructure
Expansion of the Company’s brand and business to deepen market presence
Opportunity and growth for existing employees while adding catalyst recruits across all levels of the Company
Shown below is a profile and geographical footprint of the Bank as of December 31, 2018:
The Bank serves affluent and growing markets in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. Within these markets, tourism, agriculture and fishing industries remain strong and continue to drive economic activity. These core markets have also maintained their strength through diversification into various service industries.
The Bank operates 14 full-service branches principally located in the regions of downeast, midcoast and central Maine, which can generally be characterized as rural areas. As previously announced, the Bank opened a new commercial loan office in Portland, Maine in December 2018. In Maine, the Bank considers its primary market areas to be Hancock, Knox, Washington, Kennebec and Sagadahoc counties. The economies in these counties are based primarily on tourism, healthcare, fishing and lobstering, agriculture, state government, and small local businesses and are also supported by a large contingent of retirees.
The Bank operates 21 full-service branches and two stand-alone drive-up windows in New Hampshire located in the regions of the lake sunapee, upper valley and merrimack valley. There are several distinct markets within each of these regions. The towns or cities of Nashua, Manchester, and Concord are considered part of the merrimack valley. Nashua, New Hampshire is a regional commercial, entertainment and dining destination and with its board with Massachusetts, also enjoys a vibrant high-tech industry and a robust retail industry due in part to the state's absence of a sales tax. The upper valley region of New Hampshire includes the towns of Lebanon and Hanover, which are home to Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and Dartmouth College, respectively. The lake sunapee market is a popular year-round recreation and resort area that includes both Lake Sunapee and Mount Sunapee and includes the towns of Claremont, New London, and Newport.
The Bank operates 13 full-service branches and one stand-alone drive-up window in Vermont. The branches are primarily located in central Vermont within the counties of Rutland, Windsor and Orange. These markets are home to many attractions, including Killington Mountain, Okemo Resort, and the city of Rutland. Popular vacation destinations in this region include Woodstock, Brandon, Ludlow and Quechee.
Bar Harbor Bankshares is a legal entity separate and distinct from its first-tier bank subsidiary, Bar Harbor Bank & Trust and its second-tier subsidiaries, Bar Harbor Trust Services, Charter Trust Company and Cottage Street Corporation. Under Charter Trust Company are third-tier subsidiaries Charter Holding Corporation and Charter New England Agency.
The Company also owns all of the common stock of two Connecticut statutory trusts. These capital trusts are unconsolidated and their only material asset is a $20.6 million trust preferred security related to the junior subordinated debentures reported in Note 8 - Borrowed Funds of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Company is required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
The Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those documents filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are also available free of charge on the Company's website at www.bhbt.com under the Shareholders Relations link as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Investors should note that the Company currently announces material information to investors and others using SEC filings, press releases and postings on the Company's website (www.bhbt.com), including news and announcements regarding the Company's financial performance, key personnel, brands and business strategy. Information that is posted on the corporate website could be deemed material to investors. The Company encourages investors to review the information posted on these channels. Updates may be made, from time to time, to the list of channels used to communicate information that could be deemed material and any such change will be posted on www.bhbt.com. The information on the website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any other filings with the SEC.
Major competitors in the Company's market areas include local independent banks, local branches of large regional and national bank affiliates, thrift institutions, savings and loan institutions, mortgage companies, and credit unions.
The Company has generally been able to compete effectively with other financial institutions by emphasizing quality customer service, making decisions at the local level, maintaining long-term customer relationships, building customer loyalty, and providing products and services designed to address the specific needs of customers. However, no assurance can be provided regarding the Company’s ongoing ability to compete effectively with other financial institutions in the future.
No part of the Company’s business is materially dependent upon one, or a few customers, or upon a particular industry segment, the loss of which would have a material adverse impact on the operations of the Company.
The Bank originates loans in four basic portfolio categories, which are discussed below. These portfolio categories include construction and land development, commercial real estate, commercial and industrial, agricultural, tax exempt entities, residential mortgages, home equity and other consumer loans. Loan interest rates and other key loan terms are affected principally by the Bank’s lending policy, asset/liability strategy, loan demand, competition, and the supply of money available for lending purposes. The Bank does not engage in subprime lending activities. The Bank monitors and manages the amount of long-term fixed-rate lending and adjustable-rate loan products according to its interest rate management policy. The Bank generally originates loans for investment except for certain residential mortgages that are underwritten with the intention to be sold in the secondary mortgage market.
Loan Portfolio Analysis. The following table sets forth the year-end composition of the Company’s loan portfolio in dollar amounts and as a percentage of the portfolio for the five years indicated. Further information about the composition of the loan portfolio is contained in Note 3 - Loans of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(in thousands, except percentages)
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
Commercial real estate
Commercial and industrial
Allowance for loan losses
Commercial Real Estate
Commercial real estate loans are secured primarily by multifamily dwellings, industrial/warehouse buildings, retail centers, office buildings and hospitality properties, primarily located in the Company's market area in New England. The Company's loans secured by commercial real estate are originated with either a fixed or an adjustable interest rate. Interest rates on adjustable rate loans are based on a variety of indices, generally determined through negotiations with borrowers. The Bank's commercial real estate underwriting guidelines call for loan-to-value (LTV) ratios not to exceed 80 percent of the appraised value of the underlying property securing the loan. Unless on some sort of seasonal pay basis, to match debt payments with seasonal cash flows. Loans typically require monthly payments containing balloon payments with maturities of 10 years or less based on 20 year amortization schedules for commercial real estate and 25 years for multifamily loans.
Commercial and Industrial Loans
Commercial and industrial loans are made to finance operations, provide working capital, finance the purchase of fixed assets, and business acquisitions. A borrower's cash flow from operations is generally the primary source of repayment. Accordingly, the Company's loan policy provides specific guidelines regarding debt service coverage and other financial ratios. Commercial and industrial loans include lines of credit, commercial term loans and owner-occupied commercial real estate loans. Commercial lines of credit are extended to businesses generally to finance operations and working capital needs. Commercial term loans are typically made to finance the acquisition of fixed assets, refinance short-term debt originally used to purchase fixed assets or make business acquisitions. Commercial and industrial loans are extended based on the financial strength and integrity of the borrower and guarantor(s) and are generally collateralized by the borrower's assets such as accounts receivable, inventory, equipment or real estate, typically with a term based on the collateral's useful life of 1-10 years. The interest rates on these loans generally
are adjustable and usually are indexed to The Wall Street Journal's prime rate (Prime Rate) or London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and the spread will vary based on market conditions and perceived credit risk.
In order to mitigate the risk of loss, the Company generally requires collateral and personal guarantees to support commercial and industrial loans. The Company attempts to mitigate risk by limiting advance rates against eligible collateral to no more than 80 percent, though appropriate advance rates can vary depending on asset class.
Commercial and industrial loans also attract multifaceted relationships, which include deposit and treasury management services. During 2018, the Company expanded its offering of treasury management services and introduced customer loan derivatives. The Company facilitates the risk management strategies for commercial banking customers by offering customer loan derivatives, which allows a customer to obtain a lower fixed-rate loan for an upfront fee. Offsetting loan swap arrangements with a highly-rated third-party financial institutions are then executed by the Company to mitigate the interest rate risk.
Residential Real Estate
The Company offers fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans to individuals with maturities of up to 30 years that are fully amortizing with monthly loan payments. Certain loans are originated for sale with rate lock commitments which are recorded as derivative financial instruments. Mortgages are generally underwritten according to U.S. government sponsored enterprise guidelines designated as “A” or “A-” and referred to as “conforming loans”. The Company also originates jumbo loans above conforming loan amounts which generally are consistent with secondary market guidelines for these loans; however, these are typically held for investment. The Company does not offer a subprime mortgage lending program. Mortgage loans sold on the secondary market are sold on a servicing-retained basis.
The Company offers a variety of secured consumer loans, including second deed-of-trust home equity loans, home equity lines of credit ("HELOCs"), personal property and loans secured by deposits. The Company also offers a limited amount of unsecured loans. The Company originates consumer loans primarily in its market area. Consumer loans generally have shorter terms to maturity or variable interest rates, which reduce the Company's exposure to changes in interest rates, and carry higher rates of interest than do residential real estate loans. The Company believes that offering consumer loan products is critical to community banking by providing customer service at the holistic relationship level.
HELOCs have a ten or fifteen year draw period followed by a 20 year amortization and require either interest-only payments during the draw period or the payment of 1.0 percent or 1.5 percent of the outstanding loan balance per month (depending on the terms). Following receipt of payments, the available credit includes amounts repaid up to the credit limit. HELOCs with a ten year draw period have a balloon payment due at the end of the draw period and then amortize for the remaining term. For loans with shorter-term draw periods, once the draw period has lapsed, generally the payment is fixed based on the loan balance and prevailing market interest rates at that time.
Maturity and Sensitivity of the Loan Portfolio
The following table shows contractual final maturities of selected loan categories at December 31, 2018. The contractual maturities do not reflect premiums, discounts, deferred costs, or prepayments.
The Bank prefers to work with borrowers to resolve problems rather than proceeding to foreclosure. For commercial loans, this may result in a period of forbearance or restructuring of the loan, which is normally done at current market terms and does not result in a “troubled” loan designation. For residential mortgage loans, the Bank generally follows The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") guidelines to attempt a restructuring that will enable owner-occupants to remain in their home. However, if these processes fail to result in a performing loan, then the Bank generally will initiate foreclosure or other proceedings no later than the 90th day of a delinquency, as necessary, to minimize any potential loss. Management reports delinquent loans and non-performing assets to the Board monthly. Loans are generally removed from accruing status when they reach 90 days delinquent, except for certain loans which are well secured and in the process of collection. Loan collections are managed by a combination of the related business units and the Bank’s Managed Assets Group, which focuses on larger, riskier collections and the recovery of purchased credit impaired loans.
The following table presents the problem assets and accruing troubled debt restructurings ("TDRs") for the five years indicated:
The Bank’s loan portfolio is regularly reviewed by management to evaluate the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses. The allowance represents management’s estimate of inherent losses that are probable and estimatable as of the date of the financial statements. The allowance includes a specific component for impaired loans (a “specific loan loss reserve”) and a general component for portfolios of all outstanding loans (a “general loan loss reserve”). At the time of acquisition, no allowance for loan losses is assigned to loans acquired in business combinations. These loans are carried at fair value, including the impact of expected losses, as of the acquisition date. The loan loss allowance is discussed further in Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following table presents an analysis of the allowance for loan losses for the five years indicated:
The following table presents year-end data for the approximate allocation of the allowance for loan losses by loan categories at the dates indicated. The table shows for each category the amount of the allowance allocated to that category as a percentage of the outstanding loans in that category. Management believes that the allowance can be allocated by category only on an approximate basis. The allocation of the allowance to each category is not indicative of future losses and does not restrict the use of any of the allowance to absorb losses in any category. Due to the impact of accounting standards for acquired loans, data in the accompanying tables may not be comparable between accounting periods.
(in thousands, except ratios)
Percent Allocated to Total Loans In Each Category
Percent Allocated to Total Loans In Each Category
Percent Allocated to Total Loans In Each Category
Percent Allocated to Total Loans In Each Category
Percent Allocated to Total Loans In Each Category
Commercial real estate
Commercial and industrial
INVESTMENT SECURITIES ACTIVITIES
The general objectives of the Company's investment portfolio are to provide liquidity when loan demand is high, and to absorb excess funds when demand is low. The securities portfolio also provides a medium for certain interest rate risk measures intended to maintain an appropriate balance between interest income from loans and total interest expense. For additional information, see Item 7A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Company only invests in high-quality investment-grade securities. Investment decisions are made in accordance with the Company’s investment policy and include consideration of risk, return, duration, and portfolio concentrations.
The following table presents the amortized cost and fair value of securities available for sale for the three years indicated:
Obligations of US Government-sponsored enterprises
US Government-sponsored enterprises
US Government agency
Obligations of states and political subdivisions thereof
The following table presents the amortized cost and weighted average yields of securities at December 31, 2018:
Available for sale
(in thousands, except ratios)
Weighted Average Yield
Within 1 year
Over 1 year to 5 years
Over 5 years to 10 years
Over 10 years
Total bonds and obligations
Total securities available for sale
DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES AND OTHER SOURCES OF FUNDS
The Company offers a variety of deposit products to consumers, businesses and institutional customers with a wide range of interest rates and terms. The Company's deposits consist of interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing demand accounts, savings accounts, money market deposit accounts, and certificates of deposit. The Company solicits deposits primarily in its market area, excluding brokered deposits. The Company primarily relies on competitive pricing policies, marketing and customer service to attract and retain deposits.
The Company manages pricing of deposits in keeping with the Company's asset/liability management, liquidity and profitability objectives, subject to market competitive factors. Based on the Company's experience, the Company believes that the Company's deposits are relatively stable sources of funds. Despite this stability, the Company's ability to attract and maintain these deposits and rates are significantly affected by market conditions.
The following table presents the average balances and weighted average rates for deposits for the three years indicated:
(in thousands, except ratios)
Percent of Total Average Deposits
Weighted Average Rate
Percent of Total Average Deposits
Weighted Average Rate
Percent of Total Average Deposits
Weighted Average Rate
The following table presents the scheduled maturities of time deposits $100 thousand or greater at December 31, 2018:
The Company may also utilize borrowings as an alternative source of funds which can be invested at a positive interest rate spread when the Company desires additional capacity to fund loan demand or when they meet the Company's asset/liability management goals to diversify funding sources and enhance interest rate risk management.
The Company's borrowings historically have included advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston ("FHLB"), securities sold under repurchase agreements, and an unsecured line of credit. The Company also has the ability to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston ("FRB"), as well as through unsecured federal funds lines with correspondent banks. The Company may obtain advances from the FHLB by collateralizing the advances with certain loans and investment securities of the Company. These advances may be made pursuant to several different credit programs, each of which has its own interest rate, range of maturities and call features.
RETAIL BROKERAGE SERVICES
Bar Harbor Financial Services principally serves the brokerage needs of individuals ranging from first-time purchasers, to sophisticated investors. It also offers a line of life insurance, annuity, and retirement products, as well as financial planning services. These products are not deposits, are not insured by the FDIC or any other government agency, are not guaranteed by the Bank or any affiliate, and may be subject to investment risk, including possible loss of principal.
The Bank is a branch office of Infinex Investments, Inc., (“Infinex”) a full-service third-party broker-dealer, conducting business under the assumed business name “Bar Harbor Financial Services.” Infinex is an independent registered broker-dealer and is not affiliated with the Company or its subsidiaries. Infinex was formed by a group of member banks, and is one of the largest providers of third-party investment and insurance services to banks and their customers in New England. Through Infinex, the Bank is able to take advantage of the expertise, capabilities, and experience of a well-established third-party broker-dealer in a cost effective manner.
TRUST MANAGEMENT SERVICES
The Bank has two wholly-owned subsidiaries that provide a comprehensive array of trust and investment management services to individuals, businesses, not-for-profit organizations, and municipalities. Bar Harbor Trust Services is a Maine-chartered trust company, and Charter Trust is a New Hampshire-chartered trust company that was obtained through a 2017 business combination. As a New Hampshire-chartered trust company, Charter Trust is subject to New Hampshire laws applicable to trust companies and fiduciaries. Trust management services include trustee of both living trusts and trusts under wills, including revocable, irrevocable, charitable remainder and testamentary trusts, and in this capacity holds, accounts for and manages financial assets, real estate and special assets. Trust Services offers custody, estate settlement, and fiduciary tax services. The employees include credentialed investment and trust professionals with extensive experience. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, trust management services had total assets under management of $1.7 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company had 445 full time equivalent employee positions compared to 423 full time equivalents at December 31, 2017. The Company has augmented the staff with targeted hires to deepen the overall employee skill set. The Company has never had a work stoppage, and no employees are represented by a labor organization or subject to any collective bargaining arrangements. The employee relations of the Company are considered to be good.
As a bank holding company, the Company is regulated under the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC”) and is subject to inspection, examination and supervision by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve Board. The Company is also under the jurisdiction of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") and is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. The Company’s common stock is listed on the NYSE American exchange under the trading symbol “BHB,” and is subject to the rules of NYSE American for listed companies.
As a Maine-chartered financial institution, the Bank is subject to supervision, periodic examination, and regulation by the Maine Bureau of Financial Institutions ("BFI") as its chartering authority and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") as its primary federal regulator. The prior approval of the BFI and the FDIC is required, among other things, for the Bank to establish or relocate an additional branch office, assume deposits, or engage in any merger, consolidation, purchase or sale of all or substantially all of the assets of any bank.
As a New Hampshire-chartered trust company, Charter Trust Company and its affiliates (“Charter”) is subject to supervision and periodic examination and regulation by the New Hampshire Banking Department. Charter’s consolidated capital includes the following legal entities: Charter Holding Corporation, Charter Trust Company and Charter New England Agency.
In accordance with NH RSA 383-C:5-502, Charter’s Capital Plan requires minimum capital of $500 thousand to be held in accordance with NH RSA 564-B:9-902. As of December 31, 2018 Charter’s total capital was $10.1 million and had liquidation reserves of $501 thousand held in a savings account. Charter also had operating reserves of $10.4 million held in a U.S. Government money market fund. As of December 31, 2018, Charter had an appropriate liquidation reserve, minimum capital in excess of statutory requirements, and all funds were held in accordance with prudent investor standards of NH RSA 564-B:9-902.
Bank Holding Company Regulations Applicable to the Company
The BHC Act and other federal laws subject bank holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which the Company may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations.
Generally, bank holding companies are prohibited under the BHC Act from engaging in or acquiring direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company engaged in any activity other than (i) banking or managing or controlling banks or (ii) an activity that the Federal Reserve Board determines to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident to the business of banking. The Federal Reserve Board has the authority to require a bank holding company to terminate an activity or terminate control of or liquidate or divest certain subsidiaries or affiliates when the Federal Reserve Board believes the activity or the control of the subsidiary or affiliate constitutes a significant risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of any of its banking subsidiaries.
A bank holding company that qualifies and elects to become a financial holding company is permitted to engage in additional activities that are financial in nature or incidental or complementary to financial activity. The Company currently has no plans to make a financial holding company election.
Bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in activities that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices. For example, under certain circumstances the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation Y requires a holding company to give the Federal Reserve Board prior notice of any redemption or repurchase of its own equity securities if the consideration to be paid, together with the consideration paid for any repurchases in the preceding year, is equal to 10% or more of the company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve Board may oppose the transaction if it believes that the transaction would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate a regulation. As another example, a holding company is prohibited from impairing its subsidiary bank’s soundness by causing the bank to make funds available to non-banking subsidiaries or their customers if the Federal Reserve Board believes it not prudent to do so. The Federal Reserve Board has the power to assess civil money penalties for knowing or reckless violations, if the activities leading to a violation caused a substantial loss to a depository institution. Potential penalties are as high as $1,000,000 for each day the activity continues.
Source of Strength
In accordance with Federal Reserve Board policy, the holding company is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to the Bank. Section 616 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) codifies the requirement that bank holding companies serve as a source of financial strength to their subsidiary depository institutions. Under this policy, the holding company is expected to commit resources to support its bank subsidiary, including at times when the holding company may not be in a financial position to provide it. As discussed below, the holding company could be required to guarantee the capital plan of the Bank if it becomes undercapitalized for purposes of banking regulations. Any capital loans by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. The BHC Act provides that, in the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a bank subsidiary will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
Regulatory agencies have promulgated regulations to increase the capital requirements for bank holding companies to a level that matches those of banking institutions. See Capital Adequacy and Prompt Corrective Action included in Item I.
Bank holding companies and affiliates are prohibited from tying the provision of services, such as extensions of credit, to other services offered by a holding company or its affiliates.
Mergers & Acquisitions
The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act, the laws of the State of Maine applicable to financial institutions and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of banks and their holding companies. The BHC Act generally limits acquisitions by bank holding companies to banks and companies engaged in activities that the Federal Reserve Board has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. The BHC Act requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring more than 5% of the voting stock of any bank or other bank holding company, (ii) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or bank holding company, or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company.
In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, the bank regulatory authorities generally consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the combined organization (including the capital position of the combined organization), the applicant’s performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act (see Community Reinvestment Act included in Item I), fair housing laws and the effectiveness of the subject organizations in combating money laundering activities.
Limitations on Acquisitions of Bar Harbor Bankshares Common Stock
The Change in Bank Control Act prohibits a person or group of persons from acquiring “control” of a bank holding company unless the appropriate federal bank regulator has been notified and has not objected to the transaction. Under a rebuttable presumption established by the federal bank regulator, the acquisition of 10% or more of a class of voting securities of a bank holding company with a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act would constitute the acquisition of control of a bank holding company. In addition, the BHC Act prohibits any company from acquiring control of a bank or bank holding company without first having obtained the approval of the federal bank regulator. Among other circumstances, under the BHC Act, a company has control of a bank or bank holding company if the company owns, controls or holds with power to vote 25% or more of a class of voting securities of the bank or bank holding company, controls in any manner the election of a majority of directors or trustees of the bank or bank holding company, or the federal bank regulator has determined, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that the company has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of the bank or bank holding company.
Dividends from the Bank are the Company's principal source of cash revenues. The Company's earnings and activities are affected by legislation, by regulations and by local legislative and administrative bodies and decisions of courts in the jurisdictions in which business is conducted. These include limitations on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to the holding company and the ability to pay dividends to stockholders. It is the policy of the Federal Reserve Board that bank holding companies should pay cash dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future needs and financial condition. The policy provides that bank holding companies should not maintain a level of cash dividends that undermines the bank holding company’s ability to serve as a source of strength to its banking subsidiary. Consistent with such policy, a banking organization should have comprehensive policies on dividend payments that clearly articulate the organization’s objectives and approaches for maintaining a strong capital position and achieving the objectives of the policy statement.
The FDIC has the authority to use its enforcement powers to prohibit a bank from paying dividends if, in its opinion, the payment of dividends would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. Federal law also prohibits the payment of dividends by a bank that will result in the bank failing to meet its applicable capital requirements on a pro forma basis. Maine law requires the approval of the BFI for any dividend that would reduce a bank's capital below prescribed limits.
The Company is required to file an annual report with the Federal Reserve Board, and such additional information as the Federal Reserve Board may require. The Federal Reserve Board may examine a bank holding company and any of its subsidiaries, and charge the Company for the cost of such an examination.
Imposition of Liability for Undercapitalized Subsidiaries: Pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”) federal banking agencies are required to take “prompt corrective action” (“PCA”) should an insured depository institution fail to meet certain capital adequacy standards. In the event an institution becomes “undercapitalized,” it must submit a capital restoration plan. The capital restoration plan will not be accepted by the regulators unless each company “having control of” the undercapitalized institution “guarantees” the subsidiary’s compliance with the capital restoration plan until it becomes “adequately capitalized.” For purposes of this statute, the holding company has control of the Bank. Under FDIA, the aggregate liability of all companies controlling a particular institution is limited to the lesser of five percent of the depository institution’s total assets at the time it became undercapitalized or the amount necessary to bring the institution into compliance with applicable capital standards. FDIA grants greater powers to bank regulators in situations where an institution becomes “significantly” or “critically” undercapitalized or fails to submit a capital restoration plan. For example, a bank holding company controlling such an institution can be required to obtain prior Federal Reserve Board approval of proposed distributions, or might be required to consent to a merger or to divest the troubled institution or other affiliates. See Capital Adequacy and Prompt Corrective Action included in Item I.
The holding company and the Bank are considered “affiliates” of each other under the Federal Reserve Act, and transactions between a bank and its affiliates are subject to certain restrictions, under Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and the Federal Reserve Board's implementing Regulation W. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B: (1) limit the extent to which an insured depository or its subsidiaries may engage in covered transactions (a) with an affiliate (as defined in such sections) to an amount equal to 10% of such institution’s capital and surplus, and (b) with all affiliates, in the aggregate to an amount equal to 20% of such capital and surplus; and (2) require all transactions with an affiliate, whether or not covered transactions, to be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the institution or subsidiary, as the terms provided or that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans, purchase of assets, issuance of a guarantee and other similar types of transactions.
State Law Restrictions
As a Maine corporation, the holding company is subject to certain limitations and restrictions under applicable Maine corporate law. For example, state law restrictions in Maine include limitations and restrictions relating to indemnification of directors, distributions and dividends to stockholders, transactions involving directors, officers or interested stockholders, maintenance of books, records, and minutes, and observance of certain corporate formalities.
As a New Hampshire-chartered trust company, Charter Trust Company and its affiliates (“Charter”) is subject to supervision and periodic examination and regulation by the New Hampshire Banking Department. Charter’s consolidated capital includes the following legal entities: Charter Holding Corporation, Charter Trust Company and Charter New England Agency.
Capital Adequacy and Prompt Corrective Action
In July 2013, the Federal Reserve Board, the FDIC and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) issued final rules (the “Capital Rules”) that established a new capital framework for U.S. banking organizations. The Capital Rules generally implement the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s (the “Basel Committee”) December 2010 final capital framework referred to as “Basel III” for strengthening international capital standards. In addition, the Capital Rules implement certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, including the requirements of Section 939A to remove references to credit ratings from the federal banking agencies’ rules. The Capital Rules substantially revised the risk-based capital requirements applicable to bank holding companies and their depository institution subsidiaries. The risk based capital guidelines are designed to make regulatory capital requirements sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banks and bank holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposures and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid, low-risk assets.
The Capital Rules: (i) require a capital measure called “Common Equity Tier 1” (“CET1”) and related regulatory capital ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets; (ii) specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain revised requirements; (iii) mandate that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital; and (iv) expand the scope of the deductions from and adjustments to capital as compared to existing regulations. The Capital Rules revised the definitions and the components of regulatory capital and impacted the calculation of the numerator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios. The Capital Rules became effective for the Company and the Bank on January 1, 2015, subject to phase-in periods for certain components and other provisions. Under the Capital Rules, for most banking organizations, the most common form of Additional Tier 1 capital is non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and the most common forms of Tier 2 capital are subordinated notes and a portion of the allocation for loan losses, in each case, subject to the Capital Rules’ specific requirements. Pursuant to the Capital Rules, the minimum capital ratios plus additional capital conservation buffer for 2018 are as follows:
4.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets;
6.0% Tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 plus Additional Tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;
8.0% Total capital (that is, Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and
4.0% Tier 1 capital to average consolidated assets as reported on consolidated financial statements (the “leverage ratio”).
The Capital Rules also require a “capital conservation buffer,” composed entirely of CET1, on top of these minimum risk-weighted asset ratios. The capital conservation buffer is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. Banking organizations with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity and other capital instrument repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. When fully phased-in on January 1, 2019, the capital standards applicable to the Company and the Bank will include an additional capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of CET1, effectively resulting in minimum ratios inclusive of the capital conservation buffer of (i) CET1 to risk-weighted assets of at least 7%, (ii) Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 8.5%, and (iii) Total capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 10.5%. The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights and deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that could not be realized through net operating loss carrybacks and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such items, in the aggregate, exceed 15% of CET1.
In addition, under the prior general risk-based capital rules, the effects of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss (“AOCI”) items included in shareholders’ equity (for example, mark-to-market of securities held in the available-for-sale portfolio) under U.S. GAAP are reversed for the purposes of determining regulatory capital ratios. Under the Capital Rules, the effects of certain AOCI items are not excluded; however, banking organizations not using the advanced approaches, including the Company and the Bank, were permitted to make a one-time permanent election to continue to exclude these items in January 2015. The Capital Rules also preclude certain hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities issued after May 19, 2010, from inclusion in bank holding companies’ Tier 1 capital.
Implementation of the deductions and other adjustments to CET1 began on January 1, 2015 and are being phased-in over a 4-year period (beginning at 40% on January 1, 2015 and an additional 20% per year thereafter). The implementation of the capital conservation buffer began on January 1, 2016, at the 0.625% level and increase by 0.625% on each subsequent January 1, until it reaches 2.5% on January 1, 2019.
The Capital Rules prescribe a standardized approach for risk weightings, generally ranging from 0% for U.S. government and agency securities to 600% for certain equity exposures, resulting in higher risk weights for a variety of asset classes.
Pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA, federal banking agencies are required to take “prompt corrective action” should an insured depository institutions fail to meet certain capital adequacy standards. At each successive lower capital category, an insured depository institution is subject to more restrictions and prohibitions, including restrictions on growth, restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, restrictions or prohibitions on payment of dividends and restrictions on the acceptance of brokered deposits. Furthermore, if an insured depository institution is classified in one of the undercapitalized categories, it is required to submit a capital restoration plan to the appropriate federal banking agency, and the holding company must guarantee the performance of that plan. Based upon its capital levels, a bank that is classified as well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, or undercapitalized may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment.
For purposes of PCA, to be: (i) well-capitalized, an insured depository institution must have a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8%, a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%; (ii) adequately capitalized, an insured depository institution must have a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 8%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6%, a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 4.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4%; (iii) undercapitalized, an insured depository institution would have a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.5%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 4%; (iv) significantly undercapitalized, an insured depository institution would have a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4%, a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 3%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of less than 3%. and (v) critically undercapitalized, an insured depository institution would have a ratio of tangible equity to total assets that is less than or equal to 2%.
Both the Company and the Bank have always maintained the capital ratios and leverage ratio above the levels to be considered quantitatively well-capitalized. For information regarding the capital ratios and leverage ratio of the Company and the Bank as of December 31, 2018, and December 31, 2017, see the discussion under the section captioned Capital Resources included in Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 and Note 13 - Stock-Based Compensation in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, elsewhere in this report.
The Volker Rule
Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, commonly known as the Volcker Rule, restricts the ability of banking entities, such as the Company, from: (i) engaging in “proprietary trading” and (ii) investing in or sponsoring certain types of funds (“Covered Funds”), subject to certain limited exceptions. Under the Volcker Rule, a Covered Fund is any issuer that would be an investment company under the Investment Company Act (the “ICA”) but for the exemptions in section 3(c)(1) and 3(c)(7) of the ICA, which includes collateralized loan obligation (“CLO”) and collateralized debt obligation securities. The regulation also provides, among other exemptions, an exemption for CLOs meeting certain requirements. The Bank is in compliance with these rules.
Significant Banking Regulations Applicable to the Bank
The Bank’s deposit accounts are fully insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") of the FDIC up to the deposit insurance limit of $250,000 per depositor, per FDIC insured institution, and per ownership category, all in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
The FDIC uses a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums based upon a risk matrix that accounts for a bank's capital level and supervisory rating (CAMELS rating). The risk matrix uses different risk categories distinguished by capital levels and supervisory ratings. The base for deposit insurance assessments is consolidated average assets less average tangible equity. Assessment rates are calculated using formulas that take into account the risk of the institution being assessed. The FDIC may increase or decrease the assessment rate schedule in order to manage the DIF to prescribed statutory target levels. An increase in the risk category for the Bank or in the assessment rates could have an adverse effect on the Bank’s and consequently the Company’s earnings. The FDIC may terminate deposit insurance if it determines the institution involved has engaged in or is engaging in unsafe or unsound banking practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition, or has violated applicable laws, regulations or orders.
In addition to deposit insurance assessments, the FDIA provides for additional assessments to be imposed on insured depository institutions to pay for the cost of Financing Corporation (“FICO”) funding. The FICO is a mixed-ownership government corporation established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987, whose sole purpose was to function as a financing vehicle for the now defunct Federal Savings & Loan Insurance Corporation. The FICO assessments are adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in the assessment base of the DIF and do not vary depending upon a depository institution’s capitalization or supervisory evaluation. The current annualized assessment rate is approximately six basis points and the rate is adjusted quarterly. These assessments will continue until the FICO bonds mature in 2019.
The FDIA provides that, in the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors, including the parent bank holding company, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
The Company is subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws that govern its relationship with its customers. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act and these laws’ respective state law counterparts, as well as state usury laws and laws regarding unfair and deceptive acts and practices. These and other federal laws, among other things, require disclosures of the cost of credit and terms of deposit accounts, provide substantive consumer rights, prohibit discrimination in credit transactions, regulate the use of credit report information, provide financial privacy protections, prohibit unfair, deceptive and abusive practices, restrict the Bank's ability to raise interest rates and subject the Bank to substantial regulatory oversight. Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability from litigation brought by customers, including actual damages, restitution and attorneys’ fees.
Further, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") has broad rulemaking authority for a wide range of consumer financial laws that apply to all banks, including, among other things, the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. Abusive acts or practices are defined as those that materially interfere with a consumer’s ability to understand a term or condition of a consumer financial product or service or take unreasonable advantage of a consumer’s: (i) lack of understanding on the part of the consumer of the material risks, costs, or conditions of the product or service, (ii) inability of the consumer to protect its interests in selecting or using a consumer financial product or service, or (iii) reasonable reliance on a covered entity to act in the consumer’s interests.
Neither the Dodd-Frank Act nor the individual consumer financial protection laws prevent states from adopting stricter consumer protection standards.
Brokered Deposit Restrictions
Under FDIC Improvement Act, banks may be restricted in their ability to accept brokered deposits, depending on their classification. “Well-capitalized” institutions are permitted to accept brokered deposits, but all banks that are not well-capitalized could be restricted from accepting such deposits. The Bank is currently well-capitalized and not restricted from accepting brokered deposits.
Community Reinvestment Act
The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”), requires depository institutions to assist in meeting the credit needs of their market areas consistent with safe and sound banking practice. Under the CRA, each depository institution is required to help meet the credit needs of its market areas by, among other things, providing credit to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. These factors are also considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or facility. The applicable federal regulators regularly conduct CRA examinations to assess the performance of financial institutions and assign one of four ratings to the institution’s records of meeting the credit needs of its community. During its last examination, a rating of “satisfactory” was received by the Bank.
Insider Credit Transactions
Section 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act ("FRA") and its implementing Regulation O, restricts loans to directors, executive officers, and principal stockholders (“insiders”). Under Section 22(h), loans to insiders and their related interests may not exceed, together with all other outstanding loans to such persons and affiliated entities, the institution’s total capital and surplus. Loans to insiders above specified amounts must receive the prior approval of the Board of Directors. Further, under Section 22(h) of the FRA, loans to directors, executive officers and principal stockholders must be made on terms substantially the same as offered in comparable transactions to other persons, except that such insiders may receive preferential loans made under a benefit or compensation program that is widely available to the bank’s employees and does not give preference to the insider over the employees. Section 22(g) of the FRA places additional limitations on loans to executive officers. A violation of these restrictions may result in the assessment of substantial civil monetary penalties on the affected bank or any officer, director, employee, agent or other person participating in the conduct of the affairs of that bank, the imposition of a cease and desist order, and other regulatory sanctions.
Under the FDIA, each federal banking agency has prescribed, by regulation, non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions under its authority. These standards cover internal controls, information and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, such other operational and managerial standards as the agency determines to be appropriate, and standards for asset quality, earnings and stock valuation. An institution which fails to meet these standards must develop a plan acceptable to the agency, specifying the steps that the institution will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions.
The Bank is examined from time-to-time by its primary federal banking regulator, the FDIC, and the BFI.
Section V of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act ("GLBA") and its implementing regulations require all financial institutions, including the Company and the Bank, to adopt privacy policies, restrict the sharing of nonpublic customer data with non-affiliated parties at the customer’s request, limit the reuse of certain consumer information received from non-affiliated financial institutions, and establish procedures and practices to protect customer data from unauthorized access. In addition, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”), as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (the "FACT Act”), includes many provisions affecting the Company, Bank, and/or their affiliates, including provisions concerning obtaining consumer reports, furnishing information to consumer reporting agencies, maintaining a program to prevent identity theft, sharing of certain information among affiliated companies, and other provisions. The FACT Act requires entities subject to FCRA to notify their customers if they report negative information about them to a credit bureau or if they are granted credit on terms less favorable than those generally available. The CFPB and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) have extensive rulemaking authority under the FACT Act, and the Company and the Bank are subject to the rules that have been promulgated under the FACT Act, including rules requiring financial institutions with covered accounts (e.g. consumer bank accounts and loans) to develop, implement, and administer an identity theft protection program, as well as rules regarding limitations on affiliate marketing and implementation of programs to identify, detect and mitigate certain identity theft red flags. The Company has developed policies and procedures for itself and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, and believes it is in compliance with all privacy, information sharing, and notification provisions of the GLBA and the FACT Act. The Bank is also subject to data security standards, privacy and data breach notice requirements, primarily those issued by the FDIC.
Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives and the USA Patriot Act
A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions over the last two decades has been combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (“USA Patriot Act”), substantially broadened the scope of United States anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the United States. The U.S. Treasury Department has issued a number of regulations that apply various requirements of the USA Patriot Act to financial institutions such as the Bank. These regulations impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identities of their customers. Financial institutions are also prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must use enhanced due diligence procedures in their dealings with certain types of high-risk customers and implement a written customer identification program. Financial institutions must take certain steps to assist government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering and report certain types of suspicious transactions. Regulatory authorities routinely examine financial institutions for compliance with these obligations, and failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, can have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution.
The United States has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC” rules based on their administration by the U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on “U.S. persons” engaging in financial transactions relating to making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. The Company is responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Other Laws and Regulations
The Company is not only subject to federal laws applicable to it, it is also subject to the rules and regulations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing these federal laws.
Guidance on Sound Compensation Policies
The Dodd-Frank Act requires publicly traded companies to give stockholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation at their first annual meeting taking place six months after the date of enactment and at least every three years thereafter and on so-called “golden parachute” payments in connection with approvals of mergers and acquisitions.
The Dodd-Frank Act also requires the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities with at least $1 billion in total consolidated assets that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. The federal banking agencies and the SEC most recently proposed such regulations in 2016, but the regulations have not yet been finalized. If the regulations are adopted in the form initially proposed, they will restrict the manner in which executive compensation is structured.
Changing Regulatory Structure and Future Legislation and Regulation
Congress may enact further legislation that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and the Maine or New Hampshire legislature may enact further legislation affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by the State of Maine or the State of New Hampshire. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. The Company cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulations, or the application thereof, although enactment of the proposed legislation could impact the regulatory structure under which the Company operates and may significantly increase costs, impede the efficiency of internal business processes, require an increase in regulatory capital, require modifications to the Company’s business strategy, and limit the Company’s ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. A change in statutes, regulations or regulatory policies applicable to the Company or any of its subsidiaries could have a material effect on its business.
Monetary Policy and Economic Environment
The earnings of the Company are significantly affected by the monetary and fiscal policies of governmental authorities, including the Federal Reserve Board. Among the instruments of monetary policy used by the Federal Reserve Board to implement these objectives are open-market operations in U.S. Government securities and federal funds, changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings, and changes in reserve requirements against member bank deposits. These instruments of monetary policy are used in varying combinations to influence the overall level of bank loans, investments, and deposits, and the interest rates charged on loans and paid for deposits. The Federal Reserve Board frequently uses these instruments of monetary policy, especially its open-market operations and the discount rate, to
influence the level of interest rates, thereby affecting the strength of the economy, the level of inflation, or the price of the dollar in foreign exchange markets. The monetary policies of the Federal Reserve Board have had a significant effect on the operating results of banking institutions in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. It is not possible to predict the nature of future changes in monetary and fiscal policies, or the effect which they may have on the Company’s business and earnings.
The Company believes that it is in compliance with all federal, state and local environmental regulations. The cost of ongoing compliance with such regulations does not have a material effect on operations.
An investment in the Company involves risk, some of which, including market, liquidity, credit, operational, legal, compliance, reputational and strategic risks, could be substantial and is inherent in the Company's business. This risk also includes the possibility that the value of the investment could decrease considerably, and dividends or other distributions concerning the investment could be reduced or eliminated. Discussed below are risk factors that could adversely affect financial results and condition, as well as the value of, and return on investments made in the Company. Although the Company believes that these risks are the most important for you to consider, you should read this section in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements, the notes to those Financial Statements and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.
Economic Risk Factors
Deterioration in local economies or real estate market may adversely affect financial performance.
The Company serves individuals and businesses located in the downeast, midcoast and central regions of Maine, the Cheshire, Grafton, Hillsborough, Merrimack and Sullivan counties in central and western New Hampshire, and the Rutland, Windsor and Orange counties in central Vermont. A substantial portion of the loan portfolio is secured by real estate in these areas and the value of the associated collateral is subject to local real estate market conditions. Furthermore, many customers in the hospitality industry rely upon a high number of tourists to vacation destinations and attractions within the Company's markets. The Company's success is largely dependent on the economic conditions, including employment levels, population growth, income levels, savings trends and government policies in those market areas. A downturn in the local economies may adversely affect collateral values, sources of funds, and demand for products, all of which could have a negative impact on results of operations, financial condition and business expansion.
Changes in the general economy or the financial markets could adversely affect financial performance.
The outlook for the U.S. economy remains uncertain amid concerns about short- and long-term interest rates, debt and equity capital markets and general financial market conditions. A deterioration of general economic conditions could adversely affect the markets of local economies and have a negative impact on results of operations and financial condition. Deterioration or defaults made by issuers of the underlying collateral of investment securities may cause additional credit-related other-than-temporary impairment charges to the income statement. The Company's ability to borrow from other financial institutions or to access the debt or equity capital markets on favorable terms or at all could be adversely affected by disruptions in the capital markets or other events, including actions by rating agencies or deteriorating investor expectations.
Interest rate volatility could significantly reduce the Company’s profitability.
The Bank’s earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon its net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-bearing assets such as loans and securities and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowed funds. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the Company’s control, including general economic conditions, demand for loans, securities and deposits, policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, or the slope of the yield curve could influence not only the interest received on loans and securities and the amount of interest paid on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect (i) the ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, (ii) the fair value of the Company's financial assets and liabilities, and (iii) the average duration of loans and securities that are collateralized by mortgages. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings. If interest rates decline, the Bank’s higher-rate loans and investments may be subject to prepayment risk, which could negatively impact its net interest margin. Conversely, if interest rates increase, the Bank’s loans and investment securities may be subject to extension risk, which could negatively impact its net interest margin as well.
Loss of deposits or a change in deposit mix could increase the cost of funding.
Deposits are a low cost and stable source of funding. The Company competes with banks and other financial institutions for deposits. Funding costs may increase if deposits are lost and are forced to replace them with more expensive sources of funding, if customers shift their deposits into higher cost products or if the Company needs to raise interest rates to avoid losing deposits. Higher funding costs reduce the net interest margin, net interest income and net income.
Wholesale funding sources may prove insufficient to replace deposits at maturity and support operations and future growth.
The Company and banking subsidiaries must maintain sufficient funds to respond to the needs of depositors and borrowers. To manage liquidity, the Company draws upon a number of funding sources in addition to core deposit growth and repayments and maturities of loans and investments. These sources include FHLB advances, proceeds from the sale of investments and loans, and liquidity resources at the holding company. The Company's ability to manage liquidity will be severely constrained if unable to maintain access to funding or if adequate financing is not available to accommodate future growth at acceptable costs. In addition, if the Company is required to rely more heavily on more expensive funding sources to support future growth, revenues may not increase proportionately to cover costs. In this case, operating margins and profitability would be adversely affected. Turbulence in the capital and credit markets may adversely affect liquidity and financial condition and the willingness of certain counterparties and customers to do business with the Company.
High concentrations of commercial loans may increase exposure to credit loss upon borrower default.
As of December 31, 2018, approximately 49% of the Banks’s loan portfolio consisted of commercial real estate, commercial and industrial, construction and agricultural loans. Commercial loan portfolio concentration generally exposes lenders to greater risk of delinquency and loss than residential real estate loans because repayment of the loans often depends on the successful operation and income streams from the property. Additionally, commercial loans typically involve larger balances to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers compared to residential real estate loans. Because the Bank’s loan portfolio contains a significant number of large commercial loans, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in non-performing loans, provision for loan losses, and/or an increase in loan charge-offs, all of which could adversely affect the Company's financial condition and results of operations.
Greater than anticipated credit losses in the loan portfolios may adversely affect earnings.
Credit losses are inherent in the business of making loans and could have a material adverse affect on operating results. The Company makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of the loan portfolio and provide an allowance for loan losses based on a number of factors. The allowance for loan losses is evaluated on a periodic basis using current information, including the quality of the loan portfolio, economic conditions, the value of the underlying collateral and the level of non-accrual loans. Although the Company believes the allowance for loan losses is appropriate to absorb probable losses in the loan portfolio, this allowance may not be adequate. Increases in the allowance will result in an expense for the period, thereby reducing reported net income.
Disruptions to the Company’s information systems and security breaches could adversely affect its business and reputation.
In the ordinary course of business, the Company relies on electronic communications and information systems to conduct its businesses and to store sensitive data, including financial information regarding its customers. The integrity of information systems are under significant threat from cyber-attacks by third parties, including through coordinated attacks sponsored by foreign nations and criminal organizations to disrupt business operations and other compromises to data and systems for political or criminal purposes. The Company employs an in-depth, layered, defense approach that leverages people, processes and technology to manage and maintain cyber security controls. Notwithstanding the strength of defensive measures, the threat from cyberattacks is severe, attacks are sophisticated and attackers respond rapidly to changes in defensive measures. Cyber security risks may also occur with the Company’s third-party service providers, and may interfere with their ability to fulfill their contractual obligations to us, with additional potential for financial loss or liability that could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition or results of operations. The Company offers its customers the ability to bank remotely and provide other technology-based products and services, which services include the secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet and other remote channels. To the extent that the Company’s customers’ systems are not secure or are otherwise compromised, its network could be vulnerable to unauthorized access, malicious software, phishing schemes and other security breaches. To the extent that the Company’s activities or the activities of its clients or third-party service providers involve the storage and transmission of confidential information, security breaches and malicious software could expose the Company to claims, regulatory scrutiny, litigation and other possible liabilities.
While to date the Company has not experienced a significant compromise, significant data loss or material financial losses related to cyber security attacks, the Company’s systems and those of its clients and third-party service providers, are under constant threat and may experience a significant event in the future. The Company may suffer material financial losses related to these risks in the future or it may be subject to liability for compromises to its client or third-party service provider systems. Any such losses or liabilities could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition or results of operations, and could expose us to reputation risk, the loss of client business, increased operational costs, as well as additional regulatory scrutiny, possible litigation, and related financial liability. These risks also include possible business interruption, including the inability to access critical information and systems.
The Company may be adversely affected by continuous technological change.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. The Company’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional operational efficiencies. Many of the Company's larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. The Company may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers.
The Company may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
The Company's ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Bank and non-bank financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. The Company has exposure to different industries and counterparties through transactions with counterparties in the bank and non-bank financial services industries, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more bank or non-bank financial services companies, or the bank or non-bank financial services industries generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These losses or defaults could have an adverse affect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations.
Prepayments of loans may negatively impact the Company's business. Generally, customers may prepay the principal amount of their outstanding loans at any time.
The speeds at which such prepayments occur, as well as the size of such prepayments, are within the customers’ discretion. Fluctuations in interest rates, in certain circumstances, may also lead to high levels of loan prepayments, which may also have an adverse impact on net interest income. If customers prepay the principal amount of their loans, and the Company is unable to lend those funds to other borrowers or invest the funds at the same or higher interest rates, interest income will be reduced. A significant reduction in interest income could have a negative impact on results of operations and financial condition.
Business Risk Factors
Strong competition within the Company's markets may significantly impact profitability.
The Company competes with an ever-increasing array of financial service providers. See the section entitled “Competition” of Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional competitor information. Competition from nationwide banks, as well as local institutions, continues to mount in the Company's markets. To compete, the Company focuses on quality customer service, making decisions at the local level, maintaining long-term customer relationships, building customer loyalty, and providing products and services designed to address the specific needs of customers. Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken the Company's competitive position, which could adversely affect growth and profitability.
Expansion, growth, and acquisitions could negatively impact earnings if not successful.
The Company may grow organically both by geographic expansion and through business line expansion, as well as through acquisitions. Success of these activities depends on the Company's ability to continue to maintain and develop an infrastructure appropriate to support and integrate such growth. Success may also depends on acceptance of the Bank by customers in these new markets and, in the case of expansion through acquisitions, these factors include the long-term recruitment and retention of key personnel and acquired customer relationships. Profitability depends on whether the marginal revenue generated in the new markets will offset the increased expenses of operating a larger entity, with more staff, more locations, and more product offerings. Failure to achieve any of these success factors may have a negative impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
Market changes may adversely affect demand for services and impact revenue, costs, and earnings.
Channels for servicing the Company’s customers are evolving rapidly, with less reliance on traditional branch facilities, increased use of e-commerce channels, and demand for universal bankers and other relationship managers who can service multiple product lines. The Company has an ongoing process for evaluating the profitability of its branch system and other office and operational facilities. The identification of unprofitable operations and facilities can lead to restructuring charges and introduce the risk of disruptions to revenues and customer relationships. The Company competes with larger financial institutions who are rapidly evolving their service channels and escalating the costs of evolving the service process.
The Company is subject to a variety of operational risks, including reputational risk, and the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, which may adversely affect the Company’s business and results of operations.
The Company is exposed to many types of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, and unauthorized transactions by employees or operational errors, including clerical or record-keeping errors or those resulting from faulty or disabled computer or telecommunications systems. If personal, non-public, confidential, or proprietary information of customers in the Company's possession were to be mishandled or misused, the Company could suffer significant regulatory consequences, reputational damage, and financial loss.
Because the nature of the financial services business involves a high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and successfully rectified. The Company’s necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process transactions and its large transaction volume may further increase the risk that technical flaws or employee tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses that are difficult to detect. The Company may also be subject to disruptions of its operating systems arising from events that are wholly
or partially beyond its control (i.e., computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages, natural disaster, disease pandemics, or other damage to property or physical assets), which may give rise to disruption of service to customers and to financial loss or liability. The Company is further exposed to the risk that its external vendors may be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations (or will be subject to the same risk of fraud or operational errors by their respective employees) and to the risk that the Company's vendors' business continuity and data security systems prove to be inadequate. The occurrence of any of these risks could result in a diminished ability to operate (i.e., by requiring the Company to expend significant resources to correct the defect), as well as potential liability to clients, reputational damage, and regulatory intervention.
Goodwill from acquisitions could become impaired.
Applicable accounting standards require that the purchase method of accounting be used for all business combinations. Under purchase accounting, if the purchase price of an acquired company exceeds the fair value of the acquired company’s net assets, the excess is carried on the balance sheet as goodwill, by the acquirer. A significant decline in expected future cash flows, a continuing period of market disruption, market capitalization to book value deterioration, or slower growth rates may require the Company to record charges in the future related to the impairment of goodwill. If the Company concludes that a future write-down is necessary, the impact could have an adverse affect on financial condition and results of operations
The Company may be unable to attract and retain key personnel.
The Company’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key personnel. Competition for qualified personnel in the financial services industry can be intense and the Company and its subsidiaries may not be able to hire or retain the key personnel that it depends upon for success. In addition, the Bank’s rural geographic marketplace, combined with relatively expensive real estate purchase prices within the area of the Bank’s principal office location in Bar Harbor, Maine, create additional risks for the Company and the Bank’s ability to attract and retain key personnel. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of key personnel could have a material adverse impact on the Company's business because of their skills, knowledge of the markets in which the Company operates, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.
Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, and other external events could significantly impact the Company’s business and the business of its customers.
Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on the Company’s ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. In particular, such events may have a particularly negative impact upon the business of customers who are engaged in the hospitality and natural resource dependent industries in the Company's market area, which could have a direct negative impact on the Company’s business and results of operations.
Regulatory Risk Factors
The Company is subject to extensive government regulation and supervision, which may interfere with the ability to conduct business and may negatively impact financial results.
The Company is subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund and the safety and soundness of the banking system as a whole, not stockholders. These regulations affect the Company’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject the Company to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products the Company may offer, and/or limit the pricing the Company may charge on certain banking services, among other things. Compliance personnel and resources may increase costs of operations and adversely impact earnings.
Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse affect on the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur.
The Company may elect or be compelled to seek additional capital in the future, but capital may not be available when it is needed.
The Company is required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support its operations. In addition, the Company may elect to raise additional capital to support its business or to finance acquisitions, if any, or the Company may otherwise elect to raise additional capital.
The Company’s ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions, and a number of other factors, many of which are outside the Company’s control, and on its financial performance. Accordingly, there is no assurance of the Company’s ability to raise additional capital if needed or on acceptable terms. If the Company cannot raise additional capital when needed, or on reasonable terms, it may have a material adverse affect on its financial condition and results of operations.
The Company is subject to possible claims and litigation pertaining to fiduciary responsibilities.
From time to time, customers make claims and take legal action pertaining to the Company’s performance of its fiduciary responsibilities. Whether customer claims and legal action related to the Company's performance of fiduciary responsibilities are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a favorable manner, they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect the market perception of the Company and products and services as well as impact customer demand for products and services.
Changes in tax laws and regulations and differences in interpretation of tax laws and regulations may adversely impact the Company's financial statements.
Federal, state, and local tax authorities may change tax laws and regulations, which could result in a decrease or increase to net deferred tax assets. In December 2017, the Company recognized a write-down of $4.0 million in net deferred tax assets in connection with the adoption of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("TCJA"). Federal, state, and local tax authorities may interpret tax laws and regulations differently and challenge tax positions that the Company has taken on tax returns. This may result in differences in the treatment of revenues, deductions, credits and/or differences in the timing of these items. The differences in treatment may result in payment of additional taxes, interest or penalties that could have a material adverse affect on results.
The Company’s access to funds from subsidiaries may be restricted.
Bar Harbor Bankshares is a separate and distinct legal entity from the Bank and non-banking subsidiaries. Bar Harbor Bankshares depends on dividends, distributions and other payments from its banking and non-banking subsidiaries to fund dividend payments on its common stock and to fund all payments on its other obligations. The Company’s subsidiaries are subject to laws that authorize regulatory bodies to block or reduce the flow of funds from those subsidiaries to Bar Harbor Bankshares, which could impede access to funds it needs to make payments on its obligations or dividend payments.
A new accounting standard may require us to increase the allowance for loan losses.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board has issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, which will be effective for the Company for the first quarter of the year ending December 31, 2020. This standard, often referred to as CECL requires companies to recognize an allowance for credit losses using a new current expected credit loss model. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on the consolidated financial statements. Any increase in the allowance for credit losses or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses may have a material adverse affect on the Company's financial condition and results of operations.
The Bank is exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which it takes title.
In the course of business, the Bank may own or foreclose and take title to real estate, and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. The Company may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and restoration costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The cost associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, as the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, the Company may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The Company’s principal executive offices and one branch are in a building owned by the Company located at 82 Main Street, Bar Harbor, Maine. The Bank provides full-banking services at an additional 48 locations throughout Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont of which 30 are owned and 18 are leased. The Bank also has two stand-alone drive-up windows in New Hampshire and one in Vermont. In addition to banking offices, the Company also has an Operations Center located in Ellsworth, Maine, that houses the Company’s operations and data processing centers, as well as leased space in Hampden, Maine and Bedford, New Hampshire, where back office support for multiple lines of business and related functions are located. In the opinion of management, the physical properties of the Company and the Bank are considered adequate to meet the needs of customers in the communities served.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time the Company may become involved in legal proceedings or may be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company currently believes that the final outcome of these ordinary course matters will not have a material adverse effect on business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The common stock of the Company is traded on the NYSE American, under the trading symbol "BHB". As of March 8, 2019, there were 15,523,628 shares of Bar Harbor Bankshares common stock, par value $2.00 per share, outstanding and approximately 1,616 shareholders of record, as obtained through the Company’s transfer agent.
Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
No unregistered securities were sold by the Company during the year ended December 31, 2018.
The following graph illustrates the estimated yearly change in value of the Company's cumulative total stockholder return on its common stock for each of the last five years. Total shareholder return is computed by taking the difference between the ending price of the common stock at the end of the previous year and the current year, plus any dividends paid divided by the ending price of the common stock at the end of the previous year. For purposes of comparison, the graph also matches Bar Harbor Bankshares' cumulative 5-Year total shareholder return on common stock with the cumulative total returns of the NYSE American Composite index, and the SNL Bank $1B to $5B Index. The graph tracks the performance of a $100 investment in the Company's common stock and in each index (with the reinvestment of all dividends) from December 31, 2013 to December 31, 2018.
The following summary data is based in part on the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes, and other schedules appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Historical data is also based in part on, and should be read in conjunction with, prior filings with the SEC.
Earning assets includes non-accruing loans and securities are valued at amortized cost.
Net revenue is defined as net interest income plus non-interest income.
In December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 was enacted, and the Company recognized a $4.0 million write-down of its deferred tax assets and liabilities upon revaluation using the lower federal corporate income tax rate of 21.0%
All performance ratios are based on average balance sheet amounts.
Generally accepted accounting principles require that loans acquired in a business combination be recorded at fair value, whereas loans from business activities are recorded at cost. The fair value of loans acquired in a business combination includes expected loan losses, and there is no loan loss allowance recorded for these loans at the time of acquisition. Accordingly, the ratio of the loan loss allowance to total loans is reduced as a result of the existence of such loans, and this measure is not directly comparable to prior periods. Similarly, net loan charge-offs are normally reduced for loans acquired in a business combination since these loans are recorded net of expected loan losses. Therefore, the ratio of net loan charge-offs to average loans is reduced as a result of the existence of such loans, and this measure is not directly comparable to prior periods. Other institutions may have loans acquired in a business combination, and therefore there may be no direct comparability of these ratios between and among other institutions.