Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Biolinerx
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.37 145 $53
20-F 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
20-F 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
20-F 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
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BWA BorgWarner 8,000
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LAD Lithia Motors 2,640
SCSC Scansource 908
OXFD Oxford Immunotec Global 437
SGA Saga Communications 182
LFVN Lifevantage 173
JCTCF Jewett Cameron Trading 68
VTNL Vet Online Supply 0
BLRX 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure on Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Item 13. Defaults, Dividends Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Experts
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
Note 1 - General Information
Note 2 - Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Financial Risk Management
Note 4 - Critical Accounting Estimates and Judgments
Note 5 - Cash and Cash Equivalents
Note 6 - Short-Term Bank Deposits
Note 7 - Long-Term Investment
Note 8 - Property and Equipment
Note 9 - Intangible Assets
Note 10 - Long-Term Loans
Note 11 - Equity
Note 12 - Taxes on Income
Note 13 - Loss per Share
Note 14 - Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
Note 15 - Transactions and Balances with Related Parties
Note 16 - Supplementary Financial Statement Information
Note 17 - Agalimmune Acquisition
Note 18 - Amendment To Bl-8040 License and Long-Term Loan
Note 19 - Event Subsequent To The Balance Sheet Date
EX-4.5 exhibit_4-5.htm
EX-4.41 exhibit_4-41.htm
EX-4.47 exhibit_4-47.htm
EX-4.49 exhibit_4-49.htm
EX-4.50 exhibit_4-50.htm
EX-12.1 exhibit_12-1.htm
EX-12.2 exhibit_12-2.htm
EX-13.1 exhibit_13-1.htm
EX-13.2 exhibit_13-2.htm
EX-15.5 exhibit_15-5.htm

Biolinerx Earnings 2018-12-31

BLRX 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 zk1922849.htm 20-F
As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on March 28, 2019


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Date of event requiring this shell company report
 
For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
Commission file number _______________
 

 
BioLineRx Ltd.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
Israel
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
2 HaMa’ayan Street
Modi’in 7177871, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Philip A. Serlin
+972 (8) 642-9100
+972 (8) 642-9101 (facsimile)
phils@biolinerx.com
2 HaMa’ayan Street
Modi’in 7177871, Israel
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)


Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing 1 ordinary share, par value NIS 0.10 per share
 
Nasdaq Capital Market
     
Ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.10 per share
 
Nasdaq Capital Market*

*Not for trading; only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares.
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
 
None
(Title of Class)
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
 
None
(Title of Class)

 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 114,933,144
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
 
Yes ☐   No ☒
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. 
 
Yes ☐   No ☒
 
Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes ☒   No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
 
Yes ☒  No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
 
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
 
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
 
U.S. GAAP
 
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board
 
Other
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. N/A
 
☐ Item 17 ☐ Item 18
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Yes ☐ No ☒
 
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. N/A
 
Yes ☐ No ☐



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
   
Page
ii
PART I
iii
iii
iii
25
60
61
71
93
94
95
95
110
110
PART II  
112
112
112
113
113
113
114
114
114
114
114
116
PART III  
116
116
117
120
 
i
INTRODUCTION
 
Certain Definitions
 
In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, unless the context otherwise requires:
 
references to “BioLineRx,” the “Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” refer to BioLineRx Ltd., an Israeli company, and its consolidated subsidiaries;
 
references to “ordinary shares,” “our shares” and similar expressions refer to the Company’s ordinary shares, NIS 0.10 nominal (par) value per share;
 
references to “ADS” or “ADSs” refer to the Company’s American Depositary Shares;
 
references to “dollars,” “U.S. dollars” and “$” are to United States Dollars;
 
references to “shekels” and “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels, the Israeli currency;
 
references to the “Companies Law” are to Israel’s Companies Law, 5759-1999, as amended; and
 
references to the “SEC” are to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
Forward-Looking Statements
 
Some of the statements under the sections entitled “Item 3. Key Information – Risk Factors,” “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F constitute forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms including “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements, but these are not the only ways these statements are identified. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. In addition, the section of this Annual Report on Form 20-F entitled “Item 4. Information on the Company” contains information obtained from independent industry and other sources that we have not independently verified. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Unless we are required to do so under U.S. federal securities laws or other applicable laws, we do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements. Readers are encouraged to consult the Company’s filings made on Form 6-K, which are periodically filed with or furnished to the SEC.
 
Factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
 
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other therapeutic candidate development efforts;
 
our ability to advance our therapeutic candidates into clinical trials or to successfully complete our preclinical studies or clinical trials;
 
our receipt of regulatory approvals for our therapeutic candidates and the timing of other regulatory filings and approvals;
 
the clinical development, commercialization and market acceptance of our therapeutic candidates;
 
our ability to establish and maintain corporate collaborations;
 
our ability to integrate new therapeutic candidates and new personnel;
 
the interpretation of the properties and characteristics of our therapeutic candidates and of the results obtained with our therapeutic candidates in preclinical studies or clinical trials;
 
ii
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and therapeutic candidates;
 
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our therapeutic candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;
 
estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
 
risks related to changes in healthcare laws, rules and regulations in the United States or elsewhere;
 
competitive companies, technologies and our industry; and
 
statements as to the impact of the political and security situation in Israel on our business.
 
PART I
 
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
 
A. Selected Financial Data
 
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for the periods ended and as of the dates indicated. The following selected historical consolidated financial data for the Company should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operational and Financial Review and Prospects” and other information provided elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F and our consolidated financial statements and related notes. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and is qualified in its entirety thereby.
 
In June 2015, we effected a 1:10 reverse split of our ordinary shares. All share and per share amounts in this report have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse split as if it had been effected prior to the earliest financial statement period referred to herein. Following the reverse split, one ordinary share traded on the Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange, or the TASE, is equivalent to one ADS traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq (prior to the split, the ratio of ordinary shares to ADSs was 10:1).

iii
The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2015, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
 
Our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and reported in dollars.
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:(1) (2)
 
2014
   
2015
   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
 
   
(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except share and per share data)
 
                               
Research and development expenses
   
(11,866
)
   
(11,489
)
   
(11,177
)
   
(19,510
)
   
(19,808
)
Sales and marketing expenses
   
(1,589
)
   
(1,003
)
   
(1,352
)
   
(1,693
)
   
(1,362
)
General and administrative expenses
   
(3,800
)
   
(3,704
)
   
(3,984
)
   
(4,037
)
   
(4,435
)
Operating loss          
   
(17,255
)
   
(16,196
)
   
(16,513
)
   
(25,240
)
   
(25,605
)
Non-operating income (expenses), net
   
3,061
     
1,445
     
214
     
(260
)
   
2,397
 
Financial income          
   
3,566
     
457
     
480
     
1,169
     
719
 
Financial expenses          
   
(448
)
   
(106
)
   
(22
)
   
(21
)
   
(473
)
Net loss          
   
(11,076
)
   
(14,400
)
   
(15,841
)
   
(24,352
)
   
(22,962
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
                                       
Currency translation differences
   
(2,834
)
   
     
     
     
 
Comprehensive loss          
   
(13,910
)
   
(14,400
)
   
(15,841
)
   
(24,352
)
   
(22,962
)
Net loss per ordinary share
   
(0.34
)
   
(0.28
)
   
(0.28
)
   
(0.27
)
   
(0.21
)
Number of ordinary shares used in computing loss per ordinary share
   
32,433,883
     
51,406,434
     
56,144,727
     
89,970,713
     
108,595,702
 

   
As of December 31,
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
2014
   
2015
   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
 
   
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
 
Cash and cash equivalents
   
5,790
     
5,544
     
2,469
     
5,110
     
3,404
 
Short-term bank deposits
   
28,890
     
42,119
     
33,154
     
44,373
     
26,747
 
Property, plant and equipment, net
   
721
     
2,909
     
2,605
     
2,505
     
2,227
 
Total assets          
   
36,211
     
51,302
     
38,939
     
60,965
     
56,233
 
Total liabilities          
   
4,406
     
3,692
     
3,912
     
8,084
     
14,912
 
Total shareholders’ equity
   
31,805
     
47,610
     
35,027
     
52,881
     
41,321
 
 
(1)
Data on diluted loss per share was not presented in the financial statements because the effect of the exercise of the options is either immaterial or is anti-dilutive.
 
(2)
In June 2015, we effected a 1:10 reverse split of our ordinary shares. All share and per share amounts have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse split as if it had been effected prior to the earliest financial statement period included herein.

4

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
 
Not applicable.
 
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
 
Not applicable.
 
D. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the risks we describe below, in addition to the other information set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes beginning on page F-1, before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares and ADSs. These material risks could adversely impact our results of operations, possibly causing the trading price of our ordinary shares and ADSs to decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
 
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Capital Requirements
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical development company with a history of operating losses, expect to incur additional losses in the future and may never be profitable.
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical development company that was incorporated in 2003. Since our incorporation, we have been focused on research and development. Only one of our therapeutic candidates has begun to be commercialized. We, or our licensees, as applicable, will be required to conduct significant additional clinical trials before we or they can seek the regulatory approvals necessary to begin commercial sales of our other therapeutic candidates. We have incurred losses since inception, principally as a result of research and development and general administrative expenses in support of our operations. We recorded net losses of $15.8 million in 2016, $24.4 million in 2017 and $23.0 million in 2018. As of December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $222.5 million. We anticipate that we will incur significant additional losses as we continue to focus our resources on prioritizing, selecting and advancing our most promising therapeutic candidates. We may never be profitable, and we may never achieve significant sustained revenues.
 
We cannot assure investors that our existing cash and investment balances will be sufficient to meet our future capital requirements.
 
As of December 31, 2018, we held cash and short-term investments of $30.2 million. In February 2019, we completed a public offering of ADSs and warrants for net proceeds of $14.1 million. We believe that our existing cash and investment balances (including the proceeds from our February 2019 public offering) and other sources of liquidity, not including potential milestone and royalty payments under our existing out-licensing and other collaboration agreements, will be sufficient to meet our capital requirements into 2021. We have funded our operations primarily through public and private offerings of our securities, payments received under our strategic licensing and collaboration arrangements and interest earned on investments. The adequacy of our available funds to meet our operating and capital requirements will depend on many factors, including: the number, breadth, progress and results of our research, product development and clinical programs; the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approvals for any of our therapeutic candidates; the terms and conditions of in-licensing and out-licensing therapeutic candidates; and costs incurred in enforcing and defending our patent claims and other intellectual property rights.
 
While we expect to continue to explore alternative financing sources, including the possibility of future securities offerings and government funding, we cannot be certain that in the future these liquidity sources will be available when needed on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that our actual cash requirements will not be greater than anticipated. We expect to also continue to seek to finance our operations through other sources, including out-licensing arrangements for the development and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates or other partnerships or joint ventures, as well as grants from government agencies and foundations. If we are unable to obtain future financing through the methods we describe above or through other means, we may be unable to complete our business objectives and may be unable to continue operations, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

5

We may be unable to make payments due under our secured loan agreement.
 
On October 2, 2018, we entered into a $10 million loan agreement with Kreos Capital V (Expert Fund) L.P., or Kreos Capital. As security for the loan, Kreos Capital received a first-priority secured interest in all of our assets, including intellectual property. The loan has a 12-month interest-only period followed by a 36-month repayment period. Borrowings under the loan bear interest at a fixed rate of 9.5% per annum.
 
Our ability to make the scheduled payments under the loan agreement or to refinance our debt obligations with Kreos Capital depends on numerous factors including, but not limited to, the amount of our cash reserves, our capital requirements and our ability to raise additional capital. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash reserves sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and accrued interest on the loan. If our cash reserves, cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt obligations to Kreos Capital, we may be required to seek additional capital, restructure or refinance our indebtedness, or delay or abandon our research and development projects or other capital expenditures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, prospects or results of operations. There is no assurance that we would be able to take any of such actions, or that such actions would permit us meet our scheduled debt obligations under the Kreos Capital loan agreement.
 
Risks Related to Our Business and Regulatory Matters
 
If we or our licensees are unable to obtain U.S. and/or foreign regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidates, we will be unable to commercialize our therapeutic candidates.
 
To date, only one of our products, BL-5010, a legacy asset for the treatment of benign skin lesions, has been approved for marketing and sale. Currently, we have two clinical-stage therapeutic candidates in development: BL-8040, a novel peptide for the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors and stem cell mobilization, and AGI-134, an immuno-oncology agent in development for solid tumors. Our therapeutic candidates are subject to extensive governmental regulations relating to development, clinical trials, manufacturing and commercialization of drugs and devices. We may not obtain marketing approval for any other of our therapeutic candidates in a timely manner or at all. In connection with the clinical trials for BL-8040 and AGI-134 and other therapeutic candidates that we are may seek to develop in the future, either on our own or through out-licensing or co-development arrangements, we face the risk that:
 
·
a therapeutic candidate or medical device may not prove safe or efficacious;
 
·
the results with respect to any therapeutic candidate may not confirm the positive results from earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials;
 
·
the results may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or other regulatory authorities; and
 
·
the results will justify only limited and/or restrictive uses, including the inclusion of warnings and contraindications, which could significantly limit the marketability and profitability of the therapeutic candidate.
 
Any delay in obtaining, or the failure to obtain, required regulatory approvals will materially and adversely affect our ability to generate future revenues from a particular therapeutic candidate. Any regulatory approval to market a product may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which we may market the product or may impose restrictive conditions of use, including cautionary information, thereby limiting the size of the market for the product. We and our licensees, as applicable, also are, and will be, subject to numerous foreign regulatory requirements that govern the conduct of clinical trials, manufacturing and marketing authorization, pricing and third-party reimbursement. The foreign regulatory approval process includes all the risks associated with the FDA approval process that we describe above, as well as risks attributable to the satisfaction of foreign requirements. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities outside the United States. Foreign jurisdictions may have different approval processes than those required by the FDA and may impose additional testing requirements for our therapeutic candidates.
 
6

Clinical trials involve a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results.
 
We have limited experience in conducting and managing the clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approvals, including FDA approval. Clinical trials are expensive and complex, can take many years and have uncertain outcomes. We cannot necessarily predict whether we or our licensees will encounter problems with any of the completed, ongoing or planned clinical trials that will cause us, our licensees or regulatory authorities to delay or suspend clinical trials, or to delay the analysis of data from completed or ongoing clinical trials. In addition, because some of our clinical trials are investigator-initiated studies (i.e., we are not the study sponsor), we may have less control over these studies. We estimate that clinical trials of our most advanced therapeutic candidates will continue for several years, but they may take significantly longer to complete. Failure can occur at any stage of the testing, and we may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, the clinical trial process that could delay or prevent commercialization of our current or future therapeutic candidates, including, but not limited to:
 
·
delays in securing clinical investigators or trial sites for the clinical trials;
 
·
delays in obtaining institutional review board and other regulatory approvals to commence a clinical trial;
 
·
slower-than-anticipated patient recruitment and enrollment;
 
·
negative or inconclusive results from clinical trials;
 
·
unforeseen safety issues;
 
·
uncertain dosing issues;
 
·
an inability to monitor patients adequately during or after treatment; and
 
·
problems with investigator or patient compliance with the trial protocols.
 
A number of companies in the pharmaceutical, medical device and biotechnology industries, including those with greater resources and experience than us, have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after seeing promising results in earlier clinical trials. Despite the results reported in earlier clinical trials for our therapeutic candidates, we do not know whether any Phase 3 or other clinical trials we or our licensees may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory approval to market our therapeutic candidates. If later-stage clinical trials of any therapeutic candidate do not produce favorable results, our ability to obtain regulatory approval for the therapeutic candidate may be adversely impacted, which will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Even if we obtain regulatory approvals, our therapeutic candidates will be subject to ongoing regulatory review and if we fail to comply with continuing U.S. and applicable foreign regulations, we could lose those approvals and our business would be seriously harmed.
 
Even if products we or our licensees develop receive regulatory approval or clearance, we or our licensees, as applicable, will be subject to ongoing reporting obligations, and the products and the manufacturing operations will be subject to continuing regulatory review, including FDA inspections. The outcome of this ongoing review may result in the withdrawal of a product from the market, the interruption of the manufacturing operations and/or the imposition of labeling and/or marketing limitations. Since many more patients are exposed to drugs and medical devices following their marketing approval, serious but infrequent adverse reactions that were not observed in clinical trials may be observed during the commercial marketing of the product. In addition, the manufacturer and the manufacturing facilities we or our licensees, as applicable, will use to produce any therapeutic candidate will be subject to periodic review and inspection by the FDA and other, similar foreign regulators. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with any product, manufacturer or manufacturing process, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in actions such as:
 
·
restrictions on such product, manufacturer or manufacturing process;
 
·
warning letters from the FDA or other regulatory authorities;
 
7

·
withdrawal of the product from the market;
 
·
suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
 
·
refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we or our licensees submit;
 
·
voluntary or mandatory recall;
 
·
fines;
 
·
refusal to permit the import or export of our products;
 
·
product seizure or detentions;
 
·
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; or
 
·
adverse publicity.
 
If we, or our licensees, suppliers, third-party contractors, partners or clinical investigators are slow to adapt, or are unable to adapt, to changes in existing regulatory requirements or the adoption of new regulatory requirements or policies, we or our licensees may lose marketing approval for any of our products, if any of our therapeutic products are approved, resulting in decreased or lost revenue from milestones, product sales or royalties.
 
We generally rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials and to provide other services, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including by failing to meet established deadlines for the completion of such services.
 
We do not have the ability to conduct certain preclinical studies and clinical trials independently for our therapeutic candidates, and we rely on third parties, such as contract laboratories, contract research organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators to conduct these studies and clinical trials. Our reliance on these third parties limits our control over these activities. The third-party contractors may not assign as great a priority to our clinical development programs or pursue them as diligently as we would if we were undertaking such programs directly. Accordingly, these third-party contractors may not complete activities on schedule, or may not conduct the studies or our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or with our trial design. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, or if their performance is substandard, we may be required to replace them or add more sites to the studies. Although we believe that there are a number of other third-party contractors that we could engage to continue these activities, replacement of these third parties will result in delays and/or additional costs. As a result, our efforts to obtain regulatory approvals for, and to commercialize, our therapeutic candidates may be delayed. The third-party contractors may also have relationships with other commercial entities, some of whom may compete with us. If the third-party contractors assist our competitors, our competitive position may be harmed.
 
In addition, our ability to bring future products to market depends on the quality and integrity of data that we present to regulatory authorities in order to obtain marketing authorizations. Although we attempt to audit and control the quality of third-party data, we cannot guarantee the authenticity or accuracy of such data, nor can we be certain that such data has not been fraudulently generated. The failure of these third parties to carry out their obligations would materially adversely affect our ability to develop and market new products and implement our strategies.
 
We generally depend on out-licensing arrangements for late-stage development, marketing and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates.
 
We generally depend on out-licensing arrangements for late-stage development, marketing and commercialization of our therapeutic candidates. We have limited experience in late-stage development, marketing and commercializing therapeutic candidates. Dependence on out-licensing arrangements subjects us to a number of risks, including the risk that:
 
·
we have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our licensees devote to our therapeutic candidates;
 
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·
our licensees may experience financial difficulties;
 
·
our licensees may fail to secure adequate commercial supplies of our therapeutic candidates upon marketing approval, if at all;
 
·
our future revenues depend heavily on the efforts of our licensees;
 
·
business combinations or significant changes in a licensee’s business strategy may adversely affect the licensee’s willingness or ability to complete its obligations under any arrangement with us;
 
·
a licensee could move forward with a competing therapeutic candidate developed either independently or in collaboration with others, including our competitors; and
 
·
out-licensing arrangements are often terminated or allowed to expire, which would delay the development and may increase the development costs of our therapeutic candidates.
 
If we or any of our licensees breach or terminate their agreements with us, or if any of our licensees otherwise fail to conduct their development and commercialization activities in a timely manner or there is a dispute about their obligations, we may need to seek other licensees, or we may have to develop our own internal sales and marketing capability for our therapeutic candidates. Our dependence on our licensees’ experience and the rights of our licensees will limit our flexibility in considering alternative out-licensing arrangements for our therapeutic candidates. Any failure to successfully develop these arrangements or failure by our licensees to successfully develop or commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates in a competitive and timely manner will have a material adverse effect on the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates.
 
We depend on our ability to identify and in-license technologies and therapeutic candidates.
 
We employ a number of methods to identify therapeutic candidates that we believe are likely to achieve commercial success. In certain instances, disease-specific third-party advisors evaluate therapeutic candidates as we deem necessary. However, there can be no assurance that our internal research efforts or our screening system will accurately or consistently select among various therapeutic candidates those that have the highest likelihood to achieve, and that ultimately achieve, commercial success. As a result, we may spend substantial resources developing therapeutic candidates that will not achieve commercial success, and we may not advance those therapeutic candidates with the greatest potential for commercial success.
 
An important element of our strategy is maintaining relationships with universities, medical institutions and biotechnology companies in order to in-license potential therapeutic candidates. We may not be able to maintain relationships with these entities, and they may elect not to enter into in-licensing agreements with us or to terminate existing agreements. Recently, a number of global pharmaceutical companies and life sciences-focused investment funds have set up operations in Israel, both with and without Israeli government funding, in order to identify and in-license new technologies. The presence of these global companies with significantly greater resources than we have may increase the competition with respect to the in-licensing of promising therapeutic candidates. We may not be able to acquire licenses on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Failure to license or otherwise acquire necessary technologies could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we cannot meet requirements under our in-license agreements, we could lose the rights to our therapeutic candidates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
We depend on in-licensing agreements with third parties to maintain the intellectual property rights to our therapeutic candidates. We have in-licensed rights from Biokine Therapeutics Ltd., or Biokine, with respect to our BL-8040 therapeutic candidate; from the University of Massachusetts and from Kode Biotech Limited, or Kode Biotech, with respect to our AGI-134 therapeutic candidate; and from Innovative Pharmaceutical Concepts, Inc., or IPC, with respect to our BL-5010 therapeutic candidate. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Business Overview — In-Licensing Agreements.” Our in-license agreements require us to make payments and satisfy performance obligations in order to maintain our rights under these agreements. The royalty rates and revenue sharing payments vary from case to case but range from 20% to 29.5% of the consideration we receive from sublicensing the applicable therapeutic candidate and a substantially lower percentage (generally less than 5%) if we elect to commercialize the subject therapeutic candidate independently. Due to the relatively advanced stage of development of the compound licensed from Biokine, our license agreement with Biokine provides for royalty payments of 10% of net sales, subject to certain limitations, should we independently sell products. These in-license agreements last either throughout the life of the patents that are the subject of the agreements, or with respect to other licensed technology, for a number of years after the first commercial sale of the relevant product.
 
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In addition, we are responsible for the cost of filing and prosecuting certain patent applications and maintaining certain issued patents licensed to us. If we do not meet our obligations under our in-license agreements in a timely manner, we could lose the rights to our proprietary technology, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we do not meet the requirements under our agreement with the Agalimmune selling shareholders, we could lose the rights to the therapeutic candidates in Agalimmune’s pipeline, including, but not limited to, AGI-134.
 
In March 2017, we acquired substantially all the outstanding shares of Agalimmune Ltd., or Agalimmune, a privately-held company incorporated in the United Kingdom. In conjunction with the acquisition, we entered into a development agreement with Agalimmune and its selling shareholders, or the Agalimmune Development Agreement, which, among other things, grants us an option to purchase any remaining Agalimmune shares. If we do not exercise this option within a certain period of time after achieving certain milestones or we commit a material breach of the Agalimmune Development Agreement, the selling shareholders have a reversionary option to acquire all the Agalimmune shares we hold for nominal consideration. If the exercise of this reversionary option is completed and our development work subsequently generates revenues for Agalimmune, we will only be entitled to a percentage of Agalimmune’s net proceeds, until such time as we have recouped the expenses we incurred in connection with the Agalimmune Development Agreement. Completion of the exercise of the reversionary option would result in the loss of our rights in the proprietary technology held by Agalimmune, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Modifications to our therapeutic candidates, or to any other therapeutic candidates that we may develop in the future, may require new regulatory clearances or approvals or may require us or our licensees, as applicable, to recall or cease marketing these therapeutic candidates until clearances are obtained.
 
Modifications to our therapeutic candidates, after they have been approved for marketing, if at all, or to any other pharmaceutical product or medical device that we may develop in the future, may require new regulatory clearance or approvals, and, if necessitated by a problem with a marketed product, may result in the recall or suspension of marketing of the previously approved and marketed product until clearances or approvals of the modified product are obtained. The FDA requires pharmaceutical products and device manufacturers to initially make and document a determination of whether or not a modification requires a new approval, supplement or clearance. A manufacturer may determine in conformity with applicable regulations and guidelines that a modification may be implemented without pre-clearance by the FDA; however, the FDA can review a manufacturer’s decision and may disagree. The FDA may also on its own initiative determine that a new clearance or approval is required. If the FDA requires new clearances or approvals of any pharmaceutical product or medical device for which we or our licensees receive marketing approval, if any, we or our licensees may be required to recall such product and to stop marketing the product as modified, which could require us or our licensees to redesign the product and will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In these circumstances, we may be subject to significant enforcement actions.
 
If a manufacturer determines that a modification to an FDA-cleared device could significantly affect the safety or efficacy of the device, would constitute a major change in its intended use, or otherwise requires pre-clearance, the modification may not be implemented without the requisite clearance. We or our licensees may not be able to obtain those additional clearances or approvals for the modifications or additional indications in a timely manner, or at all. For those products sold in the European Union, or EU, we or our licensees, as applicable, must notify the applicable EU Notified Body, an organization appointed by a member state of the EU either for the approval and monitoring of a manufacturer’s quality assurance system or for direct product inspection, if significant changes are made to the product or if there are substantial changes to the quality assurance systems affecting the product. Delays in obtaining required future clearances or approvals would materially and adversely affect our ability to introduce new or enhanced products in a timely manner, which in turn would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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If our competitors develop and market products that are more effective, safer or less expensive than our current or future therapeutic candidates, our prospects will be negatively impacted.
 
The life sciences industry is highly competitive, and we face significant competition from many pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that are researching and marketing products designed to address the indications for which we are currently developing therapeutic candidates or for which we may develop therapeutic candidates in the future. Specifically, we are aware of other companies that currently market and/or are in the process of developing products that address stem cell mobilization, acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, solid malignancies and skin lesions.
 
An important element of our strategy for identifying future products is maintaining relationships with universities, medical institutions and biotechnology companies in order to in-license potential therapeutic candidates, and we compete with respect to this in-licensing with a number of global pharmaceutical companies. The presence of these global companies with significantly greater resources than we have may increase the competition with respect to the in-licensing of promising therapeutic candidates. Our failure to license or otherwise acquire necessary technologies could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Our contract manufacturers are, and will be, subject to FDA and other comparable agency regulations.
 
Our contract manufacturers are, and will be, required to adhere to FDA regulations setting forth current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, for drugs and Quality System Regulations, or QSR, for devices. These regulations cover all aspects of the manufacturing, testing, quality control and recordkeeping relating to our therapeutic candidates. Our manufacturers may not be able to comply with applicable regulations. Our manufacturers are and will be subject to unannounced inspections by the FDA, state regulators and similar regulators outside the United States. The failure of our third-party manufacturers to comply with applicable regulations could result in the imposition of sanctions on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure of regulatory authorities to grant marketing approval of our therapeutic candidates, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of our candidates or products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect regulatory approval and supplies of our therapeutic candidates, and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We have no experience selling, marketing or distributing products and no internal capability to do so.
 
We currently have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities and no experience in building a sales force or distribution capabilities. To be able to commercialize any of our therapeutic candidates upon approval, if at all, we must either develop internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, which will be expensive and time-consuming, or enter into out-licensing arrangements with third parties to perform these services.
 
If we decide to market any of our other therapeutic candidates on our own, we must commit significant financial and managerial resources to develop a marketing and sales force with technical expertise and with supporting distribution capabilities. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize our products directly and without strategic partners include:
 
·
our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
 
·
the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe our therapeutic candidates;
 
·
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
 
·
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating and sustaining an independent sales and marketing organization.
 
We may not be successful in recruiting the sales and marketing personnel necessary to sell any of our therapeutic candidates upon approval, if at all, and, even if we do build a sales force, we may not be successful in marketing our therapeutic candidates, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
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Our business could suffer if we are unable to attract and retain key employees.
 
Our success depends upon the continued service and performance of our senior management and other key personnel. The loss of the services of these personnel could delay or prevent the successful completion of our planned clinical trials or the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates or otherwise affect our ability to manage our company effectively and to carry out our business plan. We do not maintain key-man life insurance. Although we have entered into employment agreements with all of the members of our senior management team, members of our senior management team may resign at any time. High demand exists for senior management and other key personnel in the pharmaceutical industry. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to retain and attract such personnel.
 
Our growth and success also depend on our ability to attract and retain additional highly qualified scientific, technical, sales, managerial and finance personnel. We experience intense competition for qualified personnel, and the existence of non-competition agreements between prospective employees and their former employers may prevent us from hiring those individuals or subject us to suit from their former employers. In addition, if we elect to independently commercialize any therapeutic candidate, we will need to expand our marketing and sales capabilities. While we attempt to provide competitive compensation packages to attract and retain key personnel, many of our competitors are likely to have greater resources and more experience than we have, making it difficult for us to compete successfully for key personnel. If we cannot attract and retain sufficiently qualified technical employees on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop and commercialize competitive products. Further, any failure to effectively integrate new personnel could prevent us from successfully growing our company.
 
We rely upon third-party manufacturers to produce therapeutic supplies for the clinical trials, and commercialization, of our therapeutic candidates. If we manufacture any of our therapeutic candidates in the future, we will be required to incur significant costs and devote significant efforts to establish and maintain manufacturing capabilities.
 
We do not currently have laboratories that are compliant with cGMP and therefore cannot independently manufacture drug products for our current clinical trials. We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce the therapeutic supplies that will enable us to perform clinical trials and, if we choose to do so, commercialize therapeutic candidates ourselves. We have limited personnel with experience in drug or medical device manufacturing and we lack the resources and capabilities to manufacture any of our therapeutic candidates on a commercial scale. The manufacture of pharmaceutical products and medical devices requires significant expertise and capital investment, including the development of advanced manufacturing techniques and process controls. Manufacturers of pharmaceutical products and medical devices often encounter difficulties in production, particularly in scaling up initial production. These problems include difficulties with production costs and yields and quality control, including stability of the therapeutic candidate.
 
We do not currently have any long-term agreements with third-party manufacturers that guarantee the supply of any of our therapeutic candidates. When we require additional supplies of our therapeutic candidates to complete our clinical trials or if we elect to commercialize our products independently, we may be unable to enter into agreements for clinical or commercial supply, as applicable, with third-party manufacturers, or may be unable to do so on acceptable terms. Even if we enter into these agreements, it is likely that the manufacturers of each therapeutic candidate will be single-source suppliers to us for a significant period of time.
 
Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks to which we would not be subject if we manufactured therapeutic candidates ourselves, including:
 
·
reliance on the third party for regulatory compliance and quality assurance;
 
·
limitations on supply availability resulting from capacity and scheduling constraints of the third parties;
 
·
impact on our reputation in the marketplace if manufacturers of our products, once commercialized, fail to meet customer demands;
 
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·
the possible breach of the manufacturing agreement by the third party because of factors beyond our control; and
 
·
the possible termination or nonrenewal of the agreement by the third party, based on its own business priorities, at a time that is costly or inconvenient for us.
 
The failure of any of our contract manufacturers to maintain high manufacturing standards could result in injury or death of clinical trial participants or patients being treated with our products. Such failure could also result in product liability claims, product recalls, product seizures or withdrawals, delays or failures in testing or delivery, cost overruns or other problems, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Risks Related to Our Industry
 
Even if our therapeutic candidates receive regulatory approval or do not require regulatory approval, they may not become commercially viable products.
 
Even if our therapeutic candidates are approved for commercialization, they may not become commercially viable products. For example, if we or our licensees receive regulatory approval to market a product, approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses or subject to labeling or marketing restrictions, which could materially and adversely affect the marketability and profitability of the product. In addition, a new product may appear promising at an early stage of development or after clinical trials but never reach the market, or it may reach the market but not result in sufficient product sales, if any. A therapeutic candidate may not result in commercial success for various reasons, including:
 
·
difficulty in large-scale manufacturing;
 
·
low market acceptance by physicians, healthcare payors, patients and the medical community as a result of lower demonstrated clinical safety or efficacy compared to other products, prevalence and severity of adverse side effects, or other potential disadvantages relative to alternative treatment methods;
 
·
insufficient or unfavorable levels of reimbursement from government or third-party payors;
 
·
infringement on proprietary rights of others for which we or our licensees have not received licenses;
 
·
incompatibility with other therapeutic products;
 
·
other potential advantages of alternative treatment methods;
 
·
ineffective marketing and distribution support;
 
·
significant changes in pricing due to pressure from public opinion, non-governmental organizations or governmental authorities;
 
·
lack of cost-effectiveness; or
 
·
timing of market introduction of competitive products.
 
If we are unable to develop commercially viable products, either on our own or through licensees, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.
 
Healthcare reforms and related reductions in pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement and coverage by governmental authorities and third-party payors may adversely affect our business.
 
The continuing increase in expenditures for healthcare has been the subject of considerable government attention, particularly as public resources have been stretched by financial and economic crises in the United States, Western Europe and elsewhere. Both private health insurance funds and government health authorities continue to seek ways to reduce or contain healthcare costs, including by reducing or eliminating coverage for certain products and lowering reimbursement levels. In many countries and regions, including the United States, Western Europe, Israel, Russia, certain countries in Central and Eastern Europe and several countries in Latin America, pharmaceutical prices are subject to new government policies designed to reduce healthcare costs. These changes frequently adversely affect pricing and profitability and may cause delays in market entry. We cannot predict which additional measures may be adopted or the impact of current and additional measures on the marketing, pricing and demand for our approved products, if any of our therapeutic products are approved.
 
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Significant developments that may adversely affect pricing in the United States include (i) the enactment of federal healthcare reform laws and regulations, including the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, or PPACA, and (ii) trends in the practices of managed care groups and institutional and governmental purchasers, including the impact of consolidation of our customers. Changes to the healthcare system enacted as part of healthcare reform in the United States, as well as the increased purchasing power of entities that negotiate on behalf of Medicare, Medicaid, and private sector beneficiaries, may result in increased pricing pressure by influencing, for instance, the reimbursement policies of third-party payors. Healthcare reform legislation has increased the number of patients who would have insurance coverage for our approved products, if any of our therapeutic products are approved, but provisions such as the assessment of a branded pharmaceutical manufacturer fee and an increase in the amount of the rebates that manufacturers pay for coverage of their drugs by Medicaid programs may have an adverse effect on us. It is uncertain how current and future reforms in these areas will influence the future of our business operations and financial condition, as federal, state and foreign governmental authorities are likely to continue efforts to control the price of drugs and reduce overall healthcare costs. These efforts could have an adverse impact on our ability to market products and generate revenues in the United States and foreign countries.
 
If third-party payors do not adequately reimburse customers for any of our therapeutic candidates that are approved for marketing, they might not be purchased or used, and our revenues and profits will not develop or increase.
 
Our revenues and profits will depend heavily upon the availability of adequate reimbursement for the use of our approved candidates, if any, from governmental or other third-party payors, both in the United States and in foreign markets. Reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors, including the third-party payor’s determination that the use of an approved product is:
 
·
a covered benefit under its health plan;
 
·
safe, effective and medically necessary;
 
·
appropriate for the specific patient;
 
·
cost-effective; and
 
·
neither experimental nor investigational.
 
Obtaining reimbursement approval for a product from each government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us or our licensees to provide supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our products to each payor. Even when a payor determines that a product is eligible for reimbursement, the payor may impose coverage limitations that preclude payment for some uses that are approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Reimbursement rates may vary according to the use of the product and the clinical setting in which it used, may be based on payments allowed for lower-cost products that are already reimbursed, may be incorporated into existing payments for other products or services, and may reflect budgetary constraints and/or imperfections in Medicare, Medicaid or other data used to calculate these rates.
 
Regardless of the impact of the PPACA on us, the U.S. government, other governments and commercial payors have shown significant interest in pursuing healthcare reform and reducing healthcare costs. Any government-adopted reform measures could cause significant pressure on the pricing of healthcare products and services, including those biopharmaceuticals currently being developed by us or our licensees, in the United States and internationally, as well as the amount of reimbursement available from governmental agencies or other third-party payors. The continuing efforts of the U.S. and foreign governments, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors to contain or reduce healthcare costs may compromise our ability to set prices at commercially attractive levels for our products that we may develop, which in turn could adversely impact how much or under what circumstances healthcare providers will prescribe or administer our products, if approved. Changes in healthcare policy, such as the creation of broad limits for diagnostic products, could substantially diminish the sale of or inhibit the utilization of diagnostic tests, increase costs, divert management’s attention and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues and achieve consistent profitability. This could materially and adversely impact our business by reducing our ability to generate revenue, raise capital, obtain additional collaborators and market our products, if approved.
 
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Further, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, frequently change product descriptors, coverage policies, product and service codes, payment methodologies and reimbursement values. Third-party payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates, and both CMS and other third-party payors may have sufficient market power to demand significant price reductions.
 
Our business has a substantial risk of clinical trial and product liability claims. If we are unable to obtain and maintain appropriate levels of insurance, a claim could adversely affect our business.
 
Our business exposes us to significant potential clinical trial and product liability risks that are inherent in the development, manufacturing and sales and marketing of human therapeutic products. Claims could be made against us based on the use of our therapeutic candidates in clinical trials and in marketed products. We currently carry life science liability insurance covering general liability with an annual coverage amount of $30.0 million per occurrence and product liability and clinical trials coverage with an annual coverage amount of $30.0 million each claim and in the aggregate. The annual aggregate as well as the maximum indemnity for a single occurrence, claim or circumstances under this insurance is $30.0 million. However, our insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to maintain current amounts of insurance coverage or to obtain additional or sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect against losses that could have a material adverse effect on us. If a claim is brought against us, we might be required to pay legal and other expenses to defend the claim, as well as damages awards beyond the coverage of our insurance policies resulting from a claim brought successfully against us. Furthermore, whether or not we are ultimately successful in defending any claims, we might be required to direct significant financial and managerial resources to such defense, and adverse publicity is likely to result.
 
Significant disruptions of our information technology systems or breaches of our data security could adversely affect our business.
 
A significant invasion, interruption, destruction or breakdown of our information technology systems and/or infrastructure by persons with authorized or unauthorized access could negatively impact our business and operations. We could experience business interruption, information theft and/or reputational damage from cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, computer viruses, malware, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication and electrical failures, and attachments to emails. Any of the foregoing may compromise our systems and lead to data leakage either internally or at our third-party providers. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our product development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Our systems have been, and are expected to continue to be, the target of malware and other cyber-attacks. Although we have invested in measures to reduce these risks, we cannot assure you that these measures will be successful in preventing compromise and/or disruption of our information technology systems and related data.
 
We deal with hazardous materials and must comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.
 
Our activities and those of our third-party manufacturers on our behalf involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials, including microbial agents, corrosive, explosive and flammable chemicals, as well as cytotoxic, biologic, radio-labeled and other hazardous compounds. We and our manufacturers are subject to U.S. federal, state, local, Israeli and other foreign laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In addition, if we develop a manufacturing capacity, we may incur substantial costs to comply with environmental regulations and would be subject to the risk of accidental contamination or injury from the use of hazardous materials in our manufacturing process.
 
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In the event of an accident, government authorities may curtail our use of these materials and interrupt our business operations. In addition, we could be liable for any civil damages that result, which may exceed our financial resources and may seriously harm our business. Although our Israeli insurance program covers certain unforeseen sudden pollutions, we do not maintain a separate insurance policy for any of the foregoing types of risks. In addition, although the general liability section of our life sciences policy covers certain unforeseen, sudden environmental issues, pollution in the United States and Canada is excluded from the policy. In the event of environmental discharge or contamination or an accident, we may be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. In addition, we may be subject to liability and may be required to comply with new or existing environmental laws regulating pharmaceuticals or other medical products in the environment.
 
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
 
Our access to most of the intellectual property associated with our therapeutic candidates results from in-license agreements with universities, research institutions and biotechnology companies, the termination of which would prevent us from commercializing the associated therapeutic candidates.
 
We do not conduct our own initial research with respect to the identification of our therapeutic candidates. Instead, we rely upon research and development work conducted by third parties as the primary source of our therapeutic candidates. As such, we have obtained our rights to our therapeutic candidates through in-license agreements entered into with universities, research institutions and biotechnology companies that invent and own the intellectual property underlying our candidates. There is no assurance that such in-licenses or rights will not be terminated or expire due to a material breach of the agreements, such as a failure on our part to achieve certain progress milestones set forth in the terms of the in-licenses or due to the loss of the rights to the underlying intellectual property by any of our licensors. There is no assurance that we will be able to renew or renegotiate an in-licensing agreement on acceptable terms if and when the agreement terminates. We cannot guarantee that any in-license is enforceable or will not be terminated or converted into a non-exclusive license in the future. The termination of any in-license or our inability to enforce our rights under any in-license would materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize certain of our therapeutic candidates.
 
We currently have in-licensing agreements relating to our therapeutic candidates that are in development or being commercialized. In 2012, we in-licensed the rights to BL-8040 under a license agreement from Biokine. Under the BL-8040 license agreement, we are obligated to make commercially reasonable, good faith efforts to sublicense or commercialize BL-8040 for fair consideration. Agalimmune in-licensed rights to AGI-134 under a license from the University of Massachusetts in 2013 and under a license from Kode Biotech in 2015. Under each of those license agreements, Agalimmune is obligated to use diligent efforts or cause its affiliates and sublicensees to use diligent efforts to develop the respective licensed technology and introduce licensed products into the commercial market. In 2007, we in-licensed the rights to BL-5010 under a license agreement with IPC. Under the BL-5010 license agreement, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop the licensed technology in accordance with a specified development plan, including meeting certain specified diligence goals.
 
Each of the foregoing in-licensing agreements, or the obligation to pay royalties thereunder, will generally remain in effect until the expiration, under the applicable agreement, of all the licensing, royalty and sublicense revenue obligations to the applicable licensors, determined on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. We may terminate the BL-8040 in-licensing agreement upon 90 days’ prior written notice to Biokine. Agalimmune may terminate each of the in-licensing agreements with University of Massachusetts and Kode Biotech relating to AGI-134, on 90 days’ notice. We may terminate the BL-5010 in-licensing agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice to IPC.
 
Any party to any of the foregoing in-licensing agreements may terminate the respective agreement for material breach by the other party if the breaching party is unable to cure the breach within an agreed-upon period, generally 30 days to 90 days, after receiving written notice of the breach from the non-breaching party.
 
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Patent protection for our products is important and uncertain.
 
Our success depends, in part, on our ability, and the ability of our licensees and licensors to obtain patent protection for our therapeutic candidates, maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and know-how, operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others and prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights.
 
We try to protect our proprietary position by, among other things, filing U.S., European, Israeli and other patent applications related to our proprietary products, technologies, inventions and improvements that may be important to the continuing development of our therapeutic candidates. As of March 15, 2019, we owned or exclusively licensed for uses within our field of business 29 patent families that collectively contain over 71 issued patents, four allowed patent applications and over 104 pending patent applications relating to our therapeutic candidates.
 
Because the patent position of biopharmaceutical companies involves complex legal and factual questions, we cannot predict the validity and enforceability of patents with certainty. Our issued patents and the issued patents of our licensees or licensors may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges by third parties. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide any protection against competitors. Our pending patent applications, those we may file in the future or those we may license from third parties may not result in patents being issued. If these patents are issued, they may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. The degree of future protection to be afforded by our proprietary rights is uncertain because legal means afford only limited protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep our competitive advantage.
 
Patent rights are territorial; thus, the patent protection we do have will only extend to those countries in which we have issued patents. Even so, the laws of certain countries do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. For example, the patent laws of China and India are relatively new and are not as developed as are older, more established patent laws of other countries. Competitors may successfully challenge our patents, produce similar drugs or products that do not infringe our patents, or produce drugs in countries where we have not applied for patent protection or that do not respect our patents. Furthermore, it is not possible to know the scope of claims that will be allowed in published applications and it is also not possible to know which claims of granted patents, if any, will be deemed enforceable in a court of law.
 
Our technology may infringe the rights of third parties. The nature of claims contained in unpublished patent filings around the world is unknown to us and it is not possible to know which countries patent holders may choose for the extension of their filings under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, or other mechanisms. Any infringement by us of the proprietary rights of third parties may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets or know-how, such proprietary information may be used by others to compete against us.
 
We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, know-how, technology, trademarks and regulatory exclusivity to maintain our competitive position. We generally try to protect trade secrets, know-how and technology by entering into confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements with parties that have access to it, such as our licensees, employees, contractors and consultants. We also enter into agreements that purport to require the disclosure and assignment to us of the rights to the ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions of our employees, advisors, research collaborators, contractors and consultants while we employ or engage them. However, these agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce or may not provide adequate remedies. Any of these parties may breach the confidentiality agreements and willfully or unintentionally disclose our confidential information, or our competitors might learn of the information in some other way. The disclosure to, or independent development by, a competitor of any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent could materially adversely affect any competitive advantage we may have over any such competitor.
 
To the extent that any of our employees, advisors, research collaborators, contractors or consultants independently develop, or use independently developed, intellectual property in connection with any of our projects, disputes may arise as to the proprietary rights to this type of information. If a dispute arises with respect to any proprietary right, enforcement of our rights can be costly and unpredictable, and a court may determine that the right belongs to a third party.
 
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Legal proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement may require us to spend substantial time and money and could prevent us from developing or commercializing products.
 
The development, manufacture, use, offer for sale, sale or importation of our therapeutic candidates may infringe on the claims of third-party patents. A party might file an infringement action against us. The cost to us of any patent litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively because of their substantially greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation or defense of a patent litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete in the marketplace. Patent litigation and other proceedings may also absorb significant management time. Consequently, we are unable to guarantee that we will be able to manufacture, use, offer for sale, sell or import our therapeutic candidates in the event of an infringement action. At present, we are not aware of pending or threatened patent infringement actions against us.
 
In the event of patent infringement claims, or to avoid potential claims, we may choose or be required to seek a license from a third party and would most likely be required to pay license fees or royalties or both. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, the rights may be non-exclusive, which could potentially limit our competitive advantage. Ultimately, we could be prevented from commercializing a therapeutic candidate or be forced to cease some aspect of our business operations if, as a result of actual or threatened patent infringement claims, we are unable to enter into licenses on acceptable terms. This inability to enter into licenses could harm our business significantly. At present, we have not received any written demands from third parties that we take a license under their patents nor have we received any notice form a third party accusing us of patent infringement.
 
Our license agreements with our licensees contain, and any contract that we enter into with licensees in the future will likely contain, indemnity provisions that obligate us to indemnify the licensee against any losses arising from infringement of third-party intellectual property rights. In addition, our in-license agreements contain provisions that obligate us to indemnify the licensors against any damages arising from the development, manufacture and use of products developed on the basis of the in-licensed intellectual property.
 
We may be subject to other patent-related litigation or proceedings that could be costly to defend and uncertain in their outcome.
 
In addition to infringement claims against us, we may in the future become a party to other patent litigation or proceedings, including interference or re-examination proceedings filed with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or opposition proceedings in other foreign patent offices regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our products and technology, as well as other disputes regarding intellectual property rights with licensees, licensors or others with whom we have contractual or other business relationships. Post-issuance oppositions are not uncommon and we, our licensee or our licensor will be required to defend these opposition procedures as a matter of course. Opposition procedures may be costly, and there is a risk that we may not prevail.
 
We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees or contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.
 
Many of our employees and contractors were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that we or any employee or contractor has inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of his or her former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key research personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize certain therapeutic candidates, which could severely harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
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Risks Related to our Ordinary Shares and ADSs
 
We may be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our taxable year ending December 31, 2019 or in any subsequent year. There may be negative tax consequences for U.S. taxpayers that are holders of our ordinary shares or our ADSs if we are a PFIC.
 
We will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in any taxable year in which either (i) at least 75% of our gross income is “passive income” or (ii) on average at least 50% of our assets by value produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes, among other things, certain dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions and from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income. Passive income also includes amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of funds, including those raised in a public offering. In determining whether a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC, a proportionate share of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value) is taken into account. We believe that we were a PFIC during certain prior taxable years and, although we have not determined whether we will be a PFIC for our taxable year ending December 31, 2019, or in any subsequent year, our operating results for any such years may cause us to be a PFIC. If we are a PFIC for our taxable year ending December 31, 2019, or any subsequent year, and a U.S. Investor (as defined below) does not make an election to treat us as a “qualified electing fund,” or QEF, or make a “mark-to-market” election, then “excess distributions” to a U.S. Investor, and any gain realized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares or ADSs will be subject to special rules. Under these rules: (i) the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the U.S. Investor’s holding period for the ordinary shares (or ADSs, as the case may be); (ii) the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any period prior to the first day of the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income; and (iii) the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year. In addition, if the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, determines that we are a PFIC for a year with respect to which we have determined that we were not a PFIC, it may be too late for a U.S. Investor to make a timely QEF or mark-to-market election. U.S. Investors who hold our ordinary shares or ADSs during a period when we are a PFIC will be subject to the foregoing rules, even if we cease to be a PFIC in subsequent years, subject to exceptions for U.S. Investors who made a timely QEF or mark-to-market election. A U.S. Investor can make a QEF election by completing the relevant portions of and filing IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the instructions thereto. A QEF election generally may not be revoked without the consent of the IRS. Upon request, we will annually furnish U.S. Investors with information needed in order to complete IRS Form 8621 (which form would be required to be filed with the IRS on an annual basis by the U.S. Investor) and to make and maintain a valid QEF election for any year in which we or any of our subsidiaries are a PFIC.
 
The market prices of our ordinary shares and ADSs are subject to fluctuation, which could result in substantial losses by our investors.
 
The stock market in general and the market prices of our ordinary shares on the TASE and ADSs on Nasdaq, in particular, are subject to fluctuation, and changes in these prices may be unrelated to our operating performance. We expect that the market prices of our ordinary shares and ADSs will continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. The market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs are and will be subject to a number of factors, including:
 
·
announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or others;
 
·
announcements by us of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, in-licensing, out-licensing, joint ventures or capital commitments;
 
·
expiration or terminations of licenses, research contracts or other collaboration agreements;
 
·
public concern as to the safety of drugs we, our licensees or others develop;
 
·
general market conditions;
 
·
the volatility of market prices for shares of biotechnology companies generally;
 
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·
success of research and development projects;
 
·
departure of key personnel;
 
·
developments concerning intellectual property rights or regulatory approvals;
 
·
variations in our and our competitors’ results of operations;
 
·
changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if our ordinary shares or ADSs are covered by analysts;
 
·
statements about the Company made in the financial media or by bloggers on the Internet;
 
·
statements made about drug pricing and other industry-related issues by government officials;
 
·
changes in government regulations or patent decisions;
 
·
developments by our licensees; and
 
·
general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance.
 
These factors and any corresponding price fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs, and result in substantial losses by our investors.
 
Additionally, market prices for securities of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies historically have been very volatile. The market for these securities has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations for reasons unrelated to the operating performance of any one company. In the past, following periods of market volatility, shareholders have often instituted securities class action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and attention of management from our business, even if we are successful.
 
Our ordinary shares are traded on the TASE and our ADSs are listed on Nasdaq. Trading in our securities on these markets takes place in different currencies (dollars on Nasdaq and NIS on the TASE), and at different times (resulting from different time zones, different trading days and different public holidays in the United States and Israel). The trading prices of our securities on these two markets may differ due to these factors, the factors listed above, or other factors. Any decrease in the price of our securities on one of these markets could cause a decrease in the trading price of our securities on the other market.
 
We have received a deficiency letter from Nasdaq regarding the current bid price of the ADSs; there can be no assurance that we will continue to meet the requirements for the ADSs to trade on Nasdaq.
 
We received a notification letter from Nasdaq on December 3, 2018, notifying us that, because the closing bid price for the ADSs listed on Nasdaq was below $1.00 for 30 consecutive trading days, we no longer meet the minimum bid price requirement for continued listing on Nasdaq, requiring a minimum bid price of $1.00 per share (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”).
 
In accordance with Nasdaq rules, we have a period of 180 days from the date of notification, or until June 3, 2019, to regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement during which the stock will continue to list on Nasdaq. If at any time before June 3, 2019 the bid price of the ADSs closes at or above $1.00 per share for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, Nasdaq will provide written notification that we have achieved compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement.
 
The notification letter also disclosed that in the event we do not regain compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement by June 3, 2019, we may be eligible for additional time for compliance. To qualify for additional time, we would be required to meet the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards for Nasdaq, with the exception of the bid price requirement, and would need to provide written notice of our intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period, by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. If we meet these requirements, Nasdaq will inform us that we have been granted an additional 180 days to regain compliance. However, if it appears to the staff of Nasdaq that we will not be able to cure the deficiency, or if we are otherwise not eligible, the staff would notify us that our shares will not be granted an additional 180 days for compliance and be subject to delisting at that time. In the event of such notification, we may appeal the staff’s determination to delist our shares, but there can be no assurance the staff would grant our request for continued listing.
 
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If the ADSs were delisted from Nasdaq, it would likely lead to a number of negative implications, including an adverse effect on the price of the ADSs, reduced liquidity in the ADSs, the loss of federal preemption of state securities laws and greater difficulty in obtaining financing. In the event of a delisting, we would expect to take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow the ADSs to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of the ADSs or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements.
 
Future sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs could reduce the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs.
 
Substantial sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs, either on the TASE or on Nasdaq, may cause the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs to decline. Sales by us or our securityholders of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs, or the perception that these sales may occur in the future, could cause a reduction in the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs.
 
As a result of previous financings, we have warrants outstanding (i) for the purchase of 2,973,451 ADSs at an exercise price of $2.00 per ADS, (ii) for the purchase of 2,973,451 ADSs at an exercise price of $4.00 per ADS, (iii) for the purchase of 957,549 ADSs at an exercise price of $0.94 per ADS and (iv) for the purchase of 28,000,000 ADSs at an exercise price of $0.75 per ADS. In addition, as of March 25, 2019, in the framework of our Share Incentive Plan, there are outstanding stock options, restricted stock units and performance stock units (granted to directors, employees and consultants) for the purchase of 10.9 million ordinary shares with a weighted average exercise price of $1.10 per ordinary share.
 
In October 2017, we entered into an at-the-market sales agreement with BTIG, LLC, or BTIG, pursuant to which we may, in our discretion and from time to time, offer and sell through BTIG, acting as sales agent, our ADSs having an aggregate offering price up to $30 million, through an “at-the-market” program, or the ATM Program.
 
The issuance of any additional ordinary shares, any additional ADSs, or any securities that are exercisable for or convertible into our ordinary shares or ADSs, may have an adverse effect on the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs and will have a dilutive effect on our shareholders.
 
Raising additional capital by issuing securities may cause dilution to existing shareholders.
 
We may need to raise substantial future capital to continue to complete clinical development and commercialize our products and therapeutic candidates and to conduct the research and development and clinical and regulatory activities necessary to bring our therapeutic candidates to market. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
 
·
the failure to obtain regulatory approval or achieve commercial success of our therapeutic candidates;
 
·
our success in effecting out-licensing arrangements with third parties;
 
·
our success in establishing other out-licensing or co-development arrangements;
 
·
the success of our licensees in selling products that utilize our technologies;
 
·
the results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials for our earlier stage therapeutic candidates, and any decisions to initiate clinical trials if supported by the preclinical results;
 
·
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our therapeutic candidates that progress to clinical trials;
 
·
the costs of establishing or acquiring specialty sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, if any of our therapeutic candidates are approved, and we decide to commercialize them ourselves;
 
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·
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our issued patents and defending intellectual property-related claims;
 
·
the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies and other strategic relationships; and
 
·
the costs of financing unanticipated working capital requirements and responding to competitive pressures.
 
If we raise additional funds through licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our therapeutic candidates or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, we will reduce the percentage ownership of our then-existing shareholders, and these securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our existing shareholders. See also “— Future sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs could reduce the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs.”
 
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of applicable SEC and Nasdaq requirements, which may result in less protection than is accorded to investors under rules applicable to domestic issuers.
 
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of those otherwise required under the Listing Rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, or the Nasdaq Rules, for U.S. domestic issuers. For instance, we may follow home country practice in Israel with regard to, among other things, composition of the board of directors, director nomination procedure, composition of the compensation committee, approval of compensation of officers, and quorum at shareholders’ meetings. In addition, we will follow our home country law, instead of the Nasdaq Rules, which require that we obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events, such as for the establishment or amendment of certain equity-based compensation plans, an issuance that will result in a change of control of the company, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of a 20% or more interest in the company and certain acquisitions of the stock or assets of another company. Following our home country governance practices as opposed to the requirements that would otherwise apply to a U.S. company listed on Nasdaq may provide less protection than is accorded to investors under the Nasdaq Rules applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. See “Item 16G — Corporate Governance — Nasdaq Listing Rules and Home Country Practices.”
 
In addition, as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules and regulations under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act.
 
Risks Related to our Operations in Israel
 
We conduct our operations in Israel and therefore our results may be adversely affected by political, economic and military instability in Israel and its region.
 
Our headquarters, our operations and some of our suppliers and third-party contractors are located in central Israel and our key employees, officers and most of our directors are residents of Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region may directly affect our business. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade within Israel or between Israel and its trading partners could adversely affect our operations and results of operations and could make it more difficult for us to raise capital. During the autumn of 2012, Israel was engaged in armed conflicts with Hamas, a militia group and political party operating in the Gaza Strip; during the summer of 2014, another escalation in violence among Israel, Hamas and other groups took place; and since October 2015, and to a lesser extent since August 2016, Israel has been facing another escalation in violence with the Palestinian population. These conflicts involved missile strikes against civilian targets in various parts of Israel, as well as civil insurrection of Palestinians in the West Bank, on the border with the Gaza Strip and in Israeli cities, and negatively affected business conditions in Israel. In addition, Israel faces threats from more distant neighbors, in particular Iran. Iran is also believed to have a strong influence among extremist groups in the region, such as Hamas in Gaza, Hezbollah (a Lebanese Islamist Shiite militia group and political party), and various rebel militia groups in Syria. Recent political uprisings and social unrest in various countries in the Middle East and North Africa are affecting the political stability of those countries. The year 2014 saw the rise of an Islamic fundamentalist group known as ISIS. Following swift operations, ISIS gained control of large areas in the Middle East, including in Iraq and Syria, which have contributed to the turmoil experienced in these areas. As a result, the United States and Russian armed forces have engaged in limited operations in Syria, resulting in the defeat of ISIS and other rebel groups and their withdrawal in 2017 from most of the areas they had previously held in Syria, including places along the Israeli-Syrian border. Iranian forces have supported operations of the Syrian army during the years of fighting in Syria, adding to the instability in the area. This instability may lead to deterioration of the political relationships that exist between Israel and these countries, and has raised concerns regarding security in the region and the potential for armed conflict. These situations may escalate in the future to more violent events that may affect Israel and us. Among other things, this instability may affect the global economy and marketplace through changes in oil and gas prices. Any armed conflicts, terrorist activities or political instability in the region could adversely affect business conditions and could harm our results of operations. For example, any major escalation in hostilities in the region could result in a portion of our employees being called up to perform military duty for an extended period of time. Parties with whom we do business have sometimes declined to travel to Israel during periods of heightened unrest or tension, forcing us to make alternative arrangements when necessary. In addition, the political and security situation in Israel may result in parties with whom we have agreements involving performance in Israel claiming that they are not obligated to perform their commitments under those agreements pursuant to force majeure provisions in the agreements.
 
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Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of events associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government currently covers the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot assure you that this government coverage will be maintained. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any armed conflicts or political instability in the region would likely negatively affect business conditions and could harm our results of operations.
 
Further, in the past, the State of Israel and Israeli companies have been subjected to an economic boycott. Several countries still restrict business with the State of Israel and with Israeli companies. These restrictive laws and policies may have an adverse impact on our operating results, financial condition or the expansion of our business. If the BDS Movement, the movement for boycotting, divesting and sanctioning Israel and Israeli institutions (including universities) and products become increasingly influential in the United States and Europe, this may also adversely affect our financial condition.
 
Due to a significant portion of our expenses and revenues being denominated in non-dollar currencies, our results of operations may be harmed by currency fluctuations.
 
Our reporting and functional currency is the dollar. However, we pay a significant portion of our expenses in NIS and in euro, and we expect this to continue. If the dollar weakens against the NIS or the euro in the future, there may be a negative impact on our results of operations. The revenues from our current out-licensing and co-development arrangements are payable in dollars and euros. Although we expect our revenues from future licensing arrangements to be denominated primarily in dollars, we are exposed to the currency fluctuation risks relating to the recording of our revenues in currencies other than dollars. For example, if the euro strengthens against the dollar, our reported revenues in dollars may be lower than anticipated. From time to time, we engage in currency hedging transactions to decrease the risk of financial exposure from fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies mentioned above in relation to the dollar. These measures, however, may not adequately protect us from material adverse effects.
 
We have received Israeli government grants and loans for certain research and development expenditures. The terms of these grants and loans may require us to satisfy specified conditions in order to manufacture products and transfer technologies outside of Israel. We may be required to pay penalties in addition to repayment of the grants and loans.
 
Our research and development efforts were previously financed, in part, through grants and loans that we received from the Israel Innovation Authority, or the IIA (formerly the Office of the Chief Scientist of Israel’s Ministry of Economy and Industry, or the OCS). In addition, before we in-licensed BL-8040, Biokine had received funding for the project from the IIA, and as a condition to IIA consent to our in-licensing of BL-8040, we were required to agree to abide by any obligations resulting from such funding. We therefore must comply with the requirements of the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research, Development and Technological Innovation, 1984, and related regulations, as amended, or the Research Law, with respect to these projects. Through December 31, 2018, we received approximately $22.0 million in funding from the IIA and paid the IIA approximately $7.0 million in royalties under our approved programs. As of December 31, 2018, we have no contingent obligation to the IIA other than for BL-8040 as agreed when we in-licensed the project. The contingent liability to the IIA assumed by us relating to this transaction (which liability has no relation to the funding actually received by us) amounts to $3.2 million as of December 31, 2018. We have a full right of offset for amounts payable to the IIA from payments that we may owe to Biokine in the future. Therefore, the likelihood of any payment obligation to the IIA with regard to the Biokine transaction is remote.
 
The transfer or licensing to third parties of know-how or technologies developed under the programs submitted to the IIA and derivatives thereof and as to which we or our licensors received grants, or manufacturing or rights to manufacture based on and/or incorporating such know-how to third parties, might require the consent of the IIA, and may require certain payments to the IIA. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain such consent on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Although such restrictions do not apply to the export from Israel of our products developed with such know-how, without receipt of the aforementioned consent, such restrictions may prevent or limit us from engaging in transactions with our affiliates, customers or other third parties outside Israel, involving transfer or licensing of manufacturing rights or other know-how or assets that might otherwise be beneficial to us.
 
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Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or otherwise impede a merger with, or an acquisition of, our company, which could prevent a change of control, even when the terms of such a transaction are favorable to us and our shareholders.
 
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. For example, a merger may not be consummated unless at least 50 days have passed from the date that a merger proposal was filed by each merging company with the Israel Registrar of Companies and at least 30 days from the date that the shareholders of both merging companies approved the merger. In addition, a majority of each class of securities of the target company must approve a merger. Moreover, a full tender offer can only be completed if the acquirer receives the approval of at least 95% of the issued share capital (provided that a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in such tender offer shall have approved the tender offer, except that if the total votes to reject the tender offer represent less than 2% of the company’s issued and outstanding share capital, in the aggregate, approval by a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in such tender offer is not required to complete the tender offer), and the shareholders, including those who indicated their acceptance of the tender offer, may, at any time within six months following the completion of the tender offer, claim that the consideration for the acquisition of the shares did not reflect their fair market value and petition the court to alter the consideration for the acquisition accordingly (unless the acquirer stipulated in the tender offer that a shareholder that accepts the offer may not seek appraisal rights, and the acquirer or the company published all required information with respect to the tender offer prior to the date indicated for response to the tender offer).
 
Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions unappealing to us or to our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel exempting such shareholders from Israeli tax. For example, Israeli tax law does not recognize tax-free share exchanges to the same extent as U.S. tax law. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable, even if no actual disposition of the shares has occurred.
 
These and other similar provisions could delay, prevent or impede an acquisition of us or our merger with another company, even if such an acquisition or merger would be beneficial to us or to our shareholders.
 
We have received Israeli government grants and loans for certain research and development expenditures. The terms of these grants and loans may require us to satisfy specified conditions in order to manufacture products and transfer technologies outside of Israel. We may be required to pay penalties in addition to repayment of the grants and loans. Such grants and loans may be terminated or reduced in the future, which would increase our costs. See “Business — Government Regulation and Funding — Israeli Government Programs.”
 
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It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us and our officers and directors named in this annual report in Israel or the United States, or to serve process on our officers and directors.
 
We are incorporated in Israel. All of our executive officers and the majority of our directors reside outside of the United States, and all of our assets and most of the assets of our executive officers and directors are located outside of the United States. Therefore, a judgment obtained against us or any of our executive officers and directors in the United States, including one based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be collectible in the United States and may not be enforced by an Israeli court. It also may be difficult for you to effect service of process on these persons in the United States or to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel.
 
Your rights and responsibilities as a shareholder will be governed by Israeli law, which may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. companies.
 
We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of the holders of our ordinary shares are governed by our Articles of Association and Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S.-based corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on matters such as amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and acquisitions and interested party transactions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or executive officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company. There is limited case law available to assist us in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholders’ actions. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on holders of our ordinary shares that are not typically imposed on shareholders of U.S. corporations.
 
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
 
A. History and Development of the Company
 
Our legal and commercial name is BioLineRx Ltd. We are a company limited by shares organized under the laws of the State of Israel. Our principal executive offices are located at 2 HaMa’ayan Street, Modi’in 7177871, Israel, and our telephone number is +972 (8) 642-9100.
 
We were founded in 2003 by leading institutions in the Israeli life sciences industry. We completed our initial public offering in Israel in February 2007 and our ordinary shares are traded on the TASE under the symbol “BLRX.” In July 2011, we listed our ADSs on Nasdaq and they are traded under the symbol “BLRX.”
 
In March 2017, we acquired Agalimmune Ltd., a private U.K.-based company, and its U.S. subsidiary, Agalimmune Inc. Agalimmune Inc. was dissolved on December 31, 2017.
 
Our capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2018 were immaterial. For the year ended December 31, 2017, our capital expenditures were $0.3 million. Our current capital expenditures involve acquisitions of laboratory equipment, computers and communications equipment.
 
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers like BioLineRx that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is www.sec.gov. We maintain a corporate website at www.biolinerx.com
 
B. Business Overview
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical development company with a strategic focus on oncology. Our current development and commercialization pipeline consists of two clinical-stage therapeutic candidates − BL-8040, a novel peptide for the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors and stem cell mobilization, and AGI-134, an immuno-oncology agent in development for solid tumors. In addition, we have an off-strategy, legacy therapeutic product called BL-5010 for the treatment of skin lesions. We generate our pipeline by systematically identifying, rigorously validating and in-licensing therapeutic candidates that we believe exhibit a high probability of therapeutic and commercial success. To date, except for BL-5010, none of our therapeutic candidates have been approved for marketing or sold commercially. Our strategy includes commercializing our therapeutic candidates through out-licensing arrangements with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and evaluating, on a case-by-case basis, the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates independently.
 
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 In January 2016, we entered into a collaboration with MSD (a tradename of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey) in the field of cancer immunotherapy and in September 2016, we entered into a collaboration with Genentech, Inc., a member of the Roche Group, in the field of cancer immunotherapy. In addition, since December 2014 we have been collaborating with Novartis Pharma AG, or Novartis, for the co-development of selected Israeli-sourced novel drug candidates.
 
Therapeutic Candidates
 
BL-8040
 
Our clinical-stage lead therapeutic candidate, BL-8040, is a novel, short peptide that functions as a high-affinity antagonist for CXCR4. We are developing BL-8040 for the treatment of solid tumors, AML and stem cell mobilization. CXCR4 is expressed by normal hematopoietic cells and overexpressed in various human cancers where its expression correlates with disease severity. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that mediates the homing and retention of hematopoietic stem cells, or HSCs, in the bone marrow, and also mediates tumor progression, angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels in the tumor), metastasis (spread of tumor to other organs) and survival.
 
Inhibition of CXCR4 by BL-8040 leads to the mobilization of HSCs from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood, enabling their collection for subsequent autologous or allogeneic transplantation in cancer patients. Clinical data has demonstrated the ability of BL-8040 to mobilize higher numbers of long-term engrafting HSCs (CD34+CD38-CD45RA-CD90+CD49f+) as compared to G-CSF.
 
BL-8040 also mobilizes cancer cells from the bone marrow, detaching them from their survival signals and sensitizing them to chemotherapy. In addition, BL-8040 has demonstrated a direct anti-cancer effect by inducing apoptosis (cell death) and inhibiting proliferation in various cancer cell models (multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, leukemia, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, neuroblastoma and melanoma).
 
In the field of immuno-oncology, BL-8040 mediates infiltration of T-cells while reducing immune regulatory cells in the tumor microenvironment. In clinical studies, the combination of BL-8040 with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti PD-1, has shown T-cell activation and a reduction in tumor cell numbers.
 
In September 2013, the FDA granted an Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 as a therapeutic for the treatment of AML; and in January 2014, the FDA granted an Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 as a treatment for stem cell mobilization. In January 2015, the FDA modified this Orphan Drug Designation for BL-8040 for use either as a single agent or in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, or G-CSF. In February 2019, the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 as a therapeutic for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
 
The following paragraphs are a summary of the clinical trials being carried out with BL-8040.
 
Solid tumors
 
Ø
In January 2016, we entered into a collaboration with MSD (a tradename of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey) in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Based on this collaboration, in September 2016 we initiated a Phase 2a study, known as the COMBAT/KEYNOTE-202 study, focusing on evaluating the safety and efficacy of BL-8040 in combination with KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab), MSD’s anti-PD-1 therapy, in 37 patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The study was an open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial designed to evaluate the clinical response, safety and tolerability of the combination of these therapies as well as multiple pharmacodynamic parameters, including the ability to improve infiltration of T-cells into the tumor and their reactivity. Top-line results from the initial dual combination arm of the trial showed that the combination demonstrated encouraging disease control and overall survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. In addition, assessment of patient biopsies supported BL-8040’s ability to induce infiltration of tumor-reactive T-cells into the tumor, while reducing the number of immune regulatory cells. In July 2018, we announced the expansion of the COMBAT/KEYNOTE-202 study under the collaboration to include a triple combination arm investigating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of BL-8040, KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy. We initiated this arm of the trial in December 2018. Top-line results from the new triple combination arm of the study are expected in the second half of 2019, with overall survival results expected in 2020.
 
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Ø
In August 2016, in the framework of an agreement with MD Anderson Cancer Center, we entered into an additional collaboration for the investigation of BL-8040 in combination with KEYTRUDA in pancreatic cancer. The focus of this study, in addition to assessing clinical response, is the mechanism of action by which both drugs might synergize, as well as multiple assessments to evaluate the biological anti-tumor effects induced by the combination. We are supplying BL-8040 for this Phase 2b study, which commenced in January 2017. Partial results from this study are anticipated in the first half of 2019, with top-line results expected in 2020.
 
Ø
In September 2016, we entered into a collaboration with Genentech, Inc., or Genentech (a member of the Roche Group), in the framework of which both companies would carry out Phase 1b/2 studies investigating BL-8040 in combination with TECENTRIQ® (atezolizumab), Genentech’s anti-PDL1 cancer immunotherapy, in various solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The clinical study collaboration between us and Genentech is part of MORPHEUS, Roche’s novel cancer immunotherapy development platform. Genentech commenced a Phase 1b/2 study for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in July 2017, as well as a Phase 1b/2 study in gastric cancer in October 2017. These studies will evaluate the clinical response, safety and tolerability of the combination of these therapies, as well as multiple pharmacodynamic parameters.
 
AML
 
Ø
During 2016, we completed and reported on a Phase 2a proof-of-concept trial for the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia, or r/r AML, which was conducted on 42 patients at six world-leading cancer research centers in the United States and at five premier sites in Israel. The study included both a dose-escalation and a dose-expansion phase. Results from the trial showed detailed, positive safety and response rate data for subjects treated with a combination of BL-8040 and high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C), or HiDAC. At the annual meeting of the European Hematology Association, or EHA, in June 2018, we presented positive overall survival data from the long-term follow-up part of this study. We continue to monitor long-term survival data for patients in the study and, in parallel, are planning our next clinical development steps in this indication.
 
Ø
We are currently investigating BL-8040 as a consolidation treatment together with cytarabine (the current standard of care) for AML patients who have responded to standard induction treatment and are in complete remission and, in this regard, are conducting a significant Phase 2b trial in Germany, in collaboration with the German Study Alliance Leukemia Group. The Phase 2b trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-center study aimed at assessing the efficacy of BL-8040 in addition to standard consolidation therapy in AML patients. Up to 194 patients will be enrolled in the trial. We continue to discuss with our collaboration partners the potential conduct of an interim analysis on this study based on various factors, including the occurrence of a minimum number of reported relapse events and/or exposure to provide a reasonable statistical powering for the analysis. Our current best estimate for the timing of such potential interim analysis is the second half of 2019, with top-line results from the trial expected in 2021.
 
Ø
In September 2017, we initiated a Phase 1b/2 trial in AML, known as the BATTLE trial, under the collaboration with Genentech referred to above in “Solid tumors.” The trial will focus on the maintenance treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML who have achieved a complete response following induction and consolidation therapy. Top-line results from this study are expected in 2021.
 
Stem cell mobilization
 
Ø
In March 2015, we reported successful top-line safety and efficacy results from a Phase 1 safety and efficacy trial for the use of BL-8040 as a novel stem cell mobilization treatment for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem.
 
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Ø
In March 2016, we initiated a Phase 2 trial for BL-8040 in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, conducted in collaboration with the Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Oncology and Hematology, or WUSM. In May 2018, we announced positive top-line results of this study showing, among other things, that a single injection of BL-8040 mobilized sufficient amounts of CD34+ cells required for transplantation at a level of efficacy similar to that achieved by using 4-6 injections of G-CSF, the current standard of care.
 
Ø
In December 2017, we commenced a randomized, controlled Phase 3 registrational trial for BL-8040, known as the GENESIS trial, for the mobilization of HSCs for autologous transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. The trial began with a lead-in period for dose confirmation, which was to include 10-30 patients and progress to the placebo-controlled main part, which is designed to include 177 patients in more than 25 centers. Following review of the positive results from treatment of the first 11 patients, the Data Monitoring Committee recommended that the lead-in part of the study should be stopped and that we should move immediately to the second part. Top-line results of this randomized, placebo-controlled main part of the study are expected in the second half of 2020.
 
Other matters
 
Ø
In addition to the above, we are currently conducting, or planning to conduct, a number of investigator-initiated, open-label studies in a variety of indications to support the interest of the scientific and medical communities in exploring additional uses for BL-8040. These studies serve to further elucidate the mechanism of action for BL-8040.
 
AGI-134
 
AGI-134, a clinical therapeutic candidate in-licensed by Agalimmune, is a synthetic alpha-Gal glycolipid immunotherapy in development for solid tumors. AGI-134 harnesses the body’s pre-existing, highly abundant, anti-alpha-Gal antibodies to induce a hyper-acute, systemic, specific anti-tumor response to the patient’s own tumor neo-antigens. This response not only kills the tumor cells at the site of injection, but also brings about a durable, follow-on, anti-metastatic immune response. In August 2018, we initiated a Phase 1/2a clinical study for AGI-134 that is primarily designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of AGI-134, given both as monotherapy and in combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, in unresectable metastatic solid tumors. The multi-center, open-label study will take place in the United Kingdom and Israel, with possible expansion to the United States and additional countries in Europe in 2019. Initial safety results from the first part of the study are expected in the second half of 2019; initial efficacy results of the monotherapy arm from the second part of the study are expected by the end of 2020.
 
BL-5010
 
Our commercialized, legacy therapeutic product, BL-5010, is a customized, proprietary pen-like applicator containing a novel, acidic, aqueous solution for the non-surgical removal of skin lesions. In December 2014, we entered into an exclusive out-licensing arrangement with Perrigo Company plc, or Perrigo, for the rights to BL-5010 for over-the-counter, or OTC, indications in Europe, Australia and additional selected countries. In March 2016, Perrigo received CE Mark approval for BL-5010 as a novel OTC treatment for the non-surgical removal of warts. The commercial launch of this first OTC indication (warts/verrucas) commenced in Europe in the second quarter of 2016. Since then, Perrigo has invested in improving the product and expects to launch an improved version of the product during 2019.
 
Our Strategy
 
Our objective is to become a leader in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. We have successfully advanced a number of therapeutic candidates into clinical development. We intend to commercialize our two clinical candidates, BL-8040 and AGI-134, and any future candidates through out-licensing or co-development arrangements with third parties that may perform any or all of the following tasks: completing development, securing regulatory approvals, securing reimbursement codes from insurance companies and health maintenance organizations, manufacturing and/or marketing. If appropriate, we may also enter into co-development and similar arrangements with respect to any therapeutic candidate with third parties or commercialize a therapeutic candidate ourselves.
 
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Our Product Pipeline
 
The table below summarizes our current pipeline of therapeutic candidates, including the target indications and status of each candidate and our development partners:
 
 
Therapeutic Candidates
 
BL-8040
 
The following paragraphs are a high-level summary of the therapeutic areas we are currently investigating for BL-8040:
 
Solid malignancies (e.g., pancreatic, gastric). Novel, emerging therapeutic approaches for targeting solid tumors are being developed and tested. Combinational therapies of immune checkpoint inhibitors with immuno-oncology supporting agents, with or without chemotherapy, are among the most promising experimental treatments for solid malignancies.
 
Pancreatic cancer has a low rate of early diagnosis, a high mortality rate and a poor five-year survival prognosis. Its incidence rate in the U.S. is estimated at 3.2% of new cancer cases. According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancers of all types are the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women in the United States. Each year, about 185,000 individuals globally are diagnosed with this condition, and an estimated 55,000 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the US during 2018. Symptoms are usually non-specific and as a result, pancreatic cancer is often not diagnosed until it reaches an advanced stage. Surgical resection does not offer adequate treatment since only 20% of patients have resectable tumors at the time of diagnosis. Even among patients who undergo resection for pancreatic cancer and have tumor-free margins, the five-year survival rate is only 10-25%. The overall five-year survival rate among pancreatic cancer patients is 7-8%, which constitutes the highest mortality rate among solid tumor malignancies. The overall median survival is less than one year from diagnosis, highlighting the need for the development of new therapeutic options.
 
Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or AML, is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow and is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, or SEER, of the National Cancer Institute estimates that approximately 21,450 new cases of AML, will be diagnosed, mostly in adults in the United States in 2019. AML is generally a disease of older people and is uncommon before the age of 45. The average age of newly diagnosed AML patients is 68. The first treatment line for patients with AML includes a combination of chemotherapy drugs and is called induction treatment. The majority of patients achieving complete response or CR will eventually relapse, most of them during the first three years of receiving induction chemotherapy. The next step of treatment after relapse is salvage therapy. A common approach is to induce a second remission and follow treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or allo-SCT to consolidate second CR in eligible patients, although the duration of second remission is usually short than the first remission. Due to relapsed or refractory disease (where the disease is not responsive to standard treatments), the overall five-year survival rate for AML ranges between 10% and 40%. With current standard chemotherapy treatments, approximately 25-30% of adults under the age of 60 will survive more than five years, while in the elderly patient population, only less than 10% will survive more than five years.
 
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Stem cell mobilization. High-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation has become an established treatment modality for a variety of hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma, as well as various forms of lymphoma and leukemia. Stem cells are mobilized from the bone marrow of the patient (i.e., autologous transplant) or donor (i.e., allogeneic transplant) using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, or G-CSF, harvested from the peripheral blood by apheresis, and infused to the patient after chemotherapy. G-CSF is approved only for autologous use, although it is also used to mobilize and collect stem cells in the allogeneic setting on an off-label basis. This type of treatment often replaces the use of traditional surgical bone marrow harvesting, because the stem cells are easier to collect, and the treatment allows for a quicker recovery time and fewer complications.
 
Regulatory Approvals. In September 2013, the FDA granted an Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 as a therapeutic for the treatment of AML. In January 2014, the FDA granted an Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 for use, in combination with G-CSF, in mobilizing human stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood for collection for autologous or allogeneic (donor-based) transplantation. In January 2015, the FDA modified this Orphan Drug Designation for BL-8040 for use either as a single agent or in combination with G-CSF. In February 2019, we announced that the FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation to BL-8040 for use in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Orphan Drug Designation is granted to therapeutics intended to treat rare diseases that affect not more than 200,000 people in the United States. Orphan Drug Designation entitles the sponsor to a seven-year marketing exclusivity period and clinical protocol assistance with the FDA, as well as federal grants and tax credits.
 
Preclinical Results.
 
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that BL-8040 binds CXCR4 with high affinity (7.9 pM) and occupies it for prolonged periods of time (>48h). These studies have shown that BL-8040 mobilizes cancer cells from the bone marrow and may therefore detach these cells from survival signals in the bone marrow microenvironment as well as sensitize them to chemo- and bio-based anti-cancer therapies. In addition, BL-8040 directly induces apoptosis of cancer cells. BL-8040 was efficient, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy, in reducing malignant bone marrow cells and stimulating their cell death.
 
In August 2013, we announced that BL-8040 has been shown in preclinical trials to be effective for the treatment of thrombocytopenia, or reduced platelet production.
 
In December 2013, we presented preclinical data at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), showing that BL-8040 directly inhibits AML cell growth and induces cell death, both in cell cultures and in mice engrafted with human AML cells. In addition, BL-8040 showed the ability to induce mobilization of AML cells from the bone marrow into the blood circulation, thereby enhancing the chemotherapeutic effect of ARA-C (one of the standard-of-care chemotherapies for AML). The data also showed that BL-8040’s effects were even more robust in cells harboring the FLT3 mutation, and a synergistic effect was observed when BL-8040 was combined with the FLT3 inhibitor AC220 (Quizartinib).
 
At the annual meeting of ASH in December 2016, detailed preclinical data on the mechanism-of-action by which BL-8040 directly induces apoptosis of AML cells was presented by Prof. Amnon Peled of the Hadassah Medical Center and Biokine. The results of the preclinical studies showed that BL-8040 treatment in vivo triggered mobilization of AML blasts from their protective bone marrow microenvironment and induced their terminal differentiation, further supporting the data we presented at the American Association for Cancer Research annual conference earlier in 2016. In addition, the studies illustrate how BL-8040 increases the expression and activity of a special class of microRNA precursors termed miR-15a/16-1. These microRNA molecules have been previously linked to cancer, and shown to suppress the activity of several tumor-related pro-survival proteins. Therefore, by increasing the expression of miR-15a/16-1 microRNA molecules, BL-8040 decreases the expression of tumor-survival proteins and promotes tumor cell death. Importantly, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, BL-8040 was found to synergize with a selective Bcl-2 inhibitor (Venetoclax) and an FLT3 inhibitor (Quizartinib, also known as AC220) in inducing AML cell death, pointing at potential drug combination treatments.
 
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At the ASCO-SITC symposium in January 2018, we presented preclinical data showing that BL-8040 augments the ability of the immune system to fight cancer by increasing the infiltration of anti-tumor-specific T-cells into the TME, resulting in decreased tumor growth and prolonged survival in a murine model of cancer. In the preclinical study, a murine model of cancer was used to assess the effects of BL-8040 in combination with a cancer vaccine that primes the immune system against the tumor. The results of the study show that combining BL-8040 with the cancer vaccine leads to a significantly enhanced anti-tumor immune response, which attenuates tumor growth and prolongs mouse survival better than either agent administered alone. The results go on to demonstrate that BL-8040 significantly increases the abundance of tumor-specific T-cells in the TME, suggesting an explanation for the enhanced efficacy of the combination over either agent when administered alone.
 
Clinical Trials.
 
Solid tumors
 
In January 2016, we entered into a collaboration with MSD in the field of cancer immunotherapy. In the framework of this collaboration, in September 2016 we initiated a Phase 2a study, known as the COMBAT study, focusing on evaluating the safety and efficacy of BL-8040 in combination with KEYTRUDA, MSD’s anti-PD-1 therapy, in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Findings in the field of immuno-oncology suggest that CXCR4 antagonists such as BL-8040 may be effective in inducing the migration of anti-tumor T-cells into the tumor micro-environment. KEYTRUDA is a humanized monoclonal antibody that works by blocking co-inhibitory T-cell activation signals, thereby increasing the ability of the body’s immune system to help detect and fight tumor cells. KEYTRUDA blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocytes, which may affect both tumor cells and healthy cells. The study is an open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial designed to evaluate the clinical response, safety and tolerability of the combination of BL-8040 and KEYTRUDA as well as multiple pharmacodynamic parameters, including the ability to improve infiltration of T-cells into the tumor and their reactivity. According to the terms of our collaboration agreement with MSD, we are sponsoring and performing the COMBAT study and MSD is supplying its compound for purposes of the study. Upon completion of the study, or at any earlier point, both parties will have the option to expand the collaboration to include a pivotal registration study.
 
Partial results from the BL-8040 monotherapy portion of this trial were presented at ASCO-GI in January 2018. These results show that BL-8040 was safe and well-tolerated, and that it induced an increase in the number of total immune cells in the peripheral blood, while the frequency of peripheral blood regulatory T-cells (Tregs), known to impede the anti-tumor immune response, was decreased. In addition, analysis of available biopsies (N=7) showed infiltration of effector T-cells, known to attack cancer cells, into the tumor periphery and tumor micro-environment (TME). In this regard, the results show up to a 15-fold increase in CD3+ T-cells, and up to a two-fold increase in CD8+ T-cells, in the TME of 43% (3/7) of the patients, after five days of BL-8040 monotherapy.
 
In October 2018, we announced encouraging top-line results from the dual combination arm of the Phase 2a COMBAT/KEYNOTE-202 study at the European Society for Medical Oncology 2018 Congress. The data show that the treatment regimen was safe and well tolerated. The disease control rate (patients exhibiting a response or stable disease) was 34.5% for the evaluable population (N=29), including one patient (3.4%) with a partial response showing a 40% reduction in tumor burden, as well as nine patients (31%) with stable disease, with a median treatment time of 72 days (37-267). Median overall survival (OS) in all patients (N=37) was 3.3 months with a six-month survival rate of 34.4%. A significant observation was made in the subpopulation of patients receiving the study drugs as a second-line treatment (N=17), where the median overall survival was 7.5 months, with a six-month survival rate of 51.5%. This compares favorably with historical median overall survival data of 6.1 months for the only currently approved second-line PDAC treatment (a chemotherapy combination of Onivyde®, 5-FU and leucovorin). Additional data from in-depth analyses of biopsies taken at screening and following monotherapy or combination treatment of BL-8040 and KEYTRUDA demonstrate that in 75% of the available biopsies, BL-8040 treatment promotes an increase in the number of infiltrating CD4+, CD8+ and CD8+Granzyme B+ cytotoxic T-cells. The greatest improvement in T-cell infiltration was observed following combination treatment of BL-8040 and KEYTRUDA and was correlated with stable disease for eight cycles of treatment. Furthermore, increased infiltration of activated CD4 and CD8 T-cells was accompanied by a pronounced decrease in the number of tumor cells, as well as by a decrease in myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a cell type known to impede the antitumor immune response.
 
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As a result of the encouraging data, the collaboration with MSD was expanded to include an additional cohort that will test the effect of the triple combination of BL-8040, KEYTRUDA and chemotherapy (Onivyde®/5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, the only second-line approved treatment for pancreatic cancer). We initiated this additional arm of the trial in December 2018 to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of this triple combination. The triple combination arm will focus on second-line pancreatic cancer patients and will include approximately 40 patients with unresectable metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who have progressed following first-line therapy prior to enrollment. Patients will receive BL-8040 monotherapy priming treatment for five days, followed by repeat cycles of the combination of chemotherapy, KEYTRUDA and BL-8040 until progression. The primary endpoint of the study is the objective response rate (ORR) assessed by RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary endpoints will include overall survival, progression free survival, and the disease control rate. Top-line results from this arm of the study are expected in the second half of 2019, with overall survival results expected in 2020.
 
In August 2016, we entered into an agreement with MD Anderson Cancer Center in regard to an additional collaboration for the investigation of BL-8040 in combination with KEYTRUDA in pancreatic cancer. The study is being conducted as an investigator-sponsored study, as part of a strategic clinical research collaboration between Merck and MD Anderson Cancer Center aimed at evaluating KEYTRUDA in combination with various treatments and novel drugs, including BL-8040. The open-label, single center, single-arm Phase 2b study will focus on the mechanism of action by which both drugs might synergize. In addition to assessing clinical response, the study will include multiple assessments to evaluate the biological anti-tumor effects induced by the combination. We are supplying BL-8040 for the study, which commenced in January 2017. Partial results from this study are anticipated in the first half of 2019, with top-line results expected in 2020.
 
In September 2016, we entered into a collaboration with Genentech to support several Phase 1b/2 studies investigating BL-8040 in combination TECENTRIQ, Genentech’s anti-PDL1 cancer immunotherapy, in multiple cancer indications. Research findings in the field of immuno-oncology suggest that CXCR4 antagonists such as BL-8040 may be effective in inducing the migration of anti-tumor T-cells into the tumor micro-environment. TECENTRIQ is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to bind with a protein called PD-L1. TECENTRIQ is designed to bind to PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, blocking its interactions with both PD-1 and B7-1 (CD80) receptors. By inhibiting PD-L1, TECENTRIQ may enable the activation of T-cells, whose migration into the tumor may be enhanced by BL-8040. The clinical study collaboration between us and Genentech is part of MORPHEUS, Roche’s novel cancer immunotherapy development platform. MORPHEUS is a phase 1b/2 adaptive platform to assess the efficacy and safety of combination cancer immunotherapies. Upon completion of the planned Phase 1b/2 studies, both parties will have the option to expand the collaboration to include a pivotal registration study.
 
In July 2017, Genentech commenced a Phase 1b/2 trial to evaluate the combination of TECENTRIQ and BL-8040 in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In September 2017, Genentech commenced an additional Phase 1b/2 trial to evaluate the combination of TECENTRIQ and BL-8040 in gastric cancer. Up to 40 patients are planned to be enrolled in each of these studies. Each study will be multicenter, randomized, controlled and open-label, intended to evaluate the clinical response, safety and tolerability, as well as multiple pharmacodynamic parameters, of the drug combination. Initially, patients will receive BL-8040 injections as priming monotherapy, after which they will receive both BL-8040 and TECENTRIQ, and continue with multiple treatment cycles for up to two years or until disease progression, clinical deterioration or unacceptable toxicity.
 
AML
 
During 2016, we completed and reported on the results of a Phase 2a clinical trial studying the use of BL-8040 for the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML, or r/r AML. The study was conducted at six sites in the United States, including MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago and Washington University in St. Louis, as well as at five well-known sites in Israel. The study was an open-label study under an IND, designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy profile of repeated escalating doses of BL-8040 in combination with HiDAC in adult subjects with r/r AML. The study was comprised of two parts – a dose escalation Phase and an expansion Phase at the highest tolerated dose found during the escalation Phase. The primary endpoints of the study were the safety and tolerability of the drug. Secondary endpoints included the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug and an efficacy evaluation, indicated by the extent of mobilization of cancer cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood, the level of cancer cell death (apoptosis) and clinical responses.
 
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Final results for the Phase 2a trial were presented at the annual meetings of the Society of Hematologic Oncology and ASH in September and December 2016, respectively. The reported data set includes 45 patients, including three compassionate-use patients treated at the study sites under the identical treatment protocol. The majority of patients in the study were heavily pretreated, with 45% of patients being refractory to one or two remission induction treatments, 19% of patients having relapsed after a short first remission of less than 12 months, and 17% of patients having undergone two or more relapses. In addition, the treated patient population included patients that had relapsed post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (17%), as well as secondary AML patients (24%), both conditions which represent difficult-to-treat populations with poor prognoses.
 
The results showed that treatment with BL-8040 in combination with HiDAC, was safe and well tolerated at all doses tested up to and including the highest dose level of 2.0 mg/kg. Response to treatment was associated with efficient CXCR4 inhibition, resulting in high mobilization of blasts. The composite complete remission rate, including both CR and CRi, was 38% in subjects receiving up to two cycles of BL-8040 treatment at doses of 1 mg/kg and higher (n=39). In the 1.5 mg/kg dose selected for the expansion Phase of the study (n=23), the composite complete remission rate was 39%. These response rates are superior to the historical response rate of approximately 19% reported for high-risk AML patients treated with Ara-C alone in Phase 3 randomized trials. The ongoing follow-up of patients participating in the study’s expansion Phase and responding to the combination treatment suggests long durability of the remissions achieved, with two-thirds of these patients still alive, based on a follow-up period to date of up to 12 months. Results further show that BL-8040 monotherapy had a substantial therapeutic effect. Treatment with BL-8040 as a single agent triggered robust mobilization of AML blasts from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood stream, and the extent of mobilization was correlated with a positive response to treatment. The preferential mobilization of AML blasts over normal cells (4.7-fold vs. 1.4-fold, respectively) was further confirmed by analysis using the fluorescence in situ hybridization, or FISH, technique in a subset of patients. In addition, BL-8040 monotherapy resulted in a 40% increase in AML blast apoptosis.
 
In June 2018, at the 23rd Congress of the EHA in Stockholm, Sweden, we reported long-term survival data from the study that showed significantly enhanced overall survival of r/r AML patients treated with a combination of BL-8040 and HiDAC. The response rate for all dosing levels was 29% and median overall survival was 9.1 months, compared with historical data on overall survival of 6.1 months for HiDAC alone. In addition, a statistically significant correlation between patient response and the mobilization of AML blasts was reported. Responding patients demonstrated a clear and significant increase in the number of AML blasts in the peripheral blood following BL-8040 treatment, whereas non-responding patients were largely unaffected. In patients receiving the 1.5 mg/kg dose selected for expansion (n=23), the response rate was 39% and median overall survival was 10.7 months with one-year, two-year and three-year survival rates of 38.1%, 23.8% and 23.8%, respectively. Furthermore, median overall survival for responding patients at the 1.5 mg/kg dose (n=9) was 21.8 months, with one-year, two-year and three-year survival rates of 66.7%, 44.4% and 44.4%, respectively. Responding patients also demonstrated a statistically significant mean 6.3-fold increase (p=0.003) in the number of AML blasts in the peripheral blood following BL-8040 monotherapy treatment, whereas in non-responding patients the mean-fold increase was minor and non-significant (1.66-fold; p=0.21).
 
We are also investigating a second AML treatment line – consolidation therapy – in a large randomized, controlled Phase 2b trial in Germany. This study is examining BL-8040 as part of a second-stage treatment, termed consolidation therapy, to improve outcomes for the approximately 70% of AML patients who have achieved remission after the standard initial treatment regimen, known as induction therapy. The consolidation therapy is aimed at eliminating the minimal residual disease left in the bone marrow after induction therapy that can lead to relapse in 40-60% of the patients within 12-18 months after entering remission.
 
The Phase 2b trial, which is being conducted in collaboration with the University of Halle as sponsor and with the participation of two large leukemia study groups in Germany, is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-center study aimed at assessing the efficacy of BL-8040 in addition to standard consolidation therapy in AML patients. The primary endpoint of the study is to compare the RFS time in AML subjects in their first remission during a minimum follow-up time of 18 months after randomization. In addition, pharmacodynamic measurements will be conducted in order to assess the minimal residual disease, and biomarker analyses will be performed to identify predictors of BL-8040 response. The study, which is being carried out at 29 sites in Germany, will enroll up to 194 patients. AML patients between 18 and 75 years of age with documented first remission will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive HiDAC, either with BL-8040 or with a matching placebo, as consolidation therapy.  We continue to discuss with our collaboration partners the potential conduct of an interim analysis on this study based on various factors, including the occurrence of a minimum number of reported relapse events and/or exposure to provide a reasonable statistical powering for the analysis. Our current best estimate for the timing of such potential interim analysis is the second half of 2019, with top-line results from the trial expected in 2021.
 
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In September 2017, we initiated a Phase 1b/2 trial in AML as part of the collaboration with Genentech referred to above in “ — Solid tumors.” The trial, known as the BATTLE study, will focus on the maintenance treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML who have achieved a complete response following induction and consolidation therapy. Up to 60 patients are planned to be enrolled in this multicenter, single arm, open-label study, to evaluate the relapse-free survival, minimal residual disease status, safety and tolerability of the combination of BL-8040 and TECENTRIQ for maintenance treatment in AML patients. The study’s primary endpoint is to assess whether the combination of BL-8040 and TECENTRIQ prolongs relapse free survival. In addition, the effect of the combination therapy on minimal residual disease, multiple immunological parameters, and potential biomarkers will be evaluated. The trial is planned to take place at approximately 22 sites in the United States, Europe and Israel. Top-line results from this study are expected in 2021.
 
Stem cell mobilization
 
In a Phase 1/2a, open-label, dose escalation, safety and efficacy clinical trial in 18 multiple myeloma patients, BL-8040 demonstrated an excellent safety profile at all doses tested and was highly effective in combination with G-CSF, in the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood for autologous transplantation. All patients receiving transplants (n=17) exhibited rapid engraftment, with median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 12 and 14 days, respectively, at the highest dose given (0.9 mg/kg).
 
In March 2015, we announced successful top-line results from a Phase 1 trial for BL-8040 as a novel treatment for the mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood circulation in healthy volunteers, where they can be potentially harvested for allogeneic transplant supporting the treatment of hematological indications. The study was conducted at the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem, and consisted of two parts. The first part of the study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in three cohorts of eight participants each, with each participant receiving two consecutive injections of BL-8040. Results show that BL-8040 is safe and well tolerated up to the maximal tested dose of one mg/kg, and that dramatic mobilization of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, or HSPCs, was observed across all doses tested. The robust mobilization supports the further use of a single injection of BL-8040 for HSPC collection.
 
In the second part of the Phase 1 study, eight healthy participants received a single injection of BL-8040 at the highest tested dose of 1 mg/kg, and four hours later underwent a single, standard leukapheresis procedure. Robust and rapid stem cell mobilization was evident in all treated participants, supporting a novel approach to stem cell collection. The median level of collected stem cells was higher than 11 x 106 cells per kg, which is more than two-fold higher than the target concentration, and five-fold higher than the minimum concentration, necessary for transplantation. In addition, the level of HPSCs in the peripheral blood circulation 24 hours after injection of BL-8040 enabled an additional apheresis on Day 2, if needed. These data support the use of BL-8040 as a single-agent, single-injection, one-day regimen for the collection of stem cells.
 
In March 2016, we announced the initiation of a Phase 2 trial for BL-8040 as a novel approach for the mobilization and collection of bone marrow stem cells from the peripheral blood circulation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The open-label study was conducted in collaboration with the Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Oncology and Hematology, and enrolled up to 24 donor/recipient pairs, aged 18-70. The trial was designed to evaluate the ability of BL-8040, as a single agent, to promote stem cell mobilization for allogeneic transplantation. On the donor side, the primary endpoint of the study was the ability of a single injection of BL-8040 to mobilize 2x106 CD34 cells for transplantation following up to two apheresis collections. On the recipient side, the study aimed to evaluate the functionality and engraftment following transplantation of the BL-8040 collected graft. The study also evaluated the safety and tolerability of BL-8040 in healthy donors, as well as graft durability, the incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, relapse and other recipient-related parameters in patients who have undergone transplantation of hematopoietic cells mobilized with BL-8040.
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In May 2018, we announced positive results from the study. Single-agent treatment with BL-8040 showed efficacy similar to standard of care (currently, a four- to five-day treatment cycle with G-CSF and a one- to two-day apheresis procedure) in only one administration of BL-8040. In addition, BL-8040 showed non-inferiority to standard of care in recipient engraftment, with all transplanted recipients successfully engrafting with BL-8040-mobilized grafts. Of the 21 evaluable donors that have were enrolled in the study, 11 out of 13 donors (85%) treated at the 1 mg/kg dose and 8/8 donors (100%) treated at the 1.25 mg/kg dose of BL-8040 reached the primary goal of ≥2x106 CD34 cells/kg of recipient weight in up to two leukapheresis sessions. BL-8040 was safe and well tolerated, with adverse events consisting of injection site reactions and transient systemic reactions, all of which were resolved. No related serious adverse events were observed. All 19 transplanted recipients were successfully engrafted with BL-8040-mobilized grafts, 13 of whom had reached the secondary endpoint of 100 days post-transplant. Preliminary graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) data are in line with current standard-of-care incidence rates. The full effect of BL-8040 on acute and chronic GVHD, as well as on relapse rates, await longer follow-up periods and will be reported at a later stage once available.
 
In December 2017, we initiated a Phase 3 registration study for BL-8040 in autologous stem cell mobilization. The trial, known as the GENESIS study, is a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of BL-8040 and G-CSF, compared to placebo and G-CSF, for the mobilization of HSCs for autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma patients. The study began with an open-label, single-arm lead-in period, which was to include 10-30 patients in order to assess safety and efficacy following treatment with BL-8040 plus G-CSF. Results of the first 11 patients showed that BL-8040 in combination with standard G-CSF treatment is safe and tolerable. In addition, the data showed that 9/11 patients (82%) reached the primary endpoint threshold of ≥ 6x106 CD34 cells/kg with only one dose of BL-8040 and in up to 2 apheresis sessions. Furthermore, seven of the 11 patients (64%) reached the threshold of ≥ 6x106 CD34 cells/kg in a single apheresis session only. These data demonstrated the potential of BL-8040 treatment to reduce the number of administrations and apheresis sessions, as well as hospitalization costs, related to the preparation of multiple myeloma patients for autologous HSC transplantation.  Following review of these positive results, the Data Monitoring Committee recommended that the lead-in part of the study should be stopped and that we should move immediately to the placebo-controlled main part, which is designed to include 177 patients in more than 15 centers. Additional positive results from the lead-in period were reported at the annual meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation held in March 2019, where it was announced that HSCs mobilized by BL-8040 in combination with G-CSF were successfully engrafted in all 11 patients. Treatment in the main part of the study will include five to eight days of G-CSF, with a single dose of BL-8040 or placebo on Day 4 and an optional additional dose of BL-8040 or placebo on Day 6. Apheresis for stem cell collection will be performed on day 5. Further apheresis sessions may be conducted if needed in order to reach the benchmark of ≥ 6x106 mobilized CD34+ cells. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate that BL-8040 on top of G-CSF is superior to G-CSF alone in the ability of mobilize ≥ 6x106 CD34+ cells in up to two apheresis sessions. Secondary objectives include time to engraftment of neutrophils and platelets and durability of engraftment, as well as other efficacy and safety parameters. Top-line results of this study are expected in the second half of 2020.
 
At the annual meeting of ASH in December 2017, clinical data supporting BL-8040 as a robust mobilizer of HSCs associated with long-term engraftment was presented by Prof. Amnon Peled. HSCs are cells found in the bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood that are responsible for generation and replenishment of all blood cell progenitors and eventually mature cells. It is therefore believed to be beneficial for a variety of therapeutic purposes, such as transplantation for people with hematological malignancies or for the therapy of blood or immune system disorders. The success of long-term HSC engraftment depends largely on the amount and quality of HSCs (CD34+ CD38- CD45RA- CD90+ CD49f+). The data presented demonstrate that human CD34+ cells from BL-8040-mobilized grafts contain high numbers of HSC (CD34+, CD38-, CD45RA-, CD90+, CD49f+) associated with long-term engraftment, compared to cells mobilized by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). An associated in vivo study further showed that BL-8040-mobilized HSCs can successfully engraft the bone marrow and spleen of immunodeficient mice. In addition, a robust long-term engraftment of BL-8040-mobilized human CD34+ cells was seen in these mice in primary and secondary transplants.
 
AGI-134
 
AGI-134 entered our pipeline following our acquisition of Agalimmune in March 2017. The compound is a synthetic alpha-gal immunotherapy in development for solid tumors. AGI-134 harnesses the body’s pre-existing, highly abundant, anti-alpha-gal, or anti-Gal, antibodies to induce a systemic, specific anti-tumor response to the patient’s own tumor neo-antigens. This response not only kills the tumor cells at the site of injection, but also brings about a durable, follow-on, anti-metastatic immune response. Alpha-gal is a cell-surface carbohydrate antigen that is not expressed by humans, unlike virtually all other mammals and bacteria. Therefore, humans universally produce and maintain high levels of anti-Gal antibodies, due to exposure to alpha-gal on bacteria in the digestive system.
 
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AGI-134 is injected into the tumor, where it coats the tumor cell membranes, resulting in alpha-gal being exposed on the tumor cell surface. Anti-Gal antibodies bind to the alpha-gal part of AGI-134 to produce an initial immune response that activates complement-dependent and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (cell death). This cytotoxicity generates immune-tagged cells and cellular debris that trigger an uptake of tumor-associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). These APCs induce a follow-on systemic immune response by the activation and clonal expansion of T-cells to the patient’s own neo-antigens. This approach not only targets the primary injectable tumor, but has also demonstrated efficacy against existing distant secondary tumors. Furthermore, the mechanism of action suggests the potential of long-term protection against future metastases.
 
AGI-134 has completed numerous proof-of-concept studies, demonstrating regression of established primary tumors after injection with AGI-134 and robust protection against the development of secondary tumors in a model of melanoma with a single dose only. Synergy has also been demonstrated in the same model when combined with a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, offering the potential to broaden the utility of such immunotherapies and improve the rate and duration of responses in multiple cancer types. A 28-day, repeated-administration GLP toxicology study in monkeys with AGI-134 has also been successfully completed.
 
At ASCO-SITC in January 2018, we presented preclinical findings demonstrating successful results in the treatment of primary tumors. Intratumoral administration of AGI-134 induced regression of established tumors in two murine melanoma models. Moreover, treatment with AGI-134 showed a beneficial effect on survival, compared to the control group, with fewer mice dying or requiring euthanasia due to tumor burden. In addition, the results show that injection of AGI-134 into the tumors induces activation of the complement system, an important component of the innate immune system. Activation of the complement system within tumors by AGI-134 is predicted to destroy tumor cells and create a pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment that attracts and activates other immune cells, ultimately resulting in adaptive anti-tumor immunity.
 
In August 2018, we initiated a Phase 1/2a clinical study for AGI-134 that is primarily designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of AGI-134, given both as monotherapy and in combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, in unresectable metastatic solid tumors. Additional objectives are to perform a wide array of biomarker studies, to demonstrate the mechanism of AGI-134 and to assess its efficacy by clinical and pharmacodynamic parameters. The multicenter, open-label study will take place in the United Kingdom and Israel, with possible expansion to the United States and additional countries in Europe in 2019.
 
The study will be comprised of two parts: (i) an accelerated dose-escalation part to assess the safety and tolerability of intratumorally injected AGI-134 as a monotherapy, as well as to determine the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose for part 2 of the study and (ii) a dose expansion part at the recommended dose, comprised of three cohorts and designed to assess the safety, tolerability and anti-tumor activity of AGI-134 as a monotherapy in a basket cohort of multiple solid tumor types, as well as in two additional cohorts in combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor – in metastatic colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Initial safety results from the first part of the study are expected in the second half of 2019; initial efficacy results of the monotherapy arm from the second part of the study are expected by the end of 2020.
 
In November 2018, we announced that the FDA had granted the Biological Product Designation for AGI-134. This designation provides the Company with eligibility to obtain 12 years of market exclusivity upon approval of the product for commercial use by the FDA. This regulatory market exclusivity adds an incremental layer of protection in addition to that afforded by existing patents granted in the United States and Europe, and pending in other countries, covering the use of AGI-134 for the treatment of solid cancer tumors.
 
Commercialized Product
 
BL-5010
 
BL-5010 is a novel medical device containing an acidic, aqueous solution and applicator for the non-surgical removal of benign skin lesions. It offers an alternative to painful, invasive and expensive removal treatments including cryotherapy, laser treatment and surgery. Since the treatment is non-invasive, it poses minimal infection risk and eliminates the need for anesthesia, antiseptic precautions and bandaging. The pre-filled device controls and standardizes the volume of solution applied to a lesion, ensuring accurate administration directly on the lesion and preventing both accidental exposure of the healthy surrounding tissue and unintentional dripping. It has an ergonomic design, making it easy to handle, and has been designed with a childproof cap. BL-5010 is applied topically on a skin lesion in a treatment lasting a few minutes with the pen-like applicator and causes the lesion to gradually dry out and fall off within one to four weeks. We received European confirmation from British Standards Institute of the regulatory pathway classification of BL-5010 as a Class IIa medical device. We in-licensed the exclusive, worldwide rights to develop, market and sell BL-5010 from IPC in November 2007.
 
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Development and Commercialization Arrangement. In December 2014, we entered into an exclusive out-licensing arrangement with Perrigo for the rights to BL-5010 for OTC indications in Europe, Australia and additional selected countries. We retain the OTC rights to BL-5010 in the United States and the rest of the world, as well as the non-OTC rights on a global basis. Under our out-licensing arrangement with Perrigo, Perrigo is obligated to use commercially reasonable best efforts to obtain regulatory approval in the licensed territory for at least two OTC indications and to commercialize BL-5010 for those two OTC indications. In addition, Perrigo will sponsor and manufacture BL-5010 in the relevant regions. Compensation by Perrigo for the exclusive license includes an agreed amount for each unit sold. In addition, we will have full access to all clinical and research and development data generated during the performance of the development plan and may use these data in order to develop or license the product in other territories and fields of use where we retain the rights. In March 2016, Perrigo received CE Mark approval for BL-5010 as a novel OTC treatment for the non-surgical removal of warts. The commercial product launch of this first OTC indication (warts/verrucas) commenced in Europe in the second quarter of 2016. Since then, Perrigo has invested in improving the product and expects to launch the improved product during 2019.
 
As a result of our out-licensing arrangement, as well as the previous discussions with other potential partners for this product, the commercialization activities for BL-5010 are currently focused on OTC indications. However, we may decide to seek collaboration partners for development of BL-5010 for non-OTC indications, or for OTC indications in territories not out-licensed to Perrigo, primarily the U.S.
 
Termination of Therapeutic Candidates
 
During 2018 and the period subsequent thereto through the date of this report, we terminated one clinical-stage and three preclinical-stage therapeutic candidates.
 
BL-1040 was a novel, resorbable polymer solution for use in the prevention of ventricular remodeling that may occur in patients who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction, or AMI. We in-licensed BL-1040 from B.G. Negev Technologies and Applications Ltd., or B.G. Negev, in 2005. We entered into an out-licensing arrangement for BL-1040 with the predecessor of Bellerophon Therapeutics, Inc., or Bellerophon, in 2009. Bellerophon renamed the compound “Bioabsorbable Cardiac Matrix,” or BCM, and developed it as a medical device. In July 2015, Bellerophon reported top-line results from PRESERVATION I, a CE mark registration clinical trial for BCM, showing no statistically significant difference between patients treated with BCM versus placebo for both the primary and the secondary endpoints of the study. In August 2018, after the project had not been active in any significant way since 2015, Bellerophon exercised its contractual right to terminate the licensing arrangement based on its determination that that the results of the clinical trial it had carried out did not warrant further development of BL-1040. As a result of Bellerophon’s decision, we terminated our in-license agreement with B.G. Negev.
 
BL-1220 was an orally administered, novel composition of sodium alginate, intended as a treatment for various liver failure conditions such as end-stage liver disease and for conditions potentially leading to liver failure such as NASH. BL-9020 was a novel monoclonal antibody treatment designed to prevent immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The treatment was developed to treat Type 1 diabetes in early stage patients, during what is known as the “honeymoon period,” where the pancreatic beta cells have not been completely destroyed and continue to secrete insulin. BL-1230 was a cannabinoid receptor type 2 intended as a novel anti-inflammatory treatment for Dry Eye Syndrome (DES). These preclinical projects were terminated due to lack of efficacy and other scientific considerations as well as market considerations.
 
Product Development Approach
 
We seek to develop a pipeline of promising therapeutic candidates that exhibit distinct advantages over currently available therapies or address unmet medical needs. Our resources are focused on advancing our therapeutic candidates through development and toward commercialization. Our current drug development pipeline consists of three therapeutic candidates.
 
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We have established close relationships with various universities, academic and research institutions and biotechnology companies that permit us to identify and select compounds at various stages of clinical and pre-clinical development. Our approach is consistent with our objective of proceeding only with therapeutic candidates that we believe exhibit a relatively high probability of therapeutic and commercial success.
 
Collaboration and Out-Licensing Agreements
 
Collaboration Agreements with MSD and Genentech
 
See “—Therapeutic Candidates — BL-8040 — Clinical Trials — Solid tumors” for details regarding our collaborations with MSD and Genentech.
 
Investment and Collaboration Agreement with Novartis
 
In December 2014, we entered into a multi-year strategic collaboration agreement with Novartis designed to facilitate development and commercialization of Israeli-sourced drug candidates. As part of the collaboration agreement, Novartis made an initial equity investment in us of $10 million. We in-licensed three pre-clinical projects in the framework of the collaboration. All those projects were subsequently terminated due to lack of efficacy and other scientific considerations, as well as market considerations. As of December 31, 2018, we do not have any on-going projects under the collaboration.
 
Out-Licensing Agreement with Perrigo
 
In December 2014, we entered into an exclusive out-licensing arrangement with Perrigo for the rights to BL-5010 for OTC indications in Europe, Australia and additional selected countries, or collectively, the Territory. We retain all OTC rights to BL-5010 in the United States and the rest of the world, as well as all non-OTC rights on a global basis. Perrigo fulfilled its obligation to launch a licensed product commercially in the Territory in 2016. In addition, Perrigo is obligated to use commercially reasonable best efforts to obtain regulatory approval in the Territory for at least one more OTC indication and to commercialize BL-5010 for that indication.
 
Perrigo has the right to sublicense BL-5010 in arm’s-length transactions consistent with the terms and conditions of its license agreement with us. In certain agreed-on countries in the Territory, Perrigo is obligated to commercialize licensed products itself, through its affiliates or through sublicensees approved by us; in other countries in the Territory, Perrigo does not need our prior written approval for sublicensing but must provide us with a copy of the executed sublicense agreement.
 
Compensation by Perrigo for the exclusive license includes an agreed amount for each unit sold. We must pay a portion of all net consideration we receive from Perrigo, within our standard range of sublicense receipt consideration, to IPC, the company from which we initially in-licensed the development rights to BL-5010. See “— In-Licensing Agreements — BL-5010.”
 
We have the right to prosecute and maintain the patents for BL-5010 in the Territory, and Perrigo will bear the cost of all renewal fees fee for patents and the other costs of prosecution and maintenance up to an agreed limit.
 
We will have full access to all clinical and research and development data generated during the performance of the development plan and may use these data in order to develop or license the product in other territories and fields of use where we retain the rights.
 
Our agreement with Perrigo will continue in effect until the cessation of all commercialization in the Territory. After the fifth anniversary of the first commercial sale of a licensed product, either party may terminate the agreement by giving at least 18 months’ prior written notice to the other party. Either party may terminate the agreement (a) by providing 60 days’ written notice of a material breach of the agreement by the other party if the breaching party does not cure the breach during that time or (b) with immediate effect on written notice to the other party if there is a change of control of the other party. The parties have agreed that the announced acquisition of Perrigo by Perrigo Company Plc is a change of control event that will not give rise to a right on our part to terminate the license agreement. In addition, we have the right to terminate the agreement if Perrigo does not fulfill any of its obligations of diligence with respect to launching a licensed product or obtaining regulatory approval for, and commercializing, licensed products as described above.
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Other Out-licensing/Collaboration Agreements
 
iPharma
 
In 2016, we established a joint venture with I-Bridge Capital, a Chinese venture capital fund focused on developing innovative therapies in China, with each party contributing initial seed capital to the venture of $1.0 million. The joint venture, named iPharma, focused on the development of innovative clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic candidates to serve the Chinese and global healthcare markets. During 2018, we determined that the joint venture’s activities were no longer part of our current strategic focus. Accordingly, in April 2018, we sold our holdings in the joint venture to I-Bridge Capital for cash consideration of $1.5 million.
 
JHL
 
In January 2014, we signed an agreement with JHL Biotech, or JHL, a biopharmaceutical company that develops, manufactures, and commercializes biologic medicines, pursuant to which we collaborated with JHL in the development and commercialization of BL-9020. As a result of our termination of the BL-9020 project during 2018, by its terms the collaboration agreement with JHL ended as well.
 
In-Licensing Agreements
 
We have in-licensed and intend to continue to in-license development, production and marketing rights from selected research and academic institutions in order to capitalize on the capabilities and technology developed by these entities. We also seek to obtain technologies that complement and expand our existing technology base by entering into license agreements with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. When entering into in-license agreements, we generally seek to obtain unrestricted sublicense rights consistent with our primarily partner-driven strategy. We are generally obligated under these agreements to diligently pursue product development, make development milestone payments, pay royalties on any product sales and make payments upon the grant of sublicense rights. We generally insist on the right to terminate any in-license for convenience upon prior written notice to the licensor.
 
The scope of payments we are required to make under our in-licensing agreements is comprised of various components that are paid commensurate with the progressive development and commercialization of our drug products.
 
Our in-licensing agreements generally provide for the following types of payments:
 
Revenue sharing payments. These are payments to be made to licensors with respect to revenue we receive from sub-licensing to third parties for further development and commercialization of our drug products. These payments are generally fixed at a percentage of the total revenues we earn from these sublicenses.
 
Milestone payments. These payments are generally linked to the successful achievement of milestones in the development and approval of drugs, such Phases 1, 2 and 3 of clinical trials and approvals of new drug applications, or NDAs.
 
Royalty payments. To the extent we elect to complete the development, licensing and marketing of a therapeutic candidate, we are generally required to pay our licensors royalties on the sales of the end drug product. These royalty payments are generally based on the net revenue from these sales. In certain instances, the rate of the royalty payments decreases upon the expiration of the drug’s underlying patent and its transition into a generic drug. Certain of our agreements provide that if a licensed drug product is developed and sold through a different corporate entity, the licensors may elect to receive shares in such company instead of a portion of the royalties.
 
Additional payments. In addition to the above payments, certain of our in-license agreements provide for a one-time or periodic payment that is not linked to milestones. Periodic payments may be paid until the commercialization of the product, either by direct sales or sublicenses to third parties. Other agreements provide for the continuation of these payments even following the commercialization of the licensed drug product.
 
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The royalty and revenue-sharing rates we agree to pay in our in-licensing agreements vary from case to case but in most cases range from 20% to 29.5% of the consideration we receive from sublicensing the applicable therapeutic candidate. We are required to pay a substantially lower percentage, generally less than 5%, if we elect to commercialize the subject therapeutic candidate independently. Due to the relatively advanced stage of development of the compound licensed from Biokine, our license agreement with Biokine provides for royalty payments of 10% of net sales, subject to certain limitations, should we independently sell products. In addition, milestone payments are not generally payable if the revenue-sharing from an out-licensing transaction is greater than any relevant payments due under our in-licensing agreements.
 
The following are descriptions of our in-licensing agreements associated with our therapeutic candidates. In addition to the in-licensing agreements discussed herein, we have entered into other in-licensing arrangements in connection with our therapeutic candidates in clinical, advanced preclinical and feasibility stages.
 
BL-8040
 
In September 2012, we in-licensed the rights to BL-8040 under a license agreement with Biokine. Pursuant to the agreement, Biokine granted us an exclusive, worldwide, sublicensable license to develop, manufacture, market and sell certain technology relating to a short peptide that functions as a high-affinity antagonist for CXCR4 and the uses thereof.
 
There were no upfront payments due under the agreement. We are obligated to pay a monthly development fee of $27,500 for certain development services that Biokine has committed to provide to us under the agreement. The payment of this monthly fee will continue until the completion of the last clinical trial in which BL-8040 is planned to be tested, or is being tested with, at least 20 subjects.
 
We are responsible for paying all development costs incurred by the parties in carrying out the development plan.
 
Should we independently develop manufacture and sell products (excluding sublicensing) containing the licensed technology, we are obligated to make royalty payments of 10% of net sales, subject to certain limitations.
 
The agreement also grants us the right to grant sublicenses for the licensed technology. Initially, we were required to pay Biokine a royalty payment of 40% of the amounts we receive as consideration in connection with any sublicensing, development, manufacture, marketing, distribution or sale of the licensed technology. In October 2018, Biokine agreed to reduce the royalty payment for sublicensing to 20% in return for the payment by us of $10 million in cash plus $5 million in our restricted shares. Biokine is also eligible to receive up to a total of $5 million in future milestone payments. The royalty rate of 20% is subject to an increase of an additional 10% under certain conditions.
 
Before we in-licensed BL-8040, Biokine had received funding for the project from the IIA, and as a condition to IIA giving its consent to our in-licensing of BL-8040, we were required to agree to abide by any obligations resulting from such funding. However, if we become legally required to make payments to the IIA in respect of grants made to Biokine, we have the right to offset the full amount of such grants from any payments otherwise due to Biokine as sublicensing royalties as described above.
 
We are obligated under the agreement with Biokine to make commercially reasonable, good faith efforts to sublicense or commercialize BL-8040 for fair consideration. If we do not fulfill this obligation within 24 months after completion of the development plan, all of the rights and responsibilities with respect to commercialization of the licensed technology will revert to Biokine, and our obligation to pay royalties for sales of any licensed products or sublicensing as described above will revert to Biokine.
 
We have the first right to prepare, file, prosecute and maintain any patent applications and patents, in respect of the licensed technology and any part thereof, at our expense, provided that we are required to consult with Biokine regarding patent prosecution and patent maintenance. In addition, we have the right to take action in the prosecution, prevention, or termination of any patent infringement of the licensed technology. We are responsible for all the expenses of any patent infringement suit that we bring, including any expenses incurred by Biokine in connection with such suits, with such expenses reimbursable from any sums recovered in such suit or in the settlement thereof for. After such reimbursement, if any funds remain, both we and Biokine are each entitled to a certain percentage of any remaining sums.
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The agreement will remain in effect until the expiration of all of our royalty and sublicense revenue obligations to Biokine, determined on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. We may terminate the agreement for any reason on 90 days’ prior written notice to Biokine. Either party may terminate the agreement for a material breach by the other party if the breaching party is unable to cure the breach within 30 days after receiving written notice of the breach from the non-breaching party. With respect to any termination for a material breach, if the breach is not susceptible to cure within the stated period and the breaching party uses diligent, good faith efforts to cure such breach, the stated period will be extended by an additional 30 days. In addition, either party may terminate the agreement upon the occurrence of certain bankruptcy events.
 
Termination of the agreement will result in a loss of all of our rights to the drug and the licensed technology, which will revert to Biokine. In addition, any sublicense of ours will terminate provided that, upon such termination and at the request of the sublicensee, Biokine will be required to enter into a separate license agreement with the sublicensee on substantially the same terms as those contained in the applicable sublicense agreement.
 
AGI-134
 
Acquisition Agreements with Agalimmune
 
In March 2017, we acquired substantially all of the outstanding shares of Agalimmune and entered into the Agalimmune Development Agreement with the selling shareholders. We control the Agalimmune board of directors, and subject to the protections in favor of the selling shareholders, we will direct and be responsible for the planning, execution and day-to-day management of Agalimmune and its pipeline, including AGI-134.
 
The Agalimmune Development Agreement provides the selling shareholders with a reversionary option, in the event of a breach of that agreement and certain other limited triggering events, that permits the selling shareholders to re-acquire our equity interests in Agalimmune for nominal consideration. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business Regulatory Matters — If we do not meet the requirements under our agreement with the Agalimmune selling shareholders, we could lose the rights to the therapeutic candidates in Agalimmune’s pipeline, including but not limited to AGI-134.”
 
License from the University of Massachusetts
 
In 2013, Agalimmune entered into an exclusive license agreement with the University of Massachusetts which was amended and restated in February 2017, for rights to intellectual property related to AGI-134. Pursuant to the agreement, Agalimmune has an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing, sublicensable license to develop, manufacture, use, import and sell licensed products. Agalimmune is obligated to use diligent efforts to develop the licensed products and to introduce them into the commercial market. The agreement sets forth specific development milestones that Agalimmune is required to fulfill. In consideration of the grant of the license, Agalimmune is obligated to pay upfront license fees, annual maintenance fees, milestone payments, and low, single digit royalty payments on the net sales of licensed products. In addition, the agreement provides that following a change of control event, Agalimmune will allot to the University 6% of its shares on a fully diluted basis. The agreement will remain in full effect until the later of expiration or abandonment of all valid claims in the licensed patents or 10 years from the date of first sale of a licensed product. Agalimmune may terminate the agreement for any reason on 90 days’ prior written notice to the University.
 
License from Kode Biotech
 
In March 2015, Agalimmune entered into an evaluation license and option agreement with Kode Biotech for the rights to intellectual property related to certain water dispersible glycan-lipid conjugates (the “KODETM Constructs”), including AGI-134. Pursuant to the agreement, Agalimmune had an exclusive license to pursue preclinical assessment of the use of the KODETM Constructs in Agalimmune’s method of promoting tumor anticancer therapy, and the exclusive right to require Kode Biotech to grant Agalimmune an exploitation license to pursue clinical development and commercialization of the use of the KODETM Constructs in its method.
 
In September 2017, Agalimmune exercised its option to enter into the exploitation license agreement with Kode Biotech that grants Agalimmune a worldwide, exclusive, royalty-bearing transferable license to develop, manufacture, use, import and sell licensed products, including AGI-134. Agalimmune is obligated to use reasonable, diligent efforts to develop licensed products and to introduce licensed products into the commercial market. In consideration of the grant of the license, Agalimmune paid a license issue fee and is obligated to pay annual maintenance fees, milestone payments and low, single-digit royalty payments on the net sales of the licensed products. Agalimmune also has the right to grant sublicenses for the licensed technology and is required to pay Kode Biotech a payment based on the revenues from sublicense net sales. The agreement will remain in effect, unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms, until the later of expiration or abandonment of all enforceable patent claims within the licensed patents.
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BL-5010
 
In November 2007, we in-licensed the rights to develop and commercialize BL-5010 under a license agreement with IPC. Under the agreement, IPC granted us an exclusive, worldwide, sublicensable license to develop, manufacture, market and sell certain technology relating to an acid-based formulation for the non-surgical removal of skin lesions and the uses thereof. We are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop the licensed technology in accordance with a specified development plan, including meeting certain specified diligence goals. We are required to make low, single-digit royalty payments on the net sales of the licensed technology if we manufacture and sell it on our own, subject to certain limitations. Our royalty payment obligations are payable on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis, until the last to expire of any patent included within the licensed technology in such country. We also have the right to grant sublicenses for the licensed technology and are required to pay IPC a payment, within our standard range of sublicense receipt consideration, based on the revenues we receive as consideration in connection with any sublicensing, development, manufacture, marketing, distribution or sale of the licensed technology.
 
The license agreement remains in effect until the expiration of all of our license, royalty and sublicense revenue obligations to IPC, determined on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis, unless we terminate the license agreement earlier. We may terminate the license agreement for any reason on 30 days’ prior written notice. Either party may terminate the agreement for material breach if the breach is not cured within 30 days after written notice from the non-breaching party. If the breach is not susceptible to cure within the stated period and the breaching party uses diligent, good faith efforts to cure such breach, the stated period will be extended by an additional 30 days. In addition, either party may terminate the agreement upon the occurrence of certain bankruptcy events.
 
Termination of the agreement will result in a loss of all of our rights to the licensed technology, which would revert to IPC. In addition, any sublicense of the licensed technology will terminate provided that, upon termination, at the request of the sublicensee, IPC is required to enter into a license agreement with the sublicensee on substantially the same terms as those contained in the sublicense agreement.
 
Intellectual Property
 
Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our therapeutic candidates, technology and know-how, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation, as well as on regulatory exclusivity, such as Orphan Drug designation or new chemical entity (NCE) protection, to develop and maintain our proprietary position.
 
Patents
 
As of March 15, 2019, we owned or exclusively licensed for uses within our field of business 29 patent families that collectively contain over 71 issued patents, four allowed patent applications and over 104 pending patent applications relating to the three candidates listed below. We are also pursuing patent protection for other drug candidates in our pipeline. Patents related to our therapeutic candidates may provide future competitive advantages by providing exclusivity related to the composition of matter, formulation, and method of administration of the applicable compounds and could materially improve the value of our therapeutic candidates. The patent positions for our three therapeutic candidates are described below and include both issued patents and pending patent applications we exclusively license. We vigorously defend our intellectual property to preserve our rights and gain the benefit of our investment.
 
With respect to BL-8040, we have an exclusive license to two patent families that cover the molecule that is the active ingredient of our proprietary drug. Patents and patent applications of these families have been granted or are pending in the U.S., Europe, Japan and Canada. The patents and any patents to issue in the future based on pending patent applications in these families will expire in 2023 (in the U.S.) and 2021 (in other countries), not including any applicable patent term extension, which may add an additional term of up to five years on the patents.  In addition, we have an exclusive license to eighteen other patent families pending or granted worldwide directed to methods of use of BL-8040 either alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of certain types of cancer and other indications. Furthermore, we have Orphan Drug status for AML, pancreatic cancer and stem cell mobilization, as well as data exclusivity protection afforded to BL-8040 as a new chemical entity, or NCE.
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With respect to AGI-134, Agalimmune owns or has an exclusive license to three patent families that cover the AGI-134 compound and its use for treating cancer. Patents have been granted in the family that covers the use of AGI-134 for treating solid tumors in the Unites States and Europe and will expire in 2035. Applications in these families are pending in China, Japan and other countries that would have the same expiration, if granted.  Patents have been granted in the families that cover a genus of compounds including AGI-134 in the United States, Europe, Japan and other countries and will expire in 2025. In addition, the future drug product is eligible for obtaining regulatory Biological Product exclusivity (12 years of market exclusivity in the U.S.).
 
With respect to BL-5010, we have an exclusive license to a patent family directed to a novel applicator uniquely configured for applying the BL-5010 composition to targeted skin tissue safely and effectively. Patents applications of this family are pending in the U.S., Israel, Europe, Japan, Canada, China, Russia and Australia. If granted, patents will expire in 2034.
 
The patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Our ability to maintain and solidify our proprietary position for our technology will depend on our success in obtaining effective claims and enforcing those claims once granted. We do not know whether any of our patent applications or those patent applications that we license will result in the issuance of any patents. Our issued patents and those that may issue in the future, or those licensed to us, may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented or found to be invalid or unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products or the length of term of patent protection that we may have for our products. Neither we nor our licensors can be certain that we were the first to invent the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or patent applications. In addition, our competitors may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology developed by us, and the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with any meaningful competitive advantages against these competitors. Furthermore, because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, it is possible that, before any of our products can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent.
 
Trade Secrets
 
We may rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets to protect our technology. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, by confidentiality agreements and assignment of invention agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and contractors. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, such agreements or security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors.
 
Manufacturing
 
Our laboratories are located in our headquarters in Modi’in, Israel and are in part compliant with FDA regulations setting forth current good laboratory practices, or GLP. However, they are not compliant with cGMP and therefore we cannot independently manufacture drug products for our current clinical trials or, if we choose to do so, commercialize therapeutic candidates ourselves. The suppliers of the drug substances used for our current clinical trials do have these necessary approvals. We have limited personnel with experience in drug or medical device manufacturing and we lack the resources and capabilities to manufacture any of our therapeutic candidates on a commercial scale.
 
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There can be no assurance that our therapeutic candidates, if approved, can be manufactured in sufficient commercial quantities, in compliance with regulatory requirements and at an acceptable cost. Our contract manufacturers are, and will be, subject to extensive governmental regulation in connection with the manufacture of any pharmaceutical products or medical devices. Our contract manufacturers must ensure that all of the processes, methods and equipment are compliant with cGMP, for drugs or QSR for devices on an ongoing basis, mandated by the FDA and other regulatory authorities, and conduct extensive audits of vendors, contract laboratories and suppliers.
 
Contract Research Organizations
 
We outsource certain preclinical and clinical development activities to CROs, which meet FDA or European Medicines Agency regulatory standards. We create and implement the drug development plans and, during the preclinical and clinical Phases of development, manage the CROs according to the specific requirements of the therapeutic candidate under development.
 
Competition
 
The pharmaceutical, medical device and biotechnology industries are intensely competitive. Our therapeutic candidates, if commercialized, would compete with existing drugs and therapies. In addition, there are many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, medical device companies, public and private universities, government agencies and research organizations actively engaged in research and development of products targeting the same markets as our therapeutic candidates. Many of these organizations have substantially greater financial, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources than we do. In certain cases, our competitors may also be able to use alternative technologies that do not infringe upon our patents to formulate the active materials in our therapeutic candidates. They may, therefore, bring to market products that are able to compete with our candidates, or other products that we may develop in the future.
 
BL-8040
 
There are a number of potentially competitive compounds under development that act as CXCR4 inhibitors, including, among others, Mozobil® (plerixafor), which is being marketed by Sanofi Genzyme as a stem cell mobilizer for autologous stem cell transplantation; LY-2510924, which is being developed by Eli Lilly & Co; BMS-936564 (MDX-1338; ulocuplumab) developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb; TG-0054 (burixafor) developed by TaiGen Biotechnology Co; POL-6326 (balixafortide) developed by Polyphor Ltd.; X4P-001 developed by X4 Pharmaceuticals Inc.; GMI-1359 developed by Glyco-Mimetics Inc; F-50067 developed by Pierre Fabre and USL-311developed by Proximagen Group.
 
Immuno-oncology is an area of great interest in the pharmaceutical market, specifically, immuno-oncology combination therapies. Currently there are hundreds of immuno-oncology combination treatments being tested in clinical trials. Recently, there has been growing attention to the combination of immuno-oncology agents with chemokines such as CXCR4 antagonist. Such combination therapies currently in development are BMS-936564 in combination with Opdivo® (nivolumab marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb); X4P-001 in combination with Opdivo and X4P-001 in combination with KEYTRUDA These combination therapies, among others, could potentially compete with the combinations of BL-8040 with KEYTRUDA and BL-8040 and TECENTRIQ.
 
In the field of AML, BL-8040, if approved, will compete with currently approved treatments for AML that include chemotherapy (doxorubicin, cytarabine, vincristine), radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation and the hypomethylating agents Dacogen® (decitabine, Eisai and Johnson & Johnson) and Vidaza® (azacitidine, Celgene). Other approved drugs for AML are Vyxeos® (liposomal cytarabine and daunorubicin, Jazz Pharmaceuticals.
 
In addition there are a number of potentially competitive compounds in development to treat AML including, among others, Qinprezo (vosaroxin, Sunesis Pharmaceuticals); F-14512 (Pierre Fabre); pacritinib (CTI BioPharma Corp, pre-registration); Odomzo® (sonidegib), Mekinist (trametinib) and uprosertib developed by Novartis; Selinexor (Karyopharm Therapeutics and Ono Pharmaceutical Co Ltd.); Velcade (bortezomib, Janssen and Takeda); Revlimid (lenalidomide, Celgene and BeiGene Co Ltd.); Tarceva (erlotinib, Roche Astellas and Chugai); Zolinza (Vorinostat, Merck and Co.); SGI-110 (guadecitabine sodium, Astex Pharmaceuticals); Pracinostat (MEI Pharma); sapacitabine (Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals Inc.); idasanutlin (Ro-5503781, Roche Holding AG); and CX-01 (Cantex Pharmaceuticals). Some of these treatments are being developed for specific AML patient populations and lines of treatment and not for the entire AML population: e.g. quizartinib (Ambit Biosciences) as treatment for FLT3-ITD mutated AML patients; Nexavar (sorafenib, Bayer); midostaurin (Novartis, pre-registration); ASP-2215 (gilteritinib, Astellas Pharma Inc.); CPI-613 (Rafael Pharmaceuticals); alvocidib (Tolero Pharmaceuticals); BST-236 (Biosight); ELZONRIS® (Stemline Therapeutics). As well as treatment for FLT3 mutated AML patients including, among others: Quizartinib (Daiichi Sankyo); crenolanib (Arog Pharmaceuticals Inc.) and pacritinib (CTI BioPharma Corp). Some of these treatments can be developed for administration to AML patients in combination with BL-8040.
 
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In the field of stem cell mobilization, in addition to the above-referenced Mozobil, there are a number of compounds under development that could potentially compete with BL-8040: Burixafor (TG-0054, TaiGen Biotechnology); Balixafortide (POL6326, Polyphor) and NOX-A12 (Noxxon Pharama).
 
AGI-134
 
The field of cancer immunotherapy is rapidly growing, targeting CTLA-4, PD1 or PDL1 via antibody blockade. In recent years, approval has been granted for use of these agents for various oncology- related indications such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck, gastric and colorectal cancer, liver cancer and bladder cancer. As noted above, there are currently hundreds of immuno-oncology combination treatments being tested in clinical trials. Many of these combinations could be competitive with AGI-134.
 
In general, the competitive landscape is comprised of compounds that target tumor specific neoantigens and create adaptive, anti-tumor immune response. Examples of such therapeutic approaches include oncolytic viruses, dendritic cell vaccines, personalized neoantigen-based cancer vaccines, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) and cancer vaccines.
 
If approved, AGI-134 will compete with approved treatments such as the oncolytic viruses Imlygic® (T-VEC; Amgen) and dendritic cell cancer vaccine Provenge® (sipuleucel-T; Dendreon Corp). In addition, there are several potentially-competitive compounds that are currently under development, including, among others, Pexa-Vec (pexastimogene devacirepvec, SillaJen and Transgene); Reolysin (pelareorep, Adlai Nortye Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and Oncolytics Biotech Inc.); Cavatak (Viralytics); NeoVax (Neon Therapeutics); IVAC Mutanome (BioNTech AG); TLR9 agonists such as lefitolimod (MGN-1703, Mologen Ag), tilsotolimod (IMO-2125, Idera Pharmaceuticals Inc.), SD-101 (Dynavax Technologies Corp) and CMP-001 (Checkmate Pharmaceuticals); ADU-S100 (Aduro BioTech Inc. and Novartis); imprime PGG® (Biothera Pharmaceuticals Inc), dorgenmeltucel-L (NewLink Genetics Corp), MG1MA3 (Turnstone Biologics Inc ) and ruxotemitide (LTX-315, Lytix Biopharma AS). Most of these competitors have ongoing combination trials with the approved checkpoint inhibitors.
 
BL-5010
 
BL-5010 will compete with a variety of approved destructive and non-destructive treatments for skin lesions. Both Endwarts® (Meda Health) and Eskata® (Aclaris therapeutics) are medical device-based treatments marketed for removal of warts.
 
Insurance
 
We maintain insurance for our offices and laboratory in Israel. This insurance covers approximately $4.8 million of equipment, consumables and lease improvements against risk of fire, lightning, natural perils and burglary (the latter coverage limited to $250,000), and $1.5 million of consequential damages (covering fixed damages and extra expenses). For our clinical activities, we carry life science liability insurance covering general liability with an annual coverage amount of $30.0 million per occurrence and product liability and clinical trials coverage with an annual coverage amount of $30.0 million each claim and in the aggregate. The annual aggregate as well as the maximum indemnity for a single occurrence, claim or circumstances under this insurance is $30.0 million. In addition, we maintain the following insurance: employer’s liability with coverage of approximately $10.0 million for each occurrence and in the aggregate; third-party liability with coverage of approximately $5.0 million for each occurrence and in the aggregate; all risk coverage of approximately $2.0 million for electronic and mechanical equipment; directors’ and officers’ liability with coverage of $20.0 million for each occurrence and in the aggregate; and a global travel insurance policy.
 
We procure stock throughput insurance (cargo marine) coverage when we ship substances for our clinical studies. Such insurance is customized to the special requirements of the applicable shipment, such as temperature and/or climate sensitivity. If required, we insure the substances to the extent they are stored in central depots and at clinical sites.
 
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We believe that the amounts of our insurance policies are adequate and customary for a business of our kind. However, because of the nature of our business, we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain insurance on a commercially reasonable basis or at all, or that any future claims will not exceed our insurance coverage.
 
Environmental Matters
 
We are subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing air emissions, water and wastewater discharges, noise emissions, the use, management and disposal of hazardous, radioactive and biological materials and wastes and the cleanup of contaminated sites. We believe that our business, operations and facilities are being operated in compliance in all material respects with applicable environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Based on information currently available to us, we do not expect environmental costs and contingencies to have a material adverse effect on us. The operation of our facilities, however, entails risks in these areas. Significant expenditures could be required in the future if we are required to comply with new or more stringent environmental or health and safety laws, regulations or requirements. See “Business — Government Regulation and Funding — Israel Ministry of Environment — Toxin Permit.”

Government Regulation and Funding
 
We operate in a highly controlled regulatory environment. Stringent regulations establish requirements relating to analytical, toxicological and clinical standards and protocols in respect of the testing of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Regulations also cover research, development, manufacturing and reporting procedures, both pre- and post-approval. In many markets, especially in Europe, marketing and pricing strategies are subject to national legislation or administrative practices that include requirements to demonstrate not only the quality, safety and efficacy of a new product, but also its cost-effectiveness relating to other treatment options. Failure to comply with regulations can result in stringent sanctions, including product recalls, withdrawal of approvals, seizure of products and criminal prosecution.
 
Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our therapeutic candidates, we or our licensees must demonstrate through preclinical studies and clinical trials that our therapeutic candidates are safe and effective. Historically, the results from preclinical studies and early clinical trials often have not accurately predicted results of later clinical trials. In addition, a number of pharmaceutical products have shown promising results in early clinical trials but subsequently failed to establish sufficient safety and efficacy results to obtain necessary regulatory approvals. We have incurred and will continue to incur substantial expense for, and devote a significant amount of time to, preclinical studies and clinical trials. Many factors can delay the commencement and rate of completion of clinical trials, including the inability to recruit patients at the expected rate, the inability to follow patients adequately after treatment, the failure to manufacture sufficient quantities of materials used for clinical trials, and the emergence of unforeseen safety issues and governmental and regulatory delays. If a therapeutic candidate fails to demonstrate safety and efficacy in clinical trials, this failure may delay development of other therapeutic candidates and hinder our ability to conduct related preclinical studies and clinical trials. Additionally, as a result of these failures, we may also be unable to find additional licensees or obtain additional financing.
 
Governmental authorities in all major markets require that a new pharmaceutical product or medical device be approved or exempted from approval before it is marketed, and have established high standards for technical appraisal, which can result in an expensive and lengthy approval process. The time to obtain approval varies by country. In the past, it generally took from six months to four years from the application date, depending upon the quality of the results produced, the degree of control exercised by the regulatory authority, the efficiency of the review procedure and the nature of the product. Some products are never approved. In recent years, there has been a trend towards shorter regulatory review times in the United States as well as certain European countries, despite increased regulation and higher quality, safety and efficacy standards.
 
Historically, different requirements by different countries’ regulatory authorities have influenced the submission of applications. However, a trend toward harmonization of drug and medical device approval standards, starting in individual countries in Europe and then in the EU as a whole, in Japan, and in the United States under the aegis of what is now known as the International Council on Harmonisation, or ICH (created as the International Conference on Harmonisation in 1990), is gradually narrowing these differences. In many cases, compliance with ICH standards can help avoid duplication of non-clinical and clinical trials and enable companies to use the same basis for submissions to each of the respective regulatory authorities. The adoption of the Common Technical Document format by the ICH has greatly facilitated use of a single regulatory submission for seeking approval in the ICH regions and certain other countries including Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey and Australia.
 
Summaries of the United States, EU and Israeli regulatory processes follow below.
 
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United States
 
In the United States, drugs are subject to rigorous regulation by the FDA. The U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, storage, record-keeping, packaging, labeling, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion, marketing, distribution and import and export of pharmaceutical products. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements may subject us to stringent administrative or judicial sanctions, such as agency refusal to approve pending applications, warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions or criminal prosecution.
 
Unless a drug is exempt from the NDA process or subject to another regulatory procedure, the steps required before a drug may be marketed in the United States include:
 
preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation development;
 
submission to the FDA of a request for an IND to conduct human clinical testing;
 
adequate and well controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of the drug for each indication as well as to establish the exposure levels;
 
submission to the FDA of an application for marketing approval;
 
a potential public hearing of an outside advisory committee to discuss the application;
 
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the drug is manufactured; and
 
FDA review and approval of the drug for marketing.
 
Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, toxicity, formulation and stability, as well as animal studies. For studies conducted in the United States, and certain studies carried out outside the United States, we submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information and analytical results, to the FDA as part of an IND, which must become effective before we may commence human clinical trials. An IND will automatically become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions about issues such as the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding FDA concerns or questions before clinical trials can proceed. Submission of an IND does not always result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence and the FDA may halt a clinical trial if unexpected safety issues surface or the study is not being conducted in compliance with applicable requirements.
 
The FDA may refuse to accept an IND for review if applicable regulatory requirements are not met. Moreover, the FDA may delay or prevent the start of clinical trials if the manufacturing of the study drug fails to meet cGMP requirements or the clinical trials are not adequately designed. Such government regulation may delay or prevent the study and marketing of potential products for a considerable time period and may impose costly procedures upon a manufacturer’s activities. In addition, the FDA may, at any time, impose a clinical hold on ongoing clinical trials. If the FDA imposes a clinical hold, clinical trials cannot continue without FDA authorization and then only under terms authorized by the FDA.
 
Success in early-stage clinical trials does not assure success in later-stage clinical trials. Results obtained from clinical activities are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Even if a therapeutic candidate receives regulatory approval, later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in restrictions on the product or even withdrawal of marketing approval for the product.
 
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Clinical Trials
 
Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational drug to people under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with the principles of good clinical practice, or GCP. We conduct clinical trials under protocols detailing the trial objectives, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. We must submit each U.S. study protocol to the FDA as part of an IND. Foreign clinical trials may or may not be conducted under an IND. However, their safety assessments are included in an IND annual report.
 
We conduct clinical trials typically in three sequential Phases, but the Phases may overlap or be combined. An institutional review board, or IRB, must review and approve each trial before it can begin. Phase 1 includes the initial administration of a tested drug to a small number of humans. These trials are closely monitored and may be conducted in patients, but are usually conducted in healthy volunteer subjects. These trials are designed to determine the metabolic and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans and the side effects associated with increasing doses as well as, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. Phase 2 usually involves trials in a limited patient population to evaluate dosage tolerance and appropriate dosage, identify possible adverse effects and safety risks and preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the drug for specific indications. Phase 3 trials are large trials used to further evaluate clinical efficacy and test further for safety by using the drug in its final form in an expanded patient population. There can be no assurance that we or our licensees will successfully complete Phase 1, Phase 2 or Phase 3 testing with respect to any therapeutic candidate within any specified period of time, if at all. Furthermore, clinical trials may be suspended at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. We and our licensees perform preclinical and clinical testing outside of the United States. The acceptability of the results of our preclinical and clinical testing by the FDA will be dependent upon adherence to applicable U.S. and foreign standards and requirements, including GLP, GCP and the Declaration of Helsinki for protection of human subjects. Additionally, the FDA may require at least one pivotal clinical study to be conducted in the United States, in order to take into account medical practice and ethnic diversity in the United States.
 
NDAs and BLAs
 
After successful completion of the required clinical testing, an NDA, or in the case of certain biological products a Biological Product Application, or BLA, is prepared and submitted to the FDA. FDA approval of the NDA or BLA is required before product marketing may begin in the United States. The NDA/BLA must include the preclinical and clinical testing results and a compilation of detailed information relating to the product’s pharmacology, toxicology, chemistry, manufacture and manufacturing controls. In certain cases, an application for marketing approval may include information regarding the safety and efficacy of a proposed drug that comes from trials not conducted by, or for, the applicant and for which trials the applicant has not obtained a specific right of reference. Such an application, known as a 505(b)(2) NDA, is permitted for new drug products that incorporate previously approved active ingredients, even if the proposed new drug incorporates an approved active ingredient in a novel formulation or for a new indication. Although 505(b)(2) is a type of NDA, it has been used in the United States to obtain approval of follow-on biologics (also termed biosimilars) where limited clinical data is necessary to show that the follow-on is the same as the reference product. However, 505(b)(2) can be used to seek approval for a biologic only until March 23, 2020, and only for follow-on biologics of a class for which a product has already been approved under 505(b)(2). In this way, several natural source products and recombinant proteins have been approved as generic drugs under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA. An additional pathway for approval of follow-on biologics is discussed in the section “Generic Competition” below. As interpreted by the FDA, Section 505(b)(2) also permits the FDA to rely for such approvals on literature or on a finding by the FDA of safety and/or efficacy for a previously approved drug product. Under this interpretation, a 505(b)(2) NDA for changes to a previously approved drug product may rely on the FDA’s finding of safety and efficacy of the previously approved product coupled with new clinical data and information needed by the FDA to support the change. NDAs submitted under 505(b)(2) are potentially subject to patent and non-patent exclusivity provisions which can block effective approval of the 505(b)(2) application until the applicable exclusivities have expired, which in the case of patents may be several years. The cost of preparing and submitting an NDA may be substantial. Under U.S. federal law, the submission of NDAs, including 505(b)(2) NDAs, is generally subject to substantial application user fees, and the manufacturer and/or sponsor under an NDA approved by the FDA is also subject to annual product and establishment user fees. These fees are typically increased annually. Separate fees are payable for an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA, and for Biosimilar Biological Product Development, or BPD.
 
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The FDA has 60 days from its receipt of an NDA to determine whether the application will be accepted for filing based on the FDA threshold determination that the NDA is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. Under U.S. federal law, the FDA has agreed to certain performance goals in the review of NDAs. Most such applications for non-priority drug products are to be reviewed within 10 months. The review process may be significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification or if the applicant submits a major amendment during the review. The FDA may also refer applications to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. This often, but not exclusively, occurs for novel drug products or drug products that present difficult questions of safety or efficacy. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee.
 
Before approving an application, the FDA typically will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve the application unless the FDA determines that the product is manufactured in substantial compliance with GMP. If the FDA determines that the NDA or BLA is supported by adequate data and information, the FDA may issue an approval letter. During review, the FDA may request additional information via an information request, or IR letter, or state deficiencies via a deficiency letter, or DR letter. Upon compliance with the conditions stated, the FDA will typically issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require additional trials or post-approval testing and surveillance to monitor the drug’s safety or efficacy, the adoption of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, and may impose other conditions, including labeling and marketing restrictions on the use of the drug, which can materially affect its potential market and profitability. Once granted, product approvals may be withdrawn if compliance with regulatory standards for manufacturing and quality control are not maintained or if additional safety problems are identified following initial marketing.
 
If the FDA’s evaluation of the NDA or BLA submission or manufacturing processes and facilities is not favorable, the FDA may refuse to approve the NDA or BLA and may issue a complete response letter. The complete response letter indicates that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. The complete response letter will describe specific deficiencies and, when possible, will outline recommended actions the applicant might take in order to place the application in condition for approval. Following receipt of a complete response letter, the company may submit additional information and start a new review cycle, withdraw the application or request a hearing. Failure to take any of the above actions may result in the FDA considering the application withdrawn following one year from issuance of the complete response letter. In such cases, the FDA will notify the company and the company will have 30 days to respond and request an extension of time in which to resubmit the application. The FDA may grant reasonable requests for extension. If the company does not respond within 30 days of the FDA’s notification, the application will be considered withdrawn. Even with submission of additional information for a new review cycle, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.
 
The Pediatric Research Equity Act, or PREA, requires NDAs and BLAs (or supplements) for a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration to contain results assessing the safety and efficacy for the claimed indication in all relevant pediatric subpopulations. Data to support dosing and administration also must be provided for each pediatric subpopulation for which the drug is safe and effective. The FDA may grant deferrals for the submission of results or full or partial waivers from the PREA requirements (for example, if the product is ready for approval in adults before pediatric studies are complete, if additional safety data is needed, among others). In addition, under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, or BPCA, the FDA may issue a written request to the company to conduct clinical trials in the pediatric population that are related to the moiety and expand on the claimed indication. The studies are voluntary, but may award the company with 6 months of marketing exclusivity if conducted according to good scientific principles and address the written request. Finally, a sponsor can request that a product that must be studied under PREA to be studied also under the BPCA to allow the sponsor to be eligible for six-months of pediatric exclusivity. The pediatric studies requested under BPCA are usually more extensive and would generally also fulfill the PREA requirement; however, even if the sponsor does not complete the studies outlined in the BPCA written request, it is still required to complete any studies required under PREA.
 
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Post-Marketing Requirements
 
Once an NDA or BLA is approved, the drug sponsor will be subject to certain post-approval requirements, including requirements for adverse event reporting, submission of periodic reports, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, advertising, promotion, distribution, record-keeping and other requirements. For example, the approval may be subject to limitations on the uses for which the product may be marketed or conditions of approval, or contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product or require the adoption of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies. In addition, the FDA requires the reporting of any adverse effects observed after the approval or marketing of a therapeutic candidate and such events could result in limitations on the use of such approved product or its withdrawal from the marketplace. Also, some types of changes to the approved product, such as manufacturing changes and labeling claims, are subject to further FDA review and approval. Additionally, the FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about prescription drug products. In particular, the FDA requires substantiation of any claims of superiority of one product over another including, in many cases, requirements that such claims be proven by adequate and well controlled head-to-head clinical trials. To the extent that market acceptance of our therapeutic candidates may depend on their superiority over existing products, any restriction on our ability to advertise or otherwise promote claims of superiority, or any requirements to conduct additional expensive clinical trials to provide proof of such claims, could negatively affect the sales of our therapeutic candidates and our costs.
 
Generic Competition
 
Once an NDA, including a 505(b)(2) NDA, is approved, the product covered thereby becomes a “listed drug” which can, in turn, be cited by potential competitors in support of filing of an ANDA, under section 505(j), of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act which relies on bioequivalence studies that compare the generic drug to a reference listed drug to support approval. Specifically, a generic drug that is the subject of an ANDA must be bioequivalent and have the same active ingredient(s), route of administration, dosage form, and strength, as well as the same labeling, with certain exceptions, as the listed drug. If the FDA deems that any of these requirements are not met, additional results may be necessary to seek approval.
 
ANDA applicants do not have to conduct extensive clinical trials to prove the safety or efficacy of the drug product. Rather, they are required to show that their drug is pharmaceutically equivalent to the innovator’s drug and also conduct “bioequivalence” testing to show that the rate and extent by which the ANDA applicant’s drug is absorbed does not differ significantly from the innovator product. Bioequivalence tests are typically in vivo studies in humans, but they are smaller and less costly than the types of Phase 3 trials required to obtain initial approval of a new drug. Drugs approved in this way are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug, are listed as such by the FDA, and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the original listed drug.
 
With respect to NDAs, U.S. federal law provides for a period of three years of non-patent market exclusivity following the approval of a listed drug that contains previously approved active ingredients but is approved in a new dosage, dosage form, route of administration or combination, or for a new use, the approval of which was required to be supported by new clinical trials, other than bioavailability studies, conducted by or for the sponsor. During this three-year period the FDA cannot grant effective approval of an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA for the same conditions of approval under which the NDA was approved.
 
U.S. federal law also provides a period of five years following approval of a new chemical entity that is a drug containing no previously approved active ingredients, during which ANDAs for generic versions of such drugs, as well as 505(b)(2) NDAs, cannot be submitted unless the submission contains a certification that the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed, in which case the submission may be made four years following the original product approval. If an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant certifies that it believes one or more listed patents is invalid or not infringed, it is required to provide notice of its filing to the NDA sponsor and the patent holder. If the patent holder or exclusive patent licensee then initiates a suit for patent infringement against the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA sponsor within 45 days of receipt of the notice, the FDA cannot grant effective approval of the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA until either 30 months have passed or there has been a court decision holding that the patents in question are invalid or not infringed. If an infringement action is not brought within 45 days, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant may bring a declaratory judgment action to determine patent issues prior to marketing. If the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA applicant certifies as to the date on which the listed patents will expire, then the FDA cannot grant effective approval of the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA until those patents expire. The first ANDA(s) submitting substantially complete application(s) certifying that listed patents for a particular product are invalid or not infringed may qualify for a period of 180 days of marketing exclusivity, starting from the date of the first commercial marketing of the drug by the applicant, during which subsequently submitted ANDAs cannot be granted effective approval. The first ANDA applicant can forfeit its exclusivity under certain circumstances; for example, if it fails to market its product or meet other regulatory requirements within specified time periods.
 
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Section 7002 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which is referred to as the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, amends Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act to create an abbreviated BLA for “highly similar” biological products; the abbreviated BLA permits a follow-on biological product to be evaluated against only a single reference biological product. To be considered for an abbreviated BLA, the biosimilar must have the same presumed mechanism of action, route of administration, dosage form and potency as the innovator product. It may only be reviewed and approved for indications for which the FDA already has approved the innovator product.
 
The BPCIA provides the manufacturer of the innovator product with economic protection by granting a period of “exclusivity” during which follow-on products may not be approved. A BLA for approval of a follow-on biological product may not be submitted for four years after the reference product was initially approved. The FDA may not approve a BLA for a follow-on biological product until 12 years after the reference product was first licensed. No additional period of exclusivity will be granted to a previously licensed biologic product when subsequent applications are made for a new indication, route of administration, dosage form, or dosing strength. However, each of the periods of exclusivity may be extended by six months if studies of the innovator biological product in the pediatric population are requested by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services and carried out.
 
To encourage the development of biosimilars, the BPCIA grants 1 year of exclusive marketing rights to the first follow-on biological that is approved as being “interchangeable” with a reference product. If patent litigation between the manufacturers of the biosimilar and innovator products is ongoing, this period of exclusivity may be extended for up to 42 months.
 
From time to time, including presently, legislation is drafted and introduced in the U.S. Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the approval, manufacturing and marketing of drug products. In addition, FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the agency in ways that may significantly affect our business and our therapeutic candidates. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted, or FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations changed, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.
 
FDA Approval or Clearance of Medical Devices
 
In the United States, medical devices are subject to varying degrees of regulatory control and are classified in one of three classes depending on the controls the FDA determines necessary to reasonably ensure their safety and efficacy:
 
Class I: general controls, such as labeling and adherence to QSRs. Some Class I medical devices require 510(k) pre-market notification although most are exempt;
 
Class II: general controls, 510(k) pre-market notification, and specific controls such as performance standards, patient registries, and postmarket surveillance; and
 
Class III: general controls and approval of a pre-market approval, or PMA.
 
All new devices are class III by operation of law unless the FDA (1) determines the new device to be substantially equivalent (SE) to a device previously classified in class I or class II, (2) grants a risk-based (“de novo”) classification request, or (3) reclassifies the device into class I or II.
 
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A PMA application must provide a demonstration of safety and effectiveness, which generally requires extensive preclinical and clinical trial data. Information about the device and its components, device design, manufacturing and labeling, among other information, must also be included in the PMA. As part of the PMA review, the FDA will typically inspect the manufacturer’s facilities for compliance with QSR requirements, which govern testing, control, documentation and other aspects of quality assurance with respect to manufacturing. During the review period, an FDA advisory committee, typically a panel of clinicians, is likely to be convened to review the application and recommend to the FDA whether, or upon what conditions, the device should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the advisory panel decision, but the FDA often follows the panel’s recommendation. If the FDA finds the information satisfactory, it will approve the PMA. The PMA can include post-approval conditions including, among other things, restrictions on labeling, promotion, sale and distribution, or requirements to do additional clinical studies post-approval. Even after approval of a PMA, a new PMA or PMA supplement is required to authorize certain modifications to the device, its labeling or its manufacturing process. Supplements to a PMA often require the submission of the same type of information required for an original PMA, except that the supplement is generally limited to that information needed to support the proposed change from the product covered by the original PMA. During the review of a PMA, the FDA may request more information or additional studies and may decide that the indications for which we seek approval or clearance should be limited.
 
If human clinical trials of a medical device are required and the device presents a significant risk, the sponsor of the trial must file an investigational device exemption, or IDE, application prior to commencing human clinical trials. The IDE application must be supported by data, typically including the results of animal and/or laboratory testing. If the IDE application is approved by the FDA, human clinical trials may begin at a specific number of investigational sites with a specific number of patients, as approved by the FDA upon receipt of the respective IRB approvals. If the device presents a non-significant risk to the patient, a sponsor may begin the clinical trial after obtaining approval for the trial by one or more institutional review boards without separate approval from the FDA. Submission of an IDE does not give assurance that the FDA will approve the IDE and, if it is approved, the FDA may determine that the data derived from the trials do not support the safety and effectiveness of the device or warrant the continuation of clinical trials. An IDE supplement must be submitted to, and approved by, the FDA before a sponsor or investigator may make a change to the investigational plan that may affect its scientific soundness, study indication or the rights, safety or welfare of human subjects. The trial also must comply with the FDA’s IDE regulations and informed consent must be obtained from each subject.
 
European Economic Area
 
Clinical Trials
 
The European Medicines Agency, or the Agency, relies on the results of clinical trials carried out by pharmaceutical companies to reach its opinions on the authorization of medicines. Although the authorization of clinical trials occurs at member state level, the Agency plays a key role in ensuring that the standards of good clinical practice (GCP) are applied across the European Economic Area (EEA) in cooperation with the member states. It also manages a database of clinical trials carried out in the EU. Clinical trials are currently regulated under Directive 2001/20/EC. However, in April 2014 a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use was adopted. Regulation 536/2014, or the Regulation, entered into force on in June 2014 and is scheduled to become effective in during 2020. The Regulation will apply to interventional clinical trials on medicines once the Regulation is in operation, and to all trials authorized under the previous legislation (Directive (EC) No. 2001/20/EC) and still ongoing three years (the transition period) after the Regulation has come into operation. The Regulation ensures that:
 
·
the rules for conducting clinical trials are consistent throughout the EU; and
 
·
transparent information is made publicly available on the authorization, conduct, and results of each clinical trial carried out in the EU.
 
Marketing Authorization Procedures
 
A medicinal product may only be placed on the market in the EEA composed of the 28 EU member states, plus Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein, when a marketing authorization has been issued by the competent authority of a member state pursuant to Directive 2001/83/EC, as amended, or an authorization has been granted under the centralized procedure in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 726/2004, as amended, or its predecessor, Regulation 2309/93. There are essentially three EU procedures created under prevailing European pharmaceutical legislation that, if successfully completed, allow an applicant to place a medicinal product on the market in the EEA.
 
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In 2016, the United Kingdom conducted a referendum and voted to leave the European Union, also known as “Brexit.” On March 29, 2017, the British government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union and, as a result, the United Kingdom is scheduled to leave the European Union on March 29, 2019. The United Kingdom and European Union are currently in the process of defining their future relationship, and the steps we need to take, if any, in order to conform to the new circumstances will depend on the nature of that relationship.
 
Centralized Procedure
 
Regulation 726/2004/EC now governs the centralized procedure when a marketing authorization is granted by the European Commission, acting in its capacity as the European Licensing Authority on the advice of the EMA. That authorization is valid throughout the entire EEA and directly or (as to Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) indirectly allows the applicant to place the product on the market in all member states of the EEA. The EMA is the administrative body responsible for coordinating the existing scientific resources available in the member states for evaluation, supervision and pharmacovigilance of medicinal products. Certain medicinal products, as described in the Annex to Regulation 726/2004, must be authorized centrally. These are products that are developed by means of a biotechnological process in accordance with Paragraph 1 to the Annex to the Regulation or veterinary products designed to promote animal growth or increase yield in accordance with Paragraph 2. The mandatory centralized procedure is applicable to: (a) medicinal products for human use containing an active substance authorized in the EU after May 20, 2004 for which the therapeutic indication is the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorder or diabetes; (b) autoimmune diseases and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases; (c) all medicinal products that are designated as orphan medicinal products pursuant to Regulation 141/2000; and (d) medicines derived from biotechnology processes or advanced therapy medicinal products, such as gene therapy, tissue engineered and somatic cell therapy products. An applicant may also opt for assessment through the centralized procedure if it can show that the medicinal product constitutes a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or that the granting of authorization centrally is in the interests of patients at the EU level. For each application submitted to the EMA for scientific assessment, the EMA is required to ensure that the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, is given within 210 days after receipt of a valid application or within 150 days by means of an accelerated procedure. If the opinion is positive, the EMA is required to send the opinion to the European Commission, which is responsible for preparing the decision granting a marketing authorization, within 67 days. If the initial opinion of the CHMP is negative, the applicant is afforded an opportunity to seek a re-examination of the opinion. The CHMP is required to re-examine its opinion within 60 days following receipt of the request by the applicant. A refusal of a centralized marketing authorization constitutes a prohibition on placing the given medicinal product on the market in the EU.
 
Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures.
 
With the exception of products that are authorized centrally, the competent authorities of the member states are responsible for granting marketing authorizations for medicinal products placed on their markets. If the applicant for a marketing authorization intends to market the same medicinal product in more than one member state, the applicant may seek an authorization progressively in the EU under the mutual recognition or decentralized procedure. Mutual recognition is used if the medicinal product has already been authorized in a member state. In this case, the holder of this marketing authorization requests the member state where the authorization has been granted to act as reference member state by preparing an updated assessment report that is then used to facilitate mutual recognition of the existing authorization in the other member states in which approval is sought (the so-called concerned member state(s)) in accordance with Article 28 of Directive 2001/83/EC. The reference member state must prepare an updated assessment report within 90 days of receipt of a valid application. This report together with the approved Summary of Product Characteristics, or SmPC (which sets out the conditions of use of the product), and a labeling and package leaflet are sent to the concerned member states for their consideration. The concerned member states are required to approve the assessment report, the SmPC and the labeling and package leaflet within 90 days of receipt of these documents. The total procedural time is 180 days.
 
The decentralized procedure is used in cases where the medicinal product has not received a marketing authorization in the EU at the time of application. The applicant requests a member state of its choice to act as reference member state to prepare an assessment report that is then used to facilitate agreement with the concerned member states and the grant of a national marketing authorization in all of these member states. In this procedure, the reference member state must prepare, for consideration by the concerned member states, the draft assessment report, a draft SmPC and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet within 120 days after receipt of a valid application. As in the case of mutual recognition, the concerned member states are required to approve these documents within 90 days of their receipt. In both procedures, national marketing authorizations shall be granted within 30 days after acknowledgement of the agreement.
 
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For both mutual recognition and decentralized procedures, if a concerned member state objects to the grant of a marketing authorization on the grounds of a potential serious risk to public health, it may raise a reasoned objection with the reference member state. The points of disagreement are in the first instance referred to the Co-ordination Group on Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures, or CMD, to reach an agreement within 60 days of the communication of the points of disagreement. If member states fail to reach an agreement, then the matter is referred to the EMA’s scientific committee and CHMP for arbitration. The CHMP is required to deliver a reasoned opinion within 60 days of the date on which the matter is referred. The scientific opinion adopted by the CHMP forms the basis for a binding European Commission decision.
 
Irrespective of whether the medicinal product is assessed centrally, de-centrally or through a process of mutual recognition, the medicinal product must be manufactured in accordance with the principles of good manufacturing practice as set out in Directive 2003/94/EC for medicines and investigational medicines for human use or Directive 91/412/EEC for medicines for veterinary use and Volume 4 of the “Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the European Community” and distributed in accordance with Directive 92/25/EEC and current guidance. Moreover, EU law requires the clinical results in support of clinical safety and efficacy to be based upon clinical trials conducted in the EU in compliance with the requirements of Directives 2001/20/EC and 2005/28/EC, which implement good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use. Clinical trials conducted outside the EU and used to support applications for marketing within the EU must have been conducted in a way consistent with the principles set out in Directive 2001/20/EC. The conduct of a clinical trial in the EU requires, pursuant to Directive 2001/20/EC, authorization by the relevant national competent authority where a trial takes place, and an ethics committee to have issued a favorable opinion in relation to the arrangements for the trial. It also requires that the sponsor of the trial, or a person authorized to act on his behalf in relation to the trial, be established in the EU.
 
National Procedure
 
In order to increase availability of medicinal products, in particular on smaller markets, Article 126a of Directive 2001/83/EC, or Article 126a, provides that, in the absence of a marketing authorization or of a pending application for authorization for a medicinal product, which has already been authorized in another member state, a member state may for justified public health reasons authorize the placing on the market of that medicinal product. In such cases, the competent authority of the member state has to inform the marketing authorization holder in the member state in which the medicinal product concerned is authorized, of the proposal to authorize the placing on the market under this Article.
 
When a member state avails itself of this possibility, it must adopt the necessary measures in order to ensure that the requirements for the labelling and package leaflet, classification of the medicinal product, advertising, pharmacovigilance and supervision and sanctions are complied with. For the specific mechanisms chosen by the member states to implement this provision, the relevant national legislation is referred to. The register of the medicinal products authorized under Article 126a is available at the European Commission website.
 
For medicinal products authorized in accordance with Article 126a of Directive 2001/83/EC, marketing authorization holders do not qualify for the pediatric development rewards as described in Regulation (EC) No. 1901/2006.
 
Types of Marketing Authorization Applications:
 
There are various types of applications for marketing authorizations. The legal basis for all types of application is set out in Directive 2001/83/EC and in Regulation (EC) No726/2004.
 
A. Full Applications. A full application is one that is made under any of the EU procedures described above and “stands alone” in the sense that it contains all of the particulars and information required by Article 8(3) of Directive 2001/83/EC, as amended, to allow the competent authority to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of the product and in particular the balance between benefit and risk. Article 8(3)(l) in particular refers to the need to present the results of the applicant’s research on (1) pharmaceutical (physical-chemical, biological or microbiological) tests; (2) preclinical (toxicological and pharmacological) studies; and (3) clinical trials in humans. The nature of these tests, studies and trials is explained in more detail in Annex I to Directive 2001/83/EC, as amended. Full applications would be required for products containing new active substances not previously approved by the competent authority, but may also be made for other products.
 
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B. Abridged Applications. Article 10 of Directive 2001/83/EC contains exemptions from the requirement that the applicant provide the results of its own preclinical and clinical research. There are four regulatory routes for an applicant to seek an exemption from providing such results, namely (1) cross-referral to an innovator’s results without consent of the innovator (used for generic medicines or similar biological medicinal products); (2) well-established use according to published literature; (3) fixed combination products; and (4) informed consent to refer to an existing dossier of research results filed by a previous applicant.
 
(1) Cross-referral to Innovator’s Data
 
Generic Applications. Articles 10(1) and 10(2)(b) of Directive 2001/83/EC provide the legal basis for an applicant to seek a marketing authorization on the basis that its product is a generic medicinal product (a copy) of a reference medicinal product that has already been authorized, in accordance with EU provisions. A reference product is, in principle, an original product granted an authorization on the basis of a full dossier of particulars and information. This is the main exemption used by generic manufacturers for obtaining a marketing authorization for a copy product. The generic applicant is not required to provide the results of preclinical studies and of clinical trials if its product meets the definition of a generic medicinal product and the applicable regulatory results protection period for the results submitted by the innovator has expired. A generic medicinal product is defined as a medicinal product:
 
having the same qualitative and quantitative composition in active substance as the reference medicinal product;
 
having the same pharmaceutical form as the reference medicinal product; and
 
whose bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product has been demonstrated by appropriate bioavailability studies.
 
Applications in respect of a generic medicinal product cannot be made before the expiry of the protection period. For applications made after either October 30 or November 20, 2005 (depending on the approval route used), Regulation 726/2004 and amendments to Directive 2001/83/EC provide for a harmonized protection period regardless of the approval route utilized. The harmonized protection period is in total 10 years, including eight years of research data protection and two years of marketing protection. The effect is that the originator’s results can be the subject of a cross-referral application after eight years, but any resulting authorization cannot be exploited for a further two years. The rationale of this procedure is not that the competent authority does not have before it relevant tests and trials upon which to assess the efficacy and safety of the generic product, but that the relevant particulars can, if the research data protection period has expired, be found on the originator’s file and used for assessment of the generic medicinal product. The 10-year protection period can be extended to 11 years where, in the first eight years post-authorization, the holder of the authorization obtains approval for a new indication assessed as offering a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing products.
 
Hybrid Applications (equivalent to the U.S. 505(b)(2) NDA). If the copy product does not meet the definition of a generic medicinal product or if certain types of changes occur in the active substance(s) or in the therapeutic indications, strength, pharmaceutical form or route of administration in relation to the reference medicinal product, Article 10(3) of Directive 2001/83/EC provides that the results of the appropriate preclinical studies or clinical trials must be provided by the applicant.
 
Similar Biological Applications. Article 10(4) of Directive 2001/83/EC refers to a biological medicinal product which is similar to a reference biological product and does not meet the conditions in the definition of generic medicinal products, owing to, in particular, differences relating to raw materials or differences in manufacturing processes of the biological medicinal product and the reference biological medicinal product. For such products, the results of appropriate preclinical tests or clinical trials relating to these conditions must be provided in accordance with the criteria stated in the annex and related guidelines. The results of other tests and trials from the reference medicinal product's dossier shall not be provided.
 
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(2) Well-established Medicinal Use
 
Under Article 10a of Directive 2001/83/EC, an applicant may, in substitution for the results of its own preclinical and clinical research, present detailed references to published literature demonstrating that the active substance(s) of a product have a well-established medicinal use within the EU with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety. The applicant is entitled to refer to a variety of different types of literature, including reports of clinical trials with the same active substance(s) and epidemiological studies that indicate that the constituent or constituents of the product have an acceptable safety/efficacy profile for a particular indication. However, use of the published literature exemption is restricted by stating that in no circumstances will constituents be treated as having a well-established use if they have been used for less than 10 years from the first systematic and documented use of the substance as a medicinal product in the EU. Even after 10 years’ systematic use, the threshold for well-established medicinal use might not be met. European pharmaceutical law requires the competent authorities to consider the period over which a substance has been used, the amount of patient use of the substance, the degree of scientific interest in the use of the substance (as reflected in the scientific literature) and the coherence (consistency) of all the scientific assessments made in the literature. For this reason, different substances may reach the threshold for well-established use after different periods, but the minimum period is 10 years. If the applicant seeks approval of an entirely new therapeutic use compared with that to which the published literature refers, additional preclinical and/or clinical results would have to be provided.
 
(3) Fixed Combination Application
 
Under Article 10(b) of Directive 2001/83/EC, as amended, and Annex I, Part II(5), fixed-combination applications are possible for medicinal products containing active substances used in the composition of authorized medicinal products (but not to be used in combination for therapeutic purposes). In that case, the results of new preclinical tests or new clinical trials relating to that combination shall be provided in accordance with Article 8(3)(i) of Directive 2001/83/EC, but it is not necessary to provide scientific references relating to each individual active substance. Moreover, any fixed combination may be considered a complete/full, independent application because it is a new and unique medicinal product requiring a separate SmPC.
 
(4) Informed Consent
 
Under Article 10c of Directive 2001/83/EC, following the grant of a marketing authorization the holder of such authorization may consent to a competent authority utilizing the pharmaceutical, preclinical and clinical documentation that it submitted to obtain approval for a medicinal product to assess a subsequent application relating to a medicinal product possessing the same qualitative and quantitative composition with respect to the active substances and the same pharmaceutical form.
 
C. Mixed Marketing Authorization Applications
 
Annex I, Part II(7) of Directive 2001/83/EC, as amended, specifies that mixed marketing authorization applications, or MAAs, must present published scientific literature together with original results of tests and trials. Such applications must be submitted and processed following the complete, full and independent MAA dossier requirements. These requirements apply to the use of bibliographic references in mixed dossiers both as supporting data for the applicant’s own tests and trials or in order to replace any tests or trials in Module 4 and/or 5. All other module(s) are in accordance with the structure described in Part I of the above-mentioned Annex 1. The Competent Authority will accept the applicant’s proposed format on a case-by-case basis.
 
Law Relating to Pediatric Research
 
Regulation (EC) 1901/2006 (as amended by Regulation (EC) 1902/2006), or the Pediatric Regulation, was adopted on December 12, 2006. This Regulation governs the development of medicinal products for human use in order to meet the specific therapeutic needs of the pediatric population. It requires any application for marketing authorization made after July 26, 2008 in respect of a product not authorized in the EU on January 26, 2007, the time the Regulation entered into force, to include studies in children conducted in accordance with a pediatric investigation plan agreed to by the relevant European authorities, unless the product is subject to an agreed waiver or deferral or unless the product is excluded from the scope of Regulation 1902/2006 (generics, hybrid medicinal products, biosimilars, homeopathic and traditional (herbal) medicinal products and medicinal products containing one or more active substances of well-established medicinal use. Waivers can be granted in certain circumstances where pediatric studies are not required or desirable. Deferrals can be granted in certain circumstances where the initiation or completion of pediatric studies should be deferred until appropriate studies in adults have been performed. Moreover, this regulation imposes the same obligation from January 26, 2009 on an applicant seeking approval of a new indication, pharmaceutical form or route of administration for a product already authorized and still protected by a supplementary protection certificate granted under Regulation (EEC) 1768/92 codified as Regulation (EC) no. 469/2009 or by a patent that qualifies for the granting of such a supplementary protection certificate. The pediatric Regulation 1901/2006 also provides, subject to certain conditions, a reward for performing such pediatric studies, regardless of whether the pediatric results provided resulted in the grant of a pediatric indication. This reward comes in the form of an extension of six months to the supplementary protection certificate granted in respect of the product, unless the product is subject to Orphan Drug designation, in which case the 10-year market exclusivity period for such orphan products is extended to 12 years. If any of the non-centralized procedures for marketing authorization have been used, the six-month extension of the supplementary protection certificate is only granted if the medicinal product is authorized in all member states. Where the product is no longer covered by a patent or supplementary protection certificate, the applicant may make a separate application for a Pediatric Use Marketing Authorization, or PUMA, which, on approval, will provide eight years’ protection for data and 10 years’ marketing protection for the pediatric results.
 
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In June 2013, the European Commission published a report on the first five years of implementation of the Pediatric Regulation. The report concludes that pediatric development has become a more integral part of the overall development of medicinal products in the EU, with the Regulation working as a major catalyst to improve the situation for young patients. In November 2016, the European Commission launched a public consultation in preparation for its second report on the Pediatric Regulation after nearly ten years of implementation. The European Commission published the final report in October 2017.
 
Post-authorization Obligations
 
An authorization to market a medicinal product in the EU carries with it an obligation to comply with many post-authorization regulations relating to the marketing and other activities of authorization holders. These include requirements relating to provision of a risk management plan and provision of annual periodic safety update reports, carrying out of post-authorization efficacy studies and/or post-authorization safety studies, maintenance of a pharmacovigilance system master file, adverse event reporting, signal detection and management and other pharmacovigilance activities conducted under an established quality system, advertising, packaging and labeling, patient package leaflets, distribution and wholesale dealing. The regulations frequently operate within a criminal law framework, and failure to comply with the requirements may not only affect the authorization, but also can lead to financial and other sanctions levied on the company in question and responsible officers.
 
Another relevant aspect in the EU regulatory framework is the “sunset clause”: a provision leading to the cessation of the validity of any marketing authorization if it is not followed by marketing within three years or, if marketing is interrupted for a period of three consecutive years.
 
Approval of Medical Devices
 
In the EEA there is a consolidated system for the authorization of medical devices. Currently applicable regulations are: Regulation 2017/745 on Medical Devices (amending Directive 2001/83/EC, Regulation 178/2002 and 1223/2009 and repealing Directives 93/42/EEC and Directive 90/385/EEC regarding active implantable medical devices), and Regulation 2017/746 regarding in vitro diagnostic medical devices (repealing Directive 98/79/EC and commission decision 2010/227/EU). The new regulations will apply after a 3-year transitional period (in May 2020) for the regulation of medical devices and a five-year transitional period (May 2022) for the regulation of in-vitro diagnostic medical devices. The EU requires that manufacturers of medical devices obtain the right to affix the CE mark to their products, which shows that the device has a Declaration of Conformity, before selling them in EU member countries. The CE mark is an international symbol of adherence to quality assurance standards and compliance with applicable European medical device directives. In order to obtain the right to affix the CE mark to products, a manufacturer must obtain certification that its processes meet certain European quality standards, which vary according to the nature of the device. Compliance with the Medical Device Directive, as certified by a recognized European Notified Body, permits the manufacturer to affix the CE mark on its products and commercially distribute those products throughout the EU without further conformance tests being required in other member states.
 
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Israel
 
Israel Ministry of the Environment — Toxin Permit
 
In accordance with the Israeli Dangerous Substances Law - 1993, the Israeli Ministry of the Environment is required to grant a permit in order to use toxic materials. Because we utilize toxic materials in the course of operation of our laboratories, we were required to apply for a permit to use these materials. Our current toxin permit will remain in effect until December2021.
 
Clinical Testing in Israel
 
In order to conduct clinical testing on humans in Israel, special authorization must first be obtained from the ethics committee and general manager of the institution in which the clinical studies are scheduled to be conducted, as required under the Guidelines for Clinical Trials in Human Subjects implemented pursuant to the Israeli Public Health Regulations (Clinical Trials in Human Subjects), as amended from time to time, and other applicable legislation. These regulations require authorization by the institutional ethics committee and general manager as well as from the Israeli Ministry of Health, except in certain circumstances, and in the case of genetic trials, special fertility trials and complex clinical trials, an additional authorization of the Israeli Ministry of Health’s overseeing ethics committee. The institutional ethics committee must, among other things, evaluate the anticipated benefits that are likely to be derived from the project to determine if it justifies the risks and inconvenience to be inflicted on the human subjects, and the committee must ensure that adequate protection exists for the rights and safety of the participants as well as the accuracy of the information gathered in the course of the clinical testing. Since we intend to perform a portion of the clinical studies on certain of our therapeutic candidates in Israel, we will be required to obtain authorization from the ethics committee and general manager of each institution in which we intend to conduct our clinical trials, and in most cases, from the Israeli Ministry of Health.
 
Other Countries
 
In addition to regulations in the United States, the EU and Israel, we are subject to a variety of other regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of drugs in other countries. Whether or not our products receive approval from the FDA, approval of such products must be obtained by the comparable regulatory authorities of countries other than the United States before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials and product licensing vary greatly from country to country.
 
Related Matters
 
From time to time, legislation is drafted, introduced and passed in governmental bodies that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the approval, manufacturing and marketing of products regulated by the FDA or EMA and other applicable regulatory bodies to which we are subject. In addition, regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the national agency in ways that may significantly affect our business and our therapeutic candidates. It is impossible to predict whether such legislative changes will be enacted, whether FDA or EMA regulations, guidance or interpretations will change, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be. We may need to adapt our business and therapeutic candidates and products to changes that occur in the future.
 
Israeli Government Programs
 
Israel Innovation Authority
 
Research and Development Grants. A number of our therapeutic products have been financed, in part, through funding from the IIA in accordance with Research Law. Through December 31, 2018 we have received approximately $22.0 million in aggregate funding from the IIA and have paid the IIA approximately $6.3 million in royalties under our approved programs. As of December 31, 2018, we have no contingent obligation to the IIA other than for BL-8040. In connection with the in-licensing of BL-8040 from Biokine, and as a condition to IIA consent to the transaction, we agreed to abide by any obligations resulting from funds previously received by Biokine from the IIA. The contingent liability to the IIA assumed by us relating to this transaction (which liability has no relation to the funding actually received by us) amounts to $3.2 million as of December 31, 2018. We have a full right of offset for amounts payable to the IIA from payments that we may owe to Biokine in the future. Therefore, the likelihood of any payment obligation to the IIA with regard to the Biokine transaction is remote.
 
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Under the Research Law and the terms of the grants, royalties on the revenues derived from sales of products developed with the support of the IIA were payable to the Israeli government, generally at the rate of 3%  although these terms would be different if we were to receive IIA approval to manufacture or to transfer the rights to manufacture our products developed with IIA grants outside of Israel. The obligation to make these payments terminates upon repayment of the amount of the received grants as adjusted for fluctuation in the dollar/shekel exchange rate, plus interest and any additional amounts as described below. However, we could be required to pay an increased total amount of royalties (possibly up to 300% of the grant amounts plus interest) if we receive approval to manufacture or to transfer the rights to manufacture our products developed with IIA grants outside of Israel, depending on the portion of total manufacturing that was performed outside of Israel, as further described below, and we could be required to pay additional amounts in respect of the technology developed under these projects that was otherwise transferred outside of Israel, as further described below. The amounts received bear interest equal to the 12-month London Interbank Offered Rate applicable to dollar deposits that was published on the first business day of each calendar year.
 
Pursuant to the Research Law and the tracks published by the IIA, recipients of funding from the IIA are prohibited from manufacturing products developed using IIA grants or derived from technology developed with IIA grants outside of Israel and from transferring rights to manufacture such products outside of Israel. However, the IIA could, in special cases, approve the transfer of manufacture or of manufacturing rights of a product developed in an approved program or which resulted therefrom, outside of Israel. If we were to receive approval to manufacture or to transfer the rights to manufacture our products developed with IIA grants outside of Israel, we would be required to pay an increased total amount of royalties (possibly up to 300% of the grant amounts plus interest), depending on the portion of total manufacturing that was performed outside of Israel. In addition, the royalty rate applicable to us could possibly increase. Such increased royalties constituted the total repayment amount required in connection with the transfer of manufacturing rights of IIA-funded products outside Israel. The tracks published by the IIA do enable companies to seek prior approval for conducting manufacturing activities outside of Israel without being subject to increased royalties (but resulting in a lower grant amount); however, the IIA rarely granted such prior approval.
 
Under the Research Law and the tracks published by the IIA, we are prohibited from transferring or licensing our IIA-financed technologies, technologies derived therefrom and related intellectual property rights and know-how outside of Israel except under limited circumstances and only with the approval of the IIA and generally upon making a payment to the IIA. The required approvals may not be received for any proposed transfer and, if received, we could be required to pay the IIA an amount calculated in accordance with the applicable formula set out in the tracks published by the IIA. The scope of the support received, the royalties that we already paid to the IIA, the amount of time that elapsed between the date on which the technology was transferred and the date on which the applicable project performance period for the IIA grants was completed, and the sale price and the form of transaction are to be taken into account in order to calculate the amount of the payment to the IIA. The repayment amount is subject to a maximum limit calculated in accordance with a formula set forth in guidelines published by the IIA. In addition, any decrease in the percentage of manufacture performed in Israel of any product or technology, as originally declared in the application to the IIA with respect to the product or technology, could require us to notify, or to obtain the approval of, the IIA, and could result in increased royalty payments to the IIA of up to 300% of the total grant amounts received in connection with the product or technology, plus interest, depending on the portion of total manufacturing that was performed outside of Israel.
 
Approval of the transfer or license of technology to residents of Israel is required and could be granted in specific circumstances, only if the recipient agreed to abide by the provisions of applicable laws, including the restrictions on the transfer of know-how and the obligation to pay royalties.
 
The State of Israel does not own intellectual property rights in technology developed with IIA funding and there is no restriction on the export of products manufactured using technology and know-how developed with IIA funding. The technology and know-how is, however, subject to transfer of technology and manufacturing rights restrictions as described above.
 
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Israel Ministry of Health
 
Israel’s Ministry of Health, which regulates medical testing, has adopted protocols that correspond, generally, to those of the FDA and the EMA, making it comparatively straightforward for studies conducted in Israel to satisfy FDA and the EMA requirements, thereby enabling medical technologies subjected to clinical trials in Israel to reach U.S. and EU commercial markets in an expedited fashion. Many members of Israel’s medical community have earned international prestige in their chosen fields of expertise and routinely collaborate, teach and lecture at leading medical centers throughout the world. Israel also has free trade agreements with the United States and the EU.
 
C. Organizational Structure
 
Our corporate structure consists of BioLineRx Ltd., a substantially wholly-owned U.K. subsidiary, Agalimmune Ltd., and one wholly-owned inactive subsidiary, BioLineRx USA Inc.
 
D. Property, Plant and Equipment
 
We are headquartered in Modi’in, Israel. The facility consists of 1,663 square meters (approximately 17,900 square feet) of space and lease payments are approximately $31,000 per month, including maintenance fees and parking. This facility houses both our administrative and research operations and our central laboratory. The central laboratory consists of approximately 380 square meters (approximately 4,200 square feet) and includes a bioanalytical laboratory, a formulation laboratory and a tissue culture laboratory. Our bioanalytical laboratory has received GLP certification. All of our employees are based in this facility.
 
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
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ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
 
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, particularly those in “Item 3. Key Information Risk Factors.”
 
 
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical development company with a strategic focus on oncology. Our current development and commercialization pipeline consists of two clinical-stage therapeutic candidates − BL-8040, a novel peptide for the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors and stem cell mobilization, and AGI-134, an immuno-oncology agent in development for solid tumors. In addition, we have an off-strategy, legacy therapeutic product called BL-5010 for the treatment of skin lesions. We have generated our pipeline by systematically identifying, rigorously validating and in-licensing therapeutic candidates that we believe exhibit a high probability of therapeutic and commercial success. Our strategy includes commercializing our therapeutic candidates through out-licensing arrangements with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and evaluating, on a case by case basis, the commercialization of our therapeutic candidates independently.
 
A. Operating Results
 
History of Losses
 
Since our inception in 2003, we have generated significant losses in connection with our research and development. As of December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $222.5 million. We may continue to generate losses in connection with the research and development activities relating to our pipeline of therapeutic candidates. Such research and development activities are budgeted to expand over time and will require further resources if we are to be successful. As a result, we expect to continue to incur operating losses, which may be substantial over the next several years, and we expect to need to obtain additional funds to further pursue our research and development programs.
 
We have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities (both in public and private offerings), payments received under our strategic licensing and collaboration arrangements, interest earned on investments and funding received from the IIA. We expect to continue to fund our operations over the next several years through our existing cash resources, potential future upfront, milestone, royalty or other payments that we may receive from our existing out-licensing agreements, potential future upfront or milestone payments that we may receive from out-licensing transactions for our other therapeutic candidates, interest earned on our investments and additional capital to be raised through public or private equity offerings or debt financings. As of December 31, 2018, we held $30.2 million of cash, cash equivalents and short-term bank deposits. In February 2019, we completed a public offering of ADSs and warrants for net proceeds of $14.1 million.
 
Revenues
 
Our revenues to date have been generated primarily from milestone payments under current and previously existing out-licensing agreements.
 
We expect our revenues for the next several years to be derived primarily from payments under collaboration and partnering arrangements, including future royalties on product sales.
 
Research and Development
 
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses, fees paid to external service providers, up-front and milestone payments under our license agreements, patent-related legal fees, costs of preclinical studies and clinical trials, drug and laboratory supplies and costs for facilities and equipment. We primarily use external service providers to manufacture our product candidates for clinical trials and for the majority of our preclinical and clinical development work. We charge all research and development expenses to operations as they are incurred. We expect our research and development expense to remain our primary expense in the near future as we continue to develop our therapeutic candidates.
 
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The following table identifies our current pipeline projects:
 
Project
Status Expected Near Term Milestones
 
BL-8040
             
1.  Phase 2a study for relapsed or refractory AML completed 1. Follow-up for overall survival is ongoing; evaluation and decision regarding next clinical development steps
       
2.  Phase 2b study in AML consolidation treatment line (BLAST) ongoing 2.  Possible interim results in H2 2019; top-line results expected in 2021
       
3. Phase 2 study in allogeneic stem cell mobilization completed 3.  Follow-up on chronic GvHD by H2 2019
       
4.
 
Phase 2a in pancreatic cancer under Merck collaboration (COMBAT/KEYNOTE-202) ongoing; top-line results from dual combination arm announced in October 2018
4.
 
Top-line results from triple combination arm expected in H2 2019; overall survival results expected in 2020
 
       
5. Phase 2b study in pancreatic cancer, in collaboration with MD Anderson Cancer Center, ongoing 5.  Partial results from this study are anticipated in H1 2019; top-line results expected in 2020
       
6. Phase 1b/2 study in AML, in collaboration with Genentech (BATTLE), ongoing 6. Top-line results expected in 2021
       
7. 
 
Phase 1b/2 studies in pancreatic and gastric cancer, under collaboration with Genentech (MORPHEUS) ongoing
7.
 
Top-line results in 2019
 
       
 
8.
 
Phase 3 registration study in autologous stem cell mobilization commenced (GENESIS); partial results from initial dose-confirmation, lead-in part of study announced August 2018
8.
 
Top-line results from randomized, placebo-controlled main part of study expected in H2 2020
 
         
AGI-134
 
Phase 1/2a study commenced in July 2018
 
Initial safety results from part 1 of study in H2 2019; initial efficacy results of monotherapy arm from part 2 of study expected by end of 2020
BL-5010
 
Out-licensed to Perrigo; CE mark approval obtained; commercial launch of first OTC indication in Europe
 
Launch of improved product during 2019; pursuit of potential out-licensing partner(s) for OTC and non-OTC rights still held by us
 
 
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We expect that a large percentage of our research and development expense in the future will be incurred in support of our current and future preclinical and clinical development projects. Due to the inherently unpredictable nature of preclinical and clinical development processes and given the early stage of our preclinical product development projects, we are unable to estimate with any certainty the costs we will incur in the continued development of the therapeutic candidates in our pipeline for potential commercialization. Clinical development timelines, the probability of success and development costs can differ materially from expectations. We expect to continue to test our product candidates in preclinical studies for toxicology, safety and efficacy, and to conduct additional clinical trials for each product candidate. If we are not able to enter into an out-licensing arrangement with respect to any therapeutic candidate prior to the commencement of later stage clinical trials, we may fund the trials for the therapeutic candidate ourselves.
 
While we are currently focused on advancing each of our product development projects, our future research and development expenses will depend on the clinical success of each therapeutic candidate, as well as ongoing assessments of each therapeutic candidate’s commercial potential. In addition, we cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which therapeutic candidates may be subject to future out-licensing arrangements, when such out-licensing arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements. See “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors — If we or our licensees are unable to obtain U.S. and/or foreign regulatory approval for our therapeutic candidates, we will be unable to commercialize our therapeutic candidates.”
 
As we obtain results from clinical trials, we may elect to discontinue or delay clinical trials for certain therapeutic candidates or projects in order to focus our resources on more promising therapeutic candidates or projects. Completion of clinical trials by us or our licensees may take several years or more, but the length of time generally varies according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use of a therapeutic candidate.
 
The cost of clinical trials may vary significantly over the life of a project as a result of differences arising during clinical development, including, among others:
 
the number of sites included in the clinical trials;
 
the length of time required to enroll suitable patients;
 
the cost of drug substance/product manufacturing, storage and shipment;
 
the number of patients that participate in the clinical trials;
 
the duration of patient follow-up;
 
whether the patients require hospitalization or can be treated on an out-patient basis;
 
the development stage of the therapeutic candidate; and
 
the efficacy and safety profile of the therapeutic candidate.
 
We expect our research and development expenses to remain our most significant cost as we continue the advancement of our clinical trials and preclinical product development projects and place significant emphasis on in-licensing new product candidates. The lengthy process of completing clinical trials and seeking regulatory approval for our product candidates requires expenditure of substantial resources. Any failure or delay in completing clinical trials, or in obtaining regulatory approvals, could cause a delay in generating product revenue and cause our research and development expenses to increase and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our operations. Due to the factors set forth above, we are not able to estimate with any certainty when we would recognize any net cash inflows from our projects.
 
Sales and Marketing Expenses
 
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of compensation for employees in business development and marketing functions. Other significant sales and marketing costs include costs for marketing and communication materials, professional fees for outside market research and consulting, legal services related to partnering transactions and travel costs.
 
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General and Administrative Expenses
 
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation for employees in executive and operational functions, including accounting, finance, legal, investor relations, information technology and human resources. Other significant general and administration costs include facilities costs, professional fees for outside accounting and legal services, travel costs, insurance premiums and depreciation.
 
Non-Operating Expense and Income
 
Non-operating expense and income includes fair-value adjustments of derivative liabilities on account of the warrants issued in direct placements which we conducted in 2013 and 2017 and in a debt financing in 2018. These fair-value adjustments are highly influenced by our share price at each period end (revaluation date). Non-operating expense and income also includes the pro-rata share of issuance expenses from the private and direct placements related to the warrants, as well as the capital gain from realization of our investment in iPharma, a joint venture our holdings in which we sold in April 2018. Sales-based royalties and other revenue from the license agreement with Perrigo have also been included as part of non-operating income, as the out-licensed product is not an integral part of our strategy and the amounts are not material.
 
Financial Expense and Income
 
Financial expense and income consist of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents and short-term bank deposits; interest expense related to our loan from Kreos Capital; bank fees and other transactional costs. In addition, it may also include gains/losses on foreign exchange hedging transactions, which we carry out from time to time to protect against a portion of our NIS-denominated expenses (primarily compensation) in relation to the dollar.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
We describe our significant accounting policies more fully in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018. We believe that the accounting policies below are critical for one to fully understand and evaluate our financial condition and results of operations.
 
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which we prepare in accordance with IFRS. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates using assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate such estimates, including those described in greater detail below. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which impact the carrying value of our assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results will differ from these estimates and such differences may be significant.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenues in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards No. 15, or IFRS 15. IFRS 15, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” which was issued in May 2014, amends revenue recognition requirements and establishes principles for reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The standard replaces International Auditing Standard, or IAS, 18, “Revenue” and IAS 11, “Construction Contracts” and related interpretations. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, and we have adopted it as of that date.
 
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IFRS 15 introduces a five-step model for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers, as follows:
 
·
identify the contract with a customer;
 
·
identify the performance obligations in the contract;
 
·
determine the transaction price;
 
·
allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
 
·
recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
 
Accrued Expenses
 
We are required to estimate accrued expenses as part of our process of preparing financial statements. This process involves estimating the level of service performed on our behalf and the associated cost incurred in instances where we have not been invoiced or otherwise notified of actual costs. Examples of areas in which subjective judgments may be required include costs associated with services provided by contract organizations for preclinical development, clinical trials and manufacturing of clinical materials. We account for expenses associated with these external services by determining the total cost of a given study based on the terms of the related contract. We accrue for costs incurred as the services are being provided by monitoring the status of the trials and the invoices received from our external service providers. In the case of clinical trials, the estimated cost normally relates to the projected costs of treating the patients in our trials, which we recognize over the estimated term of the trial according to the number of patients enrolled in the trial on an ongoing basis, beginning with patient enrollment. As actual costs become known to us, we adjust our accruals.
 
Investments in Financial Assets
 
The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while maximizing the income that we receive from our investments without significantly increasing risk and loss. Our investments are exposed to market risk due to fluctuations in interest rates, which may affect our interest income and the fair market value of our investments. We manage this exposure by performing ongoing evaluations of our investments. Due to the short-term maturities of our investments to date, their carrying value has always approximated their fair value.
 
A financial asset is classified in this category if our management has designated it as a financial asset upon initial recognition, because it is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair-value basis in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy. Our investment policy with regard to excess cash, as adopted by our Board of Directors, is composed of the following objectives: (i) preserving investment principal; (ii) providing liquidity; and (iii) providing optimum yields pursuant to the policy guidelines and market conditions. The policy provides detailed guidelines as to the securities and other financial instruments in which we are allowed to invest. In addition, in order to maintain liquidity, investments are structured to provide flexibility to liquidate at least 50% of all investments within 15 business days. Information about these assets, including details of the portfolio and income earned, is provided internally on a quarterly basis to our key management personnel and on a semi-annual basis to the Investment Monitoring Committee of our Board of Directors. Any divergence from this investment policy requires approval from our Board of Directors.
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Stock-based Compensation
 
We account for stock-based compensation arrangements in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 2. IFRS 2 requires companies to recognize stock compensation expense for awards of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of those awards (with limited exceptions). The cost is recognized as compensation expense over the life of the instruments, based upon the grant-date fair value of the equity or liability instruments issued. The fair value of our stock-based compensation grants is computed as of the grant date based on the Black-Scholes model, using the standard parameters established in that model including estimates relating to volatility of our stock, risk-free interest rates, estimated life of the equity instruments issued and the market price of our stock. As our ordinary shares are publicly traded on the TASE, we do not need to estimate their fair market value. Rather, we use the actual closing market price of our ordinary shares on the date of grant, as reported by the TASE.
 
Warrants
 
In connection with the direct placement to OrbiMed Israel Partners Limited Partnership of approximately 2.67 million of our ADSs in February 2013, we issued warrants to purchase 1.6 million of our ADSs at an exercise price of $3.94, subject to typical adjustments. The warrants were exercisable for a period of five years from the date of issuance. Since the exercise price was not deemed to be fixed, the warrants did not qualify for classification as an equity instrument and were therefore classified as a non-current financial liability. The warrants expired in February 2018 without having been exercised.
 
In connection with the direct placement to BVF Partners L.P., or BVF Partners, of 8,495,575 ADSs in July 2017, we issued (i) Series A warrants to purchase 2,973,451 ADSs at an exercise price of $2.00 per ADS and (ii) Series B warrants to purchase 2,973,451 ADSs at an exercise price of $4.00 per ADS. All the warrants are exercisable for a period of four years from the date of issuance. Since the exercise price was not deemed to be fixed, the warrants are not qualified for classification as an equity instrument and have therefore been classified as a non-current financial liability.
 
In connection with a loan transaction entered into with Kreos Capital, we issued a warrant to purchase 957,549 ADSs at an exercise price of $0.94 per ADS. The warrant is exercisable for a period of ten years from the date of issuance. Since the exercise price was not deemed to be fixed, the warrant is not qualified for classification as an equity instrument and has therefore been classified as a non-current financial liability.
 
In connection with a public offering we completed in February 2019, we issued warrants to purchase 28,000,000 ADSs at an exercise price of $0.75 per ADS. The warrants are exercisable for a period of five years from the date of issuance. Since the exercise price was not deemed to be fixed, the warrant is not qualified for classification as an equity instrument and has therefore been classified as a non-current financial liability.
 
Recent Accounting Changes and Pronouncements
 
There were no changes in the accounting policies applied by the Company during 2018, other than adoption of IFRS 15, as discussed above under “Revenue Recognition.”
 
For information concerning new standards and interpretations not yet adopted, see Note 2q to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018 included elsewhere in this report.
 
Results of Operations -- Overview
 
Revenues
 
We did not record any revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.
 
Cost of revenues
 
We did not record any cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.
 
Research and development expenses
 
At December 31, 2015, our drug development pipeline consisted of eight therapeutic candidates. During 2016, we added three compounds to our pipeline and discontinued the development of three compounds in our pipeline, so that our drug development pipeline as of December 31, 2016 consisted of eight therapeutic candidates. During 2017, we terminated two therapeutic candidates in our pipeline, and added one therapeutic candidate to the pipeline, so that our drug development pipeline as of December 31, 2017 consisted of seven therapeutic candidates. Subsequent to December 31, 2017, we terminated four therapeutic candidates in our pipeline, so that our drug development pipeline as of the date of this report consists of three therapeutic candidates.
 
66

Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2018 to the Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Research and development expenses
 
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $19.8 million, an increase of $0.3 million, or 1.5%, compared to $19.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The small increase resulted primarily from an increase in share-based compensation.
 
Sales and marketing expenses
 
Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $1.4 million, a decrease of $0.3 million, or 19.6%, compared to $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease resulted primarily from one-time legal fees related to AGI-134, as well as market research for BL-8040 and AGI-134 incurred in the 2017 period.
 
General and administrative expenses
 
General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 were $4.4 million, an increase of $0.4 million, or 9.9% compared to $4.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase resulted primarily from an increase in share-based compensation.
 
Non-operating income (expense), net
 
We recognized net non-operating income of $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to net non-operating expenses of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Non-operating income for the year ended December 31, 2018 primarily relate to fair-value adjustments of warrant liabilities on our balance sheet and the capital gain from realization of our investment in iPharma. Non-operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 primarily relate to fair-value adjustments of warrant liabilities on our balance sheet. These fair-value adjustments were highly influenced by our share price at each period end (revaluation date).
 
Financial income (expense), net
 
We recognized net financial income of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to net financial income of $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net financial income for the year ended December 31, 2018 primarily relates to investment income earned on our bank deposits, offset by interest paid on loans. Net financial income for the year ended December 31, 2017 relates primarily to gains recorded on foreign currency hedging transactions and investment income earned on our bank deposits.
 
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2017 to the Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Research and development expenses
 
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $19.5 million, an increase of $8.3 million, or 74.6%, compared to $11.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase resulted primarily from higher expenses in 2017 associated with new BL-8040 clinical studies commenced during the third quarter of 2016 and during 2017, as well as spending on our new AGI-134 near-clinical project.
 
Sales and marketing expenses
 
Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $1.7 million, an increase of $0.3 million, or 25.2%, compared to $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase resulted primarily from one-time legal fees related to AGI-134.
67

General and administrative expenses
 
General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $4.0 million, similar to those for the year ended December 31, 2016.
 
Non-operating income (expense), net
 
We recognized net non-operating expenses of $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net non-operating income of $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Non-operating expenses and income for both periods primarily relate to fair-value adjustments of warrant liabilities on our balance sheet. These fair-value adjustments were highly influenced by our share price at each period end (revaluation date).
 
Financial income (expense), net
 
We recognized net financial income of $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to net financial income of $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in net financial income relates primarily to gains recorded on foreign currency hedging transactions and higher investment income due to higher levels of cash and short-term bank deposits.
 
Quarterly Results of Operations
 
The following tables show our unaudited quarterly statements of operations for the periods indicated. We have prepared this quarterly information on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and we believe it includes all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the information shown. Operating results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of results for a full fiscal year.
 
   
Three Months Ended
 
   
March 31
   
June 30
   
Sept. 30
   
Dec. 31
   
March 31
   
June 30
   
Sept. 30
   
Dec. 31
 
   
2017
   
2018
 
   
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations
                                               
Revenues          
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
Cost of revenues          
   
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
 
Research and development expenses
   
(3,590
)
   
(4,062
)
   
(5,654
)
   
(6,204
)
   
(5,070
)
   
(4,484
)
   
(5,027
)
   
(5,227
)
Sales and marketing expenses
   
(681
)
   
(288
)
   
(249
)
   
(475
)
   
(484
)
   
(360
)
   
(293
)
   
(225
)
General and administrative expenses
   
(1,030
)
   
(844
)
   
(1,154
)
   
(1,009
)
   
(1,075
)
   
(883
)
   
(892
)
   
(1,585
)
Operating loss          
   
(5,301
)
   
(5,194
)
   
(7,057
)
   
(7,688
)
   
(6,629
)
   
(5,727
)
   
(6,212
)
   
(7,037
)
Non-operating income (expenses), net
   
(5
)
   
(4
)
   
(333
)
   
82
     
462
     
663
     
(255
)
   
1,527
 
Financial income          
   
457
     
304
     
153
     
255
     
175
     
287
     
154
     
103
 
Financial expenses
   
(6
)
   
(3
)
   
(6
)
   
(6
)
   
(206
)
   
(11
)
   
(11
)
   
(245
)
Net loss
   
(4,855
)
   
(4,897
)
   
(7,243
)
   
(7,357
)
   
(6,198
     
(4,788
)
   
(6,324
)
   
(5,652
)
 
Our quarterly revenues and operating results of operations have varied in the past and can be expected to vary in the future due to numerous factors. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our operating results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as indications of future performance.
 
B. Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Since our inception, we have funded our operations primarily through public and private offerings of our equity securities, payments received under our strategic licensing and collaboration arrangements, interest earned on investments and funding from the IIA. At December 31, 2018, we held $30.2 million in cash, cash equivalents and short-term bank deposits. In February 2019, we completed a public offering of ADSs and warrants for net proceeds of $14.1 million. We have invested substantially all of our available cash funds in short-term bank deposits.
 
Pursuant to the ATM program we executed with BTIG in October 2017, we may, in our discretion and from time to time, offer and sell through BTIG, acting as sales agent, our ADSs having an aggregate offering price of up to $30 million. From the effective date of the agreement through December 31, 2018, we sold 5,439,203 of our ADSs under the program for total gross proceeds of approximately $5.1 million, leaving an available balance under the facility of approximately $24.9 million.
 
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Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $24.2 million, compared to $20.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 and $14.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The $3.7 million increase in 2018 was the result of a decrease in accounts payable and an increase in prepaid expenses and other receivables. The $6.0 million increase in 2017 was primarily the result of increased research and development expenses.
 
Net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $9.6 million, compared to net cash used in investing activities of $15.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 and net cash provided by investing activities of $9.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The changes in cash flows from investing activities relate primarily to investments in, and maturities of, short-term bank deposits during the respective periods, as well as the acquisition of Agalimmune in 2017, the acquisition of an additional 20% of the BL-8040 sublicense receipts in 2018, and the realization of our investment in iPharma during 2018 as well.
 
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $13.1 million, compared to $38.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 and $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The cash flows in 2018 primarily reflect the net proceeds of the loan from Kreos Capital, as well as net proceeds from the ATM program. The cash flows in 2017 primarily reflect the underwritten public offering of our ADSs in March 2017 and the direct placement of ADSs and warrants to BVF Partners in July 2017. The cash flows in 2016 primarily reflect the funding under a share purchase agreement with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC.
 
Developing drugs, conducting clinical trials and commercializing products is expensive and we will need to raise substantial additional funds to achieve our strategic objectives. Although we believe our existing cash and other resources will be sufficient to fund our projected cash requirements into 2021, we will require significant additional financing in the future to fund our operations. Additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
 
the progress and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities;
 
the scope, prioritization and number of our clinical trials and other research and development programs;
 
the amount of revenues we receive under our collaboration or licensing arrangements;
 
the costs of the development and expansion of our operational infrastructure;
 
the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approval of our therapeutic candidates;
 
the ability of our collaborators to achieve development milestones, marketing approval and other events or developments under our collaboration agreements;
 
the costs of filing, prosecuting, enforcing and defending patent claims and other intellectual property rights;
 
the costs and timing of securing manufacturing arrangements for clinical or commercial production;
 
the costs of establishing sales and marketing capabilities or contracting with third parties to provide these capabilities for us;
 
the costs of acquiring or undertaking development and commercialization efforts for any future product candidates;
 
the magnitude of our general and administrative expenses;
 
interest and principal payments on the loan from Kreos Capital;
 
any cost that we may incur under current and future licensing arrangements relating to our therapeutic candidates; and
 
payments to the IIA.
 
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Until we can generate significant continuing revenues, we expect to satisfy our future cash needs through payments received under our collaborations, debt or equity financings, or by out-licensing other product candidates. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
 
If funds are not available, we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs or our commercialization efforts.
 
C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses
 
For our research and development policies, see “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Business Overview — Our Strategy.” For information regarding patents, see Item 4 — Information on the Company — Intellectual Property.” For information regarding licenses, see “Item 4 — Information on the Company — Collaboration and Out-Licensing Arrangements” and Item 4 — Information on the Company — In-Licensing Agreements.”
 
D. Trend Information
 
We are a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the development of our therapeutic candidates. It is not possible for us to predict with any degree of accuracy the outcome of our research and development or commercialization efforts with regard to any of our therapeutic candidates. Our research and development expenditure is our primary expenditure, although we may incur substantial expenditure should we acquire any new therapeutic candidates. Increases or decreases in research and development expenditure are primarily attributable to the level and results of our preclinical and clinical trial activities and the amount of expenditure on those trials.
 
E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
Since our inception, we have not entered into any transactions with unconsolidated entities whereby we have financial guarantees, subordinated retained interests, derivative instruments or other contingent arrangements that expose us to material continuing risks, contingent liabilities, or any other obligations under a variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides us with financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support.
 
F. Contractual Obligations
 
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations at December 31, 2018:

   
Total
   
Less than
1 year
   
1-3 years
   
4-5 years
   
More than
5 years
 
   
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
 
                               
Car leasing obligations          
   
372
     
214
     
158
     
     
 
Premises leasing obligations          
   
517
     
340
     
177
     
     
 
Purchase commitments          
   
13,303
     
6,369
     
6,922
     
12
     
 
Total          
   
14,192
     
6,923
     
7,257
     
12
     
 
 
The premises leasing obligations in the foregoing table include our commitments under the lease agreement for our facility in Modi’in. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Property, Plant and Equipment.” The term of the lease began on June 15, 2015 and will end June 30, 2020. The lease agreement grants us three options to extend the lease at our discretion, allowing us to continue leasing for an additional 10 years through June 30, 2030.  Currently, we are obligated to pay monthly rental payments of $21,000 and monthly parking charges of $2,000. We are furthermore obligated to pay building maintenance charges of approximately $8,000 per month.
 
The foregoing table does not include our in-licensing agreements. Under our in-licensing agreements, we are obligated to make certain payments to our licensors upon the achievement of agreed-upon milestones. We are unable at this time to estimate the actual amount or timing of the costs we will incur in the future under these agreements; however, we do not expect any material financial milestone obligations to be achieved within the next 12 months. Some of the in-licensing agreements are accompanied by consulting, support and cooperation agreements, pursuant to which we are required to pay the licensors a fixed monthly amount, over a period stipulated in the applicable agreement, for their assistance in the continued research and development under the applicable license. All of our in-licensing agreements are terminable at-will by us upon prior written notice of 30 to 90 days. We are unable at this time to estimate the actual amount or timing of the costs we will incur in the future under these agreements. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Business Overview — In-Licensing Agreements.”
 
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ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES
 
A. Executive Officers and Directors
 
The following table sets forth information for our executive officers and directors as of March 25, 2019. Unless otherwise stated, the address for our directors and officers is c/o BioLineRx Ltd., 2 HaMa’ayan Street, Modi’in 7177871, Israel.
 
Name
 
Age
 
Position(s)
         
Philip A. Serlin, CPA, MBA
 
58
 
Chief Executive Officer
         
Mali Zeevi, CPA          
 
43
 
Chief Financial Officer
         
Hillit Mannor Shachar, M.D., MBA, M.S.F.S.(1)
 
48
 
Vice President Business Development
         
Ella Sorani, Ph.D.          
 
51
 
Vice President Research and Development
         
Abi Vainstein-Haras, M.D.
 
44
 
Vice President Clinical Development
         
Aharon Schwartz, Ph.D.          
 
76
 
Chairman of the Board
         
Michael J. Anghel, Ph.D.          
 
79
 
Director
         
Nurit Benjamini, MBA          
 
52
 
External Director
         
B.J. Bormann, Ph.D.
 
60
 
Director
         
Raphael Hofstein, Ph.D.          
 
69
 
Director
         
Avraham Molcho, M.D.          
 
61
 
External Director
         
Sandra Panem, Ph.D.
 
72
 
Director
 
  (1)
As of April 3, 2019, Dr. Shachar will be departing the Company. Philip Serlin, our Chief Executive Officer, will manage our business development efforts on an interim basis. As of the date of this report, we are meeting with potential candidates in order to fill the position.
 
Philip A. Serlin, CPA, MBA, has served as our Chief Executive Officer since October 2016. From May 2009 to October 2016, Mr. Serlin served as our Chief Financial and Operating Officer. From January 2008 to August 2008, Mr. Serlin served as the Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer of Kayote Networks Inc. From January 2006 to December 2007, he served as the Chief Financial Officer of Tescom Software Systems Testing Ltd., an IT services company publicly traded in both Tel Aviv and London. His background also includes senior positions at Chiaro Networks Ltd. and at Deloitte, where he was head of the SEC and U.S. Accounting Department at the National Office in Tel Aviv, as well as seven years at the SEC at its Washington, D.C., headquarters. Mr. Serlin is a CPA and holds a B.Sc. in accounting from Yeshiva University and a Master’s degree in economics and public policy from The George Washington University.
 
Mali Zeevi, CPA, has served as our Chief Financial Officer since October 2016. Prior to becoming Chief Financial Officer, Ms. Zeevi served as our Senior Director of Finance and Reporting beginning in 2011 and as our Director of Finance and Reporting beginning in 2009. Before joining BioLineRx, Ms. Zeevi was employed by Tescom Software Systems Testing Ltd., her last position there being Vice President Finance. Ms. Zeevi also served as a CPA at Kesselman & Kesselman, a member firm of PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited. She holds a B.A. in business and accountancy from the College of Management Academic Studies in Israel.
 
71


 
Ella Sorani, Ph.D., has served as our Vice President Research and Development since February 2017. Before joining BioLineRx, from 2000 through 2016, Dr. Sorani served in a number of management positions in the global R&D division at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. In her most recent position as Senior Director and Global Project Leader, Dr. Sorani led the development of one of Teva’s leading innovative late stage compounds. Dr. Sorani holds a B.Sc. in chemistry and an M.Sc. and Ph.D. in pharmacology, all from Tel Aviv University.
 
Abi Vainstein-Haras, M.D., has served as our Vice President Clinical Development since January 2017. From June 2014 to January 2017, Dr. Vainstein-Haras served as our Senior Medical Director responsible for the clinical development of all our clinical phase projects. Prior to joining the Company, from 2012 to 2014, she served as the Director and Clinical Program Leader for COPAXONE® at Teva, and from 2007 to 2012, she served in several medical positions in Innovative R&D at Teva. Dr. Vainstein-Haras holds an M.D. from the University of Buenos Aires and is licensed to practice medicine in Israel.
 
Aharon Schwartz, Ph.D., has served as the Chairman of our Board of Directors since 2004. He served in a number of positions in Teva from 1975 through 2011, the most recent being Vice President, Head of Teva Innovative Ventures from 2008. Dr. Schwartz is currently a member of the board of directors of Protalix Ltd. (NYSE American:PLX), Foamix Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (NASDAQ:FOMX) and Barcode Ltd. He also works as an independent consultant. Dr. Schwartz received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Weizmann Institute, his M.Sc. in organic chemistry from the Technion and a B.Sc. in chemistry and physics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In addition, Dr. Schwartz holds a Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in the history and philosophy of science.
 
Michael J. Anghel, Ph.D., has served on our Board of Directors since 2010 and on our Investment Monitoring Committee since 2010. From 1977 to 1999, he led the Discount Investment Corporation Ltd. (of the IDB Group) activities in the fields of technology and communications. Dr. Anghel was instrumental in founding Tevel, one of the first Israeli cable television operators and later in founding Cellcom Israel Ltd. (NYSE:CEL), the second Israeli cellular operator. In 1999, he founded CAP Ventures, an advanced technology investment company. From 2004 to 2005, Dr. Anghel served as CEO of DCM, the investment banking arm of the Israel Discount Bank (TASE:DSCT). Over the years Dr. Anghel has been involved in founding and managing various technology enterprises and has served on the Boards of Directors of various major Israeli corporations and financial institutions, many of them publicly traded in the U.S. and Israel. During the past fiscal year, he completed his tenure as director for 12 years on the board of Partner Communications Company, Ltd. (Nasdaq:PTNR, TASE:PTNR), and a tenure of 9 years as a director on the board of the Strauss Group Ltd. (TASE:STRS). Dr. Anghel currently continues to serve as a director of Orbotech Ltd. (Nasdaq:ORBK), and of LUMUS-Optical Ltd. Prior to launching his business career, Dr. Anghel served as a full-time member of the faculty of the Recanati Graduate School of Business Administration of the Tel Aviv University, where he taught finance and corporate strategy. He currently serves as Chairman of the Tel Aviv University’s Executive Program. Dr. Anghel holds a B.A. (Economics) from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and an MBA and Ph.D. (Finance) from Columbia University, New York.
 
Nurit Benjamini, MBA, has served as an external director on our Board of Directors and as the chairperson of our Audit Committee of our Board of Directors since 2010. In addition, Ms. Benjamini has served on our Investment Monitoring Committee since 2010 and on our Compensation Committee since 2012. Since December 2013, Ms. Benjamini has served as the Chief Financial Officer of TabTale Ltd. a company that creates fresh mobile content for everyone. From 2011 to 2013, Ms. Benjamini served as the Chief Financial Officer of Wix.com Ltd. (Nasdaq:WIX); from 2007 through 2011, she served as the Chief Financial Officer of CopperGate Communications Ltd. (now Sigma Designs Israel Ltd., a subsidiary of Sigma Designs Inc. (Nasdaq:SIGM)); and from 2000 through 2007, she served as the Chief Financial Officer of Compugen Ltd. (Nasdaq: CGEN). Prior to that, from 1993 through 1998, Ms. Benjamini served as the Chief Financial Officer of Aladdin Knowledge Systems Ltd. (formerly Nasdaq: ALDN, TASE:ALDN). Ms. Benjamini serves on the board of directors, and as chairperson of the audit committee, of Allot Communications Ltd. (Nasdaq:ALLT, TASE:ALLT), RedHill Biopharma Ltd. (Nasdaq:RDHL, TASE:RDHL) and Gamida Cell Ltd. (Nasdaq:GMDA). Ms. Benjamini holds a B.A. in economics and business and an M.B.A. in finance, both from Bar Ilan University, Israel.
 
72

BJ Bormann, Ph.D., has served on our Board of Directors since August 2013. Dr. Bormann currently serves as the Vice President of Translational Science and Network Alliances at The Jackson Laboratory, a non-profit organization focused on the genetic basis of disease. Dr. Bormann was previously the Chief Executive Officer of Supportive Therapeutics, LLC, a Boston based company that is developing two molecules for use in the supportive care of oncology patients. In the past several years Dr. Bormann has held executive positions in several biotechnology companies including NanoMedical Systems (Austin, Texas), Harbour Antibodies (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and Pivot Pharmaceuticals (PVTF: OTC listed). Prior to these engagements, Dr. Bormann was Senior Vice President responsible for world-wide alliances, licensing and business development at Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 2007 to 2013. From 1996 to 2007, she served in a number of positions at Pfizer, Inc., the last one being Vice President of Pfizer Global Research and Development and world-wide Head of Strategic Alliances. Dr. Bormann serves on the board of directors of various companies, including Xeris Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:XERS). Dr. Bormann received her Ph.D. in biomedical science from the University of Connecticut Health Center and her B.Sc. from Fairfield University in biology. Dr. Bormann completed postdoctoral training at Yale Medical School in the department of pathology.
 
Raphael Hofstein, Ph.D., has served on our Board of Directors since 2003, our Audit Committee since 2007 and our Compensation Committee since 2012. Dr. Hofstein has served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of MaRS Innovation (a commercialization company for 15 of Toronto’s universities, institutions and research institutes plus the MaRS Discovery District) since June 2009. From 2000 through June 2009, Dr. Hofstein was the President and Chief Executive Officer of Hadasit Medical Research Services and Development Ltd., or Hadasit, the technology transfer company of Hadassah University Hospitals. He has served as chairman of the board of directors of Hadasit since 2006. Prior to joining Hadasit, Dr. Hofstein was the President of Mindsense Biosystems Ltd. and the Business Unit Director of Ecogen Inc. and has held a variety of other positions, including manager of R&D and chief of immunochemistry at the International Genetic Science Partnership. Dr. Hofstein serves on the board of directors of numerous companies. Dr. Hofstein received his Ph.D. and M.Sc. from the Weizmann Institute of Science, and his B.Sc. in chemistry and physics from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Dr. Hofstein completed postdoctoral training at Harvard Medical School in both the departments of biological chemistry and neurobiology.
 
Avraham Molcho, M.D., has served as an external director on our Board of Directors and on our Audit Committee since 2010. In addition, Dr. Molcho has served on our Compensation Committee since 2012. Dr. Molcho is the founder of Biolojic Design Ltd., a technology platform that encourages human antibody discoveries, and is a venture partner at Forbion Capital Partners, a Dutch life sciences venture capital firm. In 2012, he became the co-founder, Chief Executive Officer and director of Ayana Pharma Ltd. (formerly DoxoCure), a privately-held company engaged in the manufacturing of liposome-based therapeutics. From 2006 through 2008, Dr. Molcho served as the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Neovasc Medical, a privately-held Israeli medical device company. From 2001 through 2006, Dr. Molcho was a managing director and the head of life sciences of Giza Venture Capital and, in that capacity, was involved in the founding of our company. He was also the Deputy Director General of Abarbanel Mental Health Center, the largest acute psychiatric hospital in Israel, from 1999 to 2001. Dr. Molcho holds an M.D. from Tel-Aviv University School of Medicine and an MBA from Tel-Aviv University Recanati Business School.
 
Sandra Panem, Ph.D., has served on our Board of Directors since February 2014. She is currently a managing partner at Cross Atlantic Partners, which she joined in 2000. She is also co-founder and President of NeuroNetworks Fund, a not-for-profit venture capital fund focusing on epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. From 1994 to 1999, Dr. Panem was President of Vector Fund Management, the then asset management affiliate of Vector Securities International. Prior thereto, Dr. Panem served as Vice President and Portfolio Manager for the Oppenheimer Global BioTech Fund, a mutual fund that invested in public and private biotechnology companies. Previously, she was Vice President at Salomon Brothers Venture Capital, a fund focused on early and later-stage life sciences and technology investments. Dr. Panem was also a Science and Public Policy Fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution, and an Assistant Professor of Pathology at the University of Chicago. Dr. Panem currently serves on the board of directors of Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:ACOR). Previously, Dr. Panem served on numerous boards of public and private companies, including Martek Biosciences (Nasdaq:MATK), IBAH Pharmaceuticals (Nasdaq:IBAH), Confluent Surgical, Molecular Informatics and Labcyte, Inc. She received a B.S. in biochemistry and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Chicago.
 
73

B. Compensation
 
Employment Agreements
 
We have entered into written employment agreements with each of our executive officers, the terms of which are consistent with the provisions of our Compensation Policy for Executives and Directors, or Compensation Policy, which was approved by our shareholders in July 2016. All of these agreements contain customary provisions regarding noncompetition, confidentiality of information and assignment of inventions. However, the enforceability of the noncompetition provisions may be limited under applicable law.
 
In addition, we have entered into agreements with each executive officer and director pursuant to which we have agreed to indemnify each of them to the fullest extent permitted by law to the extent that these liabilities are not covered by directors’ and officers’ insurance. The terms of these agreements and of our directors’ and officers’ insurance are consistent with the provisions of the Compensation Policy.
 
Compensation of Directors and Senior Management
 
The following table presents in the aggregate all compensation we paid to all of our directors and senior management as a group for the year ended December 31, 2018. The table does not include any amounts we paid to reimburse any of such persons for costs incurred in providing us with services during this period.
 
   
Salaries, fees, commissions and bonuses
   
Pension, retirement, options and other similar benefits
 
   
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
 
All directors and senior management as a group, consisting of 13 persons
   
1,470
     
1,479
 
 
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In accordance with the Companies Law, the following table presents information regarding compensation actually received by our five most highly-paid executive officers during the year ended December 31, 2018.
 
Name and Position
Salary
Social Benefits(1)
Bonuses
Value of Options Granted(2)
All Other
Compensation(3)
Total
 
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Philip A. Serlin
Chief Executive Officer
254
69
119
381
23
846
Mali Zeevi
Chief Financial Officer
150
38
59
187
16
450
Hillit Mannor Shachar
Vice President Business Development
125
34
0
85
13
257
Abi Vainstein-Haras
Vice President Clinical Development
167
53
40
217
18
495
Ella Sorani
Vice President Research and Development
174
50
44
158
19
445
 
(1)
“Social Benefits” include payments to the National Insurance Institute, advanced education funds, managers’ insurance and pension funds, vacation pay and recuperation pay as mandated by Israeli law.

(2)
Consists of amounts recognized as share-based compensation expense on the Company’s statement of comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2018.

(3)
“All Other Compensation” includes automobile-related expenses pursuant to the Company’s automobile leasing program, telephone, basic health insurance and holiday presents.
 
For additional information concerning our equity compensation plan, see “— Beneficial Ownership of Executive Officers and Directors — Equity Compensation Plan.
 
C. Board Practices
 
Board of Directors
 
According to the Companies Law, the management of our business is vested in our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors may exercise all powers and may take all actions that are not specifically granted to our shareholders. Our executive officers are responsible for our day-to-day management and have individual responsibilities established by our Board of Directors. Executive officers are appointed by and serve at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to any applicable employment agreements we have entered into with the executive officers.
 
Under the Companies Law, we are not required to have a majority of independent directors. We are required to appoint at least two external directors, unless we qualify as an Eligible Company (as defined below) and opt to follow an exemption provided under the Relief Regulations (as defined below). See “— External Directors.”
 
According to our Articles of Association, our Board of Directors must consist of at least five and not more than 10 directors, including external directors. Currently, our Board of Directors consists of seven directors, including two external directors as required by the Companies Law. Pursuant to our Articles of Association, other than the external directors, for whom special election requirements apply under the Companies Law (unless the company is an Eligible Company and opted to follow the exemption provided under the Relief Regulations regarding appointment of external directors and composition of the audit and compensation committees) as detailed below, our directors are elected at a general or special meeting of our shareholders and serve on the Board of Directors until they are removed by the majority of our shareholders at a general or special meeting of our shareholders or upon the occurrence of certain events, in accordance with the Companies Law and our Articles of Association. In addition, our Articles of Association allow our Board of Directors to appoint directors, other than external directors, to fill vacancies on the Board of Directors to serve until the next general meeting or special meeting, or earlier if required by our Articles of Association or applicable law. We have held elections for each of our non-external directors at each annual meeting of our shareholders since our initial public offering in Israel. External directors are elected for an initial term of three years and may be elected, under certain conditions, to two additional terms, although the term of office for external directors for Israeli companies traded on certain foreign stock exchanges, including Nasdaq, may be further extended under certain conditions. External directors may be removed from office only pursuant to the terms of the Companies Law. Our last annual meeting of shareholders was held in July 2017. For additional information concerning external directors, see “— External Directors.”
 
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The Companies Law provides that an Israeli company may, under certain circumstances, exculpate an office holder from liability with respect to a breach of his duty of care toward the company if appropriate provisions allowing such exculpation are included in its articles of association. See “— Exculpation, insurance and indemnification of office holders.” Our Articles of Association contain such provisions, and we have entered into agreements with each of our office holders undertaking to indemnify them to the fullest extent permitted by law, including with respect to liabilities resulting from this offering to the extent that these liabilities are not covered by insurance.
 
In accordance with the exemption available to foreign private issuers under applicable Nasdaq rules, we do not follow the requirements of the Nasdaq Rules with regard to the process of nominating directors, and instead follow Israeli law and practice, in accordance with which our Board of Directors is authorized to recommend to our shareholders director nominees for election, and, in some circumstances, our shareholders may nominate candidates for election as directors by the shareholders’ general meeting.
 
In addition, under the Companies Law, our Board of Directors must determine the minimum number of directors who are required to have financial and accounting expertise. Under applicable regulations, a director with financial and accounting expertise is a director who, by reason of his or her education, professional experience and skill, has a high level of proficiency in and understanding of business accounting matters and financial statements. He or she must be able to thoroughly comprehend the financial statements of the listed company and initiate debate regarding the manner in which financial information is presented. In determining the number of directors required to have such expertise, a company’s board of directors must consider, among other things, the type and size of the company and the scope and complexity of its operations. Our Board of Directors has determined that we require at least one director with the requisite financial and accounting expertise. Ms. Nurit Benjamini and Dr. Michael J. Anghel have such financial and accounting expertise.
 
The term office holder is defined in the Companies Law as a general manager, chief business manager, deputy general manager, vice general manager, executive vice president, vice president, or any other person assuming the responsibilities of any of the foregoing positions, without regard to such person’s title, or a director or any other manager directly subordinate to the general manager. Each person listed above under “Executive Officers and Directors” is an office holder under the Companies Law.
 
Chairman of the Board. Under the Companies Law, a person cannot hold the role of both chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer of a company, without shareholder approval by special majority and for periods of time not exceeding three years each. Furthermore, a person who is directly or indirectly subordinate to a chief executive officer of a company may not serve as the chairman of the board of directors of that company and the chairman of the board of directors may not otherwise serve in any other capacity in a company or in a subsidiary of that company other than as the chairman of the board of directors of such a subsidiary.
 
External Directors
 
Under Israeli law, the boards of directors of companies whose shares are publicly traded are required to include at least two members who qualify as external directors. Each of our current external directors, Dr. Avraham Molcho and Ms. Nurit Benjamini, was elected as an external director by our shareholders in July 2010. Their second terms expired in July 2016, at which time they were each re-elected by the shareholders of the Company for a third three-year term as external directors.
 
External directors must be elected by majority vote of the shares present and voting at a shareholders meeting, provided that either:
 
the majority of the shares that are voted at the meeting, including at least a majority of the shares held by non-controlling shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the election of the external director (other than a personal interest not deriving from a relationship with a controlling shareholder) who voted at the meeting, excluding abstentions, vote in favor of the election of the external director; or
 
the total number of shares held by non-controlling, disinterested shareholders (as described in the preceding bullet point) that are voted against the election of the external director does not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.
 
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After an initial term of three years, external directors may be re-elected to serve in that capacity for up to two additional terms of three years provided that either (a) the board of directors has recommended such re-election and such re-election is approved by a majority vote at a shareholders’ meeting, subject to the conditions described above for election of external directors, (b) (1) the re-election has been recommended by one or more shareholders holding at least 1% of the company’s voting rights and is approved by a majority of non-controlling, disinterested shareholders who hold among them at least 2% of the company’s voting rights; and (2) the external director who has been nominated in such fashion by the shareholders is not a linked or competing shareholder, and does not have or has not had, on or within the two years preceding the date of such person’s appointment to serve as another term as external director, any affiliation with a linked or competing shareholder, or (c) the external director has proposed himself for reappointment and the reappointment was approved by the majority described in (b)(1) above. The term “linked or competing shareholder” means the shareholder(s) who nominated the external director for reappointment or a material shareholder of the company holding more than 5% of the shares in the company, provided that at the time of the reappointment, such shareholder(s) of the company, the controlling shareholder of such shareholder(s) of the company, or a company under such shareholder(s) of the company’s control, has a business relationship with the company or are competitors of the company; the Israeli Minister of Justice, in consultation with the Israeli Securities Authority, or ISA, may determine that certain matters will not constitute a business relationship or competition with the company. The term of office for external directors for Israeli companies traded on certain foreign stock exchanges, including Nasdaq, may be extended beyond the initial three terms permitted under the Companies Law indefinitely in increments of additional three-year terms, provided in each case that the following conditions are met: (a) the audit committee and the board of directors confirm that, in light of the external director’s expertise and special contribution to the work of the board of directors and its committees, the re-election for such additional period(s) is beneficial to the company; (b) the re-election is approved by the shareholders by a special majority required for the re-election of external directors; and (c) the term of office of the external director, and the considerations of the audit committee and the board of directors in deciding to recommend re-election of the external director for such additional term of office, are presented to the shareholders prior to the vote on re-election. External directors may be removed from office by the same percentage of shareholders required for their election or by a court, in each case, only under limited circumstances, including ceasing to meet the statutory qualification for appointment or violating the duty of loyalty to the company. If an external directorship becomes vacant and there are less than two external directors on the board of directors at the time, then the board of directors is required under the Companies Law to call a shareholders’ meeting immediately to appoint a replacement external director. Each committee of the board of directors that exercises the powers of the board of directors must include at least one external director (unless the company is an Eligible Company and opted to follow the exemption provided under the Relief Regulations regarding appointment of external directors and composition of the audit and compensation committees). Under the Companies Law external directors of a company are prohibited from receiving, directly or indirectly, any compensation from the company other than for their services as external directors pursuant to the provisions and limitations set forth in regulations promulgated under the Companies Law.
 
A person may not serve as an external director if (a) the person is a relative of a controlling shareholder of a company or (b) at the date of the person’s appointment or within the prior two years, the person, the person’s relatives, entities under the person’s control, the person’s partner, the person’s employer, or anyone to whom that person is subordinate, whether directly or indirectly, have or have had any affiliation with (1) a company, (2) a company’s controlling shareholder at the time of such person’s appointment or (3) any entity that is either controlled by the company or under common control with the company at the time of such appointment or during the prior two years. If a company does not have a controlling shareholder or a shareholder who holds company shares entitling him to vote at least 25% of the votes in a shareholders meeting, then a person may not serve as an external director if, such person or such person’s relative, partner, employer or any entity under the person’s control, has or had, on or within the two years preceding the date of the person’s appointment to serve as external director, any affiliation with the chairman of the company’s board, chief executive officer, a substantial shareholder who holds at least 5% of the issued and outstanding shares of the company or voting rights which entitle him to vote at least 5% of the votes in a shareholders meeting, or the chief financial officer of the company.
 
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The term “affiliation” includes:
 
an employment relationship;
 
a business or professional relationship even if not maintained on a regular basis (excluding insignificant relationships);
 
control; and
 
service as an office holder, excluding service as a director in a private company prior to the first offering of its shares to the public if such director was appointed as a director of the private company in order to serve as an external director following the public offering.
 
The term “relative” is defined as a spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent or descendant; a spouse’s sibling, parent or descendant; and the spouse of each of such persons.
 
In addition, no person may serve as an external director if that person’s professional activities create, or may create, a conflict of interest with that person’s responsibilities as a director or otherwise interfere with that person’s ability to serve as an external director or if the person is an employee of the ISA or of an Israeli stock exchange. Furthermore, a person may not continue to serve as an external director if he or she received direct or indirect compensation from us for his or her role as a director. This prohibition does not apply to compensation paid or given for service as an external director in accordance with regulations promulgated under the Companies Law or amounts paid pursuant to indemnification and/or exculpation contracts or commitments and insurance coverage.
 
Following the termination of an external director’s service on a board of directors, such former external director and his or her spouse and children may not be provided a direct or indirect benefit by the company, its controlling shareholder or any entity under its controlling shareholder’s control. This includes engagement to serve as an executive officer or director of the company or a company controlled by its controlling shareholder or employment by, or providing services to, any such company for consideration, either directly or indirectly, including through a corporation controlled by the former external director, for a period of two years (and for a period of one year with respect to relatives of the former external director).
 
If at the time an external director is appointed all members of the board of directors are of the same gender, the external director must be of the other gender. A director of one company may not be appointed as an external director of another company if a director of the other company is acting as an external director of the first company at such time.
 
The Companies Law provides that an external director must meet certain professional qualifications or have financial and accounting expertise and that at least one external director must have financial and accounting expertise. However, if at least one of our other directors (1) meets the independence requirements of the Exchange Act, (2) meets the standards of the Nasdaq Rules for membership on the audit committee and (3) has financial and accounting expertise as defined in the Companies Law and applicable regulations, then neither of our external directors is required to possess financial and accounting expertise as long as both possess other requisite professional qualifications. Our Board of Directors is required to determine whether a director possesses financial and accounting expertise by examining whether, due to the director’s education, experience and qualifications, the director is highly proficient and knowledgeable with regard to business-accounting issues and financial statements, to the extent that the director is able to engage in a discussion concerning the presentation of financial information in the company’s financial statements, among others. Furthermore, our Board of Directors is also required to take into consideration a director’s education, experience and knowledge in any of the following: (1) accounting issues and accounting control issues characteristic to the segment in which the company operates and to companies of the size and complexity of the company, (2) the functions of the external auditor and the obligations imposed on such auditor, and (3) preparation of financial reports and their approval in accordance with the Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, or the Israeli Securities Law. The regulations define a director with the requisite professional qualifications as a director who satisfies one of the following requirements: (1) the director holds an academic degree in either economics, business administration, accounting, law or public administration; (2) the director either holds an academic degree in any other field or has completed another form of higher education in the company’s primary field of business or in an area which is relevant to the office of an external director; or (3) the director has at least five years of experience serving in any one of the following, or at least five years of cumulative experience serving in two or more of the following capacities: (1) a senior business management position in a corporation with a substantial scope of business; (2) a senior position in the company’s primary field of business; or (3) a senior position in public administration. Our Board of Directors has determined that Ms. Nurit Benjamini possesses “accounting and financial” expertise, and that both of our external directors possess the requisite professional qualifications.
 
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In addition, the Companies Regulations (Relief for Companies the Shares of which are Registered for Trading Outside of Israel) – 2000, or the Relief Regulations, provides an exemption for companies the shares of which are listed for trading on specified exchanges outside of Israel, including Nasdaq, provided that: (i) such company does not have a controlling shareholder; and (ii) the company complies with the requirements of the foreign securities laws and stock exchange regulations applicable to companies which are incorporated under the laws of such foreign countries with regard to appointing independent directors and composition of the audit and compensation committees, or collectively, Eligible Companies. Any Eligible Company which opts to comply with the applicable foreign securities laws and stock exchange regulations shall be exempt from the following rules under the Companies Law: (i) the requirement to have at least two external directors appointed to serve in a public company; (ii) that at least one of the external directors is required to have financial and accounting expertise and the rest are required to have professional expertise; (iii) that the external directors shall be appointed by the general meeting and subject to certain voting thresholds; (iv) that if all of the board members who are not controlling shareholders are of one gender, the appointed external director shall be of the other gender; and (v) that all of the board committees which are empowered and authorized to exercise any of the board’s authorities must consist of at least one external director. The exemption from these rules under the Relief Regulations requires that the board be composed of both male and female directors.
 
Audit Committee
 
Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint an audit committee. The audit committee must be comprised of at least three directors, including all of the external directors, and one of the external directors must serve as chairperson of the committee. The audit committee of a company may not include:
 
the chairman of the company’s board of directors;
 
a controlling shareholder or a relative of a controlling shareholder of the company (as each such term is defined in the Companies Law); or
 
any director employed by the company, by a controlling shareholder of the company or by any other entity controlled by a controlling shareholder of the company, or any director who provides services to the company, to a controlling shareholder of the company or to any other entity controlled by a controlling shareholder of the company on a regular basis (other than as a member of the board of directors), or any other director whose main source of income derives from a controlling shareholder of the company.
 
The term “controlling shareholder” is defined in the Companies Law as a shareholder with the ability to direct the activities of the company, other than by virtue of being an office holder. A shareholder is presumed to be a controlling shareholder if the shareholder holds 50% or more of the voting rights in a company or has the right to appoint the majority of the directors of the company or its general manager.
 
A majority of the total number of then-serving members of an audit committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the audit committee meetings, provided, that the majority of the members present at such meeting are unaffiliated directors and at least one of such members is an external director.
 
The audit committee of a publicly traded company must consist of a majority of unaffiliated directors. An “unaffiliated director” is defined as either an external director or as a director who meets the following criteria:
 
he or she meets the qualifications for being appointed as an external director, except for (i) the requirement that the director be an Israeli resident (which does not apply to companies such as ours whose securities have been offered outside of Israel or are listed outside of Israel) and (ii) the requirement for accounting and financial expertise or professional qualifications; and
 
he or she has not served as a director of the company for a period exceeding nine consecutive years. For this purpose, a break of less than two years in the service shall not be deemed to interrupt the continuation of the service.
 
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Any person who is not eligible to serve on the audit committee is further restricted from participating in its meetings and votes, unless the chairman of the audit committee determines that such person’s presence is necessary in order to present a certain matter, provided however, that company employees who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings but not for the actual votes, and likewise, company counsel or company secretary who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings and for the decisions if such presence is requested by the audit committee.
 
The members of our Audit Committee are Ms. Nurit Benjamini (Chairperson), Dr. Avraham Molcho and Dr. Raphael Hofstein. Pursuant to Nasdaq Rules, our Board of Directors may appoint one director to our Audit Committee who (1) is not an Independent Director as defined in Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2), (2) meets the criteria set forth in Section 10A(m)(3) under the Exchange Act, and (3) is not one of our current officers or employees or “family member,” as defined in Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2), of an officer or employee, if our Board of Directors, under exceptional and limited circumstances, determines that the appointment is in our best interests and the best interest of our shareholders, and our Board of Directors discloses, in our next annual report subsequent to the determination, the nature of the relationship and the reasons for that determination.
 
Our Board of Directors has determined that Ms Nurit Benjamini (Chairperson) qualifies as an audit committee financial expert as defined by rules of the SEC.
 
In November 2012, our Board of Directors adopted an audit committee charter that added to the responsibilities of our Audit Committee under the Companies Law, setting forth the responsibilities of the audit committee consistent with the rules of the SEC and the Nasdaq Rules, including the following:
 
oversight of the company’s independent registered public accounting firm and recommending the engagement, compensation or termination of engagement of our independent registered public accounting firm to our Board of Directors in accordance with Israeli law;
 
recommending the engagement or termination of the office of our internal auditor; and
 
reviewing and pre-approving the terms of audit and non-audit services provided by our independent auditors.
 
Our Audit Committee provides assistance to our Board of Directors in fulfilling its legal and fiduciary obligations in matters involving our accounting, auditing, financial reporting, internal control and legal compliance functions by pre-approving the services performed by our independent accountants and reviewing their reports regarding our accounting practices and systems of internal control over financial reporting. Our Audit Committee also oversees the audit efforts of our independent accountants and takes those actions it deems necessary to satisfy itself that the accountants are independent of management. Pursuant to the Companies Law, the audit committee of a company shall be responsible for: (i) determining whether there are delinquencies in the business management practices of a company, including in consultation with an internal auditor or independent auditor, and making recommendations to the company’s board of directors to improve such practices; (ii) determining whether to approve certain related party transactions (including compensation of office holders or transactions in which an office holder has a personal interest and whether such transaction is material or otherwise an extraordinary transaction); (iii) where the company’s board of directors approves the working plan of the internal auditor, examining such working plan before its submission to the board and proposing amendments thereto; (iv) examining internal control and the internal auditor’s performance, including whether the internal auditor has sufficient resources and tools to dispose of his responsibilities (taking into consideration the special needs and size of a company); (v) examining the scope of the auditor’s work and compensation and submitting its recommendation with respect thereto to the corporate body considering the appointment thereof (either the board or the general meeting of shareholders); and (vi) establishing procedures for the handling of employees’ complaints as to the management of the business and the protection to be provided to such employees. The responsibilities of the audit committee under the Companies Law also include the following matters: (i) the establishment of procedures to be followed in respect of related party transactions with a controlling shareholder (where such are not extraordinary transactions), which may include, where applicable, the establishment of a competitive process for such transaction, under the supervision of the audit committee, or individual, or other committee or body selected by the audit committee, in accordance with criteria determined by the audit committee; and (ii) to determine procedures for approving certain related party transactions with a controlling shareholder, which having been determined by the audit committee not to be extraordinary transactions, were also determined by the audit committee not to be negligible transactions. Under the Companies Law, the approval of the audit committee is required for specified actions and transactions with office holders and controlling shareholders. See “— Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law.”
 
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Pursuant to the Relief Regulations, companies the shares of which are listed for trading on specified exchanges outside of Israel, including Nasdaq, and which qualify as Eligible Companies, are exempt from the following rules regarding the audit committee under the Companies Law: (i) the committee shall be comprised of at least three members, who shall include all of the external directors, and the majority of the members shall be independent; (ii) certain persons may not be members of the audit committee; (iii) the controlling shareholder or his relatives shall not be members of the audit committee; (iv) the chairman of the audit committee shall be an external director; (v) a person who is prohibited from being a member of the audit committee shall not be present at the committee’s meetings; (vi) if the committee also serves as a financial reports committee, the rules applicable to the financial reports committee shall apply; and (vii) the legal quorum shall be the majority of the committee members, provided that the majority of directors present are independent, at least one of whom is an external director.
 
Compensation Committee
 
Pursuant to the Companies Law, the board of directors of an Israeli publicly-traded company is required to appoint a compensation committee comprised of at least three members, including all of the external directors of a company, and one of the external directors must serve as chairman of the committee. Such compensation committee may not include:
 
the chairman of the company’s board of directors;
 
a controlling shareholder or a relative of a controlling shareholder of the company (as each such term is defined in the Companies Law); or
 
any director employed by the company, by a controlling shareholder of the company or by any other entity controlled by a controlling shareholder of the company, or any director who provides services to the company on a permanent basis, to a controlling shareholder of the company or to any other entity controlled by a controlling shareholder of the company on a regular basis (other than as a member of the board of directors), or any other director whose main source of income derives from a controlling shareholder of the company.
 
The term “controlling shareholder” is defined in the Companies Law as a shareholder with the ability to direct the activities of the company, other than by virtue of being an office holder. A shareholder is presumed to be a controlling shareholder if the shareholder holds 50% or more of the voting rights in a company or has the right to appoint the majority of the directors of the company or its general manager.
 
A majority of the total number of then-serving members of a compensation committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the compensation committee meetings. The compensation committee of a publicly-traded company must consist of a majority of external directors.
 
Pursuant to the Relief Regulations, companies the shares of which are listed for trading on specified exchanges outside of Israel, including Nasdaq and qualify as Eligible Companies are exempt from the following rules regarding the compensation committee under the Companies Law: (i) the board of a public company is required to appoint a compensation committee; and (ii) the compensation committee shall be comprised of at least three members, all of the external directors shall be members and shall constitute the majority of its members and the rest of the members shall be members whose terms of service are as required under the Companies Law.
 
Any person who is not eligible to serve on the compensation committee is further restricted from participating in its meetings and votes, unless the chairman of the compensation committee determines that such person’s presence is necessary in order to present a certain matter, provided however, that company employees who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings but not for the actual votes, and likewise, company counsel and secretary who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings and for the decisions if such presence is requested by the compensation committee.
 
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The responsibilities of the compensation committee include the following:
 
to make recommendations to the board of directors as to a compensation policy for officers, as well as to recommend once every three years to extend the compensation policy, subject to receipt of the required corporate approvals;
 
to make recommendations to the board of directors as to any updates to the compensation policy which may be required;
 
to review the implementation of the compensation policy by the company;
 
to approve transactions relating to terms of office and employment of certain company office holders, that require the approval of the compensation committee pursuant to the Companies Law; and
 
to exempt, under certain circumstances, a transaction relating to terms of office and employment from the requirement of approval of the shareholders meeting.
 
 In November 2012, in order to comply with certain requirements of the Companies Law, which had been enacted shortly prior to that, our Board of Directors established a Compensation Committee, comprised of Ms. Nurit Benjamini and Dr. Avraham Molcho, our two external directors, and Dr. Raphael Hofstein. Ms. Nurit Benjamini serves as the Chairperson of our Compensation Committee.
 
Under the Companies Law, a board of directors of an Israeli publicly-traded company, following the recommendation of the compensation committee, is required to establish a compensation policy, to be approved by the shareholders of the company, and pursuant to which the terms of office and compensation of the company’s officer holders will be decided.
 
A company’s compensation policy shall be determined based on, and take into account, certain parameters set forth in Section 267B(a) and Parts A and B of Annex 1A of the Companies Law, which were legislated as part of Amendment 20.
 
The board of directors of a publicly traded company is obligated to adopt a compensation policy after considering the recommendations of the compensation committee. The final adoption of the compensation policy is subject to the approval of the shareholders of the company, and such approval is subject to certain special majority requirements, as set forth in the Companies Law, pursuant to which one of the following must be met:
 
(i)
the majority of the votes includes at least a majority of all the votes of shareholders who are not controlling shareholders of the company or who do not have a personal interest in the compensation policy and participating in the vote; abstentions shall not be included in the total of the votes of the aforesaid shareholders; or
 
(ii)
the total of opposing votes from among the shareholders described in subsection (i) above does not exceed 2% of all the voting rights in the company.
 
Nonetheless, even if the shareholders of the company do not approve the compensation policy, the board of directors of a company may approve the compensation policy, provided that the compensation committee and, thereafter, the board of directors resolved, based on detailed, documented, reasons and after a second review of the compensation policy, that the approval of the compensation policy is for the benefit of the company.
 
In December 2013, a general meeting of our shareholders approved the Executive Compensation Policy which had been recommended by our Compensation Committee and approved by our Board of Directors. The term of this initial policy was for three years from the date of its approval, or until December 2016. In July 2016, a general meeting of our shareholders approved an extension and revision of the initial policy, which has been renamed the Compensation Policy for Executives and Directors, or Compensation Policy. The Compensation Policy governs the terms of compensation for our directors and office holders, in accordance with the requirements of the Companies Law. Below is a summary discussion of the provisions of the Compensation Policy:
 
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The Compensation Policy includes, among other issues prescribed by the Companies Law, a framework for establishing the terms of office and employment of our office holders, a recoupment policy and guidelines with respect to the structure of the variable pay of our office holders.
 
Compensation is considered performance-based to the extent that a direct link is maintained between compensation and performance and that rewards are consistent with long-term stakeholder value creation. At the company level, we analyze the overall compensation trends of the market in order to make informed decisions about our compensation approach.
 
According to the Compensation Policy, the fixed components of our office holder compensation will be examined at least every two years and compared to the market. Our Board of Directors may change the amount of the fixed components for one or more of our office holders after receiving a recommendation for such from our compensation committee. The change may be made if our Board of Directors concludes that such a change would promote our goals, operating plans and objectives and after taking into account the business and legal implications of the proposed change and its impact on our internal labor relations. Any such changes are subject to formal approval by the relevant parties. The fixed component of compensation remunerates the specific role covered and scope of responsibilities. It also reflects the experience and skills required for each position, as well as the level of excellence demonstrated and the overall quality of the office holder’s contribution to our business. The weighting of fixed compensation within the overall package is designed to reduce the risk of excessively risk-oriented behavior, to discourage initiatives focused on short-term results which might jeopardize our mid and long-term business sustainability and value creation, and to allow us a flexible compensation approach. We offer our employees benefit plans based on common practice in the local labor market of the office holder.
 
As for the variable components of compensation, the types and amounts of such components will be determined with an aim at creating maximum matching between the Compensation Policy and our operating plan and objectives. Variable components of compensation will be primarily based on measurable long-term criteria. Nevertheless, we are allowed to base a non-material part of variable compensation on qualitative non-measurable criteria which focus on the office holder’s contribution to the Company. Our variable compensation aims to remunerate for achievements by directly linking pay to performance outcomes in the short and long term. To strengthen the alignment of shareholder interests and the interests of management and employees, performance measurements reflect our actual results overall, as well as of the individual office holder. To support the aforementioned principles, we provide two types of variable compensation: short-term - annual bonus; and long-term - stock option plans.
 
Annual bonuses will be based on achievement of the business goals set out in our annual operating plan approved by the board of directors at the beginning of each year. The operating plan encompasses all aspects of our activities and as such sets the business targets for each member of the management team. Consequently, our Compensation Committee and Board of Directors should be able to judge the suitability of a bonus payment by deliberating retrospectively at year end and comparing actual performance and target achievements against the forecasted operating plan. The annual bonus mechanism will be directly tied to meeting objectives - both our business objectives and the office holder’s personal objectives. The Board of Directors’ satisfaction with the officer’s performance will also affect the bonus amount. Annual bonus payments are subject to the limitations set out in the Compensation Policy and also subject to the discretion of our Compensation Committee and approval by the Board of Directors. In order to maintain some measure of flexibility, after calculating the compensation amount, the Board of Directors may exercise discretion about the final amount of the bonus.
 
Equity-based compensation may be granted in any form permitted under our share incentive plan in effect from time to time and shall be made in accordance with the terms of such share incentive plan. Equity-based compensation to office holders shall be granted from time to time and be individually determined and awarded according to the performance, educational background, prior business experience, qualifications, role and the personal responsibilities of each officer. The vesting period will generally be four years, with the vesting schedule to be determined in accordance with market compensation trends. Our policy is to grant equity-based compensation with exercise prices at market value. Furthermore, in order to create a ceiling for the variable compensation: (1) the aggregate value of annual grants to any one office holder (based on the Black Scholes calculation on the date of grant) will be no more than the higher of 2% of our market capitalization at the end of the measurement period or $1.5 million; and (2) it is our intention that the maximum outstanding equity awards under its share incentive plan will not exceed 12% of our total fully-diluted share capital. Our Board of Directors may, following approval by our Compensation Committee, make provisions with respect to the acceleration of the vesting period of any office holder’s awards, including, without limitation, in connection with a corporate transaction involving a change of control.
 
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We have also established a defined ratio between the variable and the fixed components of compensation, as well as a maximum amount for all variable components as of the date on which they are paid (or as of the grant date for non-cash variable equity components), and subject to the limitations on variable compensation components which are set out in the Compensation Policy.
 
In addition, we have established guidelines under which an office holder will refund to us part of the compensation received, if it was paid based on information that was retroactively restated in our financial reports. Office holders shall be required to make restitution for any payments made based on our operating performance, if such payments were based on false or restated financial statements prepared at any time during the three years preceding discovery of the error.
 
All compensation arrangements of office holders are to be approved in the manner prescribed by applicable law. Our Compensation Committee will review the Compensation Policy on an annual basis, and monitor its implementation, and recommend to our Board of Directors and shareholders to amend the Compensation Policy as it deems necessary from time to time. The term of the Compensation Policy is three years from the date of its adoption, or July 5, 2019. Following such three-year term, the Compensation Policy, including any revisions recommended by our Compensation Committee and approved by our Board of Directors, as applicable, will be brought once again to the shareholders for approval.
 
Nominating Committee
 
Our Board of Directors does not currently have a nominating committee, having availed BioLineRx of the exemption available to foreign private issuers under the Nasdaq Rules. See “Item 16G. Corporate Governance.”
 
Investment Monitoring Committee
 
Our Board of Directors has established an Investment Monitoring Committee which consists of the following four members: Directors Dr. Michael Anghel (Chairperson) and Ms. Nurit Benjamini; Ms. Mali Zeevi, our Chief Financial Officer; and Mr. Raziel Fried, our Budget Control Manager and Treasurer. The function of the Investment Monitoring Committee includes providing recommendations to our Board of Directors regarding investment guidelines and performing an on-going review of the fulfillment of established investment guidelines. The Investment Monitoring Committee convenes for a meeting in accordance with our needs, but in any event at least twice per year. The Investment Monitoring Committee reports to our Board of Directors on a semi-annual basis.
 
Internal Auditor
 
Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of an Israeli public company must appoint an internal auditor recommended by the audit committee and nominated by the board of directors. An internal auditor may not be:
 
a person (or a relative of a person) who holds more than 5% of the company’s shares;
 
a person (or a relative of a person) who has the power to appoint a director or the general manager of the company;
 
an executive officer or director of the company; or
 
a member of the company’s independent accounting firm.
 
The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other things, our compliance with applicable law and orderly business procedures. Our internal auditor is Linur Dloomy, CPA (Israel), a partner of Brightman Almagor Zohar & Co. (a member firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited).
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Approval of Related Party Transactions under Israeli Law
 
Fiduciary duties of office holders
 
The Companies Law imposes a duty of care and a duty of loyalty on all office holders of a company. The duty of care of an office holder is based on the duty of care set forth in connection with the tort of negligence under the Israeli Torts Ordinance (New Version) 5728-1968. This duty of care requires an office holder to act with the degree of proficiency with which a reasonable office holder in the same position would have acted under the same circumstances. The duty of care includes a duty to use reasonable means, in light of the circumstances, to obtain:
 
information on the advisability of a given action brought for his or her approval or performed by virtue of his or her position; and
 
all other important information pertaining to these actions.
 
The duty of loyalty requires an office holder to act in good faith and for the benefit of the company, and includes the duty to:
 
refrain from any act involving a conflict of interest between the performance of his or her duties in the company and his or her other duties or personal affairs;
 
refrain from any activity that is competitive with the business of the company;
 
refrain from exploiting any business opportunity of the company for the purpose of gaining a personal advantage for himself or herself or others; and
 
disclose to the company any information or documents relating to the company’s affairs which the office holder received as a result of his or her position as an office holder.
 
We may approve an act performed in breach of the duty of loyalty of an office holder provided that the office holder acted in good faith, the act or its approval does not harm the company, and the office holder discloses his or her personal interest, as described below.
 
Disclosure of personal interests of an office holder and approval of acts and transactions
 
The Companies Law requires that an office holder promptly disclose to the company any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information or documents relating to any existing or proposed transaction by the company. An interested office holder’s disclosure must be made promptly and in any event no later than the first meeting of the board of directors at which the transaction is considered. An office holder is not obliged to disclose such information if the personal interest of the office holder derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered as an extraordinary transaction.
 
The term personal interest is defined under the Companies Law to include the personal interest of a person in an action or in the business of a company, including the personal interest of such person’s relative or the interest of any corporation in which the person is an interested party, but excluding a personal interest stemming solely from the fact of holding shares in the company. A personal interest furthermore includes the personal interest of a person for whom the office holder holds a voting proxy or the interest of the office holder with respect to his or her vote on behalf of the shareholder for whom he or she holds a proxy even if such shareholder itself has no personal interest in the approval of the matter. An office holder is not, however, obliged to disclose a personal interest if it derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered an extraordinary transaction.
 
Under the Companies Law, an extraordinary transaction which requires approval is defined as any of the following:
 
a transaction other than in the ordinary course of business;
 
a transaction that is not on market terms; or
 
a transaction that may have a material impact on the company’s profitability, assets or liabilities.
 
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Under the Companies Law, once an office holder has complied with the disclosure requirement described above, a company may approve a transaction between the company and the office holder or a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, or approve an action by the office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty. However, a company may not approve a transaction or action that is adverse to the company’s interest or that is not performed by the office holder in good faith.
 
Under the Companies Law, unless the articles of association of a company provide otherwise, a transaction with an office holder, a transaction with a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, and an action of an office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty requires approval by the board of directors. Our Articles of Association do not provide otherwise. If the transaction or action considered is (i) an extraordinary transaction or (ii) an action of an office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty and may have a material impact on a company’s profitability, assets or liabilities, then audit committee approval is required prior to approval by the board of directors.
 
Under the Companies Law, a transaction with an office holder in a public company regarding his or her terms of office and employment should be determined in accordance with the company’s compensation policy. Nonetheless, provisions were established that allow a company, under special circumstances, to approve terms of office and employment that are not in line with the approved compensation policy. Accordingly, the approval requirements for the compensation and/or terms of office of a specific office holder may require the approval of each of the compensation committee, board of directors and the shareholders, in that order. As such, under the following approvals are required for the following transactions:
 
A transaction with an office holder in a public company that is neither a director nor the chief executive officer regarding his or her terms of office and employment requires approval by the (i) compensation committee; and (ii) the board of directors. Approval of terms of office and employment for such officers which do not comply with the compensation policy may nonetheless be approved subject to two cumulative conditions: (i) the compensation committee and thereafter the board of directors, approved the terms after having taken into account the various considerations and mandatory requirements set forth in the Companies Law with respect to office holder compensation, and (ii) the shareholders of the company have approved the terms by means of the following special majority requirements, or the Special Majority Requirements, as set forth in the Companies Law, pursuant to which the shareholder approval must either include at least one-half of the shares held by non-controlling and disinterested shareholders who actively participate in the voting process (without taking abstaining votes into account), or, alternatively, the total shareholdings of the non-controlling and disinterested shareholders who vote against the transaction must not represent more than 2% of the voting rights in the company.
 
A transaction with the chief executive officer in a public company regarding his or her terms of office and employment requires approval by the (i) compensation committee; (ii) the board of directors; and (iii) the shareholders of the company by the Special Majority Requirements. Approval of terms of office and employment for the chief executive officer which do not comply with the compensation policy may nonetheless be approved subject to two cumulative conditions: (i) the compensation committee and thereafter the board of directors, approved the terms after having taken into account the various considerations and mandatory requirements set forth in the Companies Law with respect to office holder compensation and (ii) the shareholders of the company have approved the terms by means of the Special Majority Requirements, as detailed above.
 
A transaction with an office holder in a public company (including the chief executive officer) who is not a director regarding his or her terms of office and employment may be approved despite shareholder rejection, provided that a company’s compensation committee and thereafter the board of directors have determined to approve the proposal, based on detailed reasoning, after having re-examined the terms of office and employment, and taken the shareholder rejection into consideration. In addition, the compensation committee may exempt the transaction regarding terms of office and employment with a chief executive officer who has no relationship with the controlling shareholder or the company from shareholder approval if it has found, based on detailed reasons, that bringing the transaction to the approval of the shareholders meeting shall prevent the employment of such candidate by the company. Such approval may be given only in respect of terms of office and employment which are in accordance with the company’s compensation policy.
 
A transaction with a director in a public company regarding his or her terms of office and employment requires approval by the (i) compensation committee; (ii) the board of directors; and (iii) the shareholders of the company. Approval of terms of office and employment for directors of a company which do not comply with the compensation policy may nonetheless be approved subject to two cumulative conditions: (i) the compensation committee and thereafter the board of directors, approved the terms after having taken into account the various considerations and mandatory requirements set forth in the Companies Law with respect to office holder compensation and (ii) the shareholders of the company have approved the terms by means of the Special Majority Requirements, as detailed above. In addition, pursuant to a relief provided under the Companies Regulations (Relief in Interested Party Transactions), 2000, the compensation committee may exempt the transaction regarding terms of office and employment with a director, if the compensation committee and board of directors determined that such terms of office are only for the benefit of the company, or if the compensation terms of the director do not exceed the maximum compensation paid to external directors pursuant to the applicable regulations.
 
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A director who has a personal interest in a matter that is considered at a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee may generally not be present at the meeting or vote on the matter unless a majority of the directors or members of the audit committee have a personal interest in the matter, or, unless the chairman of the audit committee or board of directors (as applicable) determines that he or she should be present to present the transaction that is subject to approval. If a majority of the directors have a personal interest in the matter, such matter also requires approval of the shareholders of the company.
 
Disclosure of personal interests of a controlling shareholder and approval of transactions
 
Under the Companies Law, the disclosure requirements that apply to an office holder also apply to a controlling shareholder of a public company. See “— Audit Committee” for the general definition of controlling shareholder under the Companies Law. The definition of “controlling shareholder” in connection with matters governing: (i) extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, (ii) certain private placements in which the controlling shareholder has a personal interest, (iii) certain transactions with a controlling shareholder or relative with respect to services provided to or employment by the company, (iv) the terms of employment and compensation of the general manager, and (v) the terms of employment and compensation of office holders of the company when such terms deviate from the compensation policy previously approved by the company’s shareholders, also includes shareholders that hold 25% or more of the voting rights if no other shareholder owns more than 50% of the voting rights in the company (and the holdings of two or more shareholders which each have a personal interest in such matter will be aggregated for the purposes of determining such threshold).
 
Under the Companies Law, extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, as well as transactions for the provision of services whether directly or indirectly by a controlling shareholder or his or her relative, or a company such controlling shareholder controls, require the approval of the audit committee, the board of directors and the shareholders, in that order. Extraordinary transactions concerning the terms of engagement of a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative, whether as an office holder or an employee, require the approval of the compensation committee, the board of directors and the shareholders, in that order. In addition, the approval of such extraordinary transactions by the shareholders require at least a majority of the shares voted by the shareholders of the company participating and voting in a shareholders’ meeting, provided that one of the following requirements is fulfilled:
 
at least a majority of the shares held by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction and are voting at the meeting must be voted in favor of approving the transaction, excluding abstentions; or
 
the shares voted by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction who vote against the transaction represent no more than 2% of the voting rights in the company.
 
If such extraordinary transaction concerns the terms of office and employment of such controlling shareholder, in his capacity as an office holder or an employee of the company, such terms of office and employment approved by the compensation committee and board of directors shall be in accordance with the compensation policy of the company. Nonetheless, the compensation committee and the board of directors may approve terms of office and compensation of a controlling shareholder which do not comply with the company’s compensation policy, provided that the compensation committee and, thereafter, the board of directors approve such terms, based on, among other things, the considerations listed under Section 267B(a) and Parts A and B of Annex 1A of the Companies Law, as those are described above. Following such approval by the compensation committee and board of directors, shareholder approval would be required.
 
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To the extent that any such transaction with a controlling shareholder is for a period extending beyond three years, approval, in the same manner described above, is required once every three years, unless, with respect to extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, the audit committee determines that the duration of the transaction is reasonable given the circumstances related thereto.
 
Duties of shareholders
 
Under the Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to refrain from abusing its power in the company and to act in good faith and in an acceptable manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations to the company and other shareholders, including, among other things, voting at general meetings of shareholders on the following matters:
 
an amendment to the articles of association;
 
an increase in the company’s authorized share capital;
 
a merger; and
 
the approval of related party transactions and acts of office holders that require shareholder approval.
 
A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders.
 
The remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply to a breach of the above-mentioned duties, and in the event of discrimination against other shareholders, additional remedies are available to the injured shareholder.
 
In addition, any controlling shareholder, any shareholder that knows that its vote can determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder that, under a company’s articles of association, has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder, or has another power with respect to a company, is under a duty to act with fairness towards the company. The Companies Law does not describe the substance of this duty except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty to act with fairness, taking the shareholder’s position in the company into account.
 
Exculpation, insurance and indemnification of office holders
 
Under the Companies Law, a company may not exculpate an office holder from liability for a breach of the duty of loyalty. An Israeli company may exculpate an office holder in advance from liability to the company, in whole or in part, for damages caused to the company as a result of a breach of duty of care but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our Articles of Association include such a provision. An Israeli company may not exculpate a director from liability arising out of a prohibited dividend or distribution to shareholders.
 
An Israeli company may indemnify an office holder in respect of the following liabilities and expenses incurred for acts performed as an office holder, either in advance of an event or following an event, provided a provision authorizing such indemnification is contained in its articles of association:
 
financial liability imposed on him or her in favor of another person pursuant to a judgment, settlement or arbitrator’s award approved by a court. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance, then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on the company’s activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail the abovementioned events and amount or criteria;

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reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him or her by an authority authorized to conduct such investigation or proceeding, provided that (1) no indictment was filed against such office holder as a result of such investigation or proceeding; and (2) no financial liability, such as a criminal penalty, was imposed upon him or her as a substitute for the criminal proceeding as a result of such investigation or proceeding or, if such financial liability was imposed, it was imposed with respect to an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and
 
reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys’ fees, incurred by the office holder or imposed by a court in proceedings instituted against him or her by the company, on its behalf or by a third party or in connection with criminal proceedings in which the office holder was acquitted or as a result of a conviction for an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent.
 
An Israeli company may insure an office holder against the following liabilities incurred for acts performed as an office holder if and to the extent provided in the company’s articles of association:
 
a breach of duty of loyalty to the company, to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company;
 
a breach of duty of care to the company or to a third party, including a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder; and
 
a financial liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a third party.
 
An Israeli company may not indemnify or insure an office holder against any of the following:
 
a breach of duty of loyalty, except to the extent that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice the company;
 
a breach of duty of care committed intentionally or recklessly, excluding a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;
 
an act or omission committed with intent to derive illegal personal benefit; or
 
a fine or forfeit levied against the office holder.
 
Under the Companies Law, exculpation, indemnification and insurance of office holders must be approved by the audit committee and the board of directors and, with respect to directors, by shareholders.
 
An amendment to the Israeli Securities Law and a corresponding amendment to the Companies Law authorize the ISA to impose administrative sanctions against companies like ours, and their office holders for certain violations of the Israeli Securities Law or the Companies Law. These sanctions include monetary sanctions and certain restrictions on serving as a director or senior officer of a public company for certain periods of time. The amendments to the Israeli Securities Law and to the Companies Law provide that only certain types of such liabilities may be reimbursed by indemnification and insurance. Specifically, legal expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an individual in the applicable administrative enforcement proceeding and certain compensation payable to injured parties for damages suffered by them are permitted to be reimbursed via indemnification or insurance, provided that such indemnification and insurance are authorized by the company’s articles of association and receive the requisite corporate approvals.
 
Our Articles of Association allow us to indemnify and insure our office holders for any liability imposed on them as a consequence of an act (including any omission) which was performed by virtue of being an office holder. In November 2011, our shareholders approved (i) the amendment of our Articles of Association to authorize indemnification and insurance in connection with administrative enforcement proceedings, including without limitation, the specific amendments to the Israeli Securities Law and the Companies Law described above and (ii) a new form of indemnification letter for our directors and officers so as to reflect the amendment to our Articles of Association, which new form of letter was also approved in October 2011 by our Audit Committee and Board of Directors, and in November 2011 by our shareholders. The terms of such agreements are consistent with the provisions of the Compensation Policy which was approved by our shareholders in December 2013 and amended as described in the next paragraph.
 
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Our office holders are currently covered by a directors and officers’ liability insurance policy. The terms of such directors’ and officers’ insurance are consistent with the provisions of the Compensation Policy which was approved by our shareholders in July 2016. The purpose of the amendment was to clarify that we are authorized to purchase insurance policies (including run-off policies) to cover the liability of directors and office holders that are in office at such time and that shall be in office from time to time, including directors and office holders that may have a controlling interest in the Company. Such insurance policies are authorized within the following limits: (1) the premium for each policy period shall not exceed $250,000, (2) the maximum aggregate limit of liability pursuant to the policies shall not exceed $20 million for each insurance period, and (3) the maximum deductible shall not exceed $250,000. In addition, the Compensation Committee is authorized to increase the coverage purchased and/or the premium paid for such policies by up to 20% per year, as compared to the previous year, or cumulatively for a number of years, without an additional shareholders’ approval to the extent permitted under the Companies Law. As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 20-F, no claims for directors’ and officers’ liability insurance have been filed under this policy and we are not aware of any pending or threatened litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors or officers in which indemnification is sought. Pursuant to the approval of our shareholders at the annual general meeting held in September 2014, we carry directors’ and officers’ insurance covering each of our directors and executive officers for acts and omissions. See also “Related Party Transactions — Indemnification Agreements.”
 
There is no pending litigation or proceeding against any of our directors or officers as to which indemnification is being sought, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification by any director or officer.
 
For significant ways in which our corporate governance practices differ from those required by the Nasdaq Rules, see “Item 16G. Corporate Governance.”
 
D. Employees
 
As of December 31, 2018, we had 48 employees, all of whom are employed in Israel. Of our employees, 17 hold M.D. or Ph.D. degrees.
 
   
December 31,
 
   
2016
   
2017
   
2018
 
                   
Management and administration          
   
11
     
11
     
10
 
Research and development          
   
28
     
36
     
34
 
Sales and marketing          
   
4
     
4
     
4
 
Total
   
43
     
51
     
48
 
 
While none of our employees are party to any collective bargaining agreements, in Israel we are subject to certain labor statutes and national labor court precedent rulings, as well as to certain provisions of the collective bargaining agreements between the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel) and the Coordination Bureau of Economic Organizations (including the Industrialists’ Associations) which are applicable to our employees by virtue of expansion orders issued in accordance with relevant labor laws by the Israel Ministry of Labor and Welfare, and which apply such agreement provisions to our employees even though they are not directly part of a union that has signed a collective bargaining agreement. The laws and labor court rulings that apply to our employees principally concern the minimum wage laws, procedures for dismissing employees, determination of severance pay, leaves of absence (such as annual vacation or maternity leave), sick pay and other conditions for employment. The expansion orders which apply to our employees principally concern the requirement for length of the work day and work week, mandatory contributions to a pension fund, annual recreation allowance, travel expenses payment and other conditions of employment. We generally provide our employees with benefits and working conditions beyond the required minimums.
 
We have never experienced any employment-related work stoppages and believe our relationship with our employees is good.
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E. Share Ownership
 
The following table sets forth information regarding the beneficial ownership of our outstanding ordinary shares as of March 25, 2019 of each of our directors and executive officers individually and as a group.
 
   
Number of