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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number 001-38974

BIOPHYTIS S.A.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter and translation of Registrant’s name into English)

FRANCE

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Biophytis S.A.

Sorbonne University—BC 9, Bâtiment A 4ème étage

4 pace Jussieu

75005 Paris, France

 (Address of principal executive offices)

Stanislas Veillet

Chief Executive Officer

Biophytis S.A.

Tel: +33 1 44 27 23 00

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each representing 10 ordinary shares, €0.20 nominal value per share

BPTS

The Nasdaq Capital Market

Ordinary shares, €0.20 nominal value per share*

*

The Nasdaq Capital Market*

*Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.  None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.  None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.  Ordinary shares:  135,953,657 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2021

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.       Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PART I

1

Item 1.

Identity of Director, Senior Management and Advisers

1

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

1

Item 3.

Key Information

1

Item 4.

Information on the Company

53

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

101

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

101

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

123

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

132

Item 8.

Financial Information

136

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

138

Item 10.

Additional Information

138

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

147

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

148

PART II

152

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

152

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

152

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

152

Item 16.

[Reserved]

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

154

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

154

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

154

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

155

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

155

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

155

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

155

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

156

Item 16I.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

156

PART III

157

Item 17.

Financial Statements

157

Item 18.

Financial Statements

157

Item 19.

Exhibits

157

INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated, “BIOPHYTIS,” “the Company,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to BIOPHYTIS S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This annual report may contain references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this annual report, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other company.

Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB. Our financial statements included in this annual report are presented in euros and, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in euros. All references in this annual report to “$,” “US$,” “U.S.$,” “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” and “USD” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “€” and “euros,” mean euros, unless otherwise noted. Throughout this report, references to ADSs mean American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, or ordinary shares represented by such ADSs, as the case may be.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 20-F, or annual report, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. All statements other than present and historical facts and conditions contained in this annual report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial positions, business strategy, plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this annual report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is designed to,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “objective,” “should,” or the negative of these and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the timing, progress and results of clinical trials for our drug candidates, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of clinical trials, dosing of subjects and the period during which the results of the clinical trials will become available;
the potential impact of COVID-19 on our clinical trials and our operations generally;
the timing, scope or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals for our drug candidates;
our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates;
potential benefits of the clinical development and commercial experience of our management team;
our ability to effectively market any drug candidates that receive regulatory approval, emergency use authorization, or conditional marketing authorization on our own or through third parties;
our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;
our expectation regarding the safety and efficacy of our drug candidates;
the potential clinical utility and benefits of our drug candidates;
our ability to advance our drug candidates through various stages of development, especially through pivotal safety and efficacy trials;
the likelihood of success and difficulty in ensuring success of clinical investigations;
our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our drug candidates;
developments and projections relating to our competitors or our industry;
our ability to become profitable;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our ability to secure additional financing when needed on acceptable terms;
the impact of government laws and regulations in the United States, France and foreign countries;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, drug candidates and technology;
our intellectual property position;
our ability to rely on orphan drug designation for market exclusivity;

our ability to attract or retain key employees, advisors or consultants;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and
whether we are classified as a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for current and future periods.

You should refer to the section of this annual report titled “Item 3.D—Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this annual report will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

You should read this annual report and the documents that we reference in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This annual report contains market data and industry forecasts that were obtained from industry publications. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We have not independently verified any third-party information. While we believe the market position, market opportunity and market size information included in this annual report is generally reliable, such information is inherently imprecise.

PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Director, Senior Management and Advisers.

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information.

A.

Selected Financial Data

Not applicable.

B.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.

Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to:

Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History, Financial Condition, and Capital Requirements
oWe have been and may continue to be affected by health pandemics or epidemics, including the current outbreak of COVID-19, or emergence of other infectious diseases.
oWe are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with no products approved or authorized for sale and history of losses and we will need substantial additional financing to achieve our goals.
oWe are dependent on reimbursable financial advances and non-reimbursable subsidies from French government.
oWe have limited resources and may face challenges related to prioritizing drug candidate development.
oOur indebtedness could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.
Risks Related to Our Business
oClinical development is lengthy and expensive and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or emergency use authorization for our drug candidates.
oWe may have difficulty enrolling patients or finding and retaining investigators that are needed to conduct the clinical studies.
oOur drug candidates could cause undesirable side effects.
oOur drug candidates may fail to achieve physician acceptance and patient adoption.

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oWe rely on third parties for raw materials and to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials.
oWe face significant competition.
oWe will face government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement.
oWe will need to establish or secure sales capabilities.
oWe may face challenges attracting and retaining senior management and key scientific personnel.
oWe may face product liability lawsuits.
oWe may not be successful in our existing and future collaborations.
oWe may experience significant disruptions to our information technology systems or breaches of data security and/or misconduct by our employees or independence contractors.
oOur employees and independent contracts may engage in misconduct or improper activities.
oAbility to comply with environmental laws and regulations.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
oWe must protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights.
oOur ability to resolve disputes concerning the infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights or the proprietary rights of others.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
oEven if we obtain regulatory approval or authorization for our products, we will remain subject to ongoing regulatory scrutiny.
oChanges in COVID-19 infectiousness or lethality rates, or eradication or substantial eradication of the disease could reduce or eliminate the demand for the investigational new drugs we are studying through our COVA program.
oRegulatory agencies may change the policies and requirements regarding approvals and emergency use authorizations, or revoke emergency use authorizations that the agencies have already issued.
oWe may be unable to obtain orphan drug designation, if we pursue it.
oOur business will be impacted by healthcare legislation and our relationships with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers.
oWe will be impacted by U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws on our business.
oWe may be unable to maintain certain tax benefits applicable to French technology companies.
oWe will be impacted by U.S. tax laws and regulations on our business.
Risks Related to the Ownership of the ADSs and Ordinary Shares and Our Status as a Non-U.S. Company with Foreign Private Issuer Status
oThe requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources.

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oAn active trading market for our ADSs may not develop and the market price of our equity securities may be volatile.
oWe may be exposed to foreign exchange risk.
oInvestors may be diluted as a result of a significant number of outstanding warrants and convertible debt instruments and future sales of a substantial number of our securities could adversely affect the price of our securities.
oU.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against our company and directors and senior management and the experts named in this annual report and may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement.
oOur governing documents and French corporate law may delay or discourage a takeover attempt.
oThe ability of ADS holders to exercise voting rights, participate in any future preferential subscription rights, receive dividends, or transfer their ADSs.
oOur status as a foreign private issuer and an “emerging growth company”.
oRisks associated with being characterized a passive foreign investment company.
oOur ability to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting.

Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History, Financial Condition, and Capital Requirements

Our business has been and could in the future be materially adversely affected by the effects of health pandemics or epidemics, including COVID -19 and its related variants, or emergence of other infectious diseases, and in particular in regions where we or third parties on which we rely have significant manufacturing facilties, concentrations of clinical trial sites or other business operations.

Our business has been and could in the future be materially adversely affected by the effects of health pandemics or epidemics, including COVID -19 and its related variants, or emergence of other infectious diseases. COVID-19 has prompted severe lifestyle and commercial restrictions aimed at reducing the spread of the disease. Governments have imposed quarantines and other restrictions in response to the pandemic. We have also implemented social distancing and sanitary measures as well as a work-from-home policy for most of our employees. Some of our clinical study sites had to be temporarily closed during the pandemic, and we were forced to revise the protocols and obtain IRB review and approval to continue our SARA INT clinical trial, which has since been completed. Although the COVID-19 pandemic appears to be gradually subsiding as a result of widespread access to vaccines and other preventative measures, additional variants that are more infectious or deadly may emerge in the future, and any future restrictions implemented in response to COVID-19 or another health pandemic or epidemic, or emergence of other infectious diseases could negatively impact our productivity, disrupt our business and delay our clinical programs and timelines, the magnitude of which will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions, among other factors. Although we do not currently anticipate any further impacts to our clinical programs from COVID-19 or another pandemic or endemic, or emergence of other infectious diseases, these and similar, and perhaps more severe, disruptions in our operations could negatively impact our business operating results and financial condition in the future.

Quarantines, shutdowns and shelter-in-place and similar government orders related to COVID -19 or other infectious diseases, or the perception that such events, orders or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, could impact personnel at third-party supplier, manufacturing or packaging facilities in the United States and other countries, or the availability or costs of materials, which could disrupt our supply chain. Although we do not currently anticipate any clinical supply issues or concerns for our planned clinical trials, any future restrictions resulting from the COVID -19 pandemic or other health pandemics or epidemics or emergence of other infectious diseases may disrupt our supply chain in the future and delay or limit our ability to obtain sufficient materials for our drug candidates.

In addition, our current clinical trial and planned clinical trials could be affected by a resurgence of COVID -19 (or emergence of new vaccine resistant strains) or emergence of new pandemics, epidemics or other infectious diseases. For example, site initiation and patient enrollment could be impacted by a resurgence of COVID-19 (or emergence of new vaccine resistant strains), and

3

sites conducting potential patient enrollment may not be able or willing to comply with clinical trial protocols whether due to quarantines impeding patient movement or interrupting healthcare services, or due to potential patient concerns regarding interactions with medical facilities or staff. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID -19 or another virus, may be delayed or disrupted, which could adversely impact our clinical trial operations. Furthermore, when the primary endpoint of one of our studies is a site-based assessment, there is a risk that participants will not be able to or want to undergo this required in person assessment for safety reasons, resulting in a delay to our studies and potentially compromising the timing and results of our study. A resurgence of COVID -19 (or emergence of new vaccine resistant strains) or emergence of new pandemic, epidemic or other infectious diseases could also lead to increased costs, due to a prolonged study timeframe, resulting in the need to add study staff and the need to utilize additional technological tools, such as remote monitoring, remote source-data verification and remote audits.

Regulatory authorities may also experience a significantly increased workload, with requirements and demands for short review timelines for COVID -19 studies on the one hand and the need to amend study protocols to address COVID -19-related limitations in study conduct on the other hand. This can prolong review timelines and reduce the availability to run expedited programs, which put a high demand on regulatory staff. There is also a risk that the changes to protocols of ongoing clinical trials (other than for COVID -19 indications) that were made to address restrictions imposed in the context of the coronavirus pandemic will negatively impact the review conducted by the relevant regulatory agencies. In which case, such agencies may consider the data to be insufficient to support acceptance of the data and the statistical plan. For example, changing in-office and in-person checks and visits to phone contacts may not be sufficient for regulatory review. We will not know until we complete our ongoing studies, complete analysis, and submit such data to the regulatory authorities, what, if any, limitations and effects could result.

In addition, the global COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected, and any future significant outbreak of contagious diseases could similarly adversely affect, the economics and financial markets of many countries, including the United States, resulting in an economic downturn that could reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively affect our liquidity and ability to process our clinical trials and business operations and suppress demand for our future products. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow. In addition, a recession, down-turn or market correction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, other pandemic or epidemic, or emergence of other infectious diseases could materially adversely affect the value of our ADSs and ordinary shares.

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company with no products approved or authorized for commercial sale. We have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future.

Biotechnology product development is a highly speculative undertaking because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential drug candidate will not demonstrate adequate effectiveness in the targeted indication or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval or become commercially viable. We have incurred significant losses since our inception in 2006, and we anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, which, together with our limited operating history, may make it difficult to assess our future viability.

We incurred losses of €18.9 million, €25.5 million and €31.2 million ($35.4 million) (translated solely for convenience into dollars at an exchange rate of €1.00=$1.1318, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2021) for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Substantially all of our losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our preclinical and clinical programs and other research and development activities and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and we anticipate these losses will increase as we continue to develop our drug candidates, conduct clinical trials and pursue research and development activities. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. Our prior losses, combined with expected future losses, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our shareholders’ equity and working capital.

We will require substantial additional financing to achieve our goals, and a failure to obtain this capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all, could force us to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or other operations.

Since our inception, we have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources on our preclinical studies and clinical trials and other research and development activities. We believe that we will continue to expend substantial resources for the foreseeable future in connection with the preclinical and clinical development of our current drug candidates and the discovery and development of any other drug candidates we may choose to pursue. These expenditures will include costs associated with conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials and obtaining regulatory approvals, emergency use authorizations, or conditional marketing

4

authorization and any expenses associated with commercializing, marketing and selling products approved or authorized for sale that we elect to commercialize ourselves. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise. Because the outcome of any preclinical study or clinical trial is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development of our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates we may choose to pursue.

As of December 31, 2021, we had capital resources consisting of cash and cash equivalents of €23.9 million ($27.1 million) (translated solely for convenience into dollars at an exchange rate of €1.00=$1.1318, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2021). Since December 31, 2021, we drew down €4 million from our 2021 credit facility with ATLAS Special Opportunities LLC (“ATLAS”).

We expect our existing capital resources, including our ability to draw down on our credit facility with ATLAS (as described in further detail in “Item 5, Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” of this annual report), will be enough to fund our planned operating expenses for the next 12 months. However, our current operating plans may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds even sooner than planned, through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, such as strategic collaborations. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

the scope, progress, data and costs of researching and developing our current drug candidates and any other drug candidates we may choose to pursue in the future, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals or authorizations for our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates we may choose to pursue;
the number and characteristics of any additional drug candidates we develop or acquire;
any costs associated with manufacturing our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates;
the cost of sourcing purified extracts and a supply chain in sufficient quantity and quality to meet our needs;
the cost of commercialization activities associated with any of our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates that are approved or authorized for sale and that we choose to commercialize ourselves, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;
our ability to maintain existing, and establish new, strategic collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of any such agreements, including the timing and amount of any future milestone, royalty or other payments due under any such agreement;
any product liability or other lawsuits related to any current or future drug candidates that are approved or authorized for sale;
the expenses needed to attract, hire and retain skilled personnel;
the costs associated with being a public company;
the costs that become required as a result of modified or revised clinical protocols for our clinical trials;
the costs that become required due to necessity of having to perform additional clinical trials;
the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing our intellectual property portfolio; and
the timing, receipt and amount of sales of any future approved or authorized products, if any.

5

Additional funds may not be available when we need them, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis on terms acceptable to us, we may be required to:

delay, limit, reduce or terminate preclinical studies, clinical trials or other development activities for our current drug candidates or any future drug candidate;
seek corporate partners for our drug candidates when we would otherwise develop our drug candidates on our own, or at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available;
delay, limit, reduce or terminate our research and development activities; or
delay, limit, reduce or terminate any efforts to establish manufacturing and sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates.

We do not expect to realize revenue from sales of products or royalties from licensed products in the foreseeable future, if at all, unless and until our drug candidates are clinically tested, approved or authorized for commercialization, and successfully marketed. To date, we have primarily financed our operations through the sale of debt and equity securities (including our U.S. initial public offering in February 2021), as well as public aid for innovation and reimbursement of the French research tax credit, described elsewhere in this annual report. We will need to seek additional funding in the future and currently intend to do so through collaborations, public or private equity offerings or debt financings, credit or loan facilities, public funding, or a combination of one or more of these funding sources. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we enter into arrangements with collaborators or others, we may be required to relinquish rights to some of our drug candidates that we would otherwise pursue on our own. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our shareholders will suffer dilution and the terms of any financing may adversely affect the rights of our shareholders. In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing shareholders. Debt financing, if available, is likely to involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of our equity securities received any distribution of our corporate assets.

We have benefited from certain reimbursable financial advances and non-reimbursable subsidies from the French government that if terminated or reduced may restrict our ability to successfully develop, manufacture and commercialize our drug candidates.

We have benefited from certain reimbursable advances and non-reimbursable subsidies from the French government and intend to continue to seek advances and/or subsidies from these agencies in the future in order to accelerate the development of our drug candidates. There is no assurance that these benefits will continue to be available to us in the future. If such benefits and programs were to be terminated or reduced, it could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition and could deprive us of financial resources necessary for research and development of our drug candidates. Furthermore, the advances and subsidies are generally subject to contractual conditions, including our compliance with agreed upon preliminary budgets and scientific programs, informing the lender of any deviations from such agreed upon budgets and programs, and our compliance with certain financial ratios to ensure our solvency. In the event that we do not comply with the contractual conditions of the subsidies, we may be required to reimburse the French government for any outstanding payments (€1.0 million as of December 31, 2021) ($1.1 million) (translated solely for convenience into dollars at an exchange rate of €1.00=$1.1318, the noon buying rate of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on December 31, 2021) on an accelerated basis and could be liable for any damages incurred by such agencies resulting from the breach of contract.

Due to the significant resources required for the development of our drug candidates, we must prioritize development of certain drug candidates and/or certain disease indications. We may expend our limited resources on candidates or indications that do not yield a successful product and fail to capitalize on drug candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

We plan to develop a pipeline of drug candidates to treat age-related diseases and diseases whose progression and symptoms are similar to those associated with aging. Due to the significant resources required for the development of drug candidates, we must focus our attention and resources on specific diseases and disease pathways and decide which drug candidates to pursue and the amount of resources to allocate to each.

6

Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular drug candidates or therapeutic areas may not lead to the development of any viable commercial product and may divert resources away from better opportunities. Similarly, any decision to delay, terminate or collaborate with third parties in respect of certain programs may subsequently prove to be suboptimal and could cause us to miss valuable opportunities. If we make incorrect determinations regarding the viability or market potential of any of our programs, drug candidates, or misread trends in the aging or age-related disease space, or in the biotechnology industry, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. As a result, we may fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities, be required to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other drug candidates or other diseases and disease pathways that may later prove to have greater commercial potential than those we choose to pursue, or relinquish valuable rights to such drug candidates through collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been advantageous for us to invest additional resources to retain development and commercialization rights.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which may make our future operating results difficult to predict.

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research, development and, if approved or authorized, any commercialization activities relating to our drug candidates, which may change from time to time;
the timing and status of enrollment for our clinical trials, and availability of medical staff to conduct the clinical trials;
the effect of pandemics or endemics (including COVID-19), or emergence of other infectious diseases, on our clinical trials, including government-mandated or -recommended shutdowns, or other restrictions or limitations that are caused by the spread of viruses;
the further development and widespread adoption of COVID-19 vaccines and treatment options that could significantly reduce or eliminate the demand for our products;
the regulatory agencies’ revocation of emergency use authorizations, or conclusion of the public health emergency declaration;
the cost of manufacturing our drug candidates, as well as building out our supply chain, which may vary depending on the quantity of production and the terms of our agreements with manufacturers;
expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize additional drug candidates;
the timing and amount of any future milestone, royalty or other payments due under any collaboration or license agreement;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;
the timing and success or failure of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our drug candidates and/or redesign, delays and/or change of scope of our preclinical or clinical trials;
the timing of receipt of approvals, emergency use authorizations, or conditional marketing authorizations for our drug candidates from regulatory authorities in the United States and internationally;
the timing and success of competing drug candidates, or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or partners;
coverage and reimbursement policies with respect to our drug candidates, if approved or authorized for emergency use; and
the level of demand for our products, if approved or authorized for emergency use, which may vary significantly over time.

7

The cumulative effects of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance.

This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our ordinary shares and ADSs could decline substantially. Such a stock price decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated revenue or earnings guidance we may provide.

Our indebtedness could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.

On September 10, 2018, we entered into a Venture Loan Agreement and Bonds Issue Agreement with Kreos Capital V (UK) Ltd., which provides for up to €10 million in financing to us. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements, Kreos agreed to subscribe for up to €10 million in non-convertible bonds, to be issued by us in up to four tranches of €2.5 million each. The first two tranches were issued in September 2018, a third tranche was issued in December 2018, and the final tranche was issued on March 1, 2019. Each tranche bears a 10% annual interest rate and must be repaid in 36 monthly installments, with monthly payments of €320,004 commencing in April 2019. In connection with the first tranche, we issued a warrant to Kreos giving them the right to purchase 442,477 new ordinary shares at an exercise price of €2.67 per share over a 7-year period from the issue date. Kreos waived its right to exercise the warrant when subscribing to the new financing structure described below.

In April 2020, we signed a convertible bond financing of €24 million with ATLAS to continue the development of Sarconeos (BIO101). Pursuant to the terms of the agreement (as amended), ATLAS agreed to subscribe for up to €24 million in convertible bonds, to be issued by us in up to eight tranches of €3 million each. We issued the eighth tranche in December 2021. On June 14, 2021, we signed a new convertible bond financing of €32 million with ATLAS. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, ATLAS agreed to subscribe for up to €32 million in convertible bonds, to be issued by us in up to eight tranches of €4 million each. The first tranche has not been issued yet.

On November 19, 2021, we entered into a Subscription Agreement, a Straight Bonds Issue Agreement and a Convertible Bonds Issue Agreement with Kreos Capital VI (UK) Ltd. and Kreos Capital VI (Expert Fund) L.P., which provides for up to €10 million in financing to us. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements, Kreos agreed to subscribe for up to €7.75 million in convertible bonds and for up to €2.25 million in non-convertible bonds, to be issued by us in up to four tranches. The first two tranches were issued on November 22, 2021. Each tranche of non-convertible bonds bears a 10% annual interest rate and must be repaid in 36 monthly installments, with monthly payments commencing in April 2022. Each tranche of convertible bonds bears a 9.5% annual interest rate and must be repaid or converted into shares by 31 March 2025. In connection with the Kreos financing, we issued 2,218,293 warrants giving them the right to purchase 2,218,293 new ordinary shares at an exercise price of €0.56 per share over a seven year period from the issue date. By subscribing to the warrants, Kreos waived its right to exercise the warrants issued to Kreos within the framework of the 2018 loan structure described above.

Pursuant to the terms of the agreements with Kreos, we have the right, at any time but with no less than 30 days prior notice to Kreos, to prepay or purchase the bonds, exclusively in full. The prepayment will be equal to (i) the principal amount outstanding, plus (ii) the sum of all interest repayments which would have been paid throughout the remainder of the term of the relevant tranche discounted by 10% per annum.

If we are unable to make the required payments, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, sell assets, delay capital expenditures or seek additional equity. The terms of our existing or future debt agreements may also restrict us from affecting any of these alternatives. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. Further, changes in the credit and capital markets, including market disruptions and interest rate fluctuations, may increase the cost of financing, make it more difficult to obtain favorable terms, or restrict our access to these sources of future liquidity. In addition, any failure to make scheduled payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt service obligations, or to refinance or restructure our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, as well as on our ability to satisfy our obligations in respect of our indebtedness.

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Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

Our Venture Loan Agreement and Bonds Issue Agreement with Kreos and our convertible notes agreement with ATLAS impose certain operating and financial restrictions. These covenants may limit our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries, under certain circumstances, to, among other things:

incur additional indebtedness;
create or incur liens;
sell or transfer assets; and
pay dividends and distributions.

These agreements also contain certain customary affirmative covenants and events of default, including a change of control.

As a result of the covenants and restrictions contained in our existing debt agreements, we are limited in how we conduct our business, and we may be unable to raise additional debt to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from Kreos and ATLAS, and/or amend the covenants.

Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants described above as well as others contained in our future debt instruments from time to time could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay these borrowings before their maturity dates. In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument could also result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments. If we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness under our secured debt, the holders of such debt could proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or if we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure such indebtedness, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our business is dependent on the successful development, regulatory approval, emergency use authorization or conditional marketing authorization, manufacture and commercialization of our drug candidates.

We have no products approved or authorized for sale. Our lead drug candidate, Sarconeos (BIO101), is in clinical development and our second drug candidate, Macuneos (BIO201) is still in the preclinical development phase. Our life-cycle extension drug candidates, BIO103 and BIO203, are still in the preclinical development phase.

To secure marketing approval for our lead drug candidates, we will need to meet endpoints satisfactory to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), and European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), in larger confirmatory clinical trials. The success of our business, including our ability to finance our company and generate any revenue in the future, will primarily depend on the successful development, regulatory approval, emergency use authorization or conditional marketing authorization, and commercialization of drug candidates. It may be many years, if we succeed at all, before we have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a drug candidate sufficient to warrant approval, emergency use authorization or conditional marketing authorization for commercialization.

In the future, we may also become dependent on other drug candidates that we may develop or acquire. The clinical and commercial success of our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

our ability to raise any additional required capital on acceptable terms, or at all;
our ability to complete Investigational New Drug (“IND”)-enabling studies and successfully submit IND or comparable applications;

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timely completion of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which may be significantly slower or cost more than we currently anticipate and will depend substantially upon the performance of third-party contractors;
whether we are required by the FDA, EMA or similar regulatory authorities to conduct additional clinical trials or other studies beyond those planned to support the approval, authorization, and commercialization of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates;
acceptance of our proposed indications and primary endpoint assessments relating to the proposed indications of our drug candidates by the FDA, the EMA and similar regulatory authorities;
our ability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA and similar regulatory authorities the safety, efficacy and acceptable risk to benefit profile of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates;
the prevalence, duration and severity of potential side effects or other safety issues experienced with our drug candidates or future approved products, if any;
the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals or authorizations from the FDA, EMA and similar regulatory authorities;
achieving and maintaining, and, where applicable, ensuring that our third-party contractors achieve and maintain compliance with our contractual obligations and with all regulatory requirements applicable to our drug candidates or any future drug candidates or approved products, if any;
the ability of any third parties with whom we contract to manufacture adequate clinical trial and commercial supplies, if approved or authorized, of our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates, remain in good standing with regulatory agencies and develop, validate and maintain commercially viable manufacturing processes that are compliant with applicable requirements including current good manufacturing practices, (“cGMP”);
with respect to any approved or authorized drug candidates that we elect to commercialize ourselves, our ability to successfully develop a commercial strategy and thereafter commercialize such drug candidates, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
the convenience of our treatment or dosing regimen;
our sourcing of purified extracts and a supply chain in sufficient quantity and quality to meet product needs for clinical development and commercialization;
acceptance by physicians, payors and patients of the benefits, safety and efficacy of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates, if approved or authorized, including relative to alternative and competing treatments;
patient demand for our drug candidates, if approved or authorized;
our ability to maintain adequate drug diversion controls for Sarconeos (BIO101), which has a potential for misuse/abuse among body builders and other sportsmen as a result of its intended anabolic effect;
lifestyle and commercial restrictions as a result of a resurgence or continuation of the COVID -19 pandemic or other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases;
the potential impact of changing government orders in response to upticks in COVID -19 cases or as a result of new pandemics, epidemics, or other infectious diseases, and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course;
prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID -19 pandemic, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases, which would otherwise be used for clinical studies;

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the ability of our participants to safely follow clinical trial protocols because of quarantines impeding patient movement or interrupting healthcare services, or due to potential patient concerns regarding interactions with medical facilities or staff as a result of the COVID -19 pandemic, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases;
our ability to recruit and retain principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID -19, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases may be delayed or disrupted, which may be adversely impact our clinical trial operations;
delays due to the COVID -19 pandemic, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases including due to reduced workforce productivity, illness among personnel, or due to delays at our third-party contract research organizations throughout the world for similar reasons or due to restrictions imposed or recommended by applicable governmental authorities;
the impact, if any, on the data from ongoing studies that have been impacted by the initial and subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic effect, and whether changes that were made to accommodate the pandemic will allow regulatory acceptance of the resulting data or whether the data will be sufficient for regulatory review—the effect of such changes will not be known until we complete ongoing studies, data analysis, and submit the data for regulatory review;
our ability to establish and enforce intellectual property rights in and to our current drug candidates and any future drug candidates we may develop;
our ability to avoid third-party patent interference, intellectual property challenges or intellectual property infringement claims; and
risks related to COVID -19, the status of the ongoing pandemic, the availability and effectiveness of vaccines, and the pattern of spread (which may depend, in part, on persistence, or lack thereof, of antibodies which, as of the date of this annual report, is suspected to be no longer than six to 12 months).

These factors, many of which are beyond our control, could cause us to experience significant delays or an inability to obtain regulatory approvals or authorizations, or commercialize or license our drug candidates. Even if regulatory approvals or authorizations are obtained, we may never be able to successfully commercialize or license any of our drug candidates. Accordingly, we cannot provide assurances that we will be able to generate sufficient revenue through the sale of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates we may develop to continue our business or achieve profitability.

We may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or emergency use authorization for our drug candidates under applicable regulatory requirements. The denial, delay or imposed limitations of or on any such approval or authorization would preclude, delay or limit the commercialization of our drug candidates and adversely impact our potential to generate revenue and/or raise financing, our business and our results of operations.

To gain approval or authorization to market our drug candidates, we must provide the FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities with clinical data that adequately demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the drug candidate for the intended indication applied for in the applicable regulatory filing. Product development is a long, expensive and uncertain process, and delay or failure can occur at any stage of any of our clinical development programs. A number of companies in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after promising data in preclinical studies or earlier phase clinical trials. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, new preclinical findings made while clinical trials were underway and safety or efficacy observations made in clinical trials, including previously unreported adverse events. Success in preclinical testing and early phase clinical trials does not ensure that later phase clinical trials will be successful, and the results of clinical trials conducted by other parties may not be indicative of the results in trials we may conduct. Further, it is not currently known what effect, if any, modification of ongoing non-COVID-19 related studies resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the acceptability of data from such revised studies, mostly regarding conditions for our targeted patients to participate in our current or future trials.

The research, testing, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, approval, authorization, sale, marketing and distribution of drug and biologic products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities, and such regulations differ from country to country. We are not permitted to market our investigational drug candidates in the EU, the United

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States or any other country until they receive the requisite approval or authorization from the applicable regulatory authorities of such jurisdictions.

Separately, in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, on March 10, 2020, the FDA announced its intention to postpone most foreign inspections of manufacturing facilities and products through April 2020. The FDA reported in July 2021 that the agency had largely returned to standard operations for domestic inspections; however, the agency’s foreign inspectional activities, including inspections for drug establishments, were still hampered by the pandemic. The FDA’s delayed inspections caused drug application delays, which meant that the applicants’ schedule for commercializing the drugs were affected negatively. In January 2022, the FDA again put certain inspectional activities on hold because of the spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19. In February 2022, FDA announced that it will again resume its domestic inspectional activities, considering the decline in COVID-19 cases in the United States. FDA will continue with mission-critical foreign inspections, as well as any previously planned foreign surveillance inspctions with country clearance, and which are within the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Level 1 or Level 2 COVID-19 travel recommendation. Otherwise, FDA expects that it will resume additional foreign inspectional activities in April. It is possible that new variants will continue to emerge in the future, further interrupting and affecting the agency’s ability to carry out inspections in a timely manner. If global health concerns related to the emergence of new variants or new viruses prevent the FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA, EMA or other foreign regulatory authorities to timely review and process regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The FDA, EMA or any foreign regulatory authorities can delay, limit or deny approval or authorization of our drug candidates for many reasons, including:

our inability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the agency that a drug candidate is safe and effective for the requested indication;
the agency’s disagreement with, or questions on, our trial protocol or the interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials, including studies impacted by the coronavirus pandemic;
the agency’s refusal to accept the data that is produced from modified protocols (e.g., data collected from phone contacts instead of in-office and in-person checks and visits may not be sufficient for regulatory approval or authorization);
our inability to demonstrate that the clinical and other benefits of a drug candidate outweigh any safety or other perceived risks;
the agency’s requirement for additional preclinical studies or clinical trials;
the agency’s non-approval of the formulation, labeling or specifications of a drug candidate;
the agency’s failure to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers upon which we rely;
our inability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the agency the sourcing of purified extracts and that our supply chain is in sufficient quantity and quality to meet product specifications; or
the potential for regulations and policies of the FDA, EMA or the applicable foreign regulatory agencies relating to drug approval or emergency use authorization to significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval or authorization.

In addition, the legal and regulatory basis for expedited and emergency programs related to COVID-19 may be revoked and withdrawn if the public health assessment warrants the removal of the pandemic and emergency status.

Of the large number of biotechnology and pharmaceutical products in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the applicable regulatory approval or authorization processes and are commercialized.

Even if we eventually complete clinical testing and receive approval or authorization from the FDA, EMA or applicable foreign authorities for any of our drug candidates, the applicable agency may grant approval or authorization contingent on the

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performance of costly additional clinical trials, which may be required after approval or authorization. The FDA, EMA or the applicable foreign regulatory agency also may approve or authorize our drug candidates for a more limited indication or a narrower patient population than we originally requested, and the applicable agency, may not approve or authorize our drug candidates with the labeling that we believe is necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of such drug candidates.

Any delay in obtaining, or inability to obtain, applicable regulatory approval or authorization would delay or prevent commercialization of our drug candidates and would materially adversely impact our business and prospects.

Clinical development is a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure or delay can occur at any time during the different phases, or stages, of the clinical trial process. Success in preclinical studies and early clinical trials does not ensure that later clinical trials will be successful. A number of companies in the biotechnology, biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, even after positive results in earlier preclinical studies or earlier phase clinical trials. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, new preclinical findings made while clinical trials were underway and safety or efficacy observations made in clinical trials, including previously unreported adverse events. The results of our preclinical studies or in vivo and in vitro studies provide very limited data in diseases whose physiopathology is not well understood and may not be predictive of the results of study outcomes in human clinical trials. Drug candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired pharmacological properties or safety and efficacy traits despite having progressed through preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials. Notwithstanding any promising results in earlier studies, we cannot be certain that we will not face setbacks and receive less promising results in later studies. Even if we are able to initiate and complete clinical trials, including studies underway during the initial coronavirus pandemic, the safety and efficacy data may not be sufficient to obtain regulatory approval or authorization for our drug candidates.

We may experience delays in obtaining the necessary regulatory authorization for our various clinical programs, and initiating other planned studies and trials. Additionally, we cannot be certain that studies or trials for our drug candidates will begin on time, not require redesign, enroll an adequate number of subjects on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. Clinical trials can be delayed or terminated for a variety of reasons, including delays or failures related to:

the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities disagreeing as to the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
delays in obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial;
reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”), and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly from one country to another, notably among different CROs and trial sites;
institutional review boards, ethics committee or IRB approval at each trial site;
recruiting an adequate number of suitable patients to participate in a trial;
having subjects complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;
inability to access sites for initiation and patient monitoring and enrollment due to travel or quarantine restrictions imposed by national, federal, state or local governance;
addressing subject safety concerns that arise during the course of a trial;
adding a sufficient number of clinical trial sites;
sourcing of purified extracts and a supply chain in sufficient quantity and quality to meet product needs;

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safety issues that are discovered in preclinical studies that will be conducted concurrently with our COVA study that is ending, and our planned future clinical trials;
supply chain and sourcing may be slow or significantly delayed as the result of COVID-19 or other pandemic or epidemic restrictions on movement suspensions of service, and temporary global border closings; or
obtaining sufficient product supply of drug candidate for use in preclinical studies, clinical trials, or during industrial scale up from third-party suppliers.

We may experience numerous adverse or unforeseen events during, or as a result of, preclinical studies and clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or authorization, or commercialize our drug candidates, including:

we may receive feedback from regulatory authorities that requires us to modify the design of our clinical trials;
clinical trials of our drug candidates may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional clinical trials or abandon drug development programs;
patient screening, new patient enrollment, monitoring and data collection may be affected or delayed as a result of restrictions imposed by national, federal, state or local governments due to COVID -19, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases;
the number of patients required for clinical trials of our drug candidates may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be slower than we anticipate or participants may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
our third-party contractors may fail to comply with regulatory requirements, fail to maintain adequate quality controls, or be unable to source or provide us with sufficient purified extracts for product supply to conduct and complete preclinical studies or clinical trials of our drug candidates in a timely manner, or at all;
we or our investigators might have to suspend or terminate clinical trials of our drug candidates for various reasons, including non-compliance with regulatory requirements, inability to comply with applicable study protocol as a result of COVID -19 or other pandemic, epidemics, or other infectious diseases, a finding that our drug candidates have undesirable side effects or other unexpected characteristics, or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;
limitations occurring as a result of public health emergencies, such as COVID-19;
the impact, if any on the data from ongoing studies that have been impacted by the initial and subsequent waves of the coronavirus pandemic effect and whether changes to accommodate the pandemic will impact regulatory acceptance of the data or whether it will be sufficient for regulatory review, the effect of which will not be known until we complete ongoing studies, data analysis and submit the data for regulatory review;
the cost of clinical trials of our drug candidates may be greater than we anticipate;
the quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate;
regulators may revise the requirements for approving or authorizing our drug candidates, or such requirements may not be as we anticipate; and
future collaborators may conduct clinical trials in ways they view as advantageous to them but that are suboptimal for us.

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If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of our drug candidates beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of our drug candidates or other testing, if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only moderately positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

incur unplanned costs;
be delayed in obtaining marketing approval or authorization for our drug candidates or, in due course, not obtain marketing approval at all;
obtain marketing approval in some countries and not in others;
obtain marketing approval or authorization for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;
obtain marketing approval or authorization with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings, including boxed warnings;
be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or
have the treatment removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval or authorization.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by the Data Safety Monitoring Board (“DSMB”) for such trial or by the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocol as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory schemes, as well as political and economic risks relevant to such foreign countries, including foreign countries’ enforcement of COVID-19 restrictions on movement and lifestyle.

Principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and may receive cash or equity compensation in connection with such services. If these relationships and any related compensation result in perceived or actual conflicts of interest, or a regulatory authority concludes that the financial relationship may have affected the interpretation of the trial, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be questioned and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized, which could result in the delay or rejection of the marketing application we submit. Any such delay or rejection could prevent or delay us from commercializing our current or future drug candidates.

If we experience delays in the completion, or termination, of any preclinical study or clinical trial of our drug candidates, the commercial prospects of our drug candidates may be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues from any of these drug candidates will be delayed or not realized at all. In addition, any delays in completing our clinical trials may increase our costs, slow down our drug candidate development and approval process and jeopardize our ability to commercialize our products and generate revenues. Any of these occurrences may significantly harm our business, financial condition and prospects. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval or authorization of our drug candidates. If one or more of our drug candidates prove to be ineffective, unsafe or commercially unviable, our entire platform and pipeline would have little, if any, value, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical development activities could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends on, among other things, our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. The enrollment of patients depends on many factors, including:

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;
the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;
the number of COVID-19 patients in the area where clinical investigation sites are located;
the proximity of patients to trial sites;
the ability of patients to be assessed in study sites, given potential lock-downs due to the COVID -19 pandemic, other pandemics or epidemics, or emergence of other infectious diseases;
the design of the trial;
patient enrollment may be delayed due to quarantines impeding patient movement or patient concerns regarding interaction and monitoring with medical facilities and staff;
our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved or authorized for the indications we are investigating; and
our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents.

In addition, our clinical trials may compete with other clinical trials for drug candidates that are in the same therapeutic areas as our drug candidates, and this competition will reduce the number and types of patients available to us, because some patients who might have opted to enroll in our trials may instead opt to enroll in a trial being conducted by one of our competitors. Since the number of qualified clinical investigators is limited, we may conduct some of our clinical trials at the same clinical trial sites that some of our competitors use, which will reduce the number of patients who are available for our clinical trials in such clinical trial site.

Delays in patient enrollment may result in increased costs or may affect the timing or outcome of the planned clinical trials, which could prevent completion of these trials and adversely affect our ability to advance the development of our drug candidates. The combined effects of high vaccination rates with reduction in patient numbers and mutations in the COVID-19 virus that may decrease its virulence and cause less severe disease, may decrease our ability to complete the study and file for approval.

A resurgence of COVID-19 (or emergence of new vaccine resistant strains), pandemic, endemic, or emergence of other infectious disease, may limit our ability or the investigators’ ability to find and retain medical staffs that are needed to conduct the clinical studies.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a shortage of labor force, including nurses, clinicians, and other medical staff. This shortage is causing medical institutions and other establishments to change their operations to accommodate the shortage, and in many cases, it results in increased personnel costs in finding and retaining the staffs that are necessary to conduct the institutions and establishments’ operations. While COVID-19 cases have been decreasing, due in part to more people being vaccinated, a resurgence of COVID-19 (or emergence of new vaccine resistant strains), or emergence of other pandemic, epidemic, or other infectious diseases, could cause or exacerbate a staffing shortage, our ability to conduct clinical trials may be negatively affected, and we may need to modify, suspend, or stop our clinical trials, or expend greater resource in identifying and retaining the appropriate personnel necessary for the clinical investigations.

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Our participation in an expanded access program in Brazil could subject us to adverse event reporting requirements in the United States, potentially leading to modification, suspension, or stoppage of the ongoing investigations

We are planning to organize, subject to regulatory approval by ANVISA, an expanded access program (EAP) in Brazil for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms who are mechanically ventilated in intensive care units. Under FDA regulations we are required to review and submit IND safety reports for suspected adverse reactions whether such safety information is collected from foreign or domestic sources. If adverse reactions occur during the expanded access program in Brazil, we will need to review and submit the safety reports to FDA, even if the COVA clinical investigation has stopped recruiting new patients due to the lack of enrollment, and will be subsequently concluded. FDA may review the safety information for other uses of Sarconeos (BIO101) such as the expanded access program if it meets the applicable threshold, or other clinical investigations that study Sarconeos (BIO101).

Our drug candidates may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval or authorization, limit the commercial profile of an approved or authorized label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval or authorization, if any.

Undesirable side effects caused by our drug candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval or authorization by the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. For example, one of our drug products, Sarconeos (BIO101), has been identified as having potential for misuse/abuse of the intended anabolic effect by body builders and sportsmen. Participants in clinical studies with Sarconeos (BIO101) are advised not to allow anyone access to the trial medication and the investigators specifically instruct subjects not to share their medicine. This risk is likely to become more significant after marketing authorization is granted, and the label for the drug, if it becomes approved or authorized, may have warnings and restrictions on the use and distribution of the product.

If unacceptable side effects arise in the development of our drug candidates, we, the FDA, EMA, the IRBs at the institutions in which our studies are conducted, or the DSMB could suspend or terminate our clinical trials or the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval or authorization of our drug candidates for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete any of our clinical trials or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. Failure to recognize or manage the potential side effects of our drug candidates could result in patient injury. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

If our drug candidates are used in combination with other drugs or treatments, they may interact negatively with those other drugs or treatments. We plan to conduct studies in order to assess the risks of interactions of our drug candidates with other drugs and treatments taken together. However, there can be no guarantee that our drug candidates will not interact negatively with other drugs or treatments not covered by our studies or that such interactions will not be revealed until after the products have been commercialized. These interactions could have adverse, unacceptable or undetected side effects, or could reduce or destroy the effectiveness of our drug candidates, which could diminish the commercial potential of our drug candidates, slow their development and consequently, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.

Even if we successfully advance any of our drug candidates into and through clinical trials, such trials will likely only include a limited number of subjects and limited duration of exposure to our drug candidates. As a result, we cannot be assured that adverse effects of our drug candidates will not be uncovered when a significantly larger number of patients are exposed to the drug candidate. Further, any clinical trials may not be sufficient to determine the effect and safety consequences of taking our drug candidates over a multi-year period. Certain clinical trial protocols that are revised because of the continuing COVID-19 pandemic may also make it more difficult to identify potential safety concerns early on.

If any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval or authorization, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval or authorization of the product;
we may be required to recall a product or change the way such product is administered to patients;
additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;

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regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as a “black box” warning or other warnings, including a potential for abuse warning;
we may be required to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”), or create a Medication Guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;
the sales of our product may decrease significantly and the product may become less competitive; and
our reputation may suffer.

Any of the foregoing events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the particular drug candidate, if approved or authorized, and result in the loss of significant revenues to us, which would materially and adversely affect our results of operations and business. In addition, if one or more of our drug candidates prove to be unsafe, our entire platform and pipeline could be affected, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if our current drug candidates or any future drug candidates obtain regulatory approval or authorization, they may fail to achieve the broad degree of physician and patient adoption and use necessary for commercial success.

Even if one or more of our drug candidates receives the necessary regulatory approvals or authorizations, the commercial success of any of our current or future drug candidates will depend significantly on the broad adoption and use of the resulting product by physicians and patients for approved or authorized indications. Our drug candidates may not be commercially successful. For a variety of reasons, including among other things, competitive factors, pricing or physician preference, reimbursement by insurers, the degree and rate of physician and patient adoption of our current or future drug candidates, if approved or authorized, will depend on a number of factors, including:

the clinical indications for which the product is approved or authorized and patient demand for approved or authorized products that treat those indications;
the safety and efficacy of our product as compared to other available therapies;
the feasibility of adhering to heightened drug diversion protocols for drug product Sarconeos (BIO101), which has the potential for misuse/abuse by body builders and other sportsmen;
the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from managed care plans, insurers and other healthcare payors for any of our drug candidates that may be approved or authorized;
acceptance by physicians, operators of clinics and patients of the product as a safe and effective treatment;
overcoming any biases physicians or patients may have toward particular therapies for the treatment of approved or authorized indications;
public misperception regarding the use of our therapies, or public bias against “anti-aging” companies;
patient satisfaction with the administration and effectiveness of our drug candidates and overall treatment experience, including, for example, the convenience of any dosing regimen and storage method;
the cost of treatment with our drug candidates in relation to alternative treatments and reimbursement levels, if any, and willingness to pay for the product, if approved or authorized, on the part of insurance companies and other third-party payers, physicians and patients;
the timing of market introduction of the drug candidate as well as competitive products;

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the revenue and profitability that our products may offer a physician as compared to alternative therapies;
the prevalence and severity of side effects;
limitations or warnings contained in the approved or authorized labeling for our products;
any regulatory agency’s requirement to undertake a REMS;
the effectiveness of our sales, marketing and distribution efforts;
COVID-19 may be substantially eradicated prior to our development of a successful therapy in the COVA clinical program by one or more of the vaccines that have been or may in the future be authorized for use, or the therapy produced by the COVA clinical program may not be effective against other or future coronavirus variants, reducing or eliminating the need for this therapy to treat the disease;
the SARS-CoV-2 virus could develop resistance to our treatment developed in the COVA clinical program (which is concluding early due to the lack of enrollment), which could affect any long-term demand or sales potential for our potential therapies;
adverse publicity about our products, status of ongoing trials, or favorable publicity about competitive products; and
potential product liability claims.

We cannot assure you that our current or future drug candidates, if approved or authorized, will achieve broad market acceptance among physicians and patients. Any failure by our drug candidates that obtain regulatory approval or authorization to achieve market acceptance or commercial success would adversely affect our results of operations.

We rely on third parties to provide the raw materials necessary for our drug candidates and to manufacture preclinical and clinical supplies of our drug candidates and we intend to rely on third parties to produce commercial supplies of any approved or authorized drug candidate. The loss of these suppliers or manufacturers, or their failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements or to provide us with sufficient quantities at acceptable quality levels or prices, or at all, would materially and adversely affect our business.

We do not have nor do we plan to build or acquire the infrastructure or capability internally to source the raw materials necessary to produce our drug candidates and/or to manufacture our drug candidates on a preclinical, clinical or commercial scale.

Sarconeos (BIO101) is a pharmaceutical-grade purification of 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is derived from the Cyamnotis sp or Stemmacantha sp, a plant cultivated in China and used for medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicine. There are a limited number of growers of this plant and suppliers of the plant material and we must account for the lead time required to grow sufficient quantities of the plant to meet our needs. At this time we rely on one supplier for the plant quantities we require for our clinical trials. We have not entered into a long-term supply agreement with this supplier. We have already obtained good manufacturing practices (“GMP”) batches/GMP-compliant batches/batches produced in compliance with GMP of Sarconeos (BIO101) for our clinical trials and we believe we can secure sufficient quantities for our future clinical programs through our current supply chain up to regulatory approval and/or marketing authorization. If our current supplier is unable to provide sufficient quantities of the plant to produce Sarconeos (BIO101) for future clinical trials, our ability to obtain regulatory approval or authorization for Sarconeos (BIO101) would be affected. If we receive regulatory approval or authorization, we will likely need substantial quantities of plants to produce Sarconeos (BIO101) for commercial development. If our current supplier is unable to provide sufficient quantities of the plant to produce Sarconeos (BIO101) and if we are unable to find an alternative source, our ability to commercialize Sarconeos (BIO101) would be impaired. In order to address this issue, we are evaluating alternative methods for producing 20 -hydroxyecdysone in order to optimize the supply chain to support our projected commercial needs.

Macuneos (BIO201) is a pharmaceutical-grade purification of norbixin, which is derived from seeds of Bixa orellana L., a plant traditionally used for medicinal purposes in the Amazon and currently used for producing a food color in many countries. Although this plant is more widely available, there are a limited number of suppliers of the plant material that could meet our requirement for quality. At this time we rely on one supplier for the plant quantities we will require for our MACA clinical program. We have not entered into a long-term supply agreement with this supplier. If our current supplier is unable to provide sufficient supply

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to produce Macuneos (BIO201) for future clinical trials, our ability to obtain regulatory approval or authorization for Macuneos (BIO201) would be affected. If we receive regulatory approval or authorization, we will likely need substantial quantities of plants to produce Macuneos (BIO201) for commercial development. If our current supplier is unable to provide sufficient quantities of the plant to produce Macuneos (BIO201) and if we are unable to find an alternative source, our ability to commercialize Macuneos (BIO201) would be impaired. In order to address this issue, we are evaluating alternative methods for producing norbixin in order to optimize the supply chain to support our projected commercial needs.

Our contract manufacturing partner for both Sarconeos (BIO101) and Macuneos (BIO201) is Patheon, a part of Thermo Fisher Scientific, located in Germany. We have not entered into a long-term manufacturing agreement with Patheon or any other contract manufacturer.

The facilities used by our contract manufacturer to manufacture our drug candidates are subject to various regulatory requirements and may be subject to the inspection of the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities. We do not control the manufacturing process of, and are completely dependent on, our contract manufacturing partner for compliance with the regulatory requirements, known as cGMPs. If our contract manufacturer cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, EMA or comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions, we may not be able to rely on their manufacturing facilities for the manufacture of our drug candidates. In addition, we have limited control over the ability of our contract manufacturer to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, EMA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority finds these facilities inadequate for the manufacture of our drug candidates or if such facilities are subject to enforcement action in the future or are otherwise inadequate, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval or authorization for or market our drug candidates. Any significant delay in, or quality control problems with respect to, the supply of a drug candidate, or the raw material components thereof, for an ongoing study or trial could considerably delay completion of our preclinical studies or future clinical trials, product testing and potential regulatory approval or authorization of our drug candidates. Moreover, quarantines, shutdowns, shelter-in-place and other restrictions related to COVID-19 or other infectious diseases, or the perception that such events, orders or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, could impact personnel at manufacturing facilities which could disrupt our supply chain.

If any of our drug candidates is approved or authorized by the FDA, EMA and/or comparable foreign regulatory authorities and we choose to independently commercialize such drug candidate, we will need to engage manufacturers for the commercial supply of such drug candidates. However, we may be unable to enter into any such agreement or do so on commercially reasonable terms, which could have a material adverse impact upon our business. Moreover, if there is a disruption to one or more of our third-party manufacturers’ or suppliers’ relevant operations, or if we are unable to enter into arrangements for the commercial supply of our drug candidates, we will have no other means of producing our drug candidates until they restore the affected facilities or we or they procure alternative manufacturing facilities or sources of supply. Our ability to progress our preclinical and clinical programs could be materially and adversely impacted if any of the third party suppliers upon which we rely were to experience a significant business challenge, disruption or failure due to issues such as financial difficulties or bankruptcy, issues relating to other customers such as regulatory or quality compliance issues, or other financial, legal, regulatory or reputational issues. Additionally, any damage to or destruction of our third-party manufacturers’ or suppliers’ facilities or equipment may significantly impair our ability to manufacture our drug candidates on a timely basis.

In addition, to manufacture our drug candidates in the quantities that we believe would be required to meet anticipated market demand, our third-party manufacturers would likely need to increase manufacturing capacity and, in some cases, we could be required to secure alternative sources of commercial supply, which could involve significant challenges and could require additional regulatory approvals. If new restrictions are imposed as a result of a COVID-19 resurgence, any new pandemic or epidemic, or emergence of other infectious diseases, we may not be able to develop or scale up manufacturing capacity on a timely basis or have access to logistics or supply channels. In addition, the development of commercial-scale manufacturing capabilities could require us and our third-party manufacturers to invest substantial additional funds and hire and retain the technical personnel who have the necessary manufacturing experience. Neither we nor our third-party manufacturers may successfully complete any required increase to existing manufacturing capacity in a timely manner, or at all. If our manufacturers or we are unable to purchase the raw materials necessary for the manufacture of our drug candidates on acceptable terms, at sufficient quality levels, or in adequate quantities, if at all, the commercial launch of our drug candidates or any future drug candidates would be delayed or there would be a shortage in supply, which would impair our ability to generate revenues from the sale of such drug candidates, if approved.

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We rely on third parties in the conduct of all of our preclinical studies and clinical trials and intend to rely on third parties in the conduct of all of our future clinical trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements or meet expected deadlines, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates.

We currently do not have the ability to independently conduct preclinical studies that comply with the regulatory requirements known as good laboratory practice (“GLP”) requirements. We also do not currently have the ability to independently conduct any clinical trials. The FDA, EMA and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions require us to comply with regulations and standards, commonly referred to as good clinical practice (“GCP”) requirements for conducting, monitoring, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials, in order to ensure that the data and results are scientifically credible and accurate and that the trial subjects are adequately informed of the potential risks of participating in clinical trials. We rely on medical institutions, clinical investigators, contract laboratories and other third parties, such as CROs to conduct GLP-compliant preclinical studies and GCP-compliant clinical trials on our drug candidates properly and on time. While we have agreements governing their activities, we control only certain aspects of their activities and have limited influence over their actual performance. The third parties with whom we contract for execution of our GLP-compliant preclinical studies and our GCP-compliant clinical studies play a significant role in the conduct of these studies and trials and the subsequent collection and analysis of data. These third parties are not our employees and, except for restrictions imposed by our contracts with such third parties, we have limited ability to control the amount or timing of resources that they devote to our programs. In addition, third parties may have or adopt their own policies in response to continuing COVID-19 or other pandemics, epidemics, or other infectious diseases that may create delays or service disruptions, including work-from-home policies that lead to reduced workforce productivity. Although we rely on these third parties to conduct our GLP-compliant preclinical studies and GCP-compliant clinical trials, we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our GLP preclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its investigational plan and protocol and applicable laws and regulations, and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.

Many of the third parties with whom we contract may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities that could harm our competitive position. If the third parties conducting our preclinical studies or our clinical trials do not adequately perform their contractual duties or obligations, experience significant business challenges, disruptions or failures, do not meet expected deadlines, terminate their agreements with us or need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our protocols or to GCPs, or for any other reason, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties. This could be difficult, costly or impossible, and our preclinical studies or clinical trials may need to be extended, delayed, terminated or repeated. As a result we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or authorization in a timely fashion, or at all, for the applicable drug candidate, our financial results and the commercial prospects for our drug candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase, and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

We face significant competition in an environment of rapid technological and scientific change, and our drug candidates, if approved or authorized, will face significant competition and our failure to effectively compete may prevent us from achieving significant market penetration. A number of our competitors have significantly greater resources than we do and we may not be able to successfully compete.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries in particular are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on developing proprietary therapeutics. Numerous companies are engaged in the development, patenting, manufacturing and marketing of healthcare products competitive with those that we are developing. We face competition from a number of sources, such as pharmaceutical companies, generic drug companies, biotechnology companies and academic and research institutions, many of which have greater financial resources, marketing capabilities, sales forces, manufacturing capabilities, research and development capabilities, clinical trial expertise, intellectual property portfolios, experience in obtaining patents and regulatory approvals or authorizations for drug candidates and other resources than we do. Some of the companies that offer competing products also have a broad range of other product offerings, large direct sales forces and long-term customer relationships with our target physicians, which could inhibit our market penetration efforts. Mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. In addition, certain of our drug candidates, if approved, may compete with other products that treat age-related diseases, including over-the-counter (“OTC”) treatments, for a share of some patients’ discretionary budgets and for physicians’ attention within their clinical practices.

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We are aware of other companies seeking to develop treatments to prevent or treat aging-related diseases through various biological pathways. Indeed, the main challenge is to be able to identify the optimal target population given the dynamics in diagnostic criteria. The recent failures, combined with these dynamics, can deter major pharmaceutical companies from re-entering this space. While there are numerous clinical studies with new drug candidates to treat COVID-19, we believe Sarconeos (BIO101) is the most advanced drug candidate for the treatment of respiratory failure associated with COVID-19, specifically targeting the RAS imbalanced by SARS-CoV-2.

For DMD, our current focus on non-ambulatory patients with evidence of respiratory deterioration, puts us in a position to become one of the more advanced companies that develop medications for this population. Santhera Therapeutics, which was developing idebenone for this indication, has recently stopped their Phase 2/3 study and are no longer investing in this area. For dry AMD, we believe that we will compete with a number of companies that are developing drugs to treat this disease using different technologies (e.g., cellular and gene therapy, integrin regulation, and others), for example, Allegro Ophthalmics, Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Kodiak Sciences, Astellas, Hemera Biosciences, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Ophthotech Corporation and Roche and Stealth Biotherapeutics.

Certain alternative treatments offered by competitors may be available at lower prices and may offer greater efficacy or better safety profiles. Furthermore, currently approved products could be discovered to have application for treatment of age-related diseases generally, which could give such products significant regulatory and market timing advantages over any of our drug candidates. Our competitors also may obtain FDA, EMA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours and may obtain orphan product exclusivity from the FDA or EMA for indications our drug candidates are targeting, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Newly developed systemic or non-systemic treatments that replace existing therapies that are currently only utilized in patients suffering from severe disease may also have lessened side effects or reduced prices compared to current therapies, which make them more attractive for patients suffering from mild to moderate disease. Even if a generic product or an OTC product is less effective than our drug candidates, a less effective generic or OTC product may be more quickly adopted by physicians and patients than our competing drug candidates based upon cost or convenience. For additional information regarding our competition, see the section of this annual report titled “Business—Competition.”

In addition, another party may be successful in producing a more efficacious therapy for COVID-19 or a therapy with a more convenient or preferred route of administration or in producing a therapy in a more timely manner, which may lead to the diversion of funding away from us and toward other companies or lead to decreased demand for our potential therapies. Further, other therapies that are more affordable than our potential therapies may be used to treat COVID-19, including existing generic drugs, which could also hurt the funding of and demand for our potential therapies.

Several public and private entities have been working to develop a therapy for COVID-19, and some of these therapies have already received approval or authorization for emergency usage. These entities may be more successful at developing, manufacturing or commercializing therapies for COVID-19, especially given that several of these other organizations are much larger than we are and have access to larger pools of capital, including U.S. government funding, and broader manufacturing infrastructure. The success or failure of other entities, or perceived success or failure, may adversely impact our ability to obtain any future funding for our development and manufacturing efforts or to ultimately commercialize a therapy for COVID-19, if approved or authorized.

Furthermore, there are a number of preventative vaccines in development and others that have already been authorized and widely distributed. If the COVID-19 pandemic subsides as a result of these vaccines, it may reduce demand for our product.

Government restrictions on pricing and reimbursement, as well as other healthcare payor cost-containment initiatives, may negatively impact our ability to generate revenues and become profitable even if we obtain regulatory approval or authorization to market a product.

Our ability to commercialize any products successfully also will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these products and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, determine which medications they will cover and establish reimbursement levels. Assuming we obtain coverage for a given product by a third-party payor, the resulting reimbursement payment rates may not be adequate or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Patients who are prescribed medications for the treatment of their conditions, and their prescribing physicians, generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Patients are unlikely to use our products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover all or a significant

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portion of the cost of our products. Therefore, coverage and adequate reimbursement is critical to new product acceptance. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available.

Government authorities and other third-party payors are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs, such as by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. Increasingly, third-party payors are requiring that drug companies provide them with predetermined discounts from list prices as a condition of coverage, are using restrictive formularies and preferred drug lists to leverage greater discounts in competitive classes, and are challenging the prices charged for medical products.

In the United States, federal programs impose penalties on drug manufacturers in the form of mandatory additional rebates and/or discounts if commercial prices increase at a rate greater than the Consumer Price Index-Urban, and these rebates and/or discounts, which can be substantial, may impact our ability to raise commercial prices. Further, no uniform policy requirement for coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors in the United States. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained in the first instance.

In the European Union (“EU”) coverage and reimbursement possibilities for drug products differ from one Member State to another. Each Member State has the ability to set the prices and restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement. Factors contributing to price changes between Member States depend on different regulatory approaches and instruments used by each Member State to govern the supply and demand of medicinal products. For example, in France, a pharmaceutical company may freely set a price of a drug after obtaining a marketing authorization. However, in order for the product to be reimbursed under the French Social Security scheme, the pharmaceutical company must follow a specific process and submit an application to the French High Authority for Health, or HAS. The opinion issued by the HAS and its subcommittees (Transparency Commission or CT, and the Commission for Economic and Public Health Evaluation or CEESP, if applicable) is then transmitted to the French Economic Committee for Health Products, or CEPS—with which the pharmaceutical company has to negotiate the price of the product and the French National Union of Health Insurance Funds, or UNCAM which fixes the reimbursement rate of medicines covered by statutory health insurance. The final decision on price and reimbursement is issued by the French Minister of Health and can be revised afterwards, for example, depending on the cost/benefit balance of the medicinal product over time. Other EU countries may adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market as well as other price control mechanisms. In view of these differences from one Member State to another, there is still a risk that some EU countries do not allow favorable reimbursements and pricing arrangements.

The continuing efforts of governments, insurance companies, managed care organizations and other payors of healthcare costs to contain or reduce costs of healthcare may negatively affect our commercialization prospects, including:

our ability to set a price we believe is fair for our products, if approved or authorized;
our ability to obtain and maintain market acceptance by the medical community and patients;
our ability to generate revenues and achieve profitability; and
the availability of capital.

We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any potential drug candidate that we may commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval or authorization. If coverage and reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we may not successfully commercialize any drug candidate for which we obtain marketing approval or authorization.

We expect that additional U.S. state and federal healthcare reform measures, as well as similar measures by non-U.S. governments, will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in additional pricing pressure or reduced demand for any drug candidate we develop.

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In the event we elect to commercialize any of our drug candidates that receive regulatory approval or authorization, we will need to establish sales capabilities on our own or through third parties. If we are unsuccessful in our efforts, we may not be able to market and sell our drug candidates effectively in the United States, EU and/or other foreign jurisdictions, if approved or authorized, or generate product revenue.

We currently do not have a marketing or sales organization. In order to commercialize our drug candidates in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, we would need to establish marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services, and we may not be successful in doing so. If any of our drug candidates receive regulatory approval or authorization and we elect to independently commercialize such drug candidates, we would expect to establish a sales organization with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize each such drug candidate, which would be expensive and time consuming. We have no prior experience in the marketing, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products and there are significant risks involved in building and managing a sales organization, including our ability to hire, retain, and incentivize qualified individuals, generate sufficient sales leads, provide adequate training to sales and marketing personnel, and effectively manage a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of these products. Alternatively, we may choose to collaborate with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems. If we are unable to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our drug candidates. If we are not successful in commercializing our drug candidates or any future drug candidates, either on our own or through arrangements with one or more third parties, and are not otherwise able to license these products to third parties, we may not be able to generate any future product revenue and we would incur significant additional losses.

We will need to increase the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing growth.

As of the date of this annual report, we have 25 full-time employees, 20 of whom are engaged in research and development activities and five of whom are engaged in general and administrative activities. We will need to continue to expand our managerial, operational, finance and other resources in order to manage our operations and clinical trials, continue our development activities and commercialize our drug candidates or any future drug candidates. Our management and personnel, systems and facilities currently in place may not be adequate to support this future growth. Our need to effectively execute our growth strategy requires that we:

manage our clinical trials effectively;
identify, recruit, retain, incentivize and integrate additional employees;
manage our internal development and operational efforts effectively while carrying out our contractual obligations to and/or relations with third parties including regulatory agencies and market authorities;
continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reports systems and procedures; and
manage our information technology systems and data security.

If we fail to attract and retain senior management and key scientific personnel, we may be unable to successfully develop our drug candidates or any future drug candidates, conduct our clinical trials and commercialize our current or any future drug candidates.

We are dependent upon the services of our senior management and the loss of any of these individuals could harm our business. The loss of services of any of our key executive officers or other members of our senior management team, may be disruptive to, or cause uncertainty in, our business and could have a negative impact on our ability to manage and grow our business effectively. Such disruption could have a material adverse impact on our financial performance, financial condition, and the market price of our ordinary shares.

Our success also depends on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified clinical and scientific personnel. Competition for qualified personnel in the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals field is intense due to the limited number of individuals who possess the skills and experience required by our industry. We will need to hire additional personnel as we expand our clinical development and if we initiate commercial activities. We may not be able to attract and retain quality personnel on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, to the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations that they have been

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improperly solicited or that they have divulged proprietary or other confidential information, or that their former employers own their research output.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our current or future drug candidates.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of our drug candidates and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products. For example, we may be sued if any product we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, negligence, strict liability, and a breach of warranty. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our drug candidates. Even a successful defense would require significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

decreased demand for our current or future drug candidates;
injury to our reputation;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
costs to defend the related litigation;
a diversion of management’s time and our resources;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
regulatory investigations, product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;
loss of revenue; and
the inability to commercialize our current or any future drug candidates.

Our inability to obtain and maintain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost and scope of coverage to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of our current or any future drug candidates we develop. We currently carry product liability insurance covering our clinical trials. Although we maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies also have various exclusions and deductibles, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We will have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to pay such amounts. Moreover, in the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses. If and when we obtain approval or authorization for marketing any of our drug candidates, we intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of such drug candidate; however, we may be unable to obtain this liability insurance on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Our existing collaborations as well as additional collaboration arrangements that we may enter into in the future may not be successful, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our drug candidates.

We utilize external collaborations and currently maintain several active early-stage research and discovery focused collaborations. We may seek to partner with pharmaceutical laboratories to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates. We may also seek additional collaboration arrangements for the commercialization, or potentially for the development, of certain of our drug candidates depending on the merits of retaining commercialization rights for ourselves as compared to entering into collaboration arrangements. To the extent that we decide to enter into additional collaboration agreements in the future, we may face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Moreover, collaboration arrangements are complex and time-consuming to negotiate, document, implement and maintain and challenging to manage. We may not be successful in our efforts to prudently

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manage our existing collaborations or to enter new ones should we choose to do so. The terms of new collaborations or other arrangements that we may establish may not be favorable to us.

The success of our collaboration arrangements will depend heavily on the efforts and activities of our collaborators. Collaborations are subject to numerous risks, which may include risks that:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to collaborations;
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our drug candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results, changes in their strategic focus due to their acquisition of competitive products or their internal development of competitive products, availability of funding or other external factors, such as a business combination that diverts resources or creates competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial, abandon a drug candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a drug candidate for clinical testing;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with our products or drug candidates;
a collaborator with marketing, manufacturing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to or otherwise not perform satisfactorily in carrying out these activities;
we could grant exclusive rights to our collaborators that would prevent us from collaborating with others;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our intellectual property or proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential liability;
disputes may arise between us and a collaborator that cause the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our current or future drug candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;
collaborations may be terminated, and, if terminated, this may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable current or future drug candidates;
collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering products that results from our collaborating with them, and in such cases, we would not have the exclusive right to develop or commercialize such intellectual property;
disputes may arise with respect to the ownership of any intellectual property developed pursuant to our collaborations; and
a collaborator’s sales and marketing activities or other operations may not be in compliance with applicable laws resulting in civil or criminal proceedings.

Significant disruptions of information technology systems or breaches of data security could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We collect and maintain information in digital form that is necessary to conduct our business, and we are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information. It is critical that we do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. We have established physical, electronic and organizational measures to safeguard and secure our systems to prevent a data compromise, and rely on commercially available systems, software, tools, and monitoring to provide security for our information technology systems and the processing, transmission and storage of digital information. We have also outsourced

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elements of our information technology infrastructure, and as a result a number of third-party vendors may or could have access to our confidential information. Our internal information technology systems and infrastructure, and those of our current and any future collaborators, contractors and consultants and other third parties on which we rely, are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, malware, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication and electrical failures, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, attachments to emails, persons inside our organization, or persons with access to systems inside our organization.

The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber-terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. In addition, the prevalent use of mobile devices that access confidential information increases the risk of data security breaches, which could lead to the loss of confidential information or other intellectual property. The costs to us to mitigate network security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and while we have implemented security measures to protect our data security and information technology systems, our efforts to address these problems may not be successful, and these problems could result in unexpected interruptions, delays, cessation of service and other harm to our business and our competitive position. If such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our product development programs. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or ongoing or planned clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval or authorization efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Moreover, if a computer security breach affects our systems or results in the unauthorized release of personally identifiable information, our reputation could be materially damaged.

In addition, such a breach may require notification to governmental agencies, the media or individuals pursuant to various federal and state privacy and security laws, if applicable, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Clinical Health Act of 2009, and its implementing rules and regulations, as well as regulations promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission and state breach notification laws.

Under the data protection laws in the EU, and notably the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) No. 2016/679, which entered into force on May 25, 2018 and is applicable personal data that we process in relation to our presence in the EU, the offering of products or services to individuals in the EU or the monitoring of the behavior of individuals in the EU, we have also a legal responsibility to report personal data breaches to the competent supervisory authority. The GDPR includes a broad definition and a short deadline for the notification of personal data breaches, which may be difficult to implement in practice and requires that we implement robust internal processes. Under the GDPR, we have to report personal data breaches to the competent supervisory authority within 72 hours of the time we become aware of a breach “unless the personal data breach is unlikely to result in a risk to the right and freedoms of natural persons” (Article 33 of the GDPR). In addition, the GDPR requires that we communicate the breach to the data subject if the breach is “likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons” (Article 34 of the GDPR). In order to fulfil these requirements, we have to implement specific internal processes to be followed in case of a personal data breach, which will allow us to (a) contain and recover the breach, (b) assess the risk to the data subjects, (c) notify, and possibly communicate the breach to the data subjects, (d) investigate and respond to the breach. The performance of these processes involve substantial costs in resources and time.

Finally, as a consequence of the decision by the European Court of Justice issued on July 16, 2020 (known as the “Schrems II decision”), which invalidated the privacy shield for data transfers between the EU and the United States, a reassessment of both data transfers to and storage of EU data by our U.S. entities or other U.S. companies will be required. To the extent that the U.S. legal system is not considered as providing an adequate level of protection by the European authorities, and that the other safeguards provided by applicable regulation (e.g., Standard Contractual Clause (“SCCs”) in their form before June 2021) are not deemed to fully address such inadequacies, additional protective measures will have to be assessed on a case-by-case basis, and implemented in order to ensure the compliance of such transfers, based on the new SCCs, prior to adoption.

Moreover, as we may rely on third parties that will also process as processor the data for which we are a data controller—for example, in the context of the manufacturing of our drug candidates or for the conduct of clinical trials, we must contractually ensure that strict security measures, as well as appropriate obligations including an obligation to report in due delay any security incident are implemented, in order to allow us fulfilling our own regulatory requirements.

We would also be exposed to a risk of loss or litigation and potential liability for any security breach on personal data for which we are data controller. The costs of above-mentioned processes together with legal penalties, possible compensation for damages and any resulting lawsuits arising from a breach may be extensive and may have a negative impact on reputation and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Our employees and independent contractors, including principal investigators, consultants, commercial collaborators, service providers and other vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees and independent contractors, including principal investigators, consultants, any future commercial collaborators, service providers and other vendors may engage in misconduct or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional, reckless and/or negligent conduct or other unauthorized activities that violate the laws and regulations of the FDA, EMA and other similar regulatory authorities, including those laws that require the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to such regulatory authorities; manufacturing standards; healthcare fraud and abuse, data privacy laws and other similar laws; or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use or misrepresentation of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, the creation of fraudulent data in our preclinical studies or clinical trials, or illegal misappropriation of product, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by employees and other third parties, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. In addition, we are subject to the risk that a person or government could allege such fraud or other misconduct, even if none occurred. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business and financial results, including, without limitation, the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, disgorgements, possible exclusion from participation in governmental healthcare programs, individual imprisonment, other sanctions, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Our business involves the use of hazardous materials and we and our third-party manufacturers and suppliers must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.

Our research and development activities and our third-party manufacturers’ and suppliers’ activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials owned by us, including the components of our product and drug candidates and other hazardous compounds. We and any third-party manufacturers and suppliers we engage are subject to numerous federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws, regulations and permitting requirements, including those governing laboratory procedures; the generation, handling, use, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous and regulated materials and wastes; the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air and water; and employee health and safety. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste. In some cases, these hazardous materials and various wastes resulting from their use are stored at our and our manufacturers’ facilities pending their use and disposal. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination, which could cause an interruption of our commercialization efforts, research and development efforts and business operations, environmental damage resulting in costly clean-up and liabilities under applicable laws and regulations governing the use, storage, handling and disposal of these materials and specified waste products.

Although we believe that the safety procedures utilized by our third-party manufacturers for handling and disposing of these materials generally comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee that this is the case or eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. Under certain environmental laws, we could be held responsible for costs relating to any contamination at our current or past facilities and at third-party facilities. In such an event, we may be held liable for any resulting damages and such liability could exceed our resources and state or federal or other applicable authorities may curtail our use of certain materials and/or interrupt our business operations. Furthermore, environmental laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent. We cannot predict the impact of such changes and cannot be certain of our future compliance.

Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations may be expensive, and current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, product development and manufacturing efforts. In addition, we cannot entirely eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from these materials or wastes. Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. We do not carry specific biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage, and our property, casualty, and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury, we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our clinical trials or regulatory

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approvals or authorization could be suspended, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

Our ability to compete may decline if we do not adequately protect our proprietary rights.

Our success depends on obtaining and maintaining proprietary rights to our drug candidates for the treatment of age-related diseases, as well as successfully defending these rights against third-party challenges. We will only be able to protect our drug candidates, and their uses from unauthorized use by third parties to the extent that valid and enforceable patents, or effectively protected trade secrets, cover them. Our ability to obtain patent protection for our drug candidates is uncertain due to a number of factors, including:

we may not have been the first to make the inventions covered by pending patent applications or issued patents;
we may not have been the first to file patent applications for our drug candidates or the compositions we developed or for their uses;
others may independently develop identical, similar or alternative products or compositions and uses thereof;
our disclosures in patent applications may not be sufficient to meet the statutory requirements for patentability;
any or all of our pending patent applications may not result in issued patents;
we may not seek or obtain patent protection in countries that may eventually provide us a significant business opportunity;
any patents issued to us may not provide a basis for commercially viable products, may not provide any competitive advantages, or may be successfully challenged by third parties;
our compositions and methods may not be patentable;
others may design around our patent claims to produce competitive products which fall outside of the scope of our patents; or
others may identify prior art or other bases which could invalidate our patents.

Even if we have or obtain patents covering our drug candidates or compositions, we may still be barred from making, using and selling our drug candidates or technologies because of the patent rights of others. Others may have filed, and in the future may file, patent applications covering compositions or products that are similar or identical to ours. There are many issued U.S. and foreign patents relating to chemical compounds and therapeutic products, and some of these relate to compounds we intend to commercialize. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the allergy treatment field in which we are developing products. These could materially affect our ability to develop our drug candidates or sell our products if approved or authorized. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending applications unknown to us that may later result in issued patents that our drug candidates or compositions may infringe. These patent applications may have priority over patent applications filed by us.

Obtaining and maintaining a patent portfolio entails significant expense and resources. Part of the expense includes periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees, various other governmental fees on patents and/or applications due in several stages over the lifetime of patents and/or applications, as well as the cost associated with complying with numerous procedural provisions during the patent application process. We may or may not choose to pursue or maintain protection for particular inventions. In addition, there are situations in which failure to make certain payments or noncompliance with certain requirements in the patent process can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If we choose to forgo patent protection or allow a patent application or patent to lapse purposefully or inadvertently, our competitive position could suffer.

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In addition, it is unclear at this time what Brexit’s impact will have on our intellectual property rights and the process for obtaining and defending such rights. It is possible that certain intellectual property rights, such as trademarks, granted by the EU will cease being enforceable in the UK absent special arrangements to the contrary. With regard to existing patent rights, the effect of Brexit should be minimal considering enforceable patent rights are specific to the UK, whether arising out of the European Patent Office or directly through the UK patent office.

Legal actions to enforce our proprietary rights (including patents and trademarks) can be expensive and may involve the diversion of significant management time. In addition, these legal actions could be unsuccessful and could also result in the invalidation of our patents or trademarks or a finding that they are unenforceable. We may or may not choose to pursue litigation or other actions against those that have infringed on our patents or trademarks, or used them without authorization, due to the associated expense and time commitment of monitoring these activities. If we fail to protect or to enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, our competitive position could suffer, which could harm our results of operations.

Biotechnology patents and patent applications involve highly complex legal and factual questions, which, if determined adversely to us, could negatively impact our patent position.

The patent positions of biotechnology companies can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. The interpretation and breadth of claims allowed in some patents covering biotechnology compositions may be uncertain and difficult to determine, and are often affected materially by the facts and circumstances that pertain to the patented compositions and the related patent claims. The standards of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) are sometimes uncertain and could change in the future. Consequently, the issuance and scope of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. U.S. patents and patent applications may also be subject to interference proceedings, and U.S. patents may be subject to reexamination proceedings, post-grant review and/or inter partes review in the USPTO. Foreign patents may be subject also to opposition or comparable proceedings in the corresponding foreign patent office, which could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. For example, Patent No. EP2790706 (protecting Patent family S3 in various European countries) is currently subject to an opposition procedure before the European Patent Office. A final decision is expected by the end of 2022. It has been alleged that the Chinese patent protecting the same invention (Patent family S3) was invalidated by the Court of Revision of the Chinese Patent Office, further to a motion for invalidation brought by a third party based on similar arguments (including the insufficient description of the animal model used in the patent, the novelty of the patent, the extension beyond the application as filed and the inventive step). In addition, such interference, reexamination, post-grant review, inter partes review and opposition proceedings may be costly. Accordingly, rights under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection against competitive products or processes.

In addition, changes in or different interpretations of patent laws in the United States and foreign countries may permit others to use our discoveries or to develop and commercialize our technology and products without providing any compensation to us, or may limit the number of patents or claims we can obtain. The laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws and those countries may lack adequate rules and procedures for defending our intellectual property rights. This may also result in having the same invention covering differing claims in different countries and provide a different scope of protection in foreign countries.

If we fail to obtain and maintain patent protection and trade secret protection of our drug candidates, we could lose our competitive advantage and competition we face would increase, reducing any potential revenues and adversely affecting our ability to attain or maintain profitability.

Developments in patent law could have a negative impact on our business.

From time to time, the United States Supreme Court, or the Supreme Court, other federal courts, the United States Congress, the USPTO or similar foreign authorities may change the standards of patentability and any such changes could have a negative impact on our business.

In addition, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the America Invents Act, which was signed into law in 2011, includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These changes include a transition from a “first-to-invent” system to a “first-to-file” system, changes to the way issued patents are challenged, and changes to the way patent applications are disputed during the examination process. These changes may favor larger and more established companies that have greater resources to devote to patent application filing and prosecution. The USPTO has developed new and untested regulations and procedures to govern the full implementation of the America Invents Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the America Invents

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Act, and, in particular, the first-to-file provisions, became effective on March 16, 2013. Substantive changes to patent law associated with the America Invents Act may affect our ability to obtain patents, and if obtained, to enforce or defend them. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the America Invents Act will have on the cost of prosecuting our patent applications, our ability to obtain patents based on our discoveries and our ability to enforce or defend any patents that may issue from our patent applications, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.

In addition to patent protection, because we operate in the highly technical field of development of therapies, we rely in part on trade secret protection in order to protect our proprietary technology and processes. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We expect to enter into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, and other advisors. These agreements generally require that the other party keep confidential and not disclose to third parties all confidential information developed by the party or made known to the party by us during the course of the party’s relationship with us. These agreements also generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. However, these agreements may not be honored and may not effectively assign intellectual property rights to us.

In addition to contractual measures, we try to protect the confidential nature of our proprietary information using physical and technological security measures. Such measures may not, for example, in the case of misappropriation of a trade secret by an employee or third party with authorized access, provide adequate protection for our proprietary information. Our security measures may not prevent an employee or consultant from misappropriating our trade secrets and providing them to a competitor, and recourse we take against such misconduct may not provide an adequate remedy to protect our interests fully. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret can be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets. Trade secrets may be independently developed by others in a manner that could prevent legal recourse by us. If any of our confidential or proprietary information, such as our trade secrets, were to be disclosed or misappropriated, or if any such information was independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position could be harmed.

We will not seek to protect our intellectual property rights in all jurisdictions throughout the world and we may not be able to adequately enforce our intellectual property rights even in the jurisdictions where we seek protection.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our drug candidates and our trademarks in all countries and jurisdictions throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States could be less extensive than those in the United States, assuming that rights are obtained in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions or using our trademarks in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions or commercialized under identical or similar trademarks in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. The statutory deadlines for pursuing patent and trademark protection in individual foreign jurisdictions are based on the priority dates of each of our patent and trademark applications.

Competitors may use our technologies or trademarks in jurisdictions where we do not pursue and obtain patent or trademark protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent or trademark protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing. Even if we pursue and obtain issued patents and trademarks in particular jurisdictions, our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent third parties from so competing.

The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of some countries, particularly developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, especially those relating to biopharmaceuticals or biotechnologies. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents, if obtained, or the misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties, provided that (as a general rule and subject to local laws) the interests of public health so require (e.g., if the treatment is made available to the public in insufficient quantity or quality or at abnormally high prices) and the patent owner is compensated. If the test of the safety and efficacy of Sarconeos (BIO101) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is successful, we could be required to

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grant compulsory licenses for any patent or patent application protecting such treatment. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against third parties, including government authorities or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit. Patent protection must ultimately be sought on a country-by-country basis, which is an expensive and time-consuming process with uncertain outcomes. Accordingly, we may choose not to seek patent protection in certain countries, and we will not have the benefit of patent protection in such countries.

Proceedings to enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents or other intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly, could put our patent or trademark applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology and the enforcement of intellectual property. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

Third parties may assert ownership or commercial rights to inventions we develop.

Third parties may in the future make claims challenging the inventorship or ownership of our intellectual property. We have written agreements with collaborators that provide for the ownership of intellectual property arising from our collaborations. These agreements provide that we must negotiate certain commercial rights with collaborators with respect to joint inventions or inventions made by our collaborators that arise from the results of the collaboration. In some instances, there may not be adequate written provisions to address clearly the resolution of intellectual property rights that may arise from a collaboration. If we cannot successfully negotiate sufficient ownership and commercial rights to the inventions that result from our use of a third-party collaborator’s materials where required, or if disputes otherwise arise with respect to the intellectual property developed with the use of a collaborator’s samples, we may be limited in our ability to capitalize on the market potential of these inventions. In addition, we may face claims by third parties that our agreements with employees, contractors, or consultants obligating them to assign intellectual property to us are ineffective, or in conflict with prior or competing contractual obligations of assignment, which could result in ownership disputes regarding intellectual property we have developed or will develop and interfere with our ability to capture the commercial value of such inventions. Litigation may be necessary to resolve an ownership dispute, and if we are not successful, we may be precluded from using certain intellectual property, or may lose our exclusive rights in that intellectual property. Either outcome could have an adverse impact on our business.

Our Chief Executive Officer, who is a corporate officer (mandataire social) but not an employee of the Company under French law, is involved in our research and development activities. He has contributed to research results for which we have submitted patent applications in which he is listed as a co-inventor and other inventions that we expect may give rise to patent applications in the future for which we expect he will be included as a co-inventor. Under French intellectual property law, inventors who are employees of a company have legal rights that are typically circumscribed in France by a combination of French labor law and contractual arrangements. Because Mr. Veillet is our CEO, and not an employee, we have entered into an assignment agreement with him, pursuant to which he is entitled to certain payments as consideration for his prior and future contributions to our research projects and inventions. See “Intellectual Property Agreement with Stanislas Veillet” in the “Business” section of this annual report for additional information.

Third parties may assert that our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information or misappropriated trade secrets.

We employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of a former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

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A dispute concerning the infringement or misappropriation of our proprietary rights or the proprietary rights of others could be time-consuming and costly, and an unfavorable outcome could harm our business.

There is significant litigation in the biotechnology industry regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. While we are not currently subject to any pending intellectual property litigation, and are not aware of any such threatened litigation, we may be exposed to future litigation by third parties based on claims that our drug candidates, technologies or activities infringe the intellectual property rights of others. If our development activities are found to infringe any such patents, we may have to pay significant damages or seek licenses to such patents. A patentee could prevent us from using the patented drugs or compositions. We may need to resort to litigation to enforce a patent issued to us, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the scope and validity of third-party proprietary rights. From time to time, we may hire scientific personnel or consultants formerly employed by other companies involved in one or more areas similar to the activities conducted by us. Either we or these individuals may be subject to allegations of trade secret misappropriation or other similar claims as a result of prior affiliations. If we become involved in litigation, it could consume a substantial portion of our managerial and financial resources, regardless of whether we win or lose. We may not be able to afford the costs of litigation. Any adverse ruling or perception of an adverse ruling in defending ourselves against these claims could have a material adverse impact on our cash position and the price of the ADSs. Any legal action against us or our collaborators could lead to:

payment of damages, potentially treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed a party’s patent rights;
injunctive or other equitable relief that may effectively block our ability to further develop, commercialize, and sell products; or
us or our collaborators having to enter into license arrangements that may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our cash position and business and financial condition. As a result, we could be prevented from commercializing current or future drug candidates.

We may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent or delay our product development efforts and stop us from commercializing or increase the costs of commercializing our drug candidates, if approved or authorized.

Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot assure you that our business, products and methods do not or will not infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties.

The biotechnology industry is characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Other parties may allege that our drug candidates or the use of our technologies infringes patent claims or other intellectual property rights held by them or that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. Patent and other types of intellectual property litigation can involve complex factual and legal questions, and their outcome is uncertain. Any claim relating to intellectual property infringement that is successfully asserted against us may require us to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorney’s fees if we are found to be willfully infringing another party’s patents, for past use of the asserted intellectual property and royalties and other consideration going forward if we are forced to take a license. In addition, if any such claim were successfully asserted against us and we could not obtain such a license, we may be forced to stop or delay developing, manufacturing, selling or otherwise commercializing products.

Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us. If we are unable to avoid infringing the patent rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of the patents in court, or redesign our products. Patent litigation is costly and time consuming. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. In addition, intellectual property litigation or claims could force us to do one or more of the following:

cease developing, selling or otherwise commercializing our drug candidates;
pay substantial damages for past use of the asserted intellectual property;
obtain a license from the holder of the asserted intellectual property, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all;
harm our reputation and cause potential partners or academic entities to avoid working with us; and

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in the case of trademark claims, redesign or rename trademarks we own to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may not be possible and, even if possible, could be costly and time-consuming.

Any of these risks coming to fruition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Issued patents covering our drug candidates could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court.

If we or one of our licensing partners initiated legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our drug candidate, the defendant could counterclaim that the patent covering our drug candidate is invalid and/or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge include alleged failures to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for unenforceability assertions include allegations that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may also raise similar claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post grant review and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions, e.g., opposition proceedings. Such proceedings could result in revocation or amendment of our patents in such a way that they no longer cover our drug candidates or competitive products. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to validity, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our drug candidates. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

Even if we obtain regulatory approval or authorization for a drug candidate, our products will remain subject to regulatory scrutiny.

If our drug candidates are approved or authorization, they may be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping, conduct of post-marketing studies, and submission of safety, efficacy, and other post-market information, including both federal and state requirements in the United States and requirements of comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

Manufacturers and manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authority requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to cGMP regulations. As such, we and our contract manufacturers will be subject to continual review and inspections to assess compliance with cGMP and adherence to commitments made in any approved marketing application or authorization. Inspections by regulatory authorities and the potential need for subsequent corrective actions may require additional investment or changes to our manufacturing or suppliers’ manufacturing facilities, and may cause delays, interruptions, or complete stoppage of the manufacturing process. If certain drugs have a potential for misuse/abuse, manufacturers and manufacturers’ facilities must also comply with certain drug diversion regulatory and compliance programs. Accordingly, we and others with whom we work must continue to expend time, money, and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production, and quality control.

Given that we expect to have a global supply chain, our supply chain may also be affected by the FDA’s enforcement activity at the U.S. border, such as import detentions, import holds, import refusals, or drug diversion oversight or refusals. Despite our investment in regulatory compliance, the FDA may raise issues with our regulatory compliance, and suppliers outside of our direct control may also fail to adhere to the FDA’s regulatory requirements, in which case our supply chain and business plans may be interrupted. Further import detentions, holds, or refusals may also occur while the FDA attempts to verify the imported products’ compliance with the law. Such detentions, holds, or refusals may affect our supply chain and business plans.

Authorities and policy makers are tightening controls on compliance by suppliers on environmental and social standards. We may be required to further tighten the audit of our suppliers, and to change suppliers in case of non-compliance. Independently, enforcement measures by government authorities such as import bans from suppliers suspected of such non-compliance may impact our supply chain.

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We will have to comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for our products. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs and biologics are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions in the United States and the EU (both at EU and national level, for instance, in France) and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved or authorized label. As such, we may not promote our products for indications or uses for which they do not have approval or authorization. The holder of an approved or authorized application must submit new or supplemental applications and obtain approval or authorization for certain changes to the approved or authorized product, product labeling, or manufacturing process. We could also be asked to conduct post-marketing clinical trials to verify the safety and efficacy of our products in general or in specific patient subsets. An unsuccessful post-marketing study or failure to complete such a study could result in the withdrawal of marketing approval or authorization. In addition, under European regulation, certain of our drug candidates could be added to the list of drugs subject to additional monitoring and studies. Such list concerns drugs for which there is no experience due to their recent marketing or a lack of data on their long-term use. This classification would lead to additional requirements regarding post-marketing surveillance measures of our products or safety studies, which may require more resources on our end.

If a regulatory authority discovers previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, or disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of a product, such regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product or us, including requiring withdrawal of the product from the market. If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency or enforcement authority may, among other things:

issue warning letters;
carry out inspections;
seek an injunction or impose administrative, civil or criminal penalties or sanctions;
suspend or withdraw regulatory approval or authorization;
suspend any of our clinical trials;
refuse to approve or authorize pending applications or supplements to approved or authorized applications submitted by us;
impose restrictions on our operations, including closing our contract manufacturers’ facilities;
seize or detain products, or require a product recall; or
refuse product importation, subject the import shipments to scrutiny, or place us or our suppliers on the Import Alert program.

Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response, and could generate negative publicity. Any failure to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements may significantly and adversely affect our ability to commercialize and generate revenue from our products. If regulatory sanctions are applied or if regulatory approval or authorization is withdrawn, the value of our company and our operating results will be adversely affected.

Moreover, the policies of the FDA, EMA and of other regulatory authorities may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval or authorization of our drug candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative or executive action, in Europe, the United States or elsewhere. For example, Regulation (EU) No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use was adopted in 2014 and became effective as of January 31, 2022 and could impact the administrative procedure that we will have to follow in order to obtain regulatory approval or authorization for our drug candidates. Depending on the date of our application for clinical trial authorization, we could be required to adapt quickly to the new requirements and procedures resulting from this new regulation, in particular regarding the new required deadlines that will require us to be reactive in the event of additional requests from the authorities. We are also anticipating further guidance and decisions from the European Commission, EMA and national regulators of Member States (such as ANSM for France) as those are involved in the process.

In addition, certain policies of the new Biden administration in the United States may impact our business and industry. Previously, the Trump administration enacted several executive actions, including the issuance of a number of Executive Orders that

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restricted the FDA’s ability to engage in routine oversight activities such as implementing rules through rulemaking. The Biden administration rescinded some of the Executive Orders, but it may also implement new policies and executive actions that could affect the FDA’s ability to exercise its authority. If these executive actions impose restrictions on the FDA’s ability to engage in oversight and implementation activities in the normal course, our business may be negatively impacted. In addition, if we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval or authorization that we may have obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

Changes in COVID-19 infectiousness or lethality rates, or eradication or substantial eradication of the disease could reduce or eliminate the demand for our product.

We are currently concluding the global, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group-sequential, and adaptive two-part Phase 2-3 study (COVA) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Widespread access to vaccines or other therapeutic options significantly reduced or eliminated our ability to enroll subjects in the COVA program. For example, On December 22, 2021, FDA issued an EUA for Paxlovid for the treatment of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) with positive results of direct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral testing, and who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death. On December 8, 2021, the FDA also issued an EUA for Evusheld for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) of COVID-19 in certain adults and pediatric individuals (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms. On October 29, 2021, the FDA has officially granted Emergency Use Authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5-11. A substantial proportion of the population has now had COVID-19, which may have provided further immunity and/or lead to a mild clinical course that only very rarely results in hospitalization (as is now seen with the Omicron variant).

In addition, spread of new COVID-19 variants that do not cause severe respiratory illnesses are reducing the demand for our product and impacting our ability to enroll subjects for the COVA study. For example, information that is known about the newer variants suggest that there is some possibility that while they are more infectious, they do not cause severe respiratory illnesses as frequently as the prior variants did. If this is the case, the demand for our Sarconeos (BIO101) could be significantly reduced.

Regulatory agencies may change the policies and requirements regarding approvals and emergency use authorizations, or revoke emergency use authorizations that the agencies have already issued.

Under section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FD&C Act”), following a public health emergency declaration by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), the FDA Commissioner may allow unapproved medical products, or unapproved uses of approved medical products, to be used in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions caused by chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threat agents when there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives. The EUA allows temporary use of the medical product, based on efficacy data, which is usually not sufficient on its own for approval. Many drugs and medical devices have received emergency use authorizations under this framework, and we plan to seek emergency use authorization for at least one of our drug candidates. There is some risk, however, that the public health emergency declaration could be terminated before or soon after we complete the development of our drug, or even if we obtain an EUA, that the FDA will revoke the EUA. In fact, the FDA has already begun promulgating guidance documents that discuss disposition of products that are distributed pursuant to EUAs. If this occurs, we may no longer be able to distribute our product, or our distribution and marketing efforts may be severely restricted.

If any of our drug candidates obtain regulatory approval, additional competitors could enter the market with generic versions of such drugs, which may result in a material decline in sales of affected products.

Under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the “Hatch-Waxman Act”), a pharmaceutical manufacturer may file an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”) seeking approval of a generic version of an approved, small molecule innovator product. Under the Hatch-Waxman Act, a manufacturer may also submit a new drug application (“NDA”) under section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the “FDCA”) that references the FDA’s prior approval of the innovator product. A 505(b)(2) NDA product may be for a new or improved version of the original innovator product. The Hatch-Waxman Act also provides for certain periods of regulatory exclusivity, which preclude FDA approval (or in some circumstances, FDA filing and review) of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA. In addition to the benefits of regulatory exclusivity, an innovator NDA holder may have patents claiming the active ingredient, product formulation or an approved use of the drug, which would be listed with the product in the FDA publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” known as the Orange Book. If there are patents listed in the Orange Book for a product, a generic or 505(b)(2) applicant that seeks to market its product

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before expiration of the patents must include in their applications what is known as a “Paragraph IV” certification, challenging the validity or enforceability of, or claiming non-infringement of, the listed patent or patents. Notice of the certification must be given to the patent owner and NDA holder and if, within 45 days of receiving notice, either the patent owner or NDA holder sues for patent infringement, approval of the ANDA or 505(b)(2) NDA is stayed for up to 30 months.

Accordingly, if any of our drug candidates are approved, competitors could file ANDAs for generic versions of our drug candidates or 505(b)(2) NDAs that reference our small molecule drug products. If there are patents listed for our drug candidates in the Orange Book, those ANDAs and 505(b)(2) NDAs would be required to include a certification as to each listed patent indicating whether the ANDA applicant does or does not intend to challenge the patent. We cannot predict which, if any, patents in our current portfolio or patents we may obtain in the future will be eligible for listing in the Orange Book, how any generic competitor would address such patents, whether we would sue on any such patents, or the outcome of any such suit.

We may not be successful in securing or maintaining proprietary patent protection for products and technologies we develop or license. Moreover, if any of our owned or in-licensed patents that are listed in the Orange Book are successfully challenged by way of a Paragraph IV certification and subsequent litigation, the affected product could immediately face generic competition and its sales would likely decline rapidly and materially.

We have received and may seek additional orphan drug designations for certain future drug candidates, but we may be unable to obtain such designations or to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug designation, including market exclusivity, which may cause our revenue, if any, to be reduced.

We obtained and may pursue orphan drug designation for certain of our future drug candidates. In the European Union, the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (“COMP”) recommends orphan drug designation to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union. Additionally, designation is granted for products intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a life-threatening, seriously debilitating or serious and chronic condition when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of the drug in the European Union would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the drug or biological product or where there is no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment, or, if such a method exists, the medicine must be of significant benefit to those affected by the condition. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug or biologic product as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the United States, or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the United States where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States.

In the European Union, orphan drug designation may entitle a party to financial incentives such as reduction of regulatory fees or fee waivers and ten years of market exclusivity following drug or biological product approval unless a derogation applies. This period may be reduced to six years if the orphan drug designation criteria are no longer met, including where it is shown that the product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and application fee waivers. In addition, if a product receives the first FDA approval for the indication for which it has orphan designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means the FDA may not approve any other application to market the same drug for the same indication for a period of seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority over the product with orphan exclusivity or where the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient product quantity for the orphan patient population.

We may seek additional orphan drug designations in the future for some of our future drug candidates but FDA or EMA may decline our application. Even if we obtain orphan drug designation, we may not be the first to obtain marketing approval for any particular orphan indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products. Further, even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for a drug candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs with different active moieties can be approved for the same condition. Orphan drug designations are not in any way indicative of a drug’s likelihood of receiving the final marketing authorization from FDA. The FDA does not evaluate a drug candidate’s safety and effectiveness using the same standard as it would when reviewing a drug candidate’s safety and effectiveness prior to granting final marketing approvals. The FDA may grant orphan drug designations to multiple drugs intended for the same indication. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the EMA or FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the EMA or FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is safer, more effective, or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug or biologic nor gives the drug or biologic any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process.

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Enacted and future healthcare legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval or authorization of and commercialize our drug candidates and may affect the prices we may set.

In the United States, the EU and other jurisdictions, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes to the healthcare system that could affect our future results of operations. In particular, there have been and continue to be a number of initiatives at the U.S. federal and state levels that seek to reduce healthcare costs and improve the quality of healthcare. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “Affordable Care Act”) was enacted, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among the provisions of the Affordable Care Act, those of greatest importance to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries include the following:

an annual, non-deductible fee payable by any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents (other than those designated as orphan drugs), which is apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;
a Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;
requirements to report certain financial arrangements with physicians, teaching hospitals, and other healthcare providers, including reporting “transfers of value” made or distributed to such healthcare providers and reporting ownership or investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
an increase in the statutory minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13.0% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;
a methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected;
extension of a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;
expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level, thereby potentially increasing a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability;
a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research; and
establishment of a Center for Medicare Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act, and we expect there will be additional challenges and amendments to the Affordable Care Act in the future.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the Affordable Care Act was enacted. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, led to aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year. These reductions went into effect in April 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2025 unless additional action is taken by Congress. In January 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.

Individual states in the United States have also become increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints,

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discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Legally-mandated price controls on payment amounts by third-party payors or other restrictions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This could reduce the ultimate demand for our drug candidates or put pressure on our product pricing. Moreover, payment methodologies may be subject to changes in healthcare legislation and regulatory initiatives. For example, CMS may develop new payment and delivery models, such as bundled payment models. In addition, recently there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products.

In the EU, similar political, economic and regulatory developments may affect our ability to profitably commercialize our drug candidates, if approved. In addition to continuing pressure on prices and cost containment measures, legislative developments at the EU or at the Member State level may result in significant additional requirements or obstacles that may increase our operating costs. The delivery of healthcare in the EU, including the establishment and operation of health services and the pricing and reimbursement of medicines, is almost exclusively a matter for national, rather than EU, law and policy. National governments and health service providers have different priorities and approaches to the delivery of health care and the pricing and reimbursement of products in that context. In general, however, the healthcare budgetary constraints in most EU member states have resulted in restrictions on the pricing and reimbursement of medicines by relevant health service providers and payors. Generally, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take many months after the receipt of regulatory approval and product launch. In some EU Member States, such as in France, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our products candidates with available therapies in order to obtain favorable reimbursement for the indications sought or pricing approval. Should reimbursement for our drug candidates be unavailable in any country in which we seek reimbursement, or be limited or subject to additional clinical trials, or should pricing be set at unsatisfactory levels, then this might have an impact on our operating results. Coupled with ever-increasing EU and national regulatory burdens on those wishing to develop and market products, this could prevent or delay marketing approval of our drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to commercialize our drug candidates, if approved. In markets outside of the United States and EU, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country, and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies.

We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action in the United States, the EU or any other jurisdiction. If we or any third parties we may engage are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we or such third parties are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, our drug candidates may lose any regulatory approval that may have been obtained and we may not achieve or sustain profitability.

Our business operations and current and future relationships with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers will be subject to applicable healthcare regulatory laws, which could expose us to penalties.

Our business operations and current and future arrangements with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers, may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations. These laws may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct our operations, including how we research, market, sell and distribute our drug candidates, if approved or authorized. Such laws include:

the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or certain rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, lease, order or recommendation of, any good, facility, item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under U.S. federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
the U.S. federal false claims and civil monetary penalties laws, including the civil False Claims Act, which, among other things, impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the U.S. federal government, claims for payment or approval that are false or fraudulent, knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim, or from knowingly making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the U.S. federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items and services

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resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;
the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), which imposes criminal and civil liability for, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement, in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services; similar to the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and its implementing regulations, which also imposes certain obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by covered entities subject to the rule, such as health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and healthcare providers as well as their business associates that perform certain services involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information;
the FDCA, which prohibits, among other things, the adulteration or misbranding of drugs, biologics and medical devices and the introduction of such products into interstate commerce;
the U.S. Public Health Service Act, which prohibits, among other things, the introduction into interstate commerce of a biological product unless a biologics license is in effect for that product;
the U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act and its implementing regulations, which require certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies that are reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the government information related to certain payments and other transfers of value to physicians, teaching hospitals, and other healthcare providers, as well as ownership and investment interests held by the physicians described above and their immediate family members;
analogous U.S. state laws and regulations, including: state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to our business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the U.S. federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to pricing and marketing information, which requires tracking gifts and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts; and
similar healthcare laws and regulations in the EU and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers. For example, under French law, the regulation requires strict transparency of the links between the health care industry and other actors such as, but not limited to, health care practioners, and impose reporting on a public record all benefits granted to the various actors involved, in particular health professionals, as well as the existence of agreements concluded with these actors as well as remunerations paid. In addition to financial penalties, any violation of those requirements, such as misleading information or non-publication, could result in additional sanctions that may have harmful effect on the conduct of our business. More generally, as our business activity is heavily regulated and involves a significant interaction with government officials, our dealings with prescriber and authorities are subject to national anti-corruption laws of EU Member States. These laws notably prohibit us and our employees from improperly influencing government officials or commercial parties to obtain or retain business, direct business to any person or gain any advantage and also prohibit our third-party business partner’s representatives and agents from engaging in corruption and bribery. Under these applicable anti-corruption laws, we may be held liable for the acts or the corrupt activities of our third-party business partners, intermediaries, representatives, contractors, channel partners and agents, even if we don’t explicitly authorize or have knowledge of such activities. While we have a formal procedure that defines the process to be used to select our third-party partners, collaborate with them and monitor them in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws, there is a risk that our third-party partners may act in violation of applicable laws, for which we may be

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ultimately held responsible. Any violation of applicable anti-corruption laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, imposition of significant legal fees, severe criminal, civil and administrative sanctions, suspension or debarment from government contracts, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, it is possible that as our business grows and evolves, we will become subject to additional compliance requirements, resulting for example from the French Sapin II Act, which requires companies concerned by this regulation to implement a general anti-corruption compliance project under the control of the competent supervisory authority such as staff training, compliance documentation, audits and regular monitoring of commercial relationships. As the EU Commission has stated in one of its reports that the health sector is particularly vulnerable, our business may be subject to increased anti-corruption compliance monitoring.

Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid or similar programs in other countries or jurisdictions, disgorgement, individual imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Further, defending against any such actions can be costly, time-consuming and may require significant personnel resources. Therefore, even if we are successful in defending against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired.

In addition, considering that our activity involves the processing of personal data, in particular sensitive data such as health data, our business activities are also subject to GDPR and other national data protection laws and guidelines with respect to such data, which implies that we must implement significant and continuous efforts to comply with these data protection regulations, as well as any applicable additional national health care regulations. The GDPR has allowed EU Member States to introduce additional requirements for the processing of health data. This means we must comply with both EU as well as national laws in order to conduct our activities as regards patient data. In particular, our GDPR compliance involves the precise identification of our data processing operations and the risks incurred, the implementation of an organization of our internal processes and the establishment of documentation relating to our compliance. Our GDPR compliance also means being very aware of the fulfilment of our third-party contractors’ obligations and their (own) GPDR compliance, which requires us to impose strict contractual provisions on our third-party contractors as processors or to ensure that they will not use the personal data for other purposes than agreed on. Moreover, the transfer of data from the EU to our U.S. entities or others U.S. companies must (i) have a legal basis in GDPR or other national data protection laws, and (ii) be subject to a valid legal mechanism for the lawful transfer of data, which may have to require some of our third-party contractors who process personal data to take additional privacy and security measures. Non-compliance could lead to severe impact for individuals and cause us to incur potential disruption and expense related to our business processes. Any violations of these laws and regulations could also result in substantial penalties and could materially damage our reputation.

Furthermore, following the European Court of Justice’s decision to invalidate the EU—U.S. Privacy Shield as part of the Schrems II decision, any transfer or storage of data from the EU by our U.S. entities, other U.S. companies or contractual counterparties will require the implementation of additional safeguards, which given the current status of regulations, will most certainly require further protection measures in order to ensure an adequate level of protection as defined by the EU and national authorities. In case such additional safeguards do not lead to sufficient protection of personal data, transfers must be suspended or not carried out at all.

We are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws with respect to our operations and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal and/or civil liability and harm our business.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”), the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, and possibly other state and national anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees, agents, third-party intermediaries, joint venture partners and collaborators from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We engage third-party investigators, CROs, and other consultants to design and perform preclinical studies of our drug candidates, and will do the same for any clinical trials. Also, once a drug candidate has been approved, authorized, and commercialized, we may engage third-party intermediaries to promote and sell our products abroad and/or to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals or authorizations. We or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and

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employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, collaborators, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities.

Noncompliance with anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas, investigations, or other enforcement actions are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense and compliance costs and other professional fees. In certain cases, enforcement authorities may even cause us to appoint an independent compliance monitor which can result in added costs and administrative burdens.

Our failure to maintain certain tax benefits applicable to French technology companies may adversely affect our results of operations.

As a French biotechnology company, we have benefited from certain tax advantages, including, for example, the research tax credit (Crédit d’Impôt Recherche), or CIR. The CIR is a French tax credit aimed at stimulating research and development. The CIR can be offset against French corporate income tax due and the portion in excess (if any) may be refunded at the end of a three fiscal-year period (or, sooner, for smaller companies such as ours). The CIR is calculated based on our claimed amount of eligible research and development expenditures in France and represented €2.8 million, €3.3 million and €4.1 as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. The French tax authority with the assistance of the Research and Technology Ministry may audit each research and development program in respect of which a CIR benefit has been claimed and assess whether such program qualifies in its view for the CIR benefit. The French tax authorities may challenge our eligibility to, or our calculation of certain tax reductions and/or deductions in respect of our research and development activities and, should the French tax authorities be successful, we may be liable for additional corporate income tax, and penalties and interest related thereto, or we may not obtain the refunds for which we have applied, which could have a significant impact on our results of operations and future cash flows. Furthermore, if the French Parliament decides to eliminate, or reduce the scope or the rate of, the CIR benefit, either of which it could decide to do at any time, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Future changes to applicable U.S. tax laws and regulations may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In general, changes in laws and policy relating to taxes may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, at the end of 2017, the U.S. government enacted significant tax reform, with additional guidance from the U.S. Treasury and Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) still pending. Changes include, but are not limited to, a federal corporate tax rate decrease to 21% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, a reduction to the maximum deduction allowed for net operating losses generated in tax years after December 31, 2017, eliminating carrybacks of net operating losses, and providing for indefinite carryforwards for losses generated in tax years after December 31, 2017. The 2017 legislation remains unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections or even outright changes. Additionally, current tax laws may continue to be subject to interpretations and implementing regulations by the U.S. Treasury and IRS, any of which could mitigate or increase certain adverse effects of prior legislation. In addition, it is unclear how future U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation.

Risks Related to the Ownership of the ADSs and Ordinary Shares and Our Status as a Non-U.S. Company with Foreign Private Issuer Status

The requirements of being a U.S. public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and qualified board members.

As a U.S. public company, we have and will continue to incur legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not previously incur. Following our initial public offering of ADSs in the United States, we are now subject to the Exchange Act, including the reporting requirements thereunder, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Nasdaq listing requirements and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations has and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some

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activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company” and/or a foreign private issuer. For example, for so long as we remain a foreign private issuer, we will not be required to file with the SEC quarterly reports with respect to our business and results of operations, which are required to be made by domestic issuers pursuant to the Exchange Act.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we will in the future be required to furnish an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include this attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. When our independent registered public accounting firm is required to undertake an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting, the cost of complying with Section 404 will significantly increase and management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants to comply with these requirements, which will further increase our cost and expense. If we fail to implement the requirements of Section 404 in the required timeframe, we may be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, including the SEC and the Nasdaq. Furthermore, if we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of the ADSs and our ordinary shares could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities. Failure to implement or maintain effective internal control systems required of public companies could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

In addition, enhanced legal and regulatory regimes and heightened standards relating to corporate governance and disclosure for public companies result in increased legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming. Further, being a U.S. public company and a French public company has and will continue to have an impact on our disclosure of information and requires compliance with two sets of applicable rules. This could result in uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by legal analysis of dual legal regimes, ongoing revisions to disclosure and adherence to heightened governance practices.

There was no public market for the ADSs prior to our U.S. initial public offering, and an active market may not develop in which investors can resell their ADSs.

Prior to our U.S. initial public offering, there was no public market for the ADSs. We cannot predict the extent to which an active trading market for the ADSs will develop or be sustained after the offering, or how the development of such a market might affect the market price for the ADSs. The initial public offering price of the ADSs in the offering was agreed upon between us and the underwriter based on a number of factors, including the trading price of our ordinary shares on the Euronext Growth Paris market, as well as certain market conditions in effect at the time of the offering, which may not be indicative of the price at which the ADSs will trade in the future. Investors may not be able to sell their ADSs at or above the price they paid. In addition, investors may not be able to successfully withdraw the underlying ordinary shares of the ADSs for the reasons discussed under the risk factor titled “You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the underlying ordinary shares of the ADSs” described below. In connection with any withdrawal of any of our ordinary shares represented by ADSs, the ADSs will be surrendered to the depositary. Unless additional ADSs are issued, the effect of such transactions will be to reduce the number of outstanding ADSs and, if a significant number of transactions are effected, to reduce the liquidity of the ADSs.

The market price of our equity securities may be volatile, and purchasers of our securities could incur substantial losses.

The market price for our securities may be volatile. The stock market in general and the market for biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their securities at or above the price paid for the security. The market price for our securities may be influenced by many factors, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;
actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;
competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations, or capital commitments;

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failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that we provide to the public;
issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our securities
additions or departures of key management or scientific personnel;
lawsuits threatened or filed against us, disputes or other developments related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters, and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
changes to coverage policies or reimbursement levels by commercial third-party payors and government payors and any announcements relating to coverage policies or reimbursement levels;
announcement or expectation of additional debt or equity financing efforts;
sales of ADSs or ordinary shares by us, our insiders or our other holders; and
general economic and market conditions.

These and other market and industry factors may cause the market price and demand for our securities to fluctuate substantially, regardless of our actual operating performance, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their securities and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the trading market for our securities.

We may be exposed to significant foreign exchange risk. Exchange rate fluctuations may adversely affect the foreign currency value of the ADSs.

We incur portions of our expenses and may in the future derive revenues in currencies other than the euro, in particular, the U.S. dollar. As a result, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We currently do not engage in hedging transactions to protect against uncertainty in future exchange rates between particular foreign currencies and the euro. Therefore, for example, an increase in the value of the euro against the U.S. dollar could be expected to have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings growth as U.S. dollar revenue and earnings, if any, would be translated into euros at a reduced value. We cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, and foreign currency fluctuations in the future may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The ADSs are quoted in U.S. dollars on the Nasdaq Capital Market and our ordinary shares trade in euros on the Euronext Growth Paris. Our financial statements are prepared in euros. Fluctuations in the exchange rate between euros and the U.S. dollar will affect, among other matters, the U.S. dollar value of the ADSs.

If we do not achieve our projected development and commercialization goals in the timeframes we announce and expect, our business will be harmed and the price of our securities could decline as a result.

We sometimes estimate for planning purposes the timing of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory and other product development objectives. These milestones may include our expectations regarding the commencement or completion of scientific studies, clinical trials, the submission of regulatory filings, or commercialization objectives. From time to time, we may publicly announce the expected timing of some of these milestones, such as the completion of an ongoing clinical trial, the initiation of other clinical programs, receipt of marketing approval, authorization, or a commercial launch of a product. The achievement of many of these milestones may be outside of our control. All of these milestones are based on a variety of assumptions which may cause the timing of achievement of the milestones to vary considerably from our estimates, including:

our available capital resources or capital constraints we experience;

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the rate of progress, costs and results of our clinical trials and research and development activities, including the extent of scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and collaborators, and our ability to identify and enroll patients who meet clinical trial eligibility criteria;
our receipt of approvals or authorizations by the EMA, FDA and other regulatory authorities and the timing thereof;
other actions, decisions or rules issued by regulatory authorities
our ability to access sufficient, reliable and affordable supplies of compounds and raw materials used in the manufacture of our drug candidates;
our ability to license and/or generate revenues other than through independent commercialization of our products;
the efforts of our collaborators and/or other partners, including licensees, with respect to the commercialization of, in due course, our products; and
the securing of, costs related to, and timing issues associated with, product manufacturing as well as sales and marketing activities.

If we fail to achieve announced milestones in the timeframes we expect, the commercialization of our drug candidates may be delayed, our business and results of operations may be harmed, and the trading price of our securities may decline as a result.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of the ADSs and their trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If no or few securities or industry analysts cover our company, the trading price for the ADSs would be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our equity securities or publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our securities would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, or downgrades our securities, demand for our securities could decrease, which could cause the price of the ADSs or their trading volume to decline.

We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our ordinary shares and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our securities. In addition, French law may limit the amount of dividends we are able to distribute.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and do not currently intend to do so for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on our securities for the foreseeable future and the success of an investment in these securities will depend upon any future appreciation in their value. Consequently, investors may need to sell all or part of their holdings after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. There is no guarantee that our securities will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which investors have purchased them. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our securities.

Further, under French law, the determination of whether we have been sufficiently profitable to pay dividends is made on the basis of our statutory financial statements prepared and presented in accordance with accounting standards applicable in France. Article 34 of our By-laws imposes additional limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends and there may be taxes imposed on you if we elect to pay a dividend. Therefore, we may be more restricted in our ability to declare dividends than companies not based in France.

In addition, exchange rate fluctuations may affect the amount of euros that we are able to distribute, and the amount in U.S. dollars that our shareholders receive upon the payment of cash dividends or other distributions we declare and pay in euros, if any. These factors could harm the value of the ADSs, and, in turn, the U.S. dollar proceeds that holders receive from the sale of the ADSs.

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We have a significant number of outstanding warrants and convertible debt instruments, which may cause significant dilution to our shareholders, have a material adverse impact on the market price of our ordinary shares and make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future equity offerings.

As of February 28, 2022, we had 140,084,309 ordinary shares issued and outstanding. In addition, as of that date we had outstanding warrants to acquire up to 11,970,284 ordinary shares, 2,500,911 free ordinary shares that were granted to our two founders on December 22, 2020 and will be delivered to them on December 22, 2022 after a two-year vesting period, and 6,631,068 free ordinary shares that were granted to our two founders on September 15, 2021 and will be delivered to them on September 15, 2022 after a one-year vesting period. The issuance of ordinary shares upon the exercise of warrants and convertible debt instruments would dilute the percentage ownership interest of all shareholders, might dilute the book value per share of our ordinary shares and would increase the number of our publicly traded shares, which could depress the market price of our ordinary shares.

In addition to the dilutive effects described above, the perceived risk of dilution as a result of the significant number of outstanding warrants and convertible debt may cause our shareholders to be more inclined to sell their shares, which would contribute to a downward movement in the price of our ordinary shares. Moreover, the perceived risk of dilution and the resulting downward pressure on our share price could encourage investors to engage in short sales of our ordinary shares, which could further contribute to price declines in our ordinary shares. The fact that our shareholders, warrant holders and convertible debt holders can sell substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, whether or not sales have occurred or are occurring could make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through the sale of equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price that we deem reasonable or appropriate, or at all.

Future sales, or the possibility of future sales, of a substantial number of the ADSs or our ordinary shares could adversely affect the price of the ADSs.

Future sales of a substantial number of the ADSs or ordinary shares, or the perception that such sales will occur, could cause a decline in the market price of the ADSs. ADSs sold in our U.S. initial public offering may be resold in the public market without restriction, unless purchased by our affiliates. If ADS holders sell substantial amounts of ADSs in the public market, or the market perceives that such sales may occur, the market price of the ADSs and our ability to raise capital through an issuance of equity securities in the future could be adversely affected.

The rights of shareholders in companies subject to French corporate law differ in material respects from the rights of shareholders of corporations incorporated in the United States.

We are a French company with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our bylaws and by the laws governing companies incorporated in France. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our board of directors are in many ways different from the rights and obligations of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. For example, in the performance of its duties, our board of directors is required by French law to consider the interests of our company, rather than solely our shareholders and/or creditors. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, yours.

U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against our company and directors and senior management and the experts named in this annual report.

All of the members of our board of directors and senior management and certain experts named in this annual report are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible to serve process on such persons or us in the United States or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against them or us based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. Additionally, it may be difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in actions originally instituted outside of the United States. Foreign courts may refuse to hear a U.S. securities law claim because foreign courts may not be the most appropriate forums in which to bring such a claim. Even if a foreign court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides, and not U.S. law, is applicable to the claim. Further, if U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process, and certain matters of procedure would still be governed by the law of the jurisdiction in which the foreign court resides. In particular, there is some doubt as to whether French courts would recognize and enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions or judgments of U.S. courts based upon these civil liability provisions. In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may be unenforceable in France. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would be considered punitive if it does not

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seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered but is intended to punish the defendant. French law provides that a shareholder, or a group of shareholders, may initiate a legal action to seek indemnification from the directors of a corporation in the corporation’s interest if it fails to bring such legal action itself. If so, any damages awarded by the court are paid to the corporation and any legal fees relating to such action may be borne by the relevant shareholder or the group of shareholders.

The enforceability of any judgment in France will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and France do not currently have a treaty providing for recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters.

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with the applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this is the case with respect to the deposit agreement and the ADSs. In addition, New York courts will not enforce a jury trial waiver provision in order to bar a viable setoff or counterclaim sounding in fraud or one which is based upon a creditor’s negligence in failing to liquidate collateral upon a guarantor’s demand, or in the case of an intentional tort claim (as opposed to a contract dispute), none of which we believe are applicable in the case of the deposit agreement or the ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before entering into the deposit agreement.

If you or any other owner or holder of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or the ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other owner or holder may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us and/or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us and/or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have had, including results that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver provision is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or ADSs serves as a waiver by any owner or holder of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. By agreeing to the jury trial waiver provision in the deposit agreement, investors will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with or the depositary’s compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Our Articles of Association and By-laws and French corporate law contain provisions that may delay or discourage a takeover attempt.

Provisions contained in our Articles of Association and/or French corporate law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. In addition, provisions of our bylaws impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it more difficult for shareholders to effect certain corporate actions. These provisions include the following:

under French law, the owner of 90% of voting rights of a public company listed on a regulated market in a Member State of the EU or in a state party to the European Economic Area (“EEA”) Agreement, including France, has the right to force out minority shareholders following a tender offer made to all shareholders;

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under French law, a non-resident of France as well as any French entity controlled by non-French residents may have to file an administrative notice with French authorities in connection with a direct or indirect investment in us, as defined by administrative rulings; see the section of this annual report titled “Limitations Affecting Shareholders of a French Company”;
a merger (i.e., in a French law context, a stock for stock exchange following which our company would be dissolved into the acquiring entity and our shareholders would become shareholders of the acquiring entity) of our company into a company incorporated in the EU would require the approval of our board of directors as well as a two-thirds majority of the votes held by the shareholders present, represented by proxy or voting by mail at the relevant meeting;
under French law, a cash merger is treated as a share purchase and would require the consent of each participating shareholder;
our shareholders have granted and may grant in the future our board of directors broad authorizations to increase our share capital or to issue additional ordinary shares or other securities, such as warrants, to our shareholders, the public or qualified investors, including as a possible defense following the launching of a tender offer for our shares;
our shareholders have preferential subscription rights on a pro rata basis on the issuance by us of any additional securities for cash or a set-off of cash debts, which rights may only be waived by the extraordinary general meeting (by a two-thirds majority vote) of our shareholders or on an individual basis by each shareholder;
our board of directors has the right to appoint directors to fill a vacancy created by the resignation or death of a director, for the remaining duration of such director’s term of office, provided that prior to such decision of the board of directors, the number of directors remaining in office exceeds the minimum required by law and our bylaws, and subject to the approval by the shareholders of such appointment at the next shareholders’ meeting, which prevents shareholders from having the sole right to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
our board of directors can be convened by our chairman (directly or upon request of our managing director), or, when no board meeting has been held for more than three consecutive months, by directors representing at least one third of the total number of directors;
our board of directors meetings can only be regularly held if at least half of the directors attend either physically or by way of videoconference or teleconference enabling the directors’ identification and ensuring their effective participation in the board’s decisions;
our shares are nominative or bearer, if the legislation so permits, according to the shareholder’s choice;
under French law, certain investments in any entity governed by French law relating to certain strategic industries (such as research and development in biotechnologies and activities relating to public health) and activities by individuals or entities not French, not resident in France or controlled by entities not French or not resident in France are subject to prior authorization of the Ministry of Economy; see “Limitations Affecting Shareholders of a French Company”;
approval of at least a majority of the votes held by shareholders present, represented by a proxy, or voting by mail at the relevant ordinary shareholders’ general meeting is required to remove directors with or without cause;
advance notice is required for nominations to the board of directors or for proposing matters to be acted upon at a shareholders’ meeting, except that a vote to remove and replace a director can be proposed at any shareholders’ meeting without notice;
our bylaws can be changed in accordance with applicable laws;
the crossing of certain thresholds has to be disclosed and can impose certain obligations;
transfers of shares shall comply with applicable insider trading rules and regulations and, in particular, with the Market Abuse Directive and Regulation dated April 16, 2014; and

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pursuant to French law, our bylaws, including the sections relating to the number of directors and election and removal of a director from office, may only be modified by a resolution adopted by two-thirds of the votes of our shareholders present, represented by a proxy or voting by mail at the meeting.

You may not be able to exercise your right to vote the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs.

Holders of ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our ordinary shares, the depositary will fix a record date for the determination of ADS holders who will be entitled to give instructions for the exercise of voting rights. Upon timely receipt of notice from us, if we so request, the depositary will distribute to the holders as of the record date (1) the notice of the meeting or solicitation of consent or proxy sent by us and (2) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

Purchasers of ADSs may instruct the depositary of the ADSs to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs. Otherwise, purchasers of ADSs will not be able to exercise voting rights unless they withdraw the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs they hold. However, a holder of ADSs may not know about the meeting far enough in advance to withdraw those ordinary shares. If we ask for a holder of ADSs’ instructions, the depositary, upon timely notice from us, will distribute notice of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials to him or her. We cannot guarantee to any holder of ADSs that he or she will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that he or she can instruct the depositary to vote his or her ordinary shares or to withdraw his or her ordinary shares so that he or she can vote them. If the depositary does not receive timely voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it may give a proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares underlying his or her ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that a holder of ADSs may not be able to exercise his or her right to vote, and there may be nothing he or she can do if the ordinary shares underlying the ADSs are not voted as he or she requested.

Purchasers of ADSs may not be directly holding our ordinary shares.

A holder of ADSs will not be treated as one of our shareholders and will not have direct shareholder rights. French law governs our shareholder rights. The depositary will be the holder of the ordinary shares underlying ADSs held by ADS holders. The deposit agreement among us, the depositary and the owners and holders of ADSs, sets out ADS holder rights, as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary.

The right as a holder of ADSs to participate in any future preferential subscription rights or to elect to receive dividends in shares may be limited, which may cause dilution to ADS holders.

According to French law, if we issue additional securities for cash, current shareholders will have preferential subscription rights for these securities on a pro rata basis unless they waive those rights at an extraordinary meeting of our shareholders (by a two-thirds majority vote) or individually by each shareholder. However, ADS holders in the United States will not be entitled to exercise or sell such rights unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. In addition, the deposit agreement provides that the depositary will not make rights available to ADS holders unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. Further, if we offer holders of our ordinary shares the option to receive dividends in either cash or shares, under the deposit agreement the depositary may require satisfactory assurances from us that extending the offer to holders of ADSs does not require registration of any securities under the Securities Act before making the option available to holders of ADSs. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, ADS holders may be unable to participate in our rights offerings or to elect to receive dividends in shares and may experience dilution in their holdings. In addition, if the depositary is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

ADS holders may be subject to limitations on the transfer of their ADSs and the withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares.

ADSs, which may be evidenced by ADRs, are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are

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closed, or at any time if we or the depositary think it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law, government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason subject to a holder of ADSs’ right to cancel his or her ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares. Temporary delays in the cancellation of ADSs and withdrawal of the underlying ordinary shares may arise because the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books, the transfer of ordinary shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting or we are paying a dividend on our ordinary shares. In addition, a holder of ADSs may not be able to cancel his or her ADSs and withdraw the underlying ordinary shares when he or she owes money for fees, taxes and similar charges and when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of ordinary shares or other deposited securities.

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from a number of rules under the U.S. securities laws and are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a U.S. company. This may limit the information available to holders of ADSs.

We are a foreign private issuer, as defined in the SEC’s rules and regulations and, consequently, we are not subject to all of the disclosure requirements applicable to public companies organized within the United States. For example, we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that regulate disclosure obligations and procedural requirements related to the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations applicable to a security registered under the Exchange Act, including the U.S. proxy rules under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers and directors are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and related rules with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, while we currently make annual and semi-annual filings with respect to our listing on Euronext Growth Paris and expect to file financial reports on an annual and semi-annual basis, we will not be required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. public companies and will not be required to file quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act. Accordingly, there will be less publicly available information concerning our company than there would be if we were not a foreign private issuer.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted and to and do follow certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the corporate governance standards of Nasdaq.

As a foreign private issuer listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, we will be subject to Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. However, Nasdaq rules provide that foreign private issuers are permitted to follow home country corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards as long as notification is provided to Nasdaq of the intention to take advantage of such exemptions. We intend to rely on exemptions for foreign private issuers and follow French corporate governance practices in lieu of Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards, to the extent possible. Certain corporate governance practices in France, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance standards. For example, as a French company, neither the corporate laws of France nor our bylaws require a majority of our directors to be independent and we can include non-independent directors as members of our remuneration committee, and our independent directors are not required to hold regularly scheduled meetings at which only independent directors are present.

We are also exempt from provisions set forth in Nasdaq rules which require an issuer to provide in its bylaws for a generally applicable quorum, and that such quorum may not be less than one-third of the outstanding voting stock. Consistent with French law, our bylaws provide that a quorum requires the presence of shareholders having at least (1) 20% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of an ordinary shareholders’ general meeting or at an extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting where shareholders are voting on a capital increase by capitalization of reserves, profits or share premium, or (2) 25% of the shares entitled to vote in the case of any other extraordinary shareholders’ general meeting.

As a foreign private issuer, we are required to comply with certain Nasdaq rules and Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act, relating to audit committee composition and responsibilities. However, under French law, the audit committee may only have an advisory role and appointment of our statutory auditors, in particular, must be decided by the shareholders at our annual meeting.

Therefore, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional cost and expense.

While we currently qualify as a foreign private issuer, the determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be

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made with respect to us on June 30, 2022. In the future, we would lose our foreign private issuer status if we fail to meet the requirements necessary to maintain our foreign private issuer status as of the relevant determination date. We will remain a foreign private issuer until such time that more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our executive officers or directors are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly more than costs we incur as a f