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United States
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
FORM 10-K
 
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended April 30, 2024
OR
 
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission File Number 001-34700 
CASEY’S GENERAL STORES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
 
Iowa 42-0935283
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
ONE SE CONVENIENCE BLVD., Ankeny, Iowa
(Address of principal executive offices)
50021
(Zip Code)
(515) 965-6100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act 
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par value per shareCASYThe NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act
NONE 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act
 
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements  
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates as of October 31, 2023, was approximately $10.1 billion based on the closing sales price ($271.91 per share) as quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s class of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
Class Outstanding at June 20, 2024
Common Stock, no par value per share 37,111,457 shares
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information called for by Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III is hereby incorporated by reference from the definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after April 30, 2024.



FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART IITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 1C.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
PART IIITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART IIIITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IVITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
3

PART I

ITEM 1.BUSINESS
The Company
As of April 30, 2024, Casey’s General Stores, Inc. and its direct and indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries operate convenience stores primarily under the names "Casey's" and "Casey’s General Store" (collectively, with the stores below referenced as "GoodStop", "Bucky's", "Minit Mart", or "Lone Star Food Store" referred to as "Casey's" or the "Company") throughout 17 states, over half of which are located in Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois.
Approximately 72% of all stores were opened in areas with populations of fewer than 20,000 persons. The Company competes on the basis of price, as well as on the basis of traditional features of convenience store operations such as location, extended hours, product offerings, and quality of service. As of April 30, 2024, there were a total of 2,658 stores in operation.
All convenience stores carry a broad selection of food items (including, but not limited to, freshly prepared foods such as regular and breakfast pizza, donuts, hot breakfast items, and hot and cold sandwiches), beverages, tobacco and nicotine products, health and beauty aids, automotive products, and other nonfood items. As of April 30, 2024, 233 store locations offered car washes. In addition, all but eight store locations offer fuel for sale on a self-service basis.
The Company had 62 stores operating under the "GoodStop (by Casey’s)" brand and 10 stores operating under the "Lone Star Food Store" brand as of April 30, 2024. Similar to most of our store footprint, the "GoodStop" and "Lone Star Food Store" locations offer fuel for sale on a self-serve basis, and a broad selection of snacks, beverages, tobacco products, and other essentials. However, some of these locations do not have a kitchen and have limited prepared food offerings.
The Company is also temporarily operating certain locations acquired from Buchanan Energy under the name "Bucky's" and certain locations acquired from Minit Mart LLC under the name "Minit Mart." The Company is in the process of transitioning all "Bucky's" and "Minit Mart" locations to either the "Casey's" or "GoodStop" brand. These locations typically have similar offerings to the "Casey’s" or "GoodStop" branded stores.
The Company has 73 dealer locations, where Casey’s manages fuel wholesale supply agreements to these stores. These locations are not operated by Casey's and are not included in our overall store count. Approximately 1% of total revenue for the year-ended April 30, 2024 relates to this dealer network.
The Company operates three distribution centers, through which certain grocery and general merchandise and prepared food and dispensed beverage items are supplied to our stores. One distribution center is adjacent to our corporate headquarters, which we refer to as the Store Support Center facility in Ankeny, Iowa. The other two distribution centers are located in Terre Haute, Indiana and Joplin, Missouri. The Company also self-distributes the majority of fuel to our stores. The Company had a fleet of 421 tractors used for distribution as of April 30, 2024.
The Company’s internet address is www.caseys.com. We make available through our website all of our SEC filings, including current reports on Form 8-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our annual report on Form 10-K, and amendments to those reports, free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been electronically filed with the SEC. Additionally, you can go to our website to read our Financial Code of Ethics for the CEO and Senior Financial Officers, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Conduct and Ethics, Supplier Code of Conduct, and Committee Charters. In the event of a waiver from, or updates to, the Code of Conduct and Ethics, any required disclosure will be posted to our website.
Casey’s, with its principal business office, and Store Support Center, located at One SE Convenience Blvd., Ankeny, Iowa 50021-8045 (telephone 515-965-6100), was incorporated in Iowa in 1967. Our fiscal year runs from May 1 through April 30 of each year.
General
Casey's corporate purpose is to make life better for communities and guests every day. Many of the smaller communities in which we operate often are not served by national-chain convenience stores. We have succeeded in operating stores in smaller towns by offering, at competitive prices, a broader selection of products than does a typical convenience store. We have also succeeded in meeting the needs of residents in larger communities with these same offerings. We currently own most of our real estate, including substantially all of our stores, all three distribution centers (see discussion of ownership structure of the distribution center in Joplin, Missouri in Note 7), a construction and support services facility located in Ankeny, Iowa, and the Store Support Center facility.
The Company derives its revenue primarily from the retail sale of fuel and the products offered in our stores. Our sales historically have been strongest during the first and second fiscal quarters (May through October) relative to the third and fourth
4

fiscal quarters (November through April). In warmer weather, guests tend to purchase greater quantities of fuel and certain convenience items such as beer, sports drinks, water, soft drinks, and ice.
Corporate Subsidiaries
Casey's Marketing Company ("CMC") and Casey's Services Company ("CSC") were organized as Iowa corporations in March 1995. Casey’s Retail Company ("CRC") was organized as an Iowa corporation in April 2004. CGS Stores, LLC was organized as an Iowa limited liability company in April 2019. CMC, CSC, and CRC are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Casey’s, while CGS Stores, LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of CMC.
CRC owns and/or operates certain stores in Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota, holds the rights to the Company's trademarks, service marks, trade names, and other intellectual property, and performs most strategic functions of the enterprise. CMC owns and/or operates stores in Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Texas, and is responsible for all of our wholesale operations, including all three distribution centers and management of the wholesale fuel network. CGS Stores, LLC owns and/or operates stores in Tennessee. CSC provides a variety of construction, maintenance and transportation services for all stores.
Store Operations
Products Offered
The Company designs, develops and delivers value to its guests through a differentiated product assortment where the right products are optimally placed, priced and promoted to drive traffic, revenue and profit. It is our practice to continually make additions to the Company’s product line, especially products with higher margins such as prepared food and our new private label offerings, described below. To facilitate many of these items, we have installed full kitchens in almost all of our stores, other than those branded as “GoodStop” and "Lone Star Food Store".
The Company's flagship product is its handmade pizza, which we began preparing and selling in 1984. Pizza is available in almost all of our stores as of April 30, 2024. Additional stores selling pizza will come on line as newly acquired stores are remodeled and kitchens are added. We have also expanded our prepared food offerings, which currently includes made to order cheesy breadsticks, sandwiches and wraps, chicken wings, chicken tenders, breakfast croissants and biscuits, breakfast pizza, breakfast burritos, hash browns, burgers, and bakery items which includes include donuts, cookies and brownies as well as other seasonal items. During the fiscal year, the Company launched a new thin crust pizza line. In addition to the new platform in pizza, the company also relaunched our lunch offering by upgrading the quality of our entire hot sandwich line, including adding a spicy chicken sandwich. As of April 30, 2024, the Company was selling bakery items such as donuts, cookies and brownies in 2,570 (97%) of our stores.
The growth in our prepared food program reflects the Company’s strategy to promote high-margin products that are compatible with convenience store operations. In the last three fiscal years, retail sales of nonfuel items have generated about 35% of our total revenue, but they have resulted in approximately 66% of our revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization). Revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) as a percentage of revenue on prepared food items averaged approximately 58% for the three fiscal years ended April 30, 2024.
Each Casey’s store typically carries over 3,000 packaged food, beverage and non-food items. The selection is a blend of differentiated private label products (which includes over 350 items as of April 30, 2024), as well as favored national and regional brands, many of which can be found in larger format stores. Our assortment includes product across the following categories:
non-alcoholic beverages (soft drinks, energy, water, sports drinks, juices, coffee, tea and dairy)
alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and spirits)
packaged foods (snacks, candy, packaged bakery and other food items)
tobacco and nicotine products
frozen foods (ice, ice cream, meals and appetizers)
non-foods (health and beauty aids, automotive, electronic accessories, housewares and pet supplies)
services (ATM, lotto/lottery and prepaid cards)
All but eight stores offer retail motor fuel products for sale on a self-service basis. Gasoline and diesel fuel are sold under the Casey’s name at the majority of our locations.
The Company offers the Casey's Rewards program to bring value to guests and improve the digital guest experience. As part of this program, guests can earn points from online, in-store, or at the pump purchases. Points earned can be redeemed for donations to a local school of the guest's choice, fuel discounts, or Casey's Cash, which can be used on many products sold in our stores. The Rewards program is delivered through Casey’s mobile application. In addition to earning points, guests may
5

receive other program benefits such as special offers and bonus points. At the end of the fiscal year, the Company had surpassed 7.9 million members enrolled in the program.
Store Design
Casey’s constructs stores that are primarily freestanding and, with a few exceptions to accommodate local conditions, conform to standard construction specifications. We have a range of store designs differing in size and offerings. Store lots have sufficient frontage and depth to permit adequate drive-in parking facilities on one or more sides of each store. Each new store typically includes 4 to 6 islands of fuel dispensers and storage tanks with capacity for 44,000 to 70,000 gallons of fuel. The merchandising display follows a standard layout designed to encourage a flow of guest traffic through all sections of every store. Nearly all locations feature a bright sign which displays the Casey’s, GoodStop or Lone Star Food Store name and trade/service marks.
Almost all stores remain open at least sixteen hours per day, seven days a week. Hours of operation may be adjusted on a store-by-store basis to accommodate guest traffic patterns.
Store Locations
The Company historically has located many of its stores in smaller towns not served by national-chain convenience stores. We believe that a Casey’s store provides a service generally not otherwise available in smaller towns and that a convenience store in an area with limited population can be profitable if it stresses sales volume and competitive prices. Our store-site selection criteria emphasize the population of the immediate area and daily highway traffic volume.
Retail Fuel Operations
Retail fuel sales are an important part of our revenue and earnings. The following table summarizes (dollars and gallons in thousands) retail fuel sales for the last three fiscal years ended April 30: 
 Year ended April 30,
 202420232022
Number of gallons sold2,828,669 2,672,366 2,579,179 
Total retail fuel sales$9,402,071 $10,027,310 $8,312,038 
Percentage of total revenue63.3 %66.4 %64.2 %
Percentage of revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization)11.9 %10.7 %11.2 %
Average retail price per gallon$3.32 $3.75 $3.22 
Average revenue less cost of goods sold per gallon (excluding depreciation and amortization)39.48 ¢40.22 ¢36.01 ¢
Average number of gallons sold per store*1,102 1,092 1,047 
*Includes only those stores in operation at least one full year on April 30 of the fiscal year indicated.
Average retail prices of fuel during the year decreased 11.5% from prior year. Fuel prices increased at the end of the 2022 fiscal year due to overall supply issues, as Russia's invasion of Ukraine resulted in a United States ban of Russian crude oil imports. While prices have moderated since the highs seen at the end of the 2022 fiscal year, and start of the fiscal 2023 year, the higher costs have continued into fiscal 2024 due to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, unrest in the Middle East and economic uncertainty in Western nations. Regardless, we believe our centralized fuel team is well positioned to navigate any potential future fuel price volatility, as they work to maximize total profitability.
The total number of gallons sold during this period increased by 5.8%. Gallons sold were positively impacted by a growing store count as we operated 137 more stores than the prior year. Average revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) per gallon decreased by 1.8%. Our centralized fuel team has been instrumental in sustaining higher than historically typical average revenue less cost of goods sold per gallon (excluding depreciation and amortization).
Percentage of revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) represents the fuel revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) divided by the gross fuel sales dollars. As retail fuel prices fluctuate in a period of consistent gross margin per gallon, the percentage will also fluctuate in an inverse relationship to fuel price. For additional information concerning the Company’s fuel operations, see Item 7, below.
Distribution and Wholesale Arrangements
CMC supplies all stores with various groceries, food, health and beauty aids, and general merchandise from our three distribution centers. The stores place orders for merchandise electronically to the Store Support Center, and the orders are filled with shipments in Company-operated delivery trucks from one of the distribution centers, based on route optimization for the
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fleet network. Most of our existing and proposed stores are within the three distribution centers' optimum efficiency range—a radius of approximately 500 miles around each distribution center.
In fiscal 2024, a majority of the food and nonfood items supplied to stores through the distribution centers were purchased directly from manufacturers. While we consider long-term contracts for potential favorability against short-term contracts, long-term supply contracts are not typically entered into with the suppliers of products sold by our stores. We believe the practice enables us to respond to changing market conditions with minimal impact on margins.
In addition to the products discussed above, CMC supplies the majority of fuel to our stores, and supplies fuel on a wholesale basis as part of a dealer network to 73 locations. We have entered into various purchase agreements related to our fuel supply, which include varying volume commitments. Prices included in the purchase agreements are indexed to market prices.
Human Capital
Our employees, who we refer to as Team Members, are critical to our business operations and the success of the Company. As of April 30, 2024, we had 20,935 full-time, and 24,424 part-time, Team Members. Approximately 94% are store Team Members, 1% are field management and related Team Members, 1% work in and support our three distribution centers, 1% are fuel or grocery drivers and 3% work out of the Store Support Center, or perform Store Support Center functions.
We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements with our Team Members and believe the working relationship with our Team Members is good.
Core Values
Casey’s CARES about our communities and guests. We believe our people and culture are our foundation for success. Our core values are part of our evolution to build a culture of commitment – Casey’s CARES:
C – Commitment: We work hard to be the best and have a good time doing it.
A – Authenticity: We’re true to our roots by having high integrity and being low ego.
R – Respect: We treat people the way they want to be treated.
E – Evolving: We’re driven to build a better future for ourselves and for our business.
S – Service: We put service first and take pride in caring for our guests, our communities, and each other.
We believe these core values serve as a solid foundation for how we treat our Team Members, how they treat one another and how we operate our business as a whole.
Team Member Value Proposition ("TMVP")
We believe that the future success of the Company depends in large part on our ability to attract, train, retain, and motivate qualified Team Members. We have a defined TMVP that is grounded in four pillars that support what Team Members value in their employment at Casey's.
Career Growth – providing development, coaching and ultimately pathways for career growth.
Engaging Work – simplifying work, providing skill training, transparent communications and goal alignment.
Living Casey’s CARES Culture – clarity and alignment to mission and vision of the company, making work fun, supportive & caring leaders, and a welcoming culture.
Well-being – fair and competitive pay, meaningful benefits & recognition, support for work-life balance.
As such, we are committed to providing market-competitive pay and benefits for all positions and offer performance-based compensation opportunities to certain of our full-time Team Members. In addition, the Company offers a 401(k) plan to eligible Team Members, with a 6% match made in Company stock, and all full-time Team Members are eligible for competitive health and welfare benefits, including medical, dental, vision, disability, life insurance and other benefits.
In addition, during the 2024 fiscal year, the Company enhanced coverages for dental and vision, introduced company paid short-term disability for all full-time Team Members, and long-term disability for certain full-time Team Members, as well as increased the coverages and access for mental health services. We also increased participation (including a Company donation of $1.0 million during the 2024 fiscal year) and utilization of Casey's Team Member Support Fund, which is designed to help Team Members facing financial hardships due to catastrophic circumstances.
Diversity and Inclusion
The Company is committed to building a diverse and inclusive workforce across the organization, which it believes is set by example with its Board of Directors and extended leadership team. As of the end of the 2024 fiscal year, the Board consisted of ten members, four (or 40%) of which are diverse as to gender, and three (or 30%) of which are diverse to race and/or ethnicity. The extended leadership team, which includes all of our Vice-President level executives and above, consists of thirty-three members, 39% of which are diverse as to gender, race and/or ethnicity. Across our entire Team Member base, 57% of our
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Team Members are female and 17% are diverse as to race and/or ethnicity. In addition, we have a strict Anti Harassment and Discrimination Policy of which all Team Members are trained and expected to follow and we have several mechanisms, including an Ethics and Compliance Hotline, under which Team Members and guests can report incidents confidentially or anonymously and without fear of retaliation. We have four team member resource groups which further enhance the diversity, equity and inclusion culture at Casey's: Women in Leadership, Veterans, Faith and LGBTQ. The Company has also established a formal Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Committee to further promote the already strong culture of belonging and empowerment for all Team Members. In addition, the company has expanded its learning related to unconscious bias and critical conversations through formal training.
Education and Training
The Company, including its established Learning and Development Department, which serves all levels of the organization, invests significant time and resources in educating and training Team Members by providing them with educational, development and leadership opportunities. These opportunities are provided through a mix of formal onboarding training, safety training, in-person classes, virtual modules and “on-the-job” learning. For example, through its virtual modules, the Company offers over 700 hours of educational opportunities through over 350 classes, for which there were almost 340,000 enrollments during the 2024 fiscal year. In addition, the Company has a formal leadership development program with core curriculum consisting of Development programs for Kitchen Managers, Store Managers, District Managers, a Leadership Excellence Certification, a Finance for Non-Financial Managers program, and an Individualized Development Program for all Officers based on their review.
Competition
Our business is highly competitive. Food, including prepared foods, and nonfood items similar or identical to those sold by the Company, are generally available from various competitors in the communities served by Casey’s and by certain online retailers. We believe our stores located in smaller towns compete principally with other local grocery and convenience stores, similar retail outlets, and, to a lesser extent, prepared food outlets, restaurants, and expanded fuel stations offering a more limited selection of grocery and food items for sale. Stores located in more heavily populated communities may compete with local and national grocery and drug store chains, quick service restaurants, expanded fuel stations, supermarkets, discount food stores, and traditional convenience stores.
In addition to our inside store products, the fuel business is also highly competitive. The Company competes on the basis of brand, price, and convenience of our fuel products. We believe our locations in smaller towns are well-positioned. Similar to inside, stores compete with larger store chains with expanded fuel offerings and increased buying power in more heavily populated communities.
Examples of convenience store chains competing in the larger towns served by Casey’s include Quik Trip, Kwik Trip/Star, Maverik/Kum & Go, and other regional chains. These competitive factors are discussed further in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
Trademarks and Service Marks
The Company regularly evaluates its portfolio of intellectual property and takes steps to review potential new trademarks and service marks and to renew existing marks. The names "Casey’s", “Casey’s General Store”, and "GoodStop (by Casey's)", the marks consisting of the Casey’s design logos (with the words “Casey’s” and “Casey’s General Store”), the weathervane, and certain of our private label product names, are registered trademarks and service marks under federal law. We believe these marks are of material importance in promoting and advertising the Company’s business. In addition, the Company has a number of other registered and unregistered trademarks and service marks that are significant to the Company from an operational and branding perspective (e.g. "Casey’s Pizza", "The Official Pizza and Beer Headquarters", "Casey's Here for Good", “Casey’s Rewards”, “Casey’s Cash”, etc.).
Government Regulation (dollars in thousands)
Underground Storage Tanks
The United States Environmental Protection Agency and several states, including Iowa, have established requirements for owners and operators of underground fuel storage tanks (USTs) with regard to (i) maintenance of leak detection, corrosion protection, and overfill/spill protection systems; (ii) upgrade of existing tanks; (iii) actions required in the event of a detected leak; (iv) prevention of leakage through tank closings; and (v) required fuel inventory record keeping. Since 1984, our new stores have been equipped with noncorroding fiberglass USTs, including some with double-wall construction, overfill protection, and electronic tank monitoring. We believe that all capital expenditures for electronic monitoring, cathodic protection, and overfill/spill protection to comply with the existing UST regulations have been completed. Additional regulations or amendments to the existing UST regulations could result in future expenditures.
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The majority of states in which we do business have trust fund programs with provisions for sharing or reimbursing corrective action or remediation costs incurred by UST owners, including the Company. For the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, and 2022, we spent approximately $966, $653, and $577, respectively, for assessments and remediation. The majority of these expenditures were submitted for reimbursement from state-sponsored trust fund programs. The payments are typically subject to statutory provisions requiring repayment of the reimbursed funds for noncompliance with upgrade provisions or other applicable laws. None of the reimbursements received are currently expected to be repaid by the Company to the trust fund programs. At April 30, 2024 and 2023 we had an accrued liability of $299 and $268, respectively, for estimated expenses related to anticipated corrective actions or remediation efforts, including relevant legal and consulting costs. We believe we have no material joint and several environmental liability with other parties.
Age-Restricted Products
Almost all of our stores sell a variety of age-restricted products, which may include beer, liquor, tobacco and other nicotine products. The sale of these products are subject to significant regulations and require the Company to procure special sales licenses from local and/or state agencies, which govern their sale. While the costs to procure such licenses is not material, the failure to comply with the conditions of the licenses, or other age-restricted products laws, could result in the suspension or revocation of such licenses, or fines related thereto. In addition to these products, the Company is also subject to rules governing lottery and lotto sales as determined by state lottery commissions in each state in which we make such sales.
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the risks described in this report before making a decision to invest in our securities. If any of such risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business Operations
Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected by a cyber or data security incident or the failure to protect sensitive guest, Team Member or supplier data, or the failure to comply with applicable regulations relating to data security and privacy.
In the normal course of our business, we obtain, are provided and have access to large amounts of personal data, including but not limited to credit and debit card information, personally identifiable information and other data from and about our guests, Team Members, and suppliers. A compromise or a breach in our systems, or another data security or privacy incident that results in the loss, unauthorized release, disclosure or acquisition of such data or information, or other sensitive data or information, or other internal or external cyber or data security threats, including but not limited to viruses, denial-of-service attacks, phishing attacks, ransomware attacks and other intentional or unintentional disruptions, could occur and have a material adverse effect on our operations and ability to operate, reputation, operating results and financial condition. In addition, similar events at vendors, third-party service providers or other market participants, whether or not we are directly impacted, could negatively affect our business and supply chain or lead to a general loss of guest confidence, which could result in reduced guest traffic and sales.
A data security or privacy incident of any kind could expose us to risk in terms of the loss, unauthorized release, disclosure or acquisition of sensitive guest, Team Member or supplier data, and could result in litigation or other regulatory action being brought against us and damages, monetary and other claims made by or on behalf of the payment card brands, guests, Team Members, shareholders, financial institutions and governmental agencies, or monetary demands or other extortion attempts from cybercriminals. Such events could give rise to substantial monetary damages and/or losses which are not covered, or in some instances fully covered, by our insurance policies and which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Moreover, a data security or privacy incident could require that we expend significant additional resources on mitigation efforts and to further upgrade the security and other measures that we employ to guard against, and respond to, such incidents.
Food-safety issues and foodborne illnesses, whether actual or reported, or the failure to comply with applicable regulations relating to the transportation, storage, preparation or service of food, could adversely affect our business and reputation.
Instances or reports of food-safety issues, such as foodborne illnesses, food tampering, food contamination or mislabeling, either during growing, manufacturing, packaging, transportation, storage, preparation or service, have in the past significantly damaged the reputations and impacted the sales of companies in the food processing, grocery, convenience, quick service and “fast casual” restaurant sectors, and could affect us as well. Any instances of, or reports linking us to, foodborne illnesses or food tampering, contamination, mislabeling or other food-safety issues could damage the value of our brand and severely hurt sales of our prepared or other food products and possibly lead to product liability and personal injury claims, litigation (including class actions), government agency investigations and damages. In addition, guest preferences and store traffic could be adversely impacted by food-safety issues, health concerns or negative publicity about the consumption of our
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products or products we sell at our stores, which could damage our reputation and cause a decline in demand for those products and adversely impact our sales. In addition, we rely on our suppliers to provide quality ingredients and products and to comply with applicable food and food safety laws and industry standards. A failure of one of our suppliers to comply with such laws, to meet our quality standards, or to meet food industry standards, could also disrupt our supply chain, damage our reputation and adversely impact our sales.
We may be adversely impacted by increases in the cost of food ingredients and other related costs.
Our business is exposed to fluctuations in prices of commodities. Any increase in the cost or sustained high levels of the cost of cheese, proteins or other commodities could adversely affect the profitability of stores, particularly if we are unable to increase the retail price of our products to offset such costs. We have recently experienced inflation in the price of commodities, including food ingredients, which has increased our cost of goods sold. Cheese, representing our largest food cost, and other commodities can be subject to significant cost fluctuations due to weather, availability, global demand and other factors that are beyond our control. Additionally, increases in labor, mileage, insurance, fuel, and other costs related to the supply and transportation of food ingredients could adversely affect the profitability of our stores. Many of these factors are beyond our control, and we may not be able to adequately mitigate these costs or pass along these costs to our customers, given the significant competitive pricing in our industry.
A significant disruption to our distribution network, to the capacity of the distribution centers, or timely receipt of inventory could adversely impact our sales or increase our transaction costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely on our distribution and transportation network, which includes our drivers and distribution center Team Members, and the networks of our vendors and direct store delivery partners, to provide products to our distribution centers and stores in a timely and cost-effective manner. Any disruption, unanticipated or unusual expense or operational failure related to this process, including our inability, or that of our delivery partners, to hire and/or retain enough qualified drivers and distribution center Team Members to meet demand, could affect our store operations negatively.
We also depend on regular deliveries of products from third-parties to and from our facilities and stores that meet our specifications. In addition, we may have a single supplier or limited number of suppliers for certain products. While we believe there are adequate reserve quantities and alternative suppliers available, shortages or interruptions in the receipt or supply of products caused by unanticipated or changing demand, such as occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, problems in production or distribution, financial or other difficulties of suppliers, cyber-related events, social unrest, inclement weather or other economic conditions, including the availability of qualified drivers and distribution center Team Members, could adversely affect the availability, quality and cost of products, and our operating results.
We could be adversely affected if we experience difficulties in, or are unable to recruit, hire or retain, members of our leadership team and other distribution, field and store Team Members.
We are dependent on the continued knowledge and efforts of our leadership team and other key Team Members. If, for any reason, our leadership team does not continue to be active in management, or we lose such persons, or other key Team Members, or we fail to identify and/or recruit for current or future leadership positions, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.
We also rely on our ability to recruit, hire and retain qualified drivers, distribution center Team Members, field management and store Team Members. Recent difficulties and shortages in the general labor market for such individuals, in particular hourly Team Members and drivers, and the failure to continue to attract and retain these individuals, especially at reasonable compensation levels in the current rising wage environment, could have a material adverse effect on the operation of individual stores, distribution network, our business and results of operations.
Any failure to anticipate and respond to changes in consumer preferences, or to introduce and promote innovative technology for guest interaction, could adversely affect our financial results.
Our continued success depends on our ability to remain relevant with respect to consumer needs and wants, attitudes toward our industry, and our guests’ preferences for ways of doing business with us, particularly with respect to digital engagement, contactless delivery, third-party delivery, curbside pick-up and other non-traditional ordering and delivery platforms. We must continually work to develop, produce and market new products, maintain and enhance the recognition of our brands, offer a favorable mix of products, and refine our approach as to how and where we market, sell and deliver our products. This risk is compounded by the use of digital media by consumers and the speed by which information and opinions are shared. Further, changes in consumer preferences, trends or perceptions of certain items we sell, or the ingredients therein, could cause consumers to avoid such items in favor of those that are or are perceived as healthier, lower-calorie, or lower in carbohydrates or otherwise based on their ingredients or nutritional content. If we are unable to anticipate and respond to sudden challenges or changes that we may face in the marketplace, trends in the market for our products and changing
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consumer demands and sentiment, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on our information technology systems, and a number of third-party software providers, to manage numerous aspects of our business, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our business.
We are dependent on our information technology (IT) systems, and a large number of third-party software providers and platforms, to manage and operate numerous aspects of our business, develop our financial statements, provide analytical information to management and serve as a platform for our business continuity plan. Our IT systems, and the software and other technology platforms provided by our vendors and other third-parties, are an essential component of our business operations and growth strategies, and a serious disruption to any of these could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our business efficiently. These systems are vulnerable to, among other things, damage and interruption, computer system and network failures, loss of telecommunications services, physical and electronic loss of, or loss of access to, data and information, security breaches or other security or cyber-related incidents, computer viruses or attacks and obsolescence. Any disruption could cause our business and competitive position to suffer and cause our operating results to be reduced.
Increased credit card expenses could lead to higher operating expenses and other costs for the Company.
A significant percentage of our sales are made with credit cards. Because the interchange and other fees we pay when credit cards are used to make purchases, which the Company has little control over, are based on transaction amounts, higher fuel prices at the pump, including record fuel prices that were seen in recent years, higher gallon movement and other increases in price and sales of fuel and other items we sell in our stores directly result in higher credit card expenses. These additional fees directly increase operating expenses. Higher operating expenses that result from higher credit card fees may decrease our overall profit and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Total credit card fees paid in fiscal 2024, 2023 and 2022 exceeded $200 million.
In addition, credit card providers now mandate that any fraudulent activity and related losses at fuel dispensers that do not accept certain chip technology (referred to as EMV) be borne by the retailers accepting those cards. While the Company has invested, and will continue to invest, a significant amount of resources in upgrading its fuel dispensers to accept EMV, and has implemented other fraud mitigation strategies, not all of its fuel dispensers have, or in the near future may, be upgraded to such technology. As such, it is possible that credit card providers could attempt to pass the costs of certain fraudulent activity at the non-upgraded dispensers to the Company, which if significant, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations present hazards and risks which may not be fully covered by insurance, if insured.
The scope and nature of our operations present a variety of operational hazards and risks that must be managed through continual oversight and control. As protection against hazards and risks, we maintain insurance against many, but not all, potential losses or liabilities arising from such risks. Uninsured or underinsured losses and liabilities from operating risks could reduce the funds available to us for capital and investment spending and could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations.
The dangers inherent in the storage and transport of fuel could cause disruptions and could expose to us potentially significant losses, costs or liabilities.
We store fuel in storage tanks at our retail locations. Additionally, a significant portion of fuel is transported in our own trucks, instead of by third-party carriers. Our operations are subject to significant hazards and risks inherent in transporting and storing motor fuel. These hazards and risks include, but are not limited to, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, spills, discharges and other releases, any of which could result in distribution difficulties and disruptions, environmental pollution, government imposed fines or clean-up obligations, personal injury or wrongful death claims and other damage to our properties and the properties of others. As a result, any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Consumer or other litigation could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our retail operations are characterized by a high volume of guest traffic and by transactions involving a wide array of product selections, including prepared food. Retail operations, and in particular our distribution and food-related operations, carry a higher exposure to consumer litigation risk when compared to the operations of companies operating in many other industries. Consequently, we may become a party to personal injury, food safety, product liability, accessibility, data security and privacy and other legal actions in the ordinary course of our business. While these actions are generally routine in nature, incidental to the operation of our business and immaterial in scope, if our assessment of any action or actions should prove inaccurate, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Additionally, we are occasionally exposed to industry-wide or class-action claims arising from the products we carry, industry-specific business practices or other operational matters, including accessibility, wage-and-hour and other employment
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related individual and class-action claims. Our defense costs and any resulting damage awards or settlement amounts may be significant and not be covered, or in some instances fully covered, by our insurance policies. Thus, an unfavorable outcome or settlement of one or more of these lawsuits could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial position, liquidity and results of operations.
Pandemics or disease outbreaks, responsive actions taken by governments and others to mitigate their spread, and guest behavior in response to these events, have, and may in the future, adversely affect our business operations, supply chain and financial results.
Pandemics or disease outbreaks have had, and may continue to have, adverse impacts on the Company’s business. These include, but are not limited to, decreased store traffic and changed guest behavior, decreased demand for our fuel, prepared food and other convenience offerings, decreased or slowed unit/store growth, issues with our supply chain including difficulties delivering products to our stores and obtaining certain items sold at our stores, issues with respect to our Team Members’ health, working hours and/or ability to perform their duties, and increased costs to the Company in response to these conditions and to protect the health and safety of our Team Members and guests.
In addition, the general economic and other impacts related to responsive actions taken by governments and others to mitigate the spread of pandemics or disease outbreaks, including but not limited to stay-at-home, shelter-in-place and other travel restrictions, social distancing requirements, mask mandates, limitations on certain businesses’ hours and operations, limits on public gatherings and other events, and restrictions on what, and in certain cases how, certain products can be sold and offered to our guests, have, and may continue to, result in declines in store traffic and overall demand, increased operating costs, and decreased or slower unit/store growth. Further, although the Company’s business was deemed an “essential service” by many public authorities throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, allowing our operations to continue (in some cases in a modified manner), there are no guarantees the designation will continue, or be applied during a future pandemic or disease outbreak, which would require us to reduce our operations and potentially close stores for an undetermined period of time.
Covenants in our Senior Notes and credit facility agreements require us to comply with certain covenants and meet financial maintenance tests. Failure to comply with these requirements could have a material impact to us.
We are required to comply with certain financial and non-financial covenants under our existing Senior Notes and credit facility agreements. A breach of any covenant, even if unintentional, could result in a default or other negative consequences under such agreements, which could, if not timely cured, permit lenders to secure outstanding amounts, declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable, and/or to terminate such instruments, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operation.
Risks Related to Governmental Actions, Regulations, and Oversight
Compliance with and changes in tax laws could adversely affect our performance.
We are subject to extensive tax liabilities imposed by multiple jurisdictions, including but not limited to state and federal income taxes, indirect taxes (excise, sales/use, and gross receipts taxes), payroll taxes, property taxes, and tobacco taxes. Tax laws and regulations are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed, new administrations are elected and new interpretations of existing laws are issued, applied and/or enforced. In addition, as the federal government and certain states face economic and other pressures, they may seek revenue in the form of additional income, sales and other taxes and related fees. These activities could result in increased expenditures for tax liabilities in the future or a decrease in the disposable income of our guests. Many of these liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authorities. Subsequent changes to our tax liabilities as a result of these audits may subject us to interest and penalties.
We are subject to extensive governmental regulations.
Our business is subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations that include, but are not limited to, those relating to environmental protection and remediation; the preparation, transportation, storage, sale and labeling of food and other products; minimum wage, overtime and other employment and labor laws and regulations; the Americans with Disabilities Act; legal restrictions on the sale of alcohol, tobacco and nicotine products, money orders, lottery/lotto and other age-restricted products; compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards and similar requirements; compliance with the Federal Motor Carriers Safety Administration regulations; and, securities laws and Nasdaq listing standards. These, and other laws and regulations, are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed, new interpretations of existing laws are issued and applied and as political administrations and majorities change over time. The effects created by these, including the costs of compliance with these laws and regulations, is substantial, and a violation of or change in such laws and/or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
State laws regulate the sale of alcohol, tobacco and nicotine products, lottery/lotto products and other age-restricted products. A violation or change of these laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations
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because state and local regulatory agencies have the power to approve, revoke, suspend, or deny applications for and renewals of permits and licenses relating to the sale of certain of these products or to seek other remedies.
Any appreciable increase in wages, overtime pay, or the statutory minimum salary requirements, minimum wage rate, mandatory scheduling or scheduling notification laws, or the adoption of additional mandated healthcare or paid-time-off benefits would result in an increase in our labor costs. For example, recent state-mandated minimum wage increases, along with general labor market shortages and wage pressures, have increased our operating expenses significantly. Such cost increases, or the penalties for failing to comply, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. State or federal lawmakers or regulators may also enact new laws or regulations applicable to us that may have a material adverse and potentially disparate impact on our business.
Governmental action and campaigns to discourage tobacco and nicotine use and other tobacco products may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and gross profit.
Congress has given the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) broad authority to regulate tobacco and nicotine products, including e-cigarettes and vapor products, and the FDA has enacted numerous regulations restricting the sale of such products. These governmental actions, as well as national, state and local campaigns and regulations to discourage tobacco and nicotine use and limit the sale of such products, including but not limited to tax increases related to such products and certain actions taken to increase the minimum age in order to purchase such products, have resulted or may in the future result in, reduced industry volume and consumption levels, and could materially affect the retail price of cigarettes or other nicotine products, unit volume and revenues, gross profit, and overall guest traffic, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Wholesale cost and tax increases relating to tobacco and nicotine products could affect our operating results.
Sales of tobacco and nicotine products have averaged approximately 9% of our total revenue over the past three fiscal years, and our tobacco and nicotine revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) accounted for approximately 9% of the total revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) for the same period. Any significant increases in wholesale cigarette and related product costs or tax increases on tobacco or nicotine products may have a materially adverse effect on unit demand for cigarettes (or related products). Currently, major cigarette and tobacco and nicotine manufacturers offer significant rebates to retailers, although there can be no assurance that such rebate programs will continue. We include these rebates as a component of cost of goods sold, which affects our gross margin from sales of cigarettes and related products. In the event these rebates are no longer offered or decreased, our wholesale cigarette and related product costs will increase accordingly. In general, we attempt to pass price increases on to our guests. Due to competitive pressures in our markets, however, we may not always be able to do so. These factors could adversely affect our retail price of cigarettes and related products, cigarette or related product unit volume and revenues, merchandise revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization), and overall guest traffic, and in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Industry
General economic and political conditions that are largely out of the Company’s control may adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
General economic and political conditions, including social and political causes and movements, higher interest rates, higher fuel and other energy costs, inflation, increases or fluctuations in commodity prices such as cheese, proteins and coffee, higher levels of unemployment, higher consumer debt levels and lower consumer discretionary spending, higher tax rates and other changes in tax laws or other economic factors may affect the operations of our stores, input costs, consumer spending, buying habits and labor markets generally, and could adversely affect the discretionary income and spending levels of our guests, the costs of the products we sell in our stores, the consumer demand for such products and the labor costs of transporting, storing and selling those products. These events and their impacts can be unpredictable, and we may not always be able to recapture these higher input costs through pricing strategies or otherwise. In addition, unfavorable economic conditions, especially those affecting the agricultural industry, higher fuel prices, and unemployment levels can affect consumer confidence, spending patterns, and miles driven, and can cause guests to “trade down” to lower priced products in certain categories when these conditions exist. These factors can lead to sales declines, and in turn have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Developments related to fuel efficiency, fuel conservation practices, climate change, and changing consumer preferences may decrease the demand for motor fuel.
Technological advances and consumer behavior in reducing fuel use, governmental mandates to improve fuel efficiency and consumer desire or regulations to lower carbon emissions could lessen the demand for our largest revenue product, petroleum-based motor fuel, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of
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operation. Changes in our climate, including the effects of carbon emissions in the environment, may lessen demand for fuel or lead to additional government regulation. In addition, a shift toward electric, hybrid, hydrogen, natural gas or other alternative fuel-powered vehicles, including driverless motor vehicles, could fundamentally change the shopping and driving habits of our guests or lead to new forms of fueling destinations or new competitive pressures. Any of these outcomes could potentially result in fewer guest visits to our stores, decreases in sales revenue across all categories or lower profit margins, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unfavorable weather conditions can adversely affect our business.
The vast majority of our stores, our distribution centers, and our corporate offices, are located in the Midwest region of the United States, which is susceptible to tornadoes, thunderstorms, extended periods of rain or unseasonably cold temperatures, flooding, ice storms, and heavy snow. Inclement weather conditions could damage our facilities, impact our supply chain and the supply chain of our vendors, or could have a significant impact on consumer behavior, travel, and convenience store traffic patterns as well as our ability to operate our stores, distribution centers or corporate offices. In addition, we typically generate higher revenues and gross margins during warmer weather months, which fall within our first and second fiscal quarters. When weather conditions are not favorable during a particular period, our operating results and cash flow from operations could be adversely affected.
The volatility of wholesale petroleum costs could adversely affect our operating results.
Our net income is significantly affected by changes in the margins we receive on our retail fuel sales. Over the past three fiscal years, on average our fuel revenues accounted for approximately 65% of total revenue and our fuel revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) accounted for approximately 34% of the total revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization). Crude oil and domestic wholesale petroleum markets are currently, and in the recent past have been, marked by significant volatility. General political conditions, threatened or actual acts of war or terrorism, instability or other changes in oil producing regions, historically in the Middle East and South America but recently in Europe with the conflict in Ukraine, and trade, economic or other disagreements between oil producing nations, can, and recently have, significantly affected crude oil supplies and wholesale petroleum costs. In addition, the supply of fuel and wholesale purchase costs could be adversely affected in the event of a shortage, which could result from, among other things, severe weather events in oil producing regions, the lack of capacity at United States oil refineries or, in our case, the level of fuel contracts that we have that guarantee an uninterrupted, unlimited supply of fuel. Increases in the retail price of petroleum products have resulted and could in the future adversely affect consumer demand for fuel and other discretionary purchases. This volatility makes it difficult to predict the impact that future wholesale cost fluctuations will have on our operating results and financial condition in future periods. Any significant change in one or more of these factors could materially affect the number of fuel gallons sold, fuel revenue less cost of goods sold excluding depreciation and amortization and overall guest traffic, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The convenience store industry is highly competitive.
The convenience store and retail fuel industries in which we operate are highly competitive and characterized by ease of entry and constant change in the number and type of retailers offering the products and services found in our stores. We compete with many other convenience store chains, gasoline stations, supermarkets, drugstores, discount stores, club stores, fast food outlets, restaurants, coffee shops, mass merchants, and a variety of other retail companies, including retail gasoline companies that have more extensive retail outlets, greater brand name recognition and more established fuel supply arrangements. Several non-traditional retailers such as supermarkets, club stores, and mass merchants have affected the convenience store industry by entering the retail fuel business and have obtained a share of the fuels market. Certain of these non-traditional retailers may use more extensive promotional pricing or discounts, both at the fuel pump and in the store, to encourage in-store merchandise sales and gasoline sales. In some of our markets, our competitors have been in existence longer and have greater financial, marketing, and other resources than we do. As a result, our competitors may have a greater ability to bear the economic risks inherent in our industry and may be able to respond better to changes in the economy and new opportunities within the industry, including those related to electric vehicle charging stations. This intense competition could adversely affect our revenues and profitability and have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Growth Strategies
We may not be able to identify, acquire, and integrate new properties and stores, which could adversely affect our ability to grow our business.
An important part of our growth strategy has been to purchase properties on which to build our stores, and in other instances, acquire other convenience stores that complement our existing stores or broaden our geographic presence. We expect to continue pursuing acquisition opportunities, which involve risks that could cause our actual growth or operating results to differ materially from our expectations or the expectations of our shareholders and securities analysts. These risks include, but are not limited to, the inability to identify and acquire suitable sites at advantageous prices; competition in targeted market
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areas; difficulties in obtaining favorable financing for larger acquisitions or construction projects; difficulties during the acquisition process in discovering some of the liabilities of the businesses that we acquire; difficulties associated with our existing financial controls, information systems, management resources and human resources needed to support our future growth; difficulties with hiring, training and retaining skilled personnel; difficulties in adapting distribution and other operational and management systems to an expanded network of stores; difficulties in adopting, adapting to or changing the business practices, models or processes of stores or chains we acquire; difficulties in obtaining governmental and other third-party consents, permits and licenses needed to operate additional stores; difficulties in obtaining the cost savings and financial improvements we anticipate from future acquired stores; the potential diversion of our management’s attention from focusing on our core business due to an increased focus on acquisitions; and, challenges associated with the consummation and integration of any future acquisition.
Risks Relating to Our Common Stock
The market price for our common stock has been and may in the future be volatile, which could cause the value of your investment to decline.
Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility could significantly affect the market price of our common stock without regard to our operating performance. In addition, the price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to these, and other factors: a deviation in our results from the expectations of public market analysts and investors; statements by research analysts about our common stock, company, or industry; changes in market valuations of companies in our industry and market evaluations of our industry generally; additions or departures of key personnel; actions taken by our competitors; sales or repurchases of common stock by the Company or other affiliates; and, other general economic, political, or market conditions, many of which are beyond our control.
The market price of our common stock will also be affected by our quarterly operating results and same store sales results, which may be expected to fluctuate. Some of the factors that may affect our quarterly results and same store sales include general, regional, and national economic conditions; competition; unexpected costs; changes in retail pricing, consumer trends, and the number of stores we open and/or close during any given period; and the costs of compliance with corporate governance and other legal requirements. Other factors are discussed throughout Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. You may not be able to resell your shares of our common stock at or above the price you pay.
Any issuance of shares of our common stock in the future could have a dilutive effect on your investment.
We could issue additional shares for investment, acquisition, or other business purposes. Even if there is not an immediate need for capital, we may choose to issue securities to sell in public or private equity markets, if and when conditions are favorable. Raising funds by issuing securities would dilute the ownership interests of our existing shareholders. Additionally, certain types of equity securities we may issue in the future could have rights, preferences, or privileges senior to the rights of existing holders of our common stock.
Iowa law and provisions in our charter documents may have the effect of preventing or hindering a change in control and adversely affecting the market price of our common stock.
Our articles of incorporation give the Company’s board of directors the authority to issue up to one million shares of preferred stock and to determine the rights and preferences of the preferred stock without obtaining shareholder approval. The existence of this preferred stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of the Company by means of a tender offer, merger, proxy contest, or otherwise. Furthermore, this preferred stock could be issued with other rights, including economic rights, senior to our common stock, thereby having a potentially adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
In addition, provisions of Iowa corporate law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or remove our directors by means of a proxy contest, even if doing so would be beneficial to our shareholders. For example, the Iowa Business Corporation Act (the “Act”) prohibits publicly held Iowa corporations to which it applies from engaging in a business combination with an interested shareholder for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested shareholder unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Further, the Act permits a board of directors, in the context of a takeover proposal, to consider not only the effect of a proposed transaction on shareholders, but also on a corporation’s Team Members, suppliers, guests, creditors, and on the communities in which the corporation operates. These provisions could discourage others from bidding for our shares and could, as a result, reduce the likelihood of an increase in our stock price that would otherwise occur if a bidder sought to buy our stock.
We may, in the future, adopt other measures (such as a shareholder rights plan or “poison pill”) that could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing an unsolicited takeover, even if such a change in control were at a premium price or favored by a majority of unaffiliated shareholders. These measures may be adopted without any further vote or action by our shareholders.
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ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.

ITEM 1C.CYBERSECURITY
Information security and data privacy have been, and continue to be, vitally important to the Company. Our Board, in coordination with the Audit Committee, provides oversight of the Company’s major information technology risk exposures, including those related to cybersecurity, data privacy and data security, and oversees the steps management has taken to monitor and mitigate such risk exposures. Cybersecurity and related matters are recurring topics at Audit Committee meetings and the Company’s Chief Information Officer (“CIO”) and Chief Information Security Officer ("CISO") regularly provide the Audit Committee, and periodically the entire Board, with updates on the Company’s cybersecurity risk profile and strategy. These updates include both qualitative and quantitative information on the effectiveness of the Company’s cybersecurity controls.
Our CIO is responsible for the strategic leadership and direction of the Company’s information technology organization. As a part thereof, the Company has implemented an information security program, directly overseen by our CISO, that consists of controls and processes designed to prevent, detect, and manage reasonably foreseeable cybersecurity risks and threats, and which is based on recognized best practices including the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST") Cyber Security Framework ("CSF") and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard ("PCI DSS"). Our CISO, who has over 38-years of industry experience, and his team, have relevant education and experience assessing and managing cybersecurity programs and cybersecurity risks across a mix of enterprises, including the retail industry. Together with a third-party, the CISO and his team also operate a 24/7 Security Operations Center to monitor the cybersecurity environment and coordinate escalation and remediation of alerts, and we incorporate many other resources to maintain readiness to withstand and respond to a cyber incident including but not limited to incident response tabletop exercises, system recovery exercises, simulated phishing email exercises and security awareness training.
Our CISO and his team have also developed processes to oversee and identify material cybersecurity risks associated with our use of third-party service providers who access our information technology systems, which includes leveraging our vendor risk management program designed to assess and manage the cybersecurity risks associated with these partnerships. As part of the program, our governance, risk and compliance team conducts due diligence as a part of onboarding new vendors and maintain ongoing evaluations to ensure compliance with our security standards.
The Company has a Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan ("the Plan"), integrated into our enterprise crisis management and business continuity program, which provides protocols and procedures for evaluating and responding to material cybersecurity incidents, including incident handling, disclosure and reporting, notification to senior management, the Board and relevant committees, and meeting external reporting obligations. As part of the Plan, the Company has also established an Incident Response Governance Team, co-chaired by our CISO and VP, Deputy General Counsel, which is a cross-functional group comprised of relevant stakeholders throughout the organization responsible for organizing the assessment, investigation and response to any material cybersecurity event.
As of the date of this report, no cybersecurity incidents have had, either individually or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Notwithstanding the comprehensive approach we take to information security, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures, and those of our third-party service providers, will prevent or mitigate all incidents that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. For additional information regarding the risks to us associated with cybersecurity incidents, see Item 1A entitled "Risk Factors."
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ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
We own the Store Support Center (built in 1990) and all three distribution centers. Located on an approximately 57-acre site in Ankeny, Iowa, the Store Support Center includes office space and our first distribution center. The Store Support Center provides approximately 490,000 square feet of available space, including approximately 290,000 square feet related to the distribution center. We also own a building near the Store Support Center where our construction and support services departments operate. In February 2016, we opened our second distribution center, located in Terre Haute, Indiana. This second distribution center has approximately 340,000 square feet of total space. In April 2021, we opened a third distribution center located in Joplin, Missouri (see Note 7 for discussion of ownership structure). The third distribution center provides approximately 300,000 square feet of total space. All three distribution centers have a fleet services maintenance center.
On April 30, 2024, we leased a combination of land and/or building at 140 locations. Most of the leases provide for the payment of a fixed rent plus property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. Generally, the leases are for terms of ten to twenty years with options to renew for additional periods or options to purchase the leased premises at the end of the lease period. The Company owns the land and building at all of our other store locations. Additionally, the Company regularly has land held for development, land under construction for new stores, and land held for sale as a result of store closures.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required to be set forth under this heading is incorporated by reference from Note 10, Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8.

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Common Stock
Casey’s common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol CASY. The 37,008,488 shares of common stock outstanding at April 30, 2024 had a market value of approximately $11.8 billion. On that date, there were 1,441 shareholders of record.
Common Stock Market Prices
Calendar 2022HighLowCalendar 2023HighLowCalendar 2024HighLow
Q1$202.50 $170.82 Q1$236.45 $202.13 Q1$324.40 $268.07 
Q2216.40 181.40 Q2245.72 212.50 
Q3223.90 183.23 Q3284.18 238.44 
Q4249.90 197.61 Q4286.62 260.13 
Dividends
We began paying cash dividends during fiscal 1991. The dividends declared in fiscal 2024 totaled $1.72 per share. The dividends declared in fiscal 2023 totaled $1.52 per share. At its June meeting, the Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.50 per share payable August 15, 2024, to shareholders of record on August 1, 2024.
The cash dividends declared during the calendar years 2022 through 2024 were as follows:
Calendar 2022Cash
dividend
declared
Calendar 2023Cash
dividend
declared
Calendar 2024Cash
dividend
declared
Q1$0.35 Q1$0.38 Q1$0.43 
Q20.38 Q20.43 Q20.50 
Q30.38 Q30.43 
Q40.38 Q40.43 
$1.49 $1.67 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth information with respect to the Company's repurchases of common stock during the quarter ended April 30, 2024:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs Maximum Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
Fourth Quarter:
February 1-29, 202436,341 $286.76 36,341 $299,295,981 
March 1-31, 202413,772 303.97 13,772 295,109,710 
April 1-30, 2024— — — 295,109,710 
Total50,113 $291.49 50,113 $295,109,710 

(1)    On, and effective as of, March 3, 2022, the Board authorized a share repurchase program, whereby the Company was authorized to repurchase its outstanding common stock from time-to-time, for an aggregate amount of up to $400 million, exclusive of fees, commissions or other costs (the "Repurchase Program"). The Repurchase Program has no
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set expiration date. The timing and number of repurchase transactions under the Repurchase Program depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, market conditions, corporate considerations, business opportunities, debt agreements, and regulatory requirements. The Repurchase Program can be suspended or discontinued at any time. During the fourth quarter of 2024, we repurchased and retired 50,113 shares of our common stock under our share repurchase program for a total of $14.6 million, excluding fees, commissions and other costs. As of April 30, 2024, $295.1 million remained available for future purchases under this share repurchase program.

ITEM 6.[Reserved]
Not applicable.

ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollars and gallons in thousands, except per share amounts)
Please read the following discussion of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the selected historical consolidated financial data and consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes presented elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview
As of April 30, 2024, Casey’s General Stores, Inc. and its direct and indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries operate convenience stores primarily under the names "Casey's" and "Casey’s General Store" (collectively, with the stores below referenced as "GoodStop", "Bucky's", "Minit Mart", or "Lone Star Food Store" referred to as "Casey's" or the "Company") throughout 17 states, over half of which are located in Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois.
Approximately 72% of all stores were opened in areas with populations of fewer than 20,000 persons. The Company competes on the basis of price, as well as on the basis of traditional features of convenience store operations such as location, extended hours, product offerings, and quality of service. As of April 30, 2024, there were a total of 2,658 stores in operation.
All convenience stores carry a broad selection of food items (including, but not limited to, freshly prepared foods such as regular and breakfast pizza, donuts, hot breakfast items, and hot and cold sandwiches), beverages, tobacco and nicotine products, health and beauty aids, automotive products, and other nonfood items. As of April 30, 2024, 233 store locations offered car washes. In addition, all but eight store locations offer fuel for sale on a self-service basis.
The Company has 73 dealer locations, where Casey’s manages fuel wholesale supply agreements to these stores. These locations are not operated by Casey's and are not included in our overall store count. Approximately 1% of total revenue for the year-ended April 30, 2024 relates to this dealer network.
The Company’s business is seasonal, and generally experiences higher sales and profitability during the first and second fiscal quarters (May-October), when the weather is warmer across our footprint and guests tend to purchase greater quantities of fuel and certain convenience items such as beer, sports drinks, water, soft drinks and ice.
The following table represents the roll forward of store growth throughout fiscal 2024:
Store Count
Stores at April 30, 20232,521 
New store construction42 
Acquisitions112
Acquisitions not opened(1)
Prior acquisitions opened
Closed(22)
Stores at April 30, 20242,658 
For further general descriptive information on the Company’s business and operations, see Item 1, above, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Long-Term Strategic Plan
The Company announced a three-year strategic plan in June 2023 focused on three enterprise objectives: grow store count, accelerate the food business, and enhance operational efficiency, which are enabled by a strong foundation and Team Member experience. The Company's plan was based on building on our proud heritage and distinct advantages, to become more
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contemporary through new capabilities, technology, data, and processes. We believe this will best position the Company to address rapidly evolving shifts in consumer habits and other macro retail trends.
The Company made significant progress towards its strategic plan goals during the 2024 fiscal year. Some of the key highlights include:
Grew store count by 154 stores through new store construction and a number of strategic acquisitions
Entered into our 17th state of Texas
Diluted earnings per share of $13.43, up 12.8% over the prior year
Recorded strong prepared food and dispensed beverage growth driven by innovation including thin crust pizza and a refreshed lunch sandwich menu
Casey's Rewards members grew to 7.9 million at year-end
Fuel Volatility
Since early calendar 2020, the price of crude oil, and in turn the wholesale cost of fuel, has been volatile compared to historical averages. Initially, at the outset of the pandemic, oil and fuel prices fell dramatically; however, as the economy in general began to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, prices began to modestly increase over time. Oil and fuel prices continued to be impacted throughout fiscal 2024 as a result of the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, unrest in the Middle East and economic uncertainty in Western nations. The Company expects similar market volatility to remain throughout the 2025 fiscal year.
In addition, during the past four calendar years, the Company, and the retail fuel industry, has experienced historically high average revenue less cost of goods sold per gallon (excluding depreciation and amortization). Although this has remained relatively consistent since that time, on a longer-term basis, this metric can fluctuate significantly, and sometimes unpredictably, in the short-term. While the Company believes that its average revenue less cost of goods sold per gallon (excluding depreciation and amortization) will remain elevated from historical levels for the foreseeable future, it is possible that increased oil and fuel prices, higher interest rates, macroeconomic conditions and/or continuing conflicts or disruptions involving oil producing countries may materially impact the performance of this metric.
Electric Vehicles and Renewable Fuels
Casey's continues its process of implementing an electric vehicle ("EV") strategy and our management team remains committed to understanding if and how the increased demand for, and usage of, EVs impacts consumer behavior across our store footprint and beyond. As consumer demand for alternative fuel options continues to grow, Casey’s has continued to add EV charging stations across our 17-state footprint. As of April 30, 2024, the Company has 170 charging stations at 37 stores, across 12 states. Our EV growth strategy is currently designed to selectively increase our charging stations at locations within our region where we see higher levels of consumer EV buying trends and demand for EV charging. To date, consumer EV demand within our Midwest footprint has been comparatively lower than the levels along the coasts. As EV demand from our guests increases, we are prepared to strategically integrate charging station options at select stores.
The Company also remains committed to offering renewable fuel options at our stores and continues to expand its alternative fuel options in response to evolving guest needs and as part of its environmental stewardship efforts. Currently, almost all of our stores offer fuel with at least 10% of blended ethanol and 43% of our stores offer biodiesel. Every newly built store has the capability to sell renewable fuels, and we aim to continue growing sales of renewable fuels throughout our footprint.
Fiscal 2024 Compared with Fiscal 2023
Total revenue for fiscal 2024 decreased by $231,562 (1.5%) since the prior fiscal year. Prepared food and dispensed beverage revenue increased by $139,040 (10.5%), due to an increase in same-store sales of 6.8% and an increase of approximately 3.7% due to operating 137 more stores than a year ago. The increase in same-store sales was driven by improved sales of hot sandwiches, whole pies, bakery, and dispensed beverages. Grocery and general merchandise revenue increased by $281,617 (8.2%), due to an increase in same-store sales of 3.5% and an increase of approximately 4.7% due to operating 137 more stores than a year ago. The increase in same-store sales was driven by strong sales of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages, snacks, and candy. Retail fuel revenue decreased by $625,239 (6.2%) as the average retail price per gallon decreased 11.5%, partially offset by an increase in the number of gallons sold by 156,303 (5.8%) Other revenue decreased $26,980 (9.0%) compared to the prior year, driven primarily by a decrease in total revenue related to the dealer network.
Total revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) was 22.5% of revenue for fiscal 2024 compared with 20.4% for the prior year. Prepared food and dispensed beverage revenue less related cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) increased to 58.7% of revenue from 56.6% during fiscal 2024 compared to the prior year, an increase of 2.1%, primarily due to softening ingredient costs. Grocery and general merchandise revenue less related cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) increased to 34.1% of revenue from 33.6% during fiscal 2024
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compared to the prior year, an increase of 0.5%. The current year percentage was positively impacted by increased sales of private label products.
Fuel revenue less related cost of goods sold (excluding of depreciation and amortization) was 11.9% of revenue for fiscal 2024 compared with 10.7% for the prior year. Fuel cents per gallon decreased to 39.5 cents in fiscal 2024 from 40.2 cents in fiscal 2023. The Company sold 25.9 million RINs (renewable identification numbers) for $33,023 during fiscal 2024, compared to the sale of 18.6 million RINs fiscal 2023, which generated $31,656 (see Note 1, below, for a further description of RINs and how they are generated).
Operating expenses increased $168,571 (8.0%) to $2,288,513 in fiscal 2024. In the prior fiscal year, a one-time benefit from the resolution of a legal matter of $15,297 reduced operating expenses by approximately 1%. Approximately 4.5% of the increase is due to operating 137 more stores than the comparable period in the prior year. Total same-store employee expense contributed to approximately 1% of the increase, as the increases in labor rates were partially offset by a reduction in same-store labor hours.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased $36,666 (11.7%) to $349,797 in fiscal 2024, primarily due to operating 137 more stores than a year ago.
Interest, net increased $1,626 (3.1%) to $53,441 in fiscal 2024, primarily due to an increase in finance lease obligations from the prior fiscal year.
The effective tax rate decreased to 23.5% in fiscal 2024 from 24.0% in fiscal 2023. The decrease in the effective tax rate was primarily due to one-time benefits from adjusting the Company’s deferred tax assets and liabilities for state law changes enacted during the year.
Net income increased by $55,281 (12.4%) to $501,972 in fiscal 2024 from $446,691 in fiscal 2023. The increase was primarily attributable to higher profitability both inside the store and in fuel. This increase was partially offset by higher operating expenses, depreciation and amortization, and income tax expense. See discussion in the paragraphs above for the primary drivers for each of these increases.
Please refer to the Form 10-K related to the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, filed on June 23, 2023, for comparison of Fiscal 2023 to Fiscal 2022.
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COMPANY TOTAL REVENUE AND REVENUE LESS COST OF GOODS SOLD (EXCLUDING DEPRECIATION AND AMORTIZATION) BY CATEGORY
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Total revenue by category
Prepared food and dispensed beverage$1,461,600 $1,322,560 $1,204,100 
Grocery and general merchandise3,727,394 3,445,777 3,141,527 
Fuel9,402,071 10,027,310 8,312,038 
Other (1)271,848 298,828 294,929 
$14,862,913 $15,094,475 $12,952,594 
Revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) by category
Prepared food and dispensed beverage$858,295 $748,405 $712,352 
Grocery and general merchandise1,270,527 1,156,451 1,027,477 
Fuel1,116,671 1,074,913 928,868 
Other (1)102,418 92,637 94,017 
$3,347,911 $3,072,406 $2,762,714 
(1)The 'Other' category primarily consists of activity related to wholesale fuel revenue from the dealer network and car wash revenue, which are both presented gross of applicable costs, as well as lottery, which is presented net of applicable costs.
INDIVIDUAL STORE COMPARISONS (1)
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Average retail sales$5,710 $6,064 $5,206 
Average retail inside sales (2)2,037 1,956 1,840 
Average revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) on inside sales (2)801 752 723 
Average retail sales of fuel3,673 4,110 3,366 
Average revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) on fuel 445 450 363 
Average operating income (3)473 445 367 
Average number of gallons sold1,102 1,092 1,047 
 
(1)Individual store comparisons include only those stores that had been in operation for at least one full year and remained open on April 30 of the fiscal year indicated.
(2)Inside sales is comprised of sales related to the grocery and general merchandise and prepared food and dispensed beverage categories.
(3)Average operating income represents retail sales less cost of goods sold, operating expenses and depreciation and amortization attributable to a particular store; it excludes interest, federal and state income taxes, and Company operating expenses not attributable to a particular store.


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SAME STORE SALES BY CATEGORY (1)
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Prepared food and dispensed beverage6.8 %7.1 %7.4 %
Grocery and general merchandise3.5 %6.3 %6.3 %
Fuel gallons 0.1 %(0.8)%4.4 %
 
(1)Same-store sales is a common metric used in the convenience store industry. We define same-store sales as the total sales increase (or decrease) for stores open during the full time of the periods being presented. The store must be open for each entire fiscal year being compared. Remodeled stores that remained open or were closed for just a very brief period of time (less than a week) during the period being compared remain in the same store sales comparison. If a store is replaced, either at the same location (razed and rebuilt) or relocated to a new location, it is removed from the comparison until the new store has been open for each entire period being compared. Newly constructed and acquired stores do not enter the calculation until they are open for each entire period being compared.
Use of Non-GAAP Measures
We define EBITDA as net income before net interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA further adjusts EBITDA by excluding the gain or loss on disposal of assets as well as impairment charges. Neither EBITDA nor Adjusted EBITDA are presented in accordance with GAAP.
We believe EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are useful to investors in evaluating our operating performance because securities analysts and other interested parties use such calculations as a measure of financial performance and debt service capabilities, and they are regularly used by management for internal purposes including our capital budgeting process, evaluating acquisition targets, and assessing store performance.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not recognized terms under GAAP and should not be considered as a substitute for net income, cash flows from operating activities or other income or cash flow statement data. These measures have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. We strongly encourage investors to review our financial statements and publicly filed reports in their entirety and not to rely on any single financial measure.
Because non-GAAP financial measures are not standardized, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, as defined by us, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. It therefore may not be possible to compare our use of these non-GAAP financial measures with those used by other companies.
The following table contains a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, and 2022, respectively: 
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Net income$501,972 $446,691 $339,790 
Interest, net53,441 51,815 56,972 
Depreciation and amortization349,797 313,131 303,541 
Federal and state income taxes154,188 140,827 100,938 
EBITDA$1,059,398 $952,464 $801,241 
Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and impairment charges6,414 6,871 (1,201)
Adjusted EBITDA$1,065,812 $959,335 $800,040 
For the year ended April 30, 2024, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA increased 11.2% and 11.1%, respectively. The increase was primarily attributable to higher profitability both inside the store and in fuel, which was partially offset by higher operating expenses. See discussion in the preceding sections for the primary drivers for each of these individual changes.
Please refer to the Form 10-K related to the fiscal year ended April 30, 2023, filed on June 23, 2023, for comparison of Fiscal 2023 to Fiscal 2022.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that management believes are important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and require management’s most difficult, subjective judgments, often because of the need to estimate the effects of inherently uncertain factors.
Business Combinations
The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting for transactions meeting the definition of a business combination. The acquisitions are recorded in the financial statements by allocating the purchase price to the assets acquired, including intangible assets, and liabilities assumed, based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date as determined by third party appraisals or internal estimates. The significant assets acquired include buildings, equipment, and land. The Company primarily values buildings and equipment using the cost method and land using comparable land sales. The purchase price is determined based upon the fair value of consideration transferred to the seller. Fair values are typically determined using Level 3 inputs (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements). Given these estimates often are based upon unobservable inputs, the estimates require significant judgment when determining the overall value and actual results could differ from the estimates originally established. The excess of the cost of the acquisition over the net amounts assigned to the fair value of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill if the acquisition is considered to be a business combination. During a one-year period from the acquisition date, amounts are allowed to be provisional for areas that are expected to be adjusted to their final amounts during the measurement period. These provisional adjustments are for when the buyer obtains additional information about the facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date. Subsequent adjustments recorded to provisional balances within the measurement period are recorded in the period in which the adjustment is identified. Acquisition-related transaction costs are recognized in operating expenses as incurred.
Inventory
Inventories, which consist of merchandise and fuel, are stated at the lower of cost or market. For fuel inventories, cost is determined through the use of the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. For merchandise inventories, cost is determined through the use of the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method. Inventory valued using the LIFO method of inventory requires judgement when making the determination of appropriate indices to be used for determining price level changes.
Long-lived Assets
The Company monitors closed and underperforming stores for an indication that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent carrying value of the assets exceeds their estimated fair value. Fair value is based on management’s estimate of the price that would be received to sell an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants. The estimate is derived from offers, actual sale or disposition of assets subsequent to year-end, and other indications of fair value, which are considered Level 3 inputs (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements). In determining whether an asset is impaired, assets are grouped at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets, which for the Company is generally on a store-by-store basis. The Company incurred impairment charges of $4,057 in fiscal 2024, $3,500 in fiscal 2023, and $1,056 in fiscal 2022. Impairment charges are a component of operating expenses.
Self-insurance
The Company is primarily self-insured for Team Member healthcare, workers’ compensation, general liability, and automobile claims. The self-insurance claim liability for workers’ compensation, general liability, and automobile claims is determined actuarially at each year-end based on claims filed and an estimate of claims incurred but not yet reported. Actuarial projections of the losses are employed due to the potential of variability in the liability estimates. Some factors affecting the uncertainty of claims include the development time frame, settlement patterns, litigation and adjudication direction, and medical treatment and cost trends. The liability is not discounted. The balances of our self-insurance reserves were $57,369 and $61,168 for the years ended April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements for a description of new accounting pronouncements applicable to the Company.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Due to the nature of our business, cash provided by operations is our primary source of liquidity. The Company finances our inventory purchases primarily from normal trade credit aided by relatively rapid inventory turnover. This turnover allows us to conduct operations without large amounts of cash and working capital. As of April 30, 2024, the Company’s ratio of current assets to current liabilities was 0.87 to 1. The ratio at April 30, 2023 and 2022 was 0.99 to 1 and 0.80 to 1, respectively. The decrease in the ratio from the prior year is primarily attributable to a decrease in cash and cash equivalents as a result of increased acquisition related activity, as well as share repurchases during fiscal 2024.
We believe our current $850,000 committed unsecured revolving credit facility, our $50,000 unsecured bank line of credit, current cash and cash equivalents, and the future cash flow from operations will be sufficient to satisfy the working capital needs of our business.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $892,953 for the year ended April 30, 2024, compared to $881,951 for the year ended April 30, 2023, an increase of $11,002. Our primary source of operating cash flows is from sales to guests at our stores. The primary uses of operating cash flows are payments to our team members and suppliers, as well as payments for taxes and interest. Cash flow from operations was favorably impacted by improved revenue less cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization) of $275,505, offset by an increase in operating expenses of approximately $168,571 and an increase in cash paid for taxes of approximately $14,602. The increase in cash paid for taxes was primarily attributable to applying a higher outstanding income tax receivable to reduce our estimated tax payments for fiscal 2023, compared to fiscal 2024. Refer to “Fiscal 2024 Compared with Fiscal 2023” starting on page 20 for further details on the primary drivers for the changes in revenue, cost of goods sold, and operating expenses. Cash flows from operations can also be impacted by variability in the timing of payments and receipts for certain assets and liabilities, such as wage related accruals, accounts payable, and receivables from credit card companies or our vendors. The increase in operating cash flows, compared to the prior year, was partially offset by a reduction of operating cash flows of $51,644 due to the increased purchases of inventory, primarily attributable to store growth, and a reduction of operating cash flows of $18,727 primarily due to the timing of vendor rebate payments.
Cash used in investing activities increased $280,322. During fiscal 2024, the Company expended $852,036 for purchases of property and equipment and payments for acquisitions compared to $562,137 for fiscal 2023 related to these activities. The increase in cash used in investing activities was largely attributable to an increase in acquisition related activity compared to the prior year (see Note 2 for further discussion). Purchases of property and equipment and payments for acquisitions of businesses typically represent the single largest use of excess Company funds. Management believes that by acquiring, building, and reinvesting in stores, the Company will be better able to drive long-term shareholder value.
Cash used in financing increased $123,058, primarily due to the repurchase and retirement of common stock under our share repurchase program for a total of $104,898 in fiscal 2024.
25


As of April 30, 2024, we had long-term debt and finance lease obligations consisting of:
Finance lease liabilities (Note 7)$101,818 
3.67% Senior Notes (Series A) due in 7 installments beginning June 17, 2022, and ending June 15, 2028111,000 
3.75% Senior Notes (Series B) due in 7 installments beginning December 17, 2022 and ending December 18, 202837,000 
3.65% Senior Notes (Series C) due in 7 installments beginning May 2, 2025 and ending May 2, 203150,000 
3.72% Senior Notes (Series D) due in 7 installments beginning October 28, 2025 and ending October 28, 203150,000 
3.51% Senior Notes (Series E) due June 13, 2025150,000 
3.77% Senior Notes (Series F) due August 22, 2028250,000 
2.85% Senior Notes (Series G) due August 7, 2030325,000 
2.96% Senior Notes (Series H) due August 6, 2032325,000 
Variable rate term loan facility, requiring quarterly installments ending April 21, 2028237,500 
Debt issuance costs(1,379)
$1,635,939 
Less current maturities53,181 
$1,582,758 
Interest on the 3.67% Senior Notes Series A and 3.75% Senior Notes Series B is payable on the 17th day of each June and December. Principal on the Senior Notes Series A and Series B is payable in various installments beginning June 17, 2022 (Series A) and December 17, 2022 (Series B) through December 2028. We may prepay the 3.67% and 3.75% Senior Notes in whole or in part at any time in an amount of not less than $2,000 at a redemption price calculated in accordance with the Note Agreement dated June 17, 2013, as amended, between the Company and the purchasers of the Senior Notes Series A and Series B.
Interest on the 3.65% Senior Notes Series C is payable on the 2nd day of each May and November, while the interest on the 3.72% Senior Notes Series D is payable on the 28th day of each April and October. Principal on the Senior Notes Series C and Series D is payable in various installments beginning May 2, 2025 (Series C) and October 28, 2025 (Series D) through October 2031. We may prepay the 3.65% and 3.72% Senior Notes in whole or in part at any time in an amount of not less than $2,000 at a redemption price calculated in accordance with the Note Agreement dated May 2, 2016, as amended, between the Company and the purchasers of the Senior Notes Series C and Series D.
Interest on the 3.51% Senior Notes Series E is payable on the 13th day of each June and December, while the interest on the 3.77% Senior Notes Series F is payable on the 22nd day of each February and August. Principal on the Senior Notes Series E and Series F is payable in full on June 13, 2025 (Series E) and August 22, 2028 (Series F), respectively. We may prepay the 3.51% and 3.77% Senior Notes in whole or in part at any time in an amount of not less than $2,000 at a redemption price calculated in accordance with the Note Agreement dated June 13, 2017, as amended, between the Company and the purchasers of the Senior Notes Series E and Series F.
Interest on the 2.85% Senior Notes Series G and 2.96% Senior Notes Series H is payable on the 7th day of each February and August. Principal on the Senior Notes Series G and Series H is payable in full on August 7, 2030 (Series G) and August 6, 2032 (Series H), respectively. We may prepay the 2.85% and 2.96% Senior Notes in whole or in part at any time in an amount of not less than $2,000 at a redemption price calculated in accordance with the Note Purchase Agreement dated June 30, 2020, between the Company and the purchasers of the Senior Notes Series G and Series H.
Amounts borrowed under the term loan facility bear interest at variable rates based upon, at the Company’s option, either: (a) either Term SOFR or Daily Simple SOFR, in each case plus 0.10% (with a floor of 0.00%) for the interest period in effect, plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.10% to 1.70% or (b) an alternate base rate, which generally equals the highest of (i) the prime commercial lending rate announced by the Administrative Agent as its “prime rate”, (ii) the federal funds rate plus 1/2 of 1.00%, and (iii) Adjusted Daily Simple SOFR plus 1.00%, each plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.10% to 0.70% and each with a floor of 1.00%. The applicable margins are dependent upon the Company's quarterly Consolidated Leverage Ratio, as defined in the credit agreement dated April 21, 2023. We have the right at any time to prepay all or a portion of the outstanding balance without premium or penalty, other than customary “breakage” costs with respect to Term SOFR-based borrowings, with prior notice given.
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To date, we have funded capital expenditures primarily through funds generated from operations, the proceeds of the sale of common stock, issuance of debt or other bank financing, and existing cash. Future capital required to finance operations, improvements, and the anticipated growth in the number of stores is expected to come from cash generated by operations, our $850,000 committed unsecured revolving credit facility, our additional $50,000 unsecured bank line of credit, and additional long-term debt or other securities as circumstances may dictate. We do not expect such capital needs to adversely affect liquidity.
The table below presents our significant contractual obligations, including interest, at April 30, 2024: 
Contractual obligationsPayments due by period
 TotalLess than
1 year
1-3 years3-5 yearsMore than
5 years
Long-term debt (1)$1,757,829 $86,778 $337,269 $592,118 $741,664 
Finance lease obligations144,383 12,942 25,934 17,800 87,707 
Operating lease obligations180,543 9,297 18,341 18,176 134,729 
Deferred compensation11,652 — — — — 
Total$2,094,407 $109,017 $381,544 $628,094 $964,100 
(1)The long-term debt portion of the table above excludes interest payments related to the Company's term loan facility, due to the variable nature of the required interest payments.
Included in other long-term liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet at April 30, 2024, was a $10,895 obligation for deferred compensation. As the specific payment dates for a portion of the deferred compensation outstanding are unknown due to the unknown retirement dates of many of the participants, the related timing of the payment of the balances have not been reflected in the above “Payments due by period” table. However, known payments of $6,669 are scheduled over the next 5 years, which includes $757 recognized in current liabilities as of April 30, 2024.

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Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-K, including but not limited to the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words “may,” “will,” "should," “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “continue,” and similar expressions are used to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements represent the Company’s current expectations or beliefs concerning future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, liquidity and related sources and needs, supply chain, results of operations and performance at our stores, business strategy, strategic plans, growth opportunities, integration of acquisitions, acquisition synergies, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives including our long-term strategic plan, wholesale fuel, inventory and ingredient costs and the potential effects of the conflict in Ukraine on our business.  The Company cautions that these statements are further qualified by important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the following risk factors described more completely above in Item 1A entitled “Risk Factors”:
Business Operations; Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected by a cyber or data security incident or the failure to protect sensitive guest, Team Member or supplier data, or the failure to comply with applicable regulations relating to data security and privacy; food-safety issues and foodborne illnesses, whether actual or reported, or the failure to comply with applicable regulations relating to the transportation, storage, preparation or service of food, could adversely affect our business and reputation; we may be adversely impacted by increases in the cost of food ingredients and other related costs; a significant disruption to our distribution network, to the capacity of the distribution centers, or timely receipt of inventory could adversely impact our sales or increase our transaction costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business; we could be adversely affected if we experience difficulties in, or are unable to recruit, hire or retain, members of our leadership team and other distribution, field and store Team Members; any failure to anticipate and respond to changes in consumer preferences, or to introduce and promote innovative technology for guest interaction, could adversely affect our financial results; we rely on our information technology systems, and a number of third-party software providers, to manage numerous aspects of our business, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our business; increased credit card expenses could lead to higher operating expenses and other costs for the Company; our operations present hazards and risks which may not be fully covered by insurance, if insured; the dangers inherent in the storage and transport of fuel could cause disruptions and could expose to us potentially significant losses, costs or liabilities; consumer or other litigation could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations; pandemics or disease outbreaks, responsive actions taken by governments and others to mitigate their spread, and guest behavior in response to these events, have, and may in the future, adversely affect our business operations, supply chain and financial results; and, covenants in our Senior Notes and credit facility agreements require us to comply with certain covenants and meet financial maintenance tests and the failure to comply with these requirements could have a material impact to us.
Governmental Actions, Regulations, and Oversight: Compliance with and changes in tax laws could adversely affect our performance; we are subject to extensive governmental regulations; governmental action and campaigns to discourage tobacco and nicotine use and other tobacco products may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and gross profit; and, wholesale cost and tax increases relating to tobacco and nicotine products could affect our operating results.
Industry: General economic and political conditions that are largely out of the Company’s control may adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations; developments related to fuel efficiency, fuel conservation practices, climate change, and changing consumer preferences may decrease the demand for motor fuel; unfavorable weather conditions can adversely affect our business; the volatility of wholesale petroleum costs could adversely affect our operating results; and, the convenience store industry is highly competitive.
Growth Strategies: We may not be able to identify, acquire, and integrate new properties and stores, which could adversely affect our ability to grow our business.
Common Stock: The market price for our common stock has been and may in the future be volatile, which could cause the value of your investment to decline; any issuance of shares of our common stock in the future could have a dilutive effect on your investment; and, Iowa law and provisions in our charter documents may have the effect of preventing or hindering a change in control and adversely affecting the market price of our common stock.
Although we have attempted to list the important factors that presently affect the Company’s business and operating results, we further caution you that other factors we have not identified may in the future prove to be important in affecting our business and results of operations. We ask you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements because they speak only of our views as of the statement dates. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
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ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The Company’s exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio and floating rate long-term debt obligations. We place our investments with high-quality credit issuers and, by policy, limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. Our first priority is to reduce the risk of principal loss. Consequently, we seek to preserve our invested funds by attempting to limit default risk, market risk, and reinvestment risk. We attempt to mitigate default risk by investing in only high-quality credit securities that we believe to be low risk and by positioning our portfolio to respond appropriately to a significant reduction in a credit rating of any investment issuer or guarantor. The portfolio includes only marketable securities with active secondary or resale markets to ensure portfolio liquidity. Based upon the outstanding balance of the Company's term loan facilities as of April 30, 2024, an immediate 100-basis-point move in interest rates would have an approximate annualized impact of $2.3 million on interest expense.
We do, from time to time, participate in a forward buy of certain commodities. These are not accounted for as derivatives under the normal purchase and sale exclusions under the applicable accounting guidance.
29

ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
The Shareholders and Board of Directors
Casey’s General Stores, Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Casey's General Stores, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the related consolidated statements of income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended April 30, 2024, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of April 30, 2024 and 2023, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended April 30, 2024, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of April 30, 2024, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated June 24, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Sufficiency of audit evidence over merchandise inventory quantities at store locations
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company held $306,783 thousand of merchandise inventory as of April 30, 2024, the majority of which was held at 2,658 store locations. The Company’s processes to track and determine store merchandise inventory quantities involves the interaction of information technology (IT) systems. We identified the evaluation of the sufficiency of audit evidence obtained related to the quantities of merchandise inventory at store locations as a critical audit matter. Evaluating the sufficiency of audit evidence over quantities of merchandise inventory at store locations required challenging auditor judgment to determine the nature and extent of procedures to be performed over the quantity of merchandise inventory, including determining the number of store locations visited, and also the need to involve IT professionals with specialized skills and knowledge due to the interaction of IT systems that track and record merchandise inventory quantities by store location.
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The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We applied auditor judgment to determine the nature and extent of procedures to be performed over quantities of merchandise inventory at store locations by evaluating:
homogeneity of the locations
historical locations visited and results of prior physical counts
the Company’s merchandise inventory count results, including results of monitoring and compliance with the count program by store location.
We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls related to the quantity of merchandise inventory held at store locations, including certain controls related to the Company’s merchandise inventory count process. We involved IT professionals with specialized skills and knowledge who assisted in testing certain IT application controls, as well as certain controls related to access to programs and data, program changes, interfaces, and computer operations that support the various IT systems involved in tracking and recording merchandise inventory quantities by store location. We tested the existence and completeness of merchandise inventory by counting inventory quantities on a sample basis through store location visits during the year to evaluate the Company’s inventory records. In addition, we evaluated the overall sufficiency of audit evidence obtained over the quantities of merchandise inventory at store locations.
/s/ KPMG LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1987.
Des Moines, Iowa
June 24, 2024
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The Shareholders and Board of Directors
Casey’s General Stores, Inc.:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Casey's General Stores, Inc. and subsidiaries' (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of April 30, 2024, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of April 30, 2024, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the related consolidated statements of income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended April 30, 2024, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated June 24, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ KPMG LLP
Des Moines, Iowa
June 24, 2024

32

CASEY’S GENERAL STORES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (In thousands, except share data)
 April 30,
 20242023
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$206,482 $378,869 
Receivables151,793 120,547 
Inventories428,722 376,085 
Prepaid expenses25,791 22,107 
Income taxes receivable17,066 23,347 
Total current assets829,854 920,955 
Property and equipment, at cost
Land1,281,408 1,151,812 
Buildings and leasehold improvements3,003,191 2,629,795 
Machinery and equipment3,052,798 2,783,802 
Finance lease right-of-use assets106,837 99,764 
Construction in process109,048 169,796 
7,553,282 6,834,969 
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization2,883,925 2,620,149 
Net property and equipment4,669,357 4,214,820 
Other assets, net of amortization195,559 192,153 
Goodwill652,663 615,342 
Total assets$6,347,433 $5,943,270 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
Current liabilities
Current maturities of long-term debt and finance lease obligations$53,181 $52,861 
Accounts payable569,527 560,546 
Accrued expenses
Wages and related taxes95,821 78,791 
Property taxes54,009 51,109 
Insurance accruals27,323 28,856 
Other153,605 154,962 
Total current liabilities953,466 927,125 
Long-term debt and finance lease obligations, net of current maturities1,582,758 1,620,513 
Deferred income taxes596,850 543,598 
Insurance accruals, net of current portion 30,046 32,312 
Other long-term liabilities168,932 159,056 
Total liabilities3,332,052 3,282,604 
Commitments and contingencies
Shareholders’ equity
Preferred stock, no par value, none issued
  
Common stock, no par value, 37,008,488 and 37,263,248 shares issued and outstanding at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively
27,453 110,037 
Retained earnings2,987,928 2,550,629 
Total shareholders’ equity3,015,381 2,660,666 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$6,347,433 $5,943,270 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
33

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Total revenue$14,862,913 $15,094,475 $12,952,594 
Cost of goods sold (excluding depreciation and amortization, shown separately below) 11,515,002 12,022,069 10,189,880 
Operating expenses2,288,513 2,119,942 1,961,473 
Depreciation and amortization349,797 313,131 303,541 
Interest, net53,441 51,815 56,972 
Income before income taxes656,160 587,518 440,728 
Federal and state income taxes154,188 140,827 100,938 
Net income$501,972 $446,691 $339,790 
Net income per common share
Basic$13.51 $11.99 $9.14 
Diluted$13.43 $11.91 $9.10 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

34

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except per share and share amounts)
 
Shares OutstandingCommon
stock
Retained
earnings
Shareholders' Equity
Balance at April 30, 202136,949,878 $58,951 $1,873,728 $1,932,679 
Net income— — 339,790 339,790 
Dividends declared ($1.39 per share)
— — (52,092)(52,092)
Exercise of stock options3,000 133 — 133 
Share-based compensation (net of tax withholding on employee share-based awards)158,789 20,328 — 20,328 
Balance at April 30, 202237,111,667 79,412 2,161,426 2,240,838 
Net income— — 446,691 446,691 
Dividends declared ($1.52 per share)
— — (57,488)(57,488)
Share-based compensation (net of tax withholding on employee share-based awards)151,581 30,625 — 30,625 
Balance at April 30, 202337,263,248 110,037 2,550,629 2,660,666 
Net income  501,972 501,972 
Dividends declared ($1.72 per share)
  (64,673)(64,673)
Repurchase of common stock(392,290)(105,451) (105,451)
Share-based compensation (net of tax withholding on employee share-based awards)137,530 22,867  22,867 
Balance at April 30, 202437,008,488 $27,453 $2,987,928 $3,015,381 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

35

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income$501,972 $446,691 $339,790 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization349,797 313,131 303,541 
Amortization of debt issuance costs1,111 1,789 2,527 
Change in excess replacement cost over LIFO inventory valuation12,499 24,231 21,573 
Share-based compensation41,379 47,024 37,976 
Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and impairment charges6,414 6,871 (1,201)
Deferred income taxes53,252 23,126 82,721 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Receivables(31,246)(12,519)(33,025)
Inventories(51,785)(141)(98,303)
Prepaid expenses(3,684)(4,248)(6,376)
Accounts payable(8,731)(9,483)165,893 
Accrued expenses14,387 20,292 23,574 
Income taxes5,112 20,652 (35,716)
          Other, net2,476 4,535 (14,233)
Net cash provided by operating activities892,953 881,951 788,741 
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchase of property and equipment(522,004)(476,568)(326,475)
Payments for acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired(330,032)(85,569)(901,638)
Proceeds from sales of property and equipment26,680 17,103 70,118 
Net cash used in investing activities(825,356)(545,034)(1,157,995)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from long-term debt  450,000 
Payments of long-term debt and finance lease obligations(53,656)(40,970)(188,537)
Payment of debt issuance costs (3,940)(1,149)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options  133 
Payments of cash dividends(62,918)(55,617)(51,212)
Repurchase of common stock(104,898)  
Tax withholdings on employee share-based awards(18,512)(16,399)(17,648)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(239,984)(116,926)191,587 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents(172,387)219,991 (177,667)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year378,869 158,878 336,545 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of year$206,482 $378,869 $158,878 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF CASH FLOWS INFORMATION
       Cash paid for interest, net of amount capitalized$63,449 $56,799 $54,499 
Cash paid for income taxes, net105,000 90,398 49,565 
Noncash investing and financing activities
Purchased property and equipment in accounts payable45,617 27,905 46,659 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollars in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
1. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Operations: Casey’s General Stores, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the "Company") operate 2,658 convenience stores in 17 states, primarily in the Midwest. Many of the stores are located in smaller communities, often with populations of less than 20,000.
Principles of consolidation: The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Casey’s General Stores, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain amounts in prior year have been reclassified to conform to current year presentation.
Use of estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash equivalents: We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity at purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Included in cash equivalents are money market funds, treasury bills, and credit card, debit card and electronic benefits transfer transactions that process within three days.
Receivables: Receivables are primarily comprised of balances outstanding from credit card companies which are not processed within three days and balances outstanding from vendor rebates. The Company records credit card receivables at the time of the related sale to the guest. Vendor rebates are recorded based upon the applicable agreements. Uncollectible accounts were immaterial during the periods presented. Below is a summary of the receivable values at April 30, 2024 and 2023:
Years ended April 30,
20242023
Vendor rebates$87,423 $54,979 
Credit cards35,455 46,851 
Other28,915 18,717 
Total receivables$151,793 $120,547 
Inventories and cost of goods sold: Inventories, which consist of merchandise and fuel, are stated at the lower of cost or market. For fuel inventories, cost is determined through the use of the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. For merchandise inventories, cost is determined through the use of the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method.
The excess of replacement cost over the stated LIFO value was $151,461 and $138,962 at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively. There were no material LIFO liquidations during the periods presented. Below is a summary of the inventory values at April 30, 2024 and 2023:
Years ended April 30,
20242023
Fuel$121,939 $115,095 
Merchandise306,783 260,990 
Total inventories$428,722 $376,085 
The Company often receives vendor allowances on the basis of quantitative contract terms that vary by product and vendor or directly on the basis of purchases made. Vendor allowances include rebates and other funds received from vendors to promote their products. These amounts are recognized in the period earned based on the applicable rebate agreement. Reimbursements of an operating expense (e.g., advertising) are recorded as reductions of the related expense.
Renewable identification numbers (“RINs”) are assigned to gallons of renewable fuels produced and are used to track compliance with the renewable fuel standard. At times, we purchase fuel components (ethanol, gasoline, biodiesel or diesel) and blend those components into a finished product in a fuel truck. This process enables the Company to take title to the RIN assigned to each gallon of ethanol or biodiesel produced. RINs are recorded as a reduction in cost of goods sold at the contracted sales price, in the period when the Company transfers the RIN. The Company does not record inventories on the balance sheet related to RINs, as they are acquired at no cost to the Company.
The Company includes in cost of goods sold the costs incurred to acquire fuel and merchandise, including excise taxes, less vendor allowances and rebates and RINs. Warehousing costs are recorded within operating expenses on the consolidated statements of income.
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Capitalized software implementation costs: The Company capitalizes expenditures related to the implementation of software-as-a-service as incurred. These costs are expensed on a straight-line basis within operating expenses, typically over the contractual life of the related software. The useful lives utilized for capitalized software implementation costs range from 2-13 years. As of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the Company had recognized $37,619 and $42,495 of capitalized software implementation costs, respectively. The outstanding balance is recognized in other assets, net of amortization on the consolidated balance sheets. The Company has recognized amortization of $14,108 in fiscal 2024, $12,302 in fiscal 2023 and $9,449 in fiscal 2022 within operating expenses on the consolidated statements of income.
Goodwill: As of April 30, 2024 and 2023, there was $652,663 and $615,342 of goodwill recognized, respectively. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually. The Company used a qualitative approach to assess the recoverability of goodwill at year-end. Management’s analysis of recoverability completed as of the fiscal year-end indicated no evidence of impairment for the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, and 2022.
Contractual customer relationships: As the result of a prior acquisition, the Company recognized approximately $31,100 of contractual customer relationships. These assets were valued using the multi-period excess earnings method. The contractual customer relationships are amortized on a straight-line basis over a useful life of 15 years and are included within other assets, net of amortization in the consolidated balance sheets as of April 30, 2024. As of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the Company has recognized $24,880 and $26,953 of contractual customer relationships, which was net of accumulated amortization of $6,220 and $4,147, respectively. The Company expects to recognize $2,073 of annual amortization expense related to contractual customer relationships over the next 5 years.
Depreciation and amortization: Depreciation of property and equipment are computed using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Buildings
25-40 years
Machinery and equipment
3-40 years
Finance lease right-of-use assetsLesser of term of lease or life of asset
Leasehold improvementsLesser of term of lease or life of asset
The Company monitors stores and will accelerate depreciation if the expected life of the asset is reduced due to the expected remaining operation of the store or the Company’s plans. Construction in process is reported at cost and not subject to depreciation until the related asset is placed in service.
Store closings and asset impairment: The Company writes down property and equipment of stores it is closing to estimated net realizable value at the time management commits to a plan to close such stores and begins actively marketing the stores. The Company bases the estimated net realizable value of property and equipment on its experience in utilizing and/or disposing of similar assets, as well as estimates provided by its own and/or third-party real estate experts.
The Company monitors closed and underperforming stores for an indication that the carrying amount of assets may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, an impairment loss is recognized to the extent carrying value of the assets exceeds their estimated fair value. Fair value is typically based on management’s estimate of the price that would be received to sell an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants. The estimate is derived from offers, actual sale or disposition of assets subsequent to year-end, and other indications of fair value, which are considered Level 3 inputs (see Note 3). In determining whether an asset is impaired, assets are grouped at the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows that are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets, which for the Company, is generally on a store-by-store basis. The Company incurred impairment charges of $4,057 in fiscal 2024, $3,500 in fiscal 2023, and $1,056 in fiscal 2022. Impairment charges are recognized as a component of operating expenses.
Income taxes: The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the consolidated statements of income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company calculates its current and deferred tax provision based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from actual results reflected in income tax returns filed in subsequent years. Adjustments based on filed returns are recorded when identified.
Revenue recognition: The Company recognizes retail sales of prepared food and dispensed beverage, grocery and general merchandise, fuel and other revenue at the time of the sale to the guest. Sales taxes collected from guests and remitted to the government are recorded on a net basis in the consolidated statements of income.
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A portion of revenue from sales that include points under our Casey’s Rewards program is deferred. The deferred portion of the sale represents the value of the estimated future redemption of the points. The amounts related to points are deferred until their redemption or expiration. Revenue related to the points issued is expected to be recognized less than one year from the original sale to the guest. As of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized a contract liability of $52,934 and $55,561, respectively, related to the outstanding Casey's Rewards program, which is included in other accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheets. During fiscal 2024, the digital box top program was discontinued and outstanding digital box tops were converted to points.
Gift card related revenue is recognized as the gift cards are used by the guest. Gift card breakage revenue is recognized based on the estimated gift card breakage rate over the pro rata usage of the card. As of April 30, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized a liability of $17,985 and $17,463, respectively, related to outstanding gift cards, which is included in other accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheets.
Net income per common share: Basic earnings per share have been computed by dividing net income by the weighted average shares outstanding during each of the years. Unvested shares under equity awards are treated as common shares within the basic earnings per share calculation when a recipient has met certain requirements in the award agreement. For example, if retirement provisions are satisfied which allow a recipient to avoid forfeiture of the award upon a normal retirement from the Company, it is included in the basic earnings per share calculation. The calculation of diluted earnings per share treats unvested restricted stock units with time-based restrictions as potential common shares. The diluted earnings per share calculation does not take into effect any shares that have not met performance or market conditions as of the reporting period.
Asset retirement obligations: The Company recognizes the estimated future cost to remove underground storage tanks over the estimated useful life of the storage tank. The Company records a discounted liability for the fair value of an asset retirement obligation with a corresponding increase to the carrying value of a long-lived asset at the time an underground storage tank is installed. The Company depreciates the amount added to property and equipment on a straight-line basis and recognizes accretion expense in connection with the discounted liability over the remaining life of the tank. The estimates of the anticipated future costs for removal of an underground storage tank are based on our prior experience with removal. Because these estimates are subjective and are currently based on historical costs with adjustments for estimated future changes in the associated costs, we expect the dollar amount of these obligations to change as more information is obtained.
The discounted liability was $39,954 and $36,978 at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively, and is recorded in other long-term liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Self-insurance: The Company is primarily self-insured for Team Member healthcare, workers’ compensation, general liability, and automobile claims. The self-insurance claim liability for workers’ compensation, general liability, and automobile claims is determined using actuarial methods at each year end based on claims filed and an estimate of claims incurred but not yet reported. Actuarial projections of the losses are employed due to the potential of variability in the liability estimates. Some factors affecting the uncertainty of the claim liability include the loss development factors, which includes the development time frame and settlement patterns, and expected loss rates, which includes litigation and adjudication direction, and medical treatment and cost trends. The liability is not discounted. The balance of our self-insurance reserves was $57,369 and $61,168 as of April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively. See additional discussion in Note 10.
Environmental remediation liabilities: The Company accrues for environmental remediation liabilities when it is probable a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. At April 30, 2024 and 2023 we had an accrued liability of $299 and $268, respectively, which is recorded in other accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheets.
Derivative instruments: There were no options or futures contracts as of or during the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, or 2022. From time to time, we participate in a forward buy of certain commodities. These are not accounted for as derivatives under the normal purchases and sale exclusions within the applicable accounting guidance.
Share-based compensation: Share-based compensation is recorded based upon the fair value of the award on the grant date. The cost of the award is recognized ratably in the consolidated statements of income over the vesting period of the award, adjusted for certain retirement provisions. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur. Additionally, certain awards include performance and market conditions. Performance-based awards are based on either the achievement of a three-year average return on invested capital (ROIC) or three-year cumulative earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA). For these awards, share-based compensation expense is estimated based on the probable outcome of shares to be awarded adjusted as necessary at each reporting period. Additionally, if the Company's relative total shareholder return over the performance period is in the bottom or top quartile of the companies comprising the S&P 500, the performance-based shares included will be adjusted downward by 25%, or upward by 25%, respectively (the "TSR Modifier"). The fair value of these awards is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation as of the date of the grant. For the market-based portion of these awards, the share-based compensation expense will not be adjusted should the target awards vary from actual awards.
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Segment reporting: As of April 30, 2024, we operated 2,658 stores in 17 states. Our convenience stores offer a broad selection of merchandise, fuel and other products and services designed to appeal to the convenience needs of our guests. We manage the business on the basis of one operating segment and therefore, have only one reportable segment. Our stores sell similar products and services, use similar processes to sell those products and services, and sell their products and services to similar classes of guests. We make specific disclosures concerning the three broad categories of prepared food and dispensed beverage, grocery and general merchandise, and fuel because it allows us to more effectively discuss trends and operational initiatives within our business and industry. Although we can separate revenue and cost of goods sold within these categories (and further sub-categories), the operating expenses associated with operating a store that sells these products are not separable by these three categories.
Recent accounting pronouncements:
In September 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-04, Liabilities—Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50). The standard included guidance related to supplier finance programs and requires the buyer in a supplier finance program to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about the program. The new standard was effective for the Company beginning May 1, 2023. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280) - Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures. The standard is intended to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant expenses. The amendments will require public entities to disclose significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker and included within each reported measure of segment profit and loss. The new standard is effective for the Company's annual periods beginning May 1, 2024, and interim periods beginning May 1, 2025, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating ASU 2023-07 to determine its impact on our disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740) - Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures. The standard includes amendments that further enhance income tax disclosures, primarily through standardization and disaggregation of rate reconciliation categories and income taxes paid by jurisdiction. The new standard is effective for the Company's annual periods beginning May 1, 2025, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating ASU 2023-09 to determine its impact on our disclosures.
2. ACQUISITIONS
Current Period Acquisitions
During the year ended April 30, 2024, the Company acquired 112 stores through a variety of transactions, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the individual asset purchase agreements. The majority of these acquisitions meet the criteria to be considered business combinations. The purchase price for each transaction was paid in cash upon closing using available cash on hand.
The acquisitions were recorded in the financial statements by allocating the purchase price to the assets acquired, including intangible assets, and liabilities assumed, based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date as determined by third party appraisals or internal estimates. Fair values were determined using Level 3 inputs, which are unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data. The excess of the cost of the acquisition over the net amounts assigned to the fair value of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill if the acquisition is considered to be a business combination. Goodwill of $37,321 was recognized as the result of the current period acquisitions and is primarily attributable to the location of the stores in relation to our footprint and expected synergies. Almost all of the goodwill associated with these transactions will be deductible for income tax purposes over 15 years.
Acquisition-related transaction costs are recognized as period costs as incurred. The Company incurred total acquisition-related transaction costs of $8,920 for fiscal 2024 which are recorded within operating expenses on the consolidated statements of income.
The table below summarizes the estimated fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. We utilized a third-party valuation specialist to assist in valuing the majority of other assets, leases and property and equipment acquired.
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Assets acquired:
Inventories$13,351 
Property and equipment279,396 
Finance lease right-of-use assets3,194 
Operating lease right-of-use assets7,201 
Other assets2,137 
Goodwill37,321 
Total assets$342,600 
Liabilities assumed:
Accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities$982 
Finance lease liabilities5,004 
Operating lease liabilities7,041 
Total liabilities13,027 
Net assets acquired and total consideration paid$329,573 
Payments for acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired, on the consolidated statements of cash flows includes payments made for acquisitions that are closing shortly after the year-end. Such payments are not included in the total consideration paid in the table above, as those acquisitions have not yet closed as of the end of the year.
The Company recognized approximately $237,529 of revenue related to the acquired locations in the consolidated statements of income for the year ended April 30, 2024. The amount of net income related to the acquired locations was not material for the year ended April 30, 2024.
Pro Forma Information
The following unaudited pro forma information presents a summary of our consolidated statements of income as if the transactions referenced above occurred at the beginning of fiscal 2023 (amounts in thousands, except per share data):
For the year ended April 30,
20242023
Total revenue$15,228,497 $15,799,468 
Net income$521,630 $457,671 
Net income per common share
Basic$14.04 $12.28 
Diluted$13.96 $12.20 
Prior Period Acquisitions
During the year ended April 30, 2023, the Company acquired 47 stores, of which 26 stores were acquired from Minit Mart LLC pursuant to the terms and conditions of an asset purchase agreement. The majority of these acquisitions meet the criteria to be considered business combinations. Goodwill of $2,408 was recognized as the result of the current year acquisitions and is primarily attributable to the location of the stores in relation to our footprint and expected synergies. All of the goodwill associated with these transactions will be deductible for income tax purposes over 15 years.
The aggregate purchase price for the acquisitions totaled $85,569, which was paid in cash upon closing using available cash on hand.
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Allocation of the purchase price for the transactions in aggregate for the year ended April 30, 2023, was as follows (in thousands):
Assets acquired:
Inventories$3,976 
Property and equipment79,556 
Goodwill2,408 
Total assets85,940 
Total liabilities371 
Net assets acquired and total purchase price$85,569 
3. FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND LONG-TERM DEBT
U.S. GAAP requires that each financial asset and liability carried at fair value be classified into one of the following of the fair value hierarchy levels, which is based upon the quality of the inputs used in the valuation. Level 1 inputs are quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. Level 2 inputs are observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data (excluding those included within Level 1). Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data. The Company has not changed its valuation techniques in measuring the fair value of any financial assets and liabilities during the period. A summary of the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments follows.
Cash and cash equivalents, receivables, and accounts payable: The carrying amount approximates fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments or the recent purchase of the instruments at current rates of interest.
Long-term debt: The fair value of the Company’s long-term debt (including current maturities) is estimated based on the current rates offered to the Company for debt of the same or similar issuances which are considered Level 2 inputs. The fair value of the Company’s long-term debt was approximately $1,375,000 and $1,437,000 at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The fair value calculated excludes finance lease obligations of $101,818 and $95,072 outstanding at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which are grouped with long-term debt on the consolidated balance sheets.
Credit Agreement
In the prior fiscal year, the Company entered into a credit agreement for (a) a $250 million unsecured term loan (the “Term Loan Facility”) and (b) an $850 million unsecured revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Facility” and together with the Term Loan Facility, the “Credit Facilities”). The Term Loan Facility was used to refinance the Company's previous term loan under a prior credit agreement, and to pay fees and expenses in connection therewith. The Revolving Facility is available for working capital and other general corporate purposes of the Company and its subsidiaries.
Amounts borrowed under the Credit Facilities bear interest at variable rates based upon, at the Company’s option, either: (a) either Term SOFR or Daily Simple SOFR, in each case plus 0.10% (with a floor of 0.00%) for the interest period in effect, plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.10% to 1.70% or (b) an alternate base rate, which generally equals the highest of (i) the prime commercial lending rate announced by the Administrative Agent as its “prime rate”, (ii) the federal funds rate plus 1/2 of 1.00%, and (iii) Adjusted Daily Simple SOFR plus 1.00%, each plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.10% to 0.70% and each with a floor of 1.00%. The Revolving Facility carries a facility fee of 0.15% to 0.30% per annum. The applicable margins and facility fee, in each case, are dependent upon the Company’s quarterly Consolidated Leverage Ratio, as defined in the credit agreement.
The outstanding principal balance on the Term Loan Facility is required to be repaid in equal quarterly installments in an amount equal to 1.25% of the original principal amount, on the last day of each March, June, September, and December, with the balance of the Credit Facilities due on April 21, 2028. The credit agreement contains an expansion option permitting the Company to request an increase of either of the Credit Facilities from time to time not to exceed the greater of (a) $900 million and (b) 100% of Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) of the Company for the four most recently completed fiscal quarters, from the lenders or other financial institutions acceptable to the Company and the administrative agent, upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, including the consent of the lenders whose commitments would increase.
The Company had $0 outstanding on the Revolving Facility at April 30, 2024 and 2023, and $237,500 and $250,000 outstanding on the Term Loan Facility at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Bank Line
The Company has an additional unsecured bank line of credit (the "Bank Line") with availability of up to $50,000. As of April 30, 2024, the availability under the Bank Line is encumbered by letters of credits totaling $308. The Bank Line bears
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interest at a variable rate subject to change from time to time based on changes in an independent index referred to in the Bank Line as the Federal Funds Offered Rate. There was $0 outstanding under the Bank Line at April 30, 2024 and 2023. The Bank Line is due upon demand.
The carrying amount of the Company’s long-term debt and finance lease obligations by issuance is as follows: 
 As of April 30,
 20242023
Finance lease liabilities (Note 7)$101,818 $95,072 
3.67% Senior Notes (Series A) due in 7 installments beginning June 17, 2022, and ending June 15, 2028
111,000 135,000 
3.75% Senior Notes (Series B) due in 7 installments beginning December 17, 2022 and ending December 18, 2028
37,000 45,000 
3.65% Senior Notes (Series C) due in 7 installments beginning May 2, 2025 and ending May 2, 2031
50,000 50,000 
3.72% Senior Notes (Series D) due in 7 installments beginning October 28, 2025 and ending October 28, 2031
50,000 50,000 
3.51% Senior Notes (Series E) due June 13, 2025
150,000 150,000 
3.77% Senior Notes (Series F) due August 22, 2028
250,000 250,000 
2.85% Senior Notes (Series G) due August 7, 2030
325,000 325,000 
2.96% Senior Notes (Series H) due August 6, 2032
325,000 325,000 
Variable rate term loan facility, requiring quarterly installments ending April 21, 2028237,500 250,000 
Debt issuance costs(1,379)(1,698)
$1,635,939 $1,673,374 
Less current maturities53,181 52,861 
$1,582,758 $1,620,513 
Interest, net on the consolidated statements of income is net of interest income of $11,736, $7,823, and $48 for the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, and 2022, respectively. Interest, net is also net of interest capitalized of $3,363, $3,631, and $2,031 during the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
The agreements relating to the above long-term debt contain certain operating and financial covenants. At April 30, 2024, the Company was in compliance with all such operating and financial covenants.
Listed below are the aggregate maturities of long-term debt, excluding finance lease obligations (refer to Note 7 for future minimum payments under finance leases), for the 5 years commencing May 1, 2024 and thereafter:
 
Years ended April 30,
2025$44,500 
2026204,500 
202760,500 
2028248,000 
2029286,000 
Thereafter692,000 
$1,535,500 
4. PREFERRED AND COMMON STOCK
Preferred stock: The Company has 1,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock, of which 250,000 shares have been designated as Series A Serial Preferred Stock. No shares of preferred stock have been issued.
Common stock: The Company currently has 120,000,000 authorized shares of common stock.
Stock incentive plans: The 2018 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2018 Plan”) was approved by the Company's shareholders on September 5, 2018. Awards under the 2018 Plan may take the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units and other equity-based and equity-related awards. Each share issued pursuant to a stock option and each share with respect to which a stock-settled stock appreciation right is exercised (regardless of the number of shares actually delivered) is counted as one share against the maximum limit under the 2018 Plan, and each share issued pursuant to an award
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of restricted stock or restricted stock units is counted as two shares against the maximum limit. Restricted stock is transferred immediately upon grant (and may be subject to a holding period), whereas restricted stock units have a vesting period that must expire, and in some cases performance or market conditions that must be satisfied before the stock is transferred. At April 30, 2024, there were 1,135,976 shares available for grant under the 2018 Plan.
We account for share-based compensation by estimating the grant date fair value of time-based and performance-based restricted stock unit awards using the closing price of our common stock on the applicable grant date, or the date on which performance goals for performance-based units are established, if after the grant date. The time-based awards most commonly vest ratably over a three-year period commencing on the first anniversary of the grant date. The performance-based awards represent a “target” amount; the final amount earned is based on the satisfaction of certain performance measures over a three-year performance period and will range from 0% to 200% of “target." The performance-based awards are also subject to the TSR Modifier (see Note 1 for additional information). The fair value of these awards is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation as of the date of the grant. For market-based awards, the share-based compensation expense will not be adjusted should the target awards vary from actual awards.
We recognize these amounts as an operating expense in our consolidated statements of income ratably over the requisite service period using the straight-line method, as adjusted for certain retirement provisions, and updated estimates of shares to be issued under performance-based awards. All awards have been granted at no cost to the grantee.
The following table presents a summary of our RSU activity during the three-year period ended April 30, 2024. At April 30, 2024, there were no stock options outstanding.
Weighted-Average
Grant Date Fair
SharesValue per Share
Unvested at April 30, 2021
646,920 
Granted154,278 $219 
Vested(242,955)
Forfeited(30,055)
Performance Award Adjustments(1,794)
Unvested at April 30, 2022
526,394 
Granted165,024 218 
Vested(233,533)
Forfeited(40,773)
Performance Award Adjustments133,728 
Unvested at April 30, 2023
550,840 212 
Granted142,865 238 
Vested(219,752)195 
Forfeited(17,534)224 
Performance Award Adjustments35,443 246 
Unvested at April 30, 2024
491,862$229 
Total share-based compensation costs recorded for employees and non-employee board members for the restricted stock unit awards for the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023 and 2022 were $41,379, $47,024, and $37,976, respectively. As of April 30, 2024, there was $38,910 of total unrecognized compensation costs related to the 2018 Plan for costs related to restricted stock units which are expected to be recognized ratably through fiscal 2027, with a weighted average remaining term of 1.0 year. The fair value of restricted stock unit awards vested for the years ended April 30, 2024, 2023 and 2022 were $49,631, $46,943, and, $51,046, respectively, as of the applicable vest date.
On, and effective as of, March 3, 2022, the Board authorized a share repurchase program, whereby the Company was authorized to repurchase its outstanding common stock from time-to-time, for an aggregate amount of up to $400 million, exclusive of fees, commissions or other costs (the "Repurchase Program"). The Repurchase Program has no set expiration date. The timing and number of repurchase transactions depends on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, market conditions, corporate considerations, business opportunities, debt agreements, and regulatory requirements. The Repurchase Program can be suspended or discontinued at any time. During fiscal 2024, the Company repurchased and retired 392,290 shares of our common stock under our share repurchase program for a total of $104.9 million, excluding fees, commissions and other costs. As of April 30, 2024, $295.1 million remained available for future purchases under this share repurchase program.
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5. NET INCOME PER COMMON SHARE
Computations for basic and diluted earnings per common share are presented below:
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Basic
Net income$501,972 $446,691 $339,790 
Weighted average shares outstanding-basic37,164,022 37,266,851 37,158,898 
Basic earnings per common share$13.51 $11.99 $9.14 
Diluted
Net income$501,972 $446,691 $339,790 
Weighted-average shares outstanding-basic37,164,022 37,266,851 37,158,898 
Plus effect of stock options and restricted stock units206,284 252,844 197,800 
Weighted-average shares outstanding-diluted37,370,306 37,519,695 37,356,698 
Diluted earnings per common share$13.43 $11.91 $9.10 
6. INCOME TAXES
Income tax expense attributable to earnings consisted of the following components:
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Current tax expense:
Federal$78,542 $95,336 $4,382 
State22,394 22,365 13,835 
100,936 117,701 18,217 
Deferred tax expense53,252 23,126 82,721 
Total income tax expense$154,188 $140,827 $100,938 
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The tax effects of temporary differences that gave rise to significant portions of the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities were as follows: 
 As of April 30,
 20242023
Deferred tax assets:
Accrued liabilities and reserves$9,075 $7,031 
Deferred revenue15,222 15,565 
Accrued bonus compensation10,272 9,361 
Workers compensation 11,281 11,500 
Operating and finance lease obligations55,739 52,464 
Asset retirement obligations10,036 9,404 
Deferred compensation2,909 3,242 
Equity compensation8,018 8,305 
State net operating losses and tax credits2,568 1,807 
Other4,523 3,551 
Total gross deferred tax assets129,643 122,230 
Less valuation allowance550 250 
Total net deferred tax assets129,093 121,980 
Deferred tax liabilities:
Property and equipment depreciation(667,680)(617,154)
Goodwill(52,900)(43,900)
Other(5,363)(4,524)
Total gross deferred tax liabilities(725,943)(665,578)
Net deferred tax liability$(596,850)$(543,598)
At April 30, 2024, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards for state income tax purposes of $126,681, which are available to offset future state taxable income. The state net operating loss carryforwards begin to expire in 2031. In addition, the Company had state tax credit carryforwards of $2,319, which begin to expire in 2027.
The valuation allowance for state net operating loss and state tax credit deferred tax assets as of April 30, 2024 and 2023 was $550 and $250, respectively. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment.
Total reported tax expense applicable to the Company’s continuing operations varies from the tax that would have resulted from applying the statutory U.S. federal income tax rates to income before income taxes.
 Years ended April 30,
 202420232022
Income taxes at the statutory rates21.0 %21.0 %21.0 %
Federal tax credits(1.0)%(1.3)%(1.8)%
State income taxes, net of federal tax benefit3.7 %4.0 %3.8 %
Impact of phased-in state law changes, net of federal benefit(1.0)%(0.4)%(0.8)%
ASU 2016-09 benefit (share-based compensation)(0.1)%(0.3)%(1.0)%
Nondeductible executive compensation0.9 %1.1 %1.2 %
Other %(0.1)%0.5 %
23.5 %24.0 %22.9 %
The Company recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. Recognized income tax positions are measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being realized. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. The Company had a total of $10,747 and $10,957 in gross unrecognized tax benefits at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which is recorded in other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets. Of this amount, $8,490 represents the amount of unrecognized tax
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benefits that, if recognized, would impact our effective tax rate. Unrecognized tax benefits decreased $210 during the twelve months ended April 30, 2024, due primarily to the expiration of certain statute of limitation exceeding the increase associated with income tax filing positions for the current year. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits is as follows:
20242023
Beginning balance$10,957 $10,259 
Additions based on tax positions related to current year2,570 2,867 
Reductions due to lapse of applicable statute of limitations(2,780)(2,169)
Ending balance$10,747 $10,957 
The total net amount of accrued interest and penalties for such unrecognized tax benefits was $350 and $386 at April 30, 2024 and 2023, respectively, and is included in other long-term liabilities. Net interest and penalties included in income tax expense for the twelve month periods ended April 30, 2024 and 2023 was an decrease in tax expense of $36 and an increase in tax expense of $15, respectively.
A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is audited and ultimately settled. It is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome or the timing of resolution for uncertain tax positions. It is reasonably possible that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits could significantly increase or decrease within the next twelve months. These changes could result from the expiration of the statute of limitations, examinations or other unforeseen circumstances. The Company has no ongoing federal or state income tax examinations.
At this time, the Company’s best estimate of the reasonably possible change in the amount of the gross unrecognized tax benefits is a decrease of $2,000 during the next twelve months mainly due to the expiration of certain statute of limitations. The federal statute of limitations remains open for the tax years 2020 and forward. Tax years 2019 and forward are subject to audit by state tax authorities depending on open statute of limitations waivers and the tax code of each state.
7. LEASES
The Company is a lessee in situations where we lease property and equipment, most commonly land, building or store equipment, from a lessor. The Company is a lessor in situations where the Company owns land or building and leases a portion or all of the property or equipment to a tenant. In both situations, leases are reported in accordance with ASC 842 - Leases. As a lessee, the Company recognizes a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and a lease liability for the obligation to make lease payments. Both the right-of-use asset and lease liability are initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, with subsequent measurement dependent on the classification of the lease as either a finance or an operating lease. For leases with a term of twelve months or less, we have elected to not recognize lease assets and lease liabilities and will recognize lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company records operating lease liabilities in other accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities and records finance lease liabilities within current maturities of long-term debt and finance lease obligations and long-term debt and finance lease obligations on the consolidated balance sheets. All lessor related activity is considered immaterial to the consolidated financial statements.
New leases are recognized at the present value of the lease payments using the implicit rate in the lease agreement when it is readily determinable. In the case the implicit rate is not readily determinable, the Company uses our incremental borrowing rate of debt based on the term of the lease. The Company commonly has options to renew or extend the current lease arrangement on many of our leases. In these situations, if it is reasonably certain the lease would be extended, we have included those extensions within the remaining lease payments at the time of measurement.
When acquiring leases in a business combination, we retain the lease classification utilized by the seller if it was determined using acceptable methods under ASC 842. As part of the allocation of the purchase price in a business combination, lease terms are compared to market terms utilizing an income approach to determine if leases are favorable or unfavorable. Any favorable or unfavorable leasehold interests identified increase (favorable) or reduce (unfavorable) the right-of-use lease asset and are recognized over the life of the related right-of-use asset.
Lease right-of-use assets outstanding as of April 30, 2024 and 2023 consisted of the following: