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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

Commission file number: 001-34774

Cboe Global Markets, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware

20-5446972

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification Number)

433 West Van Buren Street

Chicago, Illinois

60607

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code

(312) 786-5600

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

   Trading Symbol (s) 

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

CBOE

CboeBZX

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive ocers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the Registrant's outstanding voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $14.2 billion based on the closing price of $138.01 per share of common stock.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of February 9, 2024 was 105,581,561 shares of common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of Cboe Global Market’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed no later than 120 days after December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference in Part III.

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CBOE GLOBAL MARKETS, INC.

2023 FORM 10-K

PART I

Item 1.

Business

8

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

35

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

60

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

60

Item 2.

Properties

62

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

63

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

63

PART II 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

64

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

N/A

Item 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

67

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

100

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

106

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

164

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

164

Item 9B.

Other Information

164

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

164

PART III 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

165

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

165

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

165

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

165

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

165

PART IV 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

166

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

173

2

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Throughout this document, unless otherwise specified or the context so requires:

“Cboe,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “the Company” refers to Cboe Global Markets, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
“ADV” means average daily volume.
“ADNV” means average daily notional value.
“AFM” refers to the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets.
“ATS” refers to an alternative trading system.
“Bats Global Markets” and “Bats” refer to our wholly-owned subsidiary Bats Global Markets, Inc., now known as Cboe Bats, LLC, and its subsidiaries.
“BIDS Trading” refers to BIDS Trading, L.P., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc. The ATS operated by BIDS Trading is not a registered national securities exchange or a facility thereof.
“BYX” refers to Cboe BYX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“BZX” refers to Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“C2” refers to Cboe C2 Exchange, Inc. a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Asia Pacific” refers to Cboe Asia Pacific Holdings Limited (formerly known as Chi-X Asia Pacific Holdings Limited), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Australia” refers to Cboe Australia Pty Ltd. (formerly known as Chi-X Australia Pty. Ltd.), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Canada” refers to the former Aequitas Innovations, Inc. and Neo Exchange Inc. (commonly referred to as “NEO Exchange”), which were wholly-owned subsidiaries of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Canada Inc.” is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc. and a recognized Canadian securities exchange. As of January 1, 2024, the Cboe Canada and MATCHNow entities have been amalgamated into Cboe Canada Inc.
“Cboe Chi-X Europe” refers to Cboe Chi-X Europe Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Clear Digital” refers to Cboe Clear Digital, LLC (formerly known as Eris Clearing, LLC), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Clear Europe” refers to Cboe Clear Europe N.V. (formerly known as European Central Counterparty N.V., formerly defined as “EuroCCP”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Digital” refers to Cboe Digital Intermediate Holdings, LLC (formerly known as Eris Digital Holdings, LLC) and its subsidiaries. Prior to rebranding under the Cboe Digital name, Eris Digital Holdings, LLC and its subsidiaries operated under the “ErisX” name.
“Cboe Europe Equities and Derivatives” refers to the combined businesses of Cboe Europe and Cboe NL.
“Cboe Europe” refers to Cboe Europe Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the UK operator of our Multilateral Trading Facility (“MTF”), our Regulated Market (“RM”), and our Approved Publication Arrangement (“APA”) under its Recognized Investment Exchange (“RIE”) status.
“Cboe Fixed Income” refers to Cboe Fixed Income Markets, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe FX” refers to Cboe FX Markets, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Japan” refers to Cboe Japan Ltd. (formerly known as Chi-X Japan Ltd.), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe NL” refers to Cboe Europe BV, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the Netherlands operator of our MTF, RM, and APA.
“Cboe Options” refers to Cboe Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe SEF” refers to Cboe SEF, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“Cboe Trading” refers to Cboe Trading, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“CFE” refers to Cboe Futures Exchange, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“CFTC” refers to the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
“CSD Br” refers to CSD Central de Serviços de Registro e Depósito aos Mercados Financeiro e de Capitais S.A., a Brazilian trade repository.
“CIRO” refers to the Canadian Investment Regulatory Organization.
“EDGA” refers to Cboe EDGA Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“EDGX” refers to Cboe EDGX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
“ESMA” refers to the European Securities and Markets Authority.
“Exchanges” refers to Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA.

3

“FASB” refers to the Financial Accounting Standards Board.
“FCA” refers to the UK Financial Conduct Authority.
“FINRA” refers to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
“GAAP” refers to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States.
“MATCHNow” refers to the former TriAct Canada Marketplace LP, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., which was the operator of a Canadian ATS (known as “MATCHNow”).
“Merger” refers to our acquisition of Bats Global Markets, completed on February 28, 2017.
“OCC” refers to The Options Clearing Corporation.
“OPRA” refers to Options Price Reporting Authority, LLC.
“SEC” refers to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
“SPX” refers to our S&P 500 Index exchange-traded options products.
“TPH” refers to either a Trading Permit Holder or a Trading Privilege Holder.
“VIX futures” or “VIX options” refers, as applicable, to our Cboe Volatility Index exchange traded options and futures products.

4

TRADEMARK AND OTHER INFORMATION

Cboe®, Cboe Global Markets®, Cboe Clear®, Cboe LIS®, Bats®, BIDS Trading®, BYX®, BZX®, Cboe Volatility Index®, CFE®, EDGA®, EDGX®, ErisX®, EuroCCP®, Hybrid®, LiveVol®, MATCHNow®, NANO®, Options Institute®, Silexx®, VIX®, and XSP® are registered trademarks, and Cboe Futures ExchangeSM, Cboe BIDS EuropeSM, Cboe DigitalSM, C2SM, f(t)optionsSM, HanweckSM, Nanos by CboeSM, The Exchange for the World StageSM, Trade AlertSM, and VIX1DSM are service marks of Cboe Global Markets, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Standard & Poor's®, S&P®, S&P 100®, S&P 500® and SPX® are registered trademarks and DSPXSM is a service mark of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC and have been licensed for use by Cboe Exchange, Inc. Dow Jones®, Dow Jones Industrial Average®, DJIA® and Dow Jones Indices are registered trademarks or service marks of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings, LLC, used under license. Russell® and the Russell index names are registered trademarks of Frank Russell Company, used under license. FTSE® and the FTSE indices are trademarks and service marks of FTSE International Limited, used under license. All other trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.

MSCI and the MSCI index names are service marks of MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”) or its affiliates and have been licensed for use by us. Any derivative indices and any financial products based on the derivative indices (“MCSI-Based Products”) are not sponsored, guaranteed or endorsed by MSCI, its affiliates or any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling such MSCI index. Neither MSCI, its affiliates nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling any MSCI index makes any representations regarding the advisability of investing in such MSCI-Based Products; makes any warranty, express or implied; or bears any liability as to the results to be obtained by any person or any entity from the use of any such MSCI index or any data included therein. No purchaser, seller or holder of any MSCI-Based Product, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any MSCI trade name, trademark or service mark to sponsor, endorse, market or promote any security without first contacting MSCI to determine whether MSCI’s permission is required.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes market share and industry data that we obtained from industry publications and surveys, reports of governmental agencies and internal company surveys. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but we cannot assure you that this information is accurate or complete. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources nor have we ascertained the underlying economic assumptions relied upon therein. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available market data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding industry data presented herein, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors. Please refer to the “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. You can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as "may," "might," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "potential" or "continue," and the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. All statements that reflect our expectations, assumptions or projections about the future other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements, including statements in "Business" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." These forward-looking statements, which are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include projections of our future financial performance based on our growth strategies and anticipated trends in our business. These statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the risks and uncertainties described under "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report and other filings with the SEC.

While we believe we have identified material risks, these risks and uncertainties are not exhaustive. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible to predict all risks and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:

the loss of our right to exclusively list and trade certain index options and futures products;
economic, political and market conditions;
compliance with legal and regulatory obligations;
price competition and consolidation in our industry;
decreases in trading or clearing volumes, market data fees or a shift in the mix of products traded on our exchanges;
legislative or regulatory changes or changes in tax regimes;
our ability to protect our systems and communication networks from security vulnerabilities and breaches;
our ability to attract and retain skilled management and other personnel;
increasing competition by foreign and domestic entities;
our dependence on and exposure to risk from third parties;
global expansion of operations;
factors that impact the quality and integrity of our and other applicable indices;
our ability to manage our growth and strategic acquisitions or alliances effectively;
our ability to operate our business without violating the intellectual property rights of others and the costs associated with protecting our intellectual property rights;
our ability to minimize the risks, including our credit, counterparty, investment, and default risks, associated with operating a European clearinghouse;
our ability to accommodate trading and clearing volume and transaction traffic, including significant increases, without failure or degradation of performance of our systems;
misconduct by those who use our markets or our products or for whom we clear transactions;
challenges to our use of open source software code;
our ability to meet our compliance obligations, including managing potential conflicts between our regulatory responsibilities and our for-profit status;
our ability to maintain BIDS Trading as an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with our registered national securities exchanges;
damage to our reputation;
the ability of our compliance and risk management methods to effectively monitor and manage our risks;
restrictions imposed by our debt obligations and our ability to make payments on or refinance our debt obligations;
our ability to maintain an investment grade credit rating;
impairment of our goodwill, long-lived assets, investments or intangible assets;
the impacts of pandemics;
the accuracy of our estimates and expectations;

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litigation risks and other liabilities; and
operating a digital asset business, and clearinghouse, including the expected benefits of our Cboe Digital acquisition, cybercrime, changes in digital asset regulation, losses due to digital asset custody, and fluctuations in digital asset prices.

For a detailed discussion of these and other factors that might affect our performance, see Part I, Item 1A of this Report. We do not undertake, and expressly disclaim, any duty to update any forward-looking statement whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. We caution you not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this filing.

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PART I

Item 1.    Business

The following description of the business should be read in conjunction with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. This description contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements due to the factors set forth in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the world's leading derivatives and securities exchange network, delivers cutting-edge trading, clearing and investment solutions to people around the world. Cboe provides trading solutions and products in multiple asset classes, including equities, derivatives, FX, and digital assets, across North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific. Above all, the Company is committed to building a trusted, inclusive global marketplace that enables people to pursue a sustainable financial future.

Cboe’s subsidiaries include the largest options exchange and the third largest stock exchange operator in the U.S. In addition, the Company operates Cboe Europe, one of the largest stock exchanges by value traded in Europe, and owns Cboe Clear Europe, a leading pan-European equities and derivatives clearinghouse, BIDS Holdings, which owns a leading block-trading ATS by volume in the U.S., and provides block-trading services with Cboe market operators in Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, Cboe Australia, an operator of trading venues in Australia, Cboe Japan, an operator of trading venues in Japan, Cboe Digital, an operator of a U.S. based digital asset spot market and a regulated futures exchange, Cboe Clear Digital, an operator of a regulated clearinghouse, and Cboe Canada Inc., a recognized Canadian securities exchange. Cboe subsidiaries also serve collectively as a leading market globally for exchange-traded products (“ETPs”) listings and trading.

The graphic below provides a brief overview of Cboe’s history:

Graphic

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Our Business

Cboe reports on the following six business segments:

Options. The Options segment includes options on market indices (“index options”), as well as on the stocks of individual corporations (“equity options”) and on ETPs such as exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), which are “multi-listed” options and listed on a non-exclusive basis. These options are eligible to trade, as applicable, on Cboe Options, C2, BZX, EDGX, and/or other U.S. national security exchanges. Cboe Options is the Company’s primary options market and offers trading in listed options through a single system that integrates electronic trading and traditional open outcry trading on the Cboe Options trading floor in Chicago. C2 Options, BZX Options, and EDGX Options are all-electronic options exchanges, and typically operate with different market models and fee structures than Cboe Options. The Options segment also includes applicable market data fees revenues generated from the consolidated tape plans, the licensing of proprietary options market data, index licensing, routing services, and access and capacity services.
North American Equities. The North American Equities segment includes U.S. equities and ETP transaction services that occur on fully electronic exchanges owned and operated by BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, equities transactions that occur on the BIDS Trading platform in the U.S. and Canada, and Canadian equities and other transaction services that occur on or through Cboe Canada Inc.’s order books. The North American Equities segment also includes listing services on Cboe Canada Inc., corporate and ETP listings on BZX, applicable market data fees revenues generated from the consolidated tape plans, the licensing of proprietary equities market data, routing services, and access and capacity services.
Europe and Asia Pacific. The Europe and Asia Pacific segment includes the pan-European listed equities and derivatives transaction services, ETPs, exchange-traded commodities, and international depository receipts that are hosted on MTFs operated by Cboe Europe Equities (Cboe Europe and Cboe NL equities exchanges) and Cboe Europe Derivatives (“CEDX”). It also includes the ETP listings business on RMs and clearing activities of Cboe Clear Europe, as well as the equities transaction services of Cboe Australia and Cboe Japan, operators of trading venues in Australia and Japan, respectively, along with equities transactions that occur on the BIDS Trading platform in Australia and Japan. Cboe Europe operates lit and dark books, a periodic auctions book, and Cboe BIDS Europe, a Large-in-Scale (“LIS”) trading negotiation facility for UK symbols. Cboe NL, launched in October 2019 and based in Amsterdam, operates similar business functionality to that offered by Cboe Europe, and provides for trading only in European Economic Area (“EEA”) symbols. Cboe Europe Derivatives, a pan-European derivatives platform launched in September 2021, offers futures and options based on Cboe Europe equity indices, and single stock options. This segment also includes Cboe Europe, Cboe NL, CEDX, Cboe Australia and Cboe Japan revenue generated from the licensing of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services.
Futures. The Futures segment includes transaction services provided by CFE, a fully electronic futures exchange, which includes offerings for trading of VIX futures and other futures products, the licensing of proprietary market data, as well as access and capacity services.
Global FX. The Global FX segment includes institutional FX trading services that occur on the Cboe FX fully electronic trading platform, non-deliverable forward FX transactions (“NDFs”) offered for execution on Cboe SEF, as well as revenue generated from the licensing of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services. The segment includes transaction services for U.S. government securities executed on the Cboe Fixed Income fully electronic trading platform.
Digital. The Digital segment includes a U.S. based digital asset spot market, a regulated futures exchange, and a regulated clearinghouse, as well as revenue generated from the licensing of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services.

See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 16 (“Segment Reporting”) in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for discussion of revenues and certain operational and financial metrics, and operating income (or loss) by business segment. Certain activities within our segments operate globally. For information regarding risks related to our international operations see “Risk Factors.”

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Executive Transitions

On July 6, 2023, Brian Schell, former Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, announced his departure from the Company to pursue a new professional opportunity outside of the exchange industry. Jill Griebenow, Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, was appointed to serve as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Chief Accounting Officer effective July 10, 2023, and currently serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer.

On September 18, 2023 (the “Effective Date”), Edward T. Tilly, former Chief Executive Officer of the Company, resigned and voluntarily terminated his employment with the Company. Mr. Tilly also resigned as Chairman of the Company’s Board of Directors, effective as of the Effective Date. Mr. Tilly’s resignation followed the conclusion of an investigation led by the Board of Directors and outside independent counsel that was launched in late August 2023. The Board of Directors determined that Mr. Tilly did not disclose personal relationships with colleagues, which violated the Company’s policies and stands in stark contrast to the Company’s values. The conduct was not related to and does not impact the Company’s strategy, financial performance, technology and market operations, financial reporting or internal controls over financial reporting. Following Mr. Tilly’s resignation, Fredric J. Tomczyk, an existing director of the Company, was appointed as Chief Executive Officer of the Company, effective as of the Effective Date. As a result of Mr. Tomczyk’s appointment as Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Tomczyk stepped down from the Board of Directors’ Compensation Committee and Finance and Strategy Committee as of the Effective Date. Also as of the Effective Date, William M. Farrow III was appointed as non-executive Chairman of the Board of Directors (in substitution of his prior role as Lead Director of the Board of Directors).

Competitive Strengths

Cboe is a leading provider of market infrastructure and tradable products across cash and spot markets, derivatives markets, and data and access solutions. Cboe delivers cutting-edge trading, clearing and investment solutions across the globe through a comprehensive ecosystem that helps drive innovation and growth.

Graphic

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Key Growth Strategy Initiatives

Our strategy is to build one of the world’s largest global derivatives and securities networks to create value and drive growth by:

Innovating to capture growing demand for trading products and data services, globally. We plan to increase access to data products and trading solutions, provide unrivaled transaction capabilities, and have a global presence in the highest value markets. In 2023, we delivered on this initiative by expanding the use of zero days to expiry (0-DTE) products, expanding Cboe Global Indices to Europe, launching the 1-Day Volatility Index (VIX1D), designed to measure volatility over the current trading day, launching the Cboe S&P 500 Dispersion Index (DSPX), a volatility index designed to measure expected dispersion in the S&P 500 Index, launching new options on futures on two corporate bond index products, and launching four new Credit VIX Indices, designed to provide a VIX Index-like measures for credit market volatility.
Unlocking the value capabilities of our ecosystems to increase efficiency and better serve customers. We aim to unlock the value, capabilities, and efficiencies of our ecosystems to increase efficiency and utilize our client coordination model to better serve our customers. We leverage industry-leading technology, apply a non-siloed integration approach to expand ecosystems and fuel our flywheel and generate strong free cash flow as we improve operating efficiency. In 2023, we delivered on this initiative by completing the migration of Cboe Australia and Cboe Japan to the Cboe technology platform, launching BIDS in Australia and Japan, successfully integrating Cboe Canada (which was the trade name of the former Aequitas Innovations Inc. and Neo Exchange Inc.) and the MATCHNow ATS into Cboe Canada Inc., a recognized Canadian securities exchange, and launching the Cboe Theoretical Options Pricing Service.
Growing by accessing untapped addressable markets. We are expanding and diversifying our revenue opportunity set through organic investment and merger and acquisition activity. In 2023, we delivered on this initiative by expanding into pan-European single stock options and completing phase 1 of our initiative to offer options on leading European companies, adding extended trading hours for corporate bond index futures, developing plans to introduce a clearing service for securities financing transactions through Cboe Clear Europe, announcing and then launching in January 2024 margined futures on Bitcoin and Ether, Cboe FX successfully trading U.S. Treasury products, and launching Cboe Global Listings, the first-of-its-kind, global listing network facilitating worldwide access to capital and secondary liquidity for companies and ETFs, and successfully attracting its first intralisted corporate issuer to the global platform.

Proprietary Products

In addition to operating cash and spot markets and derivative markets, and providing data and access solutions, we are a leader in the volatility space with the proprietary products we offer for trading. These proprietary products are built through Cboe Labs, a dedicated team centered on the creation, development, and implementation of new ideas and our strategic relationships and license agreements with index providers, which are both described below in further detail. Our most frequently traded proprietary products include SPX options and VIX options and futures.

SPX Options

The S&P 500 Index is an index comprised of 500 large-cap U.S. listed companies. It is one of the most commonly followed indices and is considered a bellwether for the U.S. economy. The SPX options we offer on the S&P 500 Index are exclusive to Cboe and contribute substantially to our volumes and transaction fees. Because of the S&P 500 Index’s status as a bellwether, SPX options are used in many different trading strategies by customers with different goals, including pension funds hedging their equity exposure by buying put options, asset managers seeking enhanced returns by selling covered call options and hedge funds using risk-managed strategies to capture so-called “risk premia” embedded in option prices. We also offer zero days to expiry (0-DTE) products, Mini- and Nano-SPX options, FLEX- and FLEX micro-SPX options, and SPX Weeklys options, which have settlements on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays and on the last trading day of each month and 24x5 trading in SPX options. We believe these additional expirations provide customers with more precision when hedging overall portfolio risk.

Volatility Trading

Cboe pioneered the trading of exchange-traded volatility products with its introduction of VIX futures in 2004 and VIX options in 2006. The VIX Index (as defined below), although not directly tradable, is based on the mid-point of real-time

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quotes of SPX options and is designed to reflect investors’ consensus view of future 30-day expected stock market volatility. The VIX Index methodology provides the basis for the creation of VIX options and futures. The final settlement value of VIX options and futures is determined on their expiration date through a Special Opening Quotation (“SOQ”) of the VIX Index. The SOQ calculation uses opening trade prices of selected options; unless there is no opening price, in which case the opening price used in the SOQ calculation is the midpoint of the highest bid and lowest offer at the time of the opening. Since we started offering these products, we have seen trading from a number of different customer segments utilizing a number of different trading strategies, including hedging extreme stock market declines, also known as “tail risk” hedging, and risk-managed strategies that seek to capture the relative price changes of expected volatility at different times in the future. We also offer the 1-Day Volatility Index (VIX1D), VIX Weeklys options and futures, mini VIX futures, and 24x5 trading in VIX options and futures to provide investors with additional tools to trade volatility.

Proprietary Indices

We also calculate and disseminate proprietary indices that are licensed for use by third parties or are used as the basis for Cboe proprietary products. These proprietary indices are built both through our in-house research and development staff of the Data and Access Solutions business and our strategic relationships and license agreements with index providers, which are both described below in further detail. Our proprietary indices include:

volatility indices based on broad-based market indices, such as the S&P 500 and the Russell 2000,
volatility indices based on ETFs, and
options strategy benchmark indices, such as the Cboe BuyWrite, PutWrite and Collar indices based on the S&P 500 and Russell 2000, BuyWrite and PutWrite indices based on MSCI EAFE and MSCI Emerging Markets indices, and BuyWrite indices based on other broad-based market indices.

In addition to any transaction fee revenue generated from trading of products based on these indices on Cboe exchanges, we distribute these indices through the Cboe Global Index Feed index data subscription service and, together with index providers with whom we have strategic relationships, we license proprietary indices for third parties to use to create third-party indices and products. Accordingly, we generate revenue from proprietary indices by distributing them for reference purposes, using them as the basis for proprietary products and licensing them for use for third-party indices and products.

Strategic Index Provider Relationships

The Company has long-term business relationships with several providers of market indices. We license their indices, including on an exclusive basis, as the foundation for indices, index options and other products. The Company also agrees to work jointly with key providers to develop new products and services that are expected to capitalize on our core competencies and diversify our sources of revenue. Of particular note are the following:

S&P Global. We have the following licensing arrangements with S&P Global, Inc. subsidiaries:
oS&P Dow Jones Indices. We have the exclusive right to offer exchange-listed options contracts in the United States on the S&P 500 Index, the S&P 100 Index, the S&P 500 ESG Index, and the S&P Select Sector Indices as a result of a licensing arrangement with S&P Dow Jones Indices, LLC (“S&P”). Our license from S&P is through December 31, 2033, with an exclusive license to trade options on the S&P 500 Index through December 31, 2032. We use the market data from the trading of options on the S&P 500 Index and S&P 100 Index for the creation of Cboe volatility indices, such as the Cboe Volatility Index (“VIX Index”), and to create tradable products on those volatility indices.
oIHS Markit. Under our licensing agreement with IHS Markit Ltd. (acquired by S&P Global in 2022), we have a worldwide license through August 23, 2025 to offer options and futures on indices designed to reflect values of investment grade and high-yield U.S. corporate bonds. Unless either party elects otherwise, this agreement auto-renews for successive two-year periods. We offer futures and options on futures on high yield and investment grade corporate bond indices.
oDJI Opco. We have the exclusive right during standard U.S. trading hours to offer listed options contracts in the United States on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (“DJIA”) and Dow 10 Index, and

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non-exclusive rights to offer listed options on several other Dow Jones indices including the Dow Jones Utilities Average and Dow Jones Transportation Average. This licensing arrangement with DJI Opco, LLC (acquired by S&P in 2012) extends through December 31, 2033. We use market data from the trading of options on these indices to create Cboe volatility indices, variance indicators and BuyWrite indices, and we trade options and other products on these indices.
FTSE Russell. Under our license agreement with the London Stock Exchange Group’s (“LSEG”) leading global index franchises, Frank Russell Company and FTSE International Limited (together “FTSE Russell”), we have the exclusive or first right in the United States to offer listed options on more than two dozen FTSE Russell indices, which represent a diverse group of domestic and global equities with international appeal. Our exclusive license from FTSE Russell is through April 1, 2030. We offer options on the Russell 2000, Russell 1000, Russell 1000 Value and Russell 1000 Growth indices and mini-options on the Russell 2000 Index.
MSCI. We have an agreement with MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”) until December 31, 2031 in which we have the right to offer U.S.-listed options on several of MSCI’s indices including the MSCI EAFE and MSCI Emerging Markets indices. We use market data from the trading of the MSCI EAFE and MSCI Emerging Markets index options (among other inputs) to calculate volatility indices and several versions of BuyWrite and PutWrite strategy indices.

Data and Access Solutions

The Data and Access Solutions business provides an offering of market data and information solutions products across multiple asset classes and geographic regions that are designed to suit our customers’ diverse needs. The Data and Access Solutions business consists of three product groups:

Market Data and Access Services. Data products include real-time depth of book quotation information, auction and complex option information, top of book quotes and trades, last sale information, and consolidated equity feeds. In addition to market data, access services include all access and capacity products including connectivity, terminal and other equipment rights, maintenance services, trading floor space and permits for the opportunity to trade.
Cboe Global Indices. Services include index creation, calculation, licensing, and data dissemination. In addition to index data dissemination, through Cboe’s Global Indices platform, we distribute real-time cryptocurrency prices and indicative net asset values. See above for additional information regarding our proprietary indices.
Risk and Market Analytics. Services include analytics and historical data with three areas of focus:
oData and Market Analytics. Services include aggregated equity and derivative market statistics, theoretical values, trading indicators, portfolio and margin risk, scenarios, and historical data from Cboe’s markets as well as third-party consolidated data.
oFront-End Platforms. Cboe provides multiple trading solutions and services including Cboe Silexx, LiveVol Pro, FT Options and Trade Alert.
oConnectivity. Services include FIX Order Routing, Trade Drop Copy Network, consolidated audit trail (“CAT”) reporting, and broker connectivity.

We provide data services to market participants globally through a number of distribution channels including direct, via our vendor partners and Cboe Global Cloud, which is our global cloud data distribution service.

U.S. Tape Plans

We also derive a portion of our revenue from market data fees from U.S. tape plans, including Unlisted Trading Privileges (“UTPs”), the Consolidated Tape Association (“CTA”) and OPRA. Fees, net of plan costs, from UTP, CTA, and OPRA are allocated and distributed to plan participants like us according to their share of tape fees based on a formula, required by Regulation NMS, which may take into account both trading and quoting activity.

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Our Market Models

We operate a variety of derivatives and cash and spot markets. Our markets use a combination of pricing and market models to differentiate them from each other and from our competitors.

For our U.S. derivatives options markets, Cboe Options is a hybrid market combining open outcry floor trading with electronic trading. For multi-listed products, we utilize public customer priority, market turner in certain products, participation rights and pro-rata allocation market models, combined with the “classic” pricing model. Under the classic pricing model, professional participants pay transaction fees, public customers generally do not pay transaction fees and market makers compensate brokers for sending order flow to the exchange (known as payment for order flow). For proprietary products, we use price-time or pro-rata allocation, sometimes with public customer priority, and market turner market models, combined with a pricing model where all market participants generally pay fees. Our other three options markets are fully electronic. BZX options utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a “maker-taker” pricing model. Under the maker-taker pricing model, market participants who make the market (a “maker”) generally receive a rebate, while market participants who trade against those markets (a “taker”) pay a transaction fee. EDGX options utilizes customer priority, participation rights and pro-rata allocation market models, combined with the classic pricing model. C2 options utilizes a pro-rata allocation market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model.

For CFE’s U.S. derivatives futures market, which is fully electronic, CFE utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a pricing model where all market participants generally pay fees, subject to specified exceptions.

For our U.S. cash and spot markets, the U.S. equities exchanges, which are fully electronic, offer various market models. BZX equities utilizes a price-time market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model. EDGX equities utilizes a price-time with retail priority market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model. BYX equities utilizes a price-time with price improvement for retail customers market model, combined with the “taker-maker” pricing model. Under the taker-maker pricing model, market participants who make the market pay a transaction fee, while market participants who trade against those markets receive a rebate. EDGA equities utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a taker-maker pricing model. In addition to these market models, each of the U.S. equity exchanges provides numerous specific order types that are designed to enhance their respective market models.

For our cash and spot markets, BIDS Trading, the U.S. equities ATS market, which is fully electronic and is an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with the Exchanges, utilizes a sponsored access model to provide anonymous executions in NMS stocks. BIDS Trading provides numerous order types, including both firm and conditional orders. All orders matched within BIDS Trading are executed at or better than the National Best Bid and Offer (“NBBO”). BIDS Trading charges fees based on disclosed, objective criteria: (i) means of access; (ii) the type of order; and (iii) the total volume of executions during the calendar month. Cboe and BIDS Trading collaborate in operating similar venues with our cash and spot markets in Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan.

In Canada, for our cash and spot markets, Cboe Canada Inc., a recognized Canadian securities exchange, which is fully electronic, offers four order books: NEO-L, which provides resting orders with priority over high-frequency orders and combines a maker-taker pricing model with a NEO trader priority; NEO-N, which prioritizes larger resting orders over smaller orders, imposes a speed bump, and displays volume aggregate by price, with a taker-maker pricing model; NEO-D, which allows participants to submit marketable and resting orders with specified parameters and NEO trader priority with size-time priority, with a taker-maker pricing model; and MATCHNow, which combines frequent call matches and continuous execution opportunities in a confidential trading book, using real-time quotes for protected transparent Canadian markets, accepting both firm and conditional orders, and matching firm orders at three levels of price improvement. Trading fees are typically calculated as a function of trade volume and share price.

In Europe, we operate a number of market models, including continuous Lit orderbooks, periodic auction orderbooks, dark midpoint orderbooks, a post-closing cross, as well as BIDS Europe. Fees are typically charged on an ad valorem basis based on traded notional value, and are differentiated by orderbook, by order type, by monthly value traded, and in the case of Lit orderbooks by liquidity providing/taking orders where (on a subset of orderbooks) a rebate may be paid to the provider of passive liquidity. Following the implementation of the Directive on Markets in Financial Instruments (Directive 2014/65/EU) (“MiFID II”), for the derivatives and cash and spot markets, rebates are generally available if they are tied to a market making scheme or specific service.

In Australia, for our derivatives and cash and spot markets, Cboe Australia, a regulated stock exchange, which is fully electronic, utilizes a model that charges a different ad valorem fee rate depending on whether a participant is making or

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taking liquidity. Fee waivers are also provided to participants registered as market makers, but payments for order flow are prohibited.

In Japan, for our cash and spot markets, Cboe Japan, offers two fully electronic displayed markets, Cboe-Alpha, which utilizes a price-time market model, combined with the “maker-taker” pricing model and Cboe-Select, which utilizes a price-time retail customers focused market model, combined with the “taker-maker” pricing model. Cboe Japan also offers two fully electronic non-displayed markets, Cboe-Match, which matches volume-weighted average price (“VWAP”) orders during pre-market hours and Cboe BIDS Japan, which utilizes a price-time market model aiming for primary market mid-point trades.

For our FX spot markets, the Cboe FX platform utilizes a price-firmness-time priority market model, combined with a pricing model where users are charged either a flat or tiered commission rate based upon the notional amount traded on the platform. For our FX NDF markets, Cboe SEF utilizes a price-firmness-time priority market model and charge a flat commission based upon the notional amount traded on the platform and the capacity in which a participant is trading. Cboe Digital, which is fully electronic, for our digital asset spot and futures markets, utilizes a price-time priority model.

Our markets also charge fees for the opportunity to trade or access our markets, including fees for trading-related functionality. To facilitate trading, we also charge fees for certain technology services, terminal and other equipment rights, maintenance services, trading floor space and telecommunications services.

Listing

Cboe operates five listing venues across the globe that are structured and designed, in the U.S. and Canada, for all types of equity instruments, such as ETPs, corporate securities, warrants and depositary receipts, while in the UK and EU they support ETPs only. In Australia, both ETPs and warrants are supported. Over the course of 2023, Cboe added approximately 800 listings across the globe and had approximately 2,080 listings for the year ended December 31, 2023. Cboe also launched Cboe Global Listings in June of 2023, the first-of-its-kind, global listing network facilitating worldwide access to capital and secondary liquidity for companies and ETFs, and successfully attracted its first intralisted corporate issuer to the global platform.

Clearing

Our subsidiary Cboe Clear Europe, a European central counterparty (“CCP”), provides post-trade clearing services, to stock exchanges, multilateral trading facilities and for over-the-counter equities trades and exchange-traded derivatives trades. Cboe Clear Europe acts as a central counterparty that, for its clearing participants, becomes the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer. As a result, it guarantees the timely performance of the settlement obligations of buyers and sellers and takes on the risk of the performance of the transactions that it clears. Additionally, as a Financial Market Infrastructure, Cboe Clear Europe is subject to strict business continuity requirements and regulatory oversight. In 2023, Cboe Clear Europe provided CCP protection for an average of €44 billion of cleared value on a daily basis. Through the process of netting, in 2023, Cboe Clear Europe eliminated 71%, or €31 billion of the average daily cleared value, leaving an average daily settlement value of €13 billion. In 2022, Cboe Clear Europe provided CCP protection for an average of €48 billion of cleared value on a daily basis. Through the process of netting, in 2022, Cboe Clear Europe eliminated 71%, or €34 billion of the average daily cleared value, leaving an average daily settlement value of €14 billion.

Cboe Clear Digital is a digital asset clearinghouse and central counterparty that provides clearing and settlement of digital asset trades for its affiliate, Cboe Digital Exchange. Cboe Clear Digital clears cryptocurrencies from 50 U.S. jurisdictions authorized by license or not subject to licensing. In 2023, Cboe Clear Digital cleared $18 billion in notional volume. In 2022, for the period subsequent to the acquisition, Cboe Clear Digital cleared $4 billion in notional volume.

Customers

Our customers generally include financial institutions, trading platforms, institutional and individual investors, and professional traders. Our equities and options customers in the United States include trading permit holders and members (as applicable) of Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, which are SEC-registered broker-dealers, and the customers of those broker-dealers. Our Canadian equities customers include members of Cboe Canada Inc., which are Canadian registered investment dealers. Our Australian customers include trading participants of Cboe Australia, which are Australian registered investment dealers, and certain clients of those dealers. Our Japanese customers include participants of Cboe-Alpha, Cboe-Select, Cboe-Match and Cboe BIDS Japan, which are Japanese registered broker-dealers, and certain clients of those dealers. Our ATS equities participants in the United States include subscribers of

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BIDS Trading, which are SEC-registered broker-dealers, and certain customers of those broker-dealers. Our futures customers include banks, futures commission merchants and their customers, hedge funds, asset managers, proprietary trading firms, and Commodity Trading Advisors. Similarly, our equities’ customers in Europe are European Union (“EU”) regulated brokerage and proprietary trading firms, as well as sponsored access clients of these brokerage firms and certain non-EU regulated and unregulated direct access participants. Cboe Clear Europe clears equities, equity like instruments traded on 47 European trading segments. Cboe Clear Europe also clears equity derivative instruments traded on Cboe NL. Cboe Clear Europe clearing participants include EEA regulated banks and brokerage trading firms. Our institutional global FX customers include banks, broker-dealers, hedge funds, asset managers, proprietary trading firms, Commodity Trading Advisors, and corporates. Our digital asset customers in the U.S. include SEC-registered broker-dealers, the customers of those broker-dealers, financial institutions, trading platforms, institutional and individual investors, futures commission merchants, introducing brokers, and professional traders. Access to our markets and trading rights and privileges depend upon the nature of the customer, such as whether the individual or firm is (or is eligible to become) a trading permit holder, trading privilege holder, member, participant, or subscriber of one of our markets.

Competition

The industry in which we operate is intensely competitive. We believe we face competition on a number of factors, including:

price, quality and speed of our trade and clearing execution;
functionality and ease of use of our trading and clearing platforms;
reliability, integrity, range and functionality of our products and services;
integrity of our marketplaces;
technological innovation and adaption;
our brand awareness; and
our reputation.

We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors through a variety of methods, including:

offering access to a broad array of products and services, including proprietary products and market data;
offering fee schedules and pricing models that both attract order flow and provide incentives to liquidity providers;
providing advanced technology that offers broad functionality, low latency, fast execution, ease of use, scalability, reliability and security;
offering efficient, transparent and liquid marketplaces;
offering deep and liquid markets with opportunities for price improvement;
offering broad trading platform access in the EU;
offering efficient and transparent clearing services designed to help maximize netting opportunities;
maintaining close relationships with customers; and
providing customers with a comprehensive source of information on options and ETPs as well as extensive options education.

In our proprietary products, we compete against other futures exchanges and swap execution facilities that offer similar products, as well as against financial market participants that offer similar over-the-counter derivatives. We also compete against certain multi-listed options products, such as SPY options and cash settled index options, which may offer similar market exposure of our proprietary products, such as SPX options.

The multi-listed options industry is extremely competitive. We expect this trend to continue. As of December 31, 2023, our four options exchanges compete with 13 other U.S. options exchanges, in large part due to existing exchange holding companies opening new exchanges that offer different markets and pricing models on existing technology. Most of the equity and ETP options listed and traded on our exchanges are also listed and traded on the other exchanges. In addition, the options exchanges that we compete with set fees and rebates to attract multi-listed options business to their exchanges, which has historically reduced the net revenue per contract that we generate from multi-listed options, and the options exchanges that we compete with structure their options businesses in partnership with established market participants, such as consolidators, and other order flow providers, to increase their volume traded.

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Our U.S. equities and the BIDS Trading ATS compete against 12 other equities exchanges as of December 31, 2023, and over 25 other ATSs and single dealer platforms. Market participants have multiple venues for the execution of orders, including national securities exchanges and numerous off-exchange venues, including other ATSs and broker-dealers that internalize orders off-exchange. Additionally, corporate and ETP issuers have multiple venues they can choose from in the listing of their products. In Canada, our recognized Canadian securities exchange, Cboe Canada Inc., competes with several Canadian exchanges and ATSs. In Australia, our exchange, Cboe Australia, competes with other Australian exchanges and ATSs. In Japan, our equities exchanges and ATSs, compete with several Japanese exchanges and other ATSs.

The market for execution and clearing services in Europe became more competitive following the introduction of MiFID II and the Regulation on Markets in Financial Instruments (Regulation (EU) No 600/2014) (“MiFIR”). Our major competitors in Europe include national stock exchanges, other pan-European MTFs, systematic internalizers, and other European clearinghouses.

The global FX market remains severely fragmented, with transparent automated marketplaces such as Cboe FX challenging a small number of similarly situated competitors. While the global FX market has experienced a shift from competing interbank platforms to ECNs, the electronification of the spot and NDF FX market may encounter resistance from customers that still prefer to utilize the phone, instant chats, terminals and key banking relationships for price discovery and trading. Furthermore, electronification of the FX market appears to be experiencing more resistance outside the U.S. The electronic spot FX market is also intensely competitive, with over 10 other venues competing for market share as of December 31, 2023. Cboe measures and reports on market share against a narrower set of competitors, included in those venues.

Our digital asset spot market, regulated futures exchange, and regulated clearinghouse, compete against other spot trading platforms, futures exchanges, and decentralized trading platforms that offer similar instruments.

In addition, our data and access solutions face competition from other securities exchanges, technology companies, third-party market data providers, and information and software vendors, which have their own substantial market data distribution capabilities that serve as alternative means for receiving open market data feeds instead of connecting directly to our exchanges or trading venues. The sale of our proprietary data products is also under competitive threat from ATSs and trading venues that offer similar products. Distributors and consumers of our market data may also use our market data as an input into a product that competes against one of our traded or cleared products.

Technology

Cboe Trading Technology

The trading platform for our equities, options, and futures markets is developed, owned, and operated in-house and is designed to optimize reliability, speed, scalability, and versatility. Our exchanges provide different market models, appealing to different user bases, and the trading technologies support all of them. Further, the technologies are designed to support many specialized features for each of the markets, such as: dark pools, trade reporting facility, systematic internalizer, Large-in-Scale, smart order routing, FLEX options, 24x5 trading, and hybrid trading (combining electronic and open outcry). In addition, Cboe and its applicable subsidiaries operate separate trading and/or clearing platforms, as applicable, for BIDS Trading, certain Cboe Canada Inc. order books, Cboe Digital, Cboe Clear Europe, and Global FX.

Our trading platforms have generally experienced very low operational downtime and low latency. The trading platforms use readily available hardware, thereby minimizing capital outlays required for each new market entry. Also, in order to continue to implement new enhancements to our trading platforms, new releases of software are generally deployed routinely in all of the applicable markets.

Disaster Recovery

We operate and maintain geographically diverse disaster recovery facilities for all of our markets. We expect that the disaster recovery facilities can be up and running in a short period of time and in certain instances we work with our market participants to try to quickly reopen marketplaces. We regularly test our data center recovery plans and periodically carry out weekend tests using our back-up data centers, as well as an annual test with our U.S. trading participants. In Canada, as required by local regulations, Cboe Canada Inc. conducts internal testing of its disaster recovery data processing capabilities at least annually, and it participates in the bi-annual testing coordinated by CIRO. Cboe Australia and Cboe Japan conduct internal testing of their disaster recovery data processing capabilities at least annually. In Europe, we also regularly test our data center recovery plans and periodically carry out weekend tests which

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use our back-up data center, as well as an annual test with our European trading participants. We continue to work to improve both the availability of our technology and our disaster recovery facilities.

Emerging Technologies

We are exploring the potential use of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence (“AI”), machine learning, blockchain, distributed ledger technology, quantum computing, tokenization, the cloud, and other emerging technologies to potentially help drive new products, increase productivity, improve our self-regulatory oversight responsibilities, and increase automation of tasks.

Routing and Clearing

OCC is the sole provider of clearing on all of our U.S. options exchanges and CFE. National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”), a subsidiary of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (“DTC”), is the sole provider of clearing on our U.S. listed equity exchanges. The Canadian Depository for Securities (“CDS”) is the sole provider of clearing on all equities transactions occurring on Cboe Canada Inc. With respect to Australian equities and derivatives, Cboe Australia delivers matched trades of its customers to ASX Clear Pty Ltd and ASX Settlement Pty Ltd. ASX Clear Pty Ltd acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Australia. The Japan Securities Clearing Corporation (“JSCC”) is the sole provider of clearing on all equities transactions occurring on Cboe Japan’s Cboe-Alpha, Cboe-Select, Cboe-Match and Cboe BIDS Japan. BofA Securities, Inc. (“BOA”) is the sole provider of clearing on all equities transactions occurring on BIDS Trading. Cboe Europe Equities relies on LCH Limited and LCH SA (“LCH”), Cboe Clear Europe, and SIX x-clear Ltd (“SIX x-clear”) to clear trades in European listed equity securities and exchange traded products as part of an interoperable clearing model. For derivatives, Cboe NL relies on Cboe Clear Europe to clear both index and single stock derivative contracts. Cboe Clear Digital is the sole provider of clearing and settlement of all digital asset transactions occurring on Cboe Digital Exchange.

Cboe Trading is a routing broker-dealer used by our four U.S. equities exchanges and our four U.S. options exchanges, including the electronic platform portion of Cboe Options. Cboe Trading’s clearing firms are Wedbush Securities, Inc. (“Wedbush”) and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC (“Morgan Stanley”).

Digital Assets and Recent Developments

Cboe Digital is an operator of a U.S. based digital asset spot market, a regulated futures exchange, and a regulated clearinghouse. As described in further detail below, Cboe Digital does not engage in proprietary trading activities and does not maintain a trading entity. Cboe Digital does not itself trade digital assets, does not trade on its own exchange, and does not maintain an affiliate trading entity for purposes of trading, market making, or liquidity provision on its exchange. Cboe Clear Digital maintains its own operating funds in separate bank accounts from its customer funds. Each bank account and digital wallet is appropriately titled in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements thus helping to ensure that customer assets are clearly denoted as such.

Cboe Digital takes several steps to isolate the digital assets held for customers from its own assets and to structure customer accounts in a way that reinforces customer ownership of digital assets. Primarily, Cboe Digital holds customer digital assets separate from its own assets in customer accounts, referred to as wallets, with long-term storage by a third party custody provider and licensed trust company. When Cboe Digital temporarily holds digital asset for customers to enable the inbound receipt and outbound transmittal of virtual currencies, customer digital assets are held in omnibus wallets titled for the benefit of customers of Cboe Digital. Digital assets of customers (but not those of Cboe Digital) are held together in the omnibus wallets, and Cboe Digital maintains the records of the amount and type of digital asset owned by each of its customers in the omnibus wallets. Cboe Digital does not hold its own corporate assets together with the customer digital assets in the omnibus wallets, other than corporate assets that are held in omnibus wallets to facilitate customer transactions relating to the digital assets contained in the omnibus wallet, including in order to pay customary transaction fees and expenses. Because Cboe Digital does not have a trading entity for proprietary or liquidity trading purposes, Cboe Digital maintains its own digital assets only to facilitate customer trading. Cboe Digital does not currently pledge, rehypothecate, or invest customer digital assets, although its customer agreements and rulebook permit it to do so in the future. Additionally, Cboe Digital does not otherwise use customer digital assets for its own corporate or business purposes.

Further, Cboe Digital holds customer digital clearing assets through accounts with third party custodians and, in the case of hot and warm wallets, through self-custody. Cboe Digital’s custody strategy is designed to maximize liquidity and efficient access to assets by making those assets readily available. Cboe Digital monitors its cash and the digital asset balances it maintains with custodians. Digital assets require control of one or more unique public and private keys relating

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to the local or online digital wallet in which the digital assets are held. The networks require one or more private keys relating to a digital wallet to authorize a spending transaction. If private keys are lost or destroyed, this could prevent the ability to transfer the corresponding digital asset. Security breaches, computer malware, and computer hacking attacks have been a prevalent concern in digital asset markets. Cboe Digital has committed to securely store digital assets it holds on behalf of users. As such, Cboe Digital may be liable to its users for losses arising from theft or loss of user private keys. Cboe Digital has no reason to believe it will incur any expense associated with such potential liability because (i) it has no known or historical experience of claims to use as a basis of measurement, (ii) it accounts for and continually verifies the amount of digital assets within its control, and (iii) it has established security around custodial private keys to minimize the risk of theft or loss.

Also, Cboe Digital is exposed to risk with respect to digital asset prices and valuations which are largely based on the supply and demand for those digital assets in financial markets. Cboe Digital’s valuation governance framework includes numerous controls and other procedural safeguards that are intended to maximize the quality of fair value measurements. New products and valuation techniques are reviewed and approved by senior management. Cboe Digital’s valuation process for digital assets are fair value estimates that are also validated by the finance control function independently. Independent price verification is performed by finance control through benchmarking fair value estimates with observable market prices or other independent sources. Reasonably designed controls and governance framework are in place and are intended to help ensure quality third-party pricing sources were used.

Cboe Clear Digital clears cryptocurrencies from 50 U.S. jurisdictions authorized by license or not subject to licensing. Cboe Clear Digital performs a guarantee function whereby Cboe Clear Digital helps to ensure that the obligations of the transactions it clears are fulfilled. Spot trading is either cleared on a fully funded basis or by providing non-material daily trading limits to certain well-qualified institutional clearing members. In order to help mitigate the impact of any potential default by such a clearing member, extension of any trading limits is accompanied by performing credit due diligence, requiring posting of collateral or other forms of financial guarantee and hard pre-trade limits. Cboe Digital does not allow access from unauthorized or impermissible jurisdictions, and has taken active steps to help prevent such access and to help prevent circumvention of our controls. To help ensure an orderly market, Cboe Digital maintains digital assets to support its clearing operations which may be subject to significant changes in value and therefore exposed to market risk with the fluctuation in market prices. Cboe Digital monitors this risk on a daily, weekly and monthly basis. The business model is such that Cboe Digital earns digital assets and at times may accumulate positions that are subject to market risk. Customer positions do have market risk based on daily activity and settlement prices.

While Cboe Digital and its vendors have experienced cybersecurity threats and events of varying degrees, we are not aware of any of these threats or events having a material impact on Cboe Digital’s business, financial condition or operating results to date. However, there can be no assurance that we or our vendors and custodians will not experience future threats or events that may be material. If any such threats or events materialize, we may be subject to contractual restrictions, liability and damages, loss of business, penalties, unfavorable publicity, and increased scrutiny by regulators, which may have an adverse effect on our business.

The bankruptcy of FTX and the bankruptcies of other digital asset platforms has brought increased scrutiny to the digital asset industry. FTX’s bankruptcy and the bankruptcies of other digital asset platforms did not have a direct material effect on Cboe’s overall business or financial condition in 2023.

Cboe Digital launched trading and clearing in margin futures on Bitcoin and Ether on January 11, 2024. With this launch, Cboe Digital became the first U.S. regulated crypto native exchange and clearinghouse to enable both spot and leveraged derivatives trading on a single platform.

See “Risk Factors” for more information regarding Cboe Digital.

Regulatory Environment and Compliance

Various aspects of our business are subject to regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FINRA, the New York Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”), various state regulators, CIRO, the Canadian Securities Administrators (and, in particular, the Ontario Securities Commission or “OSC”), the Australian Securities & Investments Commission (“ASIC”), JFSA, JSDA, ESMA, FCA, the Central Bank of the Netherlands (“DNB”), AFM, Bank of England, and other international regulatory authorities where our exchanges or Cboe Clear Europe may be authorized to act as foreign exchanges or provide clearing services, and market participants may be subject to regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FINRA, National Futures Association (“NFA”), FCA, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, U.S. Department of the Treasury and/or

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foreign regulators. The following is a discussion of the more significant areas of regulation of us by the SEC, the CFTC, and certain European regulators.

Recent Developments

Laws and regulations regarding our business are frequently modified or changed to address perceived problems, new products, or competition or at the request of market participants. The following is a brief discussion of recent regulatory developments that may significantly impact our business.

United States

Equity Market Structure

In December 2022, the SEC released four proposals that could impact equity market structure: (1) Disclosure of Order Execution Information (Rule 605); (2) Regulation NMS Amendments: Tick Size, Access Fees, and Transparency; (3) Regulation Best Execution; and (4) Proposed Rule to Enhance Order Competition. These proposals have been noticed for public comment. If adopted as-is, final implementation of these equity market structure proposals could occur in late 2024 and 2025 and could result in market technology changes and additional compliance costs to Cboe. Further, it is possible that additional proposals or changes to the existing equity market structure, which could have a negative impact on our operations. In addition, bills are sometimes introduced in the U.S. Congress that could also potentially impact equity market structure and adversely impact our volumes and operations. See “Risk Factors” for more information.

Volume Based Pricing Proposal

On October 18, 2023, the SEC released a proposed rule that would impact the way in which volume based discounts are applied (“Volume Based Proposal”). If adopted, this Volume Based Proposal would prohibit national securities exchanges, including Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, from offering volume-based transaction pricing in connection with the execution of agency or riskless principal orders in NMS stocks. Although the new rules do not appear likely to have a near term material impact, the new rules may have a long term material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, there is a reduction of overall volumes, liquidity, or market share on Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA. See “Risk Factors” for more information.

Digital Asset Legislation

Members of U.S. Congress have introduced various bills related to the regulation of digital assets, however no legislation has been passed and the details of any potential legislation remain to be discussed and agreed. While some of these contemplated changes could reduce regulatory uncertainty, increase transparency, and promote investor protection, which could be beneficial for Cboe Digital’s volumes and liquidity, the implementation of certain changes could result in a reduction in overall volumes and liquidity or require additional resources to comply with any new rules included as part of the legislation, which could have a negative impact on our operations. See “Risk Factors” for more information.

Europe

Capital Markets Union

The European Council (“E.C.”) has highlighted one of its top priorities as being the establishment of a fully functioning, well-regulated Capital Markets Union (“CMU”). An Action Plan of concrete steps was set out in September 2015, and an update of the list of initiatives was published in September 2016. In November 2019, the E.C. set up a High Level Forum on CMU, resulting in a final report published in June 2020. On September 24, 2020, the E.C. published a new CMU Action Plan, and on November 25, 2021, published a set of legislative proposals in furtherance of the CMU, including proposals to amend the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (“MiFIR”) described in the EU Transparency Rules section below. This therefore remains an ongoing project for the E.C., which may result in additional regulation or legislation. In November 2021 the EU Commission published an update regarding progress against the CMU Action Plan alongside a number of new legislative proposals designed to contribute to the objectives of CMU.

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These included proposals to:

Create a European Single Access Point (“ESAP”) which will be a common source of public, free information about EU companies and investment products, regardless of where in the EU they are located or originated.
Amend the ELTIF framework to promote long-term investments through European Long-Term Investment Funds (“ELTIFs”).
Make funding more diversified for companies by reviewing the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (“AIFMD”).
Enhance market transparency by reviewing the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (“MiFIR”).
Create a binding, comprehensive information and communication technology risk management framework for the EU financial sector through the Digital Operational Resilience Act (“DORA”).

Many of the above initiatives have been legislated for and are now in the process of being implemented. Further detail on the MiFIR review is provided below.

OTC Derivatives, Central Counterparties and Trade Repositories

Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of July 4, 2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (the “European Market Infrastructure Regulation” or “EMIR”) sets out rules relating to over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives markets, central counterparties and trade repositories. EMIR was enhanced and amended by EMIR REFIT and EMIR 2.2. In December 2022, the EU Commission published a proposal to further amend EMIR with the primary goal of making EU clearing services more attractive to market participants. This proposal is currently going through the usual legislative procedure.

In addition, regulation governing the authorization and supervision of Central Securities Depositories (“CSDR”) was approved in September 2014, with the publication of most “Level 2” Regulatory Technical Standards in March 2017, with implementation in March 2019. Rules in relation to the calculation and collection of cash penalties have come in to force in February 2022. In November 2022, ESMA published a proposal to amend CSDR to simplify the cash penalties process for cleared transactions. This proposal has since been adopted and will come into force in September 2024. Furthermore, CSDR Refit has been adopted and will come into force from the 1st of May 2024 onwards depending on the specific articles.

The Central Counterparty Recovery and Resolution Regulation (“R&R Regulation”) was published in the Official Journal of the EU on January 22, 2021, which resulted in an increase in the amount of prefunded capital Cboe Clear Europe is required to maintain. This additional prefunded capital is required to be drawn before any recovery measures can be taken by the CCP. On July 12, 2021, and November 18, 2021, ESMA proposed a set of level 2 and level 3 guidance pursuant to the R&R Regulation, which have been adopted by the European Commission and, except for one regulation, have been published in the Official Journal of the EU.

EU Transparency Rules

On November 11, 2021, the European Council (“E.C.”) published its proposal for a review of EU market structure legislation, including proposed amendments to Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation (“MiFiR”) and Directive 2014/65/EU on markets in financial instruments (“MiFID II”). The legislative phase of the review is now almost complete. The final text includes, among other provisions, provision for a consolidated tape for the EU and changes to the transparency regime for equities. These provisions are expected to be implemented in 2025. The legislation, as drafted, does not appear likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. However, there are review clauses contained in the legislation which provide a further opportunity to review the effectiveness of the transparency regime, at which point, potential changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. See “Risk Factors” for more information.

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Compliance

U.S. Securities Industry

Federal securities laws have established a two-tiered system for the regulation of securities exchanges and market participants. The first tier consists of the SEC, which has primary responsibility for enforcing federal securities laws. The second tier consists of self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”), which are non-governmental entities that must register with and are regulated by the SEC. The Exchanges are SROs, each registered under Section 6 of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”) as a “national securities exchange,” and are subject to oversight by the SEC.

SROs are an essential component of the regulatory scheme of the Exchange Act for providing fair and orderly markets and protecting investors. To be registered as a national securities exchange, an exchange must successfully undergo an application and review process with the SEC prior to beginning operations. Among other things, the SEC must determine that the SRO has the ability to comply with the Exchange Act and to enforce compliance by its members and persons associated with its members with the provisions of the Exchange Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and the rules of the exchange.

In general, an exchange SRO is responsible for operating its trading platforms consistent with its rules, and regulating its members through the adoption and enforcement of rules governing the business conduct of its members. The rules of the exchange must also assure fair representation of its members in the selection of its directors and administration of its affairs and, among other things, provide that one or more directors be representative of issuers or investors and not be associated with a member of the exchange or with a broker or dealer. Additionally, the rules of the exchange must be adequate to ensure fair dealing and to protect investors and may not impose any burden on competition not necessary or appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of the Exchange Act.

As registered national securities exchanges, virtually all facets of our Exchange operations are subject to the SEC’s oversight, as prescribed by the Exchange Act. The Exchange Act and the rules thereunder impose on us many regulatory and operational responsibilities, including record keeping and the day-to-day responsibilities for market operations and broker-dealer oversight. Furthermore, as SROs, the Exchanges are potentially subject to regulatory or legal action by the SEC or other interested parties. The SEC also has broad enforcement powers to censure, fine, issue cease-and-desist orders, prohibit us from engaging in some of our businesses, suspend or revoke our designation as a registered securities exchange or remove or censure any of our officers or directors who violate applicable laws or regulations. For example, in the past we have entered into consent orders with the SEC, under which our subsidiaries were censured, ordered to cease and desist from violating certain sections of the Exchange Act, paid fines and completed certain undertakings.

As part of its regulatory oversight, the SEC conducts periodic reviews and inspections of exchanges, and the Exchanges have been subject to such routine reviews and inspections. To the extent such reviews and inspections result in regulatory or other changes, we may be required to modify the manner in which we conduct our business, which may adversely affect our business. We collect certain fees to cover Section 31 fees charged to the Exchanges by the SEC and certain fees derived from our regulatory function and fines in connection with our disciplinary proceedings. The Exchanges are responsible for the ultimate payment of Section 31 fees to the SEC. Additionally, under the rules of each of our exchanges, as required by the SEC, any revenue derived from the regulatory fees and fines cannot be used for non-regulatory purposes.

Section 19 of the Exchange Act also provides that we must submit to the SEC proposed changes to any of the Exchanges’ rules, including revisions of their certificates of incorporation, bylaws, or other governing documents of the SROs or their parent companies. The SEC will typically publish the proposal for public comment, following which the SEC may approve or disapprove the proposal, as it deems appropriate. Certain categories of rule changes, like fee changes, can be effective on filing, but the SEC retains the ability to suspend or reject such filings within a prescribed period of time.

Canadian Securities Industry

Cboe Canada Inc. is subject to comprehensive regulation and oversight by its primary provincial securities regulatory authority, the OSC. In addition, Cboe Canada Inc. is a Marketplace Member of, and subject to a regulation services agreement with, CIRO. The regulations applicable to Cboe Canada Inc. cover a wide array of areas, including, but not limited to, marketplace operations (which include corporate governance, fair access, systems compliance and integrity, and conflict management requirements), trading rules, electronic trading risk management, and financial viability.

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Australian Securities Industry

Cboe Australia is subject to comprehensive regulation and oversight by ASIC. The regulations applicable to Cboe Australia cover a wide array of areas, including, but not limited to, marketplace operations (which include corporate governance, fair access, systems compliance and integrity, and conflict management requirements), trading rules, electronic trading risk management, and financial viability.

Japanese Securities Industry

Cboe Japan is subject to comprehensive regulation and oversight by the JFSA and the JSDA. The regulations applicable to Cboe Japan cover a wide array of areas, including, but not limited to, marketplace operations (which include corporate governance, fair access, systems compliance and integrity, and conflict management requirements), trading rules, electronic trading risk management, and financial viability.

Futures and Swaps Industry-CFE and Cboe SEF

The operations of each of CFE and Cboe SEF are subject to regulation by the CFTC under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”). The CEA generally requires that futures trading in the United States be conducted on a designated contract market and, in some cases, requires swaps trading to be conducted on a swap execution facility (“SEF”) or designated contract market (“DCM”). The CEA and CFTC regulations establish criteria for an exchange to be designated as a contract market on which futures and futures options contracts may be traded, and for a trading platform to be designated as a swap execution facility on which certain swaps may be traded. Designation as a contract market or swap execution facility for the trading of specified futures or swaps contracts is non-exclusive. This means that the CFTC may permit additional exchanges or trading platforms to be contract markets or swap execution facilities for trading the same or similar contracts.

CFE is a designated contract market, and Cboe SEF is a swap execution facility, each of which is subject to the oversight of the CFTC and to a variety of ongoing regulatory and reporting responsibilities under the CEA. As a designated contract market, CFE is required to comply with the applicable core principles and regulations under the CEA, as is Cboe SEF as a swap execution facility. Each of CFE and Cboe SEF has surveillance and regulatory operations and procedures to monitor and enforce compliance by trading privilege holders with CFE rules, and by participants with Cboe SEF rules, as applicable. If CFE or Cboe SEF fails to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations, it may be subject to censure, fines, cease-and-desist orders, suspension of its business, removal of personnel or other sanctions, including revocation of CFE’s designation as a contract market or Cboe SEF’s designation as a swap execution facility.

Digital Assets

Cboe Digital Exchange is a designated contract market, and Cboe Clear Digital is a derivatives clearing organization, each of which is subject to the oversight of the CFTC and to a variety of ongoing regulatory and reporting responsibilities under the CEA. As a designated contract market, Cboe Digital Exchange is required to comply with the applicable core principles and regulations under the CEA, as is Cboe Clear Digital as a derivatives clearing organization. Each of Cboe Digital Exchange and Cboe Clear Digital has surveillance and regulatory operations and procedures to monitor and enforce compliance by trading privilege holders with Cboe Digital Exchange rules, and by participants with Cboe Clear Digital rules. If Cboe Digital Exchange or Cboe Clear Digital fails to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations, it may be subject to censure, fines, cease-and-desist orders, suspension of its business, removal of personnel or other sanctions, including revocation of Cboe Digital Exchange’s designation as a contract market or Cboe Clear Digital’s designation as a derivatives clearing organization.

Cboe Clear Digital also maintains a license to operate as a money transmitter in the states where such licenses or equivalent are required to conduct business. In addition, Cboe Clear Digital has a BitLicense from the NYDFS. As a licensed money transmitter and an entity subject to the BitLicense regulatory regime, Cboe Clear Digital is subject to, among other things, the Bank Secrecy Act, restrictions and requirements with respect to the investment of customer funds and use and safeguarding of customer funds and crypto assets, and bonding, net worth, customer notice and disclosure, reporting and recordkeeping requirements applicable to the company and control persons, and inspection and examination by state regulatory agencies.

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Europe

Cboe Europe is located in London and is subject to regulation in the UK and to certain European regulations. The current UK regulatory system was established by the Financial Services Act 2012 (“FSA12”), which amended the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. The legislation replaced the previous financial services regulator, the Financial Services Authority, with three new bodies: The Financial Policy Committee (“FPC”), The Prudential Regulation Authority, and the FCA. Financial conduct of markets, including activity on, and the operation of, markets is regulated by the FCA, which is an independent non-governmental body, given statutory powers by the FSA12. The FCA has three statutory objectives: to secure an appropriate degree of protection for consumers; to protect and enhance the integrity of the UK financial system; and to promote effective competition in the interests of consumers in the markets for financial services. The FCA is accountable to His Majesty’s Treasury Ministers and, through them, to Parliament.

Cboe Clear Europe and Cboe NL are located in Amsterdam and subject to Dutch law and regulation. The current Dutch regulatory system was established by the Act on Financial Supervision. Financial conduct of markets, including activity on, and the operation of, markets is regulated by the AFM. Financial conduct of CCPs, including clearing activity is regulated by the AFM and DNB. The AFM is an independent non-governmental body, given statutory powers by the Act on Financial Supervision. The AFM has three strategic objectives: to promote the fair and conscientious provision of financial services, to promote the fair and efficient operation of the capital markets and to contribute to the stability of the financial system. The AFM is accountable to the Minister of Finance. The DNB is the Dutch central bank, financial sector supervisor and resolution authority. The DNB is committed to a stable financial system: stable prices, solid financial institutions and properly functioning payment transfers. Cboe Clear Europe is recognized as a non-UK CCP in the United Kingdom, which allows it to provide services to UK Clearing Participants and UK trading venues. Cboe Clear Europe is also recognized as a foreign central counterparty in Switzerland, which allows it to provide services to Swiss Clearing Participants and SIX Swiss Exchange AG.

Much of the UK and Dutch financial services regulation originates from the EU. Such regulation includes organizational requirements, capital resources requirements and the specific requirements for RMs and MTFs and are applicable to both Cboe Europe and Cboe NL. MiFID II and MiFIR set out requirements for RMs and MTFs with respect to the establishment of transparent and non-discretionary rules and procedures governing access and for fair and orderly trading and the efficient execution of orders, as well as to facilitate the efficient settlement of transactions conducted on RMs and MTFs and monitoring compliance with the rules. EMIR governs the CCPs operating in the EU and requires them to meet common risk management, governance and capital adequacy standards. The regulatory functions required of Cboe Europe Equities and Derivatives, including Cboe Clear Europe and Cboe NL, by MiFID II, MiFIR, EMIR and other relevant legislation and regulations are performed by in-house staff. Cboe Europe Equities and Derivatives utilizes the same state-of-the-art, real-time surveillance system is used on the U.S. to monitor trading and market activities on BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX. Cboe Clear Europe utilizes proprietary risk management software to monitor settlement and funding flows.

Global FX

While the global institutional spot FX market remains largely unregulated, the enactment of the Dodd Frank Act and its related regulations in the United States and the ongoing implementation of MiFID II and MiFIR in Europe have impacted the regulatory landscape for currency derivative products. For example, certain standardized currency derivative products are required to trade on an organized trading venue such as a SEF or DCM in the United States or on an MTF or organized trading facility in Europe. Moreover, even in the largely unregulated spot FX market, this movement towards additional trading standards and norms is highlighted by the publication of the FX Global Code in 2017 by the Global Foreign Exchange Committee, reflecting principles of good conduct for the wholesale FX market, and whose publication may lead to additional oversight in the global FX market. Cboe FX issued a Statement of Commitment declaring its commitment to conduct its FX market activities in a manner consistent with the principles of the FX Global Code. Following the publication of the FX Global Code regulators are taking a new look at the spot FX market, and any decision to impose new regulations may affect our spot FX business line.

Broker-Dealers

Cboe Trading, BIDS Trading, and Cboe Fixed Income are registered broker-dealers regulated by the SEC, FINRA, other SROs of which they are members and various state securities regulators. Cboe Trading currently operates as a routing broker-dealer for sending orders from the Exchanges to other venues for execution, including routing orders among the Exchanges. Cboe Trading is considered a facility of each of the Exchanges and is subject to the rules of the Exchanges. The Exchanges are responsible for enforcing Cboe Trading’s compliance with their rules, including to ensure

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Cboe Trading is not given preferential treatment. BIDS Trading currently operates an ATS, which is designed to bring counterparties together to anonymously trade large blocks of U.S. equities. BIDS Trading is not a member of any of the U.S. national securities exchanges and is not subject to exchange rules. Cboe Fixed Income, a registered broker-dealer and member of FINRA, operates an electronic trading system for U.S. government securities targeted at the institutional inter-dealer market for trading on-the-run U.S. Treasury bonds and notes in the secondary OTC markets. Cboe Fixed Income’s participants are SEC registered broker-dealers that are members of The Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation’s Fixed Income Clearing Corporation.

Cboe Trading, BIDS Trading, and Cboe Fixed Income are subject to SEC and SRO rules, as applicable, and, as registered broker-dealers, regulations concerning all aspects of their businesses, including trading practices, order handling, best execution, anti-money laundering, handling of material non-public information, safeguarding data, reporting, capital adequacy, record retention, market access and the conduct of their officers, employees and other associated persons. The SEC, SROs and state securities commissions may conduct proceedings which can result in injunctions or other sanctions, censures, fines, the issuance of cease and desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of a broker-dealer, its officers or employees. The SEC and FINRA impose certain minimum capital requirement rules that require notification when a broker-dealer’s net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, dictate the ratio of debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer, constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances and impose certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker-dealer from distributing or withdrawing capital.

In addition, the ATS operated by BIDS Trading is not a registered national securities exchange or a facility thereof, as such, Cboe intends to maintain the BIDS ATS as an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with the Exchanges. The Chief Executive Officer of BIDS Trading is expected to lead BIDS Trading as an independent business within Cboe, reporting into an independent committee of the board of Cboe Global Markets. Further, Cboe Trading will not route orders to BIDS Trading on behalf of the Exchanges.

Cboe Global Markets

Certain aspects of Cboe Global Markets are also subject to SEC, FCA and AFM oversight, including certain ownership and voting restrictions on its stockholders. The focus of the SEC’s regulation of Cboe Global Markets is to assure fair representation of members in the selection of the directors of the Exchanges, public participation in the governance of the Exchanges and that the Exchanges can satisfy their regulatory responsibilities under the Exchange Act. Furthermore, the SEC requires that Cboe Global Markets give due regard to the preservation of the independence of the self-regulatory function of the Exchanges and to Cboe Global Markets’ obligations to investors and the general public. The SEC also requires that Cboe Global Markets not take any actions that would interfere with the effectuation of any decisions by the Board of Directors of any of the Exchanges relating to its regulatory functions or the structure of the market that it regulates or that would interfere with the ability of such Exchange to carry out its responsibilities under the Exchange Act. To the extent that Cboe Global Markets’ business activities involve or relate to the Exchanges, the officers and directors of Cboe Global Markets may be deemed to be officers and directors of the exchanges for purposes of and subject to oversight under the federal securities laws. Accordingly, the SEC may exercise direct supervision and disciplinary authority over certain Cboe Global Markets’ activities and those activities may be subject to SEC approval and, in some cases, public notice and comment.

In addition, Cboe Global Markets indirectly holds all of the issued share capital and voting rights in Cboe Europe and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Cboe Chi-X Europe and Cboe NL. As a result, we and any person who holds, or has voting power with respect to, 10% or more of the outstanding shares of Cboe Global Markets common stock may be subject to certain regulatory requirements under UK and Dutch law.

U.S. Regulatory Responsibilities

Our U.S.-based exchanges are responsible for assessing the compliance of their TPHs or members, including Cboe Trading, with the respective exchange’s rules and the applicable rules of the SEC and/or CFTC. The main activities that the exchanges, as applicable, are required to monitor for the purpose of compliance with these rules include:

surveillance designed to detect violations of exchange trading rules;
surveillance designed to detect violations of SEC and/or CFTC rules;
investigation of matters involving potential rule violations;
the investigation of complaints about possible rule violations brought by customers, TPHs, members or other SROs; and

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the examination of TPHs or members for compliance with rules such as those related to net capital, books and records, market access and other matters related to the TPHs’ or members’ exchange business functions.

In order to ensure market integrity, we regulate and monitor our TPHs’ and members’ trading activities by using both our employees and/or third parties under regulatory services agreements (“RSAs”). See “U.S. Regulatory Agreements” below. Providing effective regulation is important for attracting and retaining the confidence and participation of market-makers, broker-dealers and institutional and retail investors.

We expend considerable time, financial resources and effort to ensure that the exchanges’ rules and regulations conform to regulatory best practices within the securities and futures exchange industries and within the regulatory regime overseen by the SEC and CFTC, our primary U.S. regulators. In order to support our efforts and those of our market participants to comply with applicable law and our exchange rules, we developed a regulatory program to monitor market activity on our exchanges.

All of our Exchanges, CFE, and Cboe Digital Exchange are participants in various cooperative and regulatory information sharing agreements, including in the Intermarket Surveillance Group (“ISG”). ISG is an international information-sharing cooperative governed by a written agreement that provides for a comprehensive surveillance sharing arrangement. In addition to the agreement for confidential information sharing, the ISG provides a framework for the coordination of regulatory efforts among exchanges trading securities, commodity futures and related products to address potential intermarket manipulations and trading abuses.

CFE and Cboe Digital Exchange are also members of the Joint Audit Committee (“JAC”), which is a representative committee of the U.S. futures exchanges and regulatory organizations which participate in a joint audit and financial surveillance program that has been approved and is overseen by the CFTC. The JAC’s primary responsibility is to oversee the implementation and functioning of all terms and conditions of the Joint Audit Agreement and to determine the practices and procedures to be followed by each designated self-regulatory organization in the conduct of regulatory examinations and financial reviews of FCMs.

As part of the regulatory program, each of our Exchanges and CFE have rules pertaining to their respective disciplinary processes.

U.S. Regulatory Agreements

The Exchanges and CFE have entered into agreements under which third parties have agreed to perform regulatory functions on behalf of our markets (e.g., RSAs). As discussed below, in addition, in certain other instances for our Exchanges, a third party has been allocated the regulatory responsibility under Rule 17d-1 or Rule 17d-2 under the Exchange Act, while in others, we retain the regulatory responsibility for the activities.

Regulatory Services Agreement with FINRA

The Exchanges have entered into agreements with FINRA under which FINRA has agreed to provide regulatory services to the Exchanges. Under these agreements, FINRA performs certain regulatory functions on behalf of the Exchanges and, to avoid any potential conflicts of interest concerning the regulation and oversight of Cboe Trading, certain regulatory services specific to Cboe Trading. The Exchanges remain responsible for the regulation of their TPHs, members and marketplaces, and retain the authority for bringing disciplinary actions against their TPHs and members, although FINRA performs certain functions on behalf of the Exchanges. The Exchanges also perform certain regulatory and disciplinary-related functions in-house.

Regulatory Services Agreement with OCC

While CFE also performs most regulatory and disciplinary-related functions in-house, OCC has performed and continues to perform certain regulatory functions on behalf of CFE pursuant to an RSA with CFE. Whether performed under an RSA or in-house, CFE retains overall responsibility for the regulation of its marketplace and for bringing disciplinary actions.

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Rule 17d-1 Designations and Rule 17d-2 Agreements

Section 17(d) of the Exchange Act and the related Exchange Act rules permit SROs to allocate certain regulatory responsibilities to avoid duplicative oversight and regulation. Under Exchange Act Rule 17d-1, the SEC designates one SRO to be the designated examining authority (“DEA”) for each broker-dealer that is a member of more than one SRO. The DEA is responsible for the regulatory oversight of applicable financial responsibility rules pertaining to that broker-dealer. Cboe Options is the DEA for several of its TPHs. Cboe Trading’s assigned DEA is FINRA.

Exchange Act Rule 17d-2 permits SROs to enter into agreements, commonly called Rule 17d-2 agreements, which are approved by the SEC and concern the allocation of regulatory responsibility for rules applicable to TPHs and members that those SROs have in common. The Exchanges have entered into certain bi-lateral Rule 17d-2 agreements under which FINRA is allocated responsibility for enforcing certain federal securities laws and certain exchange rules that are common with FINRA rules. The Exchanges have entered into certain other multi-party Rule 17d-2 agreements that allocate responsibility among the participating SROs, which may include the Exchanges, for oversight of their allocated common members compliance with certain rules governing, among other items, options related sales practices, options related market surveillance, insider trading, NMS and consolidated audit trail (“CAT”) NMS plan compliance.

National Market System Plans

We are member participants of several NMS plans including, but not limited to, the following: Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are member exchanges in OPRA, which is the designated securities information processor for market information that is generated through the trading of exchange-listed securities options in the United States, and it disseminates certain core trading information, such as last sale reports and quotations. Cboe Options, BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX also participate in the CTA/CQ and the UTP Plans, which perform analogous services for the U.S. equities market. Securities Information Automation Corporation (“SIAC”) acts as the “processor” for OPRA and the CTA/QC Plans. Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC acts as the processor for the Nasdaq Unlisted Trading Privileges Plan. Also, see “Risk Factors” for more information regarding the consolidated data plan order.

Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are also parties to the Options Order Protection and Locked/Crossed Market Plan, which is designed to prohibit trade-throughs and avoid locked/crossed markets. Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are also parties to the Options Listing Procedures Plan, which sets forth the procedures that the options exchanges must follow to list new options. Cboe Options, BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX are also parties to the NMS plan for the selection and reservation of securities symbols.

Under the Options Regulatory Surveillance Authority Plan (“ORSA Plan”), U.S. securities options exchanges are permitted to act jointly in the administration, operation and maintenance of a regulatory system for the surveillance, investigation and detection of the unlawful use of undisclosed, material information in trading in one or more of their markets. The ORSA Plan is intended to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency with which the exchanges regulate their respective markets and to avoid duplication of certain regulatory efforts. FINRA operates the ORSA Plan facility for options insider trading.

The Consolidated Audit Trail Plan (“CAT Plan”) involves the creation of a consolidated audit trail that tracks orders throughout their lifecycle, which strives to enhance regulators’ ability to efficiently monitor trading activity in Eligible Securities in the U.S. securities markets. Eligible Securities currently include NMS Stocks, Listed Options and OTC Equities. Order and trade data is required to be reported to the CAT central repository the following day by each SRO (a “Plan Participant”) and broker-dealer (an “Industry Member”), along with certain customer and account information by each Industry Member. On November 15, 2016, the SEC approved the CAT Plan and a phased implementation was originally required to begin in November 2017; however, there were some delays. The first phase of CAT (“Phase 1”) ultimately went live in November 2018, at which time we and other SROs/Plan Participants began initial reporting of order and trade file submissions to the CAT. The second phase of CAT (“Phase 2”) for Industry Members began with order and trade file submissions in June 2020. The final Phase 2 implementation sub-phase (Phase 2e), related to Industry Member submissions to the customer and account information submissions system (“CAIS”) has been live in production since April 2022, but its completion has been delayed. The Industry Member full CAIS compliance reporting requirements are currently scheduled to go into effect May 31, 2024.

On May 15, 2020, the SEC adopted amendments to the CAT to establish financial accountability provisions to achieve full CAT implementation, including a financial accountability milestone requiring full implementation of the CAT requirements by December 30, 2022. If the SEC were to determine any financial accountability milestone was not met, it may limit the SROs’/Plan Participants’ recovery of certain costs. Due to the delayed completion of CAIS, the SROs/Plan

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Participants have submitted to the SEC requests to extend the timeline for the completion of Phase 2e and the deadline for the final financial accountability milestone and additional requests may be submitted. If the SEC does not grant extensions and finds that the SROs/Plan Participants did not satisfy the related last financial accountability milestone, it could result in the SROs/Plan Participants not being able to recover certain costs associated with this final sub-phase, which amount of unrecoverable costs may increase for additional delays.

On September 6, 2023, the SEC issued an order approving an amendment to the CAT national market system plan to implement a revised funding model (“CAT Funding Model”) for Consolidated Audit Trail, LLC (“CATLLC”) to fund the CAT. The approved CAT Funding Model contemplates two categories of CAT fees calculated based on the “executed equivalent shares” of transactions in eligible securities: (i) CAT fees assessed by CATLLC to Industry Members who are CAT Executing Brokers (the brokers responsible for executing each side of the transaction) to recover a portion of historical CAT costs previously paid to CATLLC by the Plan Participants; and (ii) CAT fees assessed by CATLLC to CAT Executing Brokers and Plan Participants to fund prospective CAT costs. To date, the funding of the CAT has solely been provided by the SROs/Plan Participants has been done in exchange for promissory notes. The funds generated from the assessment of CAT fees to recover a portion of historical CAT costs will be used by CATLLC to repay a portion of these promissory notes to the Plan Participants.

The Plan Participants submitted fee filings during the first week of January 2024 with the SEC to implement the applicable transaction-based fee rates that are to be assessed by CATLLC to CAT Executing Brokers to recover a portion of historical CAT costs incurred prior to 2022. Additional CAT fees related to other historical CAT costs and to prospective CAT costs are planned to be introduced at a later time through separate fee filings submitted by the Plan Participants. Once the CAT fee related to ongoing prospective CAT costs becomes effective through fee filings submitted by the Plan Participants, it is anticipated there will no longer be any need for Plan Participants to fund CATLLC in exchange for promissory notes. On January 17, 2024, the SEC issued orders suspending each Plan Participant’s fee filing and instituting proceedings to determine whether to approve or disapprove the fees, which orders were published in the Federal Register on February 13, 2024. Comments are due March 5, 2024, and rebuttal comments are due March 19, 2024.

A challenge to the SEC’s September 6, 2023 order was filed by the American Securities Association and Citadel Securities, LLC against SEC before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit on October 17, 2023. This challenge or any other challenge to the SEC order approving the CAT Funding Model and/or Plan Participant(s) fee filings may significantly delay implementation efforts. As a result, the Plan Participants may continue to incur additional significant costs, and/or it may result in them not being able to collect on the promissory notes related to the funding of the implementation and operation of the CAT.

CATLLC, as well as the Cboe U.S. Securities Exchanges, and certain other exchanges/Plan Participants filed motions to intervene in the aforementioned matter on November 16, 2023 and are waiting the Court’s ruling on the motions. CATLLC also determined to move forward with implementing its first fee under the SEC-approved CAT Funding Model. As a result, the Cboe U.S. Securities Exchanges and other Plan Participants submitted fee filings on or near January 2, 2024 to implement the CAT fee on behalf of CATLLC related to a portion of historical CAT costs incurred prior to 2022 the discussed above. Although the fee filings were submitted as “immediately effective” filings, the CATLLC fee will be assessed beginning with trades occurring on March 1, 2024 (with the first monthly invoice for the month of March being issued in April 2024 and first monthly payment due in May 2024).

Until the fees for historical CAT costs that are associated with the promissory notes are collected from CAT Executing Brokers and remitted by CATLLC to the Plan Participants, and until CAT fees assessed by CATLLC to CAT Executing Brokers and Plan Participants to fund prospective CAT costs are implemented, the Plan Participants may continue to incur additional significant costs, including additional promissory notes to fund CAT. Additionally, portions of promissory notes related to the funding of the implementation and operation of the CAT may not be collectible, including if the SEC finds that the SROs/Plan Participants did not satisfy any of the financial accountability milestones. The allowance for notes receivable credit losses associated with the CAT is calculated using a methodology that is primarily based on the structure of the notes and various potential outcomes under the CAT Funding Model. See Note 23 (“Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees”) for more information.

Intellectual Property

We own or have rights to a number of intellectual property assets, including trademarks, service marks, domain names, trade names, copyrights, trade secrets and patents. While the majority of our intellectual property is protected under U.S. law, we have many intellectual property assets protected by laws in Europe, Asia and other parts of the world.

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We license some intellectual property assets to other entities. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights, while respecting the legitimate intellectual property rights of others.

Human Capital Management

Cboe has a robust human capital management program in place focused on equal opportunities including diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”), performance and career development, health and well-being, comprehensive benefits, training, talent acquisition, and succession planning. Additional information on our approach to human capital and environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) issues can be found in the Cboe Global Markets, Inc. Environmental, Social and Governance Report located in the Corporate Social Responsibility section of our website at https://markets.cboe.com/about/corporate-social-responsibility, which does not form a part of this Form 10-K.

Equal Opportunity, Diversity, and Pay Equity

Cboe believes in a culture of diversity and inclusion that promotes creativity, collaboration and innovation, which is critical to the success of our business and defining the markets of tomorrow. Cboe is an equal opportunity employer and provides equal employment opportunities to all qualified persons without regard to sex, gender, race, color, ethnicity, creed, religion, national origin, ancestry, citizenship status, age, veteran or military status, disability, marital status, domestic partnership or civil union status, pregnancy, sexual orientation, genetic status, gender identity or expression, and any other characteristic protected by applicable law (a “Protected Characteristic”). Cboe is committed to applying our Equal Employment Opportunity Policy to all employment practices that impact the terms and conditions of employment including, but not limited to, hiring, evaluation, discipline, promotion, training, compensation, transfer, and termination. Actively nurturing and maintaining a diverse and inclusive culture at Cboe is a core imperative. We believe that our collective and unique perspectives fuel our capabilities, enhance our team spirit and enable us to attract and retain top talent as we define the markets of the future. Our commitment and responsibility in this regard starts at the top, with leadership and support from the full Cboe Board of Directors and executive team.

To maintain and strengthen our pledge to equity, diversity and inclusion and to keep a level playing field, we regularly review key touchpoints across the employee journey with Cboe., from the talent selection, promotion, compensation, leadership development, and succession planning processes and make adjustments, as necessary, to help ensure opportunity parity across the Company. Our goal is to ensure that fair pay and equal opportunity for all that results in a collaborative, high performing organization bringing new innovations to market and providing superior service to our customers.

We also have associate resource groups, including the Cboe Women’s Initiative, the Diversity Leadership Council, the Veterans Initiative, PRISM+ (People Respecting Individuality and Sexuality in Markets), Cboe UNIDOS, Asian and Pacific Islanders Network (APIN) and Black Equity and Allyship in Markets (BEAM).

The Cboe Women’s Initiative works toward its mission: to increase representation, strengthen voices, and build a culture of opportunity and advancement for the women of Cboe. The Women’s Initiative is led by an associate board and engages women throughout the Company on a variety of programs. More specifically, the Women’s Initiative is comprised of three committees that target areas where its membership strives to promote change, such as networking events, mentorship, and building an advocacy group aimed at gathering input on topics of importance for its membership. Networking events include the “Trailblazers” events where senior women share their success stories through personal accounts of career growth and impact and speakers on Male Allyship in the workplace.
The Diversity Leadership Council focuses on unlocking the potential of a variety of perspectives, capabilities and cultural experiences. We believe in a culture of diversity and inclusion that promotes creativity, collaboration and innovation, which is critical to the success of our business and defining the markets of tomorrow. To reinforce this belief, this council is a collective voice on how Cboe strives to create a diverse workforce that reflects the world in which we operate. Further, they are charged with oversight on how we build an inclusive culture where every employee feels welcome, safe and empowered.
The Cboe Veterans Initiative operates based on four main pillars: recruiting, mentorship, service, and networking. The vision for the Cboe Veterans Initiative is to actively seek Veteran talent, provide mentorship to veterans within and outside of the Company, commit to giving back to the Veteran community through financial and non-monetary support, and encourage outreach to Cboe Veterans.

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PRISM+ is focused on celebrating the LGBTQIA+ community through education and allyship.
Cboe UNIDOS is committed to increasing and sustaining the visibility of Hispanic/Latinos/Latinx associates at Cboe by improving opportunities through education, mentorship and networking.
The Asian and Pacific Islanders Network (APIN) is committed to empower, support and advocate for Asian and Pacific Islander associates at Cboe. We strive to foster an inclusive and supportive environment that values the diverse backgrounds, perspectives and contributions of APIN associates.
Black Equity and Allyship in Markets (BEAM) unites Allies and Black professionals to address the unique challenges to opportunity, entry, and advancement in financial markets and create a workplace where equity is reimagined, equal opportunities are accessible and associates from all backgrounds can ascend to leadership roles and contribute to the strategy and achievements of Cboe.

To reinforce our commitment to organization wide education and commitment to diversity and inclusion we also provide harassment and unconscious bias training for employees.

We also have a community engagement program, Cboe Empowers, that provides mentorship, scholarship and guidance to under-resourced students throughout their educational journey through access to Cboe’s associates, resources, work environment and other learning and experience opportunities. Initially launched in Chicago, the vision for Cboe Empowers is to support students through all stages of education from elementary or primary school to career by providing mentorship, learning and experience opportunities, professional development and scholarships to students within the Chicago Public School system and graduates pursuing higher education. Cboe Empowers expects to supplement its own programs by collaborating with local partners, including the Greenwood Project and Working in the Schools, to help create maximum impact for its participants. In 2023, Cboe Empowers awarded seven full-ride college scholarships to under-resourced high school students to attend the school of their choice, expanding the program to include students from Kansas City. Five of the scholarships were awarded to students from Chicago and two were awarded to students from Kansas City.

Performance and Career Development

Cboe expects employees to perform their duties to the best of their ability and to develop their competencies for career growth. We recognize the need to provide ongoing, timely, and constructive performance feedback. Cboe has designed a Performance Management Program that drives the professional development of our employees while also providing fair and equitable rewards and recognition.

The principles of performance management include:

align performance expectations with strategy and goals of the business,
ongoing open dialogue regarding performance and development,
foster accountability for behaviors and actions which contribute to a positive culture, and
commitment to deliver results which drive our business.

To help promote career development, among other items, Cboe offers a formal mentorship program among its associates. The mentorship program was originally developed by the Cboe Women’s Initiative. In 2023, the mentorship program paired over 60 mentors with mentees across the Company.

Employee Health and Well-Being and Comprehensive Benefits Program

Cboe’s vision is to support the overall wellness of employees and their families through education and activities that encourage a healthy lifestyle, resulting in improved health and productivity. Our programs and benefit plans provide a corporate atmosphere of collective well-being and incorporate strategies for physical, emotional, mental and financial wellness. Our programs include enhanced employee assistance programs, wellness programs and challenges (which address both mental and physical well-being), and webinars and classes through our retirement vendor to support the financial health of our employees.

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With the global pandemic in 2020 and 2021, there was further focus on our Employee Assistance program, which was strengthened across the globe with a diverse set of mental health resources aimed at supporting our employees during a unique and challenging time.

Employee Engagement and Pulse Surveys, Town Halls and an Open-Door Policy

In 2023, Cboe conducted our sixth annual employee engagement survey and has implemented career, leadership, and culture focused programs in response to the survey findings. Our participation rate exceeds standard benchmarks and a significant majority of our employees would recommend Cboe as a great place to work.

Our senior management team continues to hold the commitment to an open-door policy and encourages the free flow of information and communication in furtherance of active transparency. With the recent executive transitions, our ability to tap into the voice of our employees was critically important and we conducted a pulse survey to gauge sentiment. Our CEO also issues weekly letters to help connect with our employees. Human Resources also provided ongoing regular resources and tips to help support the variety of challenges, from the new reality of hybrid work to childcare and elder care, that our employees faced throughout 2023.

Cboe also continues to create an open and frank atmosphere in which any grievance, complaint, suggestion or question receives a timely response. Cboe offers a whistleblower hotline for complaints, which can be made anonymously. Additionally, employees can raise questions and suggestions to the Cboe Human Resources team either in-person or via a group email address and are either responded to individually or addressed at our Global Town Hall meetings. The objective of these town halls is to provide employees an update on Company news, share updates from major business lines, as well as provide a forum to ask questions and offer feedback. Town halls can include updates on anything from legislation that may impact our business to ESG topics. Employees are encouraged to participate in free flow of information and communication and to offer positive and constructive feedback in furtherance of active transparency.

Training and Succession Planning

We believe that the development of all Cboe employees helps drive our collective success. Through skill and competency development we signal our investment in all while also enabling enhanced productivity. Through our tuition reimbursement program, our employees receive financial support in their pursuit of specialized university courses and degrees. In addition to our ongoing offering of online courses on diverse topics through our corporate university, CboeU, employees can participate in the CboeLearns hybrid program focused on virtual classroom instruction combined with work application and CboeLive, which is focused on business topics to foster organizational-wide knowledge sharing and education.

Leadership is another critical element of our success at Cboe. The Board of Directors of Cboe and global senior leaders participated in a Clifton StrengthsFinder assessment and workshop to learn about their leadership style and how to empower Cboe associates based on their natural strengths. Leaders can participate in Lead the Way, Cboe’s leadership development hybrid program focused on virtual classroom instruction combined with in-person facilitated workshops and exercises, and individual development plans leveraging insights for a 360-feedback process. This leadership training program has helped to expand on the development of our high potential leaders, further strengthening the leadership bench and accelerating readiness of this key talent pool.

Cboe has held several succession planning discussions with the Compensation Committee and Board of Directors to plan for the fulfillment of essential roles, such as the CEO and other senior officers. This process includes investments in advanced development planning for targeted successors to accelerate their readiness through key internal projects and assignments as well as tailored training. Diversity and inclusion are a formal part of Cboe’s succession planning process as we work to identify and advance internal diverse talent and, in parallel, continually scan external talent pools for successors. Following the recent executive transitions, one of the new CEO’s top areas of focus is to develop talent and spend time on succession planning.

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Employees

As of December 31, 2023, we employed 1,647 individuals in the following locations:

Location

Number of Employees

United States

1,107

United Kingdom

186

Netherlands

125

Canada

80

Australia

78

Philippines

30

Japan

26

Singapore

9

Hong Kong

5

Switzerland

1

Of these employees, 595 were involved in technology operations and 185 were involved in direct support of trading operations. The remaining 867 employees provide business development, financial, regulation, human resources, compliance, legal, planning and research, administrative, and managerial support.

We have three building engineers that are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, which expires on March 31, 2024, with the International Union of Operating Engineers Local 399, AFL-CIO. Management believes that we have strong relationships with our employees, and we have never experienced a work stoppage.

Information about our Executive Officers

Set forth below is information regarding our executive officers:

Name

    

Age

    

Position

Fredric J. Tomczyk

68

Chief Executive Officer

Catherine R. Clay

56

Executive Vice President, Global Head of Derivatives

Stephanie Foley

42

Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer

Jill M. Griebenow

44

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

David Howson

47

Executive Vice President, Global President

Adam Inzirillo

47

Executive Vice President, Global Head of Data and Access Solutions

Christopher A. Isaacson

45

Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer

Patrick Sexton

59

Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

Allen Wilkinson

36

Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer

Fredric J. Tomczyk. Mr. Tomczyk is our current Chief Executive Officer and director. He has served as our CEO since September 2023. Mr. Tomczyk served on our Board as an independent director from July 2019 to September 2023. He is the retired President and Chief Executive Officer of TD Ameritrade Holding Corporation, a position he held from October 2008 to October 2016. Prior to this position, he held positions of increasing responsibility and leadership with the TD organization from 1999. Mr. Tomczyk was also a member of the TD Ameritrade board of directors from 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2016. Prior to joining the TD organization in 1999, Mr. Tomczyk was President and Chief Executive Officer of London Life. He currently serves on the board of Willis Towers Watson PLC, a publicly traded company, and is a member of the Cornell University Athletic Alumni Advisory Council. Mr. Tomczyk also previously served as the lead independent director of Sagen MI Canada Inc., a publicly traded company, and of its operating subsidiary Sagen Mortgage Insurance Company Canada, as a director of Knight Capital Group, Inc. and a trustee of Liberty Property Trust, both formerly publicly traded companies, and as a director of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association. Mr. Tomczyk holds a B.S. degree in Applied Economics & Business Management from Cornell University and is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ontario.

Catherine R. Clay. Ms. Clay is our Executive Vice President, Global Head of Derivatives, a position she has held since October 2023. Previously, she was Executive Vice President, Global Head of Data and Access Solutions from March 2021 to October 2023, Senior Vice President, Global Head of Information Solutions of the Company’s subsidiary Cboe Exchange, Inc. from February 2019 to March 2021, and she has held other various senior leadership positions since 2015, including Vice President Business Development, a position she was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Livevol, Inc. Prior to that, she served as Chief Executive Officer of Livevol, Inc. from 2013 to 2015 and as its

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Chief Strategy Officer from 2010 to 2013. Prior to that, she served as Founder of Thales LLC from 2006 through 2010. Ms. Clay holds a B.S. degree from University of Colorado-Boulder.

Stephanie Foley. Ms. Foley is our Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer, a position she has held since October 2023. Previously, she served as Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer of the Company’s subsidiary Cboe Exchange, Inc. from June 2022 to October 2023. Prior to joining Cboe in 2022, Ms. Foley was Chief Human Resources Officer, Americas, of Kearney Holdings Limited from August 2016 to May 2022. Ms. Foley holds a bachelor’s degree in psychology and sociology from the University at Albany, SUNY, and a master’s degree in industrial organizational psychology from New York University.

Jill M. Griebenow. Ms. Griebenow is our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, a position she has held since July 2023. Previously, she served as Executive Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer from July 2023 to February 2024, Treasurer from July 2023 to October 2023 and as Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer from August 2018 to July 2023. She also previously served as Chief Financial Officer of Cboe Europe from 2014 to 2018 and was employed by Bats in the financial area since 2011. Prior to that, she held various positions at Ernst & Young LLP from 2001 to 2011. Ms. Griebenow is a certified public accountant and holds a bachelor’s degree in accounting from the University of Northern Iowa.

David Howson. Mr. Howson is our Executive Vice President, Global President, a position he has held since May 2022. Previously, he was our Executive Vice President, President Europe and Asia Pacific, from July 2021 to May 2022, Executive Vice President, President Europe from January 2020 to July 2021 and Chief Operating Officer of Cboe Europe from 2013 to 2019. Prior to that, he served as Founder, Chief Technology Officer of Equiduct from April 2006 through June 2013. Prior to that he held various international Financial Services consulting roles between 1998 and 2006 for TIBCO Finance Technology and Thomson Reuters. Mr. Howson serves as the Chairman of the Boards of Directors of the Exchanges, and of CFE, Cboe SEF, and Cboe Canada Inc. Mr. Howson holds a First Class Honours bachelor's degree from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Adam Inzirillo. Mr. Inzirillo is our Executive Vice President, Global Head of Data and Access Solutions, a position he has held since October 2023. Previously, he served as Senior Vice President, Head of North American Equities since 2020, and Senior Vice President, Head of U.S. Equities since September 2019. Prior to joining Cboe, Mr. Inzirillo was Managing Director, Head of Order Routing and Execution Products at Bank of America Merrill Lynch, where he worked for nearly a decade. Previously, he was Executive Director, Head of Broker Dealer Business Development at UBS Securities LLC from 2005 through 2010. Mr. Inzirillo also serves on the Board of Directors of Cboe Canada Inc. Mr. Inzirillo holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from Bucknell University and a M.B.A. degree from Dowling College.

Christopher A. Isaacson. Mr. Isaacson is our Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, a position he has held since January 2019. Previously he was our Executive Vice President, Chief Information Officer, a position he was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Bats. Prior to that, he served as Bats' Executive Vice President and Global Chief Information Officer since February 2014, he served as Bats' Senior Vice President, Chief Operation Officer from 2007 to 2014 and he has held other various senior leadership positions since 2005. Prior to being one of the founders of Bats, Mr. Isaacson was a software developer at Tradebot Systems, Inc. from 2003 to 2005. Mr. Isaacson serves as the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Cboe Digital and previously served as the Chairman of the Boards of Directors of CFE and Cboe SEF and on the Boards of Directors of Cboe Japan, Cboe Australia, and OCC. Mr. Isaacson holds a bachelor’s degree in information systems with a minor in math from Nebraska Wesleyan University and an M.B.A. degree from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Patrick Sexton. Mr. Sexton is our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, a position he has held since March 2018. Previously, he was Deputy General Counsel of the Company’s subsidiary Cboe Exchange, Inc. He served in that capacity from July 2013 to March 2018 and has acted as legal, regulatory and compliance counsel with increasing responsibility and oversight since joining the Company in 1997. Mr. Sexton holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Notre Dame and a J.D. degree with honors from Notre Dame Law School.

Allen Wilkinson. Mr. Wilkinson is our Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, a position he has held since February 2024. Previously, he served as Vice President, Controller of the Company, from June 2021 to February 2024 and has been employed in the financial area in various roles since April 2018. Prior to that, he also held various positions at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP from January 2011 to April 2018. Mr. Wilkinson is a certified public accountant and holds master’s and bachelor's degrees in accounting from the University of Missouri – Columbia.

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Corporate Social Responsibility

The Company recognizes that operating in a socially responsible manner helps promote the long-term interests of our investors, associates, customers, community members, and all other stakeholders with whom we live and work. We are actively engaged with policymakers on behalf of our customers to promote fairness, innovation, trust, and confidence in our markets, and we continuously seek to further our corporate social responsibility efforts through:

Industry Leadership – As an industry leader, we are deeply committed to building trusted markets for participants.
Diversity and Associate Engagement – We strive to create a diverse workforce that reflects the world in which we operate, and to build an inclusive culture where every associate feels welcome, safe and empowered.
Corporate Governance – Corporate governance is embedded in the operations of our company. The Company’s Board of Directors recognizes that operating in a socially responsible manner helps promote the long-term interests of our organization, stockholders, associates, industry and community.
Promoting Transparency and Efficient Capital Markets – We maintain a comprehensive regulatory program in support of providing trusted markets and integrity in the marketplace.
Environmental Performance – We recognize the need to do our part in supporting the environment.

We believe being a good citizen means that we hold ourselves accountable for the integrity of the markets and to the communities we serve, seek to help resolve conflicts and build consensus, inform those impacted before taking action, lead by example and serve as part of the solution. We also seek to be good citizens to the communities we serve by being committed to being environmentally conscious. Additionally, being good citizens also means that we strive to support our associates and better serve our industry and community through our human capital development, volunteerism and policies. See “Human Capital Management” subsection above for more information.

Additional information on our approach to ESG can be found in the 2023 Cboe Global Markets, Inc. Environmental, Social and Governance Report located in the Corporate Social Responsibility section of our website at https://www.cboe.com/about/esg/, which does not form a part of this Form 10-K.

Available Information

Our website is www.cboe.com. The Company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The Company makes available, free of charge, on its website its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company's reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

In addition, we have posted on our website the charters for our (i) Audit Committee, (ii) Compensation Committee, and (iii) Nominating and Governance Committee, as well as our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Corporate Governance Guidelines. We will provide a copy of these documents without charge to stockholders upon written request to Investor Relations, Cboe Global Markets, Inc., 433 West Van Buren Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607. Our website and information included in or linked to our website are not part of this Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.

The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we believe are material at this time relating to our business. These risks and uncertainties, however, are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also significantly impact us. Any of these risks and uncertainties may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

Summary of Risk Factors

The following is a summary of the key risks and uncertainties described below that we believe are material to us at this time:

the loss of our right to exclusively list and trade certain index options and futures products;
economic, political and market conditions;
compliance with legal and regulatory obligations;
price competition and consolidation in our industry;
decreases in trading or clearing volumes, market data fees or a shift in the mix of products traded on our exchanges;
legislative or regulatory changes or changes in tax regimes;
our ability to protect our systems and communication networks from security vulnerabilities and breaches;
our ability to attract and retain skilled management and other personnel;
increasing competition by foreign and domestic entities;
our dependence on and exposure to risk from third parties;
global expansion of operations;
factors that impact the quality and integrity of our and other applicable indices;
our ability to manage our growth and strategic acquisitions or alliances effectively;
our ability to operate our business without violating the intellectual property rights of others and the costs associated with protecting our intellectual property rights;
our ability to minimize the risks, including our credit, counterparty, investment, and default risks, associated with operating a European clearinghouse;
our ability to accommodate trading and clearing volume and transaction traffic, including significant increases, without failure or degradation of performance of our systems;
misconduct by those who use our markets or our products or for whom we clear transactions;
challenges to our use of open source software code;
our ability to meet our compliance obligations, including managing potential conflicts between our regulatory responsibilities and our for-profit status;
our ability to maintain BIDS Trading as an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with our registered national securities exchanges;
damage to our reputation;
the ability of our compliance and risk management methods to effectively monitor and manage our risks;
restrictions imposed by our debt obligations and our ability to make payments on or refinance our debt obligations;
our ability to maintain an investment grade credit rating;
impairment of our goodwill, long-lived assets, investments or intangible assets;
the impacts of pandemics;
litigation risks and other liabilities; and
operating a digital asset business, and clearinghouse, including the expected benefits of our Cboe Digital acquisition, cybercrime, changes in digital asset regulation, losses due to digital asset custody, and fluctuations in digital asset prices.

Risks Relating to Our Business

Loss of our right to exclusively list and trade certain index options and futures could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

We hold exclusive licenses to list securities index options on the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 2000 Index, and other indices granted to us by the owners of such indices, and additionally hold exclusive rights to our proprietary VIX Index

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methodology that provides the basis for VIX options and futures. In 2023, approximately 69.2% of our transaction and clearing fees less liquidity payments and routing and clearing costs ("net transaction and clearing fees") were generated by futures and index options, the overwhelming majority of which were generated by products based on exclusively licensed indices (e.g., SPX options) and products based on our proprietary VIX methodology (e.g., VIX options and futures). The bulk of this revenue is attributable to our SPX options and VIX options and futures. As a result, our revenues less cost of revenues are dependent in large part on the exclusive licenses we hold for these indices and our ability to maintain our exclusive proprietary rights in the VIX Index methodology and related products and indices.

There is a risk, with respect to each of our current exclusive licenses, that the owner of the index may not renew the license with us on an exclusive basis or at all. In the first event, we would be subject to multiple listing in the trading of what is now an index product traded by us on an exclusive basis, which could result in a loss of market share and negatively impact our profitability. In the second event, we could lose the right to list the index product entirely. The loss or limited use of any of our exclusive index licenses, especially for the S&P 500 Index, for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.

In addition to the risks related to our exclusive licenses, if we are unable to retain exclusive proprietary rights in the VIX Index methodology and related products and indices, our volatility products could be subject to multiple listing which could have a material adverse effect on us.

The EU has adopted legislation affecting providers and users of benchmark indices in the EU. MiFIR requires benchmarks used to value a financial instrument in the EU to be made available on a non-discriminatory basis to all EU trading venues and central counterparty clearinghouses for the purposes of trading and clearing. As a result, owners of such benchmarks must provide licenses on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. While similar legislation to MiFIR has not been proposed in the U.S., if it were passed, it could cause us to lose our exclusive rights to list and trade proprietary and licensed index products. Further, in 2018, the EU implemented the EU Benchmark Regulation, which regulates users, data providers and calculators of benchmarks (“administrators”) in the EU, and among other things (subsequent to the transitional period applicable to third country benchmark administrators) prohibits use of benchmarks provided by administrators outside the EU in connection with EU financial instruments unless the administrator is deemed to be subject to an EU equivalent regulatory regime or the benchmark is endorsed or recognized in the EU. These regulations and other emerging regulatory regimes around the world may impact international customers’ interest in or ability to trade index-based products listed on our U.S. exchanges, as well as impact our expansion into foreign trading of our index-based products and our ability to license proprietary indices for use outside of the U.S.

Furthermore, our competitors may succeed in developing, offering and providing a market for the trading of index-based or volatility products, such as cash settled index options or options on ETFs, that are economically similar to those that we offer and they may become successful and take away volume from our products. It is also possible that a third party may offer trading in index-based products that are the same as those that are the subject of one of our exclusive licenses, but in a jurisdiction in which the index owner cannot require a license or in a manner otherwise not limited by our exclusive license. In addition, a diminished perceived attractiveness of or change in demand for any of the indices underlying our products and services, especially the S&P 500 Index, for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.

The value of our licenses to exclusively list index options and futures also depends on the continued ability of index owners to require licenses for the trading of options and futures based on their indices. Although we and other index owners have prevailed in legal actions seeking to challenge our rights to exclusively license indices, we may be subject to changes in the law or other actions taken in the future that might impede our ability to exclusively offer trading in certain index options and futures.

General economic conditions and other factors beyond our control could significantly reduce demand for our products and services and harm our business.

The volume of trading and clearing transactions and the demand for our products and services are directly affected by economic, political and market conditions in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere in the world that are beyond our control, including:

economic, political and geopolitical market conditions;
broad trends in business and finance;
concerns over inflation levels and recessions;
wavering institutional or retail confidence levels;

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government or central bank actions, such as changes in government fiscal and monetary policy and foreign currency exchange rates;
other legislative and regulatory changes;
the availability of short-term and long-term funding and capital;
the perceived attractiveness of the U.S., European, Canadian, Australian or Japanese capital markets;
the availability or perceived attractiveness of alternative investment opportunities or indices;
changes in the level of trading activity in underlying instruments;
changes and volatility in the prices of securities;
changes in the volume of foreign currency transactions;
changes in supply and demand for currencies;
movements in currency exchange rates;
the level and volatility of interest rates;
changes in the financial strength of market participants;
consolidation among market participants and market data subscribers;
unforeseen market closures, suspensions of open outcry trading or other disruptions in trading and clearing; and
disruptions due to terrorism, war, extreme weather events, pandemics or other catastrophes.

Any of these factors, individually or collectively, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results by causing a substantial decline in the financial services markets and reducing trading and clearing volumes and demand for market data.

Our business may be adversely affected by price competition.

The securities industry is characterized by intense price competition, especially with respect to transaction fees. We may be required to adjust pricing to respond to actions by new or existing competitors, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results. We also compete with respect to the pricing of market data and value-added market data, such as historical market data.

In our options segment, the pricing model for trade execution has changed in response to competitive market conditions, and our competitors have adjusted transaction fees and fee structures accordingly, including by opening new exchanges, which allow them to offer multiple pricing models that can appeal to different segments of market participants. These changes have resulted in significant pricing pressures on us, especially on transaction fees and incentives for multi-listed products. As a result of these pricing pressures, our average rate per multi-listed options contract may decrease. It is likely that this pressure will continue and even intensify as our competitors continue to seek to increase their share of trading by further reducing their transaction fees or by offering other financial incentives to order providers and liquidity providers to induce them to direct orders to their markets.

In addition, one or more competitors may engage in aggressive pricing strategies and significantly decrease or completely eliminate their profit margin for a period of time in order to capture a greater share of trading volume. Some order-providing firms on our exchanges have taken ownership positions in options exchanges that compete with us and such exchanges have given those firms added economic incentives to direct orders to them.

With respect to our proprietary products, we compete with futures exchanges and swap execution facilities that offer similar products and other financial market participants that offer over-the-counter derivatives. We also compete against certain multi-listed options products, such as SPY options, which offer some of the features of our proprietary products, such as SPX options.

To attract market share, we may offer “inverted” pricing specials or no-transaction fee trading from time to time, per various fee schedules across our equities exchanges. These forms of promotions, along with other supplemental liquidity programs, may adversely affect our profitability.

Further, regulatory and legal developments, including the new equity market structure proposals and the new Volume Based Proposal could also adversely impact, as applicable, our ability to adjust pricing to respond to actions by new or existing competitors, the amount of liquidity providers can provide, our ability to offer members volume-based pricing. Additionally, in the U.S., we are generally required to file with the SEC any changes to the fees that we charge and in recent years the SEC has more heavily scrutinized pricing changes.

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If we are unable to compete successfully with respect to the pricing of our services and products, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. We could lose a substantial percentage of our share of trading if we are unable to price transactions in a competitive manner. Also, our profits could decline if competitive pressures or regulatory changes force us to reduce fees.

A significant portion of our operating revenues is generated by our transaction and clearing-based business. If the amount of trading volume on our markets or clearing volume decreases, or the product mix shifts to lower revenue products, our revenues from transaction and clearing fees will most likely decrease.

In 2023, approximately 71.2% of our revenues less cost of revenues were generated by our transaction and clearing-based business. This business is dependent on our ability to attract and maintain order flow, both in absolute terms and relative to other market centers. If the amount of trading volume on our Exchanges, Cboe Digital Exchange, CFE, BIDS Trading, Cboe Canada Inc., notional value traded on Cboe FX, Cboe SEF, Cboe Europe Equities and Derivatives, Cboe Australia, and Cboe Japan or clearing volumes at Cboe Clear Europe or Cboe Clear Digital decrease, we are likely to see a decrease in fees.

Our total trading or clearing volumes could decline if our market participants reduce their trading or clearing activity for any reason, such as:

heightened capital requirements;
transaction tax;
regulatory or legislative actions;
reduced need to trade due to changes in volatility and/or passive investment trends;
reduced access to capital required to fund trading activities;
consolidation among market participants;
suspensions of open outcry trading; or
significant market disruptions.

Over the past few years, a number of legislative actions have been taken, both domestically and internationally, that may cause market participants to be subject to increased capital requirements and additional compliance burdens. These actions, including MiFID II, MiFIR, and the new equity market structure proposals, may incentivize trading away from our markets or cause market participants to reduce trading activity on or routing to our markets.

In addition, the transaction fees generated are different based on type of product and other factors, including the type of customer and certain volume discounts. If the amount of our trading volume decreases, including as a result of the Volume Based Proposal proposed prohibition on volume-based agency tiers, or the mix traded shifts to our lower revenue per contract products, our revenues from transaction fees will most likely decrease. We can offer no assurance that we would be able to reduce our costs to match the amount of any such decrease.

Revenues from our market data fees and access and capacity fees may be reduced due to declines in our market share, trading volumes or regulatory changes.

The occurrence of any event that reduces the amount of market data fees that we receive, whether as a result of fee reductions, fewer members subscribing to the U.S. tape plans or other market data offerings, lack of new products, declines in market share, trading volumes, or notional volumes, or regulatory changes may have a direct negative impact on our business, financial condition, and operating results. For example, if our market share of U.S. listed equities and options or Cboe’s European equities trading volume were to decline, our share of market data fees could also decline. Moreover, market data fees could decline as a result of a reduction in the number of market data users, for example because of consolidation among market data subscribers or due to a decline in professional subscriptions as a result of staff reductions in the financial services industry or otherwise.

Regulatory and legal developments could also impact the fees we receive from market data and access and capacity, or our cost in providing such services. In the U.S., we are generally required to file with the SEC any changes to the fees that we charge for our securities market data products and access and capacity fees. In recent years, certain industry groups have objected to the ability of exchanges to charge for certain market data products. In addition, the SEC and some media have scrutinized market data and market access. As discussed above, the implementation of MDIR or the new equity market structure proposals could cause Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, to require additional resources to comply with the new rules, and may have a material impact on our business, financial condition,

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and operating results, including if, for example, there are lower SIP plan revenues or we must reduce the fees or access fee caps we charge.

In addition, the SEC approved a Consolidated Data Plan to replace the three equity data plans that govern the dissemination of real-time, consolidated market data for NMS stocks. While the Consolidated Data Plan order must be resubmitted by SEC, the plan may have a negative impact on the applicable market data revenues that we receive that are generated from such new plan.

We believe Cboe Europe Equities and Derivatives currently offers market data to customers on a non-discriminatory basis at a reasonable cost. As European regulators determine how market data should be disaggregated and what is a reasonable commercial basis for providing market data, it could affect our ability to offer market data products in the same manner that we do today thereby causing an adverse effect on our European market data revenues. While MiFID II and MiFIR aim to encourage a commercial solution to a consolidated tape in Europe, should this fail to materialize, policy makers might be encouraged to implement a mandatory solution that could impact our ability to develop our own commercial offering. As discussed above, the E.C. published provisions for a consolidated tape for the EU, which is expected to be implemented in 2026. As proposed, these provisions may have a material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, we must reduce the fees we charge for market data.

The technology upon which we rely, including that of our service providers, may be susceptible to security vulnerabilities or breaches that could harm our business and our role in the global marketplace puts us at heightened risk relative to other public companies.

The secure and reliable operation of our technology, including our computer systems and communications networks, and those of our service providers, market participants, investments, and other third parties, is a critical element of our operations or our business, financial condition or operating results. These systems and networks may be subject to various cybersecurity incidents such as improper or inadvertent access to or disclosure of confidential, commercially sensitive, or personally identifiable information, data theft, corruption or destruction, ransomware, supply chain attack, denial of service attack, malware and other security problems, as well as acts of terrorism, attacks by threat actors including criminal groups, political activist groups and nation-state actors, attacks in connection with geopolitical activity such as the conflicts in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, criminal insider activity, employee error, service provider, market participant or third-party disruptions or security breaches and other events that are beyond our control. Additionally, cyber threats and the techniques used in cyberattacks change, develop and evolve rapidly, including from emerging technologies, such as advanced forms of artificial intelligence (“AI”) and quantum computing. Our increased adoption of remote working, usage of mobile and cloud-based technologies and amount of newly acquired companies and related integrations may increase our risk for a cybersecurity incident. Moreover, given our position in the global financial services industry and as critical infrastructure, we may be more likely than other companies to be a direct target, or an indirect casualty, of such events. While we have experienced in the past, and we expect to continue to experience, cybersecurity threats and events of varying degrees, we are not aware of any of these threats or events having a material impact on our business, financial condition or operating results to date, however we cannot assure you that we will not experience future threats or events that may be material.

We maintain policies, procedures and controls designed to safeguard against cybersecurity incidents and unauthorized access by protecting the confidentiality, integrity, availability and reliability of our systems, networks and information. These policies, procedures and controls are subject to monitoring, auditing, and evaluation practices, pursuant to our Enterprise Risk Management program, which is supported by a three lines of defense approach, and our other governance practices. Further, we developed and maintain cybersecurity and data privacy training programs for our employees and our third-party consultants who have access to our systems. We also conduct simulations, tabletop exercises, and response readiness tests and engage independent third parties on a routine basis to perform cybersecurity penetration assessments. Collectively, these safeguards and measures or those of our third-party providers, including any cloud technologies, may prove inadequate to prevent the attendant risk posed by cybersecurity incidents, subjecting us to contractual restrictions, liability and damages, loss of business, penalties, unfavorable publicity, increased scrutiny by our regulators, and materially impacting our business, financial condition and operating results. We may be required to expend significant resources in the event of any real or threatened breaches in security, including to protect against threatened breaches, to alleviate harm caused by an actual breach, and to address any reputational harm or litigation or regulatory liability. Despite our cybersecurity measures, security vulnerabilities or breaches may remain undetected for an extended period of time. As a result of our ongoing risk management and related assurance activities, we have identified, addressed, and continue to address potential security vulnerabilities and/or internal control weaknesses. We are not aware of any of these vulnerabilities having a material impact on our business, financial condition or operating results to date. However, we cannot provide assurance that any future vulnerabilities, internal control weaknesses, or events that

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may be experienced will not be material. Such harms also could cause us to lose market participants, experience lower trading volume, and negatively impact our competitive advantage and business, financial condition and operating results.

Additionally, as threats continue to evolve and increase, as we continue to expand ongoing risk management and related assurance activities, and as the domestic and international regulatory environment related to cyber security and data protection becomes increasingly rigorous, we may be required to devote significant additional resources to modify and enhance our security controls and to identify and remediate any security vulnerabilities. Those additional resources could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

If we fail to attract or retain highly skilled management and other employees our business may be harmed.

Our success largely depends on the skills, experience and continued efforts of management and other key personnel. As a result, to be successful, we must retain and motivate executives and other key employees. However, we have no assurances that these employees will remain with us. The roles and responsibilities of departing executive officers and employees will need to be filled either by existing or new officers and employees, which may require us to devote time and resources to identifying, hiring and integrating replacements for the departed executives and employees that could otherwise be used to pursue business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our overall business, financial condition and operating results.

There is substantial competition for qualified and capable personnel, particularly in the technology space, which may make it difficult for us to retain and recruit qualified employees in sufficient numbers. This competition has continued due to tighter supply of available labor and compensation inflation. We have previously faced and may in the future face increased challenges in retaining and attracting qualified employees. If we fail to retain our current employees, it would be difficult and costly to identify, recruit and train replacements needed to continue to conduct and expand our business. In particular, failure to retain and attract qualified technology personnel could result in systems failures. Consequently, our reputation may be harmed, we may incur additional costs and our profitability could decline. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain and motivate our employees in the same manner as we have historically done.

Additionally, effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. For example, on September 18, 2023, Edward T. Tilly, former Chief Executive Officer of the Company, resigned and voluntarily terminated his employment with the Company. Following Mr. Tilly’s resignation, Fredric J. Tomczyk, an existing director of the Company, was appointed as Chief Executive Officer of the Company, effective as of September 18, 2023. Further, on July 6, 2023, Brian N. Schell, former Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, announced his departure from the Company to pursue a new professional opportunity outside of the exchange industry. Jill M. Griebenow, Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, was appointed to serve as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Chief Accounting Officer effective July 10, 2023, and currently serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer. Additionally, on October 12, 2023, Catherine R. Clay was appointed to serve as Executive Vice President, Global Head of Derivatives and Adam Inzirillo was appointed to serve as Executive Vice president, Global Head of Data and Access Solutions. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving our management team and key employees, including the recent leadership transitions, could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

Intense competition could materially adversely affect our market share and financial performance.

The market for trade execution services, clearing and products is intensely competitive in the asset classes and geographies in which we operate. Increased competition may result in a decline in our share of trading activity and a decline in our revenues from transaction and clearing fees and market data fees, thereby materially adversely affecting our operating results. We compete with a number of entities on several different fronts, including the cost, quality and speed of our trade execution, functionality and ease of use of our trading and clearing platforms, range of our products and services, our technological innovation and adaptation and our reputation. In particular, we have seen increased competition from off-exchange venues, which have increased their share of trading activity. See “Business – Competition” for more information.

Some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater financial, marketing, technological, personnel and other resources than we do. These factors may enable them to develop similar or more innovative products, to offer lower transaction and clearing fees or better execution to their customers or to execute their business strategies more quickly or efficiently than we can. In addition, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected if we cannot successfully develop, introduce and/or market new services and products or if we need to adopt costly and customized technology for our services and products.

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Furthermore, new or existing competitors may:

respond more quickly to competitive pressures;
develop products that compete with our products or are preferred by our customers;
offer products and services at prices below ours to gain market share and to promote other businesses;
develop and expand their technology and service offerings more efficiently;
provide better, more user-friendly and more reliable technology;
develop and incorporate more quickly new technologies, such as AI, machine learning, blockchain, distributed ledger technology, quantum computing, tokenization, the cloud, and other emerging technologies;
take greater advantage of acquisitions, alliances and other opportunities;
market, promote, bundle and sell their products and services more effectively;
leverage existing relationships with customers and alliance partners more effectively or exploit brand names to market and sell their services; and
exploit regulatory disparities between traditional, regulated exchanges and alternative markets, including over-the-counter markets, that benefit from a reduced regulatory burden and lower-cost business model.

If our products, markets, services and technology are not competitive or we fail to anticipate or respond adequately to changes in technology, customer preferences and regulatory requirements or we encounter any significant delays in product development efforts our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed.

We depend on third-party service providers for certain services that are important to our business. An interruption, significant increase in fees or cessation or impairment of such service by any third party could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We depend on a number of service providers, including clearing organizations such as OCC, NSCC, DTC, CDS, LCH, Cboe Clear Europe, and Cboe Clear Digital, our wholly-owned subsidiaries, JSCC, ASX Clear Pty Ltd, and SIX x-clear; securities information processors such as the CTA, UTP Securities Information Processor and OPRA; regulatory and other service providers such as FINRA and OCC; the hosts of our data and disaster recovery centers; and various vendors of communications and networking products and services. In addition, we also depend on third party routing and clearing firms that are involved in processing transactions on our behalf. More specifically:

If OCC, NSCC, DTC, CDS, LCH, Cboe Clear Europe, Cboe Clear Digital, JSCC, ASX Clear Pty Ltd, and SIX x-clear were unable to perform clearing services for existing or new products, or their clearing members were unable or unwilling to clear through them, transactions could likely not occur on our markets or there may be delays, including until clearing is moved to another clearing agency. In 2023, approximately 69.2% of our net transaction and clearing fees were generated by options and futures that were cleared through OCC.
OPRA, UTP Securities Information Processor and the CTA consolidate options and equities market information, respectively, such as last sale reports and quotations. If any of them were unable to provide this information for a sustained period of time, we may be unable to offer trading on our options and equities markets.
We are heavily dependent on technology for our markets, including third-party operation of production and disaster recovery data centers, as well as certain communications and networking products and services. If this technology is unavailable, as a result of a number of potential causes, including technical failure, natural disasters, extreme weather events, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent, and cannot be replaced in a sufficiently short time period, we may be unable to operate our markets.
We utilize a third-party cloud service provider to maintain secondary offsite backups of our and our customers’ data and to distribute real-time data, and we may utilize third-party cloud service providers in the future for additional services. We do not control the operations of third-party cloud service providers or their facilities and may be vulnerable to disruptions in our access to the platform as a result of a number of potential causes, including technical failure, natural disasters, extreme weather events, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent. Additionally, any vulnerability of third-party cloud service providers could expose our or our customers’ confidential data, which could result in harm to our business reputation.
FINRA and OCC provide certain regulatory services and functions for our options, equities and futures exchanges, while we retain regulatory responsibilities for such services. If FINRA or OCC stopped providing services, or provided inadequate services, we may be subject to action by the SEC or CFTC, or may have limitations placed upon our markets.
We rely on FINRA CAT LLC, a subsidiary of FINRA, to provide services for the implementation of the CAT. If FINRA CAT LLC or its third-party service providers stop providing services or provide inadequate services, we and the other SROs may not be able to recover costs related to the implementation of CAT, incur penalties for delays of implementation, incur related litigation and other expenses, or incur regulatory liability including

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enforcement action by the SEC or limitations placed upon our markets. In addition, until the funding model that shares the cost of the CAT between the SROs and industry members is implemented, the SROs may continue to incur additional significant costs, or result in not being able to collect on the promissory notes related to the funding of the implementation and operation of the CAT. See Note 8 (“Credit Losses”) and Note 9 (“Other Assets, Net”) for further information.
We rely on third party routing and clearing firms to clear trades in U.S. listed equity securities routed by us to other markets, and to execute trades in options that we route to other markets. 

With respect to options, all contracts traded on our exchanges must be cleared through clearing members of OCC. At December 31, 2023, there were 117 TPHs that are clearing members of OCC. Three clearing members accounted for approximately 79.6% of transaction and other fees collected through OCC in 2023. Additionally, the three largest clearing members clear the majority of the market-maker sides of transactions at Cboe Options, C2, BZX, EDGX and at all of the options exchanges. Should one of these clearing members or liquidity providers exit the business or withdraw from our options exchanges, impose additional market-maker financial requirements or if market-makers were unable to transfer to another clearing member or other liquidity providers were unable to provide additional liquidity, this could create a significant disruption to the options markets, including ours.

We cannot provide assurance that any of these providers will be able to continue to provide these services in an efficient manner or that they will be able to adequately expand their services to meet our needs. An interruption or malfunction in or the cessation or impairment of an important service by a third party or disruption of a third party’s operations could cause us to halt trading in some or all of our products or our services, make us unable to conduct other aspects of our business, cause us to experience the loss of a significant number of market participants or cause us to experience a significant reduction in trading activity on our options and futures markets, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, our inability to make alternative arrangements, such as moving clearing to another clearing agency, in a timely manner, or at all, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

If an index provider from which we have a license or a service provider with respect to proprietary products fails to maintain the quality and integrity of their indices or fails to perform under our agreements with them, if we fail to maintain the quality and integrity of our proprietary indices or indices and other values that we calculate as an index provider, or if customer preferences change, the revenues that are generated from the trading of proprietary products or the calculation and dissemination of index values may suffer.

We are a party to a number of license agreements that permit us to list tradeable products related to various indices that are among the most actively traded products on our exchanges. We also enter into agreements pursuant to which we act as an index provider and calculate and disseminate proprietary indices and other values. We believe that demand for our products is based in part on market perception of the quality and integrity of these indices. The quality and integrity of these indices are dependent on the ability of index providers, including us, to maintain the index. Maintenance includes ongoing index calculation, index rebalancing and dependance on index providers for a number of things, including the provision of index data. We also rely on index providers to enforce intellectual property rights against unlicensed uses of the indices and uses of the indices that infringe on our licenses. Some of our agreements concerning our proprietary products obligate the parties to those agreements to provide important services to us. If any of our index providers, including us, are unable to maintain the quality and integrity of indices, or if any of the index providers or service providers, including us, fail to perform their obligations under the agreements, trading in these products, and therefore transaction fees we receive, may be materially adversely affected or we may not receive the financial benefits of the agreements that we negotiated.

Differences in the calculations from methodologies described in published materials or incorrect calculations of our indices, including those instances that we announced on July 30, 2021, or the failure to implement any planned remedial changes may result in the loss of perceived quality and integrity of our indices, loss of demand for our products, increased potential for investigations and enforcement proceedings, increased potential for failure to perform our obligations under agreements concerning our products or in our capacity as an index provider, and increased exposure to third party claims and related litigation expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

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We may not effectively manage our growth, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

We expect that our business will continue to grow, which may place a significant strain on our management, personnel, systems and resources. We must continually improve our operational, billing, financial and regulatory systems and managerial controls and procedures, and may need to continue to expand, train and manage our workforce. We must also maintain close coordination among our technology, legal, accounting, finance, marketing, sales, regulatory and compliance functions. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed. For example, from time to time we discover and remediate billing errors, however, we are not aware of any of these errors having a material impact on our business, financial condition or operating results to date, however we cannot assure you that we will not experience future errors or events that may be material or result in additional regulatory scrutiny. Furthermore, failure to successfully expand into new asset classes, such as the digital asset space or U.S. Treasuries, or new geographies may materially adversely affect our growth strategy and our future profitability.

Our continued growth will require increased investment by us in technology, facilities, personnel, and financial and management systems and controls. It also will require expansion of our procedures for monitoring and assuring our compliance with applicable regulations, and we will need to integrate, train and manage a growing employee base. The expansion of our existing businesses, any expansion into new businesses and the resulting growth of our employee base will increase our need for internal audit and monitoring processes, which may be more extensive and broader in scope than those we have historically required. We may not be successful in identifying or implementing all of the processes that are necessary. Further, unless our growth results in an increase in our revenues that is proportionally greater than or equal to the increase in our costs associated with this growth, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

Our global operations are complex and subject us to increased business and economic risks that could adversely affect our financial results.

In addition to our operations in the U.S., we have operations in the UK, continental Europe, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia, Japan, Philippines, and Singapore. In connection with our expanded global operations, we face certain risks inherent in doing business globally. These risks include:

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
complying with extensive and complex compliance requirements, regulations and oversight by regulators other than our primary functional regulators;
difficulties in staffing and associated costs in managing multiple international locations;
general economic, social, and political conditions, including the conflicts in Eastern Europe and the Middle East;
protectionist laws and business practices that favor local businesses in some countries;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
different technology platforms;
language and cultural differences;
potentially adverse tax consequence; and
natural disasters and extreme weather events that may impact global operations differently.

If we are unable to manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, or if the risks above become substantial for us, our financial performance and operating results could suffer. Further, any measures we may implement to reduce risks of our global operations may not be effective, may increase our expenses and may require significant management time and effort.

More specifically, we have exposure to exchange rate movements between the British pound, the Euro, the Canadian dollar, the Hong Kong dollar, the Australian dollar, the Japanese Yen, the Philippine Peso, and the Singapore dollar against the U.S. dollar. Significant inflation or changes in foreign exchange rates with respect to one or more of these currencies could occur as a result of general economic or political conditions, acts of war or terrorism, changes in governmental monetary or tax policy, or changes in local interest rates. These exchange rate differences would affect the translation of our non-U.S. results of operations and financial condition into U.S. dollars as part of our consolidated financial statements. See Note 16 (“Segment Reporting”) for additional information about the Company’s geographic exposure.

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We and our licensors may not be able to protect our respective intellectual property rights.

We rely on patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws, the law of the doctrine of misappropriation and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary technology, proprietary products, index methodologies and other proprietary rights. In addition, we rely on the intellectual property rights of our licensors in connection with our listing of exclusively-licensed index options and futures products. We and our licensors may not be able to prevent third parties from copying, or otherwise obtaining and using, our intellectual property without authorization, listing our proprietary or exclusively-licensed index products without licenses or otherwise infringing on our rights. We and our licensors may have to rely on litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. We and our licensors may not be successful in this regard. Such litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs to us, diversion of our resources or a reduction in our revenues, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.

Our clearinghouse operations expose us to associated risks, including credit, liquidity, market and other risks related to the defaults of clearing participants and other counterparties, and risks related to investing of collateral.

We are subject to risks related to operating our clearinghouse, Cboe Clear Europe, including the risks of failing to meet strict business continuity requirements and regulatory oversight, risks of default by clearing participants and counterparties, due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure or other reasons, the risks associated with the adequacy of participants’ margin, default and interoperable funds, and risks related to investing of such funds. These risks could subject our business to substantial losses, reputational harm, regulatory consequences, including litigation, fines and enforcement actions, and the inability to operate our business, including the continued development of the European derivatives buildout. See below for additional risks related to our digital asset clearinghouse, Cboe Clear Digital.

To mitigate the credit risks related to defaults of clearing participants and other counterparties, including the market risk that we would only be able to close out a defaulting participant’s positions at a loss, there are minimum participation criteria to become a clearing participant and clearing participants are required to provide collateral to cover the margin requirement and default fund contributions. Furthermore, Cboe Clear Europe interoperates with two central counterparties and requires its applicable participants to make deposits to an interoperable fund, which are pledged to the interoperable central counterparties. No guarantee can be given that the collateral provided will at all times be sufficient, maintain its value, or provide absolute assurance against us experiencing financial losses from defaults by the participants or counterparties on their obligations. In addition, although such collateral is preferably held in European central banks, Cboe Clear Europe also holds collateral in central securities depositories and commercial banks, which can expose us to risk of default by those institutions, and invests cash collateral in accordance with its investment policy, such as in securities issued by pre-approved sovereign issuers and reverse repurchase agreements with overnight maturities, which expose us to risk of counterparty default which may result in losses and cause its clearing participants to lose confidence in our clearinghouse.

Cboe Clear Europe entered into a €1.25 billion committed syndicated multicurrency revolving and swingline credit facility that is available to be drawn by Cboe Clear Europe towards (a) financing unsettled amounts in connection with the settlement of transactions in securities and other items processed through Cboe Clear Europe’s clearing system and (b) financing any other liability or liquidity requirement of Cboe Clear Europe incurred in the operation of its clearing system, however we can give no assurance that this facility will be sufficient to meet all such obligations or sufficiently mitigate Cboe Clear Europe’s liquidity risk to meet its payment obligations when due. Substantial amounts of the collateral, and any amounts drawn under this facility, may be at risk if a clearing participant defaults on its obligations to our clearinghouse and its margin, default and interoperability fund deposits are insufficient to meet its obligations. This facility is expected to terminate on June 28, 2024 and we may not be able to enter into a replacement facility on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Additionally, investment losses in excess of capital set aside by Cboe Clear Europe for counterparty risk are allocated back to clearing participants. We cannot assure you that the mitigating measures, policies, safeguards and risk management procedures will be sufficient to detect problems or to protect us from a default or that we will not be materially and adversely affected in the event of a significant default.

Computer and communications systems failures and capacity constraints could harm our reputation and our business.

Our business depends on the integrity and performance of our computer and communications systems. If our systems cannot expand to cope with increased demand or otherwise fail to perform, as a result of a number of potential causes, including technical failure, natural disasters, extreme weather events, flooding, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent, and cannot be replaced in a sufficiently short time period, we could experience unanticipated

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disruptions in service, slower response times and delays in the introduction of new products and services. These consequences could result in trading outages, lower trading and clearing volumes, financial losses, decreased customer service and satisfaction and regulatory sanctions and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business. Although we have a back-up plan with respect to our significant trading and key corporate systems, the back-up systems or disaster recovery plans may prove to be inadequate in the event of a systems failure or cyber-security breach. Despite having disaster recovery facilities, there can be no guarantees that we will be able to open an efficient, transparent and liquid marketplace, if we can open at all, following a systems failure. Moreover, with extended trading hours, we have to operate our systems longer and have fewer non-trading hours to address any potential concerns with the systems on which we rely.

Our markets and clearinghouses have experienced occasional systems failures and delays in the past and in the future our systems may fail, in whole or in part, or may operate slowly, causing one or more of the following:

unanticipated disruption in trading of our exclusively listed proprietary products or in service to our participants;
failures or delays during peak trading times or times of unusual market volatility;
slower response times and delays in trade execution, clearing and processing;
incomplete or inaccurate accounting, recording, clearing or processing of trades; and
distribution of inaccurate or untimely market data to participants who rely on this data in their trading activity.

Any of these events may cause:

a loss in transaction, clearing or other fees due to the inability to provide trading in our exclusively listed proprietary products or provide services for a time;
requests by market participants or others that we reimburse them for financial loss, either within the constraints of the limited liability provisions of our exchanges’ rules or in excess of those amounts;
trading and clearing volumes to diminish on our markets and clearinghouse due to dissatisfaction with the platforms; and
one or more of our regulators to investigate or take enforcement action against us.

As a consequence of any of these events, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer materially.

In addition to other measures, we test our systems to confirm whether they will be able to handle anticipated present and future peak trading and clearing activity or times of unusual market volatility. However, we cannot assure you that our estimates of future trading or clearing volume will be accurate or that our systems will always be able to accommodate actual trading or clearing volume without failure or degradation of performance.

We anticipate that we will need to continue to make significant investments in hardware, software and telecommunications infrastructure to accommodate the increases in traffic, technology migrations, and system updates. Additionally, disruptions to the supply chain may interfere with the ability of our employees, vendors, technology equipment suppliers, data and disaster recovery centers, and other service providers to provide the requested hardware, software, and telecommunications infrastructure. If we cannot migrate, update, or increase the capacity and capabilities of our systems to accommodate increased trading or clearing activity and to execute our business strategy, our ability to maintain or expand our businesses would be materially adversely affected.

Our use of open source software code may subject our software to general release or require us to re-engineer our software, which could harm our business.

Our technology platform uses open source software code. Companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. In addition, some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code in their software and make any derivative works of the open source code available on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Open source license terms may be ambiguous, and many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated. We believe that our use of open source software is in compliance with the relevant open source software licenses and does not require disclosure of any of our source code. However, if we were found to have inappropriately used open source software, we may be required to release our proprietary source code, re-engineer or discontinue use of our software or take other remedial action any or all of which could cause disruptions in, or impose significant costs on, our business.

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Damage to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We believe one of our competitive strengths is our strong industry reputation. Various issues may give rise to reputational risk, including issues relating to:

the representation of our business in the media;
the quality and benefits of using our proprietary products, including the reliability, integrity and functionality of our transaction-based business and index calculations and the accuracy of our market data;
the ability to execute our business plan, key initiatives or new business ventures and the ability to keep up with changing customer demands and regulatory initiatives;
our regulatory compliance and our enforcement of compliance on our customers;
the accuracy of our customer billing, financial statements, and other financial and statistical information;
the quality of our corporate governance structure;
the quality of our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting, including any failures in supervision;
the integrity and performance of our computer and communications systems;
the ability to successfully complete technology migrations;
the failure to successfully expand into new asset classes, such as the digital asset space or U.S. Treasuries, or new geographies;
security breaches, including any unauthorized delivery of proprietary data to third parties;
management of our outsourcing relationships, including our relationship with FINRA and NFA;
any misconduct or fraudulent activity by our employees, especially senior management, or other persons formerly or currently associated with us;
our listings business and our enforcement of our listing rules; and
any negative publicity surrounding the ETPs that we serve as the listing destination.

Damage to our reputation could cause a reduction in the trading volume of our proprietary products or on our markets or cause us to lose customers. This, in turn, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Financial or other problems experienced by third parties could have an adverse effect on our business.

We are exposed to credit risk from third parties, including customers, clearing agents and counterparties. For example, we are exposed to credit risk for transaction fees we bill to customers on a monthly basis in arrears. Our customers and other third parties may default on their obligations to us due to a lack of liquidity, operational failure, bankruptcy or other reasons. For additional credit risks related to our clearinghouse operations, see the Risk Factor “Our clearinghouse operations expose us to associated risks, including credit, liquidity, market and other risks related to the defaults of clearing participants and other counterparties and risks related to investing of collateral”

In addition, with respect to orders Cboe Trading routes to other markets for execution on behalf of our customers, Cboe Trading is exposed to counterparty credit risk in the case of failure to perform on the part of our routing and clearing firms that are involved in processing equities and options transactions on our behalf, as well as failure on the part of such brokers to pass back any transactional rebates. Wedbush and Morgan Stanley guarantee equity trades until one day after the trade date, after which time NSCC provides a guarantee. Thus, Cboe Trading is potentially exposed to credit risk to the counterparty to an equity trade routed to another market center between the trade date and one day after the trade date in the event that Wedbush or Morgan Stanley fails to perform. Additionally, BIDS Trading has counterparty credit risk exposure to BOA related to clearing until the day following the trade date, after which time NSCC provides a guarantee. With respect to U.S. listed equity options and futures, we deliver matched trades of our customers to the OCC, which acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Options, C2, BZX, EDGX, and CFE and, as such, guarantees clearance and settlement of all of our matched options and futures trades. With respect to Canadian equities, we deliver reports of matched trades of our customers to CDS, which acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Canada Inc. and, as such, guarantees clearance and settlement of all of our matched Canadian equities trades. With respect to trades in options and futures occurring on Cboe Europe Derivatives, Cboe Clear Europe acts as a central counterparty that, for its clearing participants, becomes the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer. As a result, Cboe Clear Europe guarantees the timely performance of the settlement obligations of buyers and sellers and takes on the risk of the performance of the transactions that it clears. With respect to Australian equities and derivatives, we deliver matched trades of our customers to ASX Clear Pty Ltd and ASX Settlement Pty Ltd. ASX Clear Pty Ltd acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Australia and, as such, guarantees clearance and

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settlement on all of our matched trades in Australia. With respect to Japanese equities, we deliver matched trades of our customers to the JSCC, which acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Japan and, as such, guarantees clearance and settlement on all of our matched trades in Japan. With respect to trades in digital assets occurring on Cboe Digital Exchange, we deliver matched trades of our customers to Cboe Clear Digital, which acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Digital Exchange and, as such, guarantees clearance and settlement of all of those matched spot and futures trades.

With respect to routed U.S. equity transactions, Cboe Trading has counterparty credit risk exposure to Wedbush and Morgan Stanley related to clearing until the day following the trade date. Cboe Trading uses Wedbush to clear trades routed through affiliates of Bank of America Corporation as well as for trades routed directly to other exchanges and optionally dark pools. Morgan Stanley clears trades routed through the Morgan Stanley routing brokers and also clears executions routed to most dark pools. Cboe Trading maintains counterparty credit risk exposure from routing brokers with respect to rebates earned until completion of the routing brokers next invoice cycle following the execution.

With respect to U.S. listed equity and exchange traded product options, Cboe Trading is subject to counterparty credit risk exposure with respect to rebates earned from routing brokers until completion of the routing brokers’ next invoice cycle following the execution.

Our exposure to credit risk may be further impacted by volatile securities markets that may affect the ability of our customers, counterparties and other third parties to satisfy their obligations to us. Moreover, we may not be successful in managing our credit risk through mitigating measures, policies, safeguards and risk management procedures, reporting and control procedures or by maintaining credit standards. Any losses arising from such defaults or other credit losses could materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

While neither Cboe FX nor Cboe SEF has direct counterparty risk, Cboe FX or Cboe SEF may suffer a decrease in transaction volume if a bank or prime broker experiences an event that causes other prime brokers to decrease or revoke the credit available to the prime broker experiencing the event. Therefore, Cboe FX and Cboe SEF may have risk that is related to the credit of the banks and prime brokers that trade spot FX on the Cboe FX platform, or NDFs on Cboe SEF.

We may be required to assume ownership of a position in securities in connection with our order routing service, which could subject us to trading losses when our broker-dealer disposes of that position.

We offer a smart-order routing service through our broker-dealer subsidiary, Cboe Trading, which provides its customers with access to other market centers when we route their orders to those market centers for execution. In connection with this service, we may assume ownership of a position in securities. This may occur, for example, when a market center to which we have routed a customer’s order experiences systemic issues and is unable to determine the status of that order. When this happens, we may make a business decision to provide a cancellation notice to our customer, relieving our customer of any liability with respect to the order. We may be informed later, however, that the order was executed at the market center to which we routed it, in which case Cboe Trading would be required to take ownership of that securities position. Our third party clearing brokers maintain error accounts on behalf of Cboe Trading into which such positions settle, and we require the respective clearing broker to trade out of those positions as expeditiously as possible, which could result in our incurring trading losses.

We selectively explore acquisition opportunities and strategic alliances relating to other businesses, products or technologies. We may not be successful in integrating other businesses, products or technologies with our business. Any such transaction also may not produce the results we anticipate, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We selectively explore and pursue acquisition and other opportunities to strengthen our business and grow our Company. We may enter into business combination transactions, make acquisitions or enter into strategic partnerships, joint ventures or alliances, any of which may be material. The market for acquisition targets and strategic alliances is highly competitive, which could make it more difficult to find appropriate merger or acquisition opportunities. If we are required to raise capital by incurring debt or issuing additional equity for any reason in connection with a strategic acquisition or investment, financing may not be available or the terms of such financing may not be favorable to us and our stockholders, whose interests may be diluted by the issuance of additional stock.

For example, in 2022 we completed our acquisitions of Cboe Digital, an operator of a U.S. based digital asset spot market, a regulated futures exchange and a regulated clearinghouse, and Aequitas Innovations Inc. and Neo Exchange Inc., which at the time were recognized Canadian securities exchanges. In 2021 we purchased Cboe Asia Pacific, a

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holding company of alternative market operators in Australia and Japan, and in 2020, we purchased Hanweck and the assets of FT Options, which are providers of risk analytics market data, the assets of Trade Alert, a real-time alerts and order flow analysis service provider, Cboe Clear Europe, an operator of a European clearinghouse, and TriAct Canada Marketplace LP, which at the time was an operator of an equities ATS in Canada called MATCHNow. At the end of 2020, we also purchased BIDS Trading, a registered broker-dealer and operator of the BIDS ATS in the U.S., which is not a registered national securities exchange or a facility thereof. Cboe maintains the BIDS ATS as an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with the Exchanges.

The process of integration, including in new geographies and asset classes with new regulatory regimes, may expose us to a number of unforeseen risks and operating difficulties, including risks relating to information technology migrations, integrations and security, regulatory issues, and other issues, and may divert the attention of management from the ongoing operation of our business and harm our reputation. We may not successfully achieve the integration objectives, and we may not realize the anticipated cost savings, revenue growth and synergies in full or at all, or it may take longer to realize them than expected, any of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

Further, the success of acquisitions, integrations, and future operations may also depend in part on our ability to retain following acquisitions key employees of acquired companies or find suitable candidates to replace such key employees who leave. If we are unable to retain such key employees, including management, we could face disruptions in our operations, integrations, loss of customers, loss of key information, expertise or know-how, and unanticipated additional recruitment costs.

For additional risks related to our Cboe Digital acquisition, see the Risk Factors Section entitled “Risks Relating to Our Cboe Digital Business” below.

A pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects may have significant impacts on economies around the world. Impacts of a pandemic could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

A pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may have significant impacts on economies around the world. Governments, public institutions, and other organizations around the world may take or reimpose previous, emergency measures to combat a potential pandemic, including vaccination requirements, implementation of travel bans, stay-at-home orders, border closures, and closures of offices, factories, schools, public buildings and businesses. These measures may disrupt the supply chain and may interfere with the ability of our employees, vendors, technology equipment suppliers, data and disaster recovery centers, and other service providers to perform their respective responsibilities and obligations relative to the conduct of our business. In addition to uncertain expenses and impacts to our business we may incur due to a pandemic as part of us providing a safe and healthy work and trading environment, employees working remotely from different locations and in connection with our return to our offices, we may also be subject to claims from employees or customers alleging failure to maintain safe premises and restrictions with respect to protocols relating to such pandemic. Further, changes in trading behavior, impacts to trading behavior due to market disruptions, temporary suspensions of open outcry trading, temporary regulatory measures and other future developments caused by the effects of a pandemic, including a re-occurrence of cases and the emergence of variants, could impact trading volumes and the demand for our products, market data and services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows and could heighten many of the other risks described herein.

Risks Relating to Legal and Regulatory Matters

We operate in a highly regulated industry and may be subject to censures, fines and other legal proceedings if we fail to comply with legal and regulatory obligations.

Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA are registered national securities exchanges and SROs, and, as such, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the SEC. CFE is a DCM and Cboe SEF is a SEF, each registered with the CFTC and subject to comprehensive regulation by the CFTC. In addition to its other SRO responsibilities, BZX, as a listing market, also is responsible for evaluating applications submitted by issuers interested in listing their securities on BZX and monitoring each issuer’s compliance with BZX’s continued listing standards. The Exchanges may be subject to additional responsibilities in other international jurisdictions where the Exchanges may be authorized to act as foreign exchanges. Failure to comply with these SRO and other responsibilities could result in potential sanctions or fines and a negative impact on Cboe’s reputation and/or branding.

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Our European businesses are subject to regulatory oversight in the UK by the FCA and in the Netherlands by the DNB and the AFM, which, through the “passporting” regime, provides authorization to carry on business in other Member States of the EU and the EEA in accordance with the applicable EU legislation and regulation to which our European business is subject. Cboe Canada Inc. is subject to regulatory oversight in Canada by its primary provincial securities authority, the OSC. In addition, Cboe Canada Inc. is a Marketplace Member of, and subject to a regulation services agreement with, CIRO. Cboe Australia is subject to regulatory oversight in Australia by the ASIC. Cboe Japan is subject to regulatory oversight in Japan by the JFSA and the JSDA. BIDS Trading is a registered broker-dealer subject to regulatory oversight in the U.S. by the SEC and FINRA and is maintained as an independently managed and operated trading venue, separate from and not integrated with the SROs. The Chief Executive Officer of BIDS Trading leads BIDS Trading as an independent business within Cboe, reporting into an independent committee of the Board of Directors of Cboe Global Markets. If a regulatory authority makes a finding of non-compliance, conditional fines could be imposed, and our licenses could be revoked. Any such fine or revocation of a license could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. The Cboe Digital futures exchange and clearinghouse are regulated by the CFTC and subject to comprehensive regulation by the CFTC. For risks related to Cboe Digital see also below “Risks Relating to Our Cboe Digital Business.”

In addition to the requirements related to operating our U.S. markets imposed by the SEC and the CFTC, we also have certain responsibilities for regulating the TPHs and members that trade on our Exchanges. While we have entered into agreements under which FINRA, with respect to our options and equities exchanges provides certain regulatory services, and under which OCC, with respect to CFE provides certain financial surveillance and regulatory services, we retain ultimate responsibility for the regulation of our TPHs and members. We have begun to perform internally more of the regulatory services that FINRA used to handle and now perform internally the regulatory functions that NFA previously handled on behalf of CFE.

Our ability to comply with applicable laws and rules is largely dependent on the establishment and maintenance of appropriate systems and procedures, our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, the ability of FINRA and OCC to perform under their respective RSAs, the ability of FINRA and OCC to transition to us any other potential responsibilities under their respective RSAs, our ability to complete the new additional responsibilities for regulating our TPHs and members and our oversight of the work done by FINRA and OCC. The SEC and CFTC have broad powers to audit, investigate and enforce compliance and to punish noncompliance by, as applicable, SROs, DCMs and SEFs pursuant to applicable laws, rules and regulations.

If a regulatory authority were to find one of our programs of enforcement or compliance to be deficient, our SROs, DCM, or SEF could be the subject of investigations and enforcement proceedings that may result in substantial sanctions, including revocation of registration as a national securities exchange, DCM, or SEF. Any such investigations or proceedings, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs, the diversion of resources, including management time, and potential harm to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, our SROs, DCM, or SEF may be required to modify or restructure their regulatory functions in response to any changes in the regulatory environment, or they may be required to rely on third parties to perform regulatory and oversight functions, each of which may require us to incur substantial expenses and may harm our reputation if our regulatory services are deemed inadequate.

In addition, SROs are required by federal law to perform a variety of regulatory functions. In light of these responsibilities, some courts have held that SROs are immune to certain private causes of action relating to the performance of these regulatory functions. There is a risk that some courts may not apply this immunity doctrine to all claims. There is also a risk that legislative or regulatory developments may change the application of this immunity doctrine. Limitations on the application of the immunity doctrine could result in an increased exposure to litigation, and increase liability and/or other legal expenses. Further under the CEA, CFE, Cboe SEF and Cboe Digital Exchange may be subject to litigation alleging that they have acted in bad faith. We also could be exposed to liability to regulators or other governmental authorities even in situations where immunity would bar a civil claim.

Legislative or regulatory changes affecting our markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Changes in regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FCA, Central Bank of the Netherlands (“DNB”), AFM, CIRO, OSC, ASIC, JFSA, JSDA, other domestic and foreign regulators or other government action, including approval by these regulators of rule filings or initiatives by other SROs or entities, including OCC, could materially affect our markets, products and clearinghouse. In recent years, the securities and derivatives industries have been subject to regulatory changes as a result of increasing government and public scrutiny of the securities and derivatives industries. We have also experienced, and we may also experience due to changes in administrations in the jurisdictions that we operate and

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expansion into other asset classes, such as the digital asset space or U.S. Treasuries and geographies, an increase in rulemaking and legislation that could affect our business.

In particular, in December 2022, the SEC released four proposals that could impact equity market structure: (1) Disclosure of Order Execution Information (Rule 605); (2) Regulation NMS Amendments: Tick Size, Access Fees, and Transparency; (3) Regulation Best Execution; and (4) Proposed Rule to Enhance Order Competition. These proposals have been noticed for public comment. If adopted as-is or additional proposals or changes to the existing equity market structure proposals emerge, we could experience market technology changes, incur additional compliance costs, experience negative impacts on our volumes, liquidity, and fees, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Further, on October 18, 2023, the SEC released the Volume Based Proposal and, although the new rules do not appear likely to have a near term material impact, the new rules may have a long term material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, there is a reduction of overall volumes, liquidity, or market share on Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA.

Under EU and UK regulations, European and UK banks and other European and UK financial institutions become subject to punitive capital charges if they transact options or futures through a third country central counterparty (“CCP”) that is not recognized in the applicable jurisdiction. OCC, our clearinghouse for U.S. options and futures, is recognized as a third country CCP by the EU and is currently operating under the UK’s temporary recognition regime. Although the UK has not issued any equivalency determination with respect to U.S. CCPs, OCC has submitted its application for permanent recognition in the UK. The current deadline for recognition in the UK is December 31, 2025, and may be extended by His Majesty’s Treasury in the future in increments of 12 months each. As a prerequisite to ultimately achieving recognition in the UK, it is possible that OCC could be required by the UK to contribute capital to its default waterfall applicable in the event of clearing member default. This capital could be required to be drawn before the default fund contributions of non-defaulting clearing members in the event that a defaulting clearing member’s margin and other contributions were to be exhausted. OCC’s stockholders, including Cboe Options, could effectively be required to fund this capital. If the UK does not recognize OCC as a third country CCP, then UK market participants that clear through OCC would become subject to punitive capital charges. As a result, we could experience the loss of a significant number of UK market participants and a significant reduction in trading activity on our options and futures markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

The implementation of MiFID II and MiFIR in Europe at the beginning of 2018 has encouraged competition among market centers in Europe. MiFID II and MiFIR have introduced a number of new rules, including enhanced internal organizational and compliance monitoring requirements, which apply directly to European trading venues such as our MTF and RM. The impact of MiFID II and MiFIR is significant, and the increased competition among market centers could reduce trading fees, while increasing our costs of operating in Europe. Additionally, European authorities are currently undertaking a review of MiFID as a result of which new rules may come into effect that could have a material impact on our business.

In 2021 the E.C. published proposals for the review of EU market structure, including provisions for a consolidated tape for the EU and changes to the transparency regime for equities. These proposals are expected to be implemented during 2026. As proposed, these new rules may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

The legislative and regulatory environment in which the spot FX market operates is evolving and has undergone significant changes in the recent past, and there may be future regulatory changes in the spot FX industry. The FX Global Code was published in 2017 and sets forth standards of conduct agreed by market participants and central banks on a global basis to apply to the wholesale FX market, and the effect of its publication on conduct and future regulation continues to evolve. Cboe FX issued a Statement of Commitment declaring its commitment to conduct its FX market activities in a manner consistent with the principles of the FX Global Code. Amendments to the FX Global Code, changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and regulations by applicable governmental bodies and regulatory organizations, or the adoption of new legal or regulatory requirements, may also adversely affect our spot FX business. Further, our FX NDF business may also be adversely affected by proposed regulatory changes to the rules governing swap execution facilities.

It is also possible that there will be additional legislative, regulatory, and enforcement changes, priorities or efforts in the environment in which we operate, or plan to operate, our businesses. Actions on any of the specific regulatory issues currently under review in the U.S. or internationally and other proposals could have a material impact on our business.

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In addition, U.S. and foreign legislatures and regulators could impose legislative or regulatory changes that could materially adversely impact the ability of our market participants to use our markets or participate in the securities industry at all. Any such changes could result in the loss of a significant number of market participants or a reduction in trading activity on our markets, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Changes or proposed changes in regulation may also result in additional costs of compliance and modification of market participants’ trading activity on our Exchanges and markets.

Any infringement by us on intellectual property rights of others could result in litigation and could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

Our competitors, as well as others, have obtained, or may obtain, patents or may otherwise hold intellectual property rights that are related to our technology or the types of products and services we offer or plan to offer. We may not be aware of all intellectual property that may pose a risk of infringement by our products, services or technologies. In addition, some potential patent applications in the U.S. are confidential until a patent is issued, and therefore we cannot evaluate the extent to which our products, services or technologies may be covered or asserted to be covered in pending patent applications. Thus, we cannot be sure that our products, services or technologies do not infringe on the rights of others or that others will not make claims of infringement against us. Claims of infringement are not uncommon in our industry, and even if we believe that such claims are without merit, they can be time-consuming and costly to defend and divert management resources and attention. If one or more of our products, services or technologies were determined to infringe a patent or other intellectual property right held by another party, we may be required to pay damages, stop using, developing or marketing those products, services or technologies, obtain a license from the intellectual property rights holders, or redesign those products, services or technologies to avoid infringement. If we were required to stop using, developing or marketing certain products, services or technologies, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed. Moreover, if we were unable to obtain required licenses, we may not be able to redesign our products, services or technologies to avoid infringement, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Misconduct by our TPHs, members, participants or others could harm us.

We run the risk that our TPHs, members, participants, other persons who use our markets or our products, other persons for whom we clear transactions, our employees or those with which we have business relationships may engage in fraud, market or product manipulation, or other misconduct, which could result in regulatory and legal sanctions and penalties and serious harm to our reputation, especially because we are the parent company of SROs. It is not always possible to deter misconduct, or market or product manipulation, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. In addition, misconduct, or market or product manipulation by, or failures of, participants on our or other exchanges may discourage trading on our Exchanges or of our products, which could reduce revenues.

Potential conflicts of interest between our for-profit status and our regulatory responsibilities may adversely affect our business.

As a for-profit business with regulatory responsibilities, we are responsible for disciplining TPHs and members for violating our rules, including by imposing fines and sanctions. This may create a conflict of interest between our business interests and our regulatory responsibilities. Any failure by us to fulfill our regulatory obligations could significantly harm our reputation, increase regulatory scrutiny or cause the SEC or CFTC to take action against us, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

BIDS Trading’s ability to operate under its current regulatory framework is dependent upon the sufficiency of a novel operational and governance framework we have developed to govern our relationship with BIDS Trading and our ability to comply with such framework and if we fail to adhere to such framework or the BIDS Trading ATS is otherwise deemed a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.

The U.S. equities ATS operated by BIDS Trading is regulated as a broker-dealer sponsored alternative trading system and not a registered national securities exchange. Because we acquired BIDS Trading, it is now under common ownership with our registered national securities exchanges that, in some cases, offer trading in the same securities as those traded on the BIDS Trading ATS. Absent sufficient separation, this common ownership of an ATS and registered national securities exchanges offering trading in the same securities presents the potential for the BIDS Trading ATS to be deemed a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges. If the BIDS Trading ATS were to be deemed to be

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a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges, certain exchange regulations could be extended to the BIDS Trading ATS, which could have a material adverse impact on BIDS Trading’s business model. This could reduce the BIDS Trading ATS’ competitiveness and volumes and could result in a reduction of the value of the BIDS Trading ATS to us. This could also potentially result in fines or other penalties being assessed against us for our failure to operate the BIDS Trading ATS as a “facility,” which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

To mitigate the risk that the BIDS Trading ATS is deemed a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges, we have developed and implemented an operational and governance framework for our ownership of BIDS Trading that is intended to preserve the strategic, technological, business, and operational independence of the BIDS Trading ATS from our registered national securities exchange businesses, such that the BIDS Trading ATS and our registered national securities exchanges would not be deemed to be integrated or otherwise linked for “facility” purposes. This framework is supported by highly detailed policies, procedures and controls. However, because of the lack of precedent for common ownership of an ATS and registered national security exchanges offering trading in the same securities, there is risk that our framework and supporting policies, procedures and controls could be deemed to be insufficient to prevent the BIDS Trading ATS from being deemed to be a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges. In addition, because of the comprehensive and highly detailed nature of our framework and supporting policies, procedures and controls, there is risk that we could inadvertently fail to fully adhere to our operational and governance framework and related policies, procedures and controls. There is also risk that new legislation or regulation, or changes in existing regulation or other government action, relating to “facilities” of registered national securities exchanges and/or the common ownership of an ATS and registered national securities exchanges offering trading in the same securities could materially affect our ability to own and operate the BIDS Trading ATS under the current operational and governance framework, including without the BIDS Trading ATS being deemed a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges. Occurrence of any of the risks described in this paragraph could result in the BIDS Trading ATS being deemed to be a “facility” of our registered national securities exchanges, which could reduce the BIDS Trading ATS’ competitiveness and volumes and could result in a reduction of the value of the BIDS Trading ATS to us, and could also potentially result in fines or other penalties being assessed against us for our failure to operate the BIDS Trading ATS as a “facility,” which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

If our risk management and compliance methods are not effective, we may suffer adverse consequences, such as investigations and enforcement actions from regulators, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.

We maintain risk management, compliance and monitoring policies, procedures and programs that are reasonably designed to help with our compliance with applicable laws and rules and to prevent, detect, deter, monitor and manage our risks, including enterprise risk, compliance, regulatory, and internal audit programs, but such policies, procedures and programs may not be fully effective in their operation. Further, we face the risk of intervention by regulatory authorities, including extensive examination and surveillance activity. In the case of actual or alleged non-compliance with applicable laws or regulations, we could be subject to investigations and judicial or administrative proceedings that may result in penalties, settlements or civil lawsuits, including by customers, or third parties, for damages, which may be substantial. For example, the SEC has previously brought actions against exchange operators, including us, for failing to fulfill their obligations to have an effective regulatory system. Any failure to comply with applicable laws and rules could materially adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and operating results and, in extreme cases, our ability to conduct our business or portions thereof. As the parent company for SROs, other markets, and a clearinghouse, we are responsible for maintaining markets that comply with securities and futures laws, SEC, FCA, AFM, DNB, CIRO, OSC, ASIC, JFSA, JSDA, ESMA, and CFTC regulations and the rules of the respective exchanges, markets and clearinghouse.

We have methods to identify, monitor and manage our risks. Management of legal, compliance, and regulatory risk, among other risks, requires policies and procedures to properly monitor and manage risk. Additionally, as we continue to integrate the technology, associates, and processes of recent acquisitions, we may not be able to identify additional risks. Further, the practices we utilize to integrate these acquisitions may not be effective at identifying or monitoring and managing risks related to ongoing integration activities. If our policies, procedures, and compliance systems are not effective or we are not successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are or may be exposed, our business, reputation, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We cannot provide assurance that our policies and procedures will always be effective, or that our management, compliance department, risk department, regulatory department and related enterprise risk management framework, including the three lines of defense approach, and internal audit department would be able to identify any such ineffectiveness. If these departments or the enterprise risk management framework, and related policies and procedures are not effective, we may be subject to monetary or other penalties by our regulators, and our insurance policies may not provide adequate coverage.

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Our ability to implement or amend rules could be limited or delayed because of regulation, which could negatively affect our ability to implement needed changes.

Our Exchanges registered with the SEC must submit proposed rule changes to the SEC for its review and, in many cases, its approval. Even where a proposed rule change may be effective upon filing with the SEC, the SEC retains the right to suspend and disapprove such a rule change. Also, the CFTC may stay or disapprove rules that we file with it for Cboe Digital futures exchange and clearinghouse, CFE, or Cboe SEF. The rule review process can be lengthy and can significantly delay the implementation of proposed rule changes that we believe are necessary to the operation of our markets. If the SEC or CFTC delays, including because of a government shutdown, or does not allow one of our Exchanges to implement a rule change, this could negatively affect our ability to make needed changes or implement business activities.

Similarly, the SEC must approve amendments to our exchange subsidiaries’ certificates of incorporation and bylaws as well as certain amendments to the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of Cboe Global Markets. The SEC may decide not to approve a proposed amendment or may delay such approval in a manner that could negatively affect our ability to make a desired change, which could prevent or delay us from improving the operations of our markets or recognize income from new products.

Changes in the tax laws and regulations affecting us, our products and our market participants could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Legislation may be proposed, both domestically and internationally, that could add a transaction tax on our products or change the way that our market participants are taxed on the products they trade on our markets. A number of federal, state and local jurisdictions in the U.S. and EU Member States have considered a financial transaction tax, but many details remain to be discussed and agreed, including how to assess the tax. Additionally, legislation has been proposed from time to time on a federal level that would introduce in the U.S. mark-to-market tax treatment for all derivatives contracts and require gains and losses be taxed at ordinary income tax rates. Implementation of such taxes could result in a reduction in volumes and liquidity, which would have a negative impact on our operations.

In addition to proposed tax changes that could affect our market participants, like other corporations, we are subject to taxes at federal, state and local levels, as well as in non-U.S. jurisdictions. More specifically, some jurisdictions where we operate are implementing Pillar 2 laws to effectuate a 15% minimum tax as of January 1, 2024. Currently, we do not expect a material tax cost to arise from the implementation of such legislation, as drafted. Changes in tax laws, including Pillar 2 laws, regulations or policies or successful claims by tax authorities could result in our having to pay higher taxes, which would in turn reduce our net income. If this occurs, we may experience a higher effective tax rate.

We are subject to litigation risks and other liabilities.

Many aspects of our business involve substantial risks of litigation and other liabilities. Although under current law we expect to be immune from private suits arising from conduct within our regulatory authority and from acts and forbearances incident to the exercise of our regulatory authority, we expect this immunity will only cover certain of our activities in the U.S., and we could be exposed to liability under foreign, national and local laws, court decisions and rules and regulations promulgated by regulatory agencies.

Some of our other liability risks arise under the laws and regulations relating to the tax, employment, intellectual property, anti-money laundering, technology export, cybersecurity, foreign asset controls, foreign corrupt practices, employee labor and employment areas, including anti-discrimination and fair-pay laws and regulations, and the businesses of companies listed on any of our exchanges. Liability could also result from disputes over the terms of a trade executed on one of our markets, claims that a system failure or delay cost a customer money, claims we entered into an unauthorized transaction or claims that we provided materially false or misleading statements in connection with a transaction.

For example, we are subject to on-going legal disputes that could result in the payment of fines, penalties or damages and could expose us to additional liability in the future. See Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” in this Annual Report for a general description of our legal proceedings and claims and Note 23 (“Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees – Legal Proceedings”) to the consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for a summary of specific legal proceedings.

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Further, we could incur significant expenses vigorously defending the claims mentioned above (including those found to be barred due to immunity) and any future claims, even those without merit, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcomes of existing claims and any future claims cannot be determined and an adverse resolution of any lawsuit or claim against us may require us to pay substantial damages or impose restrictions on how we conduct business, either of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, we may have to establish accruals for those matters in circumstances when a loss contingency is considered probable and the related amount is reasonably estimable. Any such accruals may be adjusted as circumstances change.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Indebtedness

We have outstanding indebtedness and commitments, which may decrease our business flexibility and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $647.9 million of senior unsecured notes due 2027, $494.8 million of senior unsecured notes due 2030, $296.4 million of senior unsecured notes due 2032, no funds outstanding under our revolving credit facility and no funds outstanding under the Cboe Clear Europe credit facility. In 2023, we terminated and paid off outstanding amounts under our term loan facility. The financial and other covenants to which we have agreed and our indebtedness may have the effect of reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less indebtedness and making us more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions. Further, we may default on our obligations or violate the covenants, in which case, we may be required to seek a waiver of such default or the debt obligations may be accelerated. A default under any of our indebtedness with cross default provisions could result in a default on our other indebtedness. Our indebtedness may also increase future borrowing costs, and the covenants pertaining thereto may also limit our ability to repurchase shares of our common stock, increase dividends or obtain additional financing to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or general corporate requirements. We are also required to dedicate a larger portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, including working capital, capital expenditures, regulatory capital requirements, and general corporate purposes. Also, our ability to fund capital expenditures and return capital to stockholders may depend on the amount of capital held due to regulatory capital requirements and the amount of capital committed related to lines of credit granted by the Company to our subsidiaries in connection with their regulatory capital requirements.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our debt obligations and to fund planned capital expenditures depend on our ability to generate cash from our operations. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

We may not be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances, any of which could impede the implementation of our business strategy or prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business. Additionally, we may not be able to affect such actions, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any of the foregoing consequences could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Deterioration in our credit profile may increase our costs of borrowing money.

As of December 31, 2023, we have investment grade credit ratings from S&P Global Ratings (A-) and Moody’s Investor Service (A3). Ratings from credit agencies are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold our securities, and each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating. There is no assurance that we will maintain such credit ratings, since credit ratings may be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, the circumstances warrant. If a rating agency were to downgrade our rating below investment grade, our borrowing costs could increase.

If our goodwill, long-lived assets, investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries and intangible assets become impaired, the resulting charge to earnings may be significant.

We are required to assess investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries and intangible assets for impairment at least annually. Goodwill impairment testing is performed annually in the fiscal fourth quarter or more frequently if conditions exist that indicate that the asset may be impaired. In the future, we may take charges against e