Company Quick10K Filing
Cboe
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 112 $11,820
10-K 2020-02-21 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-11-01 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-08-02 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-05-03 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-02-22 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-11-02 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-08-03 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-05-04 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-02-22 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-11-07 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-08-04 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-05-11 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-02-21 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-11-08 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-08-02 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-05-03 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2016-02-19 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-11-03 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-08-06 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-05-06 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2015-02-20 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-11-04 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-08-06 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-05-06 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2014-02-21 Annual: 2013-12-31
10-Q 2013-08-06 Quarter: 2013-06-30
10-Q 2013-05-07 Quarter: 2013-03-31
10-K 2013-02-28 Annual: 2012-12-31
10-Q 2012-11-06 Quarter: 2012-09-30
10-Q 2012-08-07 Quarter: 2012-06-30
10-Q 2012-05-08 Quarter: 2012-03-31
10-K 2012-02-28 Annual: 2011-12-31
10-Q 2011-11-08 Quarter: 2011-09-30
10-Q 2011-08-09 Quarter: 2011-06-29
10-Q 2011-05-10 Quarter: 2011-03-31
10-K 2011-03-16 Annual: 2010-12-31
10-Q 2010-11-12 Quarter: 2010-09-30
10-Q 2010-08-12 Quarter: 2010-06-30
10-Q 2010-06-11 Quarter: 2010-03-31
8-K 2020-02-11 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2020-02-07 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-10 Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-10-30 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-10-29 Earnings, Accountant, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-09 Accountant, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-16 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-03 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-11 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-08 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-07 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-03 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-17 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-04 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-23 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-22 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-28 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-09 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-10 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2017-12-31 Officers, Exhibits
CBOE 2019-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5.Market for Registrant'S Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-4.6 ex-4d6.htm
EX-10.26 ex-10d26.htm
EX-10.28 ex-10d28.htm
EX-10.66 ex-10d66.htm
EX-10.67 ex-10d67.htm
EX-10.68 ex-10d68.htm
EX-10.69 ex-10d69.htm
EX-21.1 ex-21d1.htm
EX-23.1 ex-23d1.htm
EX-31.1 ex-31d1.htm
EX-31.2 ex-31d2.htm
EX-32.1 ex-32d1.htm
EX-32.2 ex-32d2.htm

Cboe Earnings 2019-12-31

CBOE 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
CBOE 13,208 5,019 1,691 1,899 1,192 428 665 13,933 63% 21.0 9%
SNSR 11,235 6 17 2 0 -4 -3 11,235 23% -3,357.0 -58%
NAN 9,676 68 1 0 0 0 0 9,676 0%
FMHI 2,852 1 0 0 0 -1 -1 2,852 32% -3,003.4 -137%
ACV 2,587 2,050 528 1,663 866 173 248 2,275 52% 9.2 8%
LXP 2,543 3,035 1,444 330 0 226 389 2,409 0% 6.2 7%
WRE 2,210 2,675 1,351 323 152 335 477 2,195 47% 4.6 13%
CNTF 2,064 349 61 0 0 0 0 2,149 0%
NMRK 1,917 3,584 2,576 1,586 0 178 387 2,342 0% 6.0 5%
ACT 1,672 1 0 0 0 -1 -1 1,672 0% -2,902.0 -119%

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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

Form 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ____________ to ____________

Commission File No. 001-34774

Cboe Global Markets, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

20-5446972

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification Number)

400 South LaSalle Street

Chicago, Illinois

60605

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code

(312) 786-5600

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

   Trading Symbol (s) 

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

CBOE

CboeBZX

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One):

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of the Registrant's outstanding voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $11.5 billion based on the closing price of $103.63 per share of common stock.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of February 14, 2020 was 110,435,193 shares of common stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of Cboe Global Market’s Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed no later than 120 days after December 31, 2019, are incorporated by reference in Part III.

1

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CBOE GLOBAL MARKETS, INC.

2019 FORM 10-K

    

PART I

Item 1.

Business

7

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

25

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

43

Item 2.

Properties

43

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

43

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

44

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

45

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

48

Item 7.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

50

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

79

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

82

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

126

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

126

Item 9B.

Other Information

126

PART III

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

127

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

127

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

127

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

127

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

127

PART IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

128

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

134

2

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CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

Throughout this document, unless otherwise specified or the context so requires:

"Cboe," "we," "us," "our" or "the Company" refers to Cboe Global Markets, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
"ADV" means average daily volume.
"ADNV" means average daily notional value.
"AFM" refers to the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets.
"Bats Global Markets" and "Bats" refer to our wholly-owned subsidiary Bats Global Markets, Inc., now known as Cboe Bats, LLC, and its subsidiaries.
"BYX" refers to Cboe BYX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"BZX" refers to Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"C2" refers to Cboe C2 Exchange, Inc. a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe Chi-X Europe" refers to Cboe Chi-X Europe Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe Europe Equities" refers to the combined businesses of Cboe Europe and Cboe NL.
"Cboe Europe" refers to Cboe Europe Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the U.K. operator of our Multilateral Trading Facility ("MTF"), our Regulated Market ("RM"), and our Approved Publication Arrangement ("APA") under its Recognized Investment Exchange ("RIE") status.
"Cboe FX" refers to Cboe FX Markets, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe NL" refers to Cboe Europe B.V., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the Netherlands operator of our MTF, RM, and APA.
"Cboe Options" refers to Cboe Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe SEF" refers to Cboe SEF, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe Swiss" refers to Cboe Switzerland GmbH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"Cboe Trading" refers to Cboe Trading, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc., operated in the United States.
"CFE" refers to Cboe Futures Exchange, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"CFTC" refers to the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
"EDGA" refers to Cboe EDGA Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"EDGX" refers to Cboe EDGX Exchange, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cboe Global Markets, Inc.
"ESMA" refers to the European Securities and Markets Authority.
"Exchanges" refers to Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA.
"FASB" refers to the Financial Accounting Standards Board.
"FCA" refers to the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority.
"FINRA" refers to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
"GAAP" refers to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States.
"Merger" refers to our acquisition of Bats Global Markets, completed on February 28, 2017.
"OCC" refers to The Options Clearing Corporation.
"OPRA" refers to Options Price Reporting Authority, LLC.
"SEC" refers to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
"SPX" refers to our S&P 500 Index exchange-traded options products.
"TPH" refers to either a Trading Permit Holder or a Trading Privilege Holder.
"VIX" refers to our Cboe Volatility Index exchange-traded options and futures products.

3

Table of Contents

TRADEMARK AND OTHER INFORMATION

Cboe®, Bats®, BYX®, BZX®, Cboe Options Institute®, Cboe Vest®, Cboe Volatility Index®, CFE®, EDGA®, EDGX®, Hybrid®, LiveVol®, Silexx® and VIX® are registered trademarks, and Cboe Global MarketsSM, Cboe Futures ExchangeSM, C2SM, and SilexxSM are service marks of Cboe Global Markets, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Standard & Poor's®, S&P®, S&P 100®, S&P 500® and SPX® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC and have been licensed for use by Cboe Exchange, Inc. Dow Jones®, Dow Jones Industrial Average®, DJIA® and Dow Jones Indices are registered trademarks or service marks of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings, LLC, used under license. Russell® and the Russell index names are registered trademarks of Frank Russell Company, used under license. FTSE® and the FTSE indices are trademarks and service marks of FTSE International Limited, used under license. All other trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.

MSCI and the MSCI index names are service marks of MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”) or its affiliates and have been licensed for use by us. Any derivative indices and any financial products based on the derivative indices (“MCSI-Based Products”) are not sponsored, guaranteed or endorsed by MSCI, its affiliates or any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling such MSCI index. Neither MSCI, its affiliates nor any other party involved in, or related to, making or compiling any MSCI index makes any representations regarding the advisability of investing in such MSCI-Based Products; makes any warranty, express or implied; or bears any liability as to the results to be obtained by any person or any entity from the use of any such MSCI index or any data included therein. No purchaser, seller or holder of any MSCI-Based Product, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any MSCI trade name, trademark or service mark to sponsor, endorse, market or promote any security without first contacting MSCI to determine whether MSCI’s permission is required.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes market share and industry data that we obtained from industry publications and surveys, reports of governmental agencies and internal company surveys. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but we cannot assure you that this information is accurate or complete. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources nor have we ascertained the underlying economic assumptions relied upon therein. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available market data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding industry data presented herein, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors. We refer you to the “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC.

4

Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. You can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as "may," "might," "should," "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "potential" or "continue," and the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. All statements that reflect our expectations, assumptions or projections about the future other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements, including statements in "Business" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." These forward-looking statements, which are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, may include projections of our future financial performance based on our growth strategies and anticipated trends in our business. These statements are only predictions based on our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors that could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In particular, you should consider the risks and uncertainties described under "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report.

While we believe we have identified material risks, these risks and uncertainties are not exhaustive. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible to predict all risks and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:

the loss of our right to exclusively list and trade certain index options and futures products;
economic, political and market conditions;
compliance with legal and regulatory obligations;
price competition and consolidation in our industry;
decreases in trading volumes, market data fees or a shift in the mix of products traded on our exchanges;
legislative or regulatory changes;
our ability to protect our systems and communication networks from security risks, cybersecurity risks, insider threats and unauthorized disclosure of confidential information;
increasing competition by foreign and domestic entities;
our dependence on and exposure to risk from third parties;
fluctuations to currency exchange rates;
our index providers' ability to maintain the quality and integrity of their indices and to perform under our agreements;
our ability to operate our business without violating the intellectual property rights of others and the costs associated with protecting our intellectual property rights;
our ability to attract and retain skilled management and other personnel;
our ability to accommodate trading volume and transaction traffic, including significant increases, without failure or degradation of performance of our systems;
misconduct by those who use our markets or our products;
challenges to our use of open source software code;
our ability to meet our compliance obligations, including managing potential conflicts between our regulatory responsibilities and our for-profit status;
damage to our reputation;
the ability of our compliance and risk management methods to effectively monitor and manage our risks;
our ability to manage our growth and strategic acquisitions or alliances effectively;
restrictions imposed by our debt obligations;
our ability to maintain an investment grade credit rating;
impairment of our goodwill, long-lived assets, investments or intangible assets; and
the accuracy of our estimates and expectations.

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For a detailed discussion of these and other factors that might affect our performance, see Part I, Item 1A of this Report. We do not undertake, and expressly disclaim, any duty to update any forward-looking statement whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. We caution you not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this filing.

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PART I

Item 1.    Business

The following description of the business should be read in conjunction with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. This description contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements due to the factors set forth in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Overview

Cboe Global Markets, Inc. is one of the world’s largest exchange holding companies, offering cutting-edge trading and investment solutions to investors around the world. The Company is committed to defining markets to benefit its participants and drive the global marketplace forward through product innovation, leading edge technology and seamless trading solutions.

Cboe offers trading across a diverse range of products in multiple asset classes and geographies, including options, futures, U.S. and European equities, exchange-traded products (“ETPs”), global foreign exchange (“FX”), and multi-asset volatility products based on the VIX Index, recognized as the world’s premier gauge of U.S. equity market volatility. Cboe’s subsidiaries include the largest options exchange and the third largest stock exchange operator in the U.S. In addition, the Company operates one of the largest equities stock exchanges by value traded in Europe and is a leading market globally for ETP listings and trading.

The Company reports the results of its operations in five business segments: Options, U.S. Equities, Futures, European Equities, and Global FX. Our operating revenues consist primarily of transaction fees, access and capacity fees, market data fees and regulatory fines and fees. We also generate revenue from both the calculation and dissemination of index values and from the licensing of our proprietary products. Transaction fee revenues are generated on the contracts or shares traded on our exchanges. In 2019, approximately 62.9% of our net revenues were transaction fee revenues.

Our Business

Originally known as the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Cboe Options was founded in 1973 as a non-stock corporation owned by its members. Cboe Options was the first organized marketplace for the trading of standardized, exchange-traded options on equity securities. In 2004, CFE began operations as a futures exchange. Cboe Global Markets was incorporated in the State of Delaware on August 15, 2006. In June 2010, Cboe Options demutualized, Cboe Options and CFE became wholly-owned subsidiaries of Cboe Global Markets, and Cboe Global Markets completed its initial public offering. In October 2010, C2, the Company’s second options exchange, initiated operations.

On February 28, 2017, the Company completed the acquisition of Bats, which significantly expanded the Company’s product lines across asset classes, broadened its geographic reach with pan-European equities, added global FX market, diversified its business mix with significant non-transactional revenue streams and increased the Company’s options exchanges from two to four with the addition of BZX and EDGX exchanges. Following the acquisition, on October 16, 2017, we changed our legal name from CBOE Holdings, Inc. to Cboe Global Markets, Inc. On September 17, 2018, we voluntarily delisted our common stock from Nasdaq Global Select Market and transferred the listing to Cboe BZX Exchange.

Cboe Global Markets reports on the following five business segments:

Options. Our options exchange business lists for trading (i) options on market indices (“index options”), including VIX and SPX options, mostly on an exclusive basis, (ii) non-exclusive “multi-listed” options on the stocks of listed individual corporations (“equity options”), and (iii) non-exclusive “multi-listed” options on ETPs, such as exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). These options trade on

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Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX. Cboe Options is our primary options market and offers trading in listed options through a single system, known as our Hybrid trading model, which integrates electronic trading and traditional open outcry trading on our trading floor in Chicago. C2, BZX, and EDGX are our all-electronic options exchanges, and typically operate with different market models and fee structures than Cboe Options. The Options segment also includes applicable market data revenue generated from the U.S. tape plan, the sale of proprietary market data, index licensing, and access and capacity services.
U.S. Equities. The U.S. Equities segment includes listed equities and ETP transaction services that occur on BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA. This segment also includes ETP listings on BZX, the Cboe Global Markets, Inc. common stock listing, applicable market data revenue generated from the U.S. tape plans, the sale of proprietary market data, routing services, access and capacity services and advertising activity from ETF.com.
Futures. The Futures segment includes the business of our futures exchange, CFE, which lists VIX futures, futures on corporate bond indices, futures on AMERIBOR, and other futures products. It also includes market data revenue generated from the sale of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services.
European Equities. The European Equities segment covers securities from 18 European markets including the U.K. and includes transaction services on listed equities, ETPs, exchange-traded commodities, and international depository receipts that occur on MTFs operated by Cboe Europe Equities. It also includes the listings business where ETPs can be listed on its RMs. Cboe Europe Equities operates lit and dark pools, a periodic auctions book, and a Large-in-Scale (“LIS”) trading negotiation facility. Cboe NL, launched in October 2019, operates similar business functionality to that which is offered by Cboe Europe, other than LIS, and provides for trading only in European Economic Area symbols. Cboe Europe Equities also includes market data revenue generated from the sale of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services.
Global FX. The Global FX segment includes institutional FX services on the Cboe FX platform, which offers an independent, transparent electronic marketplace structure where institutional buyers and sellers worldwide can trade spot FX directly, either anonymously or on a disclosed basis with each other. The Global FX segment also includes non-deliverable forward FX transactions offered for execution on Cboe SEF, as well as revenue generated from the sale of proprietary market data and from access and capacity services.

See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 17 (“Segment Reporting”) to the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for discussion of revenues, and operating income (loss) by business segment. Certain areas within our segments operate globally. For information regarding risks related to our international operations see “Risk Factors.”

The following chart illustrates volume or notional value for Options (Cboe Options, C2 Options, BZX Options, and EDGX Options); Futures (CFE); U.S. Equities (BZX Equities, BYX Equities, EDGA Equities, and EDGX Equities); European Equities; and Global FX (Cboe FX) for the periods indicated (which includes information prior to the acquisition of Bats):

Annual Volumes

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Options total contracts ADV (in millions)

7.3

7.9

6.9

U.S. Equities total touched shares ADV (in billions)

1.2

1.4

1.3

Futures ADV (in thousands)

249.0

300.0

294.8

European Equities matched and touched ADNV (€ in billions)

7.7

10.4

9.4

Global FX ADNV ($ in billions)

32.3

37.4

29.5

ADV= average daily volume

ADNV= average daily notional value

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Competitive Strengths

We have established ourselves as a global leader and innovator in our industry and believe we are well positioned to further enhance our leadership position through several key competitive strengths:

Innovative Products and Services. We are structured and committed to deliver a differentiated experience to our customers through our offering of innovative proprietary products, order types, risk management tools and other products and services. We have also worked closely and collaboratively with market participants to introduce new products and services to meet the evolving needs of the industry, and we plan to continue these efforts. Products we have developed include index options, equity options, VIX options and futures, and options and futures on other volatility indices, short duration options, including Weeklys, FLexible EXchange Options (“FLEX options”) and options strategy benchmark indices. We have also developed products that enable our customers to monitor their order handling on our markets in real-time, such as our user dashboard and latency reports. We were the first U.S. options exchange to trade options during non-U.S. trading hours, offering extended trading hours in our exclusive proprietary products. We also connect with a growing customer base through trading and educational resources, including resources available through our website, the world-renowned Cboe Options Institute, industry trade shows, industry forums and a comprehensive marketing and communications program.
Leading Proprietary Technology. Our leading proprietary technology was designed in-house to optimize reliability, speed, scalability and versatility. CFE, C2, and Cboe Options were migrated to our current trading platform on February 25, 2018, May 14, 2018, and October 7, 2019, respectively. As a result, we now offer customers a single uniform trading experience across our equities, options, and futures markets. Our platform has demonstrated very low operational downtime and latency, which we believe gives our customers an additional incentive to use our platform to mitigate trade execution risk, especially in times of extreme market volatility.
Leading Market Position, Reputation and Brand. We are a leading global operator of securities exchanges and other electronic markets and have a strong market share in the markets we serve. Cboe Options, the largest U.S. options exchange, based on both contract volume and notional value, and one of the largest options exchanges in the world, is an options market leader. As the creator of listed options and other significant products in the listed options industry, including the VIX Index and VIX options and futures, Cboe is a leading brand name in the options and volatility space. In U.S. listed equities, we are the third largest exchange operator, with a market share of 16.3% of the overall U.S. equities market for the year ended December 31, 2019. In European-listed equities, we are one of the largest pan-European exchange operators based on executed notional value of pan-European equities, with a market share of 20.2% of European trading in the securities available for trading on Cboe Europe Equities for the year ended December 31, 2019. In addition, we have a substantial presence in the spot FX markets, with a 15.2% market share of the publicly reported institutional spot FX markets for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Strategic Relationships and Partnerships. We have entered into licensing agreements with index providers which typically grant us the rights to create volatility indices, offer options and futures products on their indices and use the market data from the trading of options on various products to calculate a number of proprietary indices. We have also formed partnerships with key providers to develop new products and services. See “Proprietary Products-Strategic Relationships.”

Growth Strategy

Our mission is to lead the industry in defining the markets of today and tomorrow through: (1) relentless innovation to expand our diverse offering for investors around the world, (2) leading edge technology to connect customers to global markets, and (3) seamless solutions to enhance the customer experience through insights, education, data,

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analytics and more. We expect to further grow our business and increase our revenues and profitability by following our mission and pursuing the following growth strategies:

Grow Existing Proprietary Products. We plan to continue our efforts to grow the use of our proprietary products, including SPX options and VIX options and futures, by expanding the customer base and increasing existing customers’ product usage. In 2019, we redeployed our customer outreach efforts to further penetrate global market participants by realigning our sales team with specialists targeting asset managers, hedge funds, U.S. insurance companies and pension funds. We also continue to take steps to enhance the risk management tools and information available to our customers, aimed at arming them with information to make more informed trading decisions and gain capital efficiency. Furthermore, we continue to penetrate new markets. In 2019, Cboe Options and CFE were permitted in Switzerland and Spain to market our products to existing or potential customers in those jurisdictions, as well as permit investors in those jurisdictions to directly access Cboe Options and CFE to trade our products. We also plan to continue to enrich and expand our educational content to educate market participants, which is integral to growing our proprietary products.
Develop Innovative Products and Services. We continue to explore the development of index and other high margin derivative products to trade on our exchanges. We intend to license and create proprietary intellectual property to develop proprietary products that meet the needs of the derivatives industry, both through strategic relationships and internal development, while continuing to diversify our product line across asset classes. We believe that additional proprietary market data, analytics, and access and capacity revenues can be generated while continuing to offer competitive pricing across all of our segments. In 2019, we continued to leverage relationships to extend our product offering by launching or extending existing new products or services, such as Monday expiring options on XSP, our mini-SPX option contract, SPX option expirations related to the 2020 presidential election, development of a future on AMERIBOR, a Cboe Closing Cross to provide post-close trading services at Cboe Europe and developing new benchmarks on MSCI Emerging Markets and EAFE indices.
Offer Compelling Models. We have designed our market and pricing models to provide benefits to market participants that concentrate their overall trading activity, which we believe encourages market participants to increase their business with us. In our proprietary products, we offer discounts and incentives to certain participants based on relative volume and the use of selected strategies. In multi-listed products and equities trading, we offer incentive programs to attract order flow to help our market participants manage both the fixed and transaction-based costs of trading. We regularly review the market and pricing models for all of our exchanges to provide an industry-leading economic offering. In 2019, we introduced a small retail broker distribution program for U.S. equities market data at discounted rates, order book priority for retail investors on EDGX, and a new lead market maker incentive program for the Cboe Listed ETP Marketplace.
Continue to Enhance Our Leading Edge Technology.  We recognize that the opportunity to participate in the growth of the equities and derivatives market will be driven in great part by the trading functionality and technology capabilities that an exchange offers to market participants. We intend to use our strong in-house development capabilities and continued investment to further enhance and develop the functionality and capacity of our trading systems. With the completion of the multi-exchange technology migration, we intend to redirect our technology efforts to building new value added technologies, such as the development of a state-of-the-art research and data platform. See “Technology.”
Evaluate Strategic Opportunities. We continually evaluate strategic opportunities that we believe could enhance stockholder value. We specifically look for strategic opportunities beyond our current businesses that can capitalize on our core competencies and diversify our sources of revenue. We continue to form new alliances with various partners that leverage our strengths and enable us to diversify our product and business lines across new regions and asset classes.

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Proprietary Products

In addition to our exchanges providing a marketplace and listing venue for the trading of securities and derivatives we also calculate proprietary indices that are used as the basis for proprietary products or licensed for use by third parties. These include:

volatility index products based on various broad-based market indices, such as the S&P 500, the S&P 100, and the Russell 2000,
correlation or volatility indices based on ETFs and individual stocks, such as the Cboe Crude Oil ETF Volatility Index, the Cboe Gold ETF Volatility Index, the Cboe Equity VIX on Apple, and the Cboe Equity VIX on Amazon,
interest rate volatility indices, such as the Cboe/CBOT 10-year U.S. Treasury Note Volatility Index and the Cboe Interest Rate Swap Volatility Index and
options strategy benchmarks, such as the Cboe BuyWrite, PutWrite and Collar indices based on the S&P 500 and Russell 2000, BuyWrite and PutWrite indices on MSCI EAFE, MSCI Emerging Markets and BuyWrite indices based on other broad-based market indices.

Our most frequently traded products are SPX options and VIX options and futures. In addition to any transaction fee revenue generated on products created based on these indices, we have granted licenses for third parties to use and sublicense some of these proprietary indices to create third-party indices and products. Accordingly, we generate revenue from proprietary indices by distributing them for reference purposes, using them as the basis for proprietary products and licensing them for use for third-party indices and products.

These proprietary indices and products are built both through our in-house research and development staff and our strategic relationships and license agreements with index providers. The following is a discussion of our strategic relationships and additional detail on our most frequently traded products, including SPX options and VIX options and futures.

Strategic Relationships

The Company has long-term business relationships with several providers of market indices. We license their indices, including on an exclusive basis, as the foundation for indices, index options and other products. The Company also acquires interests in and agrees to work jointly with key providers to develop new products and services that are expected to capitalize on our core competencies and diversify our sources of revenue. Of particular note are the following:

S&P. We have the exclusive right to offer exchange-listed options contracts in the United States on the S&P 500 Index, the S&P 100 Index and the S&P Select Sector Indices as a result of a licensing arrangement with S&P Dow Jones Indices, LLC (“S&P”). Our license from S&P is through December 31, 2033, with an exclusive license to trade options on the S&P 500 Index through December 31, 2032. We use the market data from the trading of options on the S&P 500 Index and S&P 100 Index for the creation of Cboe volatility indices, such as the VIX Index, and for the creation of tradable products on those volatility indices.
FTSE Russell. Under our license agreement with the London Stock Exchange Group’s (“LSEG”) leading global index franchises, Frank Russell Company and FTSE International Limited (together “FTSE Russell”), we have the exclusive right in the United States to offer listed options on more than two dozen FTSE Russell indices, which represent a diverse group of domestic and global equities with international appeal. We offer options on the Russell 2000, Russell 1000, Russell 1000 Value and Russell 1000 Growth Indices.

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MSCI. We have the exclusive right in the United States to offer listed options on six of MSCI’s indices and to calculate and commercialize volatility and strategy indices on the market data from the trading of options on the MSCI EAFA and MSCI Emerging Markets indices, as a result of licensing arrangements with MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”). We currently offer options on the MSCI EAFE and MSCI Emerging Markets Indices, and use trading information to calculate several versions of BuyWrite and PutWrite strategy indices on each MSCI index.
Dow Jones. We have the exclusive right during standard U.S. trading hours to offer listed options contracts In the United States on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (“DJIA”) and certain other Dow Jones indices through December 31, 2033 as a result of a licensing arrangement with DJI Opco, LLC. We use market data from the trading of options on these indices to create Cboe volatility indices, variance indicators and BuyWrite indices, and to trade options, futures and other products on these indices.

SPX Options

The S&P 500 Index is an index comprised of 500 large-cap U.S. listed companies. It is one of the most commonly followed indices, and is considered a bellwether for the U.S. economy. The SPX options we offer on the S&P 500 Index are exclusive to Cboe and contribute substantially to our volumes and transaction fees. Because of the S&P 500 Index’s status as a bellwether, SPX options are used in many different trading strategies by customers with different goals, including pension funds hedging their equity exposure by buying put options, asset managers seeking enhanced returns by selling covered call options and hedge funds using risk-managed strategies to capture so-called “risk premia” embedded in option prices. We also offer SPX Weeklys options, which have settlements on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and on the last trading day of each month. We believe these additional expirations provide customers with more precision when hedging overall portfolio risk.

Volatility Trading

Cboe pioneered the trading of exchange-traded volatility products with its introduction of VIX futures in 2004 and VIX options in 2006. The VIX Index, although not directly tradable, is based on the mid-point of real-time quotes of SPX options and is designed to reflect investors’ consensus view of future 30-day expected stock market volatility. The VIX methodology provides the basis for the creation of VIX options and futures. The settlement value of VIX derivatives is based on traded prices of SPX options. Since we started offering these products, we have seen trading from a number of different customer segments utilizing a number of different trading strategies, including hedging extreme stock market declines, also known as “tail risk” hedging, and risk-managed strategies that seek to capture the relative price changes of expected volatility at different times in the future. We also offer VIX Weeklys options and futures to provide investors with opportunities and tools to trade volatility over a shorter term.

Listing

Cboe serves as a listing destination for ETPs in the U.S. and Europe. In 2019, Cboe’s market specifically structured and designed for ETP issuers and their investors added 57 listings in the U.S. and won 22 percent of all new U.S. ETP listings. There are now 353 ETPs globally listed on Cboe from 49 different issuers. We offer fully-automated opening, closing and halt reopening auctions for our listed securities, which are designed to maximize the efficiency of the price discovery process.

Cboe also offers issuers the choice of an innovative market maker program referred to as the Cboe Lead Market Maker (“LMM”) incentive program on Cboe BZX and the Cboe Europe Equities Liquidity Provider Program (“LPP”) on Cboe Europe Equities. Under the LMM program, an LMM has certain quoting obligations and for meeting those enhanced obligations, Cboe pays the LMM a daily stipend that varies depending on the average aggregate daily auction volume in the ETPs assigned to such LMM. Also, LMMs transact for free in the closing auction in their assigned ETPs. Under the LPP, Cboe Europe Equities offers three programs designed for participants that wish to provide liquidity by posting and maintaining executable quotes within certain set parameters with the result of providing liquidity on a regular and ongoing basis. Cboe BZX also offers the Cboe Liquidity Management Provider (“LMP”) Program (“LMP Program”). The LMP Program is a rewards-based program that incentivizes liquidity providers to make a better market

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in ETPs. Incentives are based on an LMP’s quote quality in the Cboe LMP Program securities, which include all Cboe-listed ETPs and certain non-Cboe-listed ETPs.

Market Data

We derive a portion of our revenue from market data fees from U.S. tape plans, including Unlisted Trading Privileges (“UTPs”), the Consolidated Tape Association (“CTA”) and OPRA. Fees, net of plan costs, from UTP, CTA, and OPRA are allocated and distributed to plan participants like us according to their share of tape fees based on a formula, required by Regulation NMS, which may take into account both trading and quoting activity.

We also provide a robust offering of market data products across multiple asset classes and geographic regions that are designed to suit our customers’ diverse needs. Products include real-time depth of book quotation information, auction and complex option information, top of book quotes and trades, last sale information, consolidated equity feeds, real-time index values, and trade reporting facility information. We also provide analytics services and historical information for our markets through multiple data services.

Our Models

Our markets use a combination of pricing and market models to differentiate them from each other and from our competitors. For our options markets, Cboe Options is a hybrid market combining open outcry floor trading with electronic trading. For multi-listed products, we utilize public customer priority, market turner in certain products, participation rights and pro-rata allocation market models, combined with the “classic” pricing model. Under the classic pricing model, professional participants pay transaction fees, public customers generally do not pay transaction fees and market makers compensate brokers for sending order flow to the exchange (known as payment for order flow). For proprietary products, we use price-time or pro-rata allocation, sometimes with public customer priority, and market turner market models, combined with a pricing model where all market participants generally pay fees. Our other three options markets are fully electronic. BZX options utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a “maker-taker” pricing model. Under the maker-taker pricing model, market participants who make the market (a “maker”) generally receive a rebate, while market participants who trade against those markets (a “taker”) pay a transaction fee. EDGX options utilizes customer priority, participation rights and pro-rata allocation market models, combined with the classic pricing model. C2 options utilizes a pro-rata allocation market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model.

For our U.S. equities markets, which are fully electronic, BZX equities utilizes a price-time market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model. EDGX equities utilizes a price-time with retail priority market model, combined with the maker-taker pricing model. BYX equities utilizes a price-time with price improvement for retail customers market model, combined with the “taker-maker” pricing model. Under the taker-maker pricing model, market participants who make the market pay a transaction fee, while market participants who trade against those markets receive a rebate. EDGA equities utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a taker-maker pricing model. In addition to these market models, each of our equity markets provide numerous specific order types that are designed to enhance their market models.

For our futures market, CFE, which is fully electronic, utilizes a price-time market model, combined with a pricing model where all market participants generally pay fees, subject to specified exceptions.

Our Cboe FX platform utilizes a price-firmness-time priority market model, combined with a pricing model where customers are charged either a flat or tiered commission rate based upon the notional amount traded on the platform.

In Europe, following the implementation of the Directive on Markets in Financial Instruments (Directive 2014/65/EU) (“MiFID II”), rebates are generally available if they are tied to a market making scheme or specific service.

Our exchanges also charge fees for the opportunity to trade or access our exchanges, including fees for trading-related functionality. To facilitate trading, we also charge fees for certain technology services, terminal and other equipment rights, maintenance services, trading floor space and telecommunications services.

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Customers

Our customers include financial institutions, institutional and individual investors and professional traders. Our equities and options customers in the United States include trading permit holders and members of Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, which are SEC-registered broker-dealers, and the customers of those broker-dealers. Our futures customers include banks, futures commission merchants, hedge funds, asset managers, proprietary trading firms and Commodity Trading Advisors. Similarly, our equities’ customers in Europe are European Union (“E.U.”) regulated brokerage and proprietary trading firms, as well as sponsored access clients of these brokerage firms, and certain non-E.U. regulated and unregulated direct access participants. Our institutional global FX customers include banks, broker-dealers, hedge funds, asset managers, proprietary trading firms, Commodity Trading Advisors and corporates. Access to our markets, trading rights and privileges depend upon the nature of the customer, such as whether the individual is a trading permit holder, trading privilege holder, member or participant of one of our markets.

Competition

The industry in which we operate is intensely competitive. We believe we face competition on a number of factors, including:

the price, quality and speed of our trade execution;
functionality and ease of use of our trading platforms;
range of our products and services;
integrity of our marketplaces;
technological innovation and adaption; and
our reputation.

We believe that we compete favorably with respect to these factors through a variety of methods, including:

offering access to a broad array of products and services, including proprietary products and market data;
offering fee schedules, pricing models that both attract order flow and provide incentives to liquidity providers;
providing advanced technology that offers broad functionality, low latency, fast execution, ease of use, scalability, reliability and security;
offering efficient, transparent and liquid marketplaces;
offering deep and liquid markets with opportunities for price improvement;
maintaining close relationships with customers; and
providing customers with a comprehensive source of information on options and ETPs as well as extensive options education.

In our proprietary products, we compete against other futures exchanges and swap execution facilities that offer similar products, as well as against financial market participants that offer similar over-the-counter derivatives. We also compete against certain multi-listed options products, such as options on SPY, which offer some of the market exposure of our proprietary products such as SPX options.

The multi-listed options industry is extremely competitive. We expect this trend to continue. As of December 31, 2019, we compete with 12 U.S. options exchanges, in large part due to existing exchange holding companies opening new exchanges that offer different markets and pricing models on existing technology. Most of the equity and ETP options listed and traded on our exchanges are also listed and traded on the other exchanges. In addition, the options exchanges that we compete with set fees and rebates to attract multi-listed options business to their exchanges, which has historically reduced the net revenue per contract that we generate from multi-listed options, and the options exchanges that we compete with structure their options businesses in partnership with established market participants, such as consolidators, and other order flow providers, to increase their volume traded.

Our U.S. listed equity securities and listing services compete against nine other exchanges as of December 31, 2019, several alternative trading systems (“ATSs”) and single dealer platforms, and three new exchanges are planning to

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launch in 2020. Market participants have multiple venues for the execution of orders, including national securities exchanges and numerous off-exchange venues, including ATSs and broker-dealers who internalize orders off-exchange. Additionally, issuers have multiple venues for the listing of their products.

The market for execution services in Europe became more competitive following the introduction of MiFID II and the Regulation on Markets in Financial Instruments (Regulation (EU) No 600/2014) (“MiFIR”). Furthermore, MiFID II and MiFIR placed more onerous conditions on trading venues and investment firms and restricted certain types of trading activity. Our major competitors in Europe include national stock exchanges, other pan-European MTFs, and systematic internalizers.

The global FX market remains severely fragmented, with transparent automated marketplaces such as Cboe FX challenging a small number of similarly situated competitors. While the global FX market has experienced a shift from competing interbank platforms to ECNs, the electronification of the spot and NDF FX market may encounter resistance from customers that still prefer to utilize the phone, instant chats, terminals and key banking relationships for price discovery and trading. Furthermore, electronification of the FX market appears to be experiencing more resistance outside the United States. The electronic spot FX market is also intensely competitive, with over 10 other venues competing for market share as of December 31, 2019.

In addition, demand for our market data faces competition from other securities exchanges, technology companies, third-party market data providers and information and software vendors, who have their own substantial market data distribution capabilities that serve as alternative means for receiving open market data feeds instead of connecting directly to our exchanges or trading venues. The sale of our proprietary data products is also under competitive threat from ATSs and trading venues that offer similar products. Distributors and consumers of our market data may also use our market data as an input into a product that competes against one of our traded or cleared products.

Technology

Cboe Trading Technology

On October 7, 2019, we completed the final step in our multi-exchange technology migration when Cboe Options was migrated to our current trading platform. The trading platform for our equities, options and futures markets is developed, owned and operated in-house and is designed to optimize reliability, speed, scalability and versatility. Each of our exchanges provide different market models, appealing to different user bases and the trading technologies support all of them. Further, the technologies are designed to support many specialized features for each of the markets, such as: dark pools, trade reporting facility, systematic internalizer, Large-in-Scale, smart order routing, FLEX options, 24x5 trading and hybrid trading (combining electronic and open outcry). In addition, Cboe operates a separate FX trading platform for Global FX.

Our trading platforms have experienced very low operational downtime and low latency. The trading platforms use readily available hardware, thereby minimizing capital outlays required for each new market entry. Also, in order to continue to implement new enhancements to our trading platforms, new releases of software are generally deployed on a weekly basis in all of the applicable markets.

Disaster Recovery

We operate and maintain geographically diverse disaster recovery facilities for all of our markets. We expect that the disaster recovery facilities can be up and running in a short period of time and work with our market participants to ensure that the marketplace can be quickly reopened. We regularly test our data center recovery plans and periodically carry out weekend tests using our back-up data centers, as well as an annual test with our U.S. trading participants. In Europe, we also regularly test our data center recovery plans and periodically carry out weekend tests which use our back-up data center, as well as an annual test with our European trading participants. We continue to work to improve both the availability of our technology and our disaster recovery facilities.

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Routing and Clearing

OCC is the sole provider of clearing on all of our options and futures exchanges. National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) is the sole provider of clearing on our U.S. listed equity exchanges. Cboe Europe Equities relies on LCH.Clearnet Group Limited (“LCH”), EuroCCP N.V., a Dutch domiciled clearing house (“EuroCCP”) and SIX x-clear Ltd (“SIX x-clear”) to clear trades in European listed equity securities as part of an interoperable clearing model.

Cboe Trading is a routing broker-dealer used by our four U.S. equities exchanges and our four U.S. options exchanges, including the electronic platform portion of Cboe Options.

Regulatory Environment and Compliance

Various aspects of our business are subject to regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FINRA, ESMA, FCA and AFM and market participants may be subject to regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FINRA, FCA, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, U.S. Department of the Treasury and/or foreign regulators. The following is a discussion of the more significant areas of regulation of us by the SEC, the CFTC, and certain European regulators.

Recent Developments

Laws and regulations regarding our business are frequently modified or changed to address perceived problems, new products, competition or at the request of market participants. The following is a summary of the general regulatory structure and brief discussion of recent regulatory developments that may significantly impact our business.

United States

Transaction Fee Pilot

In December 2018, the SEC approved a transaction fee pilot in national market system (“NMS”) stocks (the “transaction fee pilot”). The pilot will subject stock exchange transaction fee pricing, including maker-taker fee-and-rebate pricing models, to new temporary pricing restrictions across two test groups, and will require the exchanges to prepare data to be submitted to the SEC. The transaction fee pilot includes a test group that will prohibit rebates and linked pricing, as well as a test group that will impose a cap of $0.0010 for removing or providing displayed liquidity. Once commenced, the transaction fee pilot will last for up to two years with an automatic sunset at one year unless extended by the SEC.

The transaction fee pilot may cause Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, to require additional resources to comply with or continue to challenge the transaction fee pilot and it may have a material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, order flow shifts away from exchanges were to occur. See “Legal Proceedings” for more information.

Proposed Consolidated Data Plans

In January 2020, the SEC issued for public comment a proposed order (the “Proposed Order”) that would require U.S. equities exchanges and FINRA to develop and file a new consolidated data plan that would replace the three current U.S. equities tape data plans and require certain governance provisions, such as changes to the voting structure. The deadline for public comment is February 28, 2020. The SEC is not bound by public comments and may or may not proceed with issuing a final order, and may or may not amend the provisions of the Proposed Order before it issues a final order. If the SEC decides to issue a final order that requires the filing of a new consolidated data plan, we and the other U.S. equities exchanges and FINRA would be required to file that plan for public comment before the SEC takes any definitive action on such new plan. Until and if the SEC approves a new consolidated data plan, the current data plans will continue to govern. We cannot predict if, or to the extent to which, a final order may be issued by the SEC. If a final order were to be issued, it may have a negative impact on the market data fees we charge and there could be a negative impact on our revenues. For more information regarding risks related to the Proposed Order see “Risk Factors.”

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Europe

Brexit

On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (the “U.K.”) voted to leave the E.U. in a referendum (the “Brexit Vote”). On January 31, 2020, the U.K. exited from the E.U. (“Brexit”) and began a transition period (the “Transition Period”) lasting until December 31, 2020 (or until a subsequent date in the event the deadline is extended). The terms of any agreements entered into during the transition period are unclear and there is uncertainty about the capital markets regulation that will apply to Cboe Europe Equities and its customers. For information regarding risks related to Brexit see “Risk Factors.”

Withdrawal of Swiss Equivalence and Swiss Counter Measure

As a result of an ongoing disagreement between the E.U. and Switzerland, the European Commission allowed its MiFID equivalence decision for Switzerland to expire at the end of June 2019. As a result, Switzerland made it illegal for venues in the E.U., including Cboe Europe, to trade Swiss equities. Until this matter is resolved, Cboe Europe has had to remove these instruments from trading and has suffered a loss of trading revenues as a result. The E.U. and Switzerland continue to negotiate, however it is not clear when or if they will reach an agreement on this matter and this may continue to have an impact on our business, financial condition and operating results. Following Brexit and the end of the Transition Period, U.K. trading venues, including Cboe Europe, may be permitted to resume trading in Swiss equities.

Capital Markets Union

The European Council (“E.C.”) has highlighted one of its top priorities as being the establishment of a fully functioning, well-regulated Capital Markets Union (“CMU”). An Action Plan of concrete steps was set out in September 2015, and an update of the list of initiatives was published in September 2016. More recently, the E.C. has set up a High Level Forum on CMU, with the E.C. and European Parliament also seeking to reboot this project. This therefore remains an ongoing project for the E.C., which may result in additional regulation or legislation.

OTC Derivatives, Central Counterparties and Trade Repositories

The European Market Infrastructure Regulation (“EMIR”) sets out rules relating to over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives markets, central counterparties and trade repositories. The rules introduce a reporting obligation for OTC derivatives markets, a clearing obligation for eligible OTC derivatives markets, measures to reduce counterparty credit and operational risk for bilateral OTC derivatives markets, CCPs, and trade repositories, and rules on the establishment of interoperability between CCPs. EMIR was enhanced and amended in June 2019. In addition, regulation governing the authorization and supervision of Central Securities Depositories (“CSDR”) was approved in September 2014, with the publication of most “Level 2” Regulatory Technical Standards in March 2017, with implementation in March 2019. CSDR may result in the introduction of mandatory buy-ins for OTC business in 2020. The European Commission has published a proposal for a recovery and resolution framework that is currently being considered for CCPs.

Compliance

U.S. Securities Industry

Federal securities laws have established a two-tiered system for the regulation of securities exchanges and market participants. The first tier consists of the SEC, which has primary responsibility for enforcing federal securities laws. The second tier consists of self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”), which are non-governmental entities that must register with and are regulated by the SEC. Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA (the “Exchanges”) are SROs, each registered under Section 6 of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”) as a “national securities exchange,” and are subject to oversight by the SEC.

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SROs are an essential component of the regulatory scheme of the Exchange Act for providing fair and orderly markets and protecting investors. To be registered as a national securities exchange, an exchange must successfully undergo an application and review process with the SEC prior to beginning operations. Among other things, the SEC must determine that the SRO has the ability to comply with the Exchange Act and to enforce compliance by its members and persons associated with its members with the provisions of the Exchange Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and the rules of the exchange.

In general, an exchange SRO is responsible for operating its trading platforms consistent with its rules, and regulating its members through the adoption and enforcement of rules governing the business conduct of its members. The rules of the exchange must also assure fair representation of its members in the selection of its directors and administration of its affairs and, among other things, provide that one or more directors be representative of issuers or investors and not be associated with a member of the exchange or with a broker or dealer. Additionally, the rules of the exchange must be adequate to ensure fair dealing and to protect investors and may not impose any burden on competition not necessary or appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of the Exchange Act.

As registered national securities exchanges, virtually all facets of our Exchange operations are subject to the SEC’s oversight, as prescribed by the Exchange Act. The Exchange Act and the rules thereunder impose on us many regulatory and operational responsibilities, including record keeping and the day-to-day responsibilities for market operations and broker-dealer oversight. Furthermore, as SROs, the Exchanges are potentially subject to regulatory or legal action by the SEC or other interested parties. The SEC also has broad enforcement powers to censure, fine, issue cease-and-desist orders, prohibit us from engaging in some of our businesses, suspend or revoke our designation as a registered securities exchange or remove or censure any of our officers or directors who violate applicable laws or regulations. For example, in 2013, Cboe Options and C2 and, in 2015, EDGX and EDGA, entered into consent orders with the SEC, under which they were censured, ordered to cease and desist from violating certain sections of the Exchange Act, paid fines and agreed to complete certain undertakings. We have certified to the completion of these undertakings and are no longer required to certify.

As part of its regulatory oversight, the SEC conducts periodic reviews and inspections of exchanges, and the Exchanges have been subject to such routine reviews and inspections. To the extent such reviews and inspections result in regulatory or other changes, we may be required to modify the manner in which we conduct our business, which may adversely affect our business. We collect certain fees to cover Section 31 fees charged to the Exchanges by the SEC and certain fees derived from our regulatory function and fines in connection with our disciplinary proceedings. The Exchanges are responsible for the ultimate payment of Section 31 fess to the SEC. Additionally, under the rules of each of our options exchanges, as required by the SEC, any revenue derived from the regulatory fees and fines cannot be used for non-regulatory purposes.

Section 19 of the Exchange Act also provides that we must submit to the SEC proposed changes to any of the Exchanges’ rules, including revisions of their certificates of incorporation, bylaws, or other governing documents of the SROs or their parent companies. The SEC will typically publish the proposal for public comment, following which the SEC may approve or disapprove the proposal, as it deems appropriate. Certain categories of rule changes, like fee changes, can be effective on filing, but the SEC retains the ability to suspend or reject such filings within a prescribed period of time.

Futures and Swaps Industry-CFE and Cboe SEF

The operations of each of CFE and Cboe SEF are subject to regulation by the CFTC under the Commodity Exchange Act. The Commodity Exchange Act generally requires that futures trading in the United States be conducted on a designated contract market and, in some cases, requires swaps trading to be conducted on swap execution facility (“SEF”) or designated contract market (“DCM”). The Commodity Exchange Act and CFTC regulations establish criteria for an exchange to be designated as a contract market on which futures and futures options contracts may be traded, and for a trading platform to be designated as a swap execution facility on which certain swaps may be traded. Designation as a contract market or swap execution facility for the trading of specified futures or swaps contracts is non-exclusive. This means that the CFTC may permit additional exchanges or trading platforms to be contract markets or swap execution facilities for trading the same or similar contracts.

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CFE is a designated contract market, and Cboe SEF is a swap execution facility, each of which is subject to the oversight of the CFTC and to a variety of ongoing regulatory and reporting responsibilities under the Commodity Exchange Act. As a designated contract market, CFE is required to comply with the applicable core principles and regulations under the Commodity Exchange Act, as is Cboe SEF as a swap execution facility. Each of CFE and Cboe SEF has surveillance and regulatory operations and procedures to monitor and enforce compliance by trading privilege holders with CFE rules, and by participants with Cboe SEF rules, as applicable. If CFE or Cboe SEF fails to comply with applicable laws, rules or regulations, it may be subject to censure, fines, cease-and-desist orders, suspension of its business, removal of personnel or other sanctions, including revocation of CFE’s designation as a contract market or Cboe SEF’s designation as a swap execution facility.

Europe

Cboe Europe is located in London and is subject to regulation in the U.K. and to certain European regulations. The current U.K. regulatory system was established by the Financial Services Act 2012 (“FSA12”), which amended the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. The legislation replaced the previous financial services regulator, the Financial Services Authority, with three new bodies: The Financial Policy Committee (“FPC”), The Prudential Regulation Authority, and the FCA. Financial conduct of markets, including activity on, and the operation of, markets is regulated by the FCA, which is an independent non-governmental body, given statutory powers by the FSA12. The FCA has three statutory objectives: to secure an appropriate degree of protection for consumers; to protect and enhance the integrity of the U.K. financial system; and to promote effective competition in the interests of consumers in the markets for financial services. The FCA is accountable to Her Majesty’s Treasury Ministers and, through them, to Parliament.

Cboe NL is located in Amsterdam and subject to Dutch law and regulation. The current Dutch regulatory system was established by the Act on Financial Supervision. Financial conduct of markets, including activity on, and the operation of, markets is regulated by the AFM. The AFM is an independent non-governmental body, given statutory powers by the Act on Financial Supervision. The AFM has three strategic objectives: to promote the fair and conscientious provision of financial services, to promote the fair and efficient operation of the capital markets and to contribute to the stability of the financial system. The AFM is accountable to the Minister of Finance.

Much of the U.K. and Dutch financial services regulation originates from the European Union. Such regulation includes organizational requirements, capital resources requirements and the specific requirements for RMs and MTFs and are applicable to both Cboe Europe and Cboe NL. MiFID II and MiFIR set out requirements for RMs and MTFs with respect to the establishment of transparent and non-discretionary rules and procedures governing access and for fair and orderly trading and the efficient execution of orders, as well as to facilitate the efficient settlement of transactions conducted on RMs and MTFs and monitoring compliance with the rules. The regulatory functions required of Cboe Europe Equities by MiFID II, MiFIR and other relevant legislation and regulations are performed by in-house staff. Cboe Europe Equities utilizes the same state-of-the-art, real-time surveillance system is used on the U.S. to monitor trading and market activities on BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX.

Global FX

While the global institutional spot FX market remains largely unregulated, the enactment of the Dodd Frank Act and its related regulations in the United States and the ongoing implementation of MiFID II and MiFIR in Europe have impacted the regulatory landscape for currency derivative products. For example, certain standardized currency derivative products are required to trade on an organized trading venue such as an SEF or DCM in the United States or on an MTF or OTF in Europe. Moreover, even in the largely unregulated spot FX market, this movement towards additional trading standards and norms is highlighted by the publication of the FX Global Code in 2017 by the Global Foreign Exchange Committee, reflecting principles of good conduct for the wholesale FX market, and whose publication may lead to additional oversight in the global FX market.

Broker-Dealer

Cboe Trading is a registered broker-dealer regulated by the SEC, FINRA, other SROs of which it is a member and various state securities regulators. Cboe Trading currently operates as a routing broker-dealer for sending orders from the

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BZX, BYX, Cboe Options, C2, EDGX, and EDGA exchanges to other venues for execution, including routing orders among BZX, BYX, Cboe Options, C2, EDGX, and EDGA. Cboe Trading is considered a facility of BZX, BYX, Cboe Options, C2, EDGX, and EDGA and is subject to the rules of these exchanges. BZX, BYX, Cboe Options, C2, EDGX, and EDGA are responsible for enforcing Cboe Trading’s compliance with their rules, including to ensure Cboe Trading is not given preferential treatment.

Cboe Trading is subject to SEC and SRO rules and, as a registered broker-dealer, regulations concerning all aspects of its business, including trading practices, order handling, best execution, anti-money laundering, handling of material non-public information, safeguarding data, reporting, capital adequacy, record retention, market access and the conduct of its officers, employees and other associated persons. The SEC, SROs and state securities commissions may conduct proceedings which can result in injunctions or other sanctions, censures, fines, the issuance of cease and desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of a broker-dealer, its officers or employees. The SEC and FINRA impose certain minimum capital requirement rules that require notification when a broker-dealer’s net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, dictate the ratio of debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer, constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances and impose certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker-dealer from distributing or withdrawing capital.

Cboe Global Markets

Certain aspects of Cboe Global Markets are also subject to SEC, FCA and AFM oversight, including certain ownership and voting restrictions on its stockholders. The focus of the SEC’s regulation of Cboe Global Markets is to assure fair representation of members in the selection of the directors of the Exchanges, public participation in the governance of the Exchanges and that the Exchanges can satisfy their regulatory responsibilities under the Exchange Act. Furthermore, the SEC requires that Cboe Global Markets give due regard to the preservation of the independence of the self-regulatory function of the Exchanges and to Cboe Global Markets’ obligations to investors and the general public. The SEC also requires that Cboe Global Markets not take any actions that would interfere with the effectuation of any decisions by the board of directors of any of the Exchanges relating to its regulatory functions or the structure of the market that it regulates or that would interfere with the ability of such Exchange to carry out its responsibilities under the Exchange Act. To the extent that Cboe Global Markets’ business activities involve or relate to the Exchanges, the officers and directors of Cboe Global Markets may be deemed to be officers and directors of the exchanges for purposes of and subject to oversight under the federal securities laws. Accordingly, the SEC may exercise direct supervision and disciplinary authority over certain Cboe Global Markets’ activities and those activities may be subject to SEC approval and, in some cases, public notice and comment.

In addition, Cboe Global Markets indirectly holds all of the issued share capital and voting rights in Cboe Europe and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Cboe Chi-X Europe and Cboe NL. As a result, we and any person who holds, or has voting power with respect to, 10% or more of the outstanding shares of Cboe Global Markets common stock may be subject to certain regulatory requirements under U.K. and Dutch law.

U.S. Regulatory Responsibilities

Our U.S.-based exchanges are responsible for assessing the compliance of their TPHs or members, including Cboe Trading, with the respective exchange’s rules and the applicable rules of the SEC and/or CFTC. The main activities that the exchanges, as applicable, are required to monitor for the purpose of compliance with these rules include:

surveillance designed to detect violations of exchange trading rules;
surveillance designed to detect violations of SEC and/or CFTC rules;
investigation of matters deemed to be problematic;
the investigation of complaints about possible rule violations brought by customers, TPHs, members or other SROs; and
the examination of TPHs or members, including Cboe Trading, for compliance with rules such as those related to net capital, books and records, market access and other matters related to the TPHs’ exchange business functions.

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In order to ensure market integrity, we regulate and monitor our TPHs’ and members’ trading activities by using both our employees and third parties under regulatory services agreements (“RSAs”). See “Regulatory Agreements” below. Providing effective regulation is important for attracting and retaining the confidence and participation of market-makers, broker-dealers and institutional and retail investors.

We expend considerable time, financial resources and effort to ensure that the exchanges’ rules and regulations conform to regulatory best practices within the securities and futures exchange industries and within the regulatory regime overseen by the SEC and CFTC, our primary regulators. In order to support our efforts and those of our market participants to comply with applicable law and our exchange rules, we developed a regulatory program to monitor market activity on our exchanges.

All of our Exchanges and CFE are participants in the Intermarket Surveillance Group (“ISG”). ISG is an international information-sharing cooperative governed by a written agreement that provides for a comprehensive surveillance sharing arrangement. In addition to the agreement for confidential information sharing, the ISG provides a framework for the coordination of regulatory efforts among exchanges trading securities, commodity futures and related products to address potential intermarket manipulations and trading abuses.

As part of the regulatory program, each of our Exchanges and CFE have rules pertaining to their respective disciplinary processes.

U.S. Regulatory Agreements

The Exchanges and CFE have entered into agreements under which third parties have agreed to perform regulatory functions on behalf of our markets, (e.g., RSAs). As discussed below, in addition, in certain other instances for our Exchanges, a third party has been allocated the regulatory responsibility under Rule 17d-1 or Rule 17d-2 under the Exchange Act, while in others, we retain the regulatory responsibility for the activities.

Regulatory Services Agreement with FINRA

The Exchanges have entered into agreements with FINRA under which FINRA has agreed to provide regulatory services to the Exchanges. Under these agreements, FINRA performs certain regulatory functions on behalf of the Exchanges. The Exchanges remain responsible for the regulation of their TPHs, members and marketplaces, and retain the authority for bringing disciplinary actions against their TPHs, members, although FINRA performs various disciplinary-related functions on behalf of the Exchanges.

Regulatory Services Agreements with NFA and OCC

The National Futures Association (“NFA”) performs regulatory functions on behalf of CFE pursuant to an RSA with CFE. CFE retains overall responsibility for the regulation of its marketplace. In addition, OCC also performs certain regulatory functions on behalf of CFE pursuant to an RSA with CFE. CFE also performs certain regulatory functions in-house. Whether performed under an RSA or in-house, CFE also remains responsible for bringing disciplinary actions. CFE is also a party to cooperative and regulatory information sharing agreements with other SROs and is a member of the ISG, described above.

Rule 17d-1 Designations and Rule 17d-2 Agreements

Section 17(d) of the Exchange Act and the related Exchange Act rules permit SROs to allocate certain regulatory responsibilities to avoid duplicative oversight and regulation. Under Exchange Act Rule 17d-1, the SEC designates one SRO to be the designated examining authority (“DEA”) for each broker-dealer that is a member of more than one SRO. The DEA is responsible for the regulatory oversight of the Exchange Act’s financial responsibility rules pertaining to that broker-dealer. Cboe Options is the DEA for several of its TPHs. Cboe Trading’s assigned DEA is FINRA.

Exchange Act Rule 17d-2 permits SROs to enter into agreements, commonly called Rule 17d-2 agreements, which are approved by the SEC and concern the enforcement of rules applicable to all of those SROs and relating to TPHs and

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members those SROs have in common. The Exchanges have entered into certain bi-lateral Rule 17d-2 agreements under which FINRA is allocated responsibility for enforcing certain federal securities laws and certain Exchange rules that are common with FINRA rules. The Exchanges have entered into certain other multi-party Rule 17d-2 agreements that allocate responsibility among the participating SROs, which may include the Exchanges, for ensuring that their allocated common members comply with certain rules governing, among other items, options related sales practices, options related market surveillance, insider trading and NMS compliance.

National Market System Plans

We are member participants of several NMS plans. Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are member exchanges in OPRA, which is the designated securities information processor for market information that is generated through the trading of exchange-listed securities options in the United States, and it disseminates certain core trading information, such as last sale reports and quotations. Cboe Options, BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX also participate in the CTA and the Nasdaq Unlisted Trading Privileges Plan, which perform analogous services for the U.S. equities market. NYSE Technologies acts as the “processor” for OPRA and CTA. Nasdaq acts as the processor for the Nasdaq Unlisted Trading Privileges Plan.

Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are also parties to the Options Order Protection and Locked/Crossed Market Plan, which is designed to prohibit trade-throughs and avoid locked/crossed markets. Cboe Options, C2, BZX, and EDGX are also parties to the Options Listing Procedures Plan, which sets forth the procedures that the options exchanges must follow to list new options. Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGA, and EDGX are also parties to the NMS plan for the selection and reservation of securities symbols.

Under the Options Regulatory Surveillance Authority Plan (“ORSA Plan”), U.S. securities options exchanges are permitted to act jointly in the administration, operation and maintenance of a regulatory system for the surveillance, investigation and detection of the unlawful use of undisclosed, material information in trading in one or more of their markets. The ORSA Plan is intended to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency with which the exchanges regulate their respective markets and to avoid duplication of certain regulatory efforts. FINRA operates the ORSA Plan facility.

The consolidated audit trail NMS plan (“CAT”) involves the creation of a comprehensive audit trail that strives to enhance regulators’ ability to monitor trading activity in the U.S. securities markets through a phased implementation. Upon final implementation of the provisions of the CAT, data will be required to be reported to a central repository the following day by each SRO and broker-dealer (an “industry member”). On November 15, 2016, the SEC approved the CAT. The first, second and third phases of CAT were originally required to begin in November 2017, November 2018 and November 2019, respectively; however, there have been some delays. In 2017, Thesys CAT LLC (“Thesys”), a subsidiary of Thesys Technologies, LLC, was selected as the plan processor with the responsibility to build and operate the CAT. The first phase of CAT went live in November 2018, at which time we and other SROs began initial reporting to the CAT. In 2019, Thesys was replaced by a new plan processor, a subsidiary of FINRA. The second phase for industry member file submissions is now scheduled to go live beginning in April 2020, with additional sub-phases carrying through December 2021 (or by subsequent dates in the event the current deadlines are extended). The test environment for file submission and data integrity validations opened in December 2019. Broker-dealer customer and account information submissions are now scheduled to go live in July 2022 (or by a subsequent date in the event the current deadline is extended). While the funding of the CAT is ultimately expected to be provided by both the SROs (which includes our securities exchanges) and industry members, until fee filings associated with the funding model are effective with or approved by the SEC, the funding to date has solely been provided by the SROs. The funding by the SROs has been done in exchange for promissory notes expected to be repaid once such industry member fees are collected. Until the fee filings associated with the funding model that would share the cost of the CAT between the SROs and industry members are effective or approved, the SROs may continue to incur additional significant costs, including as a result of replacing the plan processor, or result in the uncollectibility of promissory notes related to the funding of the implementation and operation of the CAT. See Note 10 (“Other Assets, Net”) for further information.

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Intellectual Property

We own or have rights to a number of intellectual property assets, including trademarks, service marks, domain names, trade names, copyrights, trade secrets and patents. While the majority of our intellectual property is protected under U.S. law, we have many intellectual property assets protected by laws in Europe, Asia and other parts of the world. We license some intellectual property assets to other entities. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights, while respecting the legitimate intellectual property rights of others.

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we employed 823 individuals, 702 of whom are based in the United States, 93 of whom are located in London, 13 of whom are located in Ecuador, 9 of whom are located in the Netherlands, 3 of whom are located in Hong Kong, 2 of whom are located in Singapore, and 1 of whom is located in Switzerland. Of these employees, 267 were involved in technology or operations and 90 were involved in direct support of trading operations. The remaining 466 employees provide business development, financial, regulation, human resources, compliance, legal, planning and research, administrative and managerial support.

We have 8 building engineers that are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, which expires on May 31, 2021, with the International Union of Operating Engineers Local 399, AFL-CIO. Management believes that we have strong relationships with our employees, and we have never experienced a work stoppage.

Information about our Executive Officers

Set forth below is information regarding our executive officers:

Name

    

Age

    

Position

Edward T. Tilly

56

Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer

Christopher A. Isaacson

41

Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Brian N. Schell

54

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

John F. Deters

49

Executive Vice President, Chief Strategy Officer

Bryan Harkins

43

Executive Vice President, Head of Markets Division

David Howson

43

Executive Vice President, President Europe

Patrick Sexton

55

Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

Jill M. Griebenow

40

Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer

Edward T. Tilly.  Mr. Tilly is our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Tilly has served as our President since January 2019, Chairman since February 2017 and as CEO and director since May 2013. Prior to becoming CEO, Mr. Tilly served as President and Chief Operating Officer from November 2011, and Executive Vice Chairman from August 2006 until November 2011. He was a member of CBOE from 1989 until 2006, and served as Member Vice Chairman from 2004 through July 2006. He holds a B.A. degree in Economics from Northwestern University.  

Christopher A. Isaacson. Mr. Isaacson is our Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, a position he has held since January 2019. Previously he was our Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer, a position he was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Bats. Prior to that, he served as Bats' Executive Vice President and Global Chief Information Officer since February 2014, he served as Bats' Senior Vice President and Chief Operation Officer from 2007 to 2014 and he has held other various senior leadership positions since 2005. Prior to being one of the founders of Bats, Mr. Isaacson was a software developer at Tradebot Systems, Inc. from 2003 to 2005. Mr. Isaacson serves on the board of directors of the OCC. Mr. Isaacson holds a B.S. degree in information systems with a minor in math from Nebraska Wesleyan University and an M.B.A. degree from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.    

Brian N. Schell.  Mr. Schell is our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, a position he has held since January 2018. Previously, he was Deputy Chief Financial Officer of the Company’s subsidiary Cboe Exchange, Inc., a position he was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Bats. Prior to that, he served as Chief

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Financial Officer of Bats since March 2011. Prior to joining Bats, he held various senior leadership positions at H&R Block Inc., as well as various positions at the FDIC, KPMG and JP Morgan. Mr. Schell holds a B.B.A. degree with an emphasis in finance from the University of Notre Dame and an M.B.A. degree from The George Washington University.      

John F. Deters. Mr. Deters is our Executive Vice President, Chief Strategy Officer, a position he has held since 2018. He has previously served as our Head of Multi-Asset Solutions from 2018 to 2019 and as Chief Strategy Officer from 2013 to 2018. Prior to joining Cboe in 2013, Mr. Deters was most recently a Vice President and Investment Banker of Financial Institutions Group, Investment Banking at Barclays from 2008 to 2013. Mr. Deters holds a B.A. degree from Wheaton College, an M.B.A. degree from the University of Chicago, and a J.D./M.S. dual degree from Georgetown University Law Center.

Bryan Harkins. Mr. Harkins is our Executive Vice President, Head of Markets Division, a position he has held since June 2019. He has also previously served as our Co-Head of Markets Division from March 2018 to June 2019. Previously, he was Head of Equities and Global FX of the Company’s subsidiaries, a position he was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Bats. Prior to that, he served as Executive Vice President, Head of U.S. Markets of Bats since January 2014. Prior to the Direct Edge acquisition by Bats in January 2014 when Mr. Harkins first joined Bats, Mr. Harkins served as Chief Operating Officer of Direct Edge, where he worked since 2007. Mr. Harkins holds a B.A. degree from the University of Notre Dame and an M.B.A. degree from New York University's Stern School of Business.

David Howson. Mr. Howson is our Executive Vice President, President Europe, a position he has held since January 2020. Previously, he was Chief Operating Officer of Cboe Europe from 2013 to 2019. Prior to that, he served as Founder, Chief Technology Officer of Equiduct from April 2006 through June 2013. Mr. Howson holds a First Class Honours bachelor's degree from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Patrick Sexton. Mr. Sexton is our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, a position he has held since March 2018. Previously, he was Deputy General Counsel of the Company’s subsidiary Cboe Exchange, Inc. He has served in that capacity since July 2013 and has acted as legal, regulatory and compliance counsel with increasing responsibility and oversight since joining the Company in 1997. Mr. Sexton holds a B.A. degree from the University of Notre Dame and a J.D. degree with honors from Notre Dame Law School.

Jill M. Griebenow. Ms. Griebenow is our Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer, a position she has held since August 2018. Previously, she served as Chief Financial Officer, Europe of the Company's subsidiary Cboe Europe, a position she was appointed to upon the Company’s acquisition of Bats. She also previously served as Chief Financial Officer, Europe of Bats’ subsidiary Bats Europe Limited since February 2014 and was employed by Bats in the financial area since 2011. Prior to that, she has also held various positions at Ernst & Young LLP. Ms. Griebenow is a certified public accountant and holds a bachelor's degree in accounting from the University of Northern Iowa.

Available Information

Our website is www.cboe.com. The Company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The Company makes available, free of charge, on its website its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The Company's reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

In addition, we have posted on our website the charters for our (i) Audit Committee, (ii) Compensation Committee, and (iii) Nominating and Governance Committee, as well as our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and Corporate Governance Guidelines. We will provide a copy of these documents without charge to stockholders upon written request to Investor Relations, Cboe Global Markets, Inc., 400 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Our website and information included in or linked to our website are not part of this Form 10-K.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors.

The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we believe are material at this time relating to our business. These risks and uncertainties, however, are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also significantly impact us. Any of these risks and uncertainties may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, liquidity, and cash flows.

Loss of our right to exclusively list and trade certain index options and futures could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

We hold exclusive licenses to list securities index options on the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 2000 Index, as well as others, granted to us by the owners of such indices and based on which we have developed our proprietary VIX methodology. In 2019, approximately 64.8% of our net transaction fees (defined below) were generated by futures and index options, the overwhelming majority of which were generated by our exclusively-licensed products (e.g., SPX options) and products based on the VIX methodology (e.g., VIX options and futures). The bulk of this revenue is attributable to our SPX options and VIX options and futures. As a result, our net revenues are dependent in large part on the exclusive licenses we hold for these products and our ability to maintain our exclusive proprietary rights in the VIX methodology and related products and indices.

There is a risk, with respect to each of our current exclusive licenses, that the owner of the index may not renew the license with us on an exclusive basis or at all. In the first event, we would be subject to multiple listing in the trading of what is now an index product traded by us on an exclusive basis, which could result in a loss of market share and negatively impact our profitability. In the second event, we could lose the right to list the index product entirely. The loss or limited use of any of our exclusive index licenses, especially for the S&P 500 Index, for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.

In addition to the risks related to our exclusive licenses, if we are unable to retain exclusive proprietary rights in the VIX methodology and related products and indices, our volatility products could be subject to multiple listing which could have a material adverse effect on us.

The E.U. has adopted legislation affecting providers and users of benchmark indices in the E.U. MiFIR requires benchmarks used to value a financial instrument in the E.U. to be made available on a non-discriminatory basis to all E.U. trading venues and central counterparty clearing houses for the purposes of trading and clearing. As a result, owners of such benchmarks must provide licenses on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. While similar legislation to MiFIR has not been proposed in the U.S., if it were passed, it could cause us to lose our exclusive rights to list and trade internally developed and licensed index products. Further, in 2018, the E.U. implemented the E.U. Benchmark Regulation, which regulates users, data providers and calculators of benchmarks (“administrators”) in the E.U., and among other things, prohibits use of benchmarks in connection with a financial instrument unless the administrator is deemed to be subject to an equivalent regulatory regime and the benchmark is registered in an E.U. member state. These regulations and other emerging regulatory regimes around the world may impact international customers’ interest in or ability to trade index-based products listed on our U.S. exchanges, as well as impact our expansion activities to establish foreign trading of our index-based products and our ability to license proprietary indices for use outside of the U.S.

Furthermore, our competitors may succeed in developing, offering and providing a market for the trading of index-based or volatility products that are economically similar to those that we offer and they may become successful and take away volume from our products. It is also possible that a third party may offer trading in index-based products that are the same as those that are the subject of one of our exclusive licenses, but in a jurisdiction in which the index owner cannot require a license or in a manner otherwise not covered by our exclusive license.

The value of our licenses to exclusively list securities index options and futures also depends on the continued ability of index owners to require licenses for the trading of options and futures based on their indices. Although we and the index owners have prevailed in legal actions challenging our rights to exclusively license indices, we may be subject

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to changes in the law or other actions taken in the future that might impede our ability to exclusively offer trading in certain index options and futures.

General economic conditions and other factors beyond our control could significantly reduce demand for our products and services and harm our business.

The volume of exchange transactions and the demand for our products and services are directly affected by economic, political and market conditions in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere in the world that are beyond our control, including:

economic, political and geopolitical market conditions;
broad trends in business and finance;
concerns over inflation and wavering institutional or retail confidence levels;
government or central bank actions, such as changes in government fiscal and monetary policy and foreign currency exchange rates;
other legislative and regulatory changes;
the availability of short-term and long-term funding and capital;
the perceived attractiveness of the U.S. or European capital markets;
the availability of alternative investment opportunities;
changes in the level of trading activity in underlying instruments;
changes and volatility in the prices of securities;
changes in the volume of foreign currency transactions;
changes in supply and demand for currencies;
movements in currency exchange rates;
the level and volatility of interest rates;
changes in the financial strength of market participants;
consolidation among market participants and market data subscribers;
unforeseen market closures or other disruptions in trading; and
disruptions due to terrorism, war, extreme weather events or other catastrophes.

Any of these factors, individually or collectively, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results by causing a substantial decline in the financial services markets and reducing trading volumes and demand for market data.

We operate in a highly regulated industry and may be subject to censures, fines and other legal proceedings if we fail to comply with legal and regulatory obligations.

Cboe Options, C2, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA are registered national securities exchanges and self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”), and, as such, are subject to comprehensive regulation by the SEC. CFE is a DCM and Cboe SEF is a SEF, each registered with the CFTC and subject to comprehensive regulation by the CFTC. In addition to its other SRO responsibilities, BZX, as a listing market, also is responsible for evaluating applications submitted by issuers interested in listing their securities on BZX and monitoring each issuer’s compliance with BZX’s continued listing standards. Failure to comply with these SRO responsibilities could result in potential sanctions or fines and a negative impact on Cboe’s reputation and/or branding.

Our European business is subject to regulatory oversight in the U.K. by the FCA and in the Netherlands by the AFM, which, through the “passporting” regime, provides authorization to carry on business in other Member States of the E.U. and the European Economic Area in accordance with the applicable E.U. legislation and regulation to which our European business is subject. If a regulatory authority makes a finding of non-compliance, conditional fines could be imposed, and our licenses could be revoked. Any such fine or revocation of a license could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

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In addition to the requirements related to operating our U.S. markets imposed by the SEC and the CFTC, we also have certain responsibilities for regulating the TPHs and members that trade on our exchanges. While we have entered into agreements under which FINRA, with respect to our options and equities exchanges, and NFA, with respect to our futures exchange, provide certain regulatory services, we retain ultimate responsibility for the regulation of our TPHs and members. We have begun to perform internally more of the regulatory services that FINRA used to handle.

Our ability to comply with applicable laws and rules is largely dependent on the establishment and maintenance of appropriate systems and procedures, our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, the ability of FINRA and NFA to perform under the RSAs, the ability of FINRA to transition to us any other potential responsibilities under its revised RSA, our ability to complete the new additional responsibilities for regulating our TPHs and members and our oversight of the work done by FINRA and NFA. The SEC and CFTC have broad powers to audit, investigate and enforce compliance and to punish noncompliance by, as applicable, SROs, DCMs and SEFs pursuant to applicable laws, rules and regulations.

If a regulatory authority were to find one of our programs of enforcement or compliance to be deficient, our SROs, DCM, or SEF could be the subject of investigations and enforcement proceedings that may result in substantial sanctions, including revocation of registration as a national securities exchange, DCM, or SEF. Any such investigations or proceedings, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs, the diversion of resources, including management time, and potential harm to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, our SROs, DCM, or SEF may be required to modify or restructure their regulatory functions in response to any changes in the regulatory environment, or they may be required to rely on third parties to perform regulatory and oversight functions, each of which may require us to incur substantial expenses and may harm our reputation if our regulatory services are deemed inadequate.

In addition, SROs are required by federal law to perform a variety of regulatory functions. In light of these responsibilities, some courts have held that SROs are immune to certain private causes of action relating to the performance of these regulatory functions. There is a risk that some courts may not apply this immunity doctrine to all claims. There is also a risk that legislative or regulatory developments may change the application of this immunity doctrine. Limitations on the application of the immunity doctrine could result in an increased exposure to litigation, and increase liability and/or other legal expenses. Further under the Commodity Exchange Act, CFE and Cboe SEF may be subject to litigation alleging that they have acted in bad faith. We also could be exposed to liability to regulators or other governmental authorities even in situations where immunity would bar a civil claim.

Our business may be adversely affected by price competition.

The securities industry is characterized by intense price competition, especially with respect to transaction fees. We may be required to adjust pricing to respond to actions by new or existing competitors, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results. We also compete with respect to the pricing of market data and value-added market data, such as historical market data.

In our options segment, the pricing model for trade execution has changed in response to competitive market conditions, and our competitors have adjusted transaction fees and fee structures accordingly, including by opening new exchanges, which allow them to offer multiple pricing models that can appeal to different segments of market participants. These changes have resulted in significant pricing pressures on us, especially on transaction fees and incentives for multi-listed products. As a result of these pricing pressures, our average rate per multi-listed options contract may decrease. It is likely that this pressure will continue and even intensify as our competitors continue to seek to increase their share of trading by further reducing their transaction fees or by offering other financial incentives to order providers and liquidity providers to induce them to direct orders to their markets.

In addition, one or more competitors may engage in aggressive pricing strategies and significantly decrease or completely eliminate their profit margin for a period of time in order to capture a greater share of trading volume. Some order-providing firms on our exchanges have taken ownership positions in options exchanges that compete with us and such exchanges have given those firms added economic incentives to direct orders to them.

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With respect to our proprietary products, we compete with futures exchanges and swap execution facilities that offer similar products and other financial market participants that offer over-the-counter derivatives. We also compete against certain multi-listed options products, including SPY, which offer some of the features of our proprietary products.

To attract market share, we may offer “inverted” pricing specials or no-transaction fee trading from time to time. BZX also offers a “cross-asset add volume tier” that gives a bigger rebate for additional volume on both the BZX equities and options platforms. These forms of promotions may adversely affect our profitability.

If we are unable to compete successfully with respect to the pricing of our services and products, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected. We could lose a substantial percentage of our share of trading if we are unable to price transactions in a competitive manner. Also, our profits could decline if competitive pressures or regulatory changes, such as the transaction fee pilot, force us to reduce fees.

A significant portion of our operating revenues is generated by our transaction-based business. If the amount of trading volume on our exchanges decreases, or the product mix shifts to lower revenue products, our revenues from transaction fees will most likely decrease.

In 2019, approximately 62.9% of our net revenues were generated by our transaction-based business. This business is dependent on our ability to attract and maintain order flow, both in absolute terms and relative to other market centers. If the amount of trading volume on our exchanges, CFE or notional value traded on Cboe FX, Cboe SEF and Cboe Europe Equities exchanges decreases, we are likely to see a decrease in transaction fees.

Our total trading volumes could decline if our market participants reduce their trading activity for any reason, such as:

heightened capital requirements;
transaction tax;
regulatory or legislative actions;
reduced need to trade due to changes in volatility and/or passive investment trends;
reduced access to capital required to fund trading activities;
consolidation among market participants; or
significant market disruptions.

Over the past few years, a number of legislative actions have been taken, both domestically and internationally, that may cause market participants to be subject to increased capital requirements and additional compliance burdens. These actions, including the Collins Amendment to Dodd-Frank, MiFID II and MiFIR, may cause market participants to reduce trading activity on our exchanges.

In addition, the transaction fees generated are different based on type of product and other factors, including the type of customer and certain volume discounts. If the amount of our trading volume decreases, the mix traded shifts to our lower revenue per contract products or the transaction fee pilot is implemented, our revenues from transaction fees will most likely decrease. We can offer no assurance that we would be able to reduce our costs to match the amount of any such decrease.

Revenues from our market data fees and access and capacity fees may be reduced due to declines in our market share, trading volumes or regulatory changes.

The occurrence of any event that reduces the amount of market data fees that we receive, whether as a result of fee reductions, fewer members subscribing to the U.S. tape plans, declines in market share or trading volumes (or notional volume in the case of Cboe Europe Equities) or regulatory changes, will have a direct negative impact on our business, financial condition and operating results. For example, if our market share of U.S. listed equities and options, or Cboe’s European equities trading, were to decline, our share of market data fees could also decline. Moreover, market data fees could decline as a result of a reduction in the numbers of market data users, for example because of consolidation among

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market data subscribers or due to a decline in professional subscriptions as a result of staff reductions in the financial services industry or otherwise.

Regulatory and legal developments could also impact the fees we receive from market data and access and capacity, or our cost in providing such services. In the U.S., we are generally required to file with the SEC any changes to the fees that we charge for our securities market data products and access and capacity fees. In recent years, certain industry groups have objected to the ability of exchanges to charge for certain market data products. Specifically, the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (“SIFMA”) has filed a number of denial of access applications with the SEC to set aside proposed rule changes to establish or modify fees for our market data products, access and capacity fees and related services. Further, the SEC and some media have scrutinized market data and market access. An adverse ruling in these matters or additional scrutiny could cause the SEC to more closely examine exchange market data and access and capacity fees, which in turn could result in our having to reduce the fees we charge for market data and access and capacity and there could be a negative impact on our revenues. See “Legal Proceedings” for more information.

In addition, as discussed above, in January 2020, the SEC issued for public comment the Proposed Order that would require U.S. equities exchanges and FINRA to develop and file a new consolidated data plan. If a final order were to be issued, it may have a negative impact on the market data fees we charge and there could be a negative impact on our revenues.

We believe Cboe Europe Equities currently offers market data to customers on a non-discriminatory basis at a reasonable cost. As regulators determine how market data should be disaggregated and what is a reasonable commercial basis for providing market data, it could affect our ability to offer market data products in the same manner that we do today thereby causing an adverse effect on our European market data revenues. While MiFID II and MiFIR aim to encourage a commercial solution to a consolidated tape in Europe, should this fail to materialize, policy makers might be encouraged to implement a mandatory solution that could impact our ability to develop our own commercial offering.

Legislative or regulatory changes affecting our markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Changes in regulation by the SEC, CFTC, FCA, AFM, foreign regulators or other government action, including SEC approval of rule filings by other SROs or entities, including OCC, could materially affect our markets. In recent years, the securities and derivatives industries have been subject to regulatory changes as a result of increasing government and public scrutiny of the securities and derivatives industries. We have also experienced an increase in rulemaking and legislation that could affect our business.

Starting in 2015, large U.S. banks were required to use a calculation methodology known as the current exposure method (“CEM”) to compute regulatory capital requirements associated with the clearing guarantee provided by bank-affiliated OCC clearing members. U.S. banks, as well as European banks that also apply CEM, are required to maintain regulatory capital that is disproportionate to the risk of clearing options contracts and has led to further increases in capital requirements for bank holding companies and bank subsidiaries involved in the trading and clearing of derivatives. In November 2019, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency approved replacing CEM with a more risk-sensitive calculation method known as the standardized approach to counterparty credit risk (“SA-CCR”), which is expected to reduce capital requirements associated with the clearing of listed options. Banks are required to adopt SA-CCR by January 1, 2022, but may do so as early as April 1, 2020. If the implementation of SA-CCR does not occur earlier than 2022, during that time we may experience a reduction in trading in options and futures due to bank-affiliated clearing members charging their customers more to trade, reducing the type or number of customers or withdrawing from the business of market-maker clearing.

Further, Congress, regulators and some media have been increasingly scrutinizing electronic trading and the structure of equity markets in recent years. The SEC continues to consider various potential market structure changes, which could result in reduced trading volumes, or which could negatively affect our business. To the extent the SEC adopts regulatory changes, our business, financial condition and operating results could be negatively impacted. In addition, high frequency trading has been the subject of private litigation and we are party to one such matter. See Note

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24 (“Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees—Legal Proceedings”) for more information. To the extent the SEC adopts regulatory changes related to market data and access and capacity, such as the Proposed Order, our business, financial condition and operating results could be negatively impacted.

In addition, as discussed above, in December 2018, the SEC approved the transaction fee pilot. The transaction fee pilot may cause Cboe’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, to require additional resources to comply with or challenge the transaction fee pilot and it may have a material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, shifts in order flow away from exchanges were to occur. See “Legal Proceedings” for more information.

Under E.U. regulations, European banks and other European financial institutions become subject to punitive capital charges if they transact options or futures through a non-qualifying clearinghouse. OCC, our clearinghouse for options and futures, is not currently recognized as a qualified clearinghouse by the E.U.; however, the OCC is working with the E.U. to qualify as a foreign clearinghouse equivalent. As a prerequisite to becoming qualified, OCC could be required by the E.U. to contribute significant capital to its default waterfall applicable in the event of clearing member default. This capital could be required to be drawn before the default fund contributions of non-defaulting clearing members in the event that a defaulting clearing member’s margin and other contributions were to be exhausted. OCC’s stockholders, including Cboe Options, could effectively be required to fund this capital. If the E.U. does not recognize OCC as a qualified clearinghouse by June 15, 2021 (or by a subsequent date in the event that the current deadline is extended), then European market participants that clear through OCC would become subject to punitive capital charges. As a result, we could experience the loss of a significant number of European market participants and a significant reduction in trading activity on our options and futures markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

The implementation of MiFID II and MiFIR in Europe at the beginning of 2018 has encouraged competition among market centers in Europe. MiFID II and MiFIR have introduced a number of new rules, including enhanced internal organizational and compliance monitoring requirements, which apply directly to European trading venues such as our MTF and RM. The impact of MiFID II and MiFIR is significant, and the increased competition among market centers could reduce trading volumes and trading fees, while increasing our costs of operating in Europe. Additionally, European authorities are planning to review MiFID in 2020 as a result of which new rules may come into effect that could have a material impact on our business.

The legislative and regulatory environment in which the spot FX market operates is evolving and has undergone significant changes in the recent past, and there may be future regulatory changes in the spot FX industry. The FX Global Code was published in 2017 and sets forth standards of conduct agreed by market participants and central banks on a global basis to apply to the wholesale FX market, and the effect of its publication on conduct and future regulation continues to evolve. Changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and regulations by applicable governmental bodies and regulatory organizations, or the adoption of new legal or regulatory requirements, may also adversely affect our spot FX business.  Further, our FX non-deliverable forwards business may also be adversely affected by proposed regulatory changes to the rules governing swap execution facilities.  

It is also possible that there will be additional legislative and regulatory changes or efforts in the environment in which we operate our businesses. Actions on any of the specific regulatory issues currently under review in the U.S. or Europe and other proposals could have a material impact on our business.

In addition, U.S. and foreign legislatures and regulators and other regulatory authorities could impose legislative or regulatory changes that could adversely impact the ability of our market participants to use our markets or participate in the securities industry at all. Any such changes could result in the loss of a significant number of market participants or a reduction in trading activity on our markets, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Changes or proposed changes in regulation may also result in additional costs of compliance and modification of market participants’ trading activity on our exchanges and markets.

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The technology upon which we rely, including those of our service providers, may be vulnerable to security risks, cybersecurity risks, insider threats, unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, operational disruptions, and other risks and events that could harm our business.

The secure and reliable operation of our technology, including our computer systems and communications networks, and those of our service providers and market participants, is a critical element of our operations. These systems and networks may be subject to various cybersecurity incidents, improper or inadvertent access to or disclosure of confidential, commercially sensitive, or personally identifiable information, data theft, corruption or destruction, cyber-attack, malware and other security problems, as well as acts of terrorism, natural disasters, human error, criminal insider activity, power loss and other events that are beyond our control. For example, in 2018, we discovered and in 2018 and 2019 we investigated an incident involving a suspected theft of computer servers and networking devices.

We currently maintain physical, technical, and administrative safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity, availability and reliability of our systems, networks and information more broadly, and to guard against cybersecurity incidents and unauthorized access. We also maintain and continue to enhance policies, procedures and controls for tracking and appropriately disposing of technology equipment hardware during technology updates and around the protection of our computer systems and communications networks. Collectively, these safeguards and measures may prove inadequate to prevent the attendant risk posed by cybersecurity incidents, subjecting us to contractual restrictions, liability and damages, loss of business, penalties, unfavorable publicity, and increased scrutiny by our regulators, and materially impacting our financial condition and operating results. We may be required to expend significant resources in the event of any real or threatened breaches in security or system failures, including to protect against threatened breaches, to alleviate harm caused by an actual breach, and to address any reputational harm or litigation or regulatory liability. Such harms also could cause us to lose market participants, experience lower trading volume, and negatively impact our competitive advantage and business, financial condition and operating results.

Additionally, as threats continue to evolve and increase, and as the regulatory environment related to information security, data collection and use, and privacy becomes increasingly rigorous, we may be required to devote significant additional resources to modify and enhance our security controls and to identify and remediate any security vulnerabilities, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Intense competition could materially adversely affect our market share and financial performance.

The market for trade execution services and products is intensely competitive in the asset classes and geographies in which we operate. Increased competition may result in a decline in our share of trading activity and a decline in our revenues from transaction fees and market data fees, thereby adversely affecting our operating results. We compete with a number of entities on several different fronts, including the cost, quality and speed of our trade execution, functionality and ease of use of our trading platform, range of our products and services, our technological innovation and adaptation and our reputation. See “Business – Competition.”

Some of our competitors and potential competitors have greater financial, marketing, technological, personnel and other resources than we do. These factors may enable them to develop similar or more innovative products, to offer lower transaction fees or better execution to their customers or to execute their business strategies more quickly or efficiently than we can. In addition, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected if we cannot successfully develop, introduce and/or market new services and products or if we need to adopt costly and customized technology for our services and products.

Furthermore, new or existing competitors may:

respond more quickly to competitive pressures;
develop products that compete with our products or are preferred by our customers;
offer products and services at prices below ours to gain market share and to promote other businesses;
develop and expand their technology and service offerings more efficiently;
provide better, more user-friendly and more reliable technology;
take greater advantage of acquisitions, alliances and other opportunities;

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market, promote, bundle and sell their products and services more effectively;
leverage existing relationships with customers and alliance partners more effectively or exploit brand names to market and sell their services; and
exploit regulatory disparities between traditional, regulated exchanges and alternative markets, including over-the-counter markets, that benefit from a reduced regulatory burden and lower-cost business model.

If our products, markets, services and technology are not competitive or we fail to anticipate or respond adequately to changes in technology, customer preferences and regulatory requirements or any significant delays in product development efforts our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed.

We depend on third-party service providers for certain services that are important to our business. An interruption, significant increase in fees or cessation or impairment of such service by any third party could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We depend on a number of service providers, including clearing organizations such as OCC, NSCC, LCH, EuroCCP and SIX x-clear; securities information processors such as the CTA, UTP Securities Information Processor and OPRA; regulatory and other service providers such as FINRA, NFA and OCC; the hosts of our data and disaster recovery centers; and various vendors of communications and networking products and services. In addition, we also depend on third party routing and clearing firms who are involved in processing transactions on our behalf. More specifically:

If OCC, NSCC, EuroCCP, LCH and SIX x-clear were unable to perform clearing services for existing or new products, or their clearing members were unable or unwilling to clear through them, transactions could likely not occur on our markets or there may be delays, including until clearing is moved to another clearing agency. In 2019, approximately 64.8% of our net transaction fees were generated by options and futures that were cleared through OCC.
OPRA, UTP Securities Information Processor and the CTA consolidate options and equities market information such as last sale reports and quotations. If any of them were unable to provide this information for a sustained period of time, we may be unable to offer trading on our options and equities markets.
We are heavily dependent on technology for our markets, including our data and disaster recovery centers, some of which are housed by third parties, and certain communications and networking products and services. If this technology is unavailable, and cannot be replaced in a sufficiently short time period, we may be unable to operate our markets.
We plan to utilize Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) to maintain secondary offsite backups of our and our customers’ data and may utilize AWS in the future for additional services. We do not control the operations of AWS or their facilities and may be vulnerable to disruptions in our access to the platform as a result of a number of potential causes, including technical failure, natural disasters, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent. Additionally, any vulnerability of AWS could expose our or our customers’ confidential data, which could result in harm to our business reputation.
FINRA, OCC, and NFA provide certain regulatory services and functions for our options, equities and futures exchanges, while we retain regulatory responsibilities for such services. If FINRA, OCC, or NFA stopped providing services, or provided inadequate services, we may be subject to action by the SEC or CFTC, or may have limitations placed upon our markets.
We rely on FINRA to provide services for the implementation of the CAT. If FINRA stops providing services or provides inadequate services, we and the other execution venues may incur regulatory liability including enforcement action by the SEC or limitations placed upon our markets. In addition, until the SEC approves a funding model that shares the cost of the CAT between the SROs and industry members, the SROs may continue to incur additional significant costs, including as a result of replacing the plan processor, or result in not being able to collect on the promissory notes related to the funding of the implementation and operation of the CAT.
We rely on third party routing and clearing firms to clear trades in U.S. listed equity securities routed by us to other markets, and to execute trades in options that we route to other markets. 

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With respect to options, all contracts traded on our exchanges must be cleared through clearing members of OCC. At December 31, 2019, there were 98 TPHs that are clearing members of OCC. Two clearing members accounted for approximately 48.9% of transaction and other fees collected through OCC in 2019. The next largest clearing member accounted for approximately 16.6% of transaction and other fees collected through OCC. Additionally, the two largest clearing members clear the majority of the market-maker sides of transactions at Cboe Options, C2, BZX, EDGX and at all of the options exchanges. Should one of these clearing members or liquidity providers exit the business or withdraw from our options exchanges, impose additional market-maker financial requirements or if market-makers were unable to transfer to another clearing member or other liquidity providers were unable to provide additional liquidity, this could create a significant disruption to the options markets, including ours.

We cannot provide assurance that any of these providers will be able to continue to provide these services in an efficient manner or that they will be able to adequately expand their services to meet our needs. An interruption or malfunction in or the cessation or impairment of an important service by a third party or disruption of a third party’s operations could cause us to halt trading in some or all of our products or our services, make us unable to conduct other aspects of our business, cause us to experience the loss of a significant number of market participants or cause us to experience a significant reduction in trading activity on our options and futures markets, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, our inability to make alternative arrangements, such as moving clearing to another clearing agency, in a timely manner, or at all, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Our operations outside of the U.S. expose us to currency risk.

In addition to our operations in the U.S., we have operations in the U.K., continental Europe, Ecuador, Hong Kong and Singapore. We, therefore, have exposure to exchange rate movements between the British pound, the Euro, the Hong Kong dollar, and the Singapore dollar against the U.S. dollar. Significant inflation or changes in foreign exchange rates with respect to one or more of these currencies could occur as a result of general economic or political conditions, acts of war or terrorism, changes in governmental monetary or tax policy, Brexit or changes in local interest rates. These exchange rate differences will affect the translation of our non-U.S. results of operations and financial condition into U.S. dollars as part of our consolidated financial statements.

If one or more of the index providers from which we have licenses or service providers with respect to proprietary products fails to maintain the quality and integrity of their indices or fails to perform under our agreements with them or if customer preferences change, or if we fail to maintain the quality and integrity of our proprietary indices, revenues we generate from trading in these proprietary products or the calculation and dissemination of index values may suffer.

We are a party to a number of license agreements pursuant to which we may list for trading securities options on various indices including license agreements that we have with S&P, for the S&P 500, S&P 100 and S&P Select Sectors Indices, DJIA, LSEG and MSCI. These license agreements provide that we are authorized to list products based on their indices, and some of the resulting index options and futures are among the most actively traded products on our exchanges. We also enter into licensing agreements pursuant to which we calculate and disseminate values of proprietary indices. The quality and integrity of each of these indices are dependent on the ability of the index providers, including us, to maintain the index, including by means of the calculation and rebalancing of the index, and are dependent on the index providers for a number of things, including the provision of index data. We also rely on index providers to enforce intellectual property rights against unlicensed uses of the indices and uses of the indices that infringe on our licenses. Furthermore, some of our agreements concerning our proprietary products provide for the parties to those agreements to provide important services to us. If any of our index providers, including us, are unable to maintain the quality and integrity of their indices, or if any of the index providers or service providers fail to perform their obligations under the agreements, trading in these products, and therefore transaction fees we receive, may be adversely affected or we may not receive the financial benefits of the agreements that we negotiated.

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We and our licensors may not be able to protect our respective intellectual property rights.

We rely on patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark laws, the law of the doctrine of misappropriation and contractual protections to protect our proprietary technology, proprietary products, index methodologies and other proprietary rights. In addition, we rely on the intellectual property rights of our licensors in connection with our listing of exclusively-licensed index options and futures products. We and our licensors may not be able to prevent third parties from copying, or otherwise obtaining and using, our intellectual property without authorization, listing our proprietary or exclusively-licensed index products without licenses or otherwise infringing on our rights. We and our licensors may have to rely on litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. We and our licensors may not be successful in this regard. Such litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs to us, diversion of our resources or a reduction in our revenues, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.

Any infringement by us on intellectual property rights of others could result in litigation and could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

Our competitors, as well as others, have obtained, or may obtain, patents or may otherwise hold intellectual property rights that are related to our technology or the types of products and services we offer or plan to offer. We may not be aware of all intellectual property that may pose a risk of infringement by our products, services or technologies. In addition, some potential patent applications in the U.S. are confidential until a patent is issued, and therefore we cannot evaluate the extent to which our products, services or technologies may be covered or asserted to be covered in pending patent applications. Thus, we cannot be sure that our products, services or technologies do not infringe on the rights of others or that others will not make claims of infringement against us. Claims of infringement are not uncommon in our industry, and even if we believe that such claims are without merit, they can be time-consuming and costly to defend and divert management resources and attention. If one or more of our products, services or technologies were determined to infringe a patent or other intellectual property right held by another party, we may be required to pay damages, stop using, developing or marketing those products, services or technologies, obtain a license from the intellectual property rights holders, or redesign those products, services or technologies to avoid infringement. If we were required to stop using, developing or marketing certain products, services or technologies, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed. Moreover, if we were unable to obtain required licenses, we may not be able to redesign our products, services or technologies to avoid infringement, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

If we fail to attract or retain highly skilled management and other employees our business may be harmed.

Our success largely depends on the skills, experience and continued efforts of management and other key personnel. As a result, to be successful, we must retain and motivate executives and other key employees. However, we have no assurances that these employees will remain with us. The roles and responsibilities of departing executive officers and employees will need to be filled either by existing or new officers and employees, which may require us to devote time and resources to identifying, hiring and integrating replacements for the departed executives and employees that could otherwise be used to pursue business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our overall business, financial condition and operating results.

There is substantial competition for qualified and capable personnel in the technology space, which may make it difficult for us to retain and recruit qualified employees in sufficient numbers. If we fail to retain our current employees, it would be difficult and costly to identify, recruit and train replacements needed to continue to conduct and expand our business. In particular, failure to retain and attract qualified technology personnel could result in systems failures. Consequently, our reputation may be harmed, we may incur additional costs and our profitability could decline. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain and motivate our employees in the same manner as we have historically done.

Additionally, effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving our management team and key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.

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Computer and communications systems failures and capacity constraints could harm our reputation and our business.

Our business depends on the integrity and performance of our computer and communications systems. If our systems cannot expand to cope with increased demand or otherwise fail to perform, we could experience unanticipated disruptions in service, slower response times and delays in the introduction of new products and services. These consequences could result in trading outages, lower trading volumes, financial losses, decreased customer service and satisfaction and regulatory sanctions and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business. Although we have a back-up plan of significant trading and key corporate systems, the back-up systems or disaster recovery plans may prove to be inadequate in the event of a systems failure or cyber-security breach. Despite having disaster recovery facilities, there can be no guarantees that we will be able to open an efficient, transparent and liquid marketplace, if we can open at all, following a systems failure. Moreover, with extended trading hours, we have to operate our systems longer and have fewer non-trading hours to address any potential concerns with the systems on which we rely.

Our markets have experienced occasional systems failures and delays in the past and in the future our systems may fail, in whole or in part, or may operate slowly, causing one or more of the following:

unanticipated disruption in service to our participants;
failures or delays during peak trading times or times of unusual market volatility;
slower response times and delays in trade execution and processing;
incomplete or inaccurate accounting, recording or processing of trades; and
distribution of inaccurate or untimely market data to participants who rely on this data in their trading activity.

Any of these events may cause:

a loss in transaction or other fees due to the inability to provide services for a time;
requests by market participants or others that we reimburse them for financial loss, either within the constraints of the limited liability provisions of our exchanges’ rules or in excess of those amounts;
trading volume to diminish on our exchanges due to dissatisfaction with the platform; and
one or more of our regulators to investigate or take enforcement action against us.

As a consequence of any of these events, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer materially.

In addition to other measures, we test our systems to confirm whether they will be able to handle anticipated present and future peak trading activity or times of unusual market volatility. However, we cannot assure you that our estimates of future trading volume will be accurate or that our systems will always be able to accommodate actual trading volume without failure or degradation of performance.

We anticipate that we will need to continue to make significant investments in hardware, software and telecommunications infrastructure to accommodate the increases in traffic. If we cannot increase the capacity and capabilities of our systems to accommodate increasing trading activity and to execute our business strategy, our ability to maintain or expand our businesses would be adversely affected.

Misconduct by our TPHs, members, participants or others could harm us.

We run the risk that our TPHs, members, participants or other persons who use our markets or our products or our employees may engage in fraud, market or product manipulation or other misconduct, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation, especially because we are the parent company of SROs. It is not always possible to deter misconduct, or market or product manipulation, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. In addition, misconduct, or market or product manipulation by, or failures of,

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participants on our or other exchanges may discourage trading on our exchanges or of our products, which could reduce revenues.

Our use of open source software code may subject our software to general release or require us to re-engineer our software, which could harm our business.

Our technology platform uses open source software code. Companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the ownership of open source software. As a result, we could be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. In addition, some open source software licenses require users who distribute open source software as part of their software to publicly disclose all or part of the source code in their software and make any derivative works of the open source code available on unfavorable terms or at no cost. Open source license terms may be ambiguous, and many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated. We believe that our use of open source software is in compliance with the relevant open source software licenses and does not require disclosure of any of our source code. However, if we were found to have inappropriately used open source software, we may be required to release our proprietary source code, re-engineer or discontinue use of our software or take other remedial action any or all of which could cause disruptions in, or impose significant costs on, our business.

Potential conflicts of interest between our for-profit status and our regulatory responsibilities may adversely affect our business.

As a for-profit business with regulatory responsibilities, we are responsible for disciplining TPHs and members for violating our rules, including by imposing fines and sanctions. This may create a conflict of interest between our business interests and our regulatory responsibilities. Any failure by us to fulfill our regulatory obligations could significantly harm our reputation, increase regulatory scrutiny or cause the SEC or CFTC to take action against us, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Brexit could have a negative impact on the U.K. and E.U. economies and lead to considerable uncertainty while new treaties are negotiated.

In addition to the economic uncertainty the Brexit Vote, Brexit and Transition Period bring, there are a number of potential risks that investors should consider:

Political uncertainty. Following the Brexit Vote, the U.K. entered into a period of acute political uncertainty both as to the nature and timing of the negotiations with the E.U. Such uncertainty led to a high degree of economic and market disruption and legal uncertainty. While some certainty has been established following the joint U.K./E.U. approval of the Withdrawal Agreement, including the agreement of a Transition Period up to the end of 2020, it is not possible to predict the outcome of trade negotiations and the impact they will have on the U.K. in general and markets more broadly.
Legal uncertainty. A significant proportion of English law currently derives from or is designed to operate in concert with E.U. law. This is especially true of English law relating to financial markets, financial services, prudential and conduct regulation of financial institutions, bank recovery and resolution, payment services and systems, settlement finality, and market infrastructure. Depending on the terms of the U.K.’s exit from the E.U. entered into during the Transition Period, significant changes to English law are likely, and we cannot predict what these changes will be and how they may affect our business.
Regulatory uncertainty. There is significant uncertainty about how the remaining E.U. countries (“EU27”) financial institutions with assets (including branches) in the U.K. and U.K. financial institutions with assets in the EU27 will be regulated. At present, E.U. single market regulation allows regulated financial institutions (including credit institutions, investment firms, alternative investment fund managers, insurance and reinsurance undertakings) to benefit from a passporting system for regulatory authorizations required to conduct their businesses, as well as facilitating mutual rights of access to important elements of market infrastructure

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such as payment and settlement systems. E.U. law is also the framework for mutual recognition of bank recovery and resolution regimes.

Once the U.K. ceases to be a member state of the E.U., the current passporting arrangements are expected to cease to be effective, as will the current mutual rights of access to market infrastructure and current arrangements for mutual recognition of bank recovery and resolution regimes. The ability of regulated financial institutions to continue to do business between the U.K. and the EU27 after the U.K. ceases to be a member state of the E.U. would therefore be subject to separate arrangements between the U.K. and the EU27. There can be no assurance that there will be any such arrangements concluded and, if they are concluded, on what terms.

Market uncertainty. Since the Brexit Vote and Brexit, there has been volatility and disruption of the capital, currency, exchange rates and credit markets. If this disruption continues, it may adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

In 2019, we derived 7.7% of our total net revenues from our U.K. operations. Depending on the outcome of the Brexit and Transition Period negotiations, companies with operations in the U.K. may face unfavorable business conditions to access the single market. In preparation for Brexit, Cboe Europe Equities established a regulated entity in the E.U. in addition to its existing entity in the U.K. so that it can continue offering its services to customers in both jurisdictions. Nevertheless, if the E.U. or the U.K. introduce new legislation that could restrict free competition or access to capital markets, the impact of such legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Damage to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We believe one of our competitive strengths is our strong industry reputation. Various issues may give rise to reputational risk, including issues relating to:

the representation of our business in the media;
the quality and benefits of using our proprietary products, including the reliability and functionality of our transaction-based business and the accuracy of our market data;
the ability to execute our business plan, key initiatives or new business ventures and the ability to keep up with changing customer demands and regulatory initiatives;
our regulatory compliance and our enforcement of compliance on our customers;
the accuracy of our financial statements and other financial and statistical information;
the quality of our corporate governance structure;
the quality of our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting, including any failures in supervision;
the integrity and performance of our computer and communications systems;
security breaches, including any unauthorized delivery of proprietary data to third parties;
management of our outsourcing relationships, including our relationship with FINRA and NFA;
any misconduct or fraudulent activity by our employees, especially senior management, or other persons formerly or currently associated with us;
our listings business and our enforcement of our listing rules; and
any negative publicity surrounding the ETPs that we serve as the listing destination.

Damage to our reputation could cause a reduction in the trading volume of our proprietary products or on our exchanges or cause us to lose customers. This, in turn, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

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If our risk management and compliance methods are not effective, our business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.

Our ability to comply with all applicable laws and rules is largely dependent on our establishment and maintenance of compliance, risk, audit, and reporting systems and procedures, as well as our ability to attract and retain qualified compliance, risk and audit management personnel. These systems and procedures may not be fully effective. We face the risk of intervention by regulatory authorities, including extensive examination and surveillance activity. In the case of actual or alleged non-compliance with applicable laws or regulations, we could be subject to investigations and judicial or administrative proceedings that may result in penalties, settlements or civil lawsuits, including by customers, for damages, which may be substantial. In the past, the SEC has brought actions against exchange operators, including us, for failing to fulfill their obligations to have an effective regulatory system. Any failure to comply with applicable laws and rules could adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and operating results and, in extreme cases, our ability to conduct our business or portions thereof. As the parent company for SROs, we are responsible for maintaining exchanges that comply with securities and futures laws, SEC, FCA, AFM and CFTC regulations and the rules of the respective exchanges.

We have methods to identify, monitor and manage our risks. Management of legal and regulatory risk requires policies and procedures to properly monitor and manage risk. If our policies, procedures, and compliance systems are not effective or we are not successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are or may be exposed, our business, reputation, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We cannot provide assurance that our policies and procedures will always be effective, or that our management, compliance department, risk department and related enterprise risk management program and internal audit department would be able to identify any such ineffectiveness. If these departments or the enterprise risk program, and related policies and procedures are not effective, we may be subject to monetary or other penalties by our regulators, and our insurance policies may not provide adequate coverage.

Financial or other problems experienced by third parties could have an adverse effect on our business.

We are exposed to credit risk from third parties, including customers, clearing agents and counterparties. For example, we are exposed to credit risk for transaction fees we bill to customers on a monthly basis in arrears. Our customers and other third parties may default on their obligations to us due to a lack of liquidity, operational failure, bankruptcy or other reasons.

In addition, with respect to orders Cboe Trading routes to other markets for execution on behalf of our customers, Cboe Trading is exposed to counterparty credit risk in the case of failure to perform on the part of our routing and clearing firms who are involved in processing equities and options transactions on our behalf, as well as failure on the part of such brokers to pass back any transactional rebates. Wedbush Securities Inc. (“Wedbush”), and Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC (“Morgan Stanley”) guarantee equity trades until one day after the trade date, after which time NSCC provides a guarantee. Thus, Cboe Trading is potentially exposed to credit risk to the counterparty to an equity trade routed to another market center between the trade date and one day after the trade date in the event that Wedbush or Morgan Stanley fails to perform. With respect to U.S. listed equity options and futures, we deliver matched trades of our customers to the OCC, which acts as a central counterparty on all transactions occurring on Cboe Options, C2, BZX, EDGX, and CFE and, as such, guarantees clearance and settlement of all of our matched options and futures trades.

With respect to U.S. equities, Cboe Trading has counterparty credit risk exposure to Wedbush and Morgan Stanley related to clearing until the day following the trade date. Cboe Trading uses Wedbush to clear trades routed through affiliates of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC as well as for trades routed directly to other exchanges and optionally dark pools. Morgan Stanley clears trades routed through the Morgan Stanley routing brokers and also clears executions routed to most dark pools. Cboe Trading maintains counterparty credit risk exposure from routing brokers with respect to rebates earned until completion of the routing brokers next invoice cycle following the execution.

With respect to U.S. listed equity and exchange traded product options, Cboe Trading is subject to counterparty credit risk exposure with respect to rebates earned from routing brokers until completion of the routing brokers’ next invoice cycle has completed for an execution.

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Our exposure to credit risk may be further impacted by volatile securities markets that may affect the ability of our customers and other third parties to satisfy their contractual obligations to us. Moreover, we may not be successful in managing our credit risk through reporting and control procedures or by maintaining credit standards. Any losses arising from such defaults or other credit losses could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

While neither Cboe FX nor Cboe SEF has direct counterparty risk, Cboe FX or Cboe SEF may suffer a decrease in transaction volume if a bank or prime broker experiences an event that causes other prime brokers to decrease or revoke the credit available to the prime broker experiencing the event. Therefore, Cboe FX and Cboe SEF may have risk that is related to the credit of the banks and prime brokers that trade spot FX on the Cboe FX platform, or non-deliverable forward FX transactions on Cboe SEF.

We may be required to assume ownership of a position in securities in connection with our order routing service, which could subject us to trading losses when our broker-dealer disposes of that position.

We offer a smart-order routing service through our broker-dealer subsidiary, Cboe Trading, which provides its customers with access to other market centers when we route their orders to those market centers for execution. In connection with this service, we may assume ownership of a position in securities. This may occur, for example, when a market center to which we have routed a customer’s order experiences systems problems and is unable to determine the status of that order. When this happens, we may make a business decision to provide a cancellation notice to our customer, relieving our customer of any liability with respect to the order. We may be informed later, however, that the order was executed at the market center to which we routed it, in which case Cboe Trading would be required to take ownership of that securities position. Our third party clearing brokers maintain error accounts on behalf of Cboe Trading into which such positions settle, and we require the respective clearing broker to trade out of those positions as expeditiously as possible, which could result in our incurring trading losses.

We may not effectively manage our growth, which could materially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

We expect that our business will continue to grow, which may place a significant strain on our management, personnel, systems and resources. We must continually improve our operational, financial and regulatory systems and managerial controls and procedures, and may need to continue to expand, train and manage our workforce. We must also maintain close coordination among our technology, legal, accounting, finance, marketing, sales, regulatory and compliance functions. If we fail to manage our growth effectively, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially harmed. Furthermore, failure to successfully expand into new asset classes or new geographies may adversely affect our growth strategy and our future profitability.

Our continued growth will require increased investment by us in technology, facilities, personnel, and financial and management systems and controls. It also will require expansion of our procedures for monitoring and assuring our compliance with applicable regulations, and we will need to integrate, train and manage a growing employee base. The expansion of our existing businesses, any expansion into new businesses and the resulting growth of our employee base will increase our need for internal audit and monitoring processes, which may be more extensive and broader in scope than those we have historically required. We may not be successful in identifying or implementing all of the processes that are necessary. Further, unless our growth results in an increase in our revenues that is proportionally greater than or equal to the increase in our costs associated with this growth, our business, financial condition and operating results will be adversely affected.

Our ability to implement or amend rules could be limited or delayed because of regulation, which could negatively affect our ability to implement needed changes.

Our exchanges registered with the SEC must submit proposed rule changes to the SEC for its review and, in many cases, its approval. Even where a proposed rule change may be effective upon filing with the SEC, the SEC retains the right to suspend and disapprove such a rule change. Also, the CFTC may stay or disapprove rules that we file with it for CFE or Cboe SEF. The rule review process can be lengthy and can significantly delay the implementation of proposed rule changes that we believe are necessary to the operation of our markets. If the SEC or CFTC delays, including

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because of a government shutdown, or does not allow one of our exchanges to implement a rule change, this could negatively affect our ability to make needed changes or implement business activities.

Similarly, the SEC must approve amendments to our exchange subsidiaries’ certificates of incorporation and bylaws as well as certain amendments to the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of Cboe Global Markets. The SEC may decide not to approve a proposed amendment or may delay such approval in a manner that could negatively affect our ability to make a desired change, which could prevent or delay us from improving the operations of our markets or recognize income from new products.

Changes in the tax laws and regulations affecting us, our products and our market participants could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Legislation may be proposed, both domestically and internationally, that could add a transaction tax on our products or change the way that our market participants are taxed on the products they trade on our markets. If such proposals were to become law, they could have a negative impact on the securities industry and on us by making transactions more costly to market participants, which may reduce trading and could make our markets less competitive.

In addition to proposed tax changes that could affect our market participants, like other corporations, we are subject to taxes at federal, state and local levels, as well as in non-U.S. jurisdictions. Changes in tax laws, regulations or policies or successful claims by tax authorities could result in our having to pay higher taxes, which would in turn reduce our net income. If this occurs, we may experience a higher effective tax rate.

We selectively explore acquisition opportunities and strategic alliances relating to other businesses, products or technologies. We may not be successful in integrating other businesses, products or technologies with our business. Any such transaction also may not produce the results we anticipate, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We selectively explore and pursue acquisition and other opportunities to strengthen our business and grow our company. We may enter into business combination transactions, make acquisitions or enter into strategic partnerships, joint ventures or alliances, any of which may be material. The market for acquisition targets and strategic alliances is highly competitive, which could make it more difficult to find appropriate merger or acquisition opportunities. If we are required to raise capital by incurring debt or issuing additional equity for any reason in connection with a strategic acquisition or investment, financing may not be available or the terms of such financing may not be favorable to us and our stockholders, whose interests may be diluted by the issuance of additional stock.

For example, in 2019, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all of the outstanding shares of stock of EuroCCP, other than the shares of EuroCCP already owned by us (the “Transaction”). The Transaction, which we plan to fund with cash on hand, is expected to close in the first half of 2020 and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of conditions precedent including (i) the receipt of required regulatory clearances and approvals and (ii) the successful implementation of a supporting Euro 1.5 billion committed syndicated credit liquidity facility at the EuroCCP clearing entity level. Additionally, in February 2020, we acquired Hanweck Associates, LLC (“Hanweck”), a real-time risk analytics company based in New York, and the business of FT Providers, LLC, a portfolio management platform provider based in Chicago, commonly referred to as FT Options (“FT”).

The process of integration may produce unforeseen regulatory issues and operating difficulties and expenditures and may divert the attention of management from the ongoing operation of our business and harm our reputation. We may not successfully achieve the integration objectives, and we may not realize the anticipated cost savings, revenue growth and synergies in full or at all, or it may take longer to realize them than expected, any of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may be required to inject further capital into OCC or EuroCCP or return dividends received back to OCC.

OCC is the sole provider of clearing on all of our options and futures exchanges. In addition, Cboe Europe currently owns 20% of EuroCCP, which is one of three interoperable central counterparties used to clear trades conducted on

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Cboe Europe. On January 24, 2020, upon receipt of SEC approval, OCC established a capital management policy providing that, if OCC’s equity capital falls below certain defined thresholds, OCC can access additional capital through an operational loss fee charged to clearing members. Although Cboe Options does not have a legal or contractual obligation to contribute capital to OCC under OCC’s capital management policy or otherwise, given OCC’s importance to Cboe Options’ business, if OCC were to experience financial difficulties, Cboe Options might nevertheless effectively (but not legally) be required to inject further capital into it in order for OCC to maintain sufficient working or regulatory capital. Likewise, notwithstanding the pending Transaction, if EuroCCP were to experience financial difficulties, Cboe Europe might effectively be required to inject further capital into EuroCCP in order to maintain sufficient working or regulatory capital. In a worst case scenario, OCC or EuroCCP, as applicable, might have their regulatory license suspended or withdrawn, or might have to wind down. This may result in a loss to Cboe Options and Cboe Europe of their respective investments in OCC and EuroCCP and withdrawals of OCC or EuroCCP as clearing houses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, while OCC’s new capital management policy is now effective, there remains some degree of uncertainty as to the terms and conditions of the wind-down of OCC’s prior capital plan, under which OCC’s shareholders (including Cboe Options) provided equity capital to OCC and received annual dividends in respect thereof, and which was disapproved by the SEC on February 13, 2019. Depending on the terms on which the prior OCC capital plan is ultimately required to be unwound, Cboe Options could potentially be required to return dividend payments received from OCC during the time the capital plan was in effect.

We have outstanding indebtedness, which may decrease our business flexibility and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $225 million outstanding under our term loan facility, $650 million of senior unsecured notes and no funds outstanding under our revolving credit facility. The financial and other covenants to which we have agreed and our indebtedness may have the effect of reducing our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less indebtedness and making us more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions. Our indebtedness will also increase future borrowing costs, and the covenants pertaining thereto may also limit our ability to repurchase shares of our common stock, increase dividends or obtain additional financing to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or general corporate requirements. We are also required to dedicate a larger portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, including working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes. Further, a portion of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest, which exposes us to the risk of increased interest rates unless we enter into offsetting hedging transactions.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our debt obligations and to fund planned capital expenditures depend on our ability to generate cash from our operations. This, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

We may not be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances, any of which could impede the implementation of our business strategy or prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business. Additionally, we may not be able to effect such actions, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any of the foregoing consequences could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Deterioration in our credit profile may increase our costs of borrowing money.

As of December 31, 2019, we have investment grade credit ratings from S&P Global Ratings (A-) and Moody’s Investor Service (A3). Ratings from credit agencies are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold our securities, and each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating. There is no assurance that we will maintain such credit ratings, since credit ratings may be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, the circumstances warrant. If a rating agency were to downgrade our rating below investment grade, our borrowing costs could increase.

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If our goodwill, long-lived assets, investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries and intangible assets become impaired, the resulting charge to earnings may be significant.

We are required to assess investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries and intangible assets for impairment at least annually. Goodwill impairment testing is performed annually in the fiscal fourth quarter or more frequently if conditions exist that indicate that the asset may be impaired. In the future, we may take charges against earnings resulting from impairment. Any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of our goodwill, long-lived assets, intangible assets or investments in non-consolidated subsidiaries could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Any decision to pay dividends on our common stock is at the discretion of our board of directors and depends upon the earnings and cash flow of our operating subsidiaries. Accordingly, there can be no guarantee that we will pay dividends to our stockholders.

Any decision to pay dividends on our common stock in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors, which may determine not to declare dividends at all or at a reduced amount. The board’s determination to declare dividends will depend upon our profitability and financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and the SEC and other factors that the board deems relevant. As a holding company with no significant business operations of its own, Cboe Global Markets depends entirely on distributions, if any, it may receive from its subsidiaries to meet its obligations and pay dividends to its stockholders. If these subsidiaries are not profitable, or even if they are and they determine to retain their profits for use in their businesses, we will be unable to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Certain provisions in our organizational documents and governing law could prevent or delay a change of control.

Our organizational documents contain provisions that could block actions that stockholders might find favorable, including discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control or any unsolicited acquisition proposals for us. These include provisions:

prohibiting stockholders from acting by written consent;
requiring advance notice of director nominations and of business to be brought before a meeting of stockholders; and
limiting the persons who may call special stockholders’ meetings.

In addition, our organizational documents include provisions that:

restrict any person from voting or causing the voting of shares of stock representing more than 20% of our outstanding voting capital stock; and
restrict any person from beneficially owning shares of stock representing more than 20% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock.

Furthermore, our board of directors has the authority to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights and preferences of these shares without stockholder approval. Any series of our preferred stock is likely to be senior to our common stock with respect to dividends, liquidation rights and, possibly, voting rights. The ability of the board of directors to issue preferred stock also could have the effect of discouraging unsolicited acquisition proposals, thus adversely affecting the market price of our common stock.

Delaware law makes it difficult for stockholders that have recently acquired a large interest in a corporation to cause the merger or acquisition of the corporation against the board’s wishes. Under Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, a Delaware corporation may not engage in any merger or other business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date that the stockholder became an interested stockholder except in limited circumstances, including by approval of the corporation’s board of directors.

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Furthermore, the European countries where we operate regulated entities, such as the U.K. and Netherlands, may require prior governmental approval before an investor acquires 10% or more of the outstanding shares of our common stock.

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments

Not applicable.

Item 2.Properties

Our principal offices are located at 400 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Cboe Building Corporation, we own the building in which our principal offices are located and occupy approximately 300,000 square feet of this building. The building is currently classified as held for sale. See Note 9 (“Property and Equipment, Net”) of the consolidated financial statements included herein for further information.

In addition to our principal offices, we have space located at 8050 Marshall Drive, Lenexa, Kansas, where we lease approximately 61,900 square feet of space. The lease on this space expires in February 2027 and contains two five-year renewal options. We have an office located at 17 State Street, New York, New York, where we lease approximately 21,000 square feet of space, which expires in April 2024, and contains one five-year renewal option. The disaster recovery sites in the United States are located in Chicago, Illinois, Kansas City, Missouri, and Secaucus, New Jersey. In addition, we have agreements with a primary data center in Secaucus, New Jersey and a secondary data center in Chicago, Illinois. Our principal offices in the United Kingdom are at 11 Monument Street, London, where we lease approximately 10,300 square feet of office space, which expires in March 2027. Our work area recovery space is available on invocation with a specialist provider. In Europe, our primary data center is in Slough, England. The secondary data center for Cboe Europe is in Park Royal, London. We operate a back-up location for our London operations in the United Kingdom. We also maintain leased locations in California, Florida, Singapore, Amsterdam, and Hong Kong.

In addition to the offices noted above, the Company has entered into two leases that will commence in 2020 for a new principal office space and new trading floor. See Note 25 (“Leases”) of the consolidated financial statements included herein for further information.

We believe that our properties are in good operating condition and adequately serve our current business operations. Generally, our properties are not earmarked for use by a particular segment. Instead, most of our properties are used by two or more segments. We also anticipate that suitable additional or alternative space will be available at commercially reasonable terms for future expansion to the extent necessary.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings

Cboe incorporates herein by reference the discussion set forth in Note 22 (“Income Taxes”) and Note 24 (“Commitments, Contingencies, and Guarantees”) of the consolidated financial statements included herein.

Transaction Fee Pilot

In December 2018, the SEC approved a transaction fee pilot in national market system (“NMS”) stocks (the “pilot”). The pilot will subject stock exchange transaction fee pricing, including maker-taker fee-and-rebate pricing models, to new temporary pricing restrictions across two test groups, and require the exchanges to prepare data to be submitted to the SEC. The pilot includes a test group that will prohibit rebates and linked pricing, as well as a test group that will impose a cap of $0.0010 for removing or providing displayed liquidity. Once commenced, the pilot will last for up to two years with an automatic sunset at one year unless extended by the SEC. On February 15, 2019, the Company filed a Petition for Review in the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (the “D.C. Circuit”) asserting the pilot is unlawful. The pilot was published in the Federal Register on February 20, 2019 and was scheduled to become effective on April 22, 2019. On March 28, 2019, the SEC granted a partial stay of the pilot, agreeing to delay implementing its fee-and-rebate and data-publication requirements until after the D.C. Circuit decides the pending challenges. The data-

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gathering requirement of the pilot’s pre-pilot period remains in effect. On May 21, 2019, the SEC issued its notice to announce the effective period for the pre-pilot, which was designated as July 1, 2019 through December 31, 2019. On June 3, 2019, the Company, along with other equities exchanges, filed an opening brief with the D.C. Circuit. The SEC filed its opening brief with the D.C. Circuit on July 25, 2019, the exchanges’ reply brief was filed on August 26, 2019 and final briefs were filed on September 10, 2019. Oral arguments were held on October 11, 2019. The pilot may cause the Company’s equities exchanges, BZX, BYX, EDGX, and EDGA, to require additional resources to comply with or challenge the pilot and it may have a material impact on our business, financial condition and operating results if, for example, shifts in order flow away from exchanges were to occur. The Company intends to litigate the matter vigorously.

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Common Stock

The Company’s common stock is listed on Cboe BZX under the trading symbol CBOE. As of January 31, 2020, there were approximately 143 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividends

Each share of common stock, including restricted stock awards and restricted stock units, is entitled to receive dividend and dividend equivalents, respectively, if, as and when declared by the board of directors of the Company.

The Company’s expectation is to continue to pay dividends. The decision to pay a dividend, however, remains within the discretion of the Company's board of directors and may be affected by various factors, including our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, level of indebtedness and other considerations our board of directors deems relevant. Future debt obligations and statutory provisions, among other things, may limit, or in some cases prohibit, our ability to pay dividends.

As a holding company, the Company’s ability to declare and continue to pay dividends in the future with respect to its common stock will also be dependent upon the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends to it under applicable corporate law.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

Not applicable.

Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

Share Repurchase Program

In 2011, the board of directors approved an initial authorization for the Company to repurchase shares of its outstanding common stock of $100 million and approved additional authorizations of $100 million in each of 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, $150 million in February 2018, $100 million in August 2018, and $250 million in October 2019 for a total authorization of $1.1 billion. The Company expects to fund repurchases primarily through the use of existing cash balances. The program permits the Company to purchase shares through a variety of methods, including in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, in accordance with applicable securities laws. It does not obligate the Company to make any repurchases at any specific time or situation.

Under the program, for the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company repurchased 1,420,654 shares of common stock at an average cost per share of $110.42, totaling $156.9 million. Since inception of the program through December 31, 2019, the Company has repurchased 13,716,009 shares of common stock at an average cost per share of $58.38, totaling $800.8 million.

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As of December 31, 2019, the Company had $299.2 million of availability remaining under its existing share repurchase authorizations.

Total Number of

Approximate Dollar

Shares Purchased

Value of Shares that May

as Part of Publicly

Yet Be Purchased Under

Total Number of

Average Price

Announced Plans

the Plans or Programs

Period

   

Shares Purchased

   

Paid per Share

   

or Programs

   

(in millions)

October 1 to October 31, 2019

480,442

$

115.62

480,442

$

313.3

November 1 to November 30, 2019

313.3

December 1 to December 31, 2019

120,000

117.26

120,000

299.2

Total

600,442

$

115.76

600,442

Purchase of common stock from employees

During the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2019, we purchased shares from employees in connection with the settlement of employee tax withholding obligations arising from the vesting of restricted stock units, restricted stock awards, and stock options. The table below represents repurchases made by or on behalf of us or any “affiliated purchaser” of our common stock during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2019:

Total number of shares

Average price paid

Period

purchased

per share

October 1 to October 31, 2019

321

$

115.58

November 1 to November 30, 2019

2,454

118.09

December 1 to December 31, 2019

13,651

117.20

Total

16,426

Stockholder Return Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return provided to stockholders on our common stock since our initial public offering against the return of the S&P 500 Index and a customized peer group that includes CME Group Inc., Intercontinental Exchange Inc., and Nasdaq, Inc.

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An investment of $100, with reinvestment of all dividends, is assumed to have been made in our common stock, the index and the peer groups on December 31, 2014, and its performance is tracked on an annual basis through December 31, 2019.

Comparison of Cumulative Total Return of the

Company, Peer Groups, Industry Indices and/or Broad Markets

COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*

Among Cboe Global Markets, Inc., the S&P 500 Index

and a Peer Group

Graphic

12/14

12/15

12/16

12/17

12/18

12/19

Cboe Global Markets, Inc.

100.00

103.76

119.87

204.33

162.24

201.44

S&P 500

100.00

101.38

113.51

138.29

132.23

173.86

Peer Group

100.00

116.46

140.37

175.70

205.28

248.81

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Item 6.Selected Financial Data

The following selected financial and operating data should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included in Items 7 and 8, respectively of this Form 10-K. The information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of our future results for any period. We completed the acquisition of Bats during 2017 and included the financial results of Bats in our consolidated financial results from March 1, 2017.

Year Ended December 31,

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

2015

(in millions, except per share data)

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

Revenues:

Transaction fees

$

1,716.2

$

1,986.9

$

1,564.9

$

509.3

$

485.3

Access and capacity fees

221.9

211.0

181.6

98.7

95.5

Market data fees

213.5

204.0

164.5

33.2

30.0

Regulatory fees

311.7

333.9

291.5

48.3

33.5

Other revenue

32.8

33.0

26.6

13.6

19.5

Total revenues

2,496.1

2,768.8

2,229.1

703.1

663.8

Cost of revenues:

Liquidity payments

964.7

1,113.0

849.7

35.8

29.2

Routing and clearing

35.8

39.1

37.6

11.1

2.3

Section 31 fees (1)

271.4

302.4

260.0

11.8

Royalty fees

86.8

97.4

86.2

78.0

70.6

Other

0.5

Total cost of revenues

1,359.2

1,551.9

1,233.5

136.7

102.1

Revenues less cost of revenues

1,136.9

1,216.9

995.6

566.4

561.7

Operating expenses:

Compensation and benefits

199.0

228.8

201.4

113.2

105.9

Depreciation and amortization

176.6

204.0

192.2

44.4

46.3

Technology support services

46.2

47.9

42.1

22.5

20.7

Professional fees and outside services

68.3

68.3

66.0

53.1

50.1

Travel and promotional expenses

11.9

13.0

17.2

11.0

9.0

Facilities costs

11.0

11.5

10.3

5.7

5.0

Acquisition-related costs

48.5

30.0

84.4

13.6

Other expenses

38.2

14.0

10.1

4.7

4.8

Total operating expenses

599.7

617.5

623.7

268.2

241.8

Operating income

537.2

599.4

371.9

298.2

319.9

Non-operating (expenses) income:

Interest expense, net

(35.9)

(38.2)

(41.3)

(5.7)

Other income, net

0.1

10.0

3.8

14.1

4.1

Income before income tax provision

501.4

571.2

334.4

306.6

324.0

Income tax provision

130.6

146.0

(66.2)

120.9

119.0

Net income

$

370.8

$

425.2

$

400.6

$

185.7

$

205.0

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

4.1

1.3

1.1

1.1

Net income excluding noncontrolling interest

374.9

426.5

401.7

186.8

205.0

Change in redemption value of noncontrolling interest

(0.5)

(1.3)

(1.1)