10-Q 1 cert-20240331.htm 10-Q cert-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________
FORM 10-Q
_________________________
(Mark One)
xQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to ______________
Commission File Number: 001-39799
_________________________
Certara, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_________________________
Delaware82-2180925
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
100 Overlook Center
Suite 101
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(609) 716-7900
(Registrant’s telephone number)
_________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading symbolName of Exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.01 per shareCERTThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyoEmerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of May 01, 2024, the registrant had 160,841,451 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding.


Certara, Inc.
Unless otherwise indicated, references to the “Company,” “Certara,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Certara, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Quarterly Report”) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. All statements (other than statements of historical facts) in this Quarterly Report regarding the prospects of the industry and our prospects, plans, financial position and business strategy may constitute forward-looking statements. In addition, forward-looking statements generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “should,” “expect,” “might,” “intend,” “will,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “believe,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “suggest,” “project” or “target” or the negatives of these terms or variations of them or similar terminology. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot provide any assurance that these expectations will prove to be correct. Such statements reflect the current views of our management with respect to our operations, results of operations and future financial performance. The following factors are among those that may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements:
any deceleration in, or resistance to, the acceptance of model-informed biopharmaceutical discovery and development;
our ability to compete within our market;
changes or delays in government regulation relating to the biopharmaceutical industry;
trends in research and development (“R&D”) spending, the use of third parties by biopharmaceutical companies and a shift toward more R&D occurring at smaller biotechnology companies;
consolidation within the biopharmaceutical industry;
pricing pressures due to increased customer utilization of our products;
our ability to successfully enter new markets, increase our customer base and expand our relationships with existing customers;
our ability to retain key personnel or recruit additional qualified personnel;
risks related to the mischaracterization of our independent contractors;
any delays or defects in our release of new or enhanced software or other biosimulation tools;
issues relating to the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in our products and services;
failure of our existing customers to renew their software licenses or any delays or terminations of contracts or reductions in scope of work by our existing customers;
risks related to our contracts with government customers, including the ability of third parties to challenge our receipt of such contracts;
risks related to our contracts with government customers, including the ability of third parties to challenge our receipt of such contracts;
our ability to sustain recent growth rates;
increasing competition, regulation and other cost pressures within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries;
2

any future acquisitions and our ability to successfully integrate such acquisitions;
the accuracy of our addressable market estimates;
our ability to successfully operate a global business;
our ability to comply with applicable anti-corruption, trade compliance and economic sanctions laws and regulations;
risks related to litigation against us;
the adequacy of our insurance coverage and our ability to obtain adequate insurance coverage in the future;
our ability to perform our services in accordance with contractual requirements, regulatory standards and ethical considerations;
the loss of more than one of our major customers;
our future capital needs;
the ability or inability of our bookings to accurately predict our future revenue and our ability to realize the anticipated revenue reflected in our bookings;
the occurrence of natural disasters, pandemics, epidemic diseases, and public health crises, which may result in delays or cancellations of customer contracts or decreased utilization by our employees;
any disruption in the operations of the third-party providers who host our software solutions or any limitations on their capacity or interference with our use;
our ability to reliably meet our data storage and management requirements, or the experience of any failures or interruptions in the delivery of our services over the internet;
our ability to comply with the terms of any licenses governing our use of third-party open source software utilized in our software solutions;
any unauthorized access to or use of customer or other proprietary or confidential data or other breach of our cybersecurity measures;
our ability to comply with applicable privacy and cybersecurity laws;
our ability to adequately enforce or defend our ownership and use of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights;
any allegations that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating a third party’s intellectual property rights;
our ability to meet the obligations under our current or future indebtedness as they become due and have sufficient capital to operate our business and react to changes in the economy or industry;
any limitations on our ability to pursue our business strategies due to restrictions under our current or future indebtedness or inability to comply with any restrictions under such indebtedness;
any impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets;
our ability to use our net operating loss (“NOLs”) and R&D tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income;
the accuracy of our estimates and judgments relating to our critical accounting policies and any changes in financial reporting standards or interpretations;
any inability to design, implement, and maintain effective internal controls when required by law, or inability to timely remediate internal controls that are deemed ineffective; and
3

the other factors described elsewhere in this Quarterly Report, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (“2023 Annual Report”), and in the other documents and reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of future performance, taking into account the information currently available to us. These statements are only predictions based upon our current expectations and projections about future events. There are important factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and in our 2023 Annual Report and subsequent SEC filings , which could cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from the results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make in this Quarterly Report. Such risk factors may be updated from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC. Our periodic filings are accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this Quarterly Report to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements..
Channels for Disclosure of Information
Investors and others should note that we may announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, our Investors Relations website (https://ir.certara.com), press releases, public conference calls and public webcasts. We use these channels to communicate with the public about the Company, our products, our services and other matters. We encourage our investors, the media and others to review the information disclosed through these channels as such information could be deemed to be material information. The information on such channels, including on our website, is not incorporated by reference in this Quarterly Report and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any other filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as expressly set forth by specific reference in such a filing. This list of disclosure channels may be updated from time to time.
4

CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORM 10-Q
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemPage
2.
5

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AND SHARE DATA)MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$224,776 $234,951 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $1,341 and $1,312, respectively
80,949 84,857 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets22,732 20,393 
Total current assets328,457 340,201 
Other assets:  
Property and equipment, net2,846 2,670 
Operating lease right-of-use assets14,292 9,604 
Goodwill715,620 716,333 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization of $289,090 and $273,522, respectively
473,687 487,043 
Deferred income taxes4,236 4,236 
Other long-term assets3,240 3,053 
Total assets$1,542,378 $1,563,140 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$3,733 $5,171 
Accrued expenses32,744 56,779 
Current portion of deferred revenue56,801 60,678 
Current portion of long-term debt3,020 3,020 
Other current liabilities4,331 4,375 
Total current liabilities100,629 130,023 
Long-term liabilities:  
Deferred revenue, net of current portion1,437 1,070 
Deferred income taxes46,307 50,826 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion11,631 6,955 
Long-term debt, net of current portion and debt discount287,772 288,217 
Other long-term liabilities40,244 39,209 
Total liabilities488,020 516,300 
Commitments and contingencies
Stockholders' equity  
Preferred shares, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
  
Common shares, $0.01 par value, 600,000,000 shares authorized, 160,687,886 and 160,284,901 shares issued as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively; 160,191,094 and 159,848,286 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
1,607 1,603 
Additional paid-in capital1,191,237 1,178,461 
Accumulated deficit(120,913)(116,230)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(7,036)(7,593)
Treasury stock at cost, 496,792 and 436,615 shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
(10,537)(9,401)
Total stockholders' equity1,054,358 1,046,840 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$1,542,378 $1,563,140 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
6

CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(UNAUDITED)
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AND SHARE DATA)2024 2023
Revenues$96,654 $90,301 
Cost of revenues39,255 34,856 
Operating expenses:  
Sales and marketing10,687 8,002 
Research and development11,995 9,287 
General and administrative22,979 19,772 
Intangible asset amortization12,593 10,535 
Depreciation and amortization expense432 411 
Total operating expenses58,686 48,007 
Income (loss) from operations(1,287)7,438 
Other income (expenses):  
Interest expense(5,751)(5,475)
Net other income1,604 506 
Total other expenses(4,147)(4,969)
Income (loss) before income taxes(5,434)2,469 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes(751)1,111 
Net income (loss)(4,683)1,358 
Other comprehensive income (loss):  
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax of $60, $(182), respectively
(7)2,601 
Change in fair value from interest rate swap, net of tax of $186, $(588), respectively
564 (1,691)
Total other comprehensive income 557 910 
Comprehensive income (loss)$(4,126)$2,268 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic$(0.03)$0.01 
Diluted$(0.03)$0.01 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic159,524,270158,177,025
Diluted159,524,270159,727,412
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
7

CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(UNAUDITED)
(IN THOUSANDS,
EXCEPT SHARE DATA)
COMMON STOCKADDITIONAL
PAID-IN
CAPITAL
ACCUMULATED
DEFICIT
ACCUMULATED
OTHER
COMPREHENSIVE
LOSS
TREASURY STOCKTOTAL
STOCKHOLDERS'
EQUITY
SHARES AMOUNT    SHARES AMOUNT 
Balance as of December 31, 2022159,676,150 $1,596 $1,150,168 $(60,873)$(8,230)(150,207)$(3,000)$1,079,661 
Equity-based compensation expense, net of forfeiture— — 8,543 — — — — 8,543 
Common shares issued for share-based compensation awards and shares withheld for tax608,179 6 (4)— — (228,159)(5,419)(5,417)
Restricted stock forfeiture*(66,220)(1)1 — — — —  
Change in fair value from interest rate swap, net of tax— — — — (1,691)— — (1,691)
Net income— — — 1,358 — — — 1,358 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 2,601 — — 2,601 
Balance as of March 31, 2023160,218,109 $1,601 $1,158,708 $(59,515)$(7,320)(378,366)$(8,419)$1,085,055 
Balance as of December 31, 2023160,284,901 $1,603 $1,178,461 $(116,230)$(7,593)(436,615)$(9,401)$1,046,840 
Equity-based compensation expense, net of forfeiture— — 9,073 — — — — 9,073 
Common stock withheld for tax liabilities— — — — — (60,177)(1,136)(1,136)
Common shares issued for employee share-based compensation 188,293 2 (2)— — — —  
Common shares issued for contingent consideration214,692 2 3,705 — — — — 3,707 
Change in fair value from interest rate swap, net of tax— — — — 564 — — 564 
Net loss— — — (4,683)— — (4,683)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — (7)— — (7)
Balance as of March 31, 2024160,687,886 $1,607 $1,191,237 $(120,913)$(7,036)(496,792)$(10,537)$1,054,358 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
(IN THOUSANDS)2024 2023
Cash flows from operating activities:  
Net income (loss)$(4,683)$1,358 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment432 411 
Amortization of intangible assets15,996 13,113 
Amortization of debt issuance costs380 383 
(Recovery of) provision for credit losses59 (168)
Loss on retirement of assets 4 
Equity-based compensation expense9,073 8,543 
Change in fair value of contingent considerations2,878 1,261 
Lease abandonment expense 29  
Deferred income taxes(4,829)(1,524)
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable3,635 647 
Prepaid expenses and other assets(578)559 
Accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other liabilities(14,825)(13,596)
Deferred revenues(3,271)(1,034)
Net cash provided by operating activities4,296 9,957 
Cash flows from investing activities:  
Capital expenditures(619)(317)
Capitalized software development costs(2,959)(2,360)
Investment in intangible assets (54)
Net cash used in investing activities(3,578)(2,731)
Cash flows from financing activities:  
Payments on long-term debt and finance lease obligations(755)(780)
Payments for business acquisition related contingent consideration(8,649) 
Payment of taxes on shares withheld for employee taxes(943)(70)
Net cash used in financing activities(10,347)(850)
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash(546)1,174 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash(10,175)7,550 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, at beginning of period234,951 239,688 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, at end of period$224,776 $247,238 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information  
Cash paid for interest$5,395 $5,196 
Cash paid for taxes$3,640 $517 
Supplemental schedule of noncash investing and financing activities
Issuance of common stock for business acquisition related contingent consideration$3,707 $ 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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CERTARA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT SHARE AND PER SHARE DATA)
(UNAUDITED)
1.    Description of Business
Certara, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (together, the “Company”) deliver software products and technology-driven services to customers to efficiently carry out and realize the full benefits of biosimulation in drug discovery, preclinical and clinical research, regulatory submissions and market access. The Company is a global leader in biosimulation, and the Company’s biosimulation software and technology-driven services help optimize, streamline, or even waive certain clinical trials to accelerate programs, reduce costs, and increase the probability of success. The Company’s regulatory science and market access software and services are underpinned by technologies such as regulatory submissions software, natural language processing, and Bayesian analytics. When combined, these solutions allow the Company to offer customers end-to-end support across the entire product life cycle.
The Company has operations in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
2.    Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no changes other than what is discussed herein to the Company’s significant accounting policies as compared to the significant accounting policies described in Note 2 to the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2023 Annual Report. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023.
(a)    Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include, among other estimates, assumptions used in the allocation of the transaction price to separate performance obligations, estimates towards the measure of progress of completion on fixed-price service contracts, the determination of fair values and useful lives of long-lived assets as well as intangible assets, goodwill, allowance for credit losses for accounts receivable, recoverability of deferred tax assets, recognition of deferred revenue, valuation of interest rate swaps, determination of fair value of equity-based awards, measurement of fair value of contingent consideration, and assumptions used in testing for impairment of long-lived assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences may be material to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
(b)    Unaudited Interim Financial Statements
The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024, the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31,
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2024 and 2023, the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and the related interim disclosures are unaudited.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary to fairly state the financial position and the results of the Company’s operations and cash flows for interim periods in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Certain amounts reported in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current presentation. Interim period results are not necessarily indicative of results of operations or cash flows for a full year or any subsequent interim period. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s 2023 audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. The information as of December 31, 2023 in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet included herein is derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s 2023 Annual Report.
(c)    Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") ASU 2023-07, “Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures.” The ASU requires an enhanced disclosure of significant segment expenses on an annual and interim basis. This ASU will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. Upon adoption, the guidance should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on the disclosures in our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures". The ASU requires disclosure of specific categories in the rate reconciliation and provide additional information for reconciling items that meet a quantitative threshold and further disaggregation of income taxes paid for individually significant jurisdictions. The ASU will be effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on the disclosures in our consolidated financial statements.
(d)    Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
(e)    Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820-10, “Fair Value Measurements” (“ASC 820-10”), which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in U.S. GAAP, and requires certain disclosures about fair value measurements.
ASC 820-10 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction. Fair value measurement is based on a hierarchy of observable or unobservable inputs. The standard describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value.
Level 1 — Inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices available in active markets for identical securities as of the reporting date;

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Level 2 — Inputs to the valuation methodology are other significant observable inputs, including quoted prices for similar securities, interest rates, credit risk etc. as of the reporting date, and the fair value can be determined through the use of models or other valuation methodologies; and
Level 3 — Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable inputs in situations where there is little or no market activity of the securities and the reporting entity makes estimates and assumptions relating to the pricing of the securities including assumptions regarding risk.
If the inputs used to measure fair value fall at different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. For the acquisitions noted in Note 5, the fair value measurement methods used to estimate the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition dates utilized a number of significant unobservable inputs of Level 3 assumptions. These assumptions included, among other things, projections of future operating results, implied fair value of assets using an income approach by preparing a discounted cash flow analysis, and other subjective assumptions.
Interest rate swaps are valued in the market using discounted cash flows techniques. These techniques incorporate Level 1 and Level 2 inputs. The market inputs are utilized in the discounted cash flows’ calculation considering the instrument’s term, notional amount, discount rate and credit risk. Significant inputs to the derivative instrument valuation model for interest rate swaps are observable in active markets and are classified as Level 2 in the hierarchy.

Contingent liabilities related to acquisitions are measured at fair value using Level 3 unobservable inputs. The Company's estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable but which are uncertain and involve significant judgments by management. Any changes in the fair value of these contingent liabilities are included in the earnings in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

The Company utilizes Monte Carlo or a series of Black-Scholes-Merton options models to estimate the fair value of the contingent consideration liabilities of business acquisitions. Significant inputs used in the fair value measurement of contingent consideration include: expected eligible revenue for the acquired businesses over the relevant measurement periods, the risk-profile of the expected eligible revenue for the acquired businesses, the uncertainty regarding the expected eligible revenue for the acquired businesses, the risk-free rate of return, the expected timing at which settlement of the contingent liabilities may occur, and the credit-adjusted discount rate associated with the risk of the Company’s future liability payments.
The following table sets forth the assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring and non-recurring basis by their levels in the fair value hierarchy at March 31, 2024:
LEVEL 1LEVEL2LEVEL 3TOTAL
(In thousands)
Assets
Money market funds$149,397 $ $ $149,397 
Interest rate swap assets 6,374  6,374 
Total assets$149,397 $6,374 $ $155,771 
Liabilities
Contingent liabilities$ $ $44,982 $44,982 
Total liabilities$ $ $44,982 $44,982 
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The following table sets forth the assets and liabilities that were measured at fair value on a recurring and non-recurring basis by their levels in the fair value hierarchy at December 31, 2023:
LEVEL 1LEVEL2LEVEL 3TOTAL
(In thousands)
Assets
Money market funds$147,478 $ $ $147,478 
Interest rate swap assets 5,624  5,624 
Total assets$147,478 $5,624 $ $153,102 
Liabilities
Contingent liabilities$ $ $54,457 $54,457 
Total liabilities$ $ $54,457 $54,457 

For the period ended March 31, 2024, there were no transfers between the levels within the fair value hierarchy. The Company’s Level 3 liabilities are acquisition related contingent consideration liabilities.
The following table summarizes the Level 3 activity of the changes in the contingent consideration liability.
MARCH 31,
2024
(In thousands)
Beginning balance at December 31, 2023
$54,457 
Additions 
Payments(12,356)
Fair value remeasurement2,881 
Ending balance at March 31, 2024
$44,982 
For more information regarding fair value measurements and the fair value hierarchy, see Note 2. “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in the Company’s 2023 Annual Report.
(f)    Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents include highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less from the date purchased. The cash and cash equivalents was $224,776 and $234,951 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
(g)     Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable includes current outstanding invoices billed to customers. Invoices are typically issued with net 30 days to net 90 days terms upon delivery of the product or upon achievement of billable events for service-based contracts. Unbilled receivables relate to the Company’s rights to consideration for performance obligations satisfied but not billed at the reporting date on contracts. Unbilled receivables are billed and
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transferred to customer accounts receivable when the rights become unconditional. The carrying amount of accounts receivable is reduced by a valuation allowance.
The Company estimates the expected credit losses for accounts receivables using historical loss data adjusted for current economic conditions, including reasonable and supportable forecasts to estimate the relative size of credit losses to be expected. The Company generally writes off a receivable or records a specific allowance for credit losses if the Company determines that the receivable is not collectible. Allowances for credit losses of $1,341 and $1,312 were provided in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Accounts receivable consists of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Trade receivables$71,268 $75,410 
Unbilled receivables10,767 10,405 
Other receivables255 354 
Allowances for credit losses(1,341)(1,312)
Accounts receivable, net$80,949 $84,857 

The following table presents the information regarding the allowance of accounts receivable:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Beginning balance $1,312 $1,250 
Provision for credit losses59 684 
Charge-offs, net of recoveries(30)(622)
Ending balance$1,341 $1,312 
(h)    Derivative Instruments
In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to risk from adverse fluctuations in interest rates. The Company has chosen to manage this risk through the use of derivative financial instruments that consist of interest rate swap contracts. Counterparties to these contracts are major financial institutions. The Company is exposed to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by these counterparties. The Company does not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. The objective in managing exposure to market risk is to limit the impact on cash flows. To qualify for hedge accounting, the interest rate swaps must effectively reduce the risk exposure that they are designed to hedge. In addition, at the inception of a qualifying cash flow hedging relationship, the underlying transaction or transactions must be, and be expected to remain, probable of occurring in accordance with the related assertions.
FASB ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging,” requires the Company to recognize all derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value. The Company may enter into derivative contracts such as interest rate swap contracts that effectively convert portions of the Company’s floating rate debt to a fixed rate, which serves to mitigate interest rate risk. The Company’s objectives in using interest rate swaps are to add stability to interest expense and to manage its exposure to interest rate movements. Interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges involve the
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receipt of variable-rate amounts from a counterparty in exchange for the Company making fixed-rate payments over the life of the agreements without exchange of the underlying notional amount.
The Company entered into an interest rate swap agreement in May 2022 that pays a fixed interest rate and receives a variable interest rate to modify the interest rate characteristics of term loan debt from variable to fixed in order to reduce the impact of changes in future cash flows due to market interest rate changes. The swap agreement has a notional amount of $230,000, a fixed rate of 2.8% and a termination date of August 31, 2025. During the quarter ended September 30, 2023, the Company and the counter party amended the floating rate of the swap agreement from term LIBOR to term SOFR due to LIBOR cessation. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the interest swap had a fair value of $6,374 and $5,624, respectively; The gross fair value recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income was $6,374 and $5,624, respectively, at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
The Company uses derivatives to manage certain interest exposures and designated all the derivatives as cash flow hedges. The Company records derivatives at fair value on its condensed consolidated balance sheets. Changes in the fair value of derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Those amounts are reclassified into interest expense in the same period during which the hedged transactions impact earnings. The amount of derivative gains reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income on derivative instruments recognized in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) was $1,525 and $986 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
The notional amounts, fair values, and classification of derivative instruments in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 were as follows:
Interest rate swap derivative designated as cash flow hedging instrument:MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                                                  Notional amounts $230,000 $230,000 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets$5,033 $4,473 
Other long-term assets$1,341 $1,151 
The net amount of deferred gains related to derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges that is expected to be reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive gains into earnings over the next twelve months is $5,041.
(i)    Revenue Recognition
In accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, the Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
i. Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
ii. Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
iii. Determination of the transaction price
iv. Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
v. Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation
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The Company’s revenue consists of fees for perpetual and term licenses for its software products, post-contract customer support (referred to as maintenance), software as a service (“SaaS”), and professional services including training and other revenue. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for promised goods or services.
The following describes the nature of the Company’s primary types of revenues and the revenue recognition policies as they pertain to the types of transactions the Company enters into with its customers.
Software Licenses Revenues
Software license revenue consists primarily of sales of software licenses downloaded and installed by our customers on their own hardware. The license period is generally one year or less and includes an insignificant amount of customer support to assist the customer with the software. Software license performance obligations are generally recognized upfront at the point in time when the software license has been delivered.
Software as a Service (SaaS) Revenues
SaaS revenues consist of subscription fees for access to, and related support for, the Company’s cloud-based solutions. The Company typically invoices subscription fees in advance in annual installments. The invoice is initially deferred and revenue is recognized ratably over the life of the contract. The Company’s software contracts do not typically include variable consideration or options for future purchases that would not be similar to the original goods.
Software Service Revenues
Maintenance services agreements on perpetual software consist of fees for providing software updates and for providing technical support for software products for a specified term. Revenue allocated to maintenance services is recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the delivery date of each offering. Maintenance contracts generally have a term of one year. While the transfer of control of the software training and implementation performance obligations are over time, the services are typically started and completed within a few days. Due to the quick nature of the performance obligation from start to finish and the insignificant amounts, the Company recognizes any software training or implementation revenue at the completion of the service. Any unrecognized portion of amounts paid in advance for licenses and services is recorded as deferred revenue.
Consulting Service Revenues
The Company’s primary professional services offering includes consulting services, which may be either strategic consulting services, reporting and analysis services, regulatory writing services, or any combination of the three. The Company’s professional services contracts are either time-and-materials or fixed fee. Service revenues are generally recognized over time as the services are performed. Generally, these services are delivered to customers electronically. Revenue from time-and-material contracts is recognized on an output basis as labor hours are delivered and/or direct expenses are incurred. Revenues for fixed-price services are generally recognized over time by applying input methods to estimate progress to completion. Accordingly, the number of resources being paid for and the varying lengths of time they are being paid for determine the measure of progress.
Arrangements with Multiple Performance Obligations
For contracts with multiple performance obligations, such as a software license plus software training, implementation, and/or maintenance/support, or in contracts where there are multiple software licenses, the Company determines if the products or services are distinct and allocates the consideration to each distinct performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The delivery of a particular type of software and each of the user licenses would be one performance obligation. Additionally, any training, implementation,
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or support and maintenance promises sold as part of the software license agreement would be considered separate performance obligations, as those promises are distinct and separately identifiable from the software licenses. The payment terms in these arrangements are less than one year such that there is no significant financing component.
Contract Balances
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (deferred revenue, contract liabilities) on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, either at periodic intervals (e.g., quarterly or monthly) or upon achievement of contractual milestones.
Contract assets relate to the Company’s rights to consideration for performance obligations satisfied but not billed at the reporting date on contracts (i.e., unbilled revenue, a component of accounts receivable in the condensed consolidated balance sheets). Contract assets are billed and transferred to customer accounts receivable when the rights become unconditional. The Company typically invoices customers for term licenses, subscriptions, maintenance and support fees in advance with payment due before the start of the subscription term, ranging from one to three years. The Company records the amounts collected in advance of the satisfaction of performance obligations, usually over time, as a contract liability or deferred revenue. Invoiced amounts for non-cancelable services starting in future periods are included in contract assets and deferred revenue. The portion of deferred revenue that will be recognized within 12 months is recorded as current deferred revenue, and the remaining portion is recorded as deferred revenue in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Contract balances at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 were as follows:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Contract assets$10,767 $10,405 
Contract liabilities58,238 61,748 
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recognized revenue of $29,351 related to contract liabilities at December 31, 2023.
The unsatisfied performance obligations as of March 31, 2024 were approximately $115,418. We expect to recognize approximately $102,229 or 88.6% of this revenue over the next 12 months and the remainder thereafter.
Deferred Contract Acquisition Costs
Under ASC Topic 606, sales commissions paid to the sales force and the related employer payroll taxes, collectively deferred contract acquisition costs, are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer.
The Company recognizes an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if the Company expects the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. The Company has determined that certain sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized. The costs capitalized are primarily sales commissions for our sales force personnel. Capitalized costs to obtain a contract are amortized on a straight-line basis over the expected period of benefit. Amortization of capitalized costs is included in sales and marketing expenses in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
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Capitalized contract acquisition costs were $597 and $655 as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and were included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Grant Revenue
The Company receives grant funding for certain specific projects from time to time. These grants specify the funds provided are to be used exclusively to satisfy the deliverables outlined in the grant agreements. In these agreements, both involved parties receive and sacrifice approximately commensurate value so these are accounted for as exchange transactions and revenue is recognized according to ASC Topic 606. Grant funding is generally provided near contract inception, so a contract liability is initially recorded and revenue is recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied over time.
Sources and Timing of Revenue
The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied either over time or at a point in time. The following table presents the Company’s revenue by timing of revenue recognition to understand the risks of timing of transfer of control and cash flows:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023
Software licenses transferred at a point in time$15,380 $14,498 
Software licenses transferred over time23,927 18,507 
Service revenues earned over time57,347 57,296 
Total$96,654 $90,301 
(j)    Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per common share is computed by dividing the net earnings by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the reporting period, without consideration for potentially dilutive securities. Diluted shares are calculated under the treasury stock method. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net earnings attributable to stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares and dilutive securities outstanding during the period.
3.    Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk have consisted principally of cash and cash equivalent investments and trade receivables. The Company invests available cash in bank deposits, investment-grade securities, and short-term interest-producing investments, including government obligations and other money market instruments. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the investments were bank deposits, overnight sweep accounts, and money market funds. The Company has adopted credit policies and standards to evaluate the risk associated with sales that require collateral, such as letters of credit or bank guarantees, whenever deemed necessary. Management believes that any risk of loss is significantly reduced due to the nature of the customers and distributors with which the Company does business..
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s accounts receivable. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s revenues during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
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4.    Business Combinations
Acquisitions have been accounted for by using the acquisition method of accounting pursuant to FASB ASC 805, “Business Combinations.” Amounts allocated to the purchased assets and liabilities assumed are based upon the total purchase price and the estimated fair values of such assets and liabilities on the effective date of the purchase as determined by an independent third party. The results of operations for the acquisitions have been included in the Company’s results of operations prospectively from the date of acquisition.
Since 2013, and as of March 31, 2024, the Company has completed 20 acquisitions, of which 13 have included software or technology. Details of acquisitions that have closed since the beginning of fiscal year 2023 are provided below.

Drug Interaction Solutions, University of Washington ("DIDB")

On June 20, 2023, the Company entered into an asset purchase agreement with the University of Washington and completed the acquisition of DIDB, including the Drug Interaction Database and related products, from The University of Washington for a total consideration of $8,340. The business combination was not significant to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The total estimated consideration includes a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over the next two years in cash, not to exceed $2,000. Future payments of contingent consideration are based on eligible revenue for the period from July 1, 2023 through June 30, 2025. The fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $790 as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024, the contingent consideration was remeasured to $136, resulting in a fair value adjustment of $4 and recorded in general and administrative expenses (“G&A”) on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

Based on the Company’s purchase price allocation, approximately $330, $5,600, $360, and $2,289 of the purchase price were assigned to trademarks, database content/technology, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively. The Company expects goodwill to be fully deductible for U.S. federal income tax purposes due to the fact the acquisition was treated as an asset acquisition under the relevant sections of the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”).

Formedix Limited ("Formedix")

On October 10, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of Formedix, a provider of clinical metadata repository and clinical trial automation software, for total estimated consideration of $41,389. The business combination was not material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

The total estimated consideration includes a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over the next two years in cash, not to exceed $9,000. The fair value of the contingent consideration related to revenue threshold was estimated to be $4,380 as of the acquisition date. Future payments of contingent consideration are based on achieving certain eligible revenue targets for each of the twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2023 and 2024, respectively. Additionally, the Company agreed to further contingent consideration based on the resolution of certain tax contingencies. In total, the fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $5,161 as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024, the contingent consideration related to eligible revenue was remeasured to $3,189, resulting in a negative fair value remeasurement and adjustment of $507 and recorded in G&A on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

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Based on the Company’s purchase price allocation, approximately $11,700, $3,100, and $25,062 of the purchase price were assigned to developed technology, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively. The Company does not expect goodwill to be deductible due to the fact the Company treated the acquisition as a stock acquisition under the relevant sections of the IRC.

Applied BioMath, LLC ("ABM")

On December 12, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of ABM, an industry-leader in providing model-informed drug discovery and development support to help accelerate and de-risk therapeutic research and development, for total estimated consideration of $36,594. The business combination was not material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Based on the Company’s preliminary purchase price allocation, approximately $4,600, $800, $13,700 and $15,872 of the purchase price were assigned to developed technology, non-compete agreements, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively. The Company expects goodwill to be fully deductible for U.S. federal income tax purposes due to the fact the Company treated the acquisition as an asset acquisition under the relevant sections of the IRC.

The total estimated consideration includes a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over the next two years in cash, not to exceed $17,550. Future payments of contingent consideration are based on achieving certain eligible revenue targets for each of the twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2023 and 2024, respectively. The fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $5,357 as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024, the contingent consideration was remeasured to $4,442, resulting in a negative fair value adjustment of $938 and recorded in G&A on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

The contingent considerations for all acquisitions were classified as liability and included in accrued expense and other long-term liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet. The contingent consideration related to eligible revenues that are remeasured on a recurring basis at fair value for each reporting period. Any changes in the fair value of these contingent liabilities are included in the earnings in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

The current purchase price allocations for the acquisitions of Formedix and ABM are preliminary. The primary areas of the preliminary purchase price allocations that are not yet finalized that relate to the fair value of certain tangible assets and liabilities assumed, and residual goodwill. The Company continues to gather information supporting the acquired assets and liabilities, including but not limited to the estimation of the fair value of the identifiable intangible assets, measurement of deferred revenue and corresponding impact on goodwill, during the measurement period. Any adjustments to the preliminary purchase price allocation identified during the measurement period, which will not exceed one year from the acquisition date, will be accounted for prospectively.

The results of operations of the acquired businesses and the fair value of the acquired assets and liabilities assumed are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements with effect from the date of the acquisitions.
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5.    Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets and Other Long-Term Assets
Prepaid expense and other current assets at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consist of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Prepaid expenses$8,077 $6,363 
Income tax receivable2,396 3,395 
Research and development tax credit receivable5,804 5,004 
Current portion of interest rate swap asset5,033 4,473 
Other current assets1,422 1,158 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets$22,732 $20,393 

Other long-term assets at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Long-term deposits$1,517 $1,451 
Interest rate swap asset - long-term1,341 1,151 
Deferred financing cost382 451 
Total other long-term assets$3,240 $3,053 
6.    Long-Term Debt and Revolving Line of Credit

The Company has been a party to a Credit Agreement since August 2017 that provides for a senior secured term loan and commitments under a revolving credit facility. The Company and the lenders most recently modified the Credit Agreement on June 17, 2021, which provides for, among other things, (i) the extension of the termination date applicable to the revolving credit commitments to August 2025, (ii) the extension of the maturity date applicable to the term loans under the Credit Agreement to August 2026, and (iii) an increase of approximately $80,000 in commitments available under the revolving line of credit (resulting in an aggregate amount of commitments of $100,000). The term loan under this Amendment has substantially the same terms as the existing term loans and revolving credit commitments. The Credit Agreement is collateralized by substantially all U.S. assets and stock pledges for the non-U.S. subsidiaries and contain various financial and nonfinancial covenants.

Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are subject to a variable interest rate at LIBOR plus a margin. The applicable margins were based on achieving certain levels of compliance with financial covenants. In response to the discontinuation of LIBOR, the Company executed a LIBOR transition amendment on June 26, 2023, formalizing the replacement of LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (“SOFR”). As part of this modification, a Credit Spread Adjustment (“CSA”) was introduced to align SOFR with LIBOR in terms of the overall interest rate earned by lenders under the Credit Agreement. The CSA varied depending on the selected interest period.
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As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, available borrowings under the revolving lines of credit were $100,000.
The effective interest rate was 9.24% and 8.03% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 for the term loan debt. As discussed previously, the Company entered into interest rate swap agreements to mitigate the interest risk.
Interest incurred on the Credit Agreement with respect to the term loan amounted to $6,798 and $5,974 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Accrued interest payable on the Credit Agreement with respect to the term loan amounted to $2,382 and $2,400 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and is included in accrued expenses. Interest incurred on the Credit Agreement with respect to the revolving line of credit was $63 for both the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. There was $2 accrued interest payable on the revolving line of credit each at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Long-term debt consists of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Term loans$293,695 $294,450 
Revolving line of credit  
Less: debt issuance costs(2,903)(3,213)
Total290,792 291,237 
Current portion of long-term debt(3,020)(3,020)
Long-term debt, net of current portion and debt issuance costs$287,772 $288,217 
The principal amount of long-term debt outstanding as of March 31, 2024 matures in the following years:
Remainder of 202420252026TOTAL
(In thousands)
Maturities$2,265 $3,020 $288,410 $293,695 

The Credit Agreement requires the Company to make an annual mandatory prepayment as it relates to the Company’s Excess Cash Flow calculation. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company was not required to make a mandatory prepayment on the term loan. The Company is required to make a quarterly principal payment of $755 on the term loan.
The fair values of the Company’s variable interest term loan and revolving line of credit are not significantly different than their carrying value because the interest rates on these instruments are subject to change with market interest rates.
7.    Leases

The Company leases certain office facilities and equipment under non-cancelable operating leases with remaining terms from less than one to ten years.

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Operating lease ROU assets are included in other assets. With respect to operating lease liabilities, current operating lease liabilities are included in current liabilities and non-current operating lease liabilities are included in long-term liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. At March 31, 2024, the weighted average remaining lease terms were 6.09 years for operating leases and the weighted average discount rate was 5.47% for operating leases. For additional information on the Company's leases, see Note 14 to the condensed consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s 2023 Annual Report.
The following table summarizes the lease-related assets and liabilities recorded in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:
Lease PositionBalance Sheet ClassificationMARCH 31, 2024DECEMBER 31, 2023
(In thousands)
Assets
Operating lease assetsOperating lease right-of-use assets$14,292 $9,604 
Total lease assets$14,292 $9,604 
Liabilities
Current
OperatingOther current liabilities$4,331 $4,375 
Noncurrent
OperatingOperating lease liabilities, net of current portion11,631 6,955 
Total lease liabilities$15,962 $11,330 
The following table summarizes by year the maturities of our minimum lease payments as of March 31, 2024:
OPERATING
LEASES
(In thousands)
Remainder of 2024$3,460 
20253,839 
20262,528 
20271,777 
2028979 
Thereafter6,107 
Total future lease payments18,690 
Less: imputed interest(2,728)
Total$15,962 
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8.    Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities
Accrued expenses consist of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2023
(In thousands)
Accrued compensation$16,390 $28,624 
Legal and professional accruals3,060 3,913 
Interest payable2,317 2,351 
Income taxes payable1,321 1,010 
Short-term contingent consideration liabilities 6,787 18,410 
Other2,869 2,471 
Total accrued expenses$32,744 $56,779 

Other long-term liabilities consist of the following:
MARCH 31,
2024
DECEMBER 31,
2022
(In thousands)
Uncertain tax position liability$1,267 $2,381 
Contingent consideration38,977 36,828 
Total other long-term liabilities$40,244 $39,209 

9.    Equity-Based Compensation
The Company’s equity-based compensation programs are intended to attract, retain and provide incentives for employees, officers and directors. The Company has the following stock-based compensation plans and programs.
Restricted Stock
The majority of the Company’s restricted stock awarded to its employees was originally issued on December 10, 2020 in exchange for the Class B Profits Interest Unit (the “Class B Units”) of EQT, which was the former parent of the Company.
Share-based compensation for the restricted stock exchanged for the time-based Class B Units is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally five years. Share-based compensation for the restricted stock exchanged for the performance-based Class B Units is recognized using the accelerated attribution approach.
In 2021, the Company granted 87,127 replacement shares of restricted stock in connection with the Pinnacle 21 acquisition under which equity-based awards are outstanding. The fair value of the restricted stock awarded was initially based on the fair value of our common stock on the date of grant, then adjusted for time restrictions due to unregistered shares and lack of marketability. The non-vested restricted stock at March 31, 2024 issued in 2021 has a three-year vesting period.
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SHARESWEIGHTED-
AVERAGE
GRANT DATE
FAIR VALUE
Non-vested restricted stock as of December 31, 2023538,661$23.18 
Granted*16,84217.35 
Vested*(63,041)21.49 
Forfeited 
Cancelled*(16,842)23.00 
Non-vested restricted stock as of March 31, 2024475,620$23.20 
___________________________________

*     The Company did not legally authorize or issue any restricted stock during the three month period ended March 31, 2024. During the first quarter of 2024, the Company modified an award for a recipient, resulting in 16,842 shares assumed to be granted, vested, and cancelled.
Equity-based compensation expenses related to the restricted stock exchanged for performance-based Class B Units were $250 and $655 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized equity-based compensation expense related to outstanding restricted stock recognized using the accelerated attribution approach was $637, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 12.5 months.
Equity-based compensation expenses related to the restricted stock exchanged for time-based Class B Units were $377 and $498 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized equity-based compensation expense related to outstanding restricted stock recognized using the straight-line attribution approach was $888, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 14.8 months.
Equity-based employee compensation expense related to the time-based restricted stock for the Pinnacle acquisition was $106 and $292 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized equity-based compensation expenses related to outstanding restricted stock recognized using the straight-line attribution approach was $212, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 6 months.
2020 Incentive Plan
In order to align the Company’s equity compensation program with public company practices, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted and stockholders approved the 2020 Incentive Plan. The 2020 Incentive Plan allows for grants of non-qualified stock options, incentive stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), and performance stock units (“PSUs”) to employees, directors, officers, and consultants or advisors of the Company. The 2020 Incentive Plan allows for 20,000,000 shares (the “plan share reserve”) of common stock to be issued. No more than the number of shares of common stock equal to the plan share reserve may be issued in the aggregate pursuant to the exercise of incentive stock options. The maximum number of shares of common stock granted during a single fiscal year to any non-employee director, taken together with any cash fees paid to such non-employee director during the fiscal year, may not exceed $1,000,000 in total value, except for certain awards made to a non-executive chair of our Board of Directors.
Restricted Stock Units ("RSU")
RSUs represent the right to receive shares of the Company’s common stock at a specified date in the future. The fair value of the RSUs is based on the fair value of the underlying shares on the date of grant.
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A summary of the Company’s RSU activity is as follows:
UNITSWEIGHTED-
AVERAGE
GRANT DATE
FAIR VALUE
Non-vested RSUs as of December 31, 20232,588,403$23.77 
Granted*247,43417.55 
Vested**(42,810)17.71 
Forfeited(23,968)23.83 
Cancelled*(38,729)$23.95 
Non-vested RSUs as of March 31, 20242,730,330$23.30 
___________________________________
*The majority of shares granted during the first quarter of 2024 were issued under the 2020 Incentive Plan. During the first quarter of 2024, the Company modified awards for a recipient, resulting in 38,729 shares assumed to be granted, vested, and cancelled for accounting purpose.
**The number of the RSUs vested included 1,492 shares that were withheld on behalf of employees to satisfy the statutory tax withholding requirements.
Equity-based compensation expenses related to the RSUs were $7,705 and $4,798 for three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized equity-based compensation expense related to outstanding RSUs was $35,779, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 21.5 months.
Performance Stock Units ("PSU")
PSUs are issued under the 2020 Incentive Plan and represent the right to receive shares of the Company’s common stock at a specified date in the future based on the satisfaction of various service conditions and the achievement of certain performance thresholds including year over year revenue growth, unlevered free cash flow growth, annual revenue, and annual EBITDA. The PSUs granted in 2023 and 2024 also contains market conditions.
Share-based compensation for the PSUs is only recognized to the extent a threshold is probable of being achieved and is recognized using the accelerated attribution approach. The Company will continue to assess the probability of each condition being achieved at each reporting period to determine whether and when to recognize compensation cost.
A summary of the Company’s PSU activity for the period ended March 31, 2024 is as follows:
UNITS WEIGHTED-
AVERAGE
GRANT DATE
FAIR VALUE
Non-vested PSUs as of December 31, 2023849,467$24.84 
Granted*315,81419.08 
Vested 
Forfeited 
Cancelled*(394,050)27.09 
Non-vested PSUs as of March 31, 2024771,231$21.33 
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___________________________________
* During the first quarter of 2024, the Company modified an award for a recipient, resulting in 6,651 shares assumed to be granted and cancelled for accounting purpose.
Equity-based compensation expenses related to the PSUs were $636 and $2,287 for the three months ended at March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized equity-based compensation expense related to outstanding PSUs was $4,981, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 18.6 months.
The following table summarizes the components of total equity-based compensation expense included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for each period presented:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023
(In thousands)
Cost of revenues$3,239 $2,042 
Sales and marketing617 381 
Research and development1,649 1,650 
General and administrative 3,568 4,470 
Total$9,073 $8,543 

10.     Commitments and Contingencies
Contingent consideration
In connection with the Vyasa Analytics LLC, DIDB, Formedix, and ABM acquisitions, the Company is required to pay additional consideration if the acquired businesses achieve certain eligible revenue thresholds for certain periods. The maximum contingent considerations related to revenue thread for Vyasa, DIDB, Formedix, and ABM to be earned are $60,000, $2,000, $9,000, and $17,550, respectively. Additionally, the Company agreed to further contingent consideration based on the resolution of certain tax contingencies related with Formedix acquisition. During the quarter ended March 31, 2024, the Company made a combined payment of $12,356 on the contingent consideration, consisting of $8,649 in cash and $3,707 in Company's stock. The total contingent liabilities were $45,764 and $55,238 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The contingent liabilities are included in accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet.
Legal proceedings
The Company does not have any pending or threatened litigation which, individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on its condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2024.
Assurance-type warranty
The Company includes an assurance commitment warranting that the application software products will perform in accordance with written user documentation and the agreements negotiated with customers. Since the Company does not customize its application software, warranty costs have historically been insignificant and expensed as incurred.
For information related to commitments for future minimum lease payments, please see Note 7 – Leases.
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11.    Segment Data
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.
The Company has determined that its chief executive officer is its CODM. The Company manages its operations as a single segment for the purposes of assessing and making operating decisions. The Company’s CODM allocates resources and assesses performance based upon financial information at the consolidated level. Since the Company operates in one operating segment, all required financial segment information can be found in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
The following table summarizes revenue by geographic area for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
 THREE MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 31,
 2024 2023
Revenue(1):  
Americas$69,165 $67,023 
EMEA20,843 16,915 
Asia Pacific6,646 6,363 
Total$96,654 $90,301 
___________________________________
(1)    Revenue is attributable to the countries based on the location of the customer.

12.    Income Taxes
The Company generally records its interim tax provision based upon a projection of the Company's estimated annual effective tax rate ("EAETR"). This EAETR is applied to the year-to-date consolidated pre-tax income to determine the interim provision for income taxes before discrete items. The effective tax rate ("ETR") each period is impacted by a number of factors, including the relative mix of domestic and international earnings, permanent differences, adjustments to the valuation allowances, and discrete items. The currently forecasted ETR may vary from the actual year-end due to the changes in these factors.
The Company's global ETR for the three and three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were 14% and 45%, respectively, including discrete tax items. The current year decrease in the ETR was principally due to the combined effect of the overall decrease in pre-tax book income, the impact of non-deductible items, and the tax effect of certain discrete items.
13.    Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income (loss) attributable to stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares and dilutive potential common shares during the period.
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THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023
Basic earnings per share  
Net income (loss) available to common shareholders$(4,683)$1,358 
Basic weighted-average common shares outstanding159,524,270 158,177,025
Basic earnings per common share$(0.03)$0.01 
Diluted earnings per share
Net income (loss) available to common shares$(4,683)$1,358 
Basic weighted-average common shares outstanding159,524,270 158,177,025 
Dilutive potential common shares 1,550,387 
Diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding159,524,270 159,727,412 
Diluted earnings per common share$(0.03)$0.01 
__________________________________

For the period ended March 31, 2024, the Company excluded the restricted stock and RSUs from the calculation of diluted earnings per share that could potentially dilute earnings per share in the future because of the anti-dilutive effect of the reported net loss.
For the period ended March 31, 2023, the Company excluded certain potentially dilutive securities attributable to outstanding RSUs and restricted stocks from the computation of diluted earnings per share because the securities would have had an antidilutive effect.

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion summarizes the significant factors affecting the operating results, financial condition, liquidity, and cash flows of our Company as of and for the periods presented below. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and our 2023 Annual Report. The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity, and capital resources, and all other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements and are based on the beliefs of our management, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, our management. Actual results could differ materially from those discussed in or implied by forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed below and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report, particularly in the sections “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report.
We intend the discussion of our financial condition and results of operations that follows to provide information that will assist the reader in understanding our condensed consolidated financial statements, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements from period to period, and the primary factors that accounted for those changes, as well as how certain accounting principles, policies and estimates affect our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Executive Overview
We are a leading provider of biosimulation technology and solutions for using Model-Informed Drug Development ("MIDD") in the global biopharmaceutical industry. Biosimulation and MIDD can increase the probability of success in bringing a new drug to market and decrease the costs of drug development. In addition, MIDD strategies are increasingly utilized to help predict commercial success, a critical part of the drug development process as new products must be both approved by regulators and adopted by the market. Our goal is to enable the life science industry to use data, modeling, and analytics to make better decisions during drug development and commercialization to increase productivity rates and vastly reduce development costs.
Drug development is necessarily a highly regulated process involving the collection of vast amounts of laboratory, clinical and evidence data, and there are many failures at every step along the way which add to total cost. The pharmaceutical industry spends more than $260 billion annually on R&D. Generally, companies spend an average of $6.2 billion per US Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") approved drug. Our software and scientists incorporate modern advances in scientific understanding, drug development experience, data analysis, and AI resulting in significant opportunities to decrease the cost and increase the odds of new drug approval and commercial success.
Our proprietary biosimulation platforms are built on biology, chemistry, and pharmacology principles with proprietary mathematical algorithms that model how medicines and diseases behave in the body. For over two decades, our scientists have developed and validated our biosimulation technology using data from scientific literature, laboratory research, preclinical and clinical studies. To do this, we have developed solutions for the collection, standardization, validation, storage, and analysis of the preclinical and clinical data needed for MIDD. These data solutions are used internally and by global life sciences companies.
The scientific principles underlying our work with customers in biosimulation and MIDD must be transparent and fully explainable during the regulatory process, so we have become experts at incorporating data and results into regulatory documents. Our software and regulatory services streamline the creation of regulatory filings and speed regulatory data flow to maximize the chances of successful commercialization.
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AI and machine learning technologies are being incorporated across our software and services portfolios providing opportunities to expand the number of data sources utilized, better predict outcomes, and streamline reporting. For example, we are using machine learning to automate and speed the process of biosimulation, and we have created an AI application to aid creating regulatory documents from scientific analyses and clinical data. We believe that AI predictive models will continue to enhance the accuracy and usefulness of biosimulation models and be utilized broadly across drug development.
We deliver software and technology-enabled services. Our strategy is to create and apply validated software applications that can be used broadly in the life science industry. We offer services, leveraging our technology, delivered by scientists with extensive drug development experience to aid our clients in applying biosimulation and MIDD to their specific projects.
Since 2014, customers who leverage our solutions have received more than 90% of all new drug approvals by FDA. We have worked with nearly 2,400 life sciences companies and academic institutions and have collaborated on more than 8,000 customer projects in the last decade across a wide variety of therapeutic areas ranging from cancer and hematology to diabetes and hundreds of rare diseases. Our software products are licensed by more than 57,000 users and are also used by 23 global drug regulatory agencies, including the U.S. FDA, Japan’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (“PMDA”), and China Food and Drug Administration ("cFDA").
With continued innovation in and adoption of our biosimulation software, technology, and services, we believe more life science companies worldwide will leverage more of our end-to-end platform to reduce cost, accelerate speed to market, and ensure safety and efficacy of medicines for all patients.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that the growth of and future success of our business depends on many factors. While each of these factors presents significant opportunities for our business, they also pose important challenges that we must successfully address to sustain our growth and improve results of operations.
Customer Retention and Expansion
Our future operating results depend, in part, on our ability to successfully enter new markets, increase our customer base, and retain and expand our relationships with existing customers. We monitor two key performance indicators to evaluate retention and expansion: new bookings and net retention rates.
Bookings: Our new bookings represent the estimated contract value of a signed contract or purchase order where there is sufficient or reasonable certainty about the customer’s ability and intent to fund and commence the software and/or services. Bookings vary from period to period depending on numerous factors, including the overall health of the biopharmaceutical industry, regulatory developments, industry consolidation, and sales performance. Bookings have varied and will continue to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and from year to year.
Net Retention Rates: Our net retention rates measure the percentage of recurring revenue that is retained from existing software customers over a specific time period of time, inclusive of price increases and expansion.


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The table below summarizes our quarterly bookings and net retention rate trends:
20242023
Q1Q1
 (in millions except percentage)
Bookings$105.8 $112.7 
Net Retention Rates 114.1 %110.5 %
Investments in Growth
We have invested and intend to continue to invest in expanding the breadth and depth of our solutions, including through acquisitions and international expansion. We expect to continue to invest (i) in scientific talent to expand our ability to deliver solutions across the drug development spectrum; (ii) in sales and marketing to promote our solutions to new and existing customers and in existing and expanded geographies; (iii) in research and development to support existing solutions and innovate new technology; (iv) in other operational and administrative functions to support our expected growth; and (v) in complementary businesses. We expect that our headcount and our total operating expenses will continue to increase over time.
Our Operating Environment
The acceptance of model-informed biopharmaceutical discovery and development by regulatory authorities affects the demand for our products and services. Support for the use of biosimulation in discovery and development from regulatory bodies, such as the FDA and European Medicines Agency, has been critical to its rapid adoption by the biopharmaceutical industry. There has been a steady increase in the recognition by regulatory and academic institutions of the role that modeling and simulation can play in the biopharmaceutical development and approval process, as demonstrated by new regulations and guidance documents describing and encouraging the use of modeling and simulation in the biopharmaceutical discovery, development, testing, and approval process, which has directly led to an increase in the demand for our products and services. Changes in government or regulatory policy, or a reversal in the trend toward increasing the acceptance of and reliance upon in silico data in the drug approval process, could decrease the demand for our products and services or lead regulatory authorities to cease use of, or recommend against the use of, our products and services.
Governmental agencies throughout the world, but particularly in the United States where the majority of our customers are based, strictly regulate the biopharmaceutical development process. Our business involves helping biopharmaceutical companies strategically and tactically navigate the regulatory approval process. New or amended regulations are expected to result in higher regulatory standards and often additional revenues for companies that service these industries. However, some changes in regulations, such as a relaxation in regulatory requirements or the introduction of streamlined or expedited approval procedures, or an increase in regulatory requirements that we have difficulty satisfying or that make our regulatory strategy services less competitive, could eliminate or substantially reduce the demand for our regulatory services.
Competition
The market for our biosimulation products and related services for the biopharmaceutical industry is competitive and highly fragmented. In our view, the principal competitive factors in our market are the functionality and quality of models, the breadth of molecular types, therapeutic areas, and modalities supported, regulator acceptance of our solutions, ease of use and functionality of applications, depth of experience in drug
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development, brand awareness and reputation, total cost, and the ability to securely integrate with other enterprise applications and the overall drug development process in the customer.
Macroeconomic challenges
Uncertain macroeconomic conditions, including higher inflation, rising interest rates and instability in the financial system, geopolitical conflicts, and the residual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, may pose challenges to our business. We believe that any impacts these conditions may have on our business would be transitory and that we are well-equipped to manage them going forward.
Non-GAAP Measures
Management uses various financial metrics, including total revenues, income from operations, net income, and certain metrics that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP, such as adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net income, and adjusted diluted earnings per share, to measure and assess the performance of our business, to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies, to make budgeting decisions, to make certain compensation decisions, and to compare our performance against that of other peer companies using similar measures. We believe that presentation of the GAAP and the non-GAAP metrics in this filing will aid investors in understanding our business.
Management measures operating performance based on adjusted EBITDA defined for a particular period as net income (loss) excluding interest expense, provision (benefit) for income taxes, depreciation and amortization expense, intangible asset amortization, equity-based compensation expense, acquisition and integration expense, and other items not indicative of our ongoing operating performance. Management also measures operating performance based on adjusted net income defined for a particular period as net income (loss) excluding, equity-based compensation expense, amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, goodwill impairment expense, acquisition and integration expense, and other items not indicative of our ongoing operating performance. Further, management measures operating performance based on adjusted diluted earnings per share defined for a particular period as adjusted net income divided by the weighted-average diluted common shares outstanding.
We believe adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net income, and adjusted diluted earnings per share are helpful to investors, analysts, and other interested parties because they can assist in providing a more consistent and comparable overview of our operations across our historical periods. In addition, these measures are frequently used by analysts, investors, and other interested parties to evaluate and assess performance.
Adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net income, and adjusted diluted earnings per share are non-GAAP measures and are presented for supplemental purposes only and should not be considered as an alternative or substitute to financial information presented in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net income and adjusted diluted earnings per share have certain limitations in that they do not include the impact of certain expenses that are reflected in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) that are necessary to run our business. Other companies, including other companies in our industry, may not use these measures and may calculate both differently than as presented, limiting the usefulness as a comparative measure.
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The following table reconciles net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
 2024 2023
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)(a)$(4,683)$1,358 
Interest expense(a)5,751 5,475 
Interest income(a)(2,574)(1,354)
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes(a)(751)1,111 
Depreciation and amortization expense(a)432 411 
Intangible asset amortization(a)15,996 13,113 
Currency (gain) loss(a)876 894 
Equity-based compensation expense(b)9,073 8,543 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration(d)2,878 1,261 
Acquisition-related expenses(e)1,714 1,192 
Integration expense(f)— 102 
Reorganization expense(g)51 — 
Loss on disposal of fixed assets(h)— 
Executive recruiting expense(i)380 196
Adjusted EBITDA$29,143 $32,306 

The following table reconciles net income (loss) to adjusted net income:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023
(in thousands)
Net income (loss) (a)$(4,683)$1,358 
Currency (gain) loss(a)876 894 
Equity-based compensation expense(b)9,073 8,543 
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets(c)13,348 11,256 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration(d)2,878 1,261 
Acquisition-related expenses(e)1,714 1,192 
Integration expense(f)— 102 
Reorganization expense(g)51 — 
Loss on disposal of fixed assets(h)— 
Executive recruiting expense(i)380 196 
Income tax expense impact of adjustments(j)(7,089)(5,495)
Adjusted net income$16,548 $19,311 
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The following table reconciles diluted earnings per share to adjusted diluted earnings per share:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023
Diluted earnings per share(a)$(0.03)$0.01 
Currency (gain) loss(a)0.01 0.01 
Equity-based compensation expense(b)0.05 0.04 
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets(c)0.08 0.07 
Change in fair value of contingent consideration(d)0.02 0.01 
Acquisition-related expenses(e)0.01 0.01 
Integration expense(f)— — 
Reorganization expense(g)— — 
Loss on disposal of fixed assets(h)— — 
Executive recruiting expense(i)— — 
Income tax expense impact of adjustments(j)(0.04)(0.03)
Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share$0.10 $0.12 
Basic weighted average common shares outstanding159,524,270 158,177,025 
Effect of potentially dilutive shares outstanding (k)889,094 1,550,387 
Adjusted diluted weighted average common shares outstanding160,413,364 159,727,412 
__________________________________
(a)Represents amounts as determined under GAAP.
(b)Represents expense related to equity-based compensation. Equity-based compensation has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a recurring expense in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy.
(c)Represents amortization costs associated with acquired intangible assets in connection with business acquisitions.
(d)Represents expense associated with remeasuring fair value of contingent consideration of business acquisition.
(e)Represents costs associated with mergers and acquisitions and any retention bonuses pursuant to the acquisitions.
(f)Represents integration costs related to post - acquisition integration activities.
(g)Represents expense related to reorganization, including legal entity reorganization and lease abandonment cost associated with the evaluation of our office space footprint.
(h)Represents the gain/loss related to disposal of fixed assets.
(i)Represents recruiting and relocation expenses related to hiring senior executives.
(j)Represents the income tax effect of the non-GAAP adjustments calculated using the applicable statutory rate by jurisdiction.
(k)Represents potentially dilutive shares that were included from our GAAP diluted weighted average common shares outstanding.
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Components of Results of Operations
Revenues
Our business generates revenue from the sales of software products and delivery of consulting services.
Software. Our software business generates revenues from software licenses, software subscriptions and software maintenance as follows:
Software licenses: We recognize revenue for software license fees up front, upon delivery of the software license.
Software subscription: Subscription revenue consists of subscription fees to provide our customers access to and related support for our cloud-based solutions. We recognize subscription fees ratably over the term of the subscription, usually one to three years. Any subscription revenue paid upfront that is not recognized in the current period is included in deferred revenue in our condensed consolidated balance sheet until earned.
Software maintenance: Software maintenance revenue includes fees for providing updates and technical support for software offerings. Software maintenance revenue is recognized ratably over the contract term, usually one year.
Services. Our services business generates revenues primarily from technology-driven services and professional services, which include software implementation services. Our service arrangements are time and materials, fixed fee, or prepaid. Revenues are recognized over the time services are performed for time and materials, and over time by estimating progress to completion for fixed fee and prepaid services.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues consists primarily of employee related expenses, equity-based compensation, the costs of third-party subcontractors, travel costs, distributor fees, amortization of capitalized software and allocated overhead. We may add or expand computing infrastructure service providers, make additional investments in the availability and security of our solutions, or add resources to support our growth.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of employee-related expenses, equity-based compensation, sales commissions, brand development, advertising, travel-related expenses and industry conferences and events. We plan to continue to invest in sales and marketing to increase penetration of our existing client base and expand to new clients.

Research and Development. Research and development expense (“R&D”) consist primarily of employee-related expenses, equity-based compensation, third-party consulting, allocated software costs and tax credits. We plan to continue to invest in our R&D efforts to enhance and scale our software product offerings by development of new features and increased functionality.
General and Administrative. General and administrative expense consists of personnel-related expenses associated with our executive, legal, finance, human resources, information technology, and other administrative functions, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and equity-based compensation. General and administrative expense also includes professional fees for external legal, accounting and other consulting services, allocated overhead costs, and other general operating expenses.
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Intangible Asset Amortization. Intangible asset amortization consists primarily of amortization expense related to intangible assets recorded in connection with acquisitions and amortization of capitalized software development costs.
Depreciation and Amortization Expense. Depreciation and amortization expense consists of depreciation of property and equipment and amortization of leasehold improvements.
Other Expenses
Interest Expense. Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense associated with our Credit Agreement, including amortization of debt issuance costs and discounts.
Net Other Income (Expense). Net other income (expense) consists of miscellaneous non-operating expenses primarily comprised of interest income and foreign exchange transaction gains and losses.
Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes. Provision for (benefit from) income taxes consists of U.S. federal and state income taxes and income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We expect income tax expense to increase over time as the Company continues to grow more profitable.

Business Combinations
Since 2013 and as of March 31, 2024, we have completed 20 acquisitions, of which 13 have included software or technology. Details of acquisitions that have closed since the beginning of fiscal year 2023 are provided below. We continually seek and assess a range of highly focused opportunities in our immediately addressable market and in related adjacent markets, whether through acquisitions, licenses, or partnerships.
Drug Interaction Solutions, University of Washington ("DIDB")
On June 20, 2023, we entered into an asset purchase agreement with the University of Washington and completed the acquisition of DIDB, including the Drug Interaction Database and related products, from The University of Washington for a total estimated consideration of $8.3 million. The business combination was not significant to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Based on our purchase price allocation, approximately $0.3 million, $5.6 million, $0.4 million, and $2.3 million of the purchase price was assigned to trade names, database content/technology, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively. The total estimated consideration included a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over the next two years in cash, not to exceed $2.0 million. The fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $0.8 million as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024, the contingent consideration was remeasured to $0.1 million, resulting in a fair value adjustment of $4 thousand and recorded in G&A on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Formedix Limited ("Formedix")
On October 10, 2023, we completed the acquisition of Formedix for a total estimated consideration of $41.4 million. The business combination was not material to our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Based on our purchase price allocation, approximately $11.7 million, $3.1 million, and $25.1 million of the purchase price were assigned to developed technology, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively.
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The total estimated consideration included a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over two years in cash, not to exceed $9.0 million. The fair value of the contingent consideration related to revenue threshold was estimated to be $4.4 million as of the acquisition date. Future payments of contingent consideration are based on achieving certain eligible revenue targets for each of the twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2023 and 2024, respectively. Additionally, another portion of the contingent consideration is based on the resolution of certain tax contingencies. In total, the fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $5.2 million as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024 the contingent consideration related to revenues was remeasured to $3.2 million, resulting in a negative fair value remeasurement and adjustment of $0.5 million and recorded in G&A on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Applied BioMath, LLC ("ABM")
On December 12, 2023, we completed the acquisition of ABM, an industry-leader in providing model-informed drug discovery and development support to help accelerate and de-risk therapeutic research and development, for total estimated consideration of $36.6 million. The business combination was not material to our consolidated financial statements.
Based on our preliminary purchase price allocation, approximately $4.6 million, $0.8 million, $13.7 million and $15.9 million of the purchase price was assigned to developed technology, non-compete agreements, customer relationships and goodwill, respectively.
The total estimated consideration includes a portion of contingent consideration that is payable over two years in cash, not to exceed $17.6 million. Future payments of contingent consideration are based on achieving certain eligible revenue targets for each of the twelve-month periods ended December 31, 2023 and 2024, respectively. The fair value of the contingent consideration was estimated to be $5.4 million as of the acquisition date. At March 31, 2024, the contingent consideration was remeasured to $4.4 million, resulting in a negative fair value adjustment of $0.9 million and recorded in G&A on the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The contingent considerations for all acquisitions were classified as a liability and included in accrued expense and other long-term liabilities on our condensed consolidated balance sheet. The contingent consideration related with revenue threshold are remeasured on a recurring basis at fair value for each reporting period. Any changes in the fair value of these contingent liabilities are included in the earnings in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The current purchase price allocations for acquisitions of Formedix and ABM are preliminary. The primary areas of the preliminary purchase price allocations that are not yet finalized that relate to the fair value of certain tangible assets and liabilities assumed and residual goodwill. We continue to gather information supporting the acquired assets and liabilities, including but not limited to the estimation of the fair value of the identifiable intangible assets, measurement of deferred revenue and corresponding impact on goodwill, during the measurement period. Any adjustments to the preliminary purchase price allocation identified during the measurement period, which will not exceed one year from the acquisition date, will be accounted for prospectively.

The results of operations of the acquired businesses and the fair value of the acquired assets and liabilities assumed are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements with effect from the date of the acquisitions.
For more information about our acquisitions, see Note 5. “Business Combinations” in the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Results of Operations
We have included the results of operations of acquired companies in our condensed consolidated results of operations from the date of their respective acquisitions, which impacts the comparability of our results of operations when comparing results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 to the three months ended at March 31, 2023.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 Versus Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
The following table summarizes our unaudited statements of operations data for the three months ended at March 31, 2024 and 2023:
Revenues
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Software$39,307 $33,005 $6,302 19 %
Services57,347 57,296 51 — %
Total revenues$96,654 $90,301 $6,353 %
Total revenues increased $6.4 million, or 7%, to $96.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. The overall increase in revenues was primarily due to growth in our software product offerings from strong demand within existing customers, client expansions, and new customers.
Software revenues increased $6.3 million, or 19%, to $39.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023, primarily driven by strong demand within existing customers and expanding relationships with customers.
Services revenues of $57.3 million were relatively flat for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the same period in 2023.

Cost of Revenues
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Cost of revenues$39,255 $34,856 $4,399 13 %
Cost of revenues increased by $4.4 million, or 13%, to $39.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. The increase was primarily due to a $1.9 million increase in employee-related costs resulting from billable head count growth, a $1.2 million increase in stock-based compensation costs, a $0.8 million increase in intangible assets amortization, a $0.5 million increase in equipment and software expenses.
39

Sales and Marketing Expenses
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Sales and marketing$10,687 $8,002 $2,685 34 %
% of total revenues11 %%
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $2.7 million, or 34%, to $10.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. Sales and marketing expenses increased primarily due to a $1.7 million increase in employee-related costs primarily resulting from head count growth, a $0.2 million increase in stock-based compensation costs, a $0.2 million increase in travel expenses, a $0.2 million increase in marketing expenses, and a $0.2 million increase in professional and consulting expenses.
Research and Development Expenses
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Research and development$11,995 $9,287 $2,708 29 %
% of total revenues12 %10 %
Research and development expenses increased by $2.7 million, or 29%, to $12.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the same period in 2023. The change in research and development expenses was primarily due to a $3.0 million increase in employee-related costs primarily resulting from head count growth, and a $0.2 million increase in the cost of licenses, partially offset by a $0.5 million increase in capitalized cost in R&D.
General and Administrative Expenses
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
General and administrative$22,979 $19,772 $3,207 16 %
% of total revenues24 %22 %
General and administrative expenses increased by $3.2 million, or 16%, to $23.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to a $1.6 million increase related to change in the fair value of contingent consideration, a $1.1 million increase in employee-related costs primarily resulting from head count growth, a $0.5 million increase in merger and acquisition expenses, a $0.2 million increase in equipment and software expenses, a $0.2 million increase in executive recruiting expense, and a $0.2 million increase in credit allowance provision expense, partially offset by a $0.9 million decrease in stock-based compensation costs.


40

Intangible Asset Amortization
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
2024 2023 $ %
(in thousands)
Intangible asset amortization$12,593 $10,535 $2,058 20 %
% of total revenues13 %12 %
Intangible asset amortization expense increased by $2.1 million, or 20%, to $12.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the same period in 2023. The increase in intangible asset amortization expense was primarily due to $1.3 million increase in amortization in acquired intangible assets and $0.8 million increase in amortization in capitalized software.
Depreciation and Amortization Expense
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Depreciation and amortization$432 $411 $21 %
% of total revenues— %— %
Depreciation and amortization expense of $0.4 million was relatively flat for the three months ended March 31, 2024, as compared to the same period in 2023.
Interest Expense
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Interest expense$5,751 $5,475 $276 %
% of total revenues%%
Interest expense increased by $0.3 million, or 5%, to $5.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. The increase in interest expense was primarily due to an $0.8 million increase in our floating rate term loan debt, driven by the uptick in market interest rates. The increase in interest expense was partially offset by a $0.5 million increase in gain from our interest swap hedge activities.

Net Other (Income ) Expense
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Net other (income ) expense$(1,604)$(506)$(1,098)217 %
% of total revenues(2)%(1)%
Net other income increased by $1.1 million, to $1.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to the same period in 2023. The increase in net other income was primarily due to a $1.2 million increase interest income primarily from cash investments.
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Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes$(751)$1,111 $(1,862)(168)%
Effective income tax rate14 %45 %
Our income tax benefit was $0.8 million, resulting in an effective income tax rate of 14% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to an income tax expense of $1.1 million, or an effective income tax rate of 45%, for the same period in 2023. Our income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was primarily due to the tax effects of U.S. pre-tax income, the relative mix of domestic and international earnings, the impact of non-deductible items, adjustments to the valuation allowances, the effects of tax elections made for U.K. earnings, and discrete tax items.
Net Income (Loss)
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31, CHANGE
20242023 $ %
(in thousands)
Net income (loss)$(4,683)$1,358 $(6,041)445 %
Net loss was $4.7 million representing a $6.0 million change in net income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as compared to a net income of $1.4 million for the same period of 2023. The decrease in net income was primarily due to a $10.7 million increase in operating expense, a $4.4 million increase in cost of revenue, partially offset by a $6.4 million increase in revenue, a $1.9 million decrease in tax expense, and a $0.8 million increase in total other income.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have consistently generated positive cash flow from operations, providing $4.3 million and $10.0 million as a source of funds for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Our additional liquidity comes from several sources: maintaining adequate balances of cash and cash equivalents, issuing common stock, and accessing credit facilities and revolving lines of credit. The following table provides a summary of the major sources of liquidity for the three and twelve months periods ended at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 and as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
(in thousands)
Net cash from operating activities(a)
4,296 82,755 
Cash and cash equivalents(b)
224,776 234,951 
Term loan credit facilities293,695 294,450 
Gross revolving line of credit 100,000 100,000 
___________________________________
(a)     Net cash from operating activities for three months ended at March 31, 2024 and twelve months ended at December 31, 2023.
(b)    Cash balance as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 included $46.2 million and $47.3 million cash and cash     equivalents, respectively, held outside of the United States.
42


Our material cash requirements from known contractual obligations are principal and interest payments of long-term debt. We also have future cash obligations of $18.7 million for lease contracts, which have remaining terms of one to six years.
The principal amount of long-term debt outstanding as of March 31, 2024 matures in the following years:
Remainder of 202420252026TOTAL
( in thousands)
Maturities$2,265 $3,020 $288,410 $293,695 
We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to generate adequate amounts of cash to meet current and future needs. We believe our existing sources of liquidity will be sufficient to meet our working capital, capital expenditures, and contractual obligations for the foreseeable future. Our expected primary uses on a short-term and long-term basis are for repayment of debt, interest payments, working capital, capital expenditures, geographic or service offering expansion, acquisitions, investments, and other general corporate purposes. We believe we will meet short and longer-term expected future cash requirements and obligations through a combination of cash flows from operating activities, available cash balances, and potential future equity or debt transactions.
Our future capital requirements, however, will depend on many factors, including funding for potential acquisitions, investments, and other growth and strategic opportunities, which could increase our cash requirements. While we believe we have, and will be able to generate, sufficient liquidity to fund our operations for the foreseeable future, our sources of liquidity could be affected by factors described under “Risk Factors” in our 2023 Annual Report.
Cash Flows
The following table presents a summary of our cash flows for the periods shown:
THREE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31,
20242023