Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Citizens Financial Group
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$37.66 466 $17,550
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-01-22 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-22 Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-13 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-04 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-08 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-25 Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-22 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-27 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-12 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-28 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-18 Officers
8-K 2018-06-12 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-04 Other Events
8-K 2018-05-31 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-29 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-21 Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-26 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-19 Earnings, Exhibits
C Citigroup
BK Bank of New York Mellon
MTB M&T Bank
HWC Hancock Whitney
HTLF Heartland Financial
CHCO City Holding
OFG OFG Bancorp
TRST Trustco Bank N Y
EVBN Evans Bancorp
VBFC Village Bank & Trust Financial
CFG 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Basis of Presentation
Note 2 - Cash and Due From Banks
Note 3 - Securities
Note 4 - Loans and Leases
Note 5 - Allowance for Credit Losses, Nonperforming Assets, and Concentrations of Credit Risk
Note 6 - Premises, Equipment and Software
Note 7 - Lease Commitments
Note 8 - Mortgage Banking
Note 9 - Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Note 10 - Variable Interest Entities
Note 11 - Deposits
Note 12 - Borrowed Funds
Note 13 - Derivatives
Note 14 - Employee Benefits
Note 15 - Reclassifications Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Note 16 - Stockholders' Equity
Note 17 - Share-Based Compensation
Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 19 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 20 - Noninterest Income
Note 21 - Other Operating Expense
Note 22 - Income Taxes
Note 23 - Earnings per Share
Note 24 - Regulatory Matters
Note 25 - Business Operating Segments
Note 26 - Parent Company Financials
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-4.8 exhibit4_8.htm
EX-10.7 exhibit10_7.htm
EX-10.14 exhibit10_14.htm
EX-10.32 exhibit10_32.htm
EX-10.41 exhibit10_41.htm
EX-21.1 exhibit21_1.htm
EX-23.1 exhibit23_1.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit31_1.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit31_2.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit32_1.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit32_2.htm

Citizens Financial Group Earnings 2018-12-31

CFG 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 citizens10-kx2018.htm 10-K Document
 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K

[X] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended
December 31, 2018
[ ] TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Transition Period From
(Not Applicable)
Commission File Number 001-36636
image0a18.jpg
(Exact name of the registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
05-0412693
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
One Citizens Plaza, Providence, RI 02903
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(401) 456-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par value per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
Depositary Shares each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of 6.350% Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series D
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. [ü] Yes [ ] No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. [ ] Yes [ü] No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. [ü] Yes [ ] No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). [ü] Yes [ ] No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ü]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
[ü]
Accelerated filer
[ ]
Non-accelerated filer
[ ]
Smaller reporting company
[ ]
 
 
Emerging growth company
[ ]

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). [ ] Yes [ü] No
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was $18,789,421,828 (based on the June 30, 2018 closing price of Citizens Financial Group, Inc. common shares of $38.90 as reported on the New York Stock Exchange). There were 460,390,006 shares of Registrant’s common stock ($0.01 par value) outstanding on February 1, 2019.
Documents incorporated by reference

Portions of Citizens Financial Group, Inc.’s proxy statement to be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with Citizens Financial Group, Inc.’s 2019 annual meeting of stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof. Such Proxy Statement will be filed within 120 days of Citizens Financial Group, Inc.’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.



 
 
 
 
 
 
image0a18.jpg
 
 
 
 
Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 








1

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS AND TERMS
The following listing provides a comprehensive reference of common acronyms and terms we regularly use in our financial reporting:
2017 Tax Legislation
 
An Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018 (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act)
ACL
 
Allowance for Credit Losses
AFS
 
Available for Sale
ALLL
 
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
AOCI
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASU
 
Accounting Standards Update
ATM
 
Automated Teller Machine
Board or Board of Directors
 
The Board of Directors of Citizens Financial Group, Inc.
bps
 
Basis Points
C&I
 
Commercial and Industrial
Capital Plan Rule
 
Federal Reserve’s Regulation Y Capital Plan Rule
CBNA
 
Citizens Bank, National Association
CBPA
 
Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania
CCAR
 
Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review
CCB
 
Capital Conservation Buffer
CCMI
 
Citizens Capital Markets, Inc.
CET1
 
Common Equity Tier 1
CFPB
 
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
CFTC
 
Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Citizens or CFG or the Company
 
Citizens Financial Group, Inc. and its Subsidiaries
CLTV
 
Combined Loan-to-Value
CLO
 
Collateralized Loan Obligation
CMO
 
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation
CRA
 
Community Reinvestment Act
CRE
 
Commercial Real Estate
DFAST
 
Dodd-Frank Act Stress Test
DIF
 
Deposit Insurance Fund
Dodd-Frank Act
 
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
EPS
 
Earnings Per Share
ESPP
 
Employee Stock Purchase Program
ERISA
 
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
Exchange Act
 
The Securities Exchange Act of 1934
FAMC
 
Franklin American Mortgage Company
FAMC acquisition
 
The August 1, 2018 acquisition of Franklin American Mortgage Company
Fannie Mae (FNMA)
 
Federal National Mortgage Association
FASB
 
Financial Accounting Standards Board
FDIA
 
Federal Deposit Insurance Act
FDIC
 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FFIEC
 
Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
FHLB
 
Federal Home Loan Bank
FICO
 
Fair Isaac Corporation (credit rating)
FINRA
 
Financial Industry Regulation Authority

2

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

FRB
 
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and, as applicable, Federal Reserve Bank(s)
Freddie Mac (FHLMC)
 
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
FTP
 
Funds Transfer Pricing
GAAP
 
Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States of America
GDP
 
Gross Domestic Product
GLBA
 
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999
Ginnie Mae (GNMA)
 
Government National Mortgage Association
HELOC
 
Home Equity Line of Credit
HTM
 
Held To Maturity
LCR
 
Liquidity Coverage Ratio
LGD
 
Loss Given Default
LIBOR
 
London Interbank Offered Rate
LIHTC
 
Low Income Housing Tax Credit
LTV
 
Loan-to-Value
MBS
 
Mortgage-Backed Securities
MD&A
 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Mid-Atlantic
 
District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia
Midwest
 
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio
MSA
 
Metropolitan Statistical Area
MSR
 
Mortgage Servicing Right
New England
 
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
NM
 
Not meaningful
NPR
 
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
NSFR
 
Net Stable Funding Ratio
NYSE
 
New York Stock Exchange
OCC
 
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
OCI
 
Other Comprehensive Income
OFAC
 
Office of Foreign Assets Control
Parent Company
 
Citizens Financial Group, Inc. (the Parent Company of Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania, Citizens Bank, National Association and other subsidiaries)
PD
 
Probability of Default
peers or peer regional banks
 
BB&T, Comerica, Fifth Third, KeyCorp, M&T, PNC, Regions, SunTrust and U.S. Bancorp
REITs
 
Real Estate Investment Trusts
ROTCE
 
Return on Average Tangible Common Equity
RPA
 
Risk Participation Agreement
SBO
 
Serviced by Others loan portfolio
SEC
 
United States Securities and Exchange Commission
SVaR
 
Stressed Value-at-Risk
TDR
 
Troubled Debt Restructuring
VaR
 
Value-at-Risk
VIE
 
Variable Interest Entities

3

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This document contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements regarding potential future share repurchases and future dividends are forward-looking statements. Also, any statement that does not describe historical or current facts is a forward-looking statement. These statements often include the words “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “goals,” “targets,” “initiatives,” “potentially,” “probably,” “projects,” “outlook” or similar expressions or future conditional verbs such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “would,” and “could.”

Forward-looking statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of management, and on information currently available to management. Our statements speak as of the date hereof, and we do not assume any obligation to update these statements or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those contained in such statements in light of new information or future events. We caution you, therefore, against relying on any of these forward-looking statements. They are neither statements of historical fact nor guarantees or assurances of future performance. While there is no assurance that any list of risks and uncertainties or risk factors is complete, important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include the following, without limitation:
Negative economic and political conditions that adversely affect the general economy, housing prices, the job market, consumer confidence and spending habits which may affect, among other things, the level of nonperforming assets, charge-offs and provision expense;
The rate of growth in the economy and employment levels, as well as general business and economic conditions, and changes in the competitive environment;
Our ability to implement our business strategy, including the cost savings and efficiency components, and achieve our financial performance goals;
Our ability to meet heightened supervisory requirements and expectations;
Liabilities and business restrictions resulting from litigation and regulatory investigations;
Our capital and liquidity requirements (including under regulatory capital standards, such as the U.S. Basel III capital rules) and our ability to generate capital internally or raise capital on favorable terms;
The effect of changes in interest rates on our net interest income, net interest margin and our mortgage originations, mortgage servicing rights and mortgages held for sale;
Changes in interest rates and market liquidity, as well as the magnitude of such changes, which may reduce interest margins, impact funding sources and affect the ability to originate and distribute financial products in the primary and secondary markets;
The effect of changes in the level of checking or savings account deposits on our funding costs and net interest margin;
Financial services reform and other current, pending or future legislation or regulation that could have a negative effect on our revenue and businesses, including the Dodd-Frank Act and other legislation and regulation relating to bank products and services;
A failure in or breach of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of our third party vendors or other service providers, including as a result of cyber-attacks; and
Management’s ability to identify and manage these and other risks.
In addition to the above factors, we also caution that the amount and timing of any future common stock dividends or share repurchases will depend on our financial condition, earnings, cash needs, regulatory constraints, capital requirements (including requirements of our subsidiaries), and any other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant in making such a determination. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will repurchase shares or pay any dividends to holders of our common stock, or as to the amount of any such repurchases or dividends.

More information about factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements can be found under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, included in this Report.

4

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Citizens Financial Group, Inc. is the 13th largest retail bank holding company in the United States.(1) Headquartered in Providence, Rhode Island, Citizens offers a broad range of retail and commercial banking products and services to more than five million individuals, small businesses, middle-market companies, large corporations and institutions, largely through approximately 1,100 branches in 11 states in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions and approximately 140 retail and commercial non-branch offices located in our branch banking footprint and in other states and the District of Columbia, which are contiguous with our footprint. At December 31, 2018, the Company had total assets of $160.5 billion, total deposits of $119.6 billion and total stockholders’ equity of $20.8 billion.
Citizens is a bank holding company which was incorporated under Delaware state law in 1984 and whose primary federal regulator is the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“FRB”). As of December 31, 2018, our primary subsidiaries were Citizens Bank, N.A. (“CBNA”), a national banking association whose primary federal regulator is the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”), and Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania (“CBPA”), a Pennsylvania-chartered savings bank regulated by the Department of Banking of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and supervised by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) as its primary federal regulator. On January 2, 2019, we consolidated our banking subsidiaries via a merger of CBPA into CBNA in order to streamline governance and enterprise risk management, improve CBNA’s risk profile and gain operational efficiencies. CBNA is now our primary subsidiary and our sole banking subsidiary.
Business Segments
We manage our business through two reportable business operating segments: Consumer Banking and Commercial Banking. The Company’s activities outside the two business operating segments are classified as “Other” and include treasury activities, wholesale funding activities, securities portfolio, community development assets and other unallocated assets, liabilities, capital, revenues, provision for credit losses and expenses, including income tax expense. The Other classification also includes the financial impact of non-core, liquidating loan portfolios and other non-core assets and liabilities. For a description of non-core assets, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Analysis of Financial Condition — Loans and Leases — Non-Core Assets” in Part II, Item 7, of this Report. For additional information regarding our business segments see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Results of Operations — 2018 compared with 2017 — Business Operating Segments” in Part II, Item 7 and Note 25 “Business Operating Segments” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Report.
The following table presents selected financial information for our business operating segments, Other and consolidated:
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
2018
 
2017
(in millions)
Consumer Banking
 
Commercial Banking
 
Other 
 
Consolidated
 
Consumer Banking
 
Commercial Banking
 
Other
 
Consolidated
Net interest income

$3,064

 

$1,497

 

($29
)
 

$4,532

 

$2,651

 

$1,411

 

$111

 

$4,173

Noninterest income
973

 
545

 
78

 
1,596

 
905

 
538

 
91

 
1,534

Total revenue
4,037

 
2,042

 
49

 
6,128

 
3,556

 
1,949

 
202

 
5,707

Noninterest expense
2,723

 
813

 
83

 
3,619

 
2,593

 
772

 
109

 
3,474

Net income

$767

 

$927

 

$27

 

$1,721

 

$452

 

$774

 

$426

 

$1,652

Total average loans and leases and loans held for sale

$60,691

 

$51,344

 

$2,446

 

$114,481

 

$58,371

 

$48,655

 

$2,946

 

$109,972

Total average deposits

$77,542

 

$30,704

 

$7,611

 

$115,857

 

$74,873

 

$30,005

 

$6,996

 

$111,874

Consumer Banking Segment
Consumer Banking serves retail customers and small businesses with annual revenues of up to $25 million, with products and services that include deposit products, mortgage and home equity lending, credit cards, business loans, wealth management and investment services largely across our 11-state traditional banking footprint. We also offer auto loans, education loans, and unsecured and product financing loans in addition to select digital deposit
(1) According to SNL Financial as of September 30, 2018.

5

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
BUSINESS

products nationwide.
Consumer Banking operates a multi-channel distribution network with a workforce of approximately 6,200 branch colleagues, approximately 1,100 branches, including about 310 in-store locations, and approximately 2,900 ATMs. Our network includes approximately 1,320 specialists covering lending, savings and investment needs as well as a broad range of small business products and services. We serve customers on a national basis through telephone service centers as well as through our online and mobile platforms where we offer customers the convenience of depositing funds, paying bills and transferring money between accounts and from person to person, as well as a host of other everyday transactions.
We believe our strong retail deposit market share in our core regions, which have relatively diverse economies and affluent demographics, is a competitive advantage. As of June 30, 2018, we ranked second by retail deposit market share in the New England region and ranked in the top five in nine of our ten principal MSAs.(1) 
The following table presents information regarding our competitive position in our principal MSAs:
(dollars in billions)
 
Total
Total
Deposit
MSA
Total Branches
Deposits
Deposit Rank
Market Share
Boston, MA
202
$22.1
2
14.0%
Philadelphia, PA
171
15.0
4
11.0
Pittsburgh, PA
118
8.7
2
16.2
Providence, RI
93
8.6
1
26.0
Detroit, MI
81
5.5
6
7.0
Cleveland, OH
51
3.9
4
10.1
Manchester, NH
20
2.5
1
30.2
Buffalo, NY
41
1.9
4
8.9
Albany, NY
22
1.9
3
12.3
Rochester, NY
25
1.7
5
9.6
Source: FDIC, June 2018. Principal MSAs determined by total retail branch count. Deposits capped at $500 million per branch. Excludes “non-retail banks” as defined by SNL Financial. The scope of “non-retail banks” is subject to the discretion of SNL Financial, but typically includes: industrial bank and non-depository trust charters, institutions with more than 20% brokered deposits (of total deposits), institutions with more than 20% credit card loans (of total loans), institutions deemed not to broadly participate in the banking services market and other nonretail competitor banks.
Commercial Banking Segment
Commercial Banking primarily serves companies and institutions with annual revenues of over $25 million to more than $3.0 billion and strives to be our clients’ trusted advisor and preferred provider for their banking needs. We offer a broad complement of financial products and solutions, including lending and leasing, deposit and treasury management services, foreign exchange and interest rate risk management solutions, as well as corporate finance, merger and acquisition, and debt and equity capital markets capabilities.
Commercial Banking is structured along business lines and product groups. The business lines, Corporate Banking and Commercial Real Estate, and the product groups, Treasury Solutions and Corporate Finance & Capital Markets, work in teams to understand client needs and provide comprehensive solutions to meet those needs. We acquire new clients through a coordinated approach to the market, leveraging deep industry knowledge in specialized banking groups and a geographic coverage model.
Our Corporate Banking business line services middle market domestic commercial and industrial clients with annual gross revenues of $25 million to $500 million, and mid-corporate clients with annual revenues of $500 million to more than $3.0 billion. In several areas, such as Healthcare, Technology, and Franchise Finance, we offer a more dedicated and tailored approach to better meet the unique needs of these client segments. Smaller commercial clients, with an affinity for local bank branch support, cluster around our 11 state footprint. Larger clients seeking more specialty financial services expertise are covered nationally. Corporate Banking is a general lending business which offers a broad range of products, including secured and unsecured lines of credit, term loans, commercial mortgages, domestic and global treasury management solutions, trade services, interest rate products, foreign exchange services and letters of credit.
(1) According to SNL Financial.

6

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
BUSINESS

Our Commercial Real Estate business line provides customized debt capital solutions for middle market operators, institutional developers, investors, and REITs. Commercial Real Estate provides financing for projects in the office, multi-family, industrial, retail, healthcare and hospitality sectors.
The Corporate Finance & Global Markets product group serves clients through key product groups including Corporate Finance, Capital Markets, and Global Markets. Corporate Finance provides advisory services to middle market and mid-corporate clients, including mergers and acquisitions and capital structure advice. The team works closely with industry-sector specialists within debt capital markets to advise our clients. Corporate Finance also provides acquisition and follow-on financing for new and recapitalized portfolio companies of key sponsors, services meeting the unique and time-sensitive needs of private equity firms, management companies and funds, and underwriting and portfolio management expertise for leveraged transactions and relationships. Capital Markets originates, structures and underwrites multi-bank syndicated credit facilities targeting middle market, mid-corporate and private equity sponsors with a focus on offering value-added ideas to optimize their capital structures. Citizens Capital Markets, Inc. (“CCMI”), our commercial broker-dealer, advises on and facilitates mergers and acquisitions, valuations, tender offers, financial restructurings, asset sales, divestitures and other corporate reorganizations and business combinations. Global Markets provides foreign exchange and interest rate risk management services.
The Treasury Solutions product group supports Commercial Banking and certain small business clients with treasury management solutions, including domestic and international products and services related to receivables, payables, information reporting and liquidity management as well as commercial credit cards and trade finance.
Business Strategy
Our mission is to help each of our customers, colleagues and communities reach their potential, and our vision is to be a top-performing bank distinguished by our customer-centric culture, mindset of continuous improvement and excellent capabilities. It is embedded in our culture to make sure we understand our customers’ needs so we can tailor advice and solutions to make our customers more successful. Our business strategy is designed to maximize the full potential of our business and drive sustainable growth and enhanced profitability, and our success rests on our ability to distinguish ourselves as follows:
Maintain a high-performing, customer-centric organization: To accomplish this, we are embedding a “customer-first” culture among our managers and colleagues to deliver the best possible banking experience for our customers. For our colleagues, we are driving talent management to the next level, with a focus on attracting, developing and retaining great people, and ensuring strong leadership, teamwork and a sense of accountability and urgency.
Develop differentiated value propositions to acquire, deepen, and retain core customer segments: We have focused on certain customer segments where we believe we are well positioned to compete. In Consumer Banking, we focus on mass market and mass affluent customers. In Commercial Banking, we focus on customers in the middle market, mid-corporate, and certain industry vertical areas. By developing differentiated and targeted value propositions, we believe we can attract new customers, deepen relationships with existing customers, and deliver an enhanced customer experience.
Build excellent capabilities that will allow us to stand out from our competitors: Across our businesses we strive to deliver seamless, multi-channel experiences and allow customers to interact with us when, where and how they want. We are building out enhanced data analytics capabilities to provide timely, insight-driven and tailored advice and continue to add new capabilities that help deliver solutions for our consumer and business customers throughout their lifecycles. We are also focused on expanding our digital capabilities and related strategies in order to satisfy rapidly changing customer preferences.

7

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
BUSINESS

Operate with financial discipline and a mindset of continuous improvement to self-fund investments: We believe that continued focus on operational efficiency is critical to our profitability and the ability to continue to reinvest to drive future growth. We launched the first Tapping our Potential (“TOP”) initiative in late 2014 which was designed to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and competitiveness of the franchise, and we commenced the fifth phase of this initiative in the second half of 2018.
Prudently grow and optimize our balance sheet: We operate with a strong balance sheet with regard to capital, liquidity and funding, coupled with a well-defined and prudent risk appetite. We are prudently growing our balance sheet and we strive to deliver attractive risk-adjusted returns by making good capital and resource allocation decisions through our balance sheet optimization initiatives, being good stewards of our resources, and rigorously evaluating our execution.
Modernize our technology and operational models to improve delivery, agility and speed to market: We are continuing to modernize our technology environment so that we can accelerate our speed-to-market and take advantage of technology opportunities in the marketplace. We are also investing in new technologies and leveraging those technologies to deliver better customer outcomes efficiently in order to deliver on our overall financial objectives. We have also engaged in FinTech partnerships that help deliver differentiated digital experiences for our customers.
Embed risk management within our culture and our operations: We are continuing to strengthen our risk management culture and processes as the quality of our risk management program directly affects our ability to execute our strategy, deliver value to our stakeholders and become a top-performing bank. Moreover, our continuous and disciplined enhancements to our processes and talent, as well as our ongoing investments in risk technology and frameworks, serve to support and bolster our risk management capabilities and our regulatory profile.
Competition
The financial services industry is highly competitive. Our branch footprint is in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions, though certain lines of business serve national markets. Within these markets we face competition from community banks, super-regional and national financial institutions, credit unions, savings and loan associations, mortgage banking firms, consumer finance companies, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market funds, hedge funds and private equity firms. Some of our larger competitors may make available to their customers a broader array of product, pricing and structure alternatives while some smaller competitors may have more liberal lending policies and processes. Competition among providers of financial products and services continues to increase, with consumers having the opportunity to select from a growing variety of traditional and nontraditional alternatives. The ability of non-banking financial institutions, including FinTech companies, to provide services previously limited to commercial banks has also intensified competition.
In Consumer Banking, the industry has become increasingly dependent on and oriented toward technology-driven delivery systems, permitting transactions to be conducted through telephone, online and mobile channels. In addition, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-bank institutions to attract funds and provide lending and other financial services in our footprint, despite not having a physical presence there. The emergence of digital-only banking models has increased and we expect this trend to continue. Given their lower cost structure, these institutions are often able to offer on average higher rates on deposit products than retail banking institutions with a traditional branch footprint. The primary factors driving competition for loans and deposits are interest rates, fees charged, tailored value propositions to different customer segments, customer service levels, convenience, including branch location and hours of operation, and the range of products and services offered.
In Commercial Banking, there is intense competition for quality loan originations from traditional banking institutions, particularly large regional banks, as well as commercial finance companies, leasing companies and other non-bank lenders, and institutional investors including CLO managers, hedge funds and private equity firms. Some larger competitors, including certain national banks that compete in our market area, may offer a broader array of products and, due to their asset size, may sometimes be in a position to hold more exposure on their own balance sheet. We compete on a number of factors including providing innovative corporate finance solutions, quality of customer service and execution, range of products offered, price and reputation.
Regulation and Supervision
Our operations are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination under federal and state laws. These laws and regulations cover all aspects of our business, including lending practices, safeguarding deposits, customer privacy and information security, capital structure, liquidity, conduct and qualifications of personnel and certain transactions with affiliates. These laws and regulations are intended primarily for the protection of depositors,

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the Deposit Insurance Fund and the banking system as a whole and not for the protection of shareholders or other investors. The discussion below outlines the material elements of selected laws and regulations applicable to us and our subsidiaries. Changes in applicable law or regulation, and in their interpretation and application by regulatory agencies and other governmental authorities, cannot be predicted, but may have a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We and our subsidiaries and affiliates are subject to numerous examinations by federal and state banking regulators, as well as the SEC, FINRA and various state insurance and securities regulators. In some cases, regulatory agencies may take supervisory actions that may not be publicly disclosed, and such actions may restrict or limit our activities or activities of our subsidiaries. As part of our regular examination process, our and CBNA’s respective regulators may advise us or CBNA to operate under various restrictions as a prudential matter. We and CBNA have periodically received requests for information from regulatory authorities at the federal and state level, including from state insurance commissions, state attorneys general, federal agencies or law enforcement authorities, securities regulators and other regulatory authorities, concerning their business practices. Such requests are considered incidental to the normal conduct of business. For a further discussion of how regulatory actions may impact our business, see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, included in this Report. For additional information regarding regulatory and supervisory matters, see Note 18 “Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Report.
Overview
We are a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (“Bank Holding Company Act”). We have elected to be treated as a financial holding company under amendments to the Bank Holding Company Act as effected by Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (“GLBA”). As such, we are subject to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Bank Holding Company Act and the regulations of the FRB, including through the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Under the system of “functional regulation” established under the Bank Holding Company Act, the FRB serves as the primary regulator of our consolidated organization, and the SEC serves as the primary regulator of our broker-dealer subsidiaries and directly regulates the activities of those subsidiaries, with the FRB exercising a supervisory role. The Dodd-Frank Act amendments to the Bank Holding Company Act require the FRB to examine the activities of non-depository institution subsidiaries of bank holding companies (that are not functionally regulated) that are engaged in depository institution-permissible activities and provide the FRB with back-up examination and enforcement authority for such activities. The FRB also has the authority to require reports of and examine any subsidiary of a bank holding company.
On July 3, 2018, we received regulatory approval from the OCC to consolidate our two banking subsidiaries via a merger of CBPA into CBNA. We completed this consolidation on January 2, 2019, such that CBNA is now our sole banking subsidiary. CBNA is a national banking association. As such, it is subject to regulation, examination and supervision by the OCC as its primary federal regulator and by the FDIC as the insurer of its deposits.
The federal banking regulators have authority to approve or disapprove mergers, acquisitions, consolidations, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. These banking regulators also have the power to prevent the continuance or development of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law. Federal law governs the activities in which CBNA engages, including the investments it makes and the aggregate amount of loans that it may grant to one borrower. Various consumer and compliance laws and regulations also affect its operations. The actions the FRB takes to implement monetary policy also affect CBNA.
In addition, CBNA is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the CFPB with respect to consumer protection laws and regulations. The CFPB has broad authority to, among other things, regulate the offering and provision of consumer financial products by depository institutions, such as CBNA, with more than $10 billion in total assets. The CFPB may promulgate rules under a variety of consumer financial protection statutes, including the Truth in Lending Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.
Financial Regulatory Reform
The Dodd-Frank Act regulates many aspects of the financial services industry and addresses among other things, systemic risk, capital adequacy, deposit insurance assessments, consumer financial protection, derivatives and securities markets, restrictions on an insured bank’s transactions with its affiliates, lending limits and mortgage-lending practices. Moreover, as a general matter, in recent years, the federal banking regulators (the FRB, the OCC and the FDIC) as well as the CFPB have taken a more stringent approach to supervising and regulating the financial institutions and financial products and services over which the regulators exercise their respective supervisory authorities, including with respect to enforcement matters. CBNA’s and our products and services have been subject

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to greater supervisory scrutiny and enhanced supervisory requirements and expectations in recent years, and we expect this scrutiny to continue for the foreseeable future.
Prior to amendment by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (“EGRRCPA”), which was signed into law on May 24, 2018, Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act directed the FRB to establish enhanced prudential standards applicable to systemically important financial institutions (“SIFIs”), bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. The FRB has adopted final rules implementing three aspects of Section 165: liquidity requirements, stress testing of capital, and overall risk management requirements. The current rules’ liquidity requirements are described below under “—Liquidity Requirements”, and their stress testing requirements are described below under “—Capital Planning and Stress Testing Requirements.” In addition, the resolution planning requirements implemented by the FRB and FDIC are described below under “—Resolution Planning”.
EGRRCPA amended the Dodd-Frank Act by increasing the asset threshold for application of these enhanced prudential standards from $50 billion to $250 billion. EGRRCPA’s increased asset threshold took effect immediately for bank holding companies with total consolidated assets less than $100 billion. The increased asset threshold generally will become effective 18 months after the date of enactment (that is, in November 2019) for bank holding companies with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion, including Citizens. The FRB is authorized, however, during the 18-month period to exempt, by order, any bank holding company with assets between $100 billion and $250 billion from any enhanced prudential standard requirement. The FRB is also authorized to apply any enhanced prudential standard requirement to any bank holding company with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets that would otherwise be exempt under EGRRCPA, if the FRB determines that such action is appropriate to address risks to financial stability and promote safety and soundness, taking into consideration certain factors including the bank holding company’s capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including financial activities of subsidiaries), size, and any other risk-related factors that the FRB deems appropriate. U.S. global systemically important bank holding companies (“G-SIBs”) and bank holding companies with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets remain fully subject to the Dodd-Frank Act’s enhanced prudential standards requirements.
In October 2018, the FRB and the other federal banking regulators proposed rules that would tailor the application of the enhanced prudential standards to bank holding companies and depository institutions to implement the EGRRCPA amendments (“Tailoring NPRs”). The proposed rules would assign each U.S. bank holding company with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets, as well as its bank subsidiaries, to one of four categories based on its size and five risk-based indicators: (i) cross-jurisdictional activity, (ii) weighted short-term wholesale funding, (iii) nonbank assets, (iv) off-balance sheet exposure, and (v) status as a U.S. G-SIB. Under the Tailoring NPRs, “Category IV standards” would apply to banking organizations with at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets that do not meet any of the thresholds specified for Categories I through III. Category I standards would be applicable to U.S. G-SIBs; Category II standards would be applicable to non-G-SIBs with $700 billion or more in total consolidated assets or at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets and $75 billion or more in cross-jurisdictional activity; and Category III standards would be applicable to banking organizations that are not subject to Category I or Category II standards and that have at least $250 billion in total consolidated assets or at least $100 billion in total consolidated assets and $75 billion or more in any of three indicators: (i) nonbank assets, (ii) weighted short-term wholesale funding, or (iii) off-balance sheet exposures.
In connection with the release of the proposed rules, FRB staff indicated which firms would fall into each of the four categories based on data for the second quarter of 2018. According to the FRB staff’s projections, Citizens would be a “Category IV” firm under the proposed rules. Firms subject to Category IV standards would generally be subject to the same capital and liquidity requirements as firms with under $100 billion in total consolidated assets, but would also be required to monitor and report certain risk-based indicators. Accordingly, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms would (i) no longer be subject to any LCR or proposed NSFR requirement, (ii) remain not subject to advanced approaches capital requirements, (iii) remain eligible to opt-out of the requirement to recognize most elements of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in regulatory capital, (iv) remain not subject to the supplementary leverage ratio, (v) remain not subject to the countercyclical capital buffer, (vi) no longer be subject to company-run stress testing requirements and (vii) become subject to supervisory stress testing on a biennial instead of annual basis. We discuss other elements of the proposed rules where relevant below. The Tailoring NPRs are subject to modification through the federal rulemaking process in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act.
The U.S. Basel III rules, summarized briefly in the “—Capital” section below, have impacted our level of capital, and may influence the types of business we may pursue and how we pursue business opportunities. Among other things, the U.S. Basel III rules raised the required minimums for certain capital ratios, added a common equity

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ratio, included capital buffers, and restricted what constitutes capital. The capital and risk weighting requirements became effective for us on January 1, 2015.
Many of the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, EGRRCPA, and other laws are subject to further rulemaking, guidance and interpretation by the applicable federal regulators. The ultimate effects of EGRRCPA and the Tailoring NPRs on Citizens, CBNA and their respective subsidiaries and activities will be subject to the final form of the Tailoring NPRs and additional rulemakings issued by the FRB and other federal regulators. We will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes in law and any new regulations promulgated, including changes in regulatory costs and fees, modifications to consumer products or disclosures required by the CFPB and the requirements of the enhanced supervision provisions, among others.
Financial Holding Company Regulation
The Bank Holding Company Act generally restricts bank holding companies from engaging in business activities other than (i) banking, managing or controlling banks, (ii) furnishing services to or performing services for subsidiaries and (iii) activities that the FRB has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. For so long as they continue to meet the eligibility requirements for financial holding company status, financial holding companies may engage in a broader range of activities, including, among other things, securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking and other activities that are determined by the FRB, in coordination with the Treasury Department, to be “financial in nature or incidental thereto” or that the FRB determines unilaterally to be “complementary” to financial activities. In addition, a financial holding company may conduct permissible new financial activities or acquire permissible non-bank financial companies with after-the-fact notice to the FRB.
As noted above, we currently have elected to be treated as a financial holding company under amendments to the Bank Holding Company Act as effected by GLBA. To maintain financial holding company status, a financial holding company and all of its insured depository institution subsidiaries must remain well capitalized and well managed (as described below under “Federal Deposit Insurance Act”), and maintain a CRA rating of at least “Satisfactory.” If a financial holding company ceases to meet the capital and management requirements, the FRB’s regulations provide that the financial holding company must enter into an agreement with the FRB to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. Until the financial holding company returns to compliance, the FRB may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities, and the company may not commence any of the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or acquire a company engaged in such financial activities without prior approval of the FRB. In addition, the failure to meet such requirements could result in other material restrictions on the activities of the financial holding company, may also adversely affect the financial holding company’s ability to enter into certain transactions, including acquisition transactions, or obtain necessary approvals in connection therewith, and may result in the bank holding company losing financial holding company status. Any restrictions imposed on our activities by the FRB may not necessarily be made known to the public. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, which period may be extended, the FRB may require the financial holding company to divest its subsidiary depository institutions or to discontinue or divest investments in companies engaged in activities permissible only for a bank holding company electing to be treated as a financial holding company. If any insured depository institution subsidiary of a financial holding company fails to maintain a CRA rating of at least “Satisfactory,” the financial holding company would be subject to restrictions on certain new activities and acquisitions. Bank holding companies and banks must also be both well capitalized and well managed in order to acquire banks located outside their home state.
Capital
We must comply with the FRB’s capital adequacy rules, and CBNA must comply with similar capital adequacy rules of the OCC. The capital adequacy rules of both agencies are based on the Basel III framework. For more detail on our regulatory capital, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Capital and Regulatory Matters” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report.
The U.S. Basel III rules, among other things, (i) impose a capital measure called common equity tier 1 capital, or “CET1 capital”, (ii) specify that tier 1 capital consists of CET1 capital and “additional tier 1 capital” instruments meeting certain revised requirements, (iii) define CET1 capital narrowly by requiring that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital, and (iv) expand the scope of the deductions/adjustments to capital as compared to previous regulations. Under the U.S. Basel III rules, the minimum capital ratios are:

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4.5% CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets;
6.0% tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 capital plus additional tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets;
8.0% total capital (that is, tier 1 capital plus tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets; and
4.0% tier 1 capital to total average consolidated assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized
approach (known as the “leverage ratio”).

The U.S. Basel III rules also impose a capital conservation buffer (“CCB”) on top of the three minimum risk-weighted asset ratios listed above. The implementation of the CCB began on January 1, 2016 at 0.625% and increased by 0.625% annually over a three year phase-in period, which ended January 1, 2019. The CCB for 2018 was 1.875%, and increased to its fully phased-in level of 2.5% as of January 1, 2019. Banking institutions that fail to meet the effective minimum ratios once the fully phased-in CCB is taken into account (that is, 7.0% for CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets, 8.5% for tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets and 10.5% for total capital to risk-weighted assets) will be subject to constraints on capital distributions, including dividends and share repurchases, and certain discretionary executive compensation. The severity of the constraints depends on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, four quarter trailing net income, net of distributions and tax effects not reflected in net income). For more details, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Capital and Regulatory Matters” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report. On April 10, 2018, the FRB issued a proposal designed to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of firms’ capital plans with the CCB requirement. Details of this proposal are discussed under “—Capital Planning and Stress Testing Requirements” below. Although the proposal, if adopted, would change the way in which the minimum capital ratios are calculated, firms would continue to be subject to progressively more stringent constraints on capital actions as they approach the minimum ratios.
We are also subject to the FRB's risk-based capital requirements for market risk. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Market Risk — Market Risk Regulatory Capital” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report, for further discussion.
The U.S. Basel III rules also provide for a number of deductions from, and adjustments to, CET1 capital. For example, certain deferred tax assets (“DTAs”), mortgage servicing assets, and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities must be deducted from CET1 capital to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 capital or all such items, in the aggregate, exceed 15% of CET1 capital. The deductions and other adjustments to CET1 capital generally became fully phased-in on January 1, 2018, although, as discussed below, the federal banking regulators have extended the transitional treatment for certain items.
In November 2017, the federal banking regulators issued a final rule that extended the 2017 transition provisions for certain U.S. Basel III capital rules for non-advanced approaches banking organizations, including us. Effective January 1, 2018, the final rule retains the 2017 U.S. Basel III transitional treatment of certain DTAs, mortgage servicing assets, investments in unconsolidated financial institutions and minority interests. As a result, since January 1, 2018, our mortgage servicing assets have retained their 2017 risk weight treatment, which will continue until the federal banking regulators revise the extended transitional treatment under the November 2017 final rule, which may occur in connection with the finalization of the related September 2017 proposal to simplify the capital treatment of certain DTAs, mortgage servicing assets, significant investments in unconsolidated financial institutions and minority interests.
The U.S. Basel III rules prescribe a standardized approach for risk weighting many categories of assets. These categories generally range from 0% for U.S. government and agency securities, to 600% for certain equity exposures, to 1,250% for certain securitization exposures.
With respect to CBNA, the U.S. Basel III rules also revise the “prompt corrective action” regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as discussed below in “Federal Deposit Insurance Act.”
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card and home equity lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2022, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2027. Under the current U.S. Basel III rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to CFG or CBNA. The impact of Basel IV on CFG and CBNA will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the FRB and the OCC.

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Liquidity Requirements
We are currently subject to the Basel III-based U.S. LCR rule, which is a quantitative liquidity metric designed to ensure that a covered bank or bank holding company maintains an adequate level of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets to cover expected net cash outflows over a 30-day time horizon under an acute liquidity stress scenario; however, as noted above, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Citizens, would no longer be subject to any LCR requirement. The LCR rule currently applies in its most comprehensive form only to advanced approaches bank holding companies (that is, those with $250 billion or more in total consolidated assets or $10 billion or more in on-balance sheet foreign exposures) and depository institution subsidiaries of such bank holding companies with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets. The LCR rule, following the threshold amendments under EGRRCPA, currently applies in a modified form to bank holding companies such as the Parent Company that have $100 billion or more but less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets and less than $10 billion in total on-balance sheet foreign exposure. The U.S. version of the LCR differs in certain respects from the Basel Committee’s version; the U.S. version includes a narrower definition of high-quality liquid assets, different prescribed cash inflow and outflow assumptions for certain types of instruments and transactions, and a shorter phase-in schedule that began on January 1, 2015 and is now complete. The modified LCR currently requires us to maintain a ratio of high-quality liquid assets to net cash outflows of 70% (compared to 100% in the comprehensive LCR applicable to advanced approaches bank holding companies). At December 31, 2018, our LCR on the modified basis was above the minimum requirement.
Until the changes to the LCR requirement contained in the Tailoring NPRs are adopted, as a modified LCR company, we are required to calculate our LCR on a monthly basis. If a covered company fails to meet the minimum required LCR, it must promptly notify its primary federal banking regulator and may be required to take remedial actions. In December 2016, the FRB issued a final rule that requires bank holding companies currently subject to the LCR rule to disclose publicly, on a quarterly basis, quantitative and qualitative information about certain components of their LCR. For modified LCR bank holding companies, this disclosure requirement began with the fourth quarter of 2018 and is required to be disclosed by March 1, 2019. We will publish the required information on quantitative and qualitative components of our LCR on our regulatory filings and disclosures page on our Investor Relations website at http://investor.citizensbank.com.
The Basel III framework also includes a second liquidity standard, the NSFR, which is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of banks over a one-year time horizon. In May 2016, the federal banking regulators issued a proposed rule that would implement the NSFR for large U.S. banking organizations, including Citizens; however, as noted above, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, including Citizens, would not be subject to any NSFR requirement. Under the 2016 proposal, the most stringent requirements would apply to advanced approaches bank holding companies, and would have required such organizations to maintain a minimum NSFR of 1.0 on an ongoing basis, calculated by dividing the organization’s available stable funding (“ASF”) by its required stable funding (“RSF”). Bank holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets but that are not advanced approaches bank holding companies, including Citizens, would have been subject to a modified NSFR requirement which would have required such bank holding companies to maintain a minimum NSFR of 0.7 on an ongoing basis. Under the 2016 proposal, a banking organization’s ASF would have been calculated by applying specified standard weightings to its equity and liabilities based on their expected stability over a one-year time horizon and its RSF would be calculated by applying specified standardized weightings to its assets, derivative exposures and commitments based on their liquidity characteristics over the same one-year time horizon.
Finally, per the liquidity rules included in the FRB’s enhanced prudential standards adopted pursuant to Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act (referred to above under “—Financial Regulatory Reform”), we are also required to maintain a buffer of highly liquid assets based on projected funding needs for 30 days. The liquidity buffer is in addition to the federal banking regulators’ LCR rule and is described by the FRB as being “complementary” to the LCR. Under the Tailoring NPRs, the liquidity buffer requirements for Category IV firms, such as Citizens, would not change, and Category IV firms would remain subject to liquidity risk management requirements; however, these requirements would be tailored such that these firms would be required to: (i) calculate collateral positions monthly, as opposed to weekly as is currently required; (ii) establish a more limited set of liquidity risk limits than are currently required; and (iii) monitor fewer elements of intraday liquidity risk exposures than are currently monitored. Category IV firms would also be subject to liquidity stress testing quarterly, rather than monthly, and would be required to report liquidity data on a monthly basis.
     Capital Planning and Stress Testing Requirements
Under the CCAR process, bank holding companies with $100 billion or more in total consolidated assets are required to develop and maintain a capital plan and to submit the plan to the FRB for review. CCAR is designed to

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evaluate a bank holding company’s capital adequacy, capital adequacy process and planned capital distributions, such as dividend payments and common stock repurchases. As part of CCAR, the FRB evaluates whether a bank holding company has sufficient capital to continue operations under various hypothetical scenarios of economic and financial market stress. These scenarios currently include both bank holding company- and FRB-developed scenarios, including an “adverse” and a “severely adverse” stress scenario (although the FRB, on January 8, 2019, proposed amendments that, among other things, would eliminate the adverse scenario). The FRB also evaluates whether the bank holding company has robust, forward-looking capital planning processes that accounts for the bank holding company’s unique risks.
Due to the importance and intensity of the stress tests and the CCAR process, we have dedicated significant resources to comply with stress testing and capital planning requirements and may continue to do so in the future.
Currently, any capital plan submitted to the FRB must cover a “planning horizon” of at least nine quarters beginning with the quarter preceding the submission of the plan (for example, January 1, 2020 for the capital plans required to be filed on or before April 5, 2020). Bank holding companies are also subject to an ongoing requirement to revise and resubmit their capital plans upon the occurrence of certain events specified by rule, or when required by the FRB. The FRB determines whether to object to a company’s capital plan based on whether the plan passes quantitative tests requiring that the company demonstrate that it will continue to meet all minimum capital requirements applicable to it over the nine-quarter planning horizon under all applicable scenarios. The FRB also incorporates an assessment of the qualitative aspects of the firm’s capital planning process into regular, ongoing supervisory activities and through targeted, horizontal assessments of particular aspects of capital planning.     
The FRB’s capital planning and stress testing rules generally make our ability to make quarterly capital distributions in the form of dividends and share repurchases contingent on the FRB’s non-objection to our capital plan, and limit our ability to make quarterly capital distributions if the amount of our actual cumulative quarterly capital issuances of instruments that qualify as regulatory capital are less than we indicated in our submitted capital plan for which we received a non-objection from the FRB.
Should the FRB object to a capital plan, a bank holding company may not make any capital distribution other than those capital distributions to which the FRB has indicated its non-objection in writing. Participating firms are currently required to submit their capital plans and stress testing results to the FRB on or before April 5th of each year in which they are participating, and the FRB will publish the results of its supervisory CCAR review of submitted capital plans by June 30th of each year. In addition, the FRB will separately publish the results of its supervisory stress test under both the supervisory severely adverse and adverse scenarios. The information to be released will include, among other things, the FRB’s projection of company-specific information, including post-stress capital ratios and the minimum value of these ratios over the planning horizon.
On February 5, 2019, the FRB announced that certain less-complex BHCs with less than $250 billion in assets, including Citizens, would not be required to be subject to supervisory stress testing, company-run stress testing, or the CCAR quantitative assessment for the 2019 cycle (although firms could elect to submit a capital plan for the 2019 cycle). The FRB has also announced that, unless Citizens elects to submit a capital plan for the 2019 cycle, for the period from July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020, Citizens may make capital distributions up to the amount that would have allowed Citizens to remain above all minimum capital requirements in CCAR 2018, adjusted for any changes in Citizens’ regulatory capital ratios since the FRB acted on Citizens’ 2018 capital plan. We remain subject to the requirement to develop and maintain an annual capital plan that is reviewed and approved by our Board of Directors (or one of its committees), and we must submit our planned capital actions for the period between July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020 to the FRB by April 5, 2019.
Additionally, under the Tailoring NPRs, Category IV firms, such as Citizens, would no longer be subject to company-run stress testing requirements (i.e., the requirement to stress test using bank holding company-developed and supervisory scenarios), but would remain subject to the quantitative review of their capital plans under CCAR, which the FRB noted that it plans to propose to conduct on a biennial, instead of annual, basis. In connection with the release of the Tailoring NPRs, the FRB noted that it expects to revise its guidance relating to capital planning to align with the proposed categories of standards set forth in the Tailoring NPRs, and the impact of the future proposal on Citizens and its capital planning process will depend on the final form of the FRB’s revised guidance.
Lastly, and as noted above, the FRB’s April 10, 2018 proposal to create a single, integrated capital requirement by combining the quantitative assessment of CCAR with the CCB requirement would, if adopted, replace the current static 2.5% CCB with a stress capital buffer (“SCB”) requirement. The SCB, subject to a minimum of 2.5%, would reflect stressed losses in the supervisory severely adverse scenario of the FRB’s supervisory stress tests and would also include four quarters of planned common stock dividends. The proposal would also introduce a stress leverage buffer (“SLB”) requirement, similar to the SCB, which would apply to the Tier 1 leverage ratio. In addition, the

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proposal would eliminate the quantitative objection provisions of CCAR but would require a bank holding company to reduce its planned capital distributions if those distributions would not be consistent with the applicable capital buffer constraints based on the bank holding company’s own baseline scenario projections. The FRB has stated that it intends to propose revisions to the stress buffer requirements that would be applicable to Category IV bank holding companies to align with the proposed two-year supervisory stress testing cycle for Category IV bank holding companies. As is currently the case, under the proposal, a bank holding company subject to CCAR would generally not be permitted to exceed the capital distributions reflected in its capital plan either on a gross basis or net of capital issuances without prior approval of the FRB.
Resolution Planning
Under Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by EGRRCPA, a bank holding company with total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, such as Citizens, must currently submit a periodic resolution plan to the FRB and FDIC providing for the company’s strategy for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of its material financial distress or failure. We are required to submit our most recent resolution plan to the FRB and FDIC by December 31, 2019. If the FRB and the FDIC jointly determine that our plan is not credible or would not facilitate an orderly resolution under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and we do not cure the deficiencies, the FRB and the FDIC may jointly impose more stringent capital, leverage or liquidity requirements or restrictions on our growth, activities or operations. In connection with the release of the Tailoring NPRs, the FRB noted that it expects to release a proposal to amend, with the FDIC, their joint resolution plan rule to address the applicability of resolution plan requirements for U.S. bank holding companies with between $100 billion and $250 billion in total consolidated assets, including Citizens, and to adjust the scope and applicability of resolution plan requirements for firms that remain subject to them.
The FDIC has separately implemented a resolution planning rule that currently requires insured depository institutions of $50 billion or more in total assets, such as CBNA, to periodically submit a resolution plan. CBNA submitted its most recent resolution plan to the FDIC in July 2018.
Standards for Safety and Soundness
The FDIA requires the FRB, OCC and FDIC to prescribe operational and managerial standards for all insured depository institutions, including CBNA. The agencies have adopted regulations and interagency guidelines which set forth the safety and soundness standards used to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. If an agency determines that a bank fails to satisfy any standard, it may require the bank to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance, consistent with deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans. If, after being notified to submit a compliance plan, an institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan or fails in any material respect to implement an acceptable compliance plan, the agency must issue an order directing action to correct the deficiency and may issue an order directing other actions of the types to which an undercapitalized institution is subject under the FDIA. See “Federal Deposit Insurance Act” below. If an institution fails to comply with such an order, the agency may seek to enforce such order in judicial proceedings and to impose civil money penalties.
Federal Deposit Insurance Act
The FDIA requires, among other things, that the federal banking regulators take “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements, as described above in “Capital.” The FDIA sets forth the following five capital categories: “well-capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital category depends upon how its capital levels compare with various relevant capital measures and certain other factors that are established by regulation. The federal banking regulators must take certain mandatory supervisory actions, and are authorized to take other discretionary actions, with respect to institutions that are undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized, with the actions becoming more restrictive and punitive the lower the institution’s capital category. Under existing rules, an institution that is not an advanced approaches institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has (i) a CET1 ratio of at least 6.5%, (ii) a tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8%, (iii) a total capital ratio of at least 10%, and (iv) a tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%.
The FDIA’s prompt corrective action provisions only apply to depository institutions and not to bank holding companies. The FRB’s regulations applicable to bank holding companies separately define “well capitalized” for bank holding companies to require maintaining a tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6% and a total capital ratio of at least 10%. As described above under “—Financial Holding Company Regulation”, a financial holding company that is not well-capitalized and well-managed (or whose bank subsidiaries are not well capitalized and well managed) under

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applicable prompt corrective action standards may be restricted in certain of its activities and ultimately may lose financial holding company status. As of December 31, 2018, the Parent Company and CBNA were well-capitalized.
The FDIA prohibits insured banks from accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than the prevailing rate in the bank’s normal market area or nationally (depending upon where the deposits are solicited), unless it is “well-capitalized,” or it is “adequately capitalized” and receives a waiver from the FDIC. A bank that is “adequately capitalized” and that accepts brokered deposits under a waiver from the FDIC may not pay an interest rate on any deposit in excess of 75 basis points over certain prevailing market rates. The FDIA imposes no such restrictions on a bank that is “well-capitalized.”
Deposit Insurance
The FDIA requires CBNA to pay deposit insurance assessments. FDIC assessment rates for large institutions are calculated based on one of two scorecards, one for most large institutions that have more than $10 billion in assets and another for “highly complex” institutions that have over $50 billion in assets and are fully owned by a parent with over $500 billion in assets. Each scorecard has a performance score and a loss-severity score that are combined to produce a total score, which is translated into an initial assessment rate. In calculating these scores, the FDIC utilizes the CAMELS ratings and forward-looking financial measures to assess an institution’s ability to withstand asset-related stress and funding-related stress. The FDIC has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score, up or down, based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the scorecard. The total score is then translated to an initial base assessment rate on a non-linear, sharply-increasing scale. Since July 1, 2016, for large institutions the initial base assessment rate has ranged from 3 to 30 basis points on an annualized basis. After the effect of potential base-rate adjustments, the total base assessment rate could range from 1.5 to 40 basis points on an annualized basis.
The deposit insurance assessment is calculated based on average consolidated total assets less average tangible equity of the insured depository institution during the assessment period. Deposit insurance assessments are also affected by the minimum reserve ratio with respect to the Deposit Insurance Fund (“DIF”). In March 2016, the FDIC issued a final rule that imposed on insured depository institutions with at least $10 billion in assets, including CBNA, a surcharge of 4.5 basis points per annum that continued through September 30, 2018, when the reserve ratio of the DIF reached 1.36%, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%; therefore, the surcharge no longer applies.
Dividends
Various federal statutory provisions and regulations, as well as regulatory expectations, limit the amount of dividends that we and our subsidiaries may pay.
Our payment of dividends to our stockholders is subject to the oversight of the FRB. In particular, the FRB reviews the dividend policies and share repurchases of a large bank holding company based on capital plans submitted as part of the CCAR process and on the results of stress tests, as discussed above. The FRB assesses dividend policies and share repurchases against, among other things, the bank holding company’s ability to achieve the required capital ratios under the Basel III-based U.S. revised capital rules. In addition to other limitations, our ability to make any capital distributions (including dividends and share repurchases) is contingent on the FRB’s non-objection to such planned distributions included in our submitted capital plan or the FRB’s authorization to make distributions if we are exempt from the requirement to submit a capital plan. See “—Capital” and “—Capital Planning and Stress Testing Requirements” above.
Dividends payable by CBNA, as a national bank subsidiary, are limited to the lesser of the amount calculated under a “recent earnings” test and an “undivided profits” test. Under the recent earnings test, a dividend may not be paid if the total of all dividends declared by a bank in any calendar year is in excess of the current year’s net income combined with the retained net income of the two preceding years, less any required transfers to surplus, unless the national bank obtains the approval of the OCC. Under the undivided profits test, a dividend may not be paid in excess of the entity’s “undivided profits” (generally, accumulated net profits that have not been paid out as dividends or transferred to surplus). Federal bank regulatory agencies have issued policy statements which provide that FDIC-insured depository institutions and their holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of their current operating earnings.

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Support of Subsidiary Bank
Under Section 616 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which codifies the FRB’s long-standing “source of strength” doctrine, we must serve as a source of financial and managerial strength for our depository institution subsidiary. The statute defines “source of financial strength” as the ability to provide financial assistance in the event of the financial distress at the insured depository institution. The FRB may require that we provide such support at times even when we may not have the financial resources to do so, or when doing so may not serve our interests or those of our shareholders or creditors. In addition, any capital loans by a bank holding company to its subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the bank holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and related FRB rules, including Regulation W, restrict CBNA from extending credit to, or engaging in certain other transactions with, us and our non-bank subsidiaries. These restrictions place limits on certain specified “covered transactions” between bank subsidiaries and their affiliates, which must be limited to 10% of a bank’s capital and surplus for any one affiliate and 20% for all affiliates. Furthermore, within the foregoing limitations as to amount, certain covered transactions must meet specified collateral requirements ranging from 100% to 130%. Covered transactions are defined to include, among other things, a loan or extension of credit, as well as a purchase of securities issued by an affiliate, a purchase of assets (unless otherwise exempted by the FRB) from the affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by the affiliate as collateral for a loan, derivatives transactions and securities lending transactions where the bank has credit exposure to an affiliate, and the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate. All covered transactions, including certain additional transactions (such as transactions with a third party in which an affiliate has a financial interest), must be conducted on market terms. The Dodd-Frank Act significantly enhanced and expanded the scope and coverage of these limitations, in particular, by including within its scope derivative transactions by and between CBNA or its subsidiaries and the Parent Company or its other subsidiaries. The FRB enforces these restrictions and we are audited for compliance.
Section 23B prohibits an institution from engaging in certain transactions with affiliates unless the transactions are on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliated companies. Except for limitations on low-quality asset purchases and transactions that are deemed to be unsafe or unsound, Regulation W generally excludes affiliated depository institutions from treatment as affiliates. Transactions between a bank and any of its subsidiaries that are engaged in certain financial activities may be subject to the affiliated transaction limits. The FRB also may designate banking subsidiaries as affiliates.
Pursuant to FRB Regulation O, we are also subject to quantitative restrictions on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, principal stockholders and their related interests. In general, such extensions of credit (i) may not exceed certain dollar limitations, (ii) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties and (iii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Certain extensions of credit also require the approval of our Board.
Volcker Rule
The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in, sponsoring and having certain relationships with private funds such as hedge funds or private equity funds that would be an investment company for purposes of the Investment Company Act of 1940 but for the exclusions in sections 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of that act, both subject to certain limited exceptions. The statutory provision is commonly called the “Volcker Rule.” The regulations implementing the Volcker Rule, jointly issued by the FRB, OCC, FDIC, the SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), require that large bank holding companies design and implement compliance programs to ensure adherence to the Volcker Rule’s prohibitions. Maintenance and monitoring of the required compliance program requires the expenditure of resources and management attention. In July 2018, the FRB, OCC, FDIC, CFTC and SEC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to tailor the application of the Volcker Rule based on the size and scope of a banking entity’s trading activities and to clarify and amend certain definitions, requirements and exemptions. The ultimate impact of any amendments to the Volcker Rule will depend on, among other things, further rulemaking and implementation guidance from the relevant U.S. federal regulatory agencies and the development of market practices and standards.

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Consumer Financial Protection Regulations
The retail activities of banks are subject to a variety of statutes and regulations designed to protect consumers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include, but are not limited to, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Service Members Civil Relief Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, and their respective federal regulations and state law counterparts.
In addition to these federal laws and regulations, the guidance and interpretations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing such regulations also influences loan and deposit operations.
The CFPB has broad rulemaking, supervisory, examination and enforcement authority over various consumer financial protection laws, including the laws referenced above, fair lending laws and certain other statutes. The CFPB also has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, including the authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products.
The Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt stricter consumer protection laws and standards that are more stringent than those adopted at the federal level and in certain circumstances, permits state attorneys general to enforce compliance with both the state and federal laws and regulations. State regulation of financial products and potential enforcement actions could also adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The CFPB implemented a number of significant rules which will impact nearly every aspect of the life cycle of a residential mortgage. The final rules require banks to, among other things: (i) develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with a new “ability to repay” standard and identify whether a loan meets a new definition for a “qualified mortgage;” (ii) implement new or revised disclosures, policies and procedures for servicing mortgages including, but not limited to, early intervention with delinquent borrowers and specific loss mitigation procedures for loans secured by a borrower’s principal residence; (iii) comply with additional restrictions on mortgage loan originator hiring and compensation; (iv) comply with new disclosure requirements and standards for appraisals and certain financial products; and (v) maintain escrow accounts for “higher priced mortgage loans” for a longer period of time.
Protection of Customer Personal Information and Cybersecurity
The privacy provisions of GLBA generally prohibit financial institutions, including us, from disclosing nonpublic personal financial information of consumer customers to third parties for certain purposes (primarily marketing) unless customers have the opportunity to opt out of the disclosure. The Fair Credit Reporting Act restricts information sharing among affiliates for marketing purposes. Both the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V, issued by the FRB, govern the use and provision of information to consumer reporting agencies.
In March 2015, federal regulators issued two related statements regarding cybersecurity. One statement indicates that financial institutions should design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and to ensure that their risk management processes also address the risk posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to reliably authenticate customers’ accessing internet-based services of the financial institution. The other statement indicates that a financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure the rapid recovery, resumption and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack involving destructive malware. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations and address rebuilding network capabilities and restoring data if the institution or its critical service providers fall victim to this type of cyber-attack. If we fail to observe the regulatory guidance, we could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties. For a further discussion of risks related to cybersecurity, see “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, of this Report.
In October 2016, federal regulators jointly issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cyber risk management standards that are intended to increase the operational resilience of large and interconnected entities under their supervision. Once established, the enhanced cyber risk management standards would help to reduce the potential impact of a cyber-attack or other cyber-related failure on the financial system. The advance notice of proposed rulemaking addresses five categories of cyber standards: (i) cyber risk governance; (ii) cyber risk management; (iii) internal dependency management; (iv) external dependency management; and (v) incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness. We will continue to monitor any developments related to this proposed rulemaking.

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State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity to continue, and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which we operate.
Community Reinvestment Act Requirements
The CRA requires banking regulators to evaluate us and CBNA in meeting the credit needs of our local communities, including providing credit to individuals residing in low- and moderate- income neighborhoods. The CRA requires each appropriate federal bank regulatory agency, in connection with its examination of a depository institution, to assess such institution’s record in assessing and meeting the credit needs of the community served by that institution and assign ratings. The regulatory agency’s assessment of the institution’s record is made available to the public. These evaluations are also considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or facility and, in the case of a bank holding company that has elected financial holding company status, a CRA rating of at least “satisfactory” is required to commence certain new financial activities or to acquire a company engaged in such activities. We received a rating of “outstanding” in our most recent CRA evaluation.
In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued a memorandum to the Federal banking regulators with recommended changes to the CRA’s implementing regulations to reduce their complexity and associated burden on banks, and in August 2018, the OCC published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking soliciting “ideas for building a new framework to transform or modernize the regulations that implement the Community Reinvestment Act,” without proposing any specific revisions to present CRA requirements. We will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA.
Compensation
Our compensation practices are subject to oversight by the FRB and the OCC. The federal banking regulators have issued guidance designed to ensure that incentive compensation arrangements at banking organizations take into account risk and are consistent with safe and sound practices. The guidance sets forth the following three key principles with respect to incentive compensation arrangements: (i) the arrangements should provide employees with incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk; (ii) the arrangements should be compatible with effective controls and risk management; and (iii) the arrangements should be supported by strong corporate governance. The guidance provides that supervisory findings with respect to incentive compensation will be incorporated, as appropriate, into the organization’s supervisory ratings.
The U.S. financial regulators, including the FRB, the OCC and the SEC, jointly proposed regulations in 2011 and again in 2016 to implement the incentive compensation requirements of Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act. These regulations, among other things, prohibit incentive-based compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risk taking at specified regulated entities having at least $1 billion in total assets (including the Parent Company and CBNA). These regulations have not been finalized and the timing of final adoption and the form of any final regulations is uncertain. If the rules are adopted in the form proposed, they may restrict our flexibility with respect to the manner in which we structure compensation and adversely affect our ability to compete for talent.
Anti-Money Laundering
The USA PATRIOT Act, enacted in 2001 and renewed in 2006, substantially broadened the scope of U.S. anti-money laundering laws and regulations by imposing significant new compliance and due diligence obligations, creating new crimes and penalties and expanding the extra-territorial jurisdiction of the United States. Institutions must maintain anti-money laundering programs that include established internal policies, procedures and controls; a designated compliance officer; an ongoing employee training program; and testing of the program by an independent audit function. We are prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must meet enhanced standards for due diligence in dealings with foreign financial institutions and foreign customers. We also must take reasonable steps to conduct enhanced scrutiny of account relationships to guard against money laundering and to report any suspicious transactions. Recent laws provide law enforcement authorities with increased access to financial information maintained by banks.

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The USA PATRIOT Act also provides for the facilitation of information sharing among governmental entities and financial institutions for the purpose of combating terrorism and money laundering. The statute also creates enhanced information collection tools and enforcement mechanics for the U.S. government, including: (i) requiring standards for verifying customer identification at account opening; (ii) promulgating rules to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering; (iii) requiring reports by non-financial trades and businesses filed with the Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) for transactions exceeding $10,000; and (iv) mandating the filing of suspicious activities reports if a bank believes a customer may be violating U.S. laws and regulations. The statute also requires enhanced due diligence requirements for financial institutions that administer, maintain or manage private bank accounts or correspondent accounts for non-U.S. persons. Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations and are required to consider compliance in connection with the regulatory review of applications.
FinCEN drafts regulations implementing the USA PATRIOT Act and other anti-money laundering and Bank Secrecy Act legislation. In May 2018, a FinCEN rule became effective which requires financial institutions to obtain beneficial ownership information with respect to legal entities with which such institutions conduct business, subject to certain exclusions and exemptions. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on anti-money laundering compliance, and we continue to monitor and augment, where necessary, our anti-money laundering compliance programs.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. has imposed economic sanctions that affect transactions with designated foreign countries, nationals and others. These are typically known as the “OFAC” rules based on their administration by the U.S. Treasury Department Office of Foreign Assets Control. The OFAC-administered sanctions targeting countries take many different forms. Generally, however, they contain one or more of the following elements: (i) restrictions on trade with or investment in a sanctioned country, including prohibitions against direct or indirect imports from and exports to a sanctioned country and prohibitions on U.S. persons engaging in financial transactions relating to, making investments in, or providing investment-related advice or assistance to, a sanctioned country; and (ii) a blocking of assets in which the government or specially designated nationals of the sanctioned country have an interest, by prohibiting transfers of property subject to U.S. jurisdiction (including property in the possession or control of U.S. persons). Blocked assets (e.g., property and bank deposits) cannot be paid out, withdrawn, set off or transferred in any manner without a license from OFAC. OFAC publishes, and routinely updates, lists of names of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts, including the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. We are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. If we find a name on any transaction, account or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list, we must freeze such account, file a suspicious activity report and notify the appropriate authorities. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious legal and reputational consequences.
Regulation of Broker-Dealers
Our subsidiary CCMI is a registered broker-dealer with the SEC and, as a result, is subject to regulation and examination by the SEC as well as FINRA and other self-regulatory organizations. These regulations cover a broad range of issues, including capital requirements; sales and trading practices; use of client funds and securities; the conduct of directors, officers and employees; record-keeping and recording; supervisory procedures to prevent improper trading on material non-public information; qualification and licensing of sales personnel; and limitations on the extension of credit in securities transactions. In addition to federal registration, state securities commissions require the registration of certain broker-dealers.
     Heightened Risk Governance Standards
CBNA is subject to OCC guidelines imposing heightened risk governance standards on large national banks with average total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. The guidelines set forth minimum standards for the design and implementation of a bank’s risk governance framework, and minimum standards for oversight of that framework by a bank’s board of directors. The guidelines are intended to protect the safety and soundness of covered banks and improve bank examiners’ ability to assess compliance with the OCC’s expectations. Under the guidelines, a bank may use its parent company’s risk governance framework if the framework meets the minimum standards, the risk profiles of the parent company and the covered bank are substantially the same, and certain other conditions are met. CBNA has elected to use the Parent Company’s risk governance framework. A bank’s board of directors is required to have two members who are independent of the bank and parent company management. A bank’s board

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of directors is responsible for ensuring that the risk governance framework meets the standards in the guidelines, providing active oversight and a credible challenge to management’s recommendations and decisions and ensuring that the parent company decisions do not jeopardize the safety and soundness of the bank.
Anti-Tying Restrictions
Generally, a bank may not extend credit, lease, sell property or furnish any services or fix or vary the consideration for them on the condition that (i) the customer obtain or provide some additional credit, property or services from or to that bank or its bank holding company or their subsidiaries or (ii) the customer not obtain some other credit, property or services from a competitor, except to the extent reasonable conditions are imposed to assure the soundness of the credit extended. A bank may however, offer combined-balance products and may otherwise offer more favorable terms if a customer obtains two or more traditional bank products. Certain foreign transactions are exempt from the general rule.
Commercial Real Estate Lending
Lending operations that involve concentrations of commercial real estate loans are subject to enhanced scrutiny by federal banking regulators. Regulators have advised financial institutions of the risks posed by commercial real estate lending concentrations. Such loans generally include land development, construction loans and loans secured by multifamily property and nonfarm, nonresidential real property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property. The relevant regulatory guidance prescribes the following guidelines for examiners to help identify institutions that are potentially exposed to concentration risk and may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny:
Total reported loans for construction, land development and other land represent 100% or more of the institution’s total capital, or
Total commercial real estate loans represent 300% or more of the institution’s total capital, and the outstanding balance of the institution’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased by 50% or more during the prior 36 months.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act contains provisions that may cause us to reduce the amount of our commercial real estate lending and increase the cost of borrowing, including rules relating to risk retention of securitized assets. Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act and implementing rules adopted by the U.S. financial services regulators, including the federal banking regulators and the SEC, require, among other things, a loan originator or a securitizer of asset-backed securities to retain a percentage of the credit risk of securitized assets. We continue to analyze the impact that such rules have on our business.
 Intellectual Property
In the highly competitive banking industry in which we operate, trademarks, service marks, trade names and logos are important to the success of our business. We own and license a variety of trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos and pending registrations and are spending significant resources to develop our stand-alone brands.
 Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 18,100 full-time equivalent employees, including approximately 17,800 full-time colleagues, 100 part-time colleagues and 200 temporary employees. None of our employees are parties to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good and have not experienced interruptions of operations due to labor disagreements.

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RISK FACTORS


ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
We are subject to a number of risks potentially impacting our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. As we are a financial services organization, certain elements of risk are inherent in our transactions and operations and are present in the business decisions we make. We, therefore, encounter risk as part of the normal course of our business and we design risk management processes to help manage these risks. Our success is dependent on our ability to identify, understand and manage the risks presented by our business activities so that we can appropriately balance revenue generation and profitability. These risks include, but are not limited to, credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, model risk, technology, regulatory and legal risk and strategic and reputational risk. We discuss our principal risk management processes and, in appropriate places, related historical performance in the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Risk Governance” section in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report.
You should carefully consider the following risk factors that may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Other factors that could affect our business, financial condition and results of operation are discussed in the “Forward-Looking Statements” section above. However, there may be additional risks that are not presently material or known, and factors besides those discussed below, or in this or other reports that we file or furnish with the SEC, that could also adversely affect us.
Risks Related to Our Business
We may not be able to successfully execute our business strategy.
Our business strategy is designed to maximize the full potential of our business and drive sustainable growth and enhanced profitability, and our success rests on our ability to: (i) maintain a high-performing, customer-centric organization; (ii) develop differentiated value propositions to acquire, deepen, and retain core customer segments; (iii) build excellent capabilities that will allow us to stand out from our competitors; (iv) operate with financial discipline and a mindset of continuous improvement to self-fund investments; (v) prudently grow and optimize our balance sheet; (vi) modernize our technology and operational models to improve delivery, agility and speed to market; and (vii) embed risk management within our culture and our operations. Our future success and the value of our stock will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively implement our business strategy. There are risks and uncertainties, many of which are not within our control, associated with each element of our strategy. If we are not able to successfully execute our business strategy, we may never achieve our financial performance goals and any shortfall may be material. See “Business Strategy” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, included in this Report for further information.
Supervisory requirements and expectations on us as a financial holding company and a bank holding company and any regulator-imposed limits on our activities could adversely affect our ability to implement our strategic plan, expand our business, continue to improve our financial performance and make capital distributions to our stockholders.
In recent years, the federal banking agencies (the FRB, the OCC and the FDIC), as well as the CFPB have generally taken a more stringent approach to supervising and regulating financial institutions and financial products and services over which they exercise their respective supervisory authorities. This increased supervisory stringency is a result of and in addition to legislation aimed at regulatory reform, such as the Dodd-Frank Act, and the increased capital and liquidity requirements imposed by the U.S. implementation of the Basel III framework. We and CBNA and our products and services are all subject to greater supervisory scrutiny and enhanced supervisory requirements and expectations. We expect to continue to face this heightened level of supervisory scrutiny and enhanced supervisory requirements in the foreseeable future.
In addition, as part of the supervisory and examination process, if we are unsuccessful in meeting the supervisory requirements and expectations that apply to us and CBNA, regulatory agencies may from time to time take supervisory actions against us that may not be publicly disclosed. Such actions may include restrictions on our activities or the activities of our subsidiaries, informal (nonpublic) or formal (public) supervisory actions or public enforcement actions, including the payment of civil money penalties, which could increase our costs and limit our ability to implement our strategic plans and expand our business, and as a result could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.


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Changes in interest rates may have an adverse effect on our profitability.
Net interest income historically has been, and in the near-to-medium term we anticipate that it will remain, a significant component of our total revenue. This is due to the fact that a high percentage of our assets and liabilities have been and will likely continue to be in the form of interest-bearing or interest-related instruments. Changes in interest rates can have a material effect on many areas of our business, including net interest income, deposit costs, loan volume and delinquency, and the value of our mortgage servicing rights. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Federal Open Market Committee. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the amount of interest we pay on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits and the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities. If the interest rates on our interest-bearing liabilities increase at a faster pace than the interest rates on our interest earning assets, our net interest income may decline and, with it, a decline in our earnings may occur. Our net interest income and our earnings would be similarly affected if the interest rates on our interest earning assets declined at a faster pace than the interest rates on our interest-bearing liabilities.
We cannot control or predict with certainty changes in interest rates. Global, national, regional and local economic conditions, competitive pressures and the policies of regulatory authorities, including monetary policies of the FRB, affect interest income and interest expense. Although we have policies and procedures designed to manage the risks associated with changes in market interest rates, as further discussed under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Risk Governance” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report, changes in interest rates still may have an adverse effect on our profitability.
If our ongoing assumptions regarding borrower or depositor behavior are wrong or overall economic conditions are significantly different than we anticipate, then our risk mitigation may be insufficient to protect against interest rate risk and our net income would be adversely affected.
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR and other benchmark rates are calculated and their potential discontinuance could adversely impact our business operations and financial results.
Our floating-rate funding, certain hedging transactions and certain of the products that we offer, such as floating-rate loans, financing transactions and derivatives in connection with our customer accommodation trading activities, determine the applicable interest rate or payment amount by reference to a benchmark rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), or to another financial metric. In the event any such benchmark rate or other referenced financial metric is significantly changed, replaced or discontinued, or ceases to be recognized as an acceptable market benchmark rate or financial metric, there may be uncertainty or differences in the calculation of the applicable interest rate or payment amount depending on the terms of the governing instrument, and there may be significant work required to transition to any new benchmark rate or other financial metric.
In response to concerns regarding the reliability and robustness of commonly used reference rates, in particular LIBOR, the Financial Stability Oversight Council and Financial Stability Board called for the development of alternative interest rate benchmarks. In 2014, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York convened the Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) in order to identify best practices for alternative reference rates, identify best practices for contract robustness, develop an adoption plan, and create an implementation plan with metrics of success and a timeline. In June 2017, the ARRC identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as its recommended alternative to U.S. dollar LIBOR for use in certain new U.S. dollar derivatives and other financial instruments. Furthermore, in July 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) announced that the FCA intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021.

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Despite progress made to date by regulators and industry participants to prepare for the anticipated discontinuation of LIBOR, significant uncertainties still remain. Such uncertainties relate to, for example, whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark rate, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, whether different benchmark rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR for different types of transactions and financial instruments, how the terms of any transaction or financial instrument will be adjusted to account for differences between LIBOR and any alternative rate selected (for example, if SOFR is used as an alternative, various adjustments, including a credit spread adjustment, may be necessary to reflect that SOFR is a secured overnight rate and LIBOR is a term unsecured rate), how any replacement would be implemented across the industry, and the effect of any changes in industry views or movement to alternative benchmarks would have on the markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.
The discontinuation of a benchmark rate or other financial metric, changes in a benchmark rate or other financial metric, or changes in market perceptions of the acceptability of a benchmark rate or other financial metric, including LIBOR, could, among other things, adversely affect the value of and return on certain of our financial instruments or products, result in changes to our risk exposures, or require renegotiation of previous transactions. In addition, any such discontinuation or changes, whether actual or anticipated, could result in market volatility, adverse tax or accounting effects, increased compliance, legal and operational costs, and risks associated with customer disclosures and contract negotiations.
We could fail to attract, retain or motivate highly skilled and qualified personnel, including our senior management, other key employees or members of our Board, which could impair our ability to successfully execute our strategic plan and otherwise adversely affect our business.
A cornerstone of our strategic plan involves the hiring of highly skilled and qualified personnel. Accordingly, our ability to implement our strategic plan and our future success depends on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled and qualified personnel, including our senior management and other key employees and directors, competitive with our peers. The marketplace for skilled personnel is becoming more competitive, which means the cost of hiring, incentivizing and retaining skilled personnel may continue to increase. The failure to attract or retain, including as a result of an untimely death or illness of key personnel, or replace a sufficient number of appropriately skilled and key personnel could place us at a significant competitive disadvantage and prevent us from successfully implementing our strategy, which could impair our ability to implement our strategic plan successfully, achieve our performance targets and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Limitations on the manner in which regulated financial institutions, such as Citizens, can compensate their officers and employees, including those contained in pending rule proposals implementing requirements of Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act, may make it more difficult for such institutions to compete for talent with financial institutions and other companies not subject to these or similar limitations. If Citizens is unable to compete effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected, perhaps materially.
Our ability to meet our obligations, and the cost of funds to do so, depend on our ability to access identified sources of liquidity at a reasonable cost.
Liquidity risk is the risk that we will not be able to meet our obligations, including funding commitments, as they come due. This risk is inherent in our operations and can be heightened by a number of factors, including an over-reliance on a particular source of funding (including, for example, secured FHLB advances), changes in credit ratings or market-wide phenomena such as market dislocation and major disasters. Like many banking groups, our reliance on customer deposits to meet a considerable portion of our funding has grown over recent years, and we continue to seek to increase the proportion of our funding represented by customer deposits. However, these deposits are subject to fluctuation due to certain factors outside our control, such as increasing competitive pressures for retail or corporate customer deposits, changes in interest rates and returns on other investment classes, or a loss of confidence by customers in us or in the banking sector generally which could result in a significant outflow of deposits within a short period of time. To the extent there is heightened competition among U.S. banks for retail customer deposits, this competition may increase the cost of procuring new deposits and/or retaining existing deposits, and otherwise negatively affect our ability to grow our deposit base. An inability to grow, or any material decrease in, our deposits could have a material adverse effect on our ability to satisfy our liquidity needs.
Maintaining a diverse and appropriate funding strategy for our assets consistent with our wider strategic risk appetite and plan remains challenging, and any tightening of credit markets could have a material adverse

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impact on us. In particular, there is a risk that corporate and financial institution counterparties may seek to reduce their credit exposures to banks and other financial institutions (for example, reductions in unsecured deposits supplied by these counterparties), which may cause funding from these sources to no longer be available. Under these circumstances, we may need to seek funds from alternative sources, potentially at higher costs than has previously been the case, or may be required to consider disposals of other assets not previously identified for disposal, in order to reduce our funding commitments.
A reduction in our credit ratings, which are based on a number of factors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Credit ratings affect the cost and other terms upon which we are able to obtain funding. Rating agencies regularly evaluate us, and their ratings are based on a number of factors, including our financial strength. Other factors considered by rating agencies include conditions affecting the financial services industry generally. Any downgrade in our ratings would likely increase our borrowing costs, could limit our access to capital markets, and otherwise adversely affect our business. For example, a ratings downgrade could adversely affect our ability to sell or market certain of our securities, including long-term debt, engage in certain longer-term derivatives transactions and retain our customers, particularly corporate customers who may require a minimum rating threshold in order to place funds with us. In addition, under the terms of certain of our derivatives contracts, we may be required to maintain a minimum credit rating or have to post additional collateral or terminate such contracts. Any of these results of a rating downgrade could increase our cost of funding, reduce our liquidity and have adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial performance may be adversely affected by deterioration in borrower credit quality, particularly in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions, where our operations are concentrated.
We have exposure to many different industries and risks arising from actual or perceived changes in credit quality and uncertainty over the recoverability of amounts due from borrowers is inherent in our businesses. Our exposure may be exacerbated by the geographic concentration of our operations, which are predominately located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions. The credit quality of our borrowers may deteriorate for a number of reasons that are outside our control, including as a result of prevailing economic and market conditions and asset valuation. The trends and risks affecting borrower credit quality, particularly in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions, have caused, and in the future may cause, us to experience impairment charges, increased repurchase demands, higher costs, additional write-downs and losses and an inability to engage in routine funding transactions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our framework for managing risks may not be effective in mitigating risk and loss.
Our risk management framework is made up of various processes and strategies to manage our risk exposure. The framework to manage risk, including the framework’s underlying assumptions, may not be effective under all conditions and circumstances. If the risk management framework proves ineffective, we could suffer unexpected losses and could be materially adversely affected.
One of the main types of risks inherent in our business is credit risk. An important feature of our credit risk management system is to employ an internal credit risk control system through which we identify, measure, monitor and mitigate existing and emerging credit risk of our customers. As this process involves detailed analyses of the customer or credit risk, taking into account both quantitative and qualitative factors, it is subject to human error. In exercising their judgment, our employees may not always be able to assign an accurate credit rating to a customer or credit risk, which may result in our exposure to higher credit risks than indicated by our risk rating system.
In addition, we have undertaken certain actions to enhance our credit policies and guidelines to address potential risks associated with particular industries or types of customers, as discussed in more detail under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Risk Governance” and “— Market Risk” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report. However, we may not be able to effectively implement these initiatives, or consistently follow and refine our credit risk management system. If any of the foregoing were to occur, it may result in an increase in the level of nonperforming loans and a higher risk exposure for us, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

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Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results and condition.
From time to time, the FASB and SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can be operationally complex to implement and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. For example, in June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), that will, effective January 1, 2020, substantially change the accounting for credit losses on loans and other financial assets held by banks, financial institutions and other organizations. The standard replaces existing incurred loss impairment guidance and establishes a single allowance framework for financial assets carried at amortized cost. Upon adoption of ASU 2016-13, companies must recognize credit losses on these assets equal to management’s estimate of credit losses over the full remaining expected life. Companies must consider all relevant information when estimating expected credit losses, including details about past events, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. In December 2018, the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC released a final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to address this upcoming change to the treatment of credit expense and allowances. The final rule provides an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects upon adopting the standard. The impact of this final rule on Citizens and CBNA will depend on whether we elect to phase in the impact of the standard over a three-year period. The standard is likely to have a negative impact, potentially materially, to the allowance and capital at adoption in 2020; however, Citizens is still evaluating the impact. It is also possible that Citizens’ ongoing reported earnings and lending activity will be negatively impacted in periods following adoption.
Our financial and accounting estimates and risk management framework rely on analytical forecasting and models.
The processes we use to estimate our inherent loan losses and to measure the fair value of financial instruments, as well as the processes used to estimate the effects of changing interest rates and other market measures on our financial condition and results of operations, depends upon the use of analytical and forecasting models. Some of our tools and metrics for managing risk are based upon our use of observed historical market behavior. We rely on quantitative models to measure risks and to estimate certain financial values. Models may be used in such processes as determining the pricing of various products, grading loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, predicting losses, assessing capital adequacy and calculating regulatory capital levels, as well as estimating the value of financial instruments and balance sheet items. Poorly designed or implemented models present the risk that our business decisions based on information incorporating such models will be adversely affected due to the inadequacy of that information. Moreover, our models may fail to predict future risk exposures if the information used in the model is incorrect, obsolete or not sufficiently comparable to actual events as they occur. We seek to incorporate appropriate historical data in our models, but the range of market values and behaviors reflected in any period of historical data is not at all times predictive of future developments in any particular period and the period of data we incorporate into our models may turn out to be inappropriate for the future period being modeled. In such case, our ability to manage risk would be limited and our risk exposure and losses could be significantly greater than our models indicated. In addition, if existing or potential customers believe our risk management is inadequate, they could take their business elsewhere. This could harm our reputation as well as our revenues and profits. Finally, information we provide to our regulators based on poorly designed or implemented models could also be inaccurate or misleading. Some of the decisions that our regulators make, including those related to capital distributions to our stockholders, could be affected adversely due to their perception that the quality of the models used to generate the relevant information is insufficient.
The preparation of our financial statements requires the use of estimates that may vary from actual results. Particularly, various factors may cause our ALLL to increase.
The preparation of audited Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make significant estimates that affect the financial statements. Our most critical accounting estimate is the ALLL. The ALLL is a reserve established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged to expense and represents our estimate of incurred but unrealized losses within the existing portfolio of loans. The ALLL is necessary to reserve for estimated loan and lease losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio. The level of the ALLL reflects our ongoing evaluation of industry concentrations, specific credit risks, loan and lease loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions and incurred losses inherent in the current loan portfolio.

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The determination of the appropriate level of the ALLL inherently involves a degree of subjectivity and requires that we make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, the stagnation of certain economic indicators that we are more susceptible to, such as unemployment and real estate values, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside our control, may require an increase in the ALLL. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ALLL and may require an increase in the ALLL or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments that can differ from those of our own management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the ALLL—that is, if the ALLL is inadequate—we will need additional loan and lease loss provisions to increase the ALLL. Should such additional provisions become necessary, they would result in a decrease in net income and capital and may have a material adverse effect on us.
Operational risks are inherent in our businesses.
Our operations depend on our ability to process a very large number of transactions efficiently and accurately while complying with applicable laws and regulations. Operational risk and losses can result from internal and external fraud; improper conduct or errors by employees or third parties; failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper authorization; failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements and conduct of business rules; equipment failures, including those caused by natural disasters or by electrical, telecommunications or other essential utility outages; business continuity and data security system failures, including those caused by computer viruses, cyber-attacks or unforeseen problems encountered while implementing major new computer systems or upgrades to existing systems; or the inadequacy or failure of systems and controls, including those of our suppliers or counterparties. Although we have implemented risk controls and loss mitigation actions, and substantial resources are devoted to developing efficient procedures, identifying and rectifying weaknesses in existing procedures and training staff, it is not possible to be certain that such actions have been or will be effective in controlling each of the operational risks faced by us. Any weakness in these systems or controls, or any breaches or alleged breaches of such laws or regulations, could result in increased regulatory supervision, enforcement actions and other disciplinary action, and have an adverse impact on our business, applicable authorizations and licenses, reputation and results of operations.
The financial services industry, including the banking sector, is undergoing rapid technological changes as a result of competition and changes in the legal and regulatory framework, and we may not be able to compete effectively as a result of these changes.
The financial services industry, including the banking sector, is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition, new, unexpected technological changes could have a disruptive effect on the way banks offer products and services. We believe our success depends, to a great extent, on our ability to address customer needs by using technology to offer products and services that provide convenience to customers and to create additional efficiencies in our operations. However, we may not be able to, among other things, keep up with the rapid pace of technological changes, effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. As a result, our ability to compete effectively to attract or retain new business may be impaired, and our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.
In addition, changes in the legal and regulatory framework under which we operate require us to update our information systems to ensure compliance. Our need to review and evaluate the impact of ongoing rule proposals, final rules and implementation guidance from regulators further complicates the development and implementation of new information systems for our business. Also, recent regulatory guidance has focused on the need for financial institutions to perform increased due diligence and ongoing monitoring of third-party vendor relationships, thus increasing the scope of management involvement and decreasing the efficiency otherwise resulting from our relationships with third-party technology providers. Given the significant number of ongoing regulatory reform initiatives, it is possible that we incur higher than expected information technology costs in order to comply with current and impending regulations. See “—Supervisory requirements and expectations on us as a financial holding company and a bank holding company and any regulator-imposed limits on our activities could adversely affect our ability to implement our strategic plan, expand our business, continue to improve our financial performance and make capital distributions to our stockholders.”

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We are subject to a variety of cybersecurity risks that, if realized, could adversely affect how we conduct our business.
Information security risks for large financial institutions such as CFG have increased significantly in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, such as Internet and mobile banking to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, nation-states, activists and other external parties. Third parties with whom we or our customers do business also present operational and information security risks to us, including security breaches or failures of their own systems. The possibility of employee error, failure to follow security procedures, or malfeasance also presents these risks. Our operations rely on the secure processing, transmission and storage of confidential information in our computer systems and networks. In addition, to access our products and services, our customers may use personal computers, smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices that are beyond our control environment. Although we believe that we have appropriate information security procedures and controls, our technologies, systems, networks and our customers’ devices may be the target of cyber-attacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of the confidential, and/or proprietary information of CFG, our customers, our vendors, our counterparties, or our employees. We are under continuous threat of loss due to cyber-attacks, especially as we continue to expand customer capabilities to utilize the Internet and other remote channels to transact business. Two of the most significant cyber-attack risks that we face are e-fraud and loss of sensitive customer data. Loss from e-fraud occurs when cybercriminals extract funds directly from customers’ or our accounts using fraudulent schemes that may include Internet-based funds transfers. We have been subject to a number of e-fraud incidents historically. We have also been subject to attempts to steal sensitive customer data, such as account numbers and social security numbers, through unauthorized access to our computer systems including computer hacking. Such attacks are less frequent but could present significant reputational, legal and regulatory costs to us if successful. We have implemented certain technology protections such as Customer Profiling and Set-Up Authentication to be in compliance with the FFIEC Authentication in Internet Banking Environment (“AIBE”) guidelines.
As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our layers of defense or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. System enhancements and updates may also create risks associated with implementing new systems and integrating them with existing ones. Due to the complexity and interconnectedness of information technology systems, the process of enhancing our layers of defense can itself create a risk of systems disruptions and security issues. In addition, addressing certain information security vulnerabilities, such as hardware-based vulnerabilities, may affect the performance of our information technology systems. The ability of our hardware and software providers to deliver patches and updates to mitigate vulnerabilities in a timely manner can introduce additional risks, particularly when a vulnerability is being actively exploited by threat actors.
Despite our efforts to prevent a cyber-attack, a successful cyber-attack could persist for an extended period of time before being detected, and, following detection, it could take considerable time for us to obtain full and reliable information about the cybersecurity incident and the extent, amount and type of information compromised.  During the course of an investigation, we may not necessarily know the full effects of the incident or how to remediate it, and actions and decisions that are taken or made in an effort to mitigate risk may further increase the costs and other negative consequences of the incident.
The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can be initiated from a variety of sources, including terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. These actors may attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to data or our systems. In the event that a cyber-attack is successful, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected. For a discussion of the guidance that federal banking regulators have released regarding cybersecurity and cyber risk management standards, see “Regulation and Supervision” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, included in this Report.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems, including due to hacking or other similar attempts to breach information technology security protocols, could result in failures or disruptions in our customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. Although we have established policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the possible failure, interruption or security breach of our information systems, there can be no assurance that these policies and procedures will be successful and that any such failure, interruption or

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security breach will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failure, interruption or security breach of our information systems could require us to devote substantial resources (including management time and attention) to recovery and response efforts, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability. Although we maintain insurance coverage for information security events, we may incur losses as a result of such events that are not insured against or not fully covered by our insurance.
We rely on third parties for the performance of a significant portion of our information technology.
We rely on third parties for the performance of a significant portion of our information technology functions and the provision of information technology and business process services. For example, (i) unaffiliated third parties operate data communications networks on which certain components and services relating to our online banking system rely, (ii) third parties host or maintain many of our applications, including our Commercial Loan System, which is hosted and maintained by Automated Financial Systems, Inc., (iii) Fidelity National Information Services, Inc. maintains our core deposits system, and (iv) IBM Corporation provides us with a wide range of information technology support services, including end user, data center, network, mainframe, storage and database services. The success of our business depends in part on the continuing ability of these (and other) third parties to perform these functions and services in a timely and satisfactory manner, which performance could be disrupted or otherwise adversely affected due to failures or other information security events originating at the third parties or at the third parties’ suppliers or vendors (so-called “fourth party risk”). We may not be able to effectively monitor or mitigate fourth-party risk, in particular as it relates to the use of common suppliers or vendors by the third parties that perform functions and services for us. If we experience a disruption in the provision of any functions or services performed by third parties, we may have difficulty in finding alternate providers on terms favorable to us and in reasonable timeframes. If these services are not performed in a satisfactory manner, we would not be able to serve our customers well. In either situation, our business could incur significant costs and be adversely affected.
We are exposed to reputational risk and the risk of damage to our brands and the brands of our affiliates.
Our success and results depend, in part, on our reputation and the strength of our brands. We are vulnerable to adverse market perception as we operate in an industry where integrity, customer trust and confidence are paramount. We are exposed to the risk that litigation, employee misconduct, operational failures, the outcome of regulatory or other investigations or actions, press speculation and negative publicity, among other factors, could damage our brands or reputation. Our brands and reputation could also be harmed if we sell products or services that do not perform as expected or customers’ expectations for the product are not satisfied.
We may be adversely affected by unpredictable catastrophic events or terrorist attacks and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from serious disaster.
The occurrence of catastrophic events such as hurricanes, tropical storms, tornadoes and other large-scale catastrophes and terrorist attacks could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations if a catastrophe rendered both our production data center in Rhode Island and our recovery data center in North Carolina unusable. Although we enhanced our disaster recovery capabilities in 2016 through the completion of the new, out-of-region backup data center in North Carolina, there can be no assurance that our current disaster recovery plans and capabilities will adequately protect us from serious disaster.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Any deterioration in national economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is affected by national economic conditions, as well as perceptions of those conditions and future economic prospects. Changes in such economic conditions are not predictable and cannot be controlled. Adverse economic conditions could require us to charge off a higher percentage of loans and increase the provision for credit losses, which would reduce our net income and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, our business was significantly affected by the global economic and financial crisis that began in 2008. The falling home prices, increased rate of foreclosure and high levels of unemployment in the United States triggered significant write-downs by us and other financial institutions. These write-downs adversely impacted our financial results in material respects. Although the U.S. economy

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continues to recover, an interruption or reversal of this recovery would adversely affect the financial services industry and banking sector.
We operate in an industry that is highly competitive, which could result in losing business or margin declines and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive industry. The industry could become even more competitive as a result of reform of the financial services industry resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act and other legislative, regulatory and technological changes, as well as continued consolidation. We face aggressive competition from other domestic and foreign lending institutions and from numerous other providers of financial services, including non-banking financial institutions that are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as banks and bank holding companies, securities firms and insurance companies, and competitors that may have greater financial resources.
With respect to non-banking financial institutions, technology and other changes have lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks. For example, consumers can maintain funds that would have historically been held as bank deposits in brokerage accounts or mutual funds. Consumers can also complete transactions such as paying bills and/or transferring funds directly without the assistance of banks. The process of eliminating banks as intermediaries, known as “disintermediation,” could result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. Some of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations we are and, therefore, may have greater flexibility in competing for business. As a result of these and other sources of competition, we could lose business to competitors or be forced to price products and services on less advantageous terms to retain or attract clients, either of which would adversely affect our profitability and business.
The conditions of other financial institutions or of the financial services industry could adversely affect our operations and financial conditions.
Financial services institutions are typically interconnected as a result of trading, investment, liquidity management, clearing, counterparty and other relationships. Within the financial services industry, the default by any one institution could lead to defaults by other institutions. Concerns about, or a default by, one institution could lead to significant liquidity problems and losses or defaults by other institutions, as the commercial and financial soundness of many financial institutions are closely related as a result of these credit, trading, clearing and other relationships. Even the perceived lack of creditworthiness of, or questions about, a counterparty may lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by various institutions. This systemic risk may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, banks and exchanges with which we interact on a daily basis, or key funding providers such as the FHLBs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our access to liquidity or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Regulations Governing Our Industry
As a financial holding company and a bank holding company, we are subject to comprehensive regulation that could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
As a financial holding company and a bank holding company, we are subject to comprehensive regulation, supervision and examination by the FRB. In addition, CBNA is subject to comprehensive regulation, supervision and examination by the OCC. Our regulators supervise us through regular examinations and other means that allow the regulators to gauge management’s ability to identify, assess and control risk in all areas of operations in a safe and sound manner and to ensure compliance with laws and regulations. In the course of their supervision and examinations, our regulators may require improvements in various areas. If we are unable to implement and maintain any required actions in a timely and effective manner, we could become subject to informal (non-public) or formal (public) supervisory actions and public enforcement orders that could lead to significant restrictions on our existing business or on our ability to engage in any new business. Such forms of supervisory action could include, without limitation, written agreements, cease and desist orders, and consent orders and may, among other things, result in restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, requirements to increase capital, restrictions on our activities, the imposition of civil monetary penalties, and enforcement of such actions through injunctions or restraining orders. We could also be required to dispose of certain assets and liabilities within a prescribed period. The terms of any such supervisory or enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We are a bank holding company that has elected to become a financial holding company pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act. Financial holding companies are allowed to engage in certain financial activities in which a bank holding company is not otherwise permitted to engage. However, to maintain financial holding company status, a bank holding company (and all of its depository institution subsidiaries) must be “well capitalized” and “well managed.” If a bank holding company ceases to meet these capital and management requirements, there are many penalties it would be faced with, including (i) the FRB may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities, and (ii) it may not undertake any of the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or acquire a company engaged in such financial activities without prior approval of the FRB. If a company does not return to compliance within 180 days, which period may be extended, the FRB may require divestiture of that company’s depository institutions. To the extent we do not meet the requirements to be a financial holding company in the future, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to disclose some restrictions or limitations on our operations imposed by our regulators.
From time to time, bank regulatory agencies take supervisory actions that restrict or limit a financial institution’s activities and lead it to raise capital or subject it to other requirements. Directives issued to enforce such actions may be confidential and thus, in some instances, we are not permitted to publicly disclose these actions. In addition, as part of our regular examination process, our and CBNA’s respective regulators may advise us or CBNA to operate under various restrictions as a prudential matter. Any such actions or restrictions, if and in whatever manner imposed, could adversely affect our costs and revenues. Moreover, efforts to comply with any such nonpublic supervisory actions or restrictions may require material investments in additional resources and systems, as well as a significant commitment of managerial time and attention. As a result, such supervisory actions or restrictions, if and in whatever manner imposed, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations; and, in certain instances, we may not be able to publicly disclose these matters.
The regulatory environment in which we operate continues to be subject to significant and evolving regulatory requirements that could have a material adverse effect on our business and earnings.
We are heavily regulated by multiple banking, consumer protection, securities and other regulatory authorities at the federal and state levels. This regulatory oversight is primarily established to protect depositors, the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund, consumers of financial products, and the financial system as a whole, not our security holders. Changes to statutes, regulations, rules or policies, including the interpretation, implementation or enforcement of statutes, regulations, rules or policies, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, including by, for example, subjecting us to additional costs, limiting the types of financial services and other products we may offer, limiting our ability to pursue acquisitions and increasing the ability of third parties, including non-banks, to offer competing financial services and products. In recent years, we, together with the rest of the financial services industry, have faced particularly intense scrutiny, with many new regulatory initiatives and vigorous oversight and enforcement on the part of numerous regulatory and governmental authorities. Legislatures and regulators have pursued a broad array of initiatives intended to promote the safety and soundness of financial institutions, financial market stability, the transparency and liquidity of financial markets, and consumer and investor protection. Certain regulators and law enforcement authorities have also recently required admissions of wrongdoing and, in some cases, criminal pleas as part of the resolutions of matters brought by them against financial institutions. Any such resolution of a matter involving us could lead to increased exposure to civil litigation, could adversely affect our reputation, could result in penalties or limitations on our ability to do business or engage in certain activities and could have other negative effects. In addition, a single event or issue may give rise to numerous and overlapping investigations and proceedings, including by multiple federal and state regulators and other governmental authorities.
We are also subject to laws and regulations relating to the privacy of the information of our customers, employees, counterparties and others, and any failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. As new privacy-related laws and regulations are implemented, the time and resources needed for us to comply with those laws and regulations, as well as our potential liability for non-compliance and our reporting obligations in the case of data breaches, may significantly increase.
There have been significant revisions to the laws and regulations applicable to Citizens that have been enacted or proposed in recent months. These and other rules to implement the changes have yet to be finalized, and the final timing, scope and impact of these changes to the regulatory framework applicable to financial institutions remain uncertain. For more information on the regulations to which we are subject and recent initiatives

31

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
RISK FACTORS


to reform financial institution regulation, see “Regulation and Supervision” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, included in this Report.
We are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity standards, and if we fail to meet these standards our financial condition and operations would be adversely affected.
We are subject to several capital adequacy and liquidity standards. To the extent that we are unable to meet these standards, our ability to make distributions of capital will be limited and we may be subject to additional supervisory actions and limitations on our activities. See “Regulation and Supervision” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Capital and Regulatory Requirements” and “— Liquidity” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report, for further discussion of the regulations to which we are subject.
We could be required to act as a “source of strength” to CBNA, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
FRB policy historically required bank holding companies to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to their subsidiary banks. The Dodd-Frank Act codified this policy as a statutory requirement. This support may be required by the FRB at times when we might otherwise determine not to provide it or when doing so is not otherwise in the interests of CFG or our stockholders or creditors, and may include one or more of the following:
We may be compelled to contribute capital to CBNA, including by engaging in a public offering to raise such capital. Furthermore, any extensions of credit from us to CBNA that are included in CBNA’s capital would be subordinate in right of payment to depositors and certain other indebtedness of CBNA.
In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, any commitment that the bank holding company had been required to make to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment.
In the event of impairment of the capital stock of CBNA, we, as CBNA’s stockholder, could be required to pay such deficiency.
We depend on CBNA for most of our revenue, and restrictions on dividends and other distributions by CBNA could affect our liquidity and ability to fulfill our obligations.
As a bank holding company, we are a separate and distinct legal entity from CBNA, our banking subsidiary. We typically receive substantially all of our revenue from dividends from CBNA. These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on our equity and interest and principal on our debt. Various federal and/or state laws and regulations, as well as regulatory expectations, limit the amount of dividends that CBNA may pay to us. Also, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors. In the event CBNA is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common stock. The inability to receive dividends from CBNA could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See “Supervision and Regulation” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Capital and Regulatory Matters” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report.
From time-to-time, we may become or are subject to regulatory actions that may have a material impact on our business.
We may become or are involved, from time to time, in reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business. These regulatory actions involve, among other matters, accounting, compliance and operational matters, certain of which may result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief that may require changes to our business or otherwise materially impact our business.
In regulatory actions, such as those referred to above, it is inherently difficult to determine whether any loss is probable or whether it is possible to reasonably estimate the amount of any loss. We cannot predict with certainty if, how or when such proceedings will be resolved or what the eventual fine, penalty or other relief, conditions or restrictions, if any, may be, particularly for actions that are in their early stages of investigation. We may be required to make significant restitution payments to CBNA customers arising from certain compliance issues and also may be required to pay civil money penalties in connection with certain of these issues. This uncertainty makes it difficult to estimate probable losses, which, in turn, can lead to substantial disparities between the reserves

32

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
RISK FACTORS


we may establish for such proceedings and the eventual settlements, fines, or penalties. Adverse regulatory actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are and may be subject to litigation that may have a material impact on our business.
Our operations are diverse and complex and we operate in legal and regulatory environments that expose us to potentially significant litigation risk. In the normal course of business, we have been named, from time to time, as a defendant in various legal actions, including arbitrations, class actions and other litigation, arising in connection with our activities as a financial services institution, including with respect to alleged unfair or deceptive business practices and mis-selling of certain products. Certain of the actual or threatened legal actions include claims for substantial compensatory and/or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. In some cases, the entities that would otherwise be the primary defendants in such cases are bankrupt or in financial distress. Moreover, a number of recent judicial decisions have upheld the right of borrowers to sue lending institutions on the basis of various evolving legal theories, collectively termed “lender liability.” Generally, lender liability is founded on the premise that a lender has either violated a duty, whether implied or contractual, of good faith and fair dealing owed to the borrower or has assumed a degree of control over the borrower resulting in the creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the borrower or its other creditors or stockholders. This could increase the amount of private litigation to which we are subject. For more information regarding ongoing significant legal proceedings in which we may be involved, see Note 18 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, included in this Report.
Compliance with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing rules involve significant cost and effort.
We are subject to rules and regulations regarding money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Monitoring compliance with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing rules can put a significant financial burden on banks and other financial institutions and poses significant technical challenges. Although we believe our current policies and procedures are sufficient to comply with applicable rules and regulations, we cannot guarantee that our anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing policies and procedures completely prevent situations of money laundering or terrorism financing. Any such failure events may have severe consequences, including sanctions, fines and reputational consequences, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may become subject to more stringent regulatory requirements and activity restrictions, or have to restructure, if the FRB and FDIC jointly determine that our resolution plan is not credible.
Bank holding companies with more than $100 billion in assets are currently required to submit resolution plans that, in the event of material financial distress or failure, establish the rapid, orderly and systemically safe liquidation of the company under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. Separately, insured depository institutions with more than $50 billion in assets must submit to the FDIC a resolution plan whereby they can be resolved in a manner that is orderly and that ensures that depositors will receive access to insured funds within certain required timeframes. If the FRB and the FDIC jointly determine that the resolution plan of a bank holding company is not credible, and the company fails to cure the deficiencies in a timely manner, then the FRB and the FDIC may jointly impose on the company, or on any of its subsidiaries, more stringent capital, leverage or liquidity requirements or restrictions on growth, activities or operations, or require the divestment of certain assets or operations. If the FRB and the FDIC jointly determine that our resolution plan is not credible or would not facilitate our orderly resolution under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, we could become subject to more stringent regulatory requirements or business restrictions, or have to divest certain of our assets or businesses. Any such measures could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

33

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
RISK FACTORS


Risks Related to our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.
You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky, and you should invest in our common stock only if you can withstand a significant loss and wide fluctuation in the market value of your investment. The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section, and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
quarterly variations in our results of operations or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates by securities analysts and investors;
our announcements or our competitors’ announcements regarding new products or services, enhancements, significant contracts, acquisitions or strategic investments;
fluctuations in the market valuations of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
future sales of our common stock;
additions or departures of members of our senior management or other key personnel;
changes in industry conditions or perceptions; and
changes in applicable laws, rules or regulations and other dynamics.
Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market price of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, systemic, political and market conditions, such as recessions, loss of investor confidence, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to securities class action litigation that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.
We may not repurchase shares or pay cash dividends on our common stock.
Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as our Board of Directors may declare out of funds legally available for such payments. Although we have historically declared cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so and may reduce or eliminate our common stock dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Also, as a bank holding company, our ability to repurchase shares and declare and pay dividends is dependent on certain federal regulatory considerations, including the rules of the FRB regarding capital adequacy and dividends. Additionally, we are required to submit periodic capital plans to the FRB for review, or otherwise obtain FRB authorization, before we can take certain capital actions, including repurchasing shares, declaring and paying dividends, or repurchasing or redeeming capital securities. If our capital plan or any amendment to our capital plan is objected to for any reason, our ability to repurchase shares and declare and pay dividends on our capital stock may be limited. Further, if we are unable to satisfy the capital requirements applicable to us for any reason, we may be limited in our ability to repurchase shares and declare and pay dividends on our capital stock. See “Regulation and Supervision” in Part I, Item 1 — Business, included in this Report, for further discussion of the regulations to which we are subject.
“Anti-takeover” provisions and the regulations to which we are subject may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us, even if the change in control would be beneficial to stockholders.
We are a bank holding company incorporated in the state of Delaware. Anti-takeover provisions in Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as regulatory approvals that would be required under federal law, could make it more difficult for a third party to take control of us and may prevent stockholders from receiving a premium for their shares of our common stock. These provisions could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and could reduce the amount that stockholders might get if we are sold.
We believe these provisions protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our Board and by providing our Board with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. However, these provisions apply even if the offer may be determined to be beneficial by some

34

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
RISK FACTORS


stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our Board determines is not in our best interest and that of our stockholders.
Furthermore, banking laws impose notice, approval and ongoing regulatory requirements on any stockholder or other party that seeks to acquire direct or indirect “control” of an FDIC-insured depository institution. These laws include the Bank Holding Company Act and the Change in Bank Control Act.


35

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our headquarters is in Providence, Rhode Island. As of December 31, 2018, we leased approximately 4.8 million square feet of office and retail branch space. Our portfolio of leased space consisted of 3.4 million square feet of retail branch space which spanned eleven states and 1.4 million square feet of non-branch space. As of December 31, 2018, we owned an additional 1 million square feet of office and branch space. We operated 76 branches in Rhode Island, 37 in Connecticut, 245 in Massachusetts, 13 in Vermont, 63 in New Hampshire, 120 in New York, 11 in New Jersey, 325 in Pennsylvania, 23 in Delaware, 100 in Ohio and 87 in Michigan. Of these branches, 1,074 were leased and the remainder were owned. These properties were used by both the Consumer Banking and Commercial Banking segments. Management believes the terms of the various leases were consistent with market standards and were derived through arm’s-length bargaining. We also believe that our properties are in good operating condition and adequately serve our current business operations. We anticipate that suitable additional or alternative space, including those under lease options, will be available at commercially reasonable terms for future expansion.

In the Summer of 2018, we completed the construction of our new campus in Johnston, Rhode Island. The three-building complex brought together approximately 3,200 colleagues from various locations to one, creating greater collaboration and efficiency.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information required by this item is presented in Note 18 “Commitments and Contingencies” to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, and is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.


36

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CFG.” As of February 1, 2019, our common stock was owned by two holders of record (including Cede & Co.) and approximately 183,000 beneficial shareholders whose shares were held in “street name” through a broker or bank. Information regarding the high and low sale prices of our common stock and cash dividends declared on such shares, as required by this item, is presented in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Quarterly Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, included in this Report. Information regarding restrictions on dividends, as required by this Item, is presented in Note 24 “Regulatory Matters” and Note 26 “Parent Company Financials” to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Report. Information relating to compensation plans under which our equity securities are authorized for issuance is presented in “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” in Part III, Item 12, included in this Report.
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder returns for our performance since September 24, 2014 relative to the performance of the Standard & Poor’s 500® index, a commonly referenced U.S. equity benchmark consisting of leading companies from diverse economic sectors; the KBW Nasdaq Bank Index (“BKX”), composed of 24 leading national money center and regional banks and thrifts; and a group of other banks that constitute our peer regional banks (BB&T, Comerica, Fifth Third, KeyCorp, M&T, PNC, Regions, SunTrust and U.S. Bancorp). The graph assumes a $100 investment at the closing price on September 24, 2014 in each of CFG common stock, the S&P 500 index, the BKX and the peer market-capitalization weighted average and assumes all dividends were reinvested on the date paid. The points on the graph represent the date our shares first began to trade on the NYSE and fiscal quarter-end amounts based on the last trading day in each subsequent fiscal quarter.
This graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Citizens Financial Group, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

tsrgrapha04.jpg    
 
9/24/2014

9/30/2014

12/31/2014

12/31/2015

12/31/2016

12/31/2017

12/31/2018

CFG

$100


$101


$108


$116


$161


$193


$140

S&P 500 Index
100

99

104

105

118

143

137

KBW BKX Index
100

98

103

103

133

157

129

Peer Regional Bank Average

$100


$99


$105


$105


$137


$159


$133



37

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
 

Issuer Purchase of Equity Securities

Details of the repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter 2018 are included in the following table:
Period
Total Number of Shares Repurchased(1)
Weighted-Average Price Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs(1)
Maximum Dollar Amount of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased As Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
October 1, 2018 - October 31, 2018
6,214,965
$36.38
6,214,965
$393,897,709
November 1, 2018 - November 30, 2018
$—
$393,897,709
December 1, 2018 - December 31, 2018
2,031,256
$36.38
2,031,256
$320,000,000
(1) On June 28, 2018, the Company announced that its 2018 Capital Plan, submitted as part of the CCAR process and not objected to by the FRB, included share repurchases of CFG common stock of up to $1.02 billion for the four-quarter period ending with the second quarter of 2019. This share repurchase plan, which was approved by the Company’s Board of Directors at the time of the announcement, allowed for share repurchases that may be executed in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, including under Rule 10b5-1 plans. All shares repurchased by the Company during the fourth quarter were executed pursuant to an accelerated share repurchase transaction, which was completed by December 31, 2018. The timing and exact amount of future share repurchases will be subject to various factors, including the Company’s capital position, financial performance and market conditions.


38

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA


ITEM 6. SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected Consolidated Statements of Operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 and the selected Consolidated Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 are derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, included in this Report. We derived the selected Consolidated Statements of Operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the selected Consolidated Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014 from our prior audited Consolidated Financial Statements, not included herein. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future period.
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 and our audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, both included in this Report.
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per-share and ratio data)
   2018

 
   2017

 
   2016

 
   2015

 
   2014

OPERATING DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net interest income

$4,532

 

$4,173

 

$3,758

 

$3,402

 

$3,301

Noninterest income
1,596

 
1,534

 
1,497

 
1,422

 
1,678

Total revenue
6,128

 
5,707

 
5,255

 
4,824

 
4,979

Provision for credit losses
326

 
321

 
369

 
302

 
319

Noninterest expense
3,619

 
3,474

 
3,352

 
3,259

 
3,392

Income before income tax expense
2,183

 
1,912

 
1,534

 
1,263

 
1,268

Income tax expense(1)
462

 
260

 
489

 
423

 
403

Net income
1,721

 
1,652

 
1,045

 
840

 
865

Net income available to common stockholders
1,692

 
1,638

 
1,031

 
833

 
865

Net income per average common share - basic (2)
3.54

 
3.26

 
1.97

 
1.55

 
1.55

Net income per average common share - diluted (2)
3.52

 
3.25

 
1.97

 
1.55

 
1.55

Dividends declared and paid per common share
0.98

 
0.64

 
0.46

 
0.40

 
1.43

OTHER OPERATING DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Return on average common equity (3)
8.62
%
 
8.35
%
 
5.23
%
 
4.30
%
 
4.46
%
Return on average tangible common equity (3)
12.94

 
12.35

 
7.74

 
6.45

 
6.71

Return on average total assets (3)
1.11

 
1.10

 
0.73

 
0.62

 
0.68

Return on average total tangible assets (3)
1.16

 
1.15

 
0.76

 
0.65

 
0.71

Efficiency ratio (3)
59.06

 
60.87

 
63.80

 
67.56

 
68.12

Operating leverage (3) (4)
3.19

 
4.98

 
6.08

 
0.81

 
61.99

Net interest margin (3)
3.19

 
3.02

 
2.86

 
2.75

 
2.83

Effective income tax rate(1)
21.16

 
13.62

 
31.88

 
33.52

 
31.80

(1) On December 22, 2017 President Trump signed the 2017 Tax Legislation which reduced the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%.
(2) Earnings per share information reflects a 165,582-for-1 forward stock split effective on August 22, 2014.
(3) See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Introduction — Key Performance Metrics Used by Management and Non-GAAP Financial Measures” in Part II, Item 7, for definitions of our key performance metrics.
(4) “Operating leverage” represents the period-over-period percent change in total revenue, less the period-over-period percent change in noninterest expense. For the purpose of the 2014 calculation, 2013 total revenue was $4.7 billion and noninterest expense was $7.7 billion.


39

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA


 
As of December 31,
(in millions, except ratio data)
2018

 
2017

 
2016

 
2015

 
2014

BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets

$160,518

 

$152,336

 

$149,520

 

$138,208

 

$132,857

Loans held for sale, at fair value
1,219

 
497

 
583

 
325

 
256

Other loans held for sale
101

 
221

 
42

 
40

 
25

Loans and leases
116,660

 
110,617

 
107,669

 
99,042

 
93,410

Allowance for loan and lease losses
(1,242
)
 
(1,236
)
 
(1,236
)
 
(1,216
)
 
(1,195
)
Total securities
25,075

 
25,733

 
25,610

 
24,075

 
24,704

Goodwill
6,923

 
6,887

 
6,876

 
6,876

 
6,876

Total liabilities
139,701

 
132,066

 
129,773

 
118,562

 
113,589

Total deposits
119,575

 
115,089

 
109,804

 
102,539

 
95,707

Federal funds purchased and securities sold under agreements to repurchase
1,156

 
815

 
1,148

 
802

 
4,276

Other short-term borrowed funds
1,653

 
1,856

 
3,211

 
2,630

 
6,253

Long-term borrowed funds
14,433

 
11,765

 
12,790

 
9,886

 
4,642

Total stockholders’ equity
20,817

 
20,270

 
19,747

 
19,646

 
19,268

OTHER BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asset Quality Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Allowance for loan and lease losses as a % of total loans and leases
1.06
%
 
1.12
%
 
1.15
%
 
1.23
%
 
1.28
%
Allowance for loan and lease losses as a % of nonperforming loans and leases
156

 
142

 
118

 
115

 
109

Nonperforming loans and leases as a % of total loans and leases
0.68

 
0.79

 
0.97

 
1.07

 
1.18

Capital Ratios:(5)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CET1 capital ratio (6)
10.6

 
11.2

 
11.2

 
11.7

 
12.4

Tier 1 capital ratio (7)
11.3

 
11.4

 
11.4

 
12.0

 
12.4

Total capital ratio (8)
13.3

 
13.9

 
14.0

 
15.3

 
15.8

Tier 1 leverage ratio (9)
10.0

 
10.0

 
9.9

 
10.5

 
10.6

(5) The capital ratios and associated components as of December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are prepared using the U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.  U.S. Basel III transitional rules for institutions applying the Standardized approach to calculating risk-weighted assets became effective January 1, 2015. The capital ratios and associated components as of December 31, 2014 are prepared using the U.S. Basel I approach.  The December 31, 2017 capital ratios reflect the retrospective adoption of FASB ASU 2018-02, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Results of Operations — 2017 compared with 2016 — Income Tax Expense” for additional information.
(6) “Common equity tier 1 capital ratio” represents CET1 capital divided by total risk-weighted assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.
(7) “Tier 1 capital ratio” is tier 1 capital, which includes CET1 capital plus non-cumulative perpetual preferred equity that qualifies as additional tier 1 capital, divided by total risk-weighted assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.
(8) “Total capital ratio” is total capital divided by total risk-weighted assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.
(9) “Tier 1 leverage ratio” is tier 1 capital divided by quarterly average total assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.





40

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


41

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



INTRODUCTION
Citizens Financial Group, Inc. is one of the nation’s oldest and largest financial institutions with $160.5 billion in assets as of December 31, 2018. Our mission is to help our customers, colleagues and communities reach their potential. Headquartered in Providence, Rhode Island, we offer a broad range of retail and commercial banking products and services to individuals, small businesses, middle-market companies, large corporations and institutions. We help our customers reach their potential by listening to them and by understanding their needs in order to offer tailored advice, ideas and solutions. In Consumer Banking, we provide an integrated experience that includes mobile and online banking, a 24/7 customer contact center and the convenience of approximately 2,900 ATMs and approximately 1,100 branches in 11 states in the New England, Mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions. Consumer Banking products and services include a full range of banking, lending, savings, wealth management and small business offerings. In Commercial Banking, we offer corporate, institutional and not-for-profit clients a full range of wholesale banking products and services including lending and deposits, capital markets, treasury services, foreign exchange and interest rate products, and asset finance. More information is available at www.citizensbank.com.
The following MD&A is intended to assist readers in their analysis of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and supplemental financial information. It should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K, as well as other information contained in this document.
Key Performance Metrics Used by Management and Non-GAAP Financial Measures
As a banking institution, we manage and evaluate aspects of our results of operations and our financial condition. We evaluate the levels and trends of the line items included in our balance sheet and statement of operations, as well as various financial ratios that are commonly used in our industry. We analyze these ratios and financial trends against our own historical performance, our budgeted performance and the financial condition and performance of comparable banking institutions in our region and nationally.
The primary line items we use in our key performance metrics to manage and evaluate our statement of operations include net interest income, noninterest income, total revenue, provision for credit losses, noninterest expense, net income and net income available to common stockholders. The primary line items we use in our key performance metrics to manage and evaluate our balance sheet data include loans and leases, securities, allowance for credit losses, deposits, borrowed funds and derivatives.
We consider various measures when evaluating our performance and making day-to-day operating decisions, as well as evaluating capital utilization and adequacy, including:
Return on average common equity, which we define as annualized net income available to common stockholders divided by average common equity;
Return on average tangible common equity, which we define as annualized net income available to common stockholders divided by average common equity excluding average goodwill (net of related deferred tax liability) and average other intangibles;
Return on average total assets, which we define as annualized net income divided by average total assets;
Return on average total tangible assets, which we define as annualized net income divided by average total assets excluding average goodwill (net of related deferred tax liability) and average other intangibles;
Efficiency ratio, which we define as the ratio of our total noninterest expense to the sum of net interest income and total noninterest income. We measure our efficiency ratio to evaluate the efficiency of our operations as it helps us monitor how costs are changing compared to our income. A decrease in our efficiency ratio represents improvement;
Operating leverage, which we define as the percent change in total revenue, less the percent change in noninterest expense;
Net interest margin, which we calculate by dividing annualized net interest income for the period by average total interest-earning assets, is a key measure that we use to evaluate our net interest income; and
Common equity tier 1 capital ratio, which represents CET1 capital divided by total risk-weighted assets as defined under U.S. Basel III Standardized approach.
This document contains non-GAAP financial measures denoted as “Underlying” or “Adjusted/Underlying” results. Underlying or Adjusted/Underlying results for any given reporting period exclude certain items that may

42

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



occur in that period which Management does not consider indicative of the Company’s on-going financial performance. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to investors because they are used by Management to evaluate our operating performance and make day-to-day operating decisions. In addition, we believe our Underlying or Adjusted/Underlying results in any given reporting period reflect our on-going financial performance in that period and, accordingly, are useful to consider in addition to our GAAP financial results. We further believe the presentation of Underlying or Adjusted/Underlying results increases comparability of period-to-period results.
Other companies may use similarly titled non-GAAP financial measures that are calculated differently from the way we calculate such measures. Accordingly, our non-GAAP financial measures may not be comparable to similar measures used by such companies. We caution investors not to place undue reliance on such non-GAAP financial measures, but to consider them with the most directly comparable GAAP measures. Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for our results reported under GAAP.
Non-GAAP measures are denoted throughout “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” by the use of the term Underlying or Adjusted/Underlying and/or are followed by an asterisk (*).
For additional information regarding our non-GAAP financial measures and reconciliations, see “—Key Performance Metrics, Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Reconciliations,” included in this Report.

43

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
2018 compared with 2017 - Key Highlights
Full year 2018 net income of $1.7 billion increased $69 million, or 4%, from 2017, with earnings per diluted common share of $3.52, up 8% from $3.25 per diluted common share for 2017. 2018 ROTCE of 12.9% improved from 12.3% in 2017.
Full year 2018 results include $16 million after-tax, or $0.04 per diluted common share, of notable items compared with $340 million after-tax, or $0.67 per diluted common share, in 2017 as outlined in the tables below.
The following table presents selected GAAP and non-GAAP measures:*
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
(in millions)
Noninterest income
 
Noninterest expense
 
Credit-related costs
 
Income tax expense
 
Net Income
Reported results (GAAP)

$1,596

 

$3,619

 

$326

 

$462

 

$1,721

Less: Notable items
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax Legislation DTL adjustment

 

 

 
(29
)
 
29

TOP efficiency initiatives and other actions
(1
)
 
33

 

 
(8
)
 
(26
)
FAMC integration costs
(4
)
 
21

 

 
(6
)
 
(19
)
Total notable items

($5
)
 

$54

 

$—

 

($43
)
 

($16
)
Underlying results (non-GAAP)

$1,601

 

$3,565

 

$326

 

$505

 

$1,737

* Where there is a reference to “Underlying” results in a paragraph, all measures that follow these references are on the same basis when applicable. For more information on the computation of key performance metrics and non-GAAP financial measures, see “—Introduction — Key Performance Metrics Used by Management and Non-GAAP Financial Measures” and “—Key Performance Metrics, Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Reconciliations.”

 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
(in millions)
Noninterest income
 
Noninterest expense
 
Credit-related costs
 
Income tax expense
 
Net Income
Reported results (GAAP)

$1,534

 

$3,474

 

$321

 

$260

 

$1,652

Less: Notable items
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax and tax-related notable items:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tax Legislation DTL adjustment

 

 

 
(331
)
 
331

Colleague and community reinvestment

 
22

 

 
(9
)
 
(13
)
Settlement of certain tax matters

 

 

 
(23
)
 
23

TOP efficiency initiatives

 
15

 

 
(6
)
 
(9
)
Lease impairment credit-related costs
(11
)
 
15

 
(26
)
 

 

Gain on mortgage/home equity TDR Transaction
17

 

 

 
7

 
10

Home equity operational items

 
3

 

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
Total notable items

$6

 

$55

 

($26
)
 

($363
)
 

$340

Underlying results (non-GAAP)

$1,528

 

$3,419

 

$347

 

$623

 

$1,312

Net income available to common stockholders of $1.7 billion increased $54 million, or 3%, compared to $1.6 billion in 2017.
On an Underlying basis,* net income available to common stockholders increased 32% led by revenue growth of 8%, with a 9% increase in net interest income and a 5% increase in noninterest income.
Total revenue of $6.1 billion increased $421 million, or 7%, from 2017, driven by strong net interest income    and noninterest income growth:
Net interest income of $4.5 billion increased $359 million, or 9%, compared to $4.2 billion in 2017, driven by higher loan yields and 4% average loan growth.

44

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



Net interest margin of 3.19% increased 17 basis points, compared to 3.02% in 2017, reflecting the benefit of higher interest rates and continued mix shift towards higher-yielding assets, partially offset by higher deposit and other funding costs.
Average loans and leases of $113.5 billion increased $4.2 billion, or 4%, from $109.3 billion in 2017, reflecting a $2.5 billion increase in commercial loans and leases and a $1.7 billion increase in retail loans.
Average deposits of $115.9 billion increased $4.0 billion, or 4%, from $111.9 billion in 2017, reflecting strength in term, checking with interest, savings and demand deposits.
Noninterest income of $1.6 billion increased $62 million, or 4%, from 2017, driven by strength in mortgage banking fees, including the $57 million impact of the FAMC acquisition, as well as foreign exchange and interest rate products, trust and investment services fees, letter of credit and loan fees and card fees, partially offset by lower capital market fees and service charges and fees.
On an Underlying basis,* noninterest income increased $73 million from $1.5 billion in 2017.
Noninterest expense of $3.6 billion increased $145 million, or 4%, compared to $3.5 billion in 2017, reflecting higher salaries and employee benefits driven by higher revenue-based incentives and merit increases, higher outside services expense, including continued investments to drive growth, $60 million of FAMC costs, primarily in salaries and employee benefits, and $54 million of notable items. These increases were partially offset by lower other operating expenses.
On an Underlying basis,* noninterest expense increased 4% from 2017.
Positive operating leverage was 3.2%, the efficiency ratio improved by 181 basis points to 59.1% compared to 2017, and ROTCE was 12.9%.
On an Underlying basis,* operating leverage was 3.3%, the efficiency ratio improved 183 basis points to 58.1% from 60.0% in 2017 and ROTCE increased 327 basis points to 13.1% from 9.8%.
Return on average common equity was 8.6% compared to 8.3% in 2017.
On an Underlying basis,* return on average common equity of 8.7% improved 207 basis points from 6.6% in 2017.
Earnings per diluted common share increased $0.27, or 8%, from 2017.
On an Underlying basis,* earnings per diluted common share increased $0.98, or 38%, from 2017.
Tangible book value per common share improved 5% to $28.73 from 2017. Fully diluted average common shares outstanding decreased by 23.3 million shares from 2017.
Provision for credit losses of $326 million increased $5 million, or 2%, from $321 million in 2017.
On an Underlying basis,* total credit-related costs decreased $21 million, or 6%, from $347 million in 2017, driven primarily by the $26 million impact of 2017 aircraft lease impairments.
Net charge-offs of $317 million increased $12 million, or 4%, from $305 million in 2017. The ALLL of $1.2 billion increased $6 million compared to December 31, 2017.
ALLL to total loans and leases of 1.06% decreased from 1.12% as of December 31, 2017.
The ALLL to nonperforming loans and leases ratio of 156% increased from 142% as of December 31, 2017.
The effective income tax rate increased to 21.2% from 13.6% in 2017, primarily attributable to the revaluation of our deferred tax liability as a result of 2017 Tax Legislation.
On an Underlying basis,* the effective income tax rate decreased to 22.5% from 32.2% in 2017, primarily attributable to the reduction in the federal statutory tax rate from 35% to 21% under the 2017 Tax Legislation, partially offset by an increase in state and local income taxes and non-deductible FDIC premiums.

45

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS




RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — 2018 compared with 2017

Net Income
The following table presents the significant components of our net income:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
 
(dollars in millions)
2018

 
2017

 
  Change
 
Percent
Net interest income

$4,532

 

$4,173

 

$359

 
9
%
Noninterest income
1,596

 
1,534

 
62

 
4

Total revenue
6,128

 
5,707

 
421

 
7

Provision for credit losses
326

 
321

 
5

 
2

Noninterest expense
3,619

 
3,474

 
145

 
4

Income before income tax expense
2,183

 
1,912

 
271

 
14

Income tax expense
462

 
260

 
202

 
78

Net income

$1,721

 

$1,652

 

$69

 
4
%
Net income available to common stockholders

$1,692

 

$1,638

 

$54

 
3
%
Return on average tangible common equity
12.94
%
 
12.35
%
 
59
 bps
 
 

Return on Equity and Assets

The following table presents our return on average total assets, return on average common equity, dividend payout ratio and average equity to average assets ratio:
 
December 31,
 
2018

 
2017

Return on average total assets
1.11
%
 
1.10
%
Return on average common equity
8.62

 
8.35

Dividend payout ratio
28

 
20

Average equity to average assets ratio
13.02

 
13.25



46

CITIZENS FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS



Net Interest Income
The following table presents the major components of net interest income and net interest margin:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
(dollars in millions)
Average
Balances
Income/
Expense
Yields/
Rates
 
Average
Balances
Income/
Expense
Yields/
Rates
 
Average
Balances
Yields/
Rates
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest-bearing cash and due from banks and deposits in banks

$1,579


$29

1.82
%
 

$1,807


$18

0.96
%
 

($228
)
86 bps
Taxable investment securities
25,233

672

2.66

 
25,696

625

2.43

 
(463
)
23
Non-taxable investment securities
6


2.60

 
7


2.60

 
(1
)
Total investment securities
25,239

672

2.66

 
25,703

625

2.43

 
(464
)
23
Commercial
39,363

1,621

4.06

 
37,631

1,334

3.50

 
1,732

56
Commercial real estate
12,299

557

4.47

 
11,178

402

3.55

 
1,121

92
Leases
3,038

82

2.71

 
3,437

86

2.50

 
(399
)
21
Total commercial loans and leases
54,700

2,260

4.08

 
52,246

1,822

3.44

 
2,454

64
Residential mortgages
17,883

644

3.60

 
16,017

571

3.57

 
1,866

3
Home equity loans
1,215

72

5.91

 
1,610

91

5.68

 
(395
)
23
Home equity lines of credit
13,043

592

4.54

 
13,706

514

3.75

 
(663
)
79
Home equity loans serviced by others
463

34

7.36

 
642

46

7.09

 
(179
)
27
Home equity lines of credit serviced by others
124

5

4.23

 
181

7

4.07

 
(57
)
16
Automobile
12,555

461

3.68

 
13,491

442

3.27

 
(936
)
41
Education
8,486

487

5.74

 
7,557

403

5.33

 
929

41
Credit cards
1,891

202

10.68

 
1,725

185

10.75

 
166

(7)
Other retail
3,113

253

8.09

 
2,117

168

7.94

 
996

15
Total retail loans
58,773

2,750

4.68

 
57,046

2,427

4.25

 
1,727

43
Total loans and leases (1)
113,473

5,010

4.39

 
109,292

4,249

3.87

 
4,181

52
Loans held for sale, at fair value
844

37

4.38

 
490

18

3.58

 
354

80
Other loans held for sale
164

10

6.18

 
190

10

5.36

 
(26
)
82
Interest-earning assets
141,299

5,758

4.05

 
137,482

4,920

3.56

 
3,817

49
Allowance for loan and lease losses
(1,245
)
 
 
 
(1,225
)