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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE
 ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-33998
Churchill Downs Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Kentucky 61-0156015
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (IRS Employer Identification No.)
600 North Hurstbourne Parkway, Suite 400 
Louisville,Kentucky40222
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(502) 636-4400
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, No Par ValueTrading Symbol(s)The Nasdaq Global Select Market LLC
(Title of each class registered)CHDN(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒  No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒   No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     ☐
Indicate by a check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No  ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
As of February 14, 2024, 73,677,379 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock were outstanding. As of June 30, 2023 (based upon the closing sale price for such date on the Nasdaq Global Select Market), the aggregate market value of the shares held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $9,415,953,283.
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on April 23, 2024 are incorporated by reference herein in response to Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of Form 10-K.



CHURCHILL DOWNS INCORPORATED
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023

2


Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Report”) contains various “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by the use of terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “will,” “scheduled”, and similar words or similar expressions (or negative versions of such words or expressions).
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. Important factors, that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations include the following: the occurrence of extraordinary events, such as terrorist attacks, public health threats, civil unrest, and inclement weather, including as a result of climate change; the effect of economic conditions on our consumers' confidence and discretionary spending or our access to credit, including the impact of inflation; additional or increased taxes and fees; the impact of any pandemics, epidemics, or outbreaks of infectious diseases, including possible new variants of COVID-19, and related economic matters on our results of operations, financial conditions and prospects; lack of confidence in the integrity of our core businesses or any deterioration in our reputation; loss of key or highly skilled personnel, as well as general disruptions in the general labor market; the impact of significant competition, and the expectation the competition levels will increase; changes in consumer preferences, attendance, wagering, and sponsorships; risks associated with equity investments, strategic alliances and other third-party agreements; inability to respond to rapid technological changes in a timely manner; concentration and evolution of slot machine and historical racing machine (HRM) manufacturing and other technology conditions that could impose additional costs; failure to enter into or maintain agreements with industry constituents, including horsemen and other racetracks; inability to successfully focus on market access and retail operations for our TwinSpires sports betting business and effectively compete; online security risk, including cyber-security breaches, or loss or misuse of our stored information as a result of a breach including customers’ personal information could lead to government enforcement actions or other litigation; reliance on our technology services and catastrophic events and system failures disrupting our operations; inability to identify, complete, or fully realize the benefits of our proposed acquisitions, divestitures, development of new venues or the expansion of existing facilities on time, on budget, or as planned; difficulty in integrating recent or future acquisitions into our operations; cost overruns and other uncertainties associated with the development of new venues and the expansion of existing facilities; general risks related to real estate ownership and significant expenditures, including risks related to environmental liabilities; personal injury litigation related to injuries occurring at our racetracks; compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other similar laws and regulations, or applicable anti-money laundering regulations; payment-related risks, such as risk associated with fraudulent credit card or debit card use; work stoppages and labor problems; risks related to pending or future legal proceedings and other actions; highly regulated operations and changes in the regulatory environment could adversely affect our business; restrictions in our debt facilities limiting our flexibility to operate our business; failure to comply with the financial ratios and other covenants in our debt facilities and other indebtedness; increases to interest rates (due to inflation or otherwise), disruption in the credit markets or changes to our credit ratings may adversely affect our business; increase in our insurance costs, or inability to obtain similar insurance coverage in the future, and any inability to recover under our insurance policies for damages sustained at our properties in the event of inclement weather and casualty events; and other factors described under the heading “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
3


PART I
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Overview
Churchill Downs Incorporated ("CDI" or the "Company") has been creating extraordinary entertainment experiences for nearly 150 years, beginning with the Company’s most iconic and enduring asset, the Kentucky Derby. Headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, CDI has expanded through the development of live and historical racing entertainment venues, the growth of the TwinSpires horse racing online wagering business, expanded pari-mutuel content and technology services to B2C platforms, and the operation and development of regional casino gaming properties.
Business Segments
The Company manages its business through three reportable segments: Live and Historical Racing, TwinSpires, and Gaming. Financial information about these segments is set forth in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, contained within this Report.
Live and Historical Racing
The Live and Historical Racing segment primarily includes live and historical pari-mutuel racing related revenue and expenses at Churchill Downs Racetrack and our historical racing properties in Kentucky, Virginia, and New Hampshire.
Our Live and Historical Racing properties earn commissions from pari-mutuel wagering on live and historical races, simulcast fees earned from other wagering sites, fees from racing event-related services including admissions, personal seat licenses, sponsorships, television rights, and other miscellaneous services, hotel services, and revenue from food and beverage services.
Churchill Downs Racetrack
Churchill Downs Racetrack is in Louisville, Kentucky and is an internationally known thoroughbred racing operation best known as the home of our iconic flagship event, the Kentucky Derby. Thoroughbred racing has been conducted at Churchill Downs Racetrack since 1875. The Kentucky Derby is the longest continuously held annual sporting event in the U.S. and is the first race of the annual series of races for 3-year-old thoroughbreds known as the Triple Crown. The demographic profile of our guests, global television viewership, and long-running nature of this iconic event are attractive to sponsors and corporate partners, especially those with luxury and/or marquee brands.
We conducted 71 live race days in 2021 and 76 live race days in 2022. During 2023, 72 live race days were conducted, however 14 of these race days were relocated to Ellis Park Racing and Gaming ("Ellis Park"). In 2024, we anticipate conducting approximately 83 live race days at the Churchill Downs Racetrack.
Churchill Downs Racetrack is located on 175 acres and has a one-mile dirt track, a 7/8-mile turf track, a stabling area, and a variety of areas, structures, and buildings that provide reserved seating for our patrons. Churchill Downs Racetrack has one of the largest 4K video boards in the world sitting 80 feet above the ground and measuring 171 feet wide by 90 feet tall. This video board provides views of the finish line and the entire race for on-track guests, including those in the infield and guests along the entire front side of the racetrack. The facility also has permanent lighting to accommodate night races. We have a saddling paddock, and the stable area has barns sufficient to accommodate 1,400 horses and a 114-room dormitory for backstretch personnel. We have a state-of-the-art equine medical center and quarantine barns on the backside area of Churchill Downs Racetrack which reinforces our ongoing commitment to equine safety and supports our long-term international growth strategy. The Churchill Downs Racetrack facility also includes a simulcast wagering facility. We also own 83 acres of land at our auxiliary training facility, which is five miles from Churchill Downs Racetrack.
In 2002, we transferred title of the Churchill Downs Racetrack facility to the City of Louisville, Kentucky and entered into a 30-year lease for the facility as part of the financing of improvements to the Churchill Downs Racetrack facility. We can reacquire the facility at any time for $1.00 subject to the terms of the lease.
In July 2021, we announced three major multi-year capital investments to transform key areas of Churchill Downs Racetrack: the Homestretch Club, the First Turn Experience, and the Paddock Project. The Homestretch Club opened for the 148th Kentucky Derby in May 2022. The Homestretch Club project has 3,250 premium reserved seats which include 2,550 stadium club seats, 66 covered terraced dining tables, 30 Trackside Lounges offering a "courtside seat" experience, five private VIP hospitality lounges, and an 18,600 square-foot indoor hospitality space with a grand staircase and 95-foot feature bar.
The Company invested $90.0 million in the First Turn Experience which opened for the 149th Kentucky Derby in May 2023. The First Turn Experience provides 5,100 permanent covered stadium seats and added a new 50,000 square-foot climate-controlled first floor hospitality venue with 2,000 reserved dining room tables and a trackside viewing terrace.
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The Company is also investing up to $200.0 million to enhance the experience for nearly every guest. The Paddock Project will improve the flow of guests throughout the paddock, create a larger paddock walking ring for viewing the horses prior to the races, create two new clubs in the area on the first floor under the Twin Spires that will provide views of the paddock and views of the tunnel that the horses walk through, new hospitality and other amenities for guests in certain areas of the third-floor clubhouse seats, and new terraces overlooking the paddock. The Paddock Project is scheduled for completion in time for the 150th Kentucky Derby in May 2024.
In July 2023, we also announced a $14.0 million renovation project that will update and refresh the 61 Jockey Club Suites and associated areas along the homestretch. The Jockey Club renovation is scheduled for completion in time for the 150th Kentucky Derby in May 2024.
Historical Racing Properties
The following table summarizes key information regarding our current and planned historical racing properties:
StatePropertyCity/ LocationFloor Space (Sq. ft.)Historical Racing Machines ("HRMs")
Retail Race & Sports Book(a)
KentuckyDerby City GamingLouisville, Kentucky55,0001,300ü
KentuckyDerby City Gaming DowntownLouisville, Kentucky43,000500ü
KentuckyTurfway ParkNorthern Kentucky45,000850ü
KentuckyNewportNorthern Kentucky23,000460ü
KentuckyOak GroveSouthwestern Kentucky180,0001,230ü
KentuckyEllis ParkNorthwestern Kentucky40,000300ü
Kentucky
Owensboro(b)
Northwestern Kentucky28,000600ü
New Hampshire
Chasers(c)
Salem, New Hampshire4,000(c)N/A
VirginiaRosie'sNew Kent / Central Virginia127,000570N/A
VirginiaRosie'sRichmond / Central Virginia54,000700N/A
VirginiaRosie's Dumfries / Northern Virginia19,000160N/A
Virginia
The Rose(d)
Dumfries / Northern Virginia58,0001,650N/A
VirginiaRosie'sHampton / Southern Virginia38,000700N/A
VirginiaRosie'sEmporia / Southern Virginia22,000150N/A
VirginiaRosie'sCollinsville / Southern Virginia2,00040N/A
VirginiaRosie'sVinton / Western Virginia15,000470N/A
Total753,0009,680
(a) The Company's retail sports betting business is included in the TwinSpires segment.
(b) The Company plans to open the Owensboro HRM entertainment venue in the first quarter of 2025.
(c) The Company plans to build a new charitable gaming facility to accommodate HRMs and table games.
(d) The Company plans to open The Rose (Dumfries) late in the third quarter of 2024.
Kentucky
Louisville
Derby City Gaming & Hotel ("Derby City Gaming") is a state-of-the-art HRM facility located at the Churchill Downs Racetrack auxiliary training facility and has a simulcast center and a dining facility.
In 2023, the Company invested $78.0 million to expand the facility and to build a five-story hotel with 123 rooms including amenities to better serve and attract guests. The expansion includes a VIP gaming area, a new sports bar, a stage for live entertainment, and an upscale-casual restaurant and bar for gaming and hotel guests. The new gaming space and hotel opened during the second quarter of 2023.
In December 2023, the Company invested $90.0 million to build Derby City Gaming Downtown ("DCG Downtown") in an existing building in downtown Louisville. DCG Downtown has a gaming area with approximately 500 HRMs, a main-level
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sports bar with a stage for live entertainment, a premium bourbon bar, and an elegant wine lounge for guests, including locals, tourists, and convention attendees.
Southwestern Kentucky
Oak Grove Racing & Gaming ("Oak Grove") is a premier state-of-the-art live harness racing and HRM venue located on 240 acres approximately one-hour north of Nashville, Tennessee in Oak Grove, Kentucky. Oak Grove owns and operates a harness racing track, 128-room hotel, and simulcast and HRM facility with an event center and food and beverage venues. Oak Grove also has a 3,000-person capacity outdoor amphitheater and stage, a state-of-the-art equestrian center, and a recreational vehicle park. Oak Grove conducts approximately 30 live racing days a year.
Northern Kentucky
Turfway Park Racing & Gaming ("Turfway Park") opened in September 2022 as a state-of-the-art live racing and historical racing entertainment venue with a sports bar and restaurants just south of Cincinnati, Ohio in Florence, Kentucky. Turfway Park owns and operates a thoroughbred racetrack and conducts approximately 70 live racing days a year.
Newport Racing & Gaming is an HRM entertainment venue and simulcast area that operates as an extension of Turfway Park located in Newport, Kentucky.
Northwestern Kentucky
The Company acquired Ellis Park in Henderson, Kentucky on September 26, 2022. Ellis Park owns and operates a thoroughbred racetrack and conducts approximately 25 live race days a year. Ellis Park also has a simulcast and HRM facility with food and beverage offerings.
In June 2023, the Company announced it plans to invest approximately $100.0 million in a new HRM entertainment venue on the east side of Owensboro with an expected completion in the first quarter of 2025.
Virginia
The Company acquired Colonial Downs Racetrack ("Colonial Downs") and six historical racing entertainment venues across Virginia as part of the acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Peninsula Pacific Entertainment LLC ("P2E") on November 1, 2022 ("P2E Transaction"). Colonial Downs has a dirt track, the widest turf track oval in North America, a simulcast area, food and beverage offerings, and two off-track betting facilities ("OTBs"). Colonial Downs conducted 27 live racing days in 2023 and plans to conduct 28 live racing days in 2024.
The Company also invested $30.0 million in a seventh Virginia based HRM entertainment venue that opened on September 26, 2023 in Emporia, Virginia with 150 HRMs and a restaurant and bar.
The Company is investing approximately $460.0 million to construct The Rose Gaming Resort ("The Rose") in Dumfries, Virginia with a 102-room hotel and 1,650 HRMs as well as a number of food and beverage options. The Rose has the potential to be expanded to up to 1,800 HRMs. The Rose is scheduled to be completed late in the third quarter of 2024.
New Hampshire
On September 2, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of Chasers Poker Room ("Chasers") located in Salem, New Hampshire. Chasers is a charitable gaming facility located approximately 30 miles from Boston, Massachusetts, that offers poker and a variety of table games. The Company plans to develop an expanded charitable gaming facility in Salem to accommodate HRMs and table games.
TwinSpires
The TwinSpires segment includes the revenue and expenses from pari-mutuel wagers through our advance deposit wagering ("ADW") business, our retail and online sports betting business, totalisator services provided by United Tote, and our HRM technology provider Exacta Systems ("Exacta"). TwinSpires is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky.
ADW
TwinSpires operates the online horse racing wagering business for TwinSpires.com, BetAmerica.com, and other white-label platforms; facilitates high dollar wagering by certain customers; and provides the Bloodstock Research Information Services platform for horse racing statistical data. TwinSpires is one of the largest and most profitable legal online horse racing wagering platforms in the U.S. TwinSpires accepts pari-mutuel wagers through ADW from customers residing in certain states who establish and fund an account from which these customers may place wagers via telephone, mobile applications, or through the Internet. This business is licensed as a multi-jurisdictional simulcasting and interactive wagering hub in the state of Oregon and holds licenses from various other states where applicable. This business also offers customers streaming video of live horse races, replays, and an assortment of racing and handicapping information. BetAmerica.com is an online wagering business
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licensed under TwinSpires that offers wagering on horse racing throughout the U.S. We also provide technology services to third parties, and we earn commissions from white label ADW products and services. Under these arrangements, we typically provide an ADW platform and related operational services while the third party typically provides the brand, marketing, and limited customer functions. We announced two of these business-to-business agreements in 2022. On September 8, 2022, we announced a multi-year agreement to enable FanDuel, a sports book and mobile betting operator, to create a fully integrated and seamless wagering experience with a single wallet for horse racing and sports with exclusive TV rights to racing content and non-exclusive Kentucky Derby sponsorship rights for sports wagering. On November 29, 2022, the Company announced a multi-year agreement to provide DraftKings ADW technology and other services. Both agreements began in early 2023.
Sports Betting
Our TwinSpires sports betting business includes the results of our retail sports books at our wholly owned properties and online sports betting through third parties. We have executed strategic market access agreements with Bet365 in Pennsylvania, Golden Nugget in Indiana, and various market access partners in Kentucky. The Company also operates retail sports betting at certain of its racetracks and HRM and gaming facilities.
United Tote
United Tote manufactures and operates pari-mutuel wagering systems for racetracks, OTBs, and other pari-mutuel wagering businesses. United Tote provides totalisator services which accumulate wagers, calculate payoffs, and displays wagering data to patrons who wager on horse races. United Tote has contracts to provide totalisator services to several third-party racetracks, OTBs, and other pari-mutuel wagering businesses and provides these services at our facilities. On August 11, 2022, the Company entered into an agreement to sell 49% of United Tote, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company to NYRA Content Management Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of the New York Racing Association. The Company has received a deposit on the pending transaction of $14.4 million. The transaction is subject to usual and customary closing conditions, including applicable regulatory notices and approvals and is expected to close during the first half of 2024.
Exacta
On August 22, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of Exacta. Exacta is a leading provider of central determinate system technology in HRMs across the country. Exacta's system architecture supports multiple game vendors and virtually unlimited math modeling capabilities on a single central determinate system enabling Exacta to deliver a diverse gaming library to Company owned and third-party HRM entertainment venues in Kentucky, Virginia, Wyoming, and New Hampshire.
Gaming
The Gaming segment includes revenue and expenses for the casino properties and associated racetracks which support the casino license. The Gaming segment generates revenue and expenses from slot machines, table games, video lottery terminals ("VLTs"), video poker, HRMs, ancillary food and beverage services, hotel services, commission on pari-mutuel wagering, racing event-related services, and other miscellaneous operations.















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The following table summarizes key information regarding our current and planned gaming properties:
StatePropertyAcresCasino Space (Sq. ft.)
Slots and Video Lottery Terminals(a)
Table GamesHotel Rooms
Retail Sports Book(b)
Wholly owned
FloridaCalder Casino54106,0001,0806N/AN/A
Indiana
Terre Haute Casino Resort(c)
4836,0001,00034122ü
IowaHard Rock Hotel and Casino Sioux City1541,0006602054ü
LouisianaFair Grounds Race Course and Slots and Video Services LLC14533,0002,030N/AN/Aü
MaineOxford Casino and Hotel9727,00097024107N/A
MarylandOcean Downs Casino and Racetrack16770,00088018N/Aü
MississippiHarlow's Casino Resort and Spa8533,00067020105ü
MississippiRiverwalk Casino Hotel2225,0005901176ü
New Yorkdel Lago Resort and Casino8399,0001,67080205ü
PennsylvaniaPresque Isle Downs and Casino27061,0001,54034N/Aü
Equity Investments
IllinoisRivers Casino Des Plaines2178,0001,520120N/Aü
OhioMiami Valley Gaming and Racing120190,0002,200N/AN/Aü
Total799,00014,810367669
(a) Includes HRMs and video poker machines at Fair Grounds Race Course and Slots and Video Services LLC.
(b) The Company's retail sports betting business at its wholly owned properties is included in the TwinSpires segment.
(c) The Company plans to open the Terre Haute Casino Resort in the second quarter of 2024.
Wholly owned gaming properties
Florida
Calder Casino ("Calder") in Miami Gardens, Florida is located near Hard Rock Stadium, home of the Miami Dolphins. Calder offers two dining facilities and an entertainment venue. On June 17, 2022, the Company closed on the sale of 115.7 acres of land near Calder for $291.0 million, or approximately $2.5 million per acre, to Link Logistics Real Estate, a Blackstone portfolio company. The Company still owns 15-20 acres that may be sold for future development.
Indiana
The Company is investing up to $290.0 million in the development of the Terre Haute Casino Resort ("Terre Haute") in Terre Haute, Indiana. Terre Haute will be a gaming entertainment venue featuring 400,000 square-feet space with 1,000 slot machines, 34 table games, a 122-room luxury hotel, and several food and beverage offerings. The Terre Haute casino is scheduled to be completed in early April 2024 and the Terre Haute hotel is scheduled to be completed by the middle of May 2024.
Iowa
As part of the P2E Transaction, the Company acquired Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Sioux City, which is a gaming facility with a hotel, several food and drink offerings, and event spaces.
Louisiana
Fair Grounds Race Course & Slots ("Fair Grounds") is a gaming facility and racecourse with a bar, a simulcast facility, a dirt and turf track, and a stabling area. Fair Grounds conducts approximately 80 live racing days each year. The facility includes clubhouse and grandstand seating for approximately 5,000 guests, a general admissions area, and several dining facilities. The stable area consists of barns that can accommodate approximately 1,900 horses and living quarters for approximately 130
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people. Fair Grounds also operates over 500 HRMs in 15 OTBs and Video Services LLC ("VSI") is the owner and operator of video poker machines in 12 of those OTBs in Louisiana.
Maine
Oxford Casino and Hotel, located in Oxford, Maine, is a gaming facility with a hotel and a dining facility.
Maryland
Ocean Downs Casino and Racetrack, located in Berlin, Maryland, is a gaming facility with several dining options and a racetrack that conducts approximately 45 live harness racing days each year.
Mississippi
Harlow’s Casino Resort and Spa is a gaming facility and hotel with two dining facilities in Greenville, Mississippi. Riverwalk Casino Hotel is a gaming facility and hotel with two dining facilities in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
New York
As part of the P2E Transaction, the Company acquired del Lago Resort and Casino in Waterloo, New York, which is a gaming facility and a hotel with several dining options.
Pennsylvania
Presque Isle Downs and Casino is a gaming facility with three dining facilities, an entertainment venue and thoroughbred racetrack that conducts approximately 80 live racing days each year.
Equity Investments
Illinois
In March 2019, the Company acquired 61.3% equity ownership in Midwest Gaming Holdings, LLC ("Midwest Gaming"), the parent company of Rivers Casino Des Plaines ("Rivers Des Plaines"). Rivers Des Plaines is a gaming entertainment venue located on 21 acres and has seven dining facilities, and an approximate 5,000 square-foot state-of-the-art BetRivers Sports Bar. During 2022, Rivers Des Plaines expanded the gaming floors to add approximately 850 additional gaming positions and a new restaurant, a 22-table poker room, and a 10,000 square-foot ballroom for private events and live entertainment.
Ohio
The Company has a 50% equity investment in Miami Valley Gaming and Racing ("MVG"). MVG is a gaming entertainment venue with harness racetrack, racing simulcast center, and a retail sports book.
All Other
We have aggregated Arlington International Racecourse ("Arlington") as well as certain corporate operations, and other immaterial joint ventures in All Other to reconcile to consolidated results.
Arlington
On February 15, 2023, the Company sold its property at Arlington Heights, Illinois to the Chicago Bears for $197.2 million. For more information, refer to Note 4, Dispositions to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Corporate
Corporate includes miscellaneous and other revenue, compensation expense, professional fees and other general and administrative expense not allocated to our segments.
Competition
Overview
We operate in a highly competitive industry with many participants, some of which have financial and other resources that are greater than ours. The industry faces competition from a variety of sources for discretionary consumer spending, including spectator sports, sports wagering, and other entertainment and gaming options. Our brick-and-mortar casinos compete with traditional and Native American casinos, VLTs, state-sponsored lotteries, and other forms of legalized gaming in the U.S. and other jurisdictions.
Legalized gambling is currently permitted in various forms in many states and Canada. Other jurisdictions could legalize gambling in the future, and established gaming jurisdictions could award additional gaming licenses or permit the expansion of
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existing gaming operations. If additional gaming opportunities become available near our racing or gaming operations, such gaming operations could have a material adverse impact on our business.
In May 2018, the United States Supreme Court struck down the 1992 Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, which had effectively banned sports wagering in most states. Removal of the ban gives states the authority to authorize sports wagering.
Live and Historical Racing
In 2023, approximately 32,000 thoroughbred horse races were conducted in the U.S., which was down 5% compared to 2022. As a racetrack operator, we compete for horses with other racetracks running live racing meets at or near the same time as our races. Our ability to compete is substantially dependent on the racing calendar, number of horses racing, and purse sizes. As a content provider, we compete for wagering dollars in the simulcast market with other racetracks conducting races at or near the same times as our races. In recent years, competition has increased as more states legalize gaming and allow slot machines at racetracks with mandatory purse contributions. Our HRM entertainment venues in Kentucky, Virginia, and New Hampshire compete with regional casinos in the area and other forms of legal and illegal gaming.
TwinSpires
ADW
Our TwinSpires ADW business competes with other ADW businesses for both customers and racing content, as well as brick-and-mortar racetracks, casinos, OTBs, and other forms of legal and illegal sports betting.
Sports Betting
Our TwinSpires sports betting business competes for customers with retail, mobile, and online offerings from commercial brick-and-mortar casinos and racetracks. We also compete with daily fantasy sports gaming companies that are expanding into mobile and online sports betting and iGaming, international sports betting businesses looking to expand into the U.S. market, and other forms of legal and illegal sports betting and iGaming operations.
Gaming
Our Gaming properties operate in highly competitive environments and primarily compete for customers with other casinos in the surrounding regional gaming markets. Our Gaming properties compete to a lesser extent with state-sponsored lotteries, off-track wagering, card parlors, online gambling, and other forms of legalized gaming in the U.S. 
Human Capital
We believe our human capital is material to our operations and core to the long-term success of our Company. Our focus is on attracting innovative and collaborative team members who want to build their skills in a successful and growing set of businesses focused on creating unique experiences for our guests.
Our People
As of December 31, 2023, we had a total of approximately 7,970 team members, of which approximately 5,660 are full-time employees. The number of seasonal employees fluctuates significantly through the course of the year primarily due to the seasonal nature of our properties that conduct live racing. We have the highest level of seasonal team members during the second quarter when we traditionally run the Kentucky Derby.
As of December 31, 2023, approximately 1,120 employees were covered by 12 collective bargaining agreements. We have experienced no material interruptions of operations due to disputes with our team members.
Diversity and Inclusion
We believe that a diverse workforce fosters innovation and cultivates a high-performance culture that leverages the unique perspectives of every team member to profitably grow our businesses. The Company’s Board of Directors and executive management team includes diverse individuals based on gender and race. The Company benefits from the diverse experiences of our directors and management that individually and collectively create a high-performance culture focused on executing our strategic priorities to protect and grow our businesses effectively and efficiently.
We believe diversity and inclusion helps the Company attract the best talent to grow our businesses and enables our businesses to attract and delight customers and consumers. The Kentucky Derby is a pillar of our community that provides the opportunity for our team members and the community to raise significant funding for charities that support important aspects of our broader communities including fostering diversity and inclusion, food, shelter, education, and health related non-profits. The Company also provides donations to non-profit organizations that support these initiatives within our communities.
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Talent Acquisition, Development and Retention
We invest in attracting, developing, and retaining our team members. Our philosophy is to communicate a clear purpose and strategy, set challenging goals, drive accountability, continuously assess, develop, and advance talent, and to embrace a leadership-driven talent strategy. Our Company enables team members to grow in their current roles as well as to have opportunities to build new skills in other parts of the Company. We review talent and succession plans with our Chief Executive Officer and Board of Directors periodically throughout the year. The process focuses on accelerating talent development, strengthening succession pipelines, and advancing diversity in gender, race, and experience.
Compensation, Benefits, Safety and Wellness
We strive to offer market competitive salaries and wages for our team members, and we offer comprehensive health and retirement benefits to eligible employees. Our core health and welfare benefits are supplemented with specific programs to manage or improve common health conditions and to provide a variety of voluntary benefits and paid time away from work programs. We also provide several innovative programs designed to promote physical, emotional, and financial well-being. Our commitment to the safety of our employees, customers, and community remains a top priority, and we have safety programs at all our properties to facilitate identification and implementation of safety practices.
Governmental Regulations and Potential Legislative Changes
We are subject to various federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations that affect our businesses. The ownership, operation, and management of our Live and Historical Racing, TwinSpires, and Gaming segments are subject to regulation under the laws and regulations of each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our businesses and properties are also subject to legislative actions at both the federal and state level.
Live and Historical Racing Regulations
Horse racing is a highly regulated industry. In the U.S., interstate pari-mutuel wagering on horse racing is subject to the Interstate Horseracing Act of 1978, as amended in 2000 ("IHA"). Under the IHA, racetracks and ADWs can accept interstate off-track wagers if the racetracks and ADWs have approvals from (1) the host horse racetrack including a written agreement with the horsemen’s group, if applicable, (2) the host racing commission, and (3) the off-track racing commission. If these requirements are met, racetracks can commingle wagers from different racetracks and wagering facilities and broadcast horse racing events to other licensed establishments.
In the U.S., individual states regulate the operations of racetracks located within their respective jurisdictions with the intent to, among other things, protect the public from unfair and illegal gambling practices, generate tax revenue, license racetracks and operators and prevent organized crime from being involved in the industry. Although the specific form may vary, states that regulate horse racing generally do so through a horse racing commission or other gambling regulatory authority. In general, regulatory authorities perform background checks on all racetrack owners prior to granting the necessary operating licenses. Horse owners, trainers, jockeys, drivers, stewards, judges, and backstretch personnel are also subject to licensing by governmental authorities.
The total number of days on which each racetrack conducts live racing may fluctuate annually based on applications and approvals.
Kentucky
In Kentucky, horse racing racetracks and HRM facilities are subject to the licensing and regulation of the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission ("KHRC"). Licenses to conduct live thoroughbred and standardbred racing meets, to participate in simulcasting, to operate HRM facilities, and to accept advance deposit wagers from Kentucky residents are approved annually by the KHRC based upon applications submitted by the racetracks in Kentucky. Changes in Kentucky laws or regulations may limit or otherwise materially affect the types of HRMs that may be conducted and such changes, if enacted, could have an adverse impact on our Kentucky HRM operations.
In 2023, the Kentucky General Assembly passed a bill to authorize the KHRC to regulate sports betting. Only licensed racetracks and their extensions can operate retail sports betting. Each racetrack is allowed to contract with up to three providers to carryout online or retail sports betting. Retail sports betting commenced on September 7, 2023 and online sports betting began on September 28, 2023.
Louisiana
In Louisiana, the 2021 Historical Horse Racing Act ("2021 HHR Act") allows OTBs to have up to 50 HRMs. On October 25, 2022, a number of individual plaintiffs associated with video poker and truckstops, filed a lawsuit in the 19th Judicial District Court in East Baton Rouge, Louisiana against certain racetracks in Louisiana, including Fair Grounds, alleging that the 2021 HHR Act is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to permit historical racing in a parish without a referendum. As of
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December 31, 2023, the Company had approximately 500 HRMs in OTBs in Louisiana. If the 2021 HHR Act is determined to be unconstitutional it could have an adverse impact on our Louisiana HRM results which are reported in our Gaming segment.
TwinSpires Regulations and Potential Legislative Changes
TwinSpires is licensed in Oregon under a multi-jurisdictional simulcasting and interactive wagering totalisator hub license issued by the Oregon Racing Commission in accordance with Oregon law and the IHA. We also hold ADW licenses in certain other states where appropriate. Changes in the form of new legislation or regulatory activity at the state or federal level could adversely impact our mobile and online ADW business.
Sports Betting and iGaming Regulations and Potential Legislative Changes
In May 2018, the United States Supreme Court struck down the 1992 Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, which had effectively banned sports wagering in most states. Removal of the ban gave states the authority to authorize sports wagering. Sports betting has been authorized and is operational in thirty-eight states and the District of Columbia as of December 31, 2023. Each state has different structures for the number of allowable industry participants, license fees, taxes, and other operational requirements.
As of December 31, 2023, the Company is operational in nine states for retail sports betting.
Gaming Regulations and Potential Legislative Changes
The gaming industry is a highly regulated industry. In the U.S., gaming laws are generally designed to protect consumers and the viability and integrity of the industry. Gaming laws may also be designed to protect and maximize state and local revenue derived through taxes and licensing fees imposed on industry participants as well as to enhance economic development and tourism. To accomplish these public policy goals, gaming laws establish procedures to ensure that participants in the industry meet certain standards of character and fitness. Gaming laws require industry participants to:
Ensure that unsuitable individuals and organizations have no role in gaming operations,
Establish procedures designed to prevent cheating and fraudulent practices,
Establish and maintain responsible accounting practices and procedures,
Maintain effective controls over financial practices, including establishment of minimum procedures for internal fiscal affairs and the safeguarding of assets and revenue,
Maintain systems for reliable record keeping,
File periodic reports with gaming regulators,
Ensure that contracts and financial transactions are commercially reasonable, reflect fair market value and are arms-length transactions,
Establish programs to promote responsible gambling and inform patrons of the availability of help for problem gambling, and
Enforce minimum age requirements.
A state regulatory environment is established by statute and administered by a regulatory agency with broad discretion to regulate the affairs of owners, managers, and persons with financial interests in gaming operations. Gaming authorities in the various jurisdictions in which we operate:
Adopt rules and regulations under the implementing statutes,
Interpret and enforce gaming laws,
Impose disciplinary sanctions for violations, including fines and penalties,
Review the character and fitness of participants in gaming operations and make determinations regarding suitability or qualification for licensure,
Grant licenses for participation in gaming operations,
Collect and review reports and information submitted by participants in gaming operations,
Review and approve transactions, such as acquisitions or change-of-control transactions of gaming industry participants, securities offerings, and debt transactions engaged in by such participants, and
Establish and collect fees and taxes.
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Any change in the gaming laws or regulations of a jurisdiction could have a material adverse impact on our gaming operations.
Licensing and Suitability Determinations
Gaming laws require us, each of our subsidiaries engaged in gaming operations, certain of our directors, officers and employees, and in some cases, certain of our shareholders, to obtain licenses from gaming authorities. Licenses typically require a determination that the applicant qualifies or is suitable to hold the license. Gaming authorities have very broad discretion in determining whether an applicant qualifies for licensing or should be deemed suitable. Criteria used in determining whether to grant a license to conduct gaming operations, while varying between jurisdictions, generally include consideration of factors such as the good character, honesty, and integrity of the applicant; the financial stability, integrity, and responsibility of the applicant, including whether the operation is adequately capitalized in the state and exhibits the ability to maintain adequate insurance levels; the quality of the applicant’s gaming facilities; the amount of revenue to be derived by the applicable state from the operation of the applicant’s gaming facility; the applicant’s practices with respect to minority hiring and training; and the effect on competition and general impact on the community.
In evaluating individual applicants, gaming authorities consider the individual’s business experience and reputation for good character, the individual’s criminal history, and the character of those with whom the individual associates.
Many gaming jurisdictions limit the number of licenses granted to operate gaming facilities within the state and some states limit the number of licenses granted to any one gaming operator. Licenses under gaming laws are generally not transferable without approval. Licenses in most of the jurisdictions in which we conduct gaming operations are granted for limited durations and require renewal from time to time. There can be no assurance that any of our licenses will be renewed. The failure to renew any of our licenses could have a material adverse impact on our gaming operations.
Gaming authorities may investigate any subsidiary engaged in gaming operations and may investigate any individual who has a material relationship to or material involvement with any of these entities to determine whether such individual is suitable or should be licensed as a business associate of a gaming licensee. Our officers, directors, and certain key employees must file applications with the gaming authorities and may be required to be licensed, qualify, or be found suitable in many jurisdictions. Gaming authorities may deny an application for licensing for any cause that they deem reasonable. Qualification and suitability determinations require submission of detailed personal and financial information followed by a thorough investigation. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to gaming authorities. Gaming authorities have the ability to deny a license, qualification, or finding of suitability and have jurisdiction to disapprove a change in a corporate position.
If one or more gaming authorities were to find that an officer, director, or key employee fails to qualify or is unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue having a relationship with us, we would be required to sever all relationships with such person. Gaming authorities may also require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications.
In many jurisdictions, certain of our shareholders may be required to undergo a suitability investigation similar to that described above. Many jurisdictions require any person who acquires beneficial ownership of more than a certain percentage of our voting securities, typically 5%, to report the acquisition to gaming authorities, and may be required to apply for qualification or a finding of suitability. Most gaming authorities, however, allow an "institutional investor" to apply for a waiver.
Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within the prescribed period after being advised it is required by gaming authorities may be denied a license or found unsuitable, as applicable. Any shareholder found unsuitable or denied a license and who holds, directly or indirectly, any beneficial ownership of our voting securities beyond such period of time as may be prescribed by the applicable gaming authorities may be guilty of a criminal offense. We may be subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be a shareholder or to have any other relationship with us or any of our subsidiaries, we:
(i)     pay that person any dividend or interest upon our voting securities,
(ii)     allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through securities held by that person,
(iii)     pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise, or
(iv)     fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require such unsuitable person to relinquish voting securities including, if necessary, the immediate purchase of said voting securities for cash at fair market value.
Violations of Gaming Laws
If we violate applicable gaming laws, our gaming licenses could be limited, conditioned, suspended, or revoked by gaming authorities, and we and any other persons involved could be subject to substantial fines. A supervisor or conservator can be appointed by gaming authorities to operate our gaming properties, or in some jurisdictions, take title to our gaming assets in the
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jurisdiction, and under certain circumstances, income generated during such appointment could be forfeited to the applicable state or states. Violations of laws in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in other jurisdictions. As a result, violations by us of applicable gaming laws could have a material adverse impact on our gaming operations.
Some jurisdictions prohibit certain types of political activity by a gaming licensee, officers, directors, and key employees. A violation of such a prohibition may subject the offender to criminal and/or disciplinary action.
Reporting and Record-keeping Requirements
We are required periodically to submit detailed financial and operating reports and furnish any other information that gaming authorities may require. Under federal law, we are required to record and submit detailed reports of currency transactions involving greater than $10,000 at our gaming facilities and racetracks as well as any suspicious activity that may occur at such facilities. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in fines or cessation of operations. We are required to maintain a current stock ledger that may be examined by gaming authorities at any time. If any securities are held in trust by an agent or by a nominee, the record holder may be required to disclose the identity of the beneficial owner to gaming authorities. A failure to make such disclosure may be grounds for finding the record holder unsuitable. Gaming authorities may require certificates for our securities to bear a legend indicating that the securities are subject to specified gaming laws.
Review and Approval of Transactions
Substantially all material loans, leases, sales of securities, and similar financing transactions must be reported to and in some cases approved by gaming authorities. We may not make a public offering of securities without the prior approval of certain gaming authorities. Changes in control through merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisitions, management, or consulting agreements, or otherwise are subject to receipt of prior approval of gaming authorities. Entities seeking to acquire control of us or one of our subsidiaries must satisfy gaming authorities with respect to a variety of stringent standards prior to assuming control. Gaming authorities may also require controlling shareholders, officers, directors, and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control, to be investigated and licensed as part of the approval process relating to the transaction.
License Fees and Gaming Taxes
We pay substantial license fees and taxes in many jurisdictions in connection with our gaming operations which are computed in various ways depending on the type of gambling or activity involved. Depending upon the particular fee or tax involved, these fees and taxes are payable with varying frequency. License fees and taxes are based upon such factors as a percentage of the gaming revenue received; the number of gambling devices and table games operated; or a one-time fee payable upon the initial receipt of license and fees in connection with the renewal of license. In some jurisdictions, casino tax rates are graduated such that the tax rates increase as gaming revenue increases. Tax rates are subject to change, sometimes with little notice, and such changes could have a material adverse impact on our gaming operations.
Operational Requirements
In most jurisdictions, we are subject to certain requirements and restrictions on how we must conduct our gaming operations. In certain states, we are required to give preference to local suppliers and include minority and women-owned businesses and organized labor in construction projects to the maximum extent practicable. We may be required to give employment preference to minorities, women, and in-state residents in certain jurisdictions. Our ability to conduct certain types of games, introduce new games or move existing games within our facilities may be restricted or subject to regulatory review and approval. Some of our operations are subject to restrictions on the number of gaming positions we may have, and the maximum wagers allowed to be placed by our customers.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to various federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations that govern activities that may have adverse environmental effects, such as discharges to air and water, as well as the management and disposal of solid, animal, and hazardous wastes and exposure to hazardous materials. These laws and regulations, which are complex and subject to change, include the United States Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") and state laws and regulations that address the impacts of manure and wastewater generated by Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations ("CAFO") on water quality, including, but not limited to, storm and sanitary water discharges. CAFO and other water discharge regulations include permit requirements and water quality discharge standards. Enforcement of these regulations has been receiving increased governmental attention. Compliance with these and other environmental laws can, in some circumstances, require significant capital expenditures. We may incur future costs under existing and new laws and regulations pertaining to storm water and wastewater management at our racetracks. Violations can result in significant penalties and, in some instances, interruption, or cessation of operations.
We also are subject to laws and regulations that create liability and cleanup responsibility for releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Under certain of these laws and regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of property may be
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liable for the costs of remediating hazardous substances or petroleum products on its property, without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or caused, the presence of the contaminants, and regardless of whether the practices that resulted in the contamination were legal at the time the contamination occurred. The presence of, or failure to remediate properly, such substances may materially adversely affect the ability to sell or rent such property or to borrow funds using such property as collateral. The owner of a property may be subject to claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property.
Marks and Intellectual Property
We hold numerous state and federal service mark registrations on specific names and designs in various categories including the entertainment business, apparel, paper goods, printed matter, housewares, and glass. We license the use of these service marks and derive revenue from such license agreements.
Available Information
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and other Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") filings, and any amendments to those reports and any other filings that we file with or furnish to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are made available free of charge on our website (www.churchilldownsincorporated.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the materials with the SEC and are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below, that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and the trading price of our common stock.
Economic and External Risks
Our business could be adversely affected by the occurrence of extraordinary events, such as terrorist attacks, public health threats, civil unrest, and inclement weather, including as a result of climate change
Our operating results depend, in large part, on revenues derived from customers visiting our casinos and racetracks, which is subject to the occurrence and threat of extraordinary events that may discourage attendance or expose us to substantial liability. Terrorist activity, including acts of domestic terrorism, civil unrest, or other actions that discourage attendance at other locations, or even the threat of such activity, including public concerns regarding air travel, military actions, safety, and additional national or local catastrophic incidents, could result in reduced attendance at Churchill Downs Racetrack and at our other locations. A major epidemic or pandemic, outbreak of a contagious equine disease, or the threat of such an event, could also adversely affect attendance and could impact the supply chain for our major construction projects resulting in higher costs and delays of the projects. For example, the COVID-19 global pandemic resulted in the temporary suspension of operations of all of our wholly owned gaming properties, certain wholly owned racing operations, and the two casino properties related to our equity investments. While we are constantly evaluating our security precautions in an effort to ensure the safety of the public, no security measures can guarantee safety and there can be no assurances of avoiding potential liabilities.
Since horse racing is conducted outdoors, unfavorable weather conditions, including extremely high and low temperatures, heavy rains, high winds, storms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, could cause events to be canceled and/or attendance to be lower, resulting in reduced wagering. Climate change could have an impact on longer-term natural weather trends. Extreme weather events that are linked to rising temperatures, changing global weather patterns, sea, land, and air temperatures, as well as sea levels, rain, and snow could result in increased occurrence and severity of adverse weather events. Our operations are subject to reduced patronage, disruptions, or complete cessation of operations due to weather conditions, natural disasters, and other casualties. The occurrence or threat of any such extraordinary event at our locations, particularly at Churchill Downs Racetrack during Kentucky Derby and Oaks week, could have a material negative effect on our business and results of operations.
Our business is sensitive to economic conditions which may affect consumer confidence, consumers’ discretionary spending, or our access to credit in a manner that adversely impacts our operations
Economic trends can impact consumer confidence and consumers’ discretionary spending, including:
Negative economic conditions and the persistence of elevated levels of unemployment can impact consumers’ disposable incomes and, therefore, impact the demand for entertainment and leisure activities.
Inflationary periods negatively impact consumers' discretionary income and could reduce the amount of income previously used for gaming and entertainment.
Declines in the residential real estate market, increases in individual tax rates and other factors that we cannot accurately predict may reduce the disposable income of our customers.
Decreases in consumer discretionary spending could affect us even if such decreases occur in other markets. For example, reduced wagering levels, and profitability at racetracks from which we carry racing content could cause certain racetracks to cancel races or cease operations and therefore reduce the content we could provide to our customers.
Lower consumer confidence or reductions in consumers’ discretionary spending could result in fewer patrons spending money at our racetracks, our online wagering sites and gaming and wagering facilities, and reduced consumer spending overall.
Our access to and the cost of credit may be impacted to the extent global and U.S. credit markets are affected by downward economic trends. Economic trends can also impact the financial viability of other industry constituents, making collection of amounts owed to us uncertain. Our ability to respond to periods of economic contraction may be limited, as certain of our costs remain fixed or even increase when revenue declines.
We are vulnerable to additional or increased taxes and fees
We believe that the prospect of raising significant additional revenue through taxes and fees is one of the primary reasons that certain jurisdictions permit legalized gaming. As a result, gaming companies are typically subject to significant taxes and fees in addition to the normal federal, state, provincial, and local income taxes and such taxes and fees may be increased at any time. From time to time, legislators and officials have proposed changes in tax laws or in the administration of laws affecting the horse racing, online wagering, and casino industries. Many states and municipalities, including ones in which we operate, are currently experiencing budgetary pressures that may make it more likely they would seek to impose additional taxes and fees on
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our operations. We are subject to tax in multiple U.S. tax jurisdictions and judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets or liabilities, and in evaluating our tax positions. It is not possible to determine the likelihood, extent or impact of any future changes in tax laws or fees, or changes in the administration of such laws; however, if enacted, such changes could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Strategic Risks
A lack of confidence in the integrity of our core businesses or any deterioration in our reputation could affect our ability to retain our customers and engage with new customers
Horse racing, pari-mutuel wagering, and casino gaming businesses depend on the public perception of integrity and fairness in their operations. To prevent cheating or erroneous payouts, necessary oversight processes must be in place to ensure that such activities cannot be manipulated. A lack or loss of confidence in the fairness of our industries could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Acts of fraud or cheating in our gaming businesses using counterfeit chips, covert schemes, and other tactics, possibly in collusion with our employees, may be attempted or committed by our gaming customers with the aim of increasing their winnings. Our gaming customers, visitors, and employees may also commit crimes such as theft to obtain chips not belonging to them. We have taken measures to safeguard our interests including the implementation of systems, processes, and technologies to mitigate against these risks, extensive employee training, surveillance, security, and investigation operations and adoption of appropriate security features on our chips such as embedded radio frequency identification tags. Despite our efforts, we may not be successful in preventing or detecting such culpable behavior and schemes in a timely manner and the relevant insurance we have obtained may not be sufficient to cover our losses depending on the incident, which could result in losses to our gaming operations and generate negative publicity, both of which could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and cash flows.
Other factors that could influence our reputation include the quality of the services we offer and our actions with regard to social issues such as diversity, human rights, and support for local communities. Broad access to social media makes it easy for anyone to provide public feedback that can influence perceptions of us or our properties. It may be difficult to control or effectively manage negative publicity, regardless of whether it is accurate. Negative events and publicity could quickly and materially damage perceptions of us, our properties, or our industries, which, in turn, could adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations through loss of customers, loss of business opportunities, lack of acceptance of our company to operate in host communities, employee retention, or recruiting difficulties or other difficulties.
An inability to attract and retain key and highly qualified and skilled personnel, as well as disruptions in the general labor market, could impact our ability to successfully develop, operate, and grow our business
We believe that our success depends in part on our ability to hire, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified and skilled employees throughout our organization. If we do not successfully hire, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified and skilled employees, it is likely that we could experience significant disruptions in our operations and our ability to successfully develop, operate, and grow our business could be impacted.
Competition for the type of talent we seek to hire is increasingly intense in the geographic areas in which we operate. As a result, we may incur significant costs to attract and retain highly skilled employees. We may be unable to attract and retain the personnel necessary to sustain our business or support future growth.
Certain of our key employees are required to file applications with the gaming authorities in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate and are required to be licensed or found suitable by these gaming authorities. If the gaming authorities were to find a key employee unsuitable for licensing, we may be required to sever the employee relationship, or the gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. Either result could significantly impact our operations.
We have observed an increasingly competitive labor market. Increased employee turnover, changes in the availability of our workers, or labor shortages in our supply chain could result in increased costs and impact our ability to fully staff our operations, which could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Our Company faces significant competition, and we expect competition levels to increase
We face an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants operating from physical locations and/or through online or mobile platforms, including destination casinos, riverboat casinos; dockside casinos; land-based casinos; video lottery; iGaming; sports betting; gaming at taverns in certain states, such as Illinois; gaming at truck stops, gas stations, and other establishments in certain states, such as Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky; historical horse racing in Kentucky; sweepstakes and poker machines not located in casinos; fantasy sports; Native American gaming; and other forms of gaming in the U.S. Furthermore, competition from internet lotteries, sweepstakes, illegal slot machines and skill
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games, fantasy sports and internet, or mobile-based gaming platforms, which allow their customers to wager on a wide variety of sporting events and/or play Las Vegas-style casino games from home or in non-casino settings could divert customers from our properties and thus adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Currently, there are proposals that would legalize internet poker, sports betting, and other varieties of iGaming in a number of states. Expansion of land-based and iGaming in other jurisdictions (both regulated and unregulated) could further compete with our operations, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Legalized gaming is currently permitted in various forms throughout the U.S. and on various lands taken into trust for the benefit of certain Native Americans in the U.S. and Canada. Other jurisdictions, including states adjacent to states in which we currently have properties, have recently legalized, implemented, and expanded gaming. Established gaming jurisdictions could award additional gaming licenses or permit the expansion or relocation of existing gaming operations. Voters and state legislatures may seek to supplement traditional tax revenue sources of state governments by authorizing or expanding gaming in the states that we operate in or the states that are adjacent to or near our existing properties. New, relocated, or expanded operations by other persons could increase competition for our operations and could have a material adverse impact on us.
Our operations also face competition from other leisure and entertainment activities, including shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts, and travel.
Our Churchill Downs Racetrack and the Kentucky Derby may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences, attendance, wagering, and sponsorships
Our Churchill Downs Racetrack is dependent upon the number of people attending and wagering on live horse races. If interest in horse racing is lower in the future, it may have a negative impact on revenue and profitability in our Live and Historical Racing segment. In addition, accidents and adverse events that may occur at our racetrack and any reputational damage as a result may negatively impact attendance at our live horse races. If attendance at and wagering on live horse racing declines, it could have a material adverse impact on our business.
The number and level of sponsorships are important to the success of the Kentucky Derby. Our ability to retain sponsors, acquire new sponsors, and compete for sponsorships and advertising dollars could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We are subject to significant risks associated with our equity investments, strategic alliances, and other third-party agreements
We pursue certain license opportunities, development projects, and other strategic business opportunities through equity investments, joint ventures, license arrangements, and other alliances with third parties.
Our equity investments are governed by mutually established agreements that we entered into with our co-investors and therefore, we do not unilaterally control the applicable entity or other initiatives. The terms of the equity investments and the rights of our co-investors may preclude us from taking actions that we believe to be in the best interests of the Company. Disagreements with our co-investors could result in delays in project development, including construction delays, and ultimate failure of the project. Our co-investors also may not be able to provide capital to the applicable entity on the terms agreed to or at all, and the applicable entity may be unable to obtain external financing to finance their operations. Also, our ability to exit the equity investments may be subject to contractual and other limitations.
With any third-party arrangement, there is a risk that our partners’ economic, business, or legal interests or objectives may not be aligned with ours, leading to potential disagreements and/or failure of the applicable project or initiative. We are also subject to risks relating to our co-investors’ failure to satisfy contractual obligations, conflicts arising between us and any of our partners and changes in the ownership of any of our co-investors.
Any of these risks could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We may not be able to respond to rapid technological changes in a timely manner, which may cause customer dissatisfaction
Our TwinSpires segment and gaming and historical racing properties are characterized by the rapid development of new technologies and the continuous introduction of new products. Our main technological advantage versus potential competitors is our software lead-time in the market and our experience in operating an Internet-based wagering network. It may be difficult to maintain our competitive technological position against current and potential competitors, especially those with greater financial resources. Our success depends upon new product development and technological advancements, including the development of new wagering platforms and features. While we expend resources on research and development and product enhancement, we may not be able to continue to improve and market our existing products or technologies or develop and market new products in a timely manner. Further technological developments may cause our products or technologies to become obsolete or noncompetitive.
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The concentration and evolution of the slot machine and HRM manufacturing industry or other technological conditions could impose additional costs on us
A significant amount of our revenue is attributable to slot, HRM, VLTs, and video poker machines operated by us at our properties, and there are a limited number of slot machine and HRM manufacturers servicing the industry. It is important for competitive reasons that we offer the most popular and up-to-date machine games with the latest technology to our guests. A substantial majority of the slot machines sold in the U.S. in recent years were manufactured by a few select companies, and there has been extensive consolidation activity within the gaming equipment sector. Recently, the prices of new machines have escalated faster than the rate of inflation and slot machine manufacturers have occasionally refused to sell slot machines featuring the most popular games, instead requiring participating lease arrangements to acquire the machines. Participation slot machine leasing arrangements typically require the payment of a fixed daily rental. Such agreements may also include a percentage payment of coin-in or net win. Generally, a participating lease is substantially more expensive over the long term than the cost to purchase a new machine. For competitive reasons, we may be forced to purchase new slot machines or enter into participating lease arrangements that are more expensive than the costs associated with the continued operation of our existing slot machines. If the newer slot machines do not result in sufficient incremental revenue to offset the increased investment, it could adversely affect our operations and profitability.
We rely on a variety of hardware and software products to maximize revenue and efficiency in our operations. Technology in the gaming industry is developing rapidly, and we may need to invest substantial amounts to acquire the most current gaming and hotel technology and equipment in order to remain competitive in the markets in which we operate. We rely on a limited number of vendors to provide video poker and slot machines and any loss of our equipment suppliers could impact our operations. Ensuring the successful implementation and maintenance of any new technology acquired is an additional risk.
Our operations in certain jurisdictions depend on agreements with industry constituents including horsemen and other racetracks, and the failure to enter into or maintain these agreements on terms acceptable to us could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition
Our operations in certain jurisdictions depend on agreements with third parties. If we are unable to renew these agreements on satisfactory terms as they expire, our business may be disrupted. For example, the Interstate Horseracing Act, as well as various state racing laws, require that we have written agreements with the horsemen at our racetracks in order to simulcast races, and, in some cases, conduct live racing. Certain industry groups negotiate these agreements on behalf of the horsemen (the "Horsemen’s Groups"). These agreements provide that we must receive the consent of the Horsemen’s Groups at the racetrack conducting live races before we may allow third parties to accept wagers on those races. We currently negotiate formal agreements with the applicable Horsemen’s Groups at our racetracks on an annual basis. The failure to maintain agreements with, or obtain consents from, the Horsemen's Groups on satisfactory terms or the refusal by a Horsemen’s Group to consent to third parties accepting wagers on our races or our accepting wagers on third-party races could have a material adverse impact on our business, as such failure will result in our inability to conduct live racing and export and import simulcasting.
From time to time, certain Horsemen’s Groups have withheld their consent to send or receive racing signals among racetracks. Failure to receive the consent of these Horsemen’s Groups for new and renewing simulcast agreements could have a material adverse impact on our business. We also have written agreements with certain Horsemen’s Groups with regards to the proceeds of gaming machines in certain states that may be required to operate such gaming.
We have agreements with other racetracks for the distribution of racing content through both the import of other racetracks’ signals for wagering at our properties and the export of our racing signal for wagering at other racetracks’ facilities, OTBs, and ADWs. From time to time, we may be unable to reach agreements on terms acceptable to us. As a result, we may be unable to distribute our racing content to other locations or to receive other racetracks’ racing content for wagering at our racetracks. The inability to distribute our racing content could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We intend to focus on market access and our retail operations for our TwinSpires sports betting business and there can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively or that we will generate sufficient returns on our investment
During the second quarter of 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the federal ban on sports betting. Sports betting has been authorized and is operational in thirty-eight states and the District of Columbia as of December 31, 2023. Additional states may legalize sports betting in the future. Each state has different structures for the number of allowable industry participants, license fees, taxes, and other operational requirements. The market for sports betting and online gaming is rapidly evolving and highly competitive with an increasing number of competitors. The success of our retail and online sports books is dependent on several factors that are beyond our control, including:
the timing of adoption of regulations authorizing betting and gaming activities,
operating requirements and other restrictions,
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the number of allowable industry participants,
the license fees and tax rates,
our ability to gain market share in a newly developing market,
the potential that the market does not develop as we anticipate,
our ability to compete with new entrants in the market,
changes in consumer demographics and public tastes and preferences, and
the availability and popularity of other forms of entertainment.
There can be no assurance as to the returns that we will receive from TwinSpires sports betting business.
Operational Risks
Our business is subject to online security risk, including cybersecurity breaches. Loss or misuse of our stored information as a result of such a breach, including customers’ personal information, could lead to government enforcement actions or other litigation, potential liability, or otherwise harm our business
We receive, process, store, and use personal information and other customer and employee data by maintaining and transmitting customers’ personal and financial information, credit card settlements, credit card funds transmissions, mailing lists, and reservations information. Our collection of such data is subject to extensive regulation by private groups, such as the payment card industry, as well as governmental authorities, including gaming authorities.
There are numerous federal, state, and local laws regarding privacy and the storing, sharing, use, processing, disclosure and protection of personal information and other data, and such privacy laws and regulations continue to evolve. Many states have passed laws requiring notification to customers when there is a security breach for personal data, such as the 2002 amendment to California’s Information Practices Act or requiring the adoption of minimum information security standards that are often vaguely defined and difficult to implement. California has adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the "CCPA"), which went into effect on January 1, 2020, providing California consumers greater control of the information collected, stored, and sold, and other states are considering similar legislation. The CCPA provides a private right of action (in addition to statutory damages) for California residents whose sensitive personal information was breached as a result of a business’s violation of its duty to reasonably secure such information. The costs of compliance with these laws may increase as a result of changes in interpretation or changes in law. Any failure on our part to comply with these laws or our privacy policies may subject us to significant liabilities, including governmental enforcement actions or litigation.
We have experienced cyber attacks in the past. While these attacks did not have a significant impact to the Company, we may continue to experience such attacks. Our systems and processes that are designed to protect customer information and prevent data loss and other security breaches, including systems and processes designed to reduce the impact of a security breach at a third-party vendor or joint venture partner, may not be successful. Interruptions in our services or a breach of a customer’s secure data could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems are unreliable, which could permanently harm our reputation and brand. These interruptions could also increase the burden on our engineering staff, which, in turn, could delay our introduction of new features and services on our websites and in our casinos. Such incidents could give rise to remediation costs, monetary fines, and other penalties, which could be significant. We attempt to protect against this risk with our property and business interruption insurance, which covers damage or interruption of our systems, although there is no assurance that such insurance will be adequate to cover all potential losses.
Third parties we work with, such as vendors, may violate applicable laws or our privacy policies, and such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have an adverse impact on our business. We are also subject to payment card association rules and obligations under each association’s contracts with payment card processors. Under these rules and obligations, if information is compromised, we could be liable to payment card issuers for the associated expense and penalties. If we fail to follow payment card industry security standards, even if no customer information is compromised, we could incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in payment card transaction costs.
Security breaches, computer malware, and computer hacking attacks have become more prevalent in our industry, and hackers and data thieves are increasingly sophisticated and operate large-scale and complex automated attacks. Many companies, including ours, have been the targets of such attacks. Moreover, the rapid evolution and increased adoption of artificial intelligence technologies may intensify our cybersecurity risks. Any security breach caused by hacking which involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment, and the inadvertent transmission of computer viruses could harm our business. Though it is difficult to determine what harm may directly result from any specific interruption or breach, any failure
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to maintain performance, reliability, security, and availability of our network infrastructure to the satisfaction of our players may harm our reputation and our ability to retain existing players and attract new players.
The costs to eliminate or address the foregoing security threats and vulnerabilities before or after a cyber incident could be significant. Our remediation efforts may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, or cessation of service, and loss of existing or potential suppliers or customers. As threats related to cyber attacks develop and grow, we may also find it necessary to make further investments to protect our data and infrastructure, which may impact our results of operations. We have insurance coverage for protection against cyber attacks, which is designed to cover expenses around notification, credit monitoring, investigation, crisis management, public relations, and legal advice. This insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all possible claims, and we could suffer losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable, or degrade service, or sabotage systems, change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
Our operations rely heavily on technology services, and catastrophic events and system failures with respect to these technology services could cause a significant and continued disruption to our operations
We rely on information technology and other systems to manage our business. A disruption or failure in our technology systems or operations in the event of a cyber attack, major earthquake, weather event, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event could interrupt our operations, damage our properties, and reduce the number of customers who visit our facilities in the affected areas. Security breaches could expose the Company to a risk of loss or misuse of our or our customers’ information, litigation, and potential liability. In addition, cyber incidents that impact the availability, reliability, speed, accuracy, or other proper functioning of our technology systems could impact our operations. A significant cyber incident, including system failure, security breach, disruption by malware or other damage could interrupt or delay our operations, result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, damage our reputation, subject us to litigation, cause a loss of customers or give rise to remediation costs, monetary fines, and other penalties, which could be significant.
Our online wagering, HRM and brick-and-mortar casino businesses depend upon our communications hardware and our computer hardware. We have built certain redundancies into our systems to attempt to avoid downtime in the event of outages, system failures or damage. Our systems also remain vulnerable to damage or interruption from floods, fires, power loss, telecommunication failures, terrorist cyber attacks, hardware or software error, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks and similar events. Despite any precautions we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems could result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Any unscheduled interruption in the availability of our websites and our services could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenue.
We may not be able to identify and / or complete acquisitions, divestitures, development of new venues or the expansion of existing facilities on time, on budget or as planned
We pursue acquisitions, divestitures, development of new venues, and expansion of existing facilities to grow our business.
We face challenges in identifying and completing acquisitions or divestiture opportunities or other development or expansion projects that fit with our strategic objectives. These projects require significant capital commitments and the incurrence of additional debt. These projects also have risks associated with managing and integrating the acquisition or expansion project.
Supply chain disruptions and inflationary pressure related to these projects could lead to delays and higher project costs. The acquisition or divestiture of businesses may be delayed by external factors beyond our control including federal, state, and local issues.
The impact of these risks may cause us not to realize the intended benefits of these capital investments which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We may experience difficulty in integrating recent or future acquisitions into our operations
We have completed acquisition transactions in the past, and we may pursue acquisitions from time to time in the future. The successful integration of newly acquired businesses into our operations has required and will continue to require the expenditure of substantial managerial, operating, financial, and other resources and may also lead to a diversion of our attention from our ongoing business concerns. We may not be able to successfully integrate new businesses, manage the combined operations or realize projected revenue gains, cost savings, and synergies in connection with those acquisitions on the timetable contemplated, if at all. Management of the new business operations, especially those in new lines of business or different geographic areas, may require that we increase our managerial resources. The process of integrating new operations may also interrupt the activities of those businesses, which could have a material adverse impact on our business. The costs of integrating businesses we acquire could significantly impact our short-term operating results. These costs could include the following:
restructuring charges associated with the acquisitions,
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non-recurring transaction costs, including accounting and legal fees, investment banking fees, and recognition of transaction-related costs or liabilities, and
costs of imposing financial and management controls and operating, administrative and information systems.
We perform financial, operational, and legal diligence on the businesses we purchase; however, an unavoidable level of risk remains regarding the actual condition of these businesses and our ability to continue to operate these businesses successfully and integrate them into our existing operations. In any acquisition we make, we face risks that include the following:
the risk that the acquired business may not further our business strategy or that we paid more than the business was worth,
the risk that the financial performance of the acquired business declines or fails to meet our expectations from and after the date of acquisition,
the potential adverse impact on our relationships with partner companies or third-party providers of technology or products,
the possibility that we have acquired substantial undisclosed liabilities for which we may have no recourse against the sellers or third-party insurers,
costs and complications in maintaining required regulatory approvals or obtaining further regulatory approvals necessary to implement the acquisition in accordance with our strategy,
the risks of acquiring businesses and/or entering markets in which we have limited or no prior experience,
the potential loss of key employees or customers,
the possibility that we may be unable to retain or recruit employees with the necessary skills to manage the acquired businesses, and
changes to legal and regulatory guidelines which may negatively affect acquisitions.
If we are unsuccessful in overcoming these risks, it could have a material adverse impact on our business.
The development of new venues and the expansion of existing facilities is costly and susceptible to delays, cost overruns, and other uncertainties
We may decide to develop, construct, and open hotels, casinos, other gaming venues, or racetracks in response to opportunities that may arise. For example, we've announced multiple major multi-year capital investments to transform key areas of Churchill Downs Racetrack, as well as other capital investments such The Rose Dumfries, Owensboro Racing & Gaming, a charitable gaming facility in New Hampshire, and the Terre Haute Casino Resort. Future development projects may require significant capital commitments and the incurrence of additional debt, which could have a material adverse impact on our business. In addition, we may not receive the intended benefits of such capital investments.
Ownership and development of our real estate requires significant expenditures and ownership of such properties is subject to risk, including risks related to environmental liabilities
We own extensive real estate holdings and make significant capital investments to grow our operations. All real estate investments are subject to risks including the following: general economic conditions, such as the availability and cost of financing; local and national real estate conditions, such as an oversupply of residential, office, retail, or warehousing space, or a reduction in demand for real estate in the area; governmental regulation, including taxation of property and environmental legislation; and the attractiveness of properties to potential purchasers or tenants. Significant expenditures, including property taxes, debt repayments, maintenance costs, insurance costs, and related charges, must be made throughout the period of ownership of real property. Such expenditures may negatively impact our operating results.
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, and local governmental laws and regulations relating to the use, storage, discharge, emission, and disposal of hazardous materials. Environmental laws and regulations could hold us responsible for the cost of cleaning up hazardous materials contaminating real property that we own or operate (or previously owned or operated) or properties at which we have disposed of hazardous materials, even if we did not cause the contamination. Some of our facilities are subject to CAFO regulations. If we fail to comply with environmental laws or if contamination is discovered, a court or government agency could impose severe penalties or restrictions on our operations or assess us with the costs of taking remedial actions. Enforcement of such regulations have been receiving increased governmental attention and compliance with these and other environmental laws can, in some circumstances, require significant capital expenditures (including with respect to fines).
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Horse racing is an inherently dangerous sport, and our racetracks are subject to personal injury litigation
Personal injuries and injuries to horses have occurred during races or workouts, and may continue to occur, which could subject us to negative publicity and / or litigation. Negative publicity may lead some customers to avoid the Company’s properties or could cause horse owners to avoid racing their horses at our racetracks. Any litigation resulting from injuries at our properties could be costly and time consuming and could divert our management and key personnel from our business operations. We buy insurance for all our racetracks; however, our coverage may not be sufficient for all losses. Due to the potential impact of negative publicity and inherent uncertainty related to the outcome of litigation, there can be no assurance that the resolution of any claim or proceeding would not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.
Any violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, other similar laws and regulations, or applicable anti-money laundering regulations could have a negative impact on us
We are subject to risks associated with doing business outside of the U.S., including exposure to complex foreign and U.S. regulations such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA") and other anti-corruption laws which generally prohibit U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Violations of the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal and civil sanctions and other penalties. It may be difficult to oversee the conduct of any contractors, third-party partners, representatives, or agents who are not our employees, potentially exposing us to greater risk from their actions. If our employees or agents fail to comply with applicable laws or company policies governing our international operations, we may face legal proceedings and actions which could result in civil penalties, administration actions, and criminal sanctions.
Any determination that we have violated any anti-corruption laws could have a material adverse impact on our business. We also deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations. Any violation of anti-money laundering laws or regulations by any of our properties could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We are subject to payment-related risks, such as risk associated with the fraudulent use of credit or debit cards which could have adverse effects on our business due to chargebacks from customers
We allow funding and payments to accounts using a variety of methods, including electronic funds transfer ("EFT") and credit and debit cards. As we continue to introduce new funding or payment options to our players, we may be subject to additional regulatory and compliance requirements. We also may be subject to the risk of fraudulent use of credit or debit cards, or other funding and/or payment options. For certain funding or payment options, including credit and debit cards, we may pay interchange and other fees which may increase over time and, therefore, raise operating costs and reduce profitability. We rely on third parties to provide payment-processing services and it could disrupt our business if these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us. We are also subject to rules and requirements governing EFT which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules or requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees or possibly lose our ability to accept credit or debit cards, or other forms of payment from customers which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Chargebacks occur when customers seek to void credit card or other payment transactions. Cardholders are intended to be able to reverse card transactions only if there has been unauthorized use of the card or the services contracted for have not been provided. In our business, customers occasionally seek to reverse online gaming and other wagering losses through chargebacks. Our control procedures to protect from chargebacks may not be sufficient to protect us from adverse effects on our business or results of operations.
Work stoppages and other labor problems could negatively impact our future plans and limit our operational flexibility
Some of our employees are represented by labor unions. A strike or other work stoppage at one of our properties could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. From time to time, we have also experienced attempts to unionize certain of our non-union employees. We may experience additional union activity in the future. Any such union organization efforts could cause disruptions in our business and result in significant costs.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We face risks related to pending or future legal proceedings and other actions
From time to time, we are a party in various lawsuits and judicial and governmental actions. No assurance can be provided as to the outcome of these lawsuits and actions which can be expensive and time consuming. We may not be successful in the defense or prosecution of these lawsuits or actions, which could result in settlements, costs, or damages that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and reputation. Such matters may include investigations or litigation from various parties, including vendors, customers, state, and federal agencies, stockholders, and
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employees relating to intellectual property, employment, consumer, personal injury, corporate governance, commercial, or other matters arising in the ordinary course of business.
We have also been subject to claims in cases concerning or similar to class action allegations. Plaintiffs in such lawsuits often seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts, and the magnitude of the potential loss and defense costs relating to such lawsuits may not be accurately estimated. We evaluate all the claims and proceedings involving us to assess the expected outcome, and where possible, we estimate the potential losses we may incur. In many cases, including class action matters, we may not be able to estimate the potential losses we will incur and/or our estimates may prove to be insufficient. These assessments are made by management based on the information available at the time made and require the use of a significant amount of judgment, and actual outcomes or losses may materially differ. Regardless of whether any claims against us are valid, or whether we are ultimately held liable, such litigation may be expensive to defend and may divert resources away from our operations and negatively impact earnings. We may not be able to obtain adequate insurance to protect us from these types of litigation matters or extraordinary business losses.
Our operations are highly regulated and changes in the regulatory environment could adversely affect our business
We conduct live and historical pari-mutuel wagering, online pari-mutuel wagering through ADWs, casino gaming, and sports betting operations, which are subject to extensive state and for some local regulation. These regulatory authorities have broad discretion, and may, for any reason set forth in the applicable legislation, rules, and regulations, limit, condition, suspend, fail to renew, or revoke a license or registration to conduct our operations or prevent another person from owning an equity interest in the Company.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our existing governmental licenses, registrations, permits, or approvals necessary to operate our existing businesses or demonstrate suitability to obtain any licenses, registrations, permits, or approvals. The loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for a license in another jurisdiction. As we expand our operations in our existing jurisdictions or to new areas, we may have to meet additional suitability requirements and obtain additional licenses, registrations, permits, and approvals from authorities in these jurisdictions. The approval process can be time-consuming and costly, and we cannot be sure that we will be successful.
Our Live and Historical Racing segment is subject to extensive state and local regulation, and we depend on continued state approval of legalized pari-mutuel wagering in states where we operate. Our wagering and racing (including HRM) facilities must meet the licensing requirements of various regulatory authorities. We have obtained all governmental licenses, registrations, permits, and approvals necessary for operation. However, we may be unable to maintain our existing licenses. The failure to obtain such licenses in the future or the loss of or material change in our business licenses, registrations, permits, or approvals may materially limit the number of races we conduct or our racing (including HRM) operation. The loss of a license in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license or affect our eligibility for a license in another jurisdiction.
Regulatory authorities also have input into important aspects of our operations, including hours of operation, location, or relocation of a facility, and numbers and types of HRMs. Regulators may also levy substantial fines against or seize our assets or the assets of our subsidiaries or the people involved in violating pari-mutuel laws or regulations. For example, individual plaintiffs associated with video poker and truck stops in Louisiana are challenging the constitutionality of the Louisiana 2021 HHR Act which may adversely impact Fair Ground’s historical racing operations.
TwinSpires accepts ADW wagers from customers of certain states who set up and fund accounts from which they may place wagers via telephone, mobile device, or through the Internet pursuant to the Interstate Horseracing Act and relevant licenses and consents. The online horse racing wagering business is heavily regulated, and laws governing ADW pari-mutuel wagering vary from state to state. State attorney generals, regulators, and other law enforcement officials may interpret state laws, federal laws, constitutional principles, and the related regulations in a different manner than we do.
States may take affirmative action to make ADW expressly unlawful. We may not be successful in lobbying state legislatures or regulatory bodies to obtain or renew required legislation, licenses, registrations, permits, and approvals necessary to facilitate the operation or expansion of our online horse racing wagering business or in any legal challenge to the validity of any restrictions on ADW. Legal challenges and regulatory and legislative processes can be lengthy, costly, and uncertain.
Many states have considered and are considering interactive and Internet gaming legislation and regulations which may inhibit our ability to do business in such states or increase competition for online wagering. Anti-gaming conclusions and recommendations of other governmental or quasi-governmental bodies could form the basis for new laws, regulations, and enforcement policies. The extensive regulation by both state and federal authorities of gaming activities also can be significantly affected by changes in the political climate and changes in economic and regulatory policies.
Any of these events could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
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Financial Risks
Our debt facilities contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business
Our debt facilities contain several covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on our business, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things, take the following actions:
incur additional debt or issue certain preferred shares,
pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of our capital stock, repurchase common shares or make other restricted payments,
make certain investments,
sell certain assets or consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all our assets,
create liens on certain assets,
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates, and
designate our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.
As a result of these covenants, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business, and we may be unable to engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs.
Any failure to comply with the financial ratios and other covenants in our debt facilities and other indebtedness could have a material adverse impact on our business
Under our debt facilities, we are required to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios. Our ability to meet those financial ratios can be affected by events beyond our control, and as a result, we may be unable to meet those ratios. A failure to comply with the financial ratios and other covenants contained in our debt facilities or our other indebtedness could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial condition. In the event of any default under our debt facilities or our other indebtedness, the lenders thereunder:
will not be required to lend any additional amounts to us,
could elect to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be due and payable and could terminate all commitments to extend further credit, or
could require us to apply all our available cash to repay these borrowings.
We have pledged a significant portion of our assets as collateral under our debt facilities. If any of these lenders accelerate the repayment of borrowings, we may not have sufficient assets to repay our indebtedness and our lenders could exercise their rights against the collateral we have granted them.
Increases to interest rates (due to inflation or otherwise), disruptions in the credit markets, or changes to our credit ratings may adversely affect our business.
While we currently generate significant cash flows from ongoing operations and have access to global credit markets through our various financing activities, interest rate increases, disruption in the credit markets, or changes to our credit ratings could negatively impact the availability or cost of funding.
During inflationary periods, interest rates have historically increased, which would have a direct effect on the interest expense of our borrowings. Primarily in response to concerns about inflation, the U.S. Federal Reserve has significantly raised its benchmark federal funds rate, which has led to increases in interest rates in the credit markets. The U.S. Federal Reserve may continue to raise the federal funds rate, which will likely lead to higher interest rates in the credit markets and the possibility of lower asset values, slowing economic growth and/or possibly leading to a recession. We are exposed to increases in interest rates on our variable-rate borrowings, which consist of borrowings under our credit facility and our term loans. Therefore, interest rate increases, due to inflation or otherwise, could, increase our interest expense under these variable-rate facilities in the short-term and increase our financing costs as we refinance our existing variable-rate and fixed-rate long-term borrowings in the long term, or we could incur additional interest expense related to the issuance of incremental debt. These increased costs could reduce our profitability, impair our ability to meet our debt obligations, negatively impact our ability to maintain compliance with the financial covenants in our Credit Agreement, or increase the cost of financing our acquisition, investment, and development activity.
Reduced access to credit or increased costs could adversely affect our liquidity and capital resources or significantly increase our cost of capital.
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Our insurance costs may increase, we may not be able to obtain similar insurance coverage in the future, and the extent to which we can recover under our insurance policies for damages sustained at our operating properties in the event of inclement weather and casualty events, all could adversely affect our business
We renew our insurance policies on an annual basis. The cost of coverage may become so high that we may need to further reduce our policy limits or agree to certain additional exclusions from our coverage. If we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage, we could be at risk for increased potential losses, which could be substantial. Our debt instruments and other material agreements require us to meet certain standards related to insurance coverage. If we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage to satisfy these requirements, an event of default could result under these debt instruments or material agreements.
Portions of our business are difficult or impracticable to insure. After carefully weighing the costs, risks, and benefits of retaining versus insuring various risks, as well as the availability of certain types of insurance coverage, we may opt to retain certain risks not covered by our insurance policies. Retained risks are associated with deductible limits or self-insured retentions, partial self-insurance programs, and insurance policy coverage ceilings.
Flooding, blizzards, windstorms, earthquakes, hurricanes, or other weather conditions could adversely affect our casino and horse racing locations. We maintain insurance coverage that may cover certain costs that we incur as a result of some natural disasters, which coverage is subject to deductibles, exclusions, and limits on maximum benefits. We may not be able to fully collect, if at all, on any claims resulting from extreme weather conditions or other disasters. If any of our properties are damaged or if our operations are disrupted or face prolonged closure as a result of weather conditions in the future, or if weather conditions adversely impact general economic or other conditions in the areas in which our properties are located or from which we draw our patrons, the disruption could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We have "all risk" property insurance coverage for our operating properties which covers damage caused by a casualty loss (such as fire, natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism). Our level of property insurance coverage, which is subject to policy maximum limits and certain exclusions, may not be adequate to cover all losses in the event of a major casualty. In addition, certain casualty events may not be covered at all under our policies. Therefore, certain acts could expose us to substantial uninsured losses. Any losses we incur that are not adequately covered by insurance may decrease our future operating income, require us to fund replacements or repairs for destroyed property and reduce the funds available for payment of our obligations.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY
We maintain a comprehensive process for detecting, assessing, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats as part of our overall enterprise risk management system and processes. Our Chief Technology Officer (“CTO”) oversees our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) and a dedicated team of information security professionals who are responsible for our cybersecurity risk management program. Our CTO oversees our information security professionals’ efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents and the efforts for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. Our cybersecurity risk management program includes technical security controls, policy enforcement mechanisms, monitoring systems, employee training, contractual arrangements, tools, and related services from third-party providers. Our CTO has over twenty years of extensive experience in information technology and security.
We use the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework ("NIST CSF") as a guide to help us identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business. This does not mean that we meet any particular technical standards, specifications, or requirements of the NIST CSF. We routinely engage consultants and other third parties to assist with our cybersecurity risk management, including third-party penetration tests of our various information technology environments. As part of our current due diligence review and contracting process with third-party vendors that may have access to our data or systems, we perform an information security review of the vendor’s program and require such contracts to include certain minimum-security safeguards and notification requirements, where applicable. We also carry cybersecurity insurance with coverage for costs associated with a cybersecurity incident.
We have an established incident response plan to address and guide our employees and management on our response to a cybersecurity incident. The Company has two management committees that assist with cybersecurity incidents and risk management. These committees consist of senior leadership and cross-functional members from across our organization. The Consumer Data Privacy Committee assists with identifying and managing consumer data privacy issues. The Cybersecurity Disclosure Committee (“CD Committee”) assists senior management in fulfilling their responsibilities for oversight of the accuracy and timeliness of disclosures made by the Company in response to cybersecurity incidents and vulnerabilities. In the event a potentially significant cybersecurity incident is identified by our information security team, such incident is reported to the CD Committee to consider applicable disclosures, with the assistance of outside counsel as needed. In addition, senior
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leadership prepares an enterprise risk management report identifying and evaluating enterprise risks, including cybersecurity risks, which is regularly presented to the Audit Committee.
Our executive leadership team, along with oversight from the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, are responsible for our overall enterprise risk management system and processes and regularly consider cybersecurity risks in the context of other material risks to the Company. The Audit Committee oversees the processes by which management assesses the Company’s exposure to cybersecurity risks and evaluates the guidelines and policies governing the Company’s monitoring, control, and minimization of such risks. Our CTO regularly reports to the Audit Committee regarding cybersecurity matters.
For additional information concerning cybersecurity risks we face, refer to Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
Live and Historical Racing
Kentucky
Louisville
Churchill Downs Racetrack - we lease 158 acres under a 30-year lease that began in 2002 where we transferred title of the facility to the City of Louisville and retained the right to re-acquire the facility at any time for $1.00, subject to the terms of the lease as part of the financing of improvements to the facility.
Churchill Downs auxiliary training facility
Derby City Gaming & Hotel
Derby City Gaming Downtown
Southwestern Kentucky - Oak Grove Racing & Gaming
Northern Kentucky
Turfway Park Racing & Gaming
Newport Racing & Gaming (leased)
Northwestern Kentucky
Ellis Park Racing & Gaming
Owensboro Racing & Gaming (Opening 1st quarter 2025)
Virginia
Central Virginia
Colonial Downs Racetrack & Rosie's in New Kent
Rosie’s in Richmond
Office space in Richmond (leased)
Northern Virginia
The Rose in Dumfries (Opening late 3rd quarter 2024)
Rosie’s in Dumfries (leased)
Southern Virginia
Rosie's in Emporia
Rosie's in Collinsville (leased)
Rosie's in Hampton (leased)
Western Virginia - Rosie's in Vinton
New Hampshire
Chasers Poker Room in Salem (leased)

TwinSpires
Kentucky
TwinSpires.com and Brisnet offices in Lexington (leased)
TwinSpires and United Tote offices in Louisville (leased)
California - United Tote offices in San Diego (leased)
Oregon - United Tote offices in Portland (leased)
Florida - Exacta offices in Boynton Beach, Florida (leased)
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Gaming
Florida - Calder Casino in Miami Gardens
Indiana - Terre Haute Casino Resort in Terre Haute (Opening 2nd quarter 2024)
Iowa - Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Sioux City
Louisiana - Fair Grounds Race Course & Slots and certain VSI properties in New Orleans (certain ones leased)
Maine - Oxford Casino & Hotel in Oxford
Maryland - Ocean Downs Casino & Racetrack in Ocean City
Mississippi - Riverwalk Casino Hotel in Vicksburg
Mississippi - Harlow's Casino Resort & Spa in Greenville (land leased)
New York - del Lago Resort & Casino in Waterloo
Pennsylvania - Presque Isle Downs & Casino in Erie

All Other
Kentucky - Corporate headquarters in Louisville (leased)
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are involved in ordinary routine litigation matters which are incidental to our business. Refer to Note 19, Contingencies to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for further information.
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Common Stock
The Company's common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol CHDN. As of February 14, 2024, there were approximately 2,130 shareholders of record.
Dividends
Since joining The Nasdaq Global Select Market in 1993, we have declared and paid cash dividends on an annual basis at the discretion of our Board of Directors. The payment and amount of future dividends will be determined by the Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, our operating results, financial condition, cash requirements, and general business conditions at the time such payment is considered. We declared a dividend of $0.382 in October 2023, which was paid in January 2024, and we declared a dividend of $0.357 in October 2022, which was paid in January 2023.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information with respect to shares of common stock that we repurchased during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased under the Plans or Programs (in millions) (1)
October 2023112,562 $108.98 — $232.9 
November 202360,652 115.63 60,652 225.9 
December 2023111,154 123.70 90,742 214.9 
Total284,368 $116.15 151,394 
(1)On September 29, 2021, the Board of Directors of the Company approved a common stock repurchase program of up to $500.0 million ("2021 Stock Repurchase Program"). The repurchase program has no time limit and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. For more information, refer to Note 10, Shareholders' Equity to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Shareholder Return Performance Graph
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed "soliciting material" nor to be "filed" with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
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The following graph depicts the cumulative total shareholder return, assuming reinvestment of dividends, for the periods indicated for our Common Stock compared to the Russell 1000 Index, S&P Midcap 400 Index, and the S&P 500 Index. We consider the Russell 1000 Index to be our most comparable peer group index.
2792
12/31/1812/31/1912/31/2012/31/2112/31/2212/31/23
Churchill Downs Incorporated$100.00 $169.49 $241.41 $299.39 $263.58 $337.49 
Russell 1000 Index$100.00 $131.43 $158.98 $201.03 $162.58 $205.72 
S&P Midcap 400 Index$100.00 $126.20 $143.44 $178.95 $155.58 $181.15 
S&P 500 Index$100.00 $131.49 $155.68 $200.37 $164.08 $207.21 
NOTE 1: Index Data: Copyright Russell Investments. Used with permission. All rights reserved.
NOTE 2: Index Data: Copyright Standard and Poor’s, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

ITEM 6.[RESERVED]
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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The following discussion provides an analysis of our results of operations and reasons for material changes therein for 2023 as compared to 2022. Discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for 2022 as compared to 2021 is included in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 22, 2023.
Our Business
Churchill Downs Incorporated ("CDI" or the "Company") has been creating extraordinary entertainment experiences for nearly 150 years, beginning with the Company’s most iconic and enduring asset, the Kentucky Derby. Headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, CDI has expanded through the development of live and historical racing entertainment venues, the growth of the TwinSpires horse racing online wagering business, expanded pari-mutuel content and technology services to B2C platforms, and the operation and development of regional casino gaming properties.
For additional information, refer to Note 21, Segment Information to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
2023 Transactions
Exacta Systems, LLC Acquisition
On August 22, 2023, the Company completed its previously announced acquisition of Exacta Systems, LLC ("Exacta Transaction"). Exacta Systems ("Exacta") is a leading provider of central determinate system technology in HRMs across the country. Exacta’s system architecture supports multiple game vendors and virtually unlimited math modeling capabilities on a single central determinate system enabling Exacta to deliver a diverse gaming library to Company owned and third-party HRM entertainment venues in Kentucky, Virginia, Wyoming, and New Hampshire. For additional information, refer to Note 3, Acquisitions to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Arlington Sale
On February 15, 2023, we closed on the sale of the Arlington property in Arlington Heights, Illinois. We sold 326-acres to the Chicago Bears for $197.2 million. The net proceeds of $195.7 million were used to pay down the outstanding balance amount on our revolving credit facility that was drawn on to fund the acquisition of substantially all the assets of Peninsula Pacific Entertainment ("P2E"). For additional information, refer to Note 4, Dispositions to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Lady Luck Casino Nemacolin
On June 26, 2023, the Company's management agreement for Lady Luck Casino Nemacolin ("Lady Luck") in Farmington, Pennsylvania expired and was not renewed. The Company completed the sale of substantially all its assets at Lady Luck for an immaterial amount.
2022 Transactions
Peninsula Pacific Entertainment Acquisition
On November 1, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of substantially all the assets of P2E with a base purchase price of $2.75 billion ("P2E Transaction") subject to working capital and other purchase price adjustments. The Company acquired the following properties as part of the P2E Transaction: Colonial Downs Racetrack in New Kent, Virginia, six historical racing entertainment venues in Virginia, del Lago Resort & Casino in Waterloo, New York, and the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Sioux City, Iowa. The P2E Transaction also included HRM development rights for two properties in Emporia, Virginia and Dumfries, Virginia. The Company invested $30.0 million in a seventh Virginia based HRM entertainment venue that opened on September 26, 2023 in Emporia, Virginia. The Company is also investing approximately $460.0 million to construct The Rose Gaming Resort (“The Rose”) in Dumfries, Virginia with an expected completion late in the third quarter of 2024.
Ellis Park Acquisition
On September 26, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of Ellis Park Racing & Gaming ("Ellis Park Transaction"). Ellis Park Racing & Gaming ("Ellis Park") is a racetrack and gaming facility venue with HRMs. As part of the acquisition, the Company also acquired the rights to construct an HRM entertainment venue as an annex of Ellis Park. In June 2023, the
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Company announced it planned to invest approximately $100 million in a new HRM entertainment venue on the east side of Owensboro, Kentucky with an expected completion in the first quarter of 2025.
Chasers Poker Room Acquisition
On September 2, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of Chasers Poker Room ("Chasers") in Salem, New Hampshire ("Chasers Transaction"). Chasers is a charitable gaming facility located approximately 30 miles from Boston, Massachusetts that offers poker and a variety of table games. The Company plans to develop an expanded charitable gaming facility in Salem to accommodate HRMs and table games.
Calder Land Sale
On June 17, 2022, the Company closed on the sale of 115.7 acres of land near Calder Casino for $291.0 million to Link Logistics Real Estate, a Blackstone portfolio company. The Company received cash proceeds of $279.0 million which was net of $12.0 million of transaction costs. We recognized a gain of $274.6 million on the sale of the land.
Other Business Activities
Stock Split
Effective May 22, 2023, the Company's common stock was split two-for-one with a proportionate increase in the number of its authorized shares of common stock. For additional information, refer to Note 10, Shareholders' Equity to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Presque Isle Impairment
During the quarter ended June 30, 2023, the Company evaluated economic conditions subsequent to the date of our annual impairment assessment on April 1, 2023, including competition in the market and inflationary pressures, which increased during the second quarter of 2023, and impacted the performance and outlook of Presque Isle Downs and Casino ("Presque Isle"). As a result, the Company concluded that a trigger event for impairment testing occurred related to the Presque Isle gaming rights, trademark, and the reporting unit's goodwill at the end of the second quarter ("2023 Trigger Event"). Based on the 2023 Trigger Event, the Company evaluated and subsequently updated the projected cash flows and discount rate to reflect the economic environment at that time. As a result, the Company recognized a non-cash impairment charge of $24.5 million in the second quarter of 2023 for the Presque Isle gaming rights and trademark. For additional information, refer to Note 8, Asset Impairments to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
During the quarter ended December 31, 2022, the Company evaluated whether events or circumstances changed that would indicate it is more likely than not that any of the Company's intangible assets, goodwill, or property and equipment, were impaired. Based on the Company's evaluation, the Company concluded that a trigger event for impairment testing occurred related to the Presque Isle gaming rights, trademark, and the reporting unit's goodwill due to negative economic conditions ("2022 Trigger Event"). Based on the 2022 Trigger Event, the Company evaluated and subsequently updated the projected cash flows and discount rate to reflect the economic environment at that time. As a result, the Company recorded a $33.4 million non-cash impairment charge in fourth quarter of 2022 for the Presque Isle gaming rights and trademark.
Exit of the Direct Online Sports and Casino Business
In 2022, the Company exited the direct online Sports and Casino business in every state except for Pennsylvania and Arizona. During the quarter ended March 31, 2022, the Company evaluated whether this planned exit would indicate it is more likely than not that any of the Company’s intangible assets, long-lived assets, current assets, or property and equipment, were impaired. Based on the Company’s evaluation, the Company recorded a $4.9 million non-cash impairment charge related to certain assets in the TwinSpires segment. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has exited every state for the direct online Sports and Casino business. The Company will maintain its retail sports betting operations and has monetized four of its online market access licenses.
Financing Transactions
On April 25, 2023, we completed an offering of $600.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.750% senior notes that mature in 2031. The Company used a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to repay indebtedness outstanding under its Term Loan B Facility due 2024 and to fund related transaction fees and expenses, working capital, and other general corporate purposes.
On February 24, 2023, we entered into an incremental joinder to our senior secured credit agreement to increase the loans under the existing Term Loan A due 2027 by $500.0 million. This joinder increased the existing Term Loan A due 2027 from $800.0
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million to $1.3 billion and makes certain other changes to the existing credit agreement. The Company used the net proceeds from the borrowings under the increased Term Loan A to repay outstanding loans under its senior secured revolving credit facility, pay related transaction fees and expenses, and for general corporate purposes.
On April 13, 2022, we completed an offering of $1.2 billion in aggregate principal amount of 5.75% senior notes that mature in 2030. The offering of the 2030 Senior Notes was part of the financing utilized for the P2E Transaction.
For additional information on these transactions, refer to Note 12, Debt to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Transaction Update
On August 11, 2022, the Company entered into an agreement to sell 49% of United Tote, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company to NYRA Content Management Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of the New York Racing Association. The Company has received a deposit on the pending transaction of $14.4 million. The transaction is subject to usual and customary closing conditions, including applicable regulatory notices and approvals and is expected to close in the first half of 2024.
Key Indicators to Evaluate Business Results and Financial Condition
Our management monitors a variety of key indicators to evaluate our business results and financial condition. These indicators include changes in net revenue, operating expense, operating income, earnings per share, outstanding debt balance, operating cash flow, and capital spend.
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). We also use non-GAAP measures, including EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization), and Adjusted EBITDA. We believe that the use of Adjusted EBITDA as a key performance measure of results of operations enables management and investors to evaluate and compare from period to period our operating performance in a meaningful and consistent manner. Our chief operating decision maker utilizes Adjusted EBITDA to evaluate segment performance, develop strategy, and allocate resources. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure of our performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (as determined in accordance with GAAP) as a measure of our operating results.
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, adjusted for the following:
Adjusted EBITDA includes our portion of EBITDA from our equity investments.
Adjusted EBITDA excludes:
Transaction expense, net which includes:
Acquisition, disposition, and property sale related charges;
Direct online Sports and Casino business exit costs; and
Other transaction expense, including legal, accounting and other deal-related expense.
Stock-based compensation expense;
Rivers Des Plaines' impact on our investments in unconsolidated affiliates from:
The impact of changes in fair value of interest rate swaps, and
Legal reserves and transaction costs;
Asset impairments;
Gain on sale of assets;
Legal reserves;
Pre-opening expense; and
Other charges, recoveries, and expenses
On June 26, 2023, the Company's management agreement for Lady Luck expired and was not renewed. The Company completed the sale of substantially all its assets at Lady Luck for an immaterial amount.
As of December 31, 2021, Arlington International Racecourse ("Arlington") ceased racing and simulcast operations. On February 15, 2023, the Company closed on the sale of the property to the Chicago Bears. For more information, refer to Note 4, Dispositions, to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Arlington's results and exit costs in 2022 and 2023 are treated as an adjustment to EBITDA.
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For segment reporting, Adjusted EBITDA includes intercompany revenue and expense totals that are eliminated in the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. See the Reconciliation of Comprehensive Income to Adjusted EBITDA included in this section for additional information.
Business Highlights
In 2023, we delivered strong performance while continuing the execution of several organic investments. We delivered strong growth in net revenue, operating income, and Adjusted EBITDA compared to fiscal year 2022:
Net revenue was $2.5 billion, up $651.9 million or 36%.
Operating income was $564.0 million, up $242.2 million or 75%.
Net income was $417.3 million, down $22.1 million or 5%.
Adjusted EBITDA was $1.0 billion, up $260.3 million, or 34%.
Live and Historical Racing Segment:
Adjusted EBITDA was $475.4 million, up $187.9 million or 65% from fiscal year 2022.
Churchill Downs Racetrack:
Churchill Downs Racetrack ran the 149th Kentucky Derby with record Derby Week all-sources handle and record Derby Week contribution to Adjusted EBITDA with over 150,000 fans gathered in person to watch the most exciting two minutes in sports on the first Saturday in May.
We successfully completed the First Turn Experience prior to the 149th Kentucky Derby.
We continued construction of the Paddock Project which is scheduled to be finished in time for the 150th Kentucky Derby the first weekend in May 2024.
Kentucky HRMs:
Derby City Gaming: Delivered record net revenue and Adjusted EBITDA and completed the expansion of the gaming floor and opened a new hotel.
Derby City Gaming Downtown: Opened in Louisville, Kentucky, on December 6, 2023.
Oak Grove: Delivered record net revenue and Adjusted EBITDA for a second year in a row.
Owensboro: Announced plans to invest approximately $100 million in a new HRM entertainment venue on the east side of Owensboro with an expected completion in the first quarter of 2025.
Virginia HRMs:
Southern Virginia - Rosie's Gaming Emporium: Opened in Emporia, Virginia on September 26, 2023.
Northern Virginia - The Rose Gaming Resort (Dumfries): We continued construction of a $460 million gaming and entertainment resort and hotel in Dumfries, Virginia with a scheduled completion late in the third quarter of 2024.
TwinSpires Segment:
Adjusted EBITDA was $132.1 million, up $18.0 million or 16% from fiscal year 2022.
TwinSpires Horse Racing:
We launched a multi-year agreement with FanDuel to enable FanDuel to create a fully integrated and seamless wagering experience with a single wallet for their customers who want to bet on sports and horse racing with FanDuel.
We launched a multi-year agreement with DraftKings to provide ADW technology and other services.
Exacta: We completed the acquisition of Exacta, a leading provider of central determinate system technology in HRMs across the country.
Sports Betting: We opened seven retail sports books and monetized three of our Kentucky online sports betting licenses upon the authorization of sports betting in Kentucky.
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Gaming Segment:
Adjusted EBITDA was a record $488.6 million, up $66.7 million or 16% from fiscal year 2022.
Terre Haute Casino Resort: We continued construction of a $290 million casino, hotel, and entertainment venue in Terre Haute, Indiana scheduled to open in the second quarter of 2024.
All Other:
We closed the sale of our Arlington Heights, Illinois property to the Chicago Bears for $197.2 million on February 15, 2023.
We completed the offering of $600.0 million in 6.750% senior notes that mature in 2031.
We amended our senior secured credit agreement to increase the loans under the existing Term Loan A due 2027 by $500 million.
Effective May 22, 2023, the Company's common stock was split two-for-one with a proportionate increase in the number of authorized shares of common stock.
In December 2023 we announced a repurchase of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock for $123.75 per share from an affiliate of The Duchossois Group, Inc that closed on January 2, 2024.
The Company’s total shareholder return was 28% for 2023 compared to 26.5% for the Russell 1000 and 26.3% for the S&P 500. The Company’s five-year total shareholder return for 2023 was 237% compared to 106% for the Russell 1000 and 107% for the S&P 500. The preceding shareholder return calculations assume dividends are reinvested.
We delivered strong financial results in 2023 and remain committed to driving long-term sustainable growth. Our company generates strong cash flow and our balance sheet is solid and able to support our organic growth and strategic acquisitions that we believe will create long-term value for our shareholders.
Environmental, Social, and Governance
We expanded our ESG efforts including the ongoing promotion of responsible gaming; initiatives at our properties to lessen energy and water usage, to decrease carbon emissions, and to responsibly manage waste; increasing investments in the communities in which we operate and supporting our teams through educational and leadership development; and further diversification of our Board of Directors and increasing engagement with our shareholders.
We also continued our diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives (DE&I) including the roll-out of our mission, vision, culture statement, and core values company-wide.
Our Operations
We manage our operations through three reportable segments: Live and Historical Racing, TwinSpires, and Gaming.
Refer to Part I, Item 1. Business, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on our segments and a description of our competition and government regulations and potential legislative changes that affect our business.
Consolidated Financial Results
The following table reflects our net revenue, operating income, net income, Adjusted EBITDA, and certain other financial information:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Net revenue$2,461.7 $1,809.8 $651.9 
Operating income564.0 321.8 242.2 
Operating income margin22.9 %17.8 %
Net income$417.3 $439.4 $(22.1)
Adjusted EBITDA1,023.9 763.6 260.3 
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Net revenue increased $651.9 million driven by a $432.7 million increase in Live and Historical Racing revenue primarily attributable to the Virginia properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, the opening of Turfway Park in Northern Kentucky in September 2022, a record-breaking Derby Week at Churchill Downs Racetrack, the properties acquired in the Ellis Park and Chasers Transactions, and continued growth at our other Kentucky properties, a $212.7
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million increase in Gaming revenue primarily due to our New York and Iowa properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, and an $8.5 million increase in TwinSpires revenue primarily attributable to the Exacta Transaction, partially offset by a $2.0 million decrease in All Other revenue.
Operating income increased $242.2 million due to a $171.4 million increase in Live and Historical Racing income primarily attributable to the Virginia properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, the opening of Turfway Park in Northern Kentucky in September 2022, the properties acquired in the Ellis Park and Chasers Transactions, and continued growth at our other Kentucky properties, a $50.6 million increase in Gaming income primarily from the New York and Iowa properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, a $13.9 million increase in TwinSpires income primarily due to the exit of the direct online Sports and Casino business in the first quarter of 2022 and an increase attributable to the Exacta Transaction, a $37.3 million decrease in transaction costs, and a $13.7 million decrease in non-cash impairment costs. These increases were partially offset by a $38.1 million increase in selling, general and administrative expenses primarily due to the P2E Transaction, and a $6.6 million decrease in All Other operating income primarily related to Arlington exit costs.
Net income from decreased $22.1 million. The following items impacted comparability of the Company's net income for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year: a $112.4 million decrease in after-tax gains on property sales and a $9.2 million after-tax benefit related to our equity portion of the non-cash change in the fair value of Rivers Des Plaines' interest rate swap that did not recur in 2023. Offsetting these decreases to net income were a $16.6 million after-tax decrease in transaction, pre-opening and other expenses, a $10.1 million after-tax decrease in non-cash asset impairments, and a $3.1 million decrease of other charges. Excluding these items, net income increased $69.7 million due to a $197.1 million after-tax increase primarily driven by the results of our operations, partially offset by a $127.4 million after-tax increase in interest expense associated with higher outstanding debt balances.
Adjusted EBITDA increased $260.3 million driven by a $187.9 million increase in Live and Historical Racing Adjusted EBITDA primarily attributable to the Virginia properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, a record-breaking Derby Week at Churchill Downs Racetrack, and continued growth at our other Kentucky properties, a $66.7 million increase in Gaming Adjusted EBITDA primarily from the New York and Iowa properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, and an $18.0 million increase in TwinSpires Adjusted EBITDA primarily due to the exit of the direct online Sports and Casino business and an increase attributable to the Exacta Transaction, partially offset by a $12.3 million increase in corporate general administrative expenses.

Revenue by Segment
The following table presents net revenue for our segments, including intercompany revenues:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Live and Historical Racing$1,084.6 $646.4 $438.2 
TwinSpires458.4 441.6 16.8 
Gaming974.6 761.8 212.8 
All Other0.9 3.3 (2.4)
Eliminations(56.8)(43.3)(13.5)
Net Revenue$2,461.7 $1,809.8 $651.9 
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Live and Historical Racing revenue increased $438.2 million driven by a $313.9 million increase attributable to the Virginia properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, a $41.2 million increase in Northern Kentucky primarily due to the opening of Turfway Park in September 2022, a $36.4 million increase attributable to properties acquired in the Ellis Park and Chasers Transactions, a $20.7 million increase due to a record-breaking Derby Week at Churchill Downs Racetrack, a $19.2 million increase from our Derby City Gaming property and the opening of Derby City Gaming Downtown in December 2023 in Louisville, Kentucky, and a $16.5 million increase from our Oak Grove property in Southwestern Kentucky. These increases were partially offset by a $9.7 million decrease for non-Derby Week racing operations primarily due to the decision to move a portion of the Churchill Downs Racetrack Spring Meet to Ellis Park.
TwinSpires revenue increased $16.8 million driven by a $19.1 million increase attributable to the Exacta Transaction, a $5.3 million increase primarily from the B2B expansion strategy associated with United Tote totalisator fees, a $1.9
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million increase from our retail sports betting business, and a $1.8 million increase in all other Horse Racing revenue primarily driven by increased handle from our higher-wagering volume customer base, partially offset by lower retail Horse Racing handle due to industry race day cancellations and the decision to move a portion of the Churchill Downs Racetrack Spring Meet to Ellis Park in 2023 and an $11.3 million reduction primarily due to the exit of the direct online Sports and Casino business in the first quarter of 2022.
Gaming revenue increased $212.8 million driven by a $230.0 million increase attributable to the New York and Iowa properties acquired in the P2E Transaction, partially offset by a $16.9 million decrease in Pennsylvania primarily due to our decision not to renew the management agreement at Lady Luck and a $0.3 million net decrease from our other gaming properties.
Consolidated Operating Expense
The following table is a summary of our consolidated operating expense:
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Gaming taxes and purses$613.4$473.7$139.7 
Content expense173.0173.7(0.7)
Salaries and benefits285.3196.089.3 
Selling, general and administrative expense202.3164.238.1 
Depreciation and amortization169.0113.755.3 
Marketing and advertising expense83.452.930.5 
Maintenance, insurance and utilities88.961.527.4 
Property and other taxes26.416.010.4 
Asset impairments24.638.3(13.7)
Transaction expense4.842.1(37.3)
Other operating expense226.6155.970.7 
Total expense$1,897.7$1,488.0$409.7 
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Significant items affecting comparability of consolidated operating expense include:
Taxes and purses, salaries and benefits, selling, general and administrative, marketing and advertising, depreciation and amortization, maintenance, insurance and utilities, property and other taxes, and other operating expenses increased due to the P2E, Ellis Park, Chasers, and Exacta Transactions, as well as the opening of Turfway Park in September of 2022.
The decrease in asset impairments was driven by reduced non-cash impairment charges in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily at Presque Isle.
Transaction expenses decreased $37.3 million primarily driven by expenses incurred in 2022 in connection with the P2E Transaction.
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Adjusted EBITDA by Segment
We believe that the use of Adjusted EBITDA as a key performance measure of the results of operations enables management and investors to evaluate and compare from period to period our operating performance in a meaningful and consistent manner. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure of our performance that is not required by or presented in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (as determined in accordance with GAAP) as a measure of our operating results.
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Live and Historical Racing$475.4 $287.5 $187.9 
TwinSpires132.1 114.1 18.0 
Gaming488.6 421.9 66.7 
Total segment Adjusted EBITDA1,096.1 823.5 272.6 
All Other(72.2)(59.9)(12.3)
Total Adjusted EBITDA$1,023.9 $763.6 $260.3 
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2022
Live and Historical Racing Adjusted EBITDA increased $187.9 million driven by a $145.0 million increase attributable to the Virginia properties acquired in the P2E Transaction and savings as a result of the Exacta Transaction, a $15.7 million increase due to a record-breaking Derby Week at Churchill Downs Racetrack, a $13.1 million increase from continued growth at Oak Grove in Southwestern Kentucky, an $8.6 million increase in Northern Kentucky primarily due to the opening of Turfway Park in September 2022, a $7.2 million increase due to growth from our Derby City Gaming property and the opening of Derby City Gaming Downtown in December 2023 in Louisville, Kentucky, and a $5.4 million increase attributable to our other Live and Historical Racing properties. These increases were partially offset by a $7.1 million decrease for non-Derby Week racing operations primarily driven by the decision to move a portion of the Churchill Downs Racetrack Spring Meet to Ellis Park in 2023.
TwinSpires Adjusted EBITDA increased $18.0 million driven by an $11.8 million increase attributable to the Exacta Transaction, an $11.3 million increase primarily from significant cost reductions associated with the exit of the direct online Sports and Casino business in the first quarter of 2022, and a $3.7 million increase primarily from the B2B expansion strategy associated with United Tote totalisator fees. These increases were partially offset by an $8.8 million decrease primarily as a result of lower retail Horse Racing handle as well as higher content-related expenses and higher advance deposit wagering taxes in certain jurisdictions.
Gaming Adjusted EBITDA increased $66.7 million driven by a $78.9 million increase attributable to the New York and Iowa properties acquired in the P2E Transaction and a $7.1 million increase from our equity investments. These increases were partially offset by a $14.6 million decrease from our other wholly owned Gaming properties primarily driven by Florida, Mississippi, and Pennsylvania, and a $4.7 million decrease attributable to proceeds for business interruption insurance claims related to Hurricane Ida. We received $6.3 million of insurance proceeds in 2022 compared to $1.6 million in 2023.
All Other Adjusted EBITDA decreased $12.3 million primarily driven by increased corporate compensation expenses.

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Reconciliation of Comprehensive Income to Adjusted EBITDA
Years Ended December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Net income and comprehensive income$417.3 $439.4 $(22.1)
Additions:
Depreciation and amortization169.0 113.7 55.3 
Interest expense268.4 147.3 121.1 
Income tax provision144.5 169.4 (24.9)
EBITDA$999.2 $869.8 $129.4 
Adjustments to EBITDA:
Stock-based compensation expense$32.9 $31.8 $1.1 
Legal reserves(1.2)3.8 (5.0)
Pre-opening expense18.6 13.2 5.4 
Arlington exit costs9.4 5.7 3.7 
Other expense, net7.0 1.7 5.3 
Transaction expense, net4.8 42.1 (37.3)
Asset impairments24.6 38.3 (13.7)
Other income, expense:
Interest, depreciation and amortization expense related to equity investments40.2 42.8 (2.6)
Changes in fair value of Rivers Des Plaines' interest rate swaps— (12.6)12.6 
Rivers Des Plaines' legal reserves and transactions costs— 0.6 (0.6)
Other charges and recoveries, net2.4 1.0 1.4 
Gain on the sale of assets(114.0)(274.6)160.6 
Total adjustments to EBITDA24.7 (106.2)130.9 
Adjusted EBITDA$1,023.9 $763.6 $260.3 

Consolidated Balance Sheet
The following table is a summary of our overall financial position:
As of December 31,Change
(in billions)20232022
Total assets$7.0 $6.2 $0.8 
Total liabilities6.1 5.6 0.5 
Total shareholders’ equity0.9 0.60.3 
Total assets increased $0.8 billion driven by increased capital expenditures and assets acquired in the Exacta Transaction, partially offset by the sale of our Arlington property and the Presque Isle impairment in 2023.
Total liabilities increased $0.5 billion driven by increased notes payable, accrued capital expenditures, and increased deferred revenue primarily due to increased advanced ticket sales related to the 150th Kentucky Derby, partially offset by a net pay down of long-term debt.
Total shareholders’ equity increased $0.3 billion driven by increased net income and stock-based compensation, partially offset by share repurchases.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity and capital resources have been and will continue to be cash flow from operations, borrowings under our credit facility, and proceeds from the issuance of debt securities. Our ongoing liquidity will depend on several factors, including available cash resources, cash flow from operations, acquisitions, or equity investments, funding of construction for development projects, and our compliance with our covenants under our credit facility.
The following table is a summary of our liquidity and cash flows:
Year Ended December 31,Change
(in billions)20232022
Cash Flows from:
Operating activities$0.6 $0.5 $0.1 
Investing activities(0.7)(3.1)2.4 
Financing activities0.1 2.4 (2.3)
Operating Cash Flow
Cash flows provided by operating activities increased $0.1 billion driven by increased operating income and increased deferred revenue from advanced ticket sales and sponsorships related to the 150th Kentucky Derby. These increases were partially offset by an increase in net interest paid and net income taxes paid. We anticipate that cash flows from operations and availability of borrowings under our credit facility over the next twelve months will be adequate to fund our business operations and capital expenditures.
Investing Cash Flow
Cash used in investing activities decreased $2.4 billion driven by the P2E Transaction in 2022, partially offset by increased capital project expenditures in 2023 primarily at Churchill Downs Racetrack, Terre Haute Casino Resort, and The Rose Gaming Resort in Dumfries, Virginia, and decreased proceeds from the sale of assets.
Financing Cash Flow
Cash provided by financing activities decreased $2.3 billion primarily driven by a $2.4 billion decrease in net borrowings from long-term debt and notes payable and a $119.0 million decrease in common stock repurchases.
Capital Expenditures
Included in cash flows from investing activities are capital maintenance expenditures, and capital project expenditures. Capital maintenance expenditures relate to the replacement of existing fixed assets with a useful life greater than one year that are obsolete, exhausted, or no longer cost effective to repair. Capital project expenditures represent fixed asset additions related to land or building improvements to new or existing assets or purchases of new (non-replacement) equipment or software related to specific projects deemed necessary expenditures.
We have spent $599.5 million in 2023 on project capital investments including: Churchill Downs Racetrack Paddock Project, Derby City Gaming Downtown, Owensboro Racing & Gaming in Eastern Daviess County, Kentucky, the Terre Haute Casino Resort in Vigo County, Indiana, a New Hampshire HRM Facility, and The Rose Gaming Resort in Dumfries. We currently expect our project capital to be approximately $450.0 to $550.0 million in 2024, although this amount may vary significantly based on the timing of work completed, unanticipated delays, and timing of payments to third parties.
Common Stock Repurchase Program
On September 29, 2021, the Board of Directors of the Company approved a common stock repurchase program of up to $500.0 million ("2021 Stock Repurchase Program"). Repurchases may be made at management’s discretion from time to time on the open market (either with or without a 10b5-1 plan) or through privately negotiated transactions. The repurchase program has no time limit and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. We had $214.9 million of repurchase authority remaining under this program on December 31, 2023.
On December 18, 2023, the Company entered into an agreement (the “2023 Stock Repurchase Agreement”) with an affiliate of The Duchossois Group ("TDG") to repurchase 1,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock, for $123.75 per share representing a discount of 4.03% to the closing price on December 15, 2023 of $128.95 for an aggregate purchase price of $123.8 million. The repurchase of the shares of Company's common stock pursuant to the 2023 Stock Repurchase Agreement closed on January 2, 2024, and contains customary representations, warranties, and covenants of the parties. The repurchase of shares of common stock from TDG pursuant to the 2023 Stock Repurchase Agreement was approved by the Company's Board of Directors separately from and did not reduce the authorized amount remaining under the existing common stock repurchase
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program. The repurchase of the shares was funded using available cash and borrowings under the Company’s senior secured credit facility.
Dividends
On October 24, 2023, the Company's Board of Directors approved an annual cash dividend on our common stock of $0.382 per outstanding share, which represented a 7% increase over the prior year on a split adjusted basis. The dividend was payable on January 5, 2024 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on December 1, 2023. The 7% increase marked the thirteenth consecutive year that the Company has increased the dividend per share. The payment and amount of future dividends will be determined by the Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, our operating results, financial condition, cash requirements, and general business conditions at the time such payment is considered.
Credit Facilities and Indebtedness
The following table presents our debt outstanding, bond premium and debt issuance costs:
As of December 31,Change
(in millions)20232022
Term Loan B due 2024$— $380.0 $(380.0)
Term Loan B-1 due 2028291.8 294.7 (2.9)
Term Loan A due 20271,235.0 800.0 435.0 
Revolver247.2 664.1 (416.9)
2027 Senior Notes600.0 600.0 — 
2028 Senior Notes700.0 700.0 — 
2030 Senior Notes1,200.0 1,200.0 — 
2031 Senior Notes600.0 — 600.0 
Total debt4,874.0 4,638.8 235.2 
Current maturities of long-term debt(68.0)(47.0)(21.0)
Total debt, net of current maturities4,806.0 4,591.8 214.2 
Issuance cost and fees(37.7)(33.1)(4.6)
Total debt$4,768.3 $4,558.7 $209.6 
Credit Agreement
At December 31, 2023, the Company’s senior secured credit facility (as amended from time to time, the “Credit Agreement") consisted of a $1.2 billion revolving credit facility (the "Revolver"), $300.0 million senior secured term loan B-1 due 2028 (the "Term Loan B-1"), $1.3 billion senior secured term loan A due 2027 (the "Term Loan A"), and $100.0 million swing line commitment. Certain amendments to the Credit Agreement entered into during 2022 and 2023 are described below.
On April 13, 2022, the Company amended the Credit Agreement to extend the maturity date of its existing Revolver to April 13, 2027, to increase the commitments under the existing Revolver from $700.0 million to $1.2 billion, and to increase the swing line commitment from $50.0 million to $100.0 million. The amendment also provided for a senior secured Term Loan A due April 13, 2027 in the amount of $800.0 million, which was drawn on November 1, 2022 as part of the financing for the P2E Transaction. Refer to Note 3, Acquisitions in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for more information regarding the P2E Transaction. The Company capitalized $3.5 million of debt issuance costs associated with the Revolver commitment increase and $6.4 million of debt issuance costs associated with the Term Loan A which are being amortized as interest expense over the 5-year term.
On February 24, 2023, we amended our Credit Agreement to increase the loans under the Term Loan A due 2027 from $800.0 million to $1.3 billion and made certain other changes to the existing credit agreement. The Company used the net proceeds from the borrowings under the increased Term Loan A to repay outstanding loans under its Revolver, pay related transaction fees and expenses, and for general corporate purposes. The Company capitalized $2.6 million of debt issuance costs associated with the increased Term Loan A which are being amortized as interest expense over the remainder of the 5-year term.
Term Loan B-1 bears interest at Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") plus 210 basis points and requires quarterly payments of 0.25% of the original $300.0 million balance. The Term Loan B-1 may be subject to additional mandatory prepayment from excess cash flow on an annual basis per the provisions of the Credit Agreement.
The Revolver and Term Loan A bear interest at SOFR plus 10 basis points, plus a variable applicable margin which is determined by the Company's net leverage ratio. As of December 31, 2023, that applicable margin was 150 basis points which
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was based on the pricing grid in the Credit Agreement. The Company had $947.6 million available borrowing capacity, after consideration of $5.3 million in outstanding letters of credit, under the Revolver as of December 31, 2023.
The Company is required to pay a commitment fee on the unused portion of the Revolver as determined by a pricing grid based on the consolidated total net secured leverage ratio of the Company. For the period ended December 31, 2023, the Company's commitment fee rate was 0.25%.
The Company completed the transition of its financing from London Interbank Offered Rate to SOFR during the second quarter of 2023. These transition activities did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
The Credit Agreement is collateralized by substantially all the wholly owned assets of the Company. The Credit Agreement contains certain customary affirmative and negative covenants, which include limitations on liens, investments, indebtedness, dispositions, mergers and acquisitions, the making of restricted payments, changes in the nature of business, changes in fiscal year, and transactions with affiliates. The Credit Agreement also contains financial covenants providing for the maintenance of a maximum consolidated secured net leverage ratio and maintenance of a minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio.
Actual as of
December 31, 2023
Requirement
Interest coverage ratio4.0 to 1.0> 2.5 to 1.0
Consolidated total secured net leverage ratio1.1 to 1.0< 4.0 to 1.0
The Company was compliant with all applicable covenants on December 31, 2023.
2027 Senior Notes
On March 25, 2019, we completed an offering of $600.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.50% Senior Unsecured Notes that mature on April 1, 2027 (the "2027 Senior Notes") in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A that is exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and to certain non-U.S. persons in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The Company used the net proceeds from the offering to repay the then-outstanding balance on the Revolver. In connection with the offering, we capitalized $8.9 million of debt issuance costs which are being amortized as interest expense over the term of the 2027 Senior Notes.
The 2027 Senior Notes were issued at par, with interest payable on April 1st and October 1st of each year, commencing on October 1, 2019. The 2027 Senior Notes will vote as one class under the indenture governing the 2027 Senior Notes.
The Company may redeem some or all of the 2027 Senior Notes at redemption prices set forth in the 2027 Indenture.
2028 Senior Notes
On December 27, 2017, we completed an offering of $500.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.75% Senior Unsecured Notes that mature on January 15, 2028 (the "Existing 2028 Notes") in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A that is exempt from registration under the Securities Act, and to certain non-U.S. persons in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The Existing 2028 Notes were issued at par, with interest payable on January 15th and July 15th of each year, commencing on July 15, 2018. The Company used the net proceeds from the offering to repay a portion of our $600.0 million 5.375% Senior Unsecured Notes due in 2021. In connection with the offering, we capitalized $7.7 million of debt issuance costs which are being amortized as interest expense over the term of the Existing 2028 Notes.
On March 17, 2021, the Company completed an offering of $200.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.75% Senior Unsecured Notes that mature on January 15, 2028 (the "Additional 2028 Notes") in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A that is exempt from registration under the Securities Act, and to certain non-U.S. persons in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The Additional 2028 Notes were offered under the indenture dated as of December 27, 2017, governing the $500.0 million aggregate principal amount of 4.75% Senior Unsecured Notes due 2028 and form a part of the same series for purposes of the indenture. In connection with the offering, we capitalized $3.4 million of debt issuance costs which are being amortized as interest expense over the term of the Additional 2028 Notes. Upon completion of this offering, the aggregate principal amount outstanding of the Existing 2028 Notes, together with the Additional 2028 Notes (collectively, the "2028 Senior Notes"), is $700.0 million.
The Additional 2028 Notes were issued at 103.25% of the principal amount, plus interest deemed to have accrued from January 15, 2021, with interest payable on January 15th and July 15th of each year, commencing on July 15, 2021. The 2028 Senior Notes will vote as one class under the indenture governing the 2028 Senior Notes. The 3.25% premium is being amortized through interest expense, net over the term of the Additional 2028 Notes.
The Company may redeem some or all the 2028 Senior Notes at redemption prices set forth in the 2028 Indenture.
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2030 Senior Notes
On April 13, 2022, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company completed an offering of $1.2 billion in aggregate principal amount of 5.75% Senior Unsecured Notes that mature on April 13, 2030 (the "2030 Senior Notes") in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A that was exempt from registration under the Securities Act, and to certain non-U.S. persons in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The offering of the 2030 Senior Notes was part of the financing utilized for the P2E Transaction. In connection with the offering, we capitalized $18.3 million of debt issuance costs which are being amortized as interest expense over the term of the 2030 Senior Notes.
The 2030 Senior Notes were issued at 100% of the principal amount, plus interest deemed to have accrued from April 13, 2022, with interest payable in arrears on April 1st and October 1st of each year, commencing on October 1, 2022. The 2030 Senior Notes will vote as one class under the indenture governing the 2030 Senior Notes.
The Issuer may redeem some of or all the 2030 Senior Notes at any time prior to April 1, 2025, at redemption prices set forth in the 2030 Offering Memorandum.
2031 Senior Notes
On April 25, 2023, the Company completed an offering of $600.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.750% senior unsecured notes that mature on April 25, 2031 (the "2031 Senior Notes") in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A that is exempt from registration under the Securities Act, and to certain non-U.S. persons in accordance with Regulation S under the Securities Act. The Company used a portion of the net proceeds from the offering to repay indebtedness outstanding under its Term Loan B Facility due 2024, and to fund related transaction fees and expenses, working capital and other general corporate purposes. The Company recognized a loss on extinguishment on Term Loan B of $1.3 million, which is included in miscellaneous, net in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income. The Company capitalized $10.5 million of debt issuance costs associated with the 2031 Senior Notes which are being amortized as interest expense over the remainder of the 8-year term.
The 2031 Senior Notes were issued at 100% of the principal amount, plus interest deemed to have accrued from April 25, 2023, with interest payable in arrears on May 1st and November 1st of each year, commencing on November 1, 2023. The 2031 Senior Notes will vote as one class under the indenture governing the 2031 Senior Notes.
The Company may redeem some or all of the 2031 Senior Notes at any time prior to April 25, 2025, at redemption prices set forth in the 2031 Offering Memorandum.
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Contractual Obligations
Our commitments to make future payments as of December 31, 2023, are estimated as follows:
(in millions)20242025-20262027-2028ThereafterTotal
Dividends$28.5 $— $— $— $28.5 
Revolver— — 247.2 — 247.2 
Interest on Revolver (1)
17.4 34.8 4.9 — 57.1 
Term Loan B-13.0 6.0 282.8 — 291.8 
Interest on Term Loan B-1 (1)
22.0 43.3 25.8 — 91.1 
Term Loan A65.0 130.0 1,040.0 — 1,235.0 
Interest on Term Loan A(1)
85.7 157.1 20.7 — 263.5 
2027 Senior Notes— — 600.0 — 600.0 
2028 Senior Notes— — 700.0 — 700.0 
2030 Senior Notes— — — 1,200.0 1,200.0 
2031 Senior Notes— — — 600.0 600.0 
Interest on 2027 Senior Notes33.0 66.0 16.5 — 115.5 
Interest on 2028 Senior Notes33.3 66.5 49.9 — 149.7 
Interest on 2030 Senior Notes69.0 138.0 138.0 106.0 451.0 
Interest on 2031 Senior Notes40.5 81.0 81.0 101.3 303.8 
Operating and Finance Leases10.3 19.5 14.5 37.0 81.3 
All other
1.6 3.1 2.9 6.5 14.1 
Total$409.3 $745.3 $3,224.2 $2,050.8 $6,429.6 
(1)    Interest includes the estimated contractual payments under our Credit Facility assuming no change in the weighted average borrowing rate of 7.05%, which was the rate in place as of December 31, 2023.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $4.8 million of unrecognized tax benefits.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our significant accounting policies and recently adopted accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies to the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP, which requires management to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that we believe are reasonable based on our historical experience, contract terms, observance of known trends in our Company and the industry as a whole and information available from other outside sources. Our estimates affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expense during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those initial estimates.
Our critical accounting estimates relate to goodwill and certain indefinite-lived intangible assets.
Goodwill and certain intangible assets
Acquisition of certain identifiable intangible assets
In conjunction with the acquisition of a business, the Company records identifiable intangible assets acquired at their respective fair values as of the date of acquisition. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets primarily consist of gaming rights and trademarks. Certain of our gaming rights and trademarks are considered indefinite-lived intangible assets that do not require amortization based on our future expectations to operate our gaming facilities and use the trademarks indefinitely, and our historical experience in renewing these intangible assets at minimal cost with various state gaming commissions. Our definite-lived intangible assets primarily consist of technology and other assets.
We use various valuation methods to determine initial fair value of our intangible assets, including the Greenfield Method and relief-from-royalty method of the income approach, all of which use significant unobservable inputs, or Level 3 inputs, as defined by the fair value hierarchy. The use of these valuation methods requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions about future revenue and operating expenses, expected start-up costs, capital expenditures, royalty rate, and the discount rate. The fair values of gaming rights are generally determined using the Greenfield Method, which is an income
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approach methodology that calculates the present value based on a projected cash flow stream. This method assumes that the gaming rights provides the opportunity to develop a casino or historical racing facility in a specified region, and that the present value of the projected cash flows are a result of the realization of advantages contained in these rights. Under this methodology, the acquirer is expected to absorb all start-up costs, as well as incur all expenses pertaining to the acquisition and/or the creation of all tangible and intangible assets. The estimated future revenue and operating expenses, start-up costs of the acquired business, and the discount rate are the primary assumptions and estimates used in these valuations. The fair values of trademarks are generally determined using the relief-from-royalty method of the income approach, which estimates the fair value of the intangible asset by discounting the fair value of the hypothetical royalty payments a market participant would be willing to pay to enjoy the benefits of the trademarks. The estimated future revenue, royalty rate, and the discount rate are the primary assumptions and estimates used in these valuations. The fair value of technology assets are generally determined using the relief-from-royalty method of the income approach, which estimates the cost savings that accrue to the owner of the intangibles asset that would otherwise be payable as royalties or license fees on revenues earned through the use of the asset. The estimated future revenue, royalty rate, and discount rate are the primary assumptions and estimates used in the valuations. The discount rates used to discount expected future cash flows to present value are generally derived from the weighted average cost of capital analysis and adjusted for the size and/or risk of the asset. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results.
Assessments of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets
We perform our annual review for impairment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets on April 1st of each fiscal year, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not the asset is impaired. Adverse industry or economic trends, lower projections of profitability, or a sustained decline in our market capitalization, among other items, may be indications of potential impairment issues which are triggering events requiring the testing of an asset’s carrying value for recoverability.
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are required to be tested annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that an asset is impaired. An entity may first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to complete the impairment test using a more likely than not criteria. If an entity believes it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is greater than the reporting unit's carrying value, including goodwill, the quantitative impairment test can be bypassed. Alternatively, an entity has an unconditional option to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceed directly to performing the quantitative impairment test. If a quantitative impairment test of goodwill is required, we generally determine the fair value under the market and income valuation approaches using inputs primarily related to discounted projected cash flows and price multiples of publicly traded comparable companies. If a quantitative impairment test of our indefinite-lived intangible assets is required, we generally determine the fair value using the Greenfield Method for gaming rights and relief-from-royalty method of the income approach for trademarks. Qualitative factors include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, and overall financial performance, among others. These factors require significant judgments and estimates, and application of alternative assumptions could produce materially different results. Evaluations of possible impairment require us to estimate, among other factors, forecasts of future operating results, revenue growth, operating expense, tax rates, start-up costs, capital expenditures, depreciation, working capital, discount rates, long-term growth rates, risk premiums, royalty rates, terminal values, and fair values of our reporting units and assets. The impairment tests for goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are subject to uncertainties arising from such events as changes in competitive conditions, the current economic environment, material changes in growth rate assumptions that could positively or negatively impact anticipated future operating conditions and cash flows, changes in the discount rate, and the impact of strategic decisions. If any of these factors were to materially change, such change may require a reevaluation of our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results.
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ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks arising from adverse changes in:
general economic trends; and
interest rate and credit risk.
General economic trends
Our business is sensitive to consumer confidence and reductions in consumers' discretionary spending, which may result from challenging economic conditions, inflation, unemployment levels and other changes in the economy. Demand for entertainment and leisure activities is sensitive to consumers’ disposable incomes, which can be adversely affected by economic conditions and unemployment levels. This could result in fewer patrons visiting our racetracks, HRM entertainment venues, online wagering sites, and gaming facilities, and/or may impact our customers’ ability to wager with the same frequency and to maintain wagering levels.
Interest rate and credit risk
Our primary exposure to market risk relates to changes in interest rates. On December 31, 2023, we had $1.8 billion outstanding under our Credit Agreement, which bears interest at SOFR based variable rates. We are exposed to market risk on variable rate debt due to potential adverse changes in these rates. Assuming the outstanding balance of the debt facility remains constant, a one-percentage point increase in the SOFR rate would reduce net income and cash flows from operating activities by $12.9 million.
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ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
CHURCHILL DOWNS INCORPORATED
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
for the years ended December 31,
(in millions, except per common share data)202320222021
Net revenue:
Live and Historical Racing$1,047.3 $614.6 $409.1 
TwinSpires444.9 436.4 451.4 
Gaming968.6 755.9 695.4 
All Other0.9 2.9 41.3 
Total net revenue2,461.7 1,809.8 1,597.2 
Operating expense:
Live and Historical Racing662.2 400.9 288.9 
TwinSpires288.2 293.6 345.8 
Gaming700.0 537.9 476.3 
All Other15.6 11.0 40.1 
Selling, general and administrative expense202.3 164.2 138.5 
Asset impairments24.6 38.3 15.3 
Transaction expense, net4.8 42.1 7.9 
Total operating expense1,897.7 1,488.0 1,312.8 
Operating income564.0 321.8 284.4 
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense, net(268.4)(147.3)(84.7)
Equity in income of unconsolidated affiliates146.3 152.7 143.2 
Gain on the sale of assets114.0 274.6  
Miscellaneous, net5.9 7.0 0.7 
Total other (expense) income(2.2)287.0 59.2 
Income before provision for income taxes561.8 608.8 343.6 
Income tax provision(144.5)(169.4)(94.5)
Net income