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United States Securities and Exchange Commission
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
 
For the transition period from _____________________ to _____________________.
 
Commission file number 000-04604
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Ohio31-0746871
(State of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 6200 S. Gilmore Road
Fairfield, Ohio 45014-5141
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(513) 870-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $2.00 parCINFNasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes       No
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes       No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes       No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 1

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☑

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant based on the closing price of $97.32 per share as reported on Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2023, was $14,988,706,711.
 
As of February 16, 2024, there were 156,665,018 shares of common stock outstanding.
 
Document Incorporated by Reference
 
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for Cincinnati Financial Corporation’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 4, 2024, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 2

2023 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 3


Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 4

Part I

ITEM 1.    Business

Cincinnati Financial Corporation – Introduction
We are an Ohio corporation formed in 1968. Our lead subsidiary, The Cincinnati Insurance Company, was founded in 1950. Our main business is property casualty insurance marketed through independent insurance agencies in 46 states. Our headquarters is in Fairfield, Ohio.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation owns 100% of four subsidiaries: The Cincinnati Insurance Company (Cincinnati Insurance), Cincinnati Global Underwriting Ltd.SM (Cincinnati Global), CSU Producer Resources Inc. and CFC Investment Company. In addition, the parent company has an investment portfolio, owns the headquarters property and is responsible for corporate borrowings and shareholder dividends.
 
The Cincinnati Insurance Company owns 100% of four additional insurance subsidiaries. Our standard market property casualty insurance group includes two of those subsidiaries – The Cincinnati Casualty Company and The Cincinnati Indemnity Company. This group writes a broad range of business, homeowner and auto policies. The Cincinnati Insurance Company also conducts the business of our reinsurance assumed operations, known as Cincinnati Re®. Other subsidiaries of The Cincinnati Insurance Company include: The Cincinnati Life Insurance Company (Cincinnati Life), which provides life insurance policies and fixed annuities; and The Cincinnati Specialty Underwriters Insurance Company (Cincinnati Specialty Underwriters), which offers excess and surplus lines insurance products. In this report and elsewhere we often refer to any or all of these five companies as The Cincinnati Insurance Companies.
 
Cincinnati Global owns 100% of Cincinnati Global Underwriting Agency Ltd.SM, a London-based, global specialty underwriter for Lloyd's Syndicate 318, and Cincinnati Global Dedicated No. 2 Ltd.SM, a Lloyd’s corporate member and vehicle through which capital is provided by Cincinnati Financial Corporation and third-party names at Lloyd’s.

The two noninsurance subsidiaries of Cincinnati Financial Corporation are CSU Producer Resources, which offers insurance brokerage services to our independent agencies so their clients can access our excess and surplus lines insurance products; and CFC Investment Company, which offers commercial leasing and financing services to our agencies, their clients and other customers.
 
Our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are available on our website,
cinfin.com/investors, as soon as possible after they have been filed with the SEC. Reports filed with the SEC may also be viewed at sec.gov. These filings include annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and exhibits and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. In this report we reference various websites. These websites, including our own, are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Periodically, we refer to estimated industry data so that we can give information about our performance versus the overall U.S. insurance industry. Unless otherwise noted, the industry data is prepared by A.M. Best, a leading insurance industry statistical, analytical and insurer financial strength and credit rating organization. Information from A.M. Best is presented on a statutory accounting basis for insurance company regulation in the United States of America. When we provide our results on a comparable statutory accounting basis, we label it as such; all other company data is presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP).
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 5

Our Business and Our Strategy
Introduction
The Cincinnati Insurance Company was founded more than 70 years ago by four independent insurance agents. They established the mission that continues to guide all of the companies in the Cincinnati Financial Corporation family – to grow profitably and enhance the ability of local independent insurance agents to deliver quality financial protection to the people and businesses they serve by:
providing insurance market stability through financial strength
producing competitive, up-to-date products and services
developing associates committed to superior service

At year-end 2023, a select group of independent agencies in 46 states actively marketed our property casualty insurance within their communities. Standard market commercial lines and excess and surplus lines policies were
marketed in 43 of those states. Personal lines policies were marketed in 45 of those states. Within our select group of agencies, we also seek to become the life insurance carrier of choice and to help agents and their clients – our policyholders – by offering leasing and financing services.
 
Three competitive advantages distinguish our company, positioning us to build shareholder value and to be successful overall:
Commitment to our professional independent insurance agencies and to their continued success
Financial strength to fulfill our promises and be a consistent market for our agents’ business, supporting stability and confidence
Operating structure that supports local decision making, showcasing our claims excellence and allowing us to balance growth with underwriting discipline

Management and our board of directors has developed an agency-focused strategy that we believe positions our company for long-term success and value creation, while managing difficult economic, market or pricing cycles. We broadly group our key strategic initiatives into two areas of focus – managing insurance profitability and driving premium growth, as summarized below. Our strategic priorities include meeting the wants and needs of our agent customers, attracting and developing talented associates, achieving best-in-class field service and continually enhancing operational efficiency and effectiveness. To help guide our strategic efforts, we have placed an emphasis on innovation to accelerate operational improvement and to also favorably position us for the future. We find innovative ideas in many places, including: internally through management and other associates, with our traditional business partners and in the start-up business community.

Manage insurance profitability – Implementation of these initiatives is intended to enhance underwriting expertise and knowledge, thereby increasing our ability to manage our business while also gaining efficiency. We believe profit margins can be improved with additional information and expanded pricing capabilities we can access with the use of technology and analytics. This includes segmentation efforts that emphasize identification and retention of insurance policies we believe have relatively stronger pricing, while seeking more aggressive renewal terms and conditions on policies we believe have relatively weaker pricing. Pricing property casualty insurance policies includes estimates for expected losses, loss expenses to settle claims and expenses from underwriting policies while also considering the time value of money related to expected cash flows and a reasonable profit margin. In addition to enhancing company efficiency and more quickly deploying product or service enhancements, improving internal processes also supports the ability of the independent agencies that represent us to grow profitably by allowing them to serve clients faster and to more efficiently manage agency expenses as we make it easier for them to do business with us.
Drive premium growth – Implementation of these initiatives is intended to further penetrate each market we serve through our appointed independent agencies. Strategies aimed at specific market opportunities, along with service enhancements, can help our agents grow and increase our share of their business. This includes increasing opportunities for agencies to cross-serve their clients by providing updated products and services that aim to meet their life insurance needs. We continue to increase our capabilities to successfully underwrite both larger commercial policies, which we refer to as key accounts, and small business accounts that require greater efficiency. Premium growth initiatives also include expansion of Cincinnati Re and Cincinnati Global. Diversified growth also may reduce variability of losses from weather-related catastrophes.
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 6

Independent Insurance Agency Marketplace
The U.S. property casualty insurance industry is a highly competitive marketplace with more than 2,000 stock and mutual companies (carriers) operating independently or in groups.

For the most part, we compete with standard market insurance companies that market through independent insurance agents. Agencies marketing our commercial lines or personal lines products typically represent several standard market insurance carriers. We also compete with carriers that market through captive agents representing a single carrier or that market directly to consumers, sometimes offering a less broad range of insurance products. Some of our agencies describe their roles as brokers instead of agents. Distribution through independent insurance agents or brokers represents approximately 60% of overall U.S. property casualty insurance premiums and approximately 80% of commercial property casualty insurance premiums, according to studies by the Independent Insurance Agents and Brokers of America.
 
We are fully committed to the independent agency channel for marketing our insurance policies. For marketing standard lines insurance products, we choose independent agencies that share our philosophies. They generally do business person to person; offer broad, value-added services; and manage their agencies professionally, targeting long-term success. We develop our relationships with agencies, providing important knowledge of local market trends, opportunities and challenges.

Our associates work to support agencies with tools and resources that help communicate the value of choosing an independent insurance agent and our insurance policies to their clients and prospective clients. We help our agencies meet the broader needs of their clients and increase and diversify their revenues and profitability by offering insurance solutions beyond our standard market property casualty insurance products. We market life insurance products through the agencies that offer our property casualty products and through other independent life agencies that represent Cincinnati Life without also representing our other subsidiaries. We operate our own excess and surplus lines insurance brokerage firm and insurance carrier so that we can offer our excess and surplus lines products exclusively to the independent agencies who market our other property casualty insurance products. Insurers operating in the excess and surplus lines marketplace generally market business through nonaffiliated excess and surplus lines brokers.

The specialized nature of our other insurance operations helps avoid conflicts with the independent agency distribution channel. Cincinnati Re typically markets through broker organizations or similar intermediaries that specialize in reinsurance. Cincinnati Global markets its business through brokers and coverholders. Coverholders are entities that can be authorized by a Lloyd's syndicate to underwrite policies, manage risks, collect premiums or arrange claims settlements up to agreed upon limits.

The table below includes data about property casualty agency relationships that market our standard market insurance products. It does not include Lloyd's brokers or coverholders that source business for Cincinnati Global.
Agency DataYears ended December 31,
 20232022
Property casualty agency relationships, January 11,9841,921
New appointments that market all or most of The Cincinnati Insurance Companies' products216145
New appointments that market only personal lines insurance products for Cincinnati Insurance8464
Changes due to consolidation and other(204)(146)
Property casualty agency relationships, December 312,0801,984
Property casualty reporting locations3,1162,861
New relationship appointments206146
Active states4646

The annual total of agency new appointments may be partially offset by other changes in agency structures, such as consolidation through mergers or acquisitions. An increasing number of agencies have multiple, separately identifiable locations, reflecting their growth as well as consolidation of ownership within the independent
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 7

agency marketplace. The number of reporting agency locations indicates our agents’ regional scope and the extent of our presence within our active states. The difference between new appointments in total and the number of new relationships represents either: new branch offices opened by existing Cincinnati agencies; or agencies that merged with another Cincinnati agency and we still believed would produce a meaningful amount of new business premiums.
 
On average, we have a 4.6% share of the standard lines property casualty insurance purchased through our reporting agency locations, according to 2022 data from agency surveys. Our share is 9.2% in reporting agency locations that have represented us for more than 10 years; 3.1% in agencies that have represented us for six to 10 years; 1.3% in agencies that have represented us for two to five years; and 0.4% in agencies that have represented us for one year or less.
 
Our largest single agency relationship accounted for approximately 0.6% of our total property casualty earned premiums in 2023. No aggregate locations under a single ownership structure accounted for more than 6% of our earned premiums in 2023.
 
Financial Strength
We believe that our financial strength and strong capital and surplus position, reflected in our insurer financial strength ratings, are clear, competitive advantages in the segments of the insurance marketplace that we serve. This strength supports the consistent, predictable performance that our policyholders, agents, associates and shareholders have always expected and received, helping us withstand significant challenges.
 
Effective capital management is an important part of creating long-term shareholder value, serving as a foundation to support other strategic areas focused on profitable growth of our insurance business. Our capital management philosophy is intended to preserve and build our capital while maintaining appropriate liquidity.

While the potential exists for short-term financial performance variability due to our exposures to possible natural or man-made catastrophes or to significant capital market losses, the rating agencies consistently assert that we have built appropriate financial strength and flexibility to manage that variability. We remain committed to strategies that emphasize being a consistent, stable market for our agents’ business rather than seeking short-term benefits that might accrue by quick, opportunistic reaction to changes in market conditions.
 
We use various principles and practices such as diversification and enterprise risk management to maintain strong capital. For example, we maintain a diversified investment portfolio by reviewing and applying specific parameters and tolerances.
Our $13.791 billion fixed-maturity portfolio is diversified and exceeds total insurance reserves. The portfolio had an average rating of A2/A, and its fair value exceeded total insurance reserve liabilities by approximately 14% at December 31, 2023. No corporate bond exposure accounted for more than 0.8% of our fixed-maturity portfolio, and no municipal exposure accounted for more than 0.2%.
The strength of our fixed-maturity portfolio provides an opportunity to invest for potential capital appreciation by purchasing equity securities. Our $10.989 billion equity portfolio minimizes concentrations in single stocks or industries. At December 31, 2023, no single security accounted for more than 8.0% of our portfolio of publicly traded common stocks, and no single sector accounted for more than 34%.
Strong liquidity increases our flexibility through all periods to maintain our cash dividend and to continue to invest in and expand our insurance operations. At December 31, 2023, we held $4.907 billion of our cash and invested assets at the parent-company level, of which $4.542 billion, or 92.6%, was invested in common stocks, and $138 million, or 2.8%, was cash and cash equivalents.
 
We minimize reliance on debt as a source of capital, with a debt-to-total-capital ratio of 6.3% at year-end 2023. Long-term debt at year-end 2023 totaled $790 million, compared with $789 million at year-end 2022, and our short-term debt was $25 million, down from $50 million at the end of the prior year. The long-term debt consists of three nonconvertible, noncallable debentures, two due in 2028 and one in 2034. Ratings for our long-term debt are discussed in Item 7, Liquidity and Capital Resources, Long-Term Debt of Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 8

At year-end 2023 and 2022, risk-based capital (RBC) for our standard market property casualty insurance, excess and surplus lines insurance and life insurance subsidiaries was strong, far exceeding regulatory requirements.
We ended 2023 with a 1.1-to-1 ratio of property casualty premiums to surplus, a key measure of property casualty insurance company capacity and security. A lower ratio indicates more security for policyholders and greater capacity for growth by an insurer. We believe our ratio provides ample flexibility to diversify risk by expanding our operations into new geographies and product areas. The estimated industry average ratio was 0.9-to-1 at year-end 2023, based on industry data reported through the first nine months of 2023. On a statutory consolidated property casualty insurance basis, our ratio of investments in common stock, at fair value, to statutory capital and surplus was 83.2% at year-end 2023 compared with 83.7% at year-end 2022.
We ended 2023 with an 11.8% ratio of life statutory adjusted risk-based surplus to liabilities, a key measure of life insurance company capital strength. A higher ratio indicates an insurer’s stronger security for policyholders and capacity to support business growth. Our life insurance subsidiary’s RBC at year-end 2023 was 7.5 times the authorized control level RBC.
(Dollars in millions) Statutory Information
At December 31,
 20232022
Standard market property casualty insurance subsidiary  
Statutory capital and surplus$7,294 $6,512 
Risk-based capital 7,335 6,551 
Authorized control level risk-based capital1,354 1,186 
Risk-based capital to authorized control level risk-based capital ratio5.4 5.5 
Written premium to surplus ratio1.1 1.1 

Cincinnati Financial Corporation’s senior debt is rated by four independent rating firms. In addition, the rating firms award our property casualty and life operations insurer financial strength ratings based on their quantitative and qualitative analyses. These ratings assess an insurer’s ability to meet financial obligations to policyholders and do not necessarily address all of the matters that may be important to shareholders. Ratings may be subject to revision or withdrawal at any time by the ratings agency, and each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.
 
At February 23, 2024, our insurance subsidiaries continued to be highly rated.
Insurer Financial Strength Ratings
Rating
agency
Standard market property
casualty insurance subsidiary
Life insurance
subsidiary
Excess and surplus lines
insurance subsidiary
Outlook
 Rating
Tier
Rating
Tier
Rating
Tier
A.M. Best Company
  ambest.com
A+Superior2 of 16A+Superior2 of 16A+Superior2 of 16Stable
Fitch Ratings
  fitchratings.com
A+Strong5 of 21A+Strong5 of 21---Stable
Moody's Investors
  Service
  moodys.com
A1Good5 of 21------Stable
S&P Global Ratings
  spratings.com
A+Strong5 of 21A+Strong5 of 21---Stable

On February 9, 2024, A.M. Best affirmed its ratings, continuing its stable outlook. On October 25, 2023, Fitch affirmed its ratings, continuing its stable outlook. On July 14, 2023, Moody's affirmed its ratings, continuing its stable outlook. On June 29, 2023, S&P affirmed its ratings, continuing its stable outlook.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 9

Operating Structure
We offer our broad array of insurance products through the independent agency distribution channel. We recognize that locally based independent agencies have relationships in their communities and local marketplace intelligence that can lead to profitable business and policyholder satisfaction and loyalty. Several of our strategic initiatives are intended not only to help us compete but also to enhance support of agencies that represent us, thereby contributing to agency success. We seek to be a consistent and predictable property casualty carrier that agencies can rely on to serve their clients.
 
In our 10 highest volume states for consolidated property casualty premiums, 1,487 reporting agency locations wrote 50.1% of our 2023 consolidated property casualty earned premium volume compared with 1,386 locations and 50.1% in 2022. We continue efforts to geographically diversify our property casualty risks.
 
Our 10 largest states based on property casualty premium volume, excluding Cincinnati Re and Cincinnati Global, are shown in the table below.
(Dollars in millions)Earned
premiums
% of total
earned
Agency
locations
Average
premium per
location
Year ended December 31, 2023    
Ohio$1,027 13.4 %261 $3.9 
Illinois408 5.3 190 2.1 
New York386 5.0 200 1.9 
North Carolina341 4.5 122 2.8 
Pennsylvania321 4.2 168 1.9 
Georgia320 4.2 123 2.6 
Indiana299 3.9 140 2.1 
Missouri255 3.3 78 3.3 
Tennessee245 3.2 82 3.0 
Texas234 3.1 123 1.9 

Field Focus Emphasizing Service
We rely on our force of 1,974 field associates to provide service and be accountable to our agencies for decisions we make at the local level. These associates live in the communities our agents serve, so they are readily available when agencies or policyholders need them. While their work is often conducted at the premises of the agency or policyholder, they also work from offices in their homes. Headquarters associates support agencies and field associates with underwriting, accounting, technology assistance, training and other services. Company executives and headquarters associates typically travel to visit agencies, strengthening the personal relationships we have with these organizations. Agents have opportunities for direct, personal conversations with our senior management team, and headquarters associates have opportunities to refresh their knowledge of marketplace conditions and field activities.
 
The field team is coordinated by field marketing representatives responsible for underwriting new commercial lines business. They are joined by field representatives specializing in claims, loss control, commercial lines key accounts, personal lines, excess and surplus lines, machinery and equipment, management liability and surety, premium audit and life insurance. The field team provides a variety of services, such as recommending specific actions to improve the safety of the policyholder’s operations. We seek to develop long-term relationships by understanding the unique needs of each agency's clients, who are also our policyholders.
 
Technology enhances our service to agencies, allowing them to more easily access our systems and process business transactions. Policyholders can conveniently access pertinent policy information online, helping to reduce costs for agencies and the company. Technology and ongoing training also help our associates collaborate and process business efficiently, providing more time for personal service to agencies and their clients.

We also provide and continue to develop enhanced, tailored services offered at the time a claim is reported for an insured loss event. Those services include assisting with car rental or towing, arranging temporary housing and coordinating emergency repairs to homes so additional damage is minimized.
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 10

Our claims philosophy reflects our belief that we prosper as a company by responding to claims person to person, paying covered claims promptly, preventing false claims from unfairly adding to overall premiums and building financial strength to meet future obligations.
 
Our 889 locally based field claims associates, often referred to as field claims representatives, work from their homes and are assigned to specific agencies. They respond personally to policyholders and claimants and are equipped to handle a claim from nearly anywhere. We believe we have a competitive advantage because of the person-to-person approach and the resulting high level of service that our field claims representatives and Express Claims Center associates deliver. For field claims representatives handling excess and surplus lines claims, guidance is provided by headquarters-based excess and surplus lines claims managers. Claims may be reported directly to us by calling our claims call center, online via our company website or through the MyCincinnati app using a mobile device.

Catastrophe response teams are comprised of our experienced field claims representatives who have the authority they need to do their jobs. In times of widespread loss, our field claims representatives confidently and quickly resolve claims, with the ability to provide claims payments on the same day they inspect the loss. Technology helps to enable fast initial contact with policyholders and easy sharing of information and data among storm teams, headquarters associates and local field claims representatives. When hurricanes or other weather events are predicted, we can identify through mapping technologies the expected number of our policyholders that may be impacted by the event and choose to have catastrophe response team members travel to strategic locations near the expected impact area. They are then in position to quickly get to the affected area and begin providing service to policyholders.

Our 45 associates working in the Special Investigations Unit (SIU) include former law enforcement and claims professionals whose qualifications make them well suited to gathering facts to uncover potential fraud. While we believe our job is to pay what is due under each policy contract, we also want to prevent false claims from unfairly increasing overall premiums. Our SIU also operates a computer forensics lab that supports field investigation efforts in various ways including assistance with video evidence and data recovery.

We seek to attract and retain high-quality independent insurance agencies with knowledgeable, professional staff. In turn, we make an exceptionally strong commitment to assist them in keeping their knowledge up to date and educating new people they bring on board as they grow. This includes offering classes, usually at no cost to agencies, except travel-related expenses they may incur, and other training support. We also offer noninsurance financial services. We believe that providing these services enhances agency relationships with the company and their clients, increasing loyalty while diversifying the agency’s revenues.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 11

Human Capital
At the end of 2023, we employed 5,426 associates, including 3,363 headquarters associates who provide support to 1,974 field associates and 89 associates at Cincinnati Global. The associate voluntary turnover rate was 6% in 2023, 8% in 2022 and 7% in 2021.

We believe our compensation, training, technology, inclusive culture and career development opportunities help to attract and retain talented associates, which is critical to our strategy that emphasizes superior service to agencies and their clients, as described in this report. Our goal is to hire job candidates with promise, matching their strengths to positions within the company and providing resources to help them meet professional and personal goals. We are committed to providing equal opportunity for all associates, encouraging a work environment free from unlawful discrimination and harassment.

We use multiple channels to ensure we recruit a diverse workforce rich with ideas and knowledge. For example, we build relationships with future talent by partnering with career services departments, faculty and staff, and Diversity and Inclusion Offices at local and regional colleges and universities along with historically Black colleges and universities.

We offer a base pay level for all roles that is competitive, market-based and re-evaluated on a recurring basis. The base pay is complemented by a matching 401(k) program, annual cash bonus and stock ownership opportunities along with healthcare benefits to provide a comprehensive compensation and benefits package. In addition, we have many special programs that appeal to associates while aligning with our corporate values. We believe our voluntary turnover rate indicates overall associate satisfaction with their working environment, compensation and benefits.

We strive to offer equal pay for equal work and use independent consultants to conduct gender and ethnic minority pay equity studies examining total direct compensation, which consists of base salary, cash bonus and equity awards. Using a multivariate regression analysis, the independent studies in 2023 showed that we administer pay fairly and equitably because the factors used to make compensation decisions, such as role, salary grade, tenure and performance do in fact drive compensation awarded to each associate. More information is published in our Environmental, Social and Governance Report available on the Sustainability page of our website, cinfin.com/sustainability, which is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We offer all regular, full- and part-time associates the opportunity to participate in the CFC Savings Plan, our 401(k) plan. We also offer all full-time associates the opportunity to purchase health, prescription, vision and dental insurance. Associates enrolled in our health plan can receive a free biometric screening – either onsite at our headquarters or with their personal physician. The screening helps associates learn about their health and identify risk factors while earning a company contribution into their Health Savings Account.

While providing stock compensation at all levels of an organization may not be a common business practice, we firmly believe that stock ownership helps drive good decision making and encourages a long-term view by associates. We historically grant annual stock-based compensation to full-time, salaried associates in the form of stock options and restricted stock units that vest over time. In addition, each year all regular, full-time associates – salaried and hourly – are awarded one share of stock for each full calendar year of service, up to 10 shares, through our Holiday Stock Plan.

Read our Environmental, Social and Governance Report available on the Sustainability page of our website, cinfin.com/sustainability, for more information.

Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 12

Insurance Products
We provide well-designed property casualty and life insurance products to bring policyholders convenience, discounts and a reduced risk of coverage gaps or disputes. For most agencies that represent us, we believe we offer insurance solutions for approximately 75% of the typical insurable risks of their clients. Products for various business lines within our reporting segments include insurance coverages for business property and liability, automobiles and homes.

The table below shows net written premiums by segment and business line at year-end 2023, 2022 and 2021. We discuss our insurance segments in their respective sections later in this report.
(Dollars in millions)202320222021Percent of total 2023
Segment:    
Commercial lines insurance$4,336 $4,159 $3,811 51.5 %
Personal lines insurance2,302 1,831 1,594 27.4 
Excess and surplus lines insurance570 502 426 6.8 
Life insurance364 339 346 4.3 
Other838 815 648 10.0 
Total net written premiums$8,410 $7,646 $6,825 100.0 %
    
Business line:    
Commercial lines insurance:
Commercial casualty$1,475 $1,444 $1,315 17.5 %
Commercial property1,332 1,212 1,090 15.8 
Commercial auto878 858 816 10.4 
Workers' compensation260 278 269 3.1 
Other commercial391 367 321 4.7 
Total commercial lines insurance4,336 4,159 3,811 51.5 
Personal lines insurance:    
Personal auto809 654 608 9.6 
Homeowner1,188 921 769 14.1 
Other personal305 256 217 3.7 
Total personal lines insurance2,302 1,831 1,594 27.4 
Excess and surplus lines insurance570 502 426 6.8 
Life insurance:
Term life insurance234 226 218 2.8 
Whole life insurance52 47 47 0.6 
Universal life and other78 66 81 0.9 
Subtotal364 339 346 4.3 
Other:
Cincinnati Re558 585 461 6.7 
Cincinnati Global280 230 187 3.3 
Total net written premiums$8,410 $7,646 $6,825 100.0 %


 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 13


Our Segments
Consolidated financial results primarily reflect the results of our five reporting segments. These segments are defined based on financial information we use to evaluate performance and to determine the allocation of assets.
Commercial lines insurance
Personal lines insurance
Excess and surplus lines insurance
Life insurance
Investments
Revenues, income before income taxes and identifiable assets for each segment are shown in Item 8, Note 18 of the Consolidated Financial Statements. Some of that information is discussed in this section, where we explain the business operations of each segment. The financial performance of each segment is discussed in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 14

Commercial Lines Insurance Segment
In 2023, the commercial lines insurance segment contributed net earned premiums of $4.264 billion, representing 42.6% of consolidated total revenues. This segment reported profit before income taxes of $168 million. Commercial lines net earned premiums rose 6% in 2023 and 10% in 2022.
 
We believe that our commercial lines business is best measured and evaluated on a segment basis. However, we also provide selected line of business data to summarize growth and profitability trends separately for our business lines. The five commercial business lines are:
Commercial casualty – Provides coverage to businesses against third-party liability from accidents occurring on their premises or arising out of their operations, including injuries sustained from products or liability related to professional services. Specialized casualty policies may include similar coverage such as umbrella liability or employment practices. The commercial casualty business line includes liability coverage written as part of commercial package policies.
Commercial property – Provides coverage for loss or damage to buildings, inventory and equipment caused by covered causes of loss such as fire, wind, hail, water, theft and vandalism, as well as business interruption resulting from a covered loss. Commercial property also includes other coverages such as inland marine, which covers losses related to builder’s risk, cargo or equipment. Various property coverages can be written as stand-alone policies or can be added to a commercial package policy.
Commercial auto – Protects businesses against liability to others for both bodily injury and property damage, medical payments to insureds and occupants of their vehicles, physical damage to an insured’s own vehicle from collision and various other perils, and damages caused by uninsured motorists.
Workers’ compensation – Covers employers for government-specified benefits from work-related injuries to employees.
Other commercial lines – This includes several other types of insurance products for businesses, including:
Management liability and surety – Includes director and officer (D&O) liability insurance, which covers liability for actual or alleged errors in judgment, breaches of duty or other wrongful acts related to activities of organizations and can optionally include other liability coverages. We market primarily to nonprofit organizations, privately held businesses, healthcare organizations, financial institutions and educational institutions. The for-profit portion includes approximately 140 bank or savings and loan financial institutions, with none having assets of $1 billion or more. The surety portion includes contract and commercial surety bonds for losses resulting from dishonesty, failure to perform and other acts and also includes fidelity bonds for fraudulent acts by specified individuals or dishonest acts by employees. Management liability coverage can also include cyber insurance as an affirmative coverage option on various insurance policies. We cede all of the related cyber insurance premiums to a reinsurer, therefore transferring substantially all of that risk. Ceded premiums for 2023 included $51 million for cyber insurance.
Machinery and equipment – Specialized coverage provides protection for loss or damage to boilers and machinery, including production and computer equipment and business interruption, due to sudden and accidental mechanical breakdown, steam explosion or artificially generated electrical current.

Our history of emphasizing products and services that agencies can market to small or midsized businesses in their communities remains a critical piece of our strategy even as we expand our appetite to insure larger businesses. While some of our property casualty agencies market only our personal lines or management liability and surety products, approximately 84% offer some or all of our standard market commercial insurance products.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 15

In 2023, our 10 highest volume commercial lines states generated 56.2% of our earned premiums compared with 56.2% in 2022. The aggregate number of reporting agency locations in our 10 highest volume states increased to 1,330 in 2023 from 1,228 in 2022.

Our 10 largest states based on commercial lines premium volume are shown in the table below.
(Dollars in millions)Earned
premiums
% of total
earned
Agency
locations
Average
premium per
location
Year ended December 31, 2023    
Ohio$621 14.6 %252 $2.5 
Illinois244 5.7 167 1.5 
Pennsylvania240 5.6 155 1.5 
North Carolina230 5.4 115 2.0 
Indiana200 4.7 138 1.4 
New York185 4.3 169 1.1 
Missouri173 4.0 61 2.8 
Tennessee172 4.0 78 2.2 
Virginia171 4.0 89 1.9 
Georgia167 3.9 106 1.6 

For new commercial lines business, policy-by-policy underwriting and pricing is coordinated by our locally based field marketing representatives who are also responsible for selecting new independent agencies. Our agents and our team of field associates get to know the people and businesses in their communities and can make informed decisions about each risk.
 
Commercial lines policy renewals are managed by headquarters underwriters who are assigned to specific agencies and consult with local field associates as needed. As part of our team approach, headquarters underwriters also help oversee agency growth and profitability. They are responsible for formal issuance of all new business and renewal policies as well as policy endorsements. Further, the headquarters underwriters provide day-to-day customer service to agencies and our field marketing representatives by offering technical and industry expertise and product training, helping to determine underwriting eligibility and assisting with the mechanics of premium determination. We also continue a target markets emphasis to analyze opportunities and to develop new products and services, new coverage options and improvements to existing insurance products.
 
Understanding evolving market conditions is a critical function for our success, accomplished through both informal commentary and formal reviews. Informally, our field marketing representatives, underwriters and product development associates routinely receive market intelligence from a variety of channels, including from the agencies with which they work. This market information helps identify the top competitors and our market strengths and weaknesses. The information obtained encompasses pricing, breadth of coverage and use of underwriting guidelines.

Our historical emphasis on small to midsized businesses is reflected in the mix of our commercial lines premium volume by policy size. Approximately 70% of our commercial in-force policies have annual premiums of $10,000 or less, accounting in total for approximately 15% of our 2023 commercial lines premium volume. The remainder of policies have annual premiums greater than $10,000, including policies with annual premiums greater than $100,000 that account for approximately 35% of our 2023 commercial lines premium volume. Our average commercial lines policy size is approximately $16,000 in annual premiums.
 
Our commercial lines packages typically are offered on a three-year policy term for most insurance coverages – a key competitive advantage. In our experience, multi-year packages appeal to the quality-conscious insurance buyers who we believe are typical clients of our independent agents. Customized insurance programs on a three-year term complement the long-term relationships these policyholders typically have with their agents and with our company. By reducing annual administrative efforts, multi-year policies lower expenses for our company and for our agents. The commitment we make to policyholders encourages long-term relationships and reduces their need to annually re-evaluate their insurance carrier or agency. We believe that the advantages of three-year policies in
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 16

terms of improved policyholder convenience, increased account retention and reduced administrative costs outweigh the potential disadvantage of these policies, even in periods of rising rates.
 
Although we offer three-year policy terms, premiums for some coverages within those policies are adjustable at the anniversary for the next annual period, and policies may be canceled at any time at the discretion of the policyholder. Contract terms often provide that rates for property, general liability, inland marine and crime coverages, as well as policy terms and conditions, are fixed for the term of the policy. However, the exposure we insure is reviewed annually, near the policy anniversary date, and the amount of premiums may be adjusted based on changes to that exposure.
 
The general liability exposure basis may be audited annually. Commercial auto, workers’ compensation, professional liability and most umbrella liability coverages within multi-year packages are rated at each of the policy’s annual anniversaries for the next one-year period. The annual pricing could incorporate rate changes approved by state insurance regulatory authorities between the date the policy was written and its annual anniversary date, as well as changes in risk exposures and premium credits or debits relating to loss experience and other underwriting judgment factors. We estimate that approximately 75% of 2023 commercial premiums were subject to annual rating or were written on a one-year policy term. That 75% includes approximately one-third of policies offered on a three-year policy term that expire during any given year.
 
We believe our commercial lines insurance segment premiums reflect a higher concentration, relative to industry commercial lines premiums, in contractor-related businesses. Since economic activity related to construction, which can heavily influence insured exposures of contractors, may experience cycles that vary significantly with the economy as a whole, our commercial lines premium trends could vary from commercial lines premium trends for the property casualty insurance industry. In 2023, we estimated that 38% of our general liability premiums, and 37% of our workers’ compensation premiums, came from the construction industry based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.
 
Personal Lines Insurance Segment
The personal lines insurance segment contributed net earned premiums of $2.044 billion to 2023 consolidated total revenues, or 20.4% of the total, and reported a loss before income taxes of $4 million. Personal lines net earned premiums rose 21% in 2023 and 10% in 2022.
 
We prefer to write personal lines coverage in accounts that include both auto and homeowner coverages as well as coverages that are part of our other personal business line. At the end of 2023, for example, approximately 84% of our homeowner policies were accompanied by a personal auto policy in the same account. As a result of our account-based approach, we believe that our personal lines business is best measured and evaluated on a segment basis. However, we provide line of business data to summarize growth and profitability trends separately for three business lines:
Personal auto – Protects against liability to others for both bodily injury and property damage, medical payments to insureds and occupants of their vehicle, physical damage to an insured’s own vehicle from collision and various other perils, and damages caused by uninsured motorists. In addition, many states require policies to provide first-party personal injury protection, frequently referred to as no-fault coverage.
Homeowner – Protects against losses to dwellings and contents from a wide variety of perils, as well as liability arising out of personal activities both on and off the covered premises. We also offer coverage for condominium unit owners and renters.
Other personal lines – This includes the other types of insurance products we offer to individuals, including dwelling fire, inland marine, personal umbrella liability and watercraft coverages.

At year-end 2023, we marketed personal lines insurance products through 2,249, or approximately 72%, of our 3,116 agency reporting locations. The 2,249 personal lines agency locations were in 45 of the 46 states in which we offered property casualty insurance. Those agencies produced approximately 1.1 million personal lines policies in force for us, representing approximately 440,000 policyholders.

Expansion of our personal lines insurance segment includes marketing through independent agencies to profitably grow our premiums for products and services offered to their high net worth personal lines clients. In 2023, our appointed agencies produced for us approximately $1.257 billion of net written premiums in total from policyholders with insured home values of $1 million or more, up 37% from 2022. We estimate those policyholders represent
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 17

approximately 28% of our total personal lines policyholders. We refer to our high net worth products and services as Cincinnati Private ClientSM. Private client is a term used in the financial services industry to describe people who have complex needs based on their affluence, investments and belongings. It allows agencies and their customers to easily recognize that we stand ready to serve this client segment.
 
In 2023, our 10 highest volume personal lines states generated 63.5% of our earned premiums compared with 64.5% in 2022. In 2015, our 10 highest volume personal lines states generated 78.5% of our earned premiums. The reduction in that percentage indicates progress over time toward our long-term objective of geographic diversification through new states for our personal lines operation. The aggregate number of reporting agency locations in our 10 highest volume states increased to 1,055 in 2023 from 999 in 2022.
 
Our 10 largest states based on personal lines premium volume are shown in the table below.
(Dollars in millions)Earned
premiums
% of total
earned
Agency
locations
Average
premium per
location
Year ended December 31, 2023    
Ohio$372 18.2 %241 $1.5 
New York163 8.0 111 1.5 
California151 7.4 75 2.0 
Georgia128 6.3 99 1.3 
Illinois125 6.1 142 0.9 
North Carolina81 4.0 99 0.8 
Indiana77 3.8 116 0.7 
Alabama70 3.4 61 1.1 
Texas67 3.3 65 1.0 
Connecticut61 3.0 46 1.3 

New and renewal personal lines business reflects our risk-specific underwriting philosophy. Each agency selects personal lines business primarily from within the geographic territory that it serves, based in part on agency staff’s knowledge of the risks in those communities or familiarity with the policyholder. We have personal lines field marketing representatives who have underwriting authority and visit agencies on a regular basis. They focus primarily on key states targeted for growth, reinforcing the advantages of our personal lines products and offering training in the use of our policy processing system. Personal lines activities are further supported by headquarters associates assigned to individual agencies.
 
Excess and Surplus Lines Insurance Segment
The excess and surplus lines segment contributed net earned premiums of $542 million to 2023 consolidated total revenues, or 5.4% of the total, and reported profit before income taxes of $54 million. Excess and surplus lines net earned premium increased 12% in 2023 and 22% in 2022.
 
Our excess and surplus lines policies typically cover business risks with unique characteristics, such as the nature of the business or its claim history, that are difficult to profitably insure in the standard commercial lines market. Excess and surplus lines insurers have more flexibility in coverage terms and rates compared with standard lines companies, generally resulting in policies with higher rates and terms and conditions customized for specific risks, including restricted coverage where appropriate. We target small to midsized risks, and policyholders in many cases also have standard market insurance with one of our other subsidiaries. Our average excess and surplus lines policy size is approximately $10,000 in annual premiums, and the majority have coverage limits of $1 million or less. All of our excess and surplus lines policies are written for a maximum term of one year. Approximately 91% of our 2023 earned premiums for the excess and surplus lines insurance segment provided commercial casualty coverages and about 9% provided commercial property coverages. Those coverages are described below.
Commercial casualty – Covers businesses for third-party liability from accidents occurring on their premises or arising out of their operations, including injuries sustained from products. Other coverages available include miscellaneous errors and omissions, professional liability and excess liability. Typical businesses covered include contractors, manufacturers, real estate owners and managers, retail, consultants, and bars or taverns. Policies covering liability at special events are also available.
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 18

Commercial property – Insures buildings, inventory, equipment and business income from loss or damage due to causes such as fire, wind, hail, water, theft and vandalism. Examples of property we commonly insure with excess and surplus lines policies include temporarily vacant buildings, habitational, restaurants and relatively higher-hazard manufacturing classes.

At the end of 2023, we marketed excess and surplus lines insurance products in each of the 43 states in which we offer standard market commercial lines insurance. Offering excess and surplus lines helps agencies representing The Cincinnati Insurance Companies meet the insurance needs of their clients when coverage is unavailable in the standard market. By providing outstanding service, we can help agencies grow and prosper while also profitably growing our property casualty business.
 
In 2023, our 10 highest volume excess and surplus lines states generated 53.5% of our earned premiums, compared with 53.7% in 2022.
 
Our 10 largest states based on excess and surplus lines premium volume are shown in the table below.
(Dollars in millions)Earned
premiums
% of total
earned
Year ended December 31, 2023  
Illinois$39 7.2 %
New York37 6.8 
Ohio34 6.3 
Texas32 5.9 
North Carolina30 5.6 
Pennsylvania26 4.8 
Georgia25 4.5 
Michigan22 4.2 
Missouri22 4.1 
Indiana22 4.1 
 
Agencies representing The Cincinnati Insurance Companies produce approximately $6 billion in annual premiums for all carriers writing excess and surplus lines policies for their clients. We estimate that approximately half of that premium volume matches the targeted business types and coverages we offer through our excess and surplus lines insurance segment. We structured the operations of this segment to meet the needs of these agencies and to market exclusively through them.
 
Agencies have access to Cincinnati Specialty Underwriters' product line through CSU Producer Resources, the wholly owned insurance brokerage subsidiary of Cincinnati Financial Corporation. CSU Producer Resources has binding authority on all classes of business written through Cincinnati Specialty Underwriters and maintains appropriate agent and surplus lines licenses.
 
We seek to earn a share of each agency’s best excess and surplus lines accounts by offering several unique benefits. Agency producers have direct access through CSU Producer Resources to a group of our underwriters who focus exclusively on excess and surplus lines business. Those underwriters can tap into broader services we offer to provide policyholders additional value and help producers build the relationship through experienced and responsive loss control services and claims handling. CSU Producer Resources gives extra support to our independent agency producers by remitting surplus lines taxes and stamping fees and retaining admitted market diligent search affidavits, where required. Agencies marketing through CSU Producer Resources instead of a competing brokerage generally receive a higher commission because use of our internal brokerage subsidiary eliminates some of the intermediary costs. This business is factored in their profit-sharing agreement with The Cincinnati Insurance Companies. We also offer prompt service, generally issuing approximately 95% of policies within 24 hours of a request to bind a policy.
 
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Life Insurance Segment
The life insurance segment contributed $313 million of net earned premiums, representing 3.1% of 2023 consolidated total revenues, and reported a gain before income taxes of $41 million. Life insurance net earned premiums increased 4% in 2023 and 2% in 2022.
 
The Cincinnati Life Insurance Company supports our agency-centered business model by deepening the relationships we have with agents while also diversifying revenue and profitability for both the agency and our company. We primarily focus on life products that feature a steady stream of premium payments and that have the potential for generating revenue growth through increasing demand. Pricing life insurance policies includes assumptions for mortality, persistency, expenses and investment earnings while also considering the time value of money related to expected cash flows and a reasonable profit margin.
 
Life Insurance Business Lines
Four lines of business that account for more than 99% of the life insurance segment’s revenues are:
Term life insurance – Policies under which a death benefit is payable only if the insured dies during a specific period of time. Policy options include a return of premium provision, a benefit equal to the sum of all paid base premiums that is payable if the insured person survives to the end of the term. The policies are fully underwritten using traditional and accelerated methods.
Worksite products – Term life insurance, return of premium term life insurance and whole life insurance offered to employees through their employer. Premiums are collected by the employer using payroll deduction. Policies are issued using a simplified underwriting approach and on a guaranteed issue basis. Worksite insurance products provide our property casualty agency force with excellent cross-serving opportunities for both commercial and personal accounts.
Whole life insurance – Policies that provide life insurance for the entire lifetime of the insured. The death benefit is guaranteed never to decrease and premiums are guaranteed never to increase. While premiums are fixed, they must be paid as scheduled. These policies provide guaranteed cash values that are available as loans collateralized by the cash surrender value. The policies are fully underwritten.
Universal life insurance – Long-duration life insurance policies that are fully underwritten. Contract premiums are neither fixed nor guaranteed; however, the contract does specify a minimum interest crediting rate and a maximum cost of insurance charge and expense charge. The cash values, available as loans collateralized by the cash surrender value, are not guaranteed and depend on the amount and timing of actual premium payments and the amount of actual contract assessments.

In addition, Cincinnati Life markets:
Deferred annuities that provide regular income payments that commence after the end of a specified period or when the annuitant attains a specified age. During the deferral period, any payments made under the contract accumulate at the crediting rate declared by the company but not less than a contract-specified guaranteed minimum interest rate. A deferred annuity may be surrendered during the deferral period for a cash value equal to the accumulated payments plus interest less the surrender charge, if any.
Immediate annuities that provide some combination of regular income and lump-sum payments in exchange for a single premium.

Life Insurance Distribution
Cincinnati Life is licensed in 49 states and the District of Columbia. At year-end 2023, approximately 80% of our 2,080 property casualty agency relationships offered Cincinnati Life products to their clients. We also develop life business from approximately 398 other independent life insurance agencies. We are careful to solicit business from these other agencies in a manner that does not conflict with or compete with the marketing and sales efforts of our property casualty agencies.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 20

When marketing through our property casualty agencies, we have specific competitive advantages:
Because our property casualty operations are held in high regard, property casualty agency management is predisposed to consider selling our life products.
Marketing efforts for both our property casualty and life insurance businesses are directed by our field marketing department, coordinated with our life field marketing representatives, which assures consistency of communication and operations. Life field marketing representatives are available to meet face-to-face with agency personnel and their clients as well. Our life headquarters underwriters and other associates are available to the agents and field team to assist in the placement of business.

We continue to emphasize the cross-serving opportunities of our life insurance, including term and worksite products, for the property casualty agency’s personal and commercial accounts. In both the property casualty and independent life agency distribution systems, we enjoy the advantages of offering competitive, up-to-date products and providing personal attention in combination with financial strength and stability.
Term life insurance is our largest life insurance product line. We continue to develop and offer term products with features our agents indicate are important, such as a return of premium benefit and an accelerated underwriting option.
We also offer products addressing the needs of businesses with key person and buy-sell coverages. We offer quality, personal life insurance coverage to personal and commercial clients of our agencies.
Because of our strong capital position, we can offer a competitive product portfolio, including guaranteed products, giving our agents a marketing edge. Our life insurance company maintains strong insurer financial strength ratings: A.M. Best, A+ (Superior); Fitch, A+ (Strong); and S&P, A+ (Strong). Our life insurance company has chosen not to establish a Moody’s rating.
 
In 2023, our five highest volume states for life insurance premiums, based on information contained in statements filed with state insurance departments, are shown in the table below.
(Dollars in millions)Premiums% of total
Year ended December 31, 2023  
Ohio$58 15.2 %
Pennsylvania26 6.8 
Illinois23 5.9 
Indiana22 5.7 
Georgia22 5.7 

Investments Segment
Revenues of the investments segment are primarily from net investment income and from net investment gains and losses from investment portfolios managed for the holding company and each of the operating subsidiaries.
 
Our investment department operates under risk guidelines set forth in our investment policy along with oversight of the investment committee of our board of directors. These guidelines set parameters for risk tolerances governing, among other items, the allocation of the portfolio as well as security and sector concentrations. These parameters are part of an integrated corporate risk management program. When allocating cash to various asset classes, we consider market-based factors such as risk adjusted after-tax yields as well as internal measures based in part on insurance department regulations and rating agency guidance.
 
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 21

The fair value of our investment portfolio was $24.780 billion and $21.973 billion at year-end 2023 and 2022, respectively, as shown in the table below. The overall portfolio increased in fair value, including net purchases of securities in addition to an increase in its net investment gain position. The net investment gain position at year-end 2023, compared with year-end 2022, included a net increase for our equity security portfolio, reflecting a general increase in equity market valuations. It also included a smaller net unrealized loss position in our fixed-maturity investments, due to lower short-term interest rates in addition to a tightening of corporate credit spreads.
(Dollars in millions)At December 31, 2023At December 31, 2022
 Cost or amortized costPercent of total Percent of totalCost or amortized costPercent of total Percent of total
 Fair valueFair value
Taxable fixed maturities$10,414 55.8 %$9,889 40.0 %$9,020 52.2 %$8,299 37.8 %
Tax-exempt fixed maturities3,947 21.2 3,902 15.7 3,959 22.9 3,833 17.4 
Common equities3,869 20.8 10,641 42.9 3,851 22.3 9,454 43.0 
Nonredeemable preferred
  equities
413 2.2 348 1.4 443 2.6 387 1.8 
Total$18,643 100.0 %$24,780 100.0 %$17,273 100.0 %$21,973 100.0 %
 
The cash we generate from insurance operations historically has been invested in two broad categories of investments:
Fixed-maturity investments – Includes taxable and tax-exempt bonds and redeemable preferred stocks. During 2023, the combined effect of purchases of securities and a net decrease in unrealized losses offset dispositions of fixed-maturity securities in our portfolio. During 2022, a net decrease in unrealized gains, combined with dispositions, offset purchases.
Equity investments – Includes common and nonredeemable preferred stocks. During 2023, the combined effect of a net increase in fair value and purchases of equity securities in our portfolio offset sales. During 2022, a net decrease in fair value and sales offset purchases.
 
In addition to securities held in our investment portfolio at year-end 2023, other invested assets included $434 million of private equity investments, $66 million of real estate through direct property ownership and development projects in the U.S., $44 million held on deposit at Lloyd's and $33 million of life policy loans.

Our investment portfolio is further described below. Additional information about the composition and valuation of investments is included in Item 8, Note 2, Investments, and Note 3, Fair Value Measurements, of the Consolidated Financial Statements. A detailed listing of our portfolio is updated on our website, cinfin.com/investors, each quarter when we report our quarterly financial results.

Fixed-Maturity Securities Investments
By maintaining a well-diversified fixed-maturity portfolio, we attempt to manage overall interest rate, reinvestment, credit and liquidity risk. We pursue a buy-and-hold strategy and do not attempt to make large-scale changes to the portfolio in anticipation of rate movements. By investing new money on a regular basis and analyzing risk-adjusted after-tax yields, we work to achieve a general laddering effect to our portfolio that may mitigate some of the effects of adverse interest rate movements.
 
At December 31, 2023, our investment-grade and noninvestment-grade fixed-maturity securities represented 82.0% and 3.2% of the portfolio, respectively. The remaining 14.8% represented fixed-maturity securities that were not rated by Moody’s or S&P. Our nonrated securities include smaller municipal issues and private placement corporate securities. Many of these, although not rated by Moody’s or S&P, are rated by the Securities’ Valuation Office of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC). Also included in this category are smaller public corporate securities, many of which carry a rating by an agency other than Moody’s or S&P, such as Fitch or Kroll Bond Rating Agency.

Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 22

Other selected attributes of the fixed-maturity portfolio are shown in the table below. Additional maturity periods and other information for our fixed-maturity portfolio are shown in Item 8, Note 2 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 At December 31,
 20232022
Weighted average yield-to-amortized cost4.60 %4.22 %
Weighted average maturity7.9 yrs7.4 yrs
Effective duration4.3 yrs4.7 yrs
 
The fair values of our taxable fixed-maturity securities portfolio at the end of the last two years were:
(Dollars in millions)At December 31,
 20232022
Investment-grade corporate$7,040 $6,369 
Government-sponsored enterprises1,224 183 
States, municipalities and political subdivisions801 789 
Noninvestment-grade corporate412 500 
United States government200 191 
Mortgage-backed 187 234 
Foreign government25 33 
Total$9,889 $8,299 
 
While our strategy typically is to buy and hold fixed-maturity investments to maturity, we monitor credit profiles and fair value movements when determining holding periods for individual securities. With the exception of U.S. agency issues, no individual issuer's securities accounted for more than 1.1% of the taxable fixed-maturity portfolio at year-end 2023. Investment-grade corporate bonds had an average rating of Baa1 by Moody’s or BBB by S&P at year-end 2023. The average rating may be understated due to securities that were not rated by Moody’s or S&P but were rated by the NAIC, as described above. Our taxable fixed-maturity portfolio included $187 million of mortgage-backed securities with an average rating of Aa3/AA- at year-end 2023.
 
Relative to a broad bond market index such as the Barclay’s Aggregate, we are most heavily exposed to the investment-grade corporate bond asset class. Within that asset class, we have a weighting of 38.2% for the financial sector, higher than the 31.8% weighting for the financial sectors of the Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Corporate Index.
 
At December 31, 2023, we had $3.902 billion of tax-exempt fixed-maturity securities with an average rating of Aa2/AA by Moody’s and S&P. The average rating may be understated due to securities that were not rated by Moody’s or S&P but were rated by the NAIC, as described above. The portfolio is well diversified among approximately 1,800 municipal bond issuers. No single municipal issuer accounted for more than 0.6% of the tax-exempt fixed-maturity portfolio at year-end 2023.
 
Equity Securities Investments
After covering both our intermediate and long-range insurance obligations with fixed-maturity investments, we historically have used some available cash flow to invest in equity securities. Our equity securities portfolio includes common stocks and nonredeemable preferred stocks, primarily in larger-capitalization companies but sometimes in smaller entities with attractive growth prospects. Investments in equity securities have played an important role in achieving our portfolio objectives and have contributed to both growth of investment income and portfolio appreciation. We remain committed to our long-term equity focus, which we believe is a key factor to our company’s long-term growth and stability. We believe our strategy of primarily investing in a diversified selection of high-quality, larger-capitalization, dividend-increasing companies generally results in reduced volatility relative to the broader equity markets.
 
For federal income tax purposes, taxes on gains from appreciated investments generally are not due until securities are sold. We believe that the appreciated value of equity securities, compared with the cost of securities
Cincinnati Financial Corporation - 2023 10-K - Page 23

that is generally used as a tax basis, is a useful measure to help evaluate how fair value can change over time. On this basis, the net unrealized investment gains at year-end 2023 consisted of a net gain position in our equity portfolio of $6.707 billion. Events or factors such as economic growth or recession can affect the fair value of our equity securities.

At year-end 2023, Microsoft (Nasdaq:MSFT) was our largest single common stock investment, comprising 7.9% of our publicly traded common stock portfolio and 3.4% of the entire investment portfolio. The five largest holdings in our common stock portfolio were Microsoft, Apple Inc. (Nasdaq:AAPL), Broadcom Inc. (Nasdaq:AVGO), JPMorgan Chase & Co (NYSE:JPM) and Accenture plc (NYSE:ACN), which had a combined fair value of $3.004 billion or 28.2% of our publicly traded common stock portfolio. The parent company held 42.7% of our common stock holdings (measured by fair value). The distribution of the portfolio among industry sectors is shown in the table below.
 
Common Stock Portfolio Industry Sector Distribution
 Percent of common stock portfolio
 At December 31, 2023At December 31, 2022
 Cincinnati
Financial
S&P 500 Industry
Weightings
Cincinnati
Financial
S&P 500 Industry
Weightings
Sector:    
Information technology33.1 %28.9 %26.5 %25.7 %
Financial13.9 13.0 13.6 11.7 
Industrials11.9