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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

 

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from ________________ to _______________

 

Commission File Number 001-41695

CORE LABORATORIES INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

98-1164194

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

6316 Windfern Road

 

 

Houston, TX

 

77040

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (713) 328-2673

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock (par value $0.01)

 

CLB

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes☐ No

As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $1,072,620,234.

As of January 31, 2024, the number of shares of common stock of the registrant outstanding was 46,856,536.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2024, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Report relates.

 

 


 

CORE LABORATORIES INC.

FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

PART I

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

10

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

20

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

20

Item 2.

Properties

21

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

21

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

21

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

22

Item 6.

[Reserved]

23

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

24

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

38

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

38

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

38

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

38

Item 9B.

Other Information

39

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

39

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

40

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

40

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

40

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

40

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

40

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

41

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

41

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

General

Core Laboratories Inc. is a Delaware corporation. We were established in 1936 and are one of the world’s leading providers of proprietary and patented reservoir description and production enhancement services and products to the oil and gas industry. These services and products can enable our clients to evaluate and improve reservoir performance and increase oil and gas recovery from their new and existing fields. We make measurements on reservoir rocks, reservoir fluids (crude oil, natural gas and water) and their derived products. In addition, we assist clients in evaluating subsurface targets associated with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (“CCS”) projects or initiatives. We have over 70 offices in more than 50 countries and have approximately 3,600 employees.

On May 1, 2023, Core Laboratories N.V. completed its previously announced redomestication transaction (the “Redomestication Transaction”), which included (i) the merger (the “Merger”) of Core Laboratories N.V. with and into Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A., a public limited liability company incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg, with Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. surviving, and (ii) following the completion of the Merger, the migration of Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. out of Luxembourg and its domestication as Core Laboratories Inc., a Delaware corporation. As a result of the Redomestication Transaction, all common shares in Core Laboratories N.V. were canceled and exchanged for common stock in Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. on a one-for-one basis. Former holders of Core Laboratories N.V. common shares now hold one share of common stock of Core Laboratories Inc. (formerly Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A.) for each Core Laboratories N.V. common share owned immediately prior to the consummation of the Redomestication Transaction, and the business, assets, liabilities, directors and officers of Core Laboratories Inc. became the same as the business, assets, liabilities, directors and officers of Core Laboratories N.V. immediately prior to the Redomestication Transaction.

References to “Core Lab”, “the Company”, “we”, “our”, and similar phrases are used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) and relate collectively to Core Laboratories Inc. and its consolidated affiliates.

Business Strategy

Our business strategy is to provide advanced technologies that improve reservoir performance by (i) continuing the development of proprietary technologies through client-driven research and development, (ii) expanding the services and products offered throughout our global network of offices and (iii) acquiring complementary technologies that add key technologies or market presence and enhance existing services and products.

Development of New Technologies, Services and Products

We conduct research and development to meet the needs of our clients who are continually seeking new services and technologies to lower their costs of finding, developing and producing oil and gas. While the aggregate number of wells being drilled per year fluctuates in response to market conditions, oil and gas producers have, on a proportional basis, increased expenditures on technology services to improve their understanding of the reservoir, increased production of oil and gas from their producing fields, and more recently, CCS projects. We intend to continue concentrating our efforts on services and technologies that help our clients reduce risk by evaluating geologic and engineering aspects of subsurface stratigraphic targets to improve reservoir performance and increase oil and gas recovery, as well as CCS projects and other projects directed at the global objectives in reducing carbon emissions.

International Expansion of Services and Products

Another component of our business strategy is to broaden the spectrum of services and products offered to our clients on a global basis. We intend to continue using our worldwide network of offices to offer our services and products that have been developed internally or obtained through acquisitions. This global emphasis allows us to enhance our revenue through efficient utilization of our worldwide network.

Acquisitions

We continually review potential acquisitions to add key services and technologies, enhance market presence or complement existing business.

More information relating to any significant acquisitions is included in Note 3 - Acquisitions and Divestures of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Operations

We derive our revenue from services and product sales to clients primarily in the oil and gas and associated industries.

We operate our business in two segments. These complementary operating segments provide different services and products and utilize different technologies for evaluating and improving reservoir performance and increasing oil and gas recovery from new and existing fields. Disclosure relating to the operations and financial information of these operating segments is included in Note 21 - Segment Reporting and Other Disaggregated Information of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Reservoir Description: Encompasses the characterization of petroleum reservoir rock, and reservoir fluids samples to increase production and improve recovery of crude oil and natural gas from our clients’ reservoirs. We provide laboratory-based analytical and field services to characterize properties of crude oil and crude oil-derived products to the oil and gas industry. Services associated with these fluids include determining the quality and measuring the quantity of the reservoir fluids and their derived products, such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels. We also provide proprietary and joint industry studies based on these types of analyses and manufacture associated laboratory equipment. In addition, we provide reservoir description capabilities that support various activities associated with energy transition projects, including services that support carbon capture, utilization and storage, geothermal projects, and the evaluation and appraisal of mining activities around lithium and other elements necessary for energy storage.
Production Enhancement: Includes services and manufactured products associated with reservoir well completions, perforations, stimulation, production and well abandonment. We provide integrated diagnostic services to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of well completions and to develop solutions aimed at increasing the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery projects.

We offer our services worldwide through a global network of offices. Services accounted for 73%, 71% and 73% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

We manufacture products primarily in five facilities for distribution on a global basis. Product sales accounted for 27%, 29% and 27% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Reservoir Description

Commercial oil and gas fields consist of porous and permeable reservoir rocks that contain crude oil, natural gas and formation water. Due to the density differences of the fluids, natural gas typically caps the field and overlies an oil layer, which overlies the water. We provide services that characterize the porous reservoir rock, all three reservoir fluids and their derived products. Services associated with these fluids include determining the quality and measuring the compositional, physical and volumetric properties of the complex reservoir hydrocarbons and their derived products, such as various fuels. Fluid analyses account for approximately two-thirds of Reservoir Description revenue. We also provide more advanced laboratory analyses which measure reservoir hydrocarbons at reservoir conditions to determine the changes in the hydrocarbon’s physical properties with changing pressure and temperature.

We analyze samples of reservoir rocks to determine lithologic, geochemical, and pore system properties. We measure rock properties, such as porosity, which determines reservoir storage capacity, and permeability, which defines the ability of the fluids to flow through the rock. These measurements are used to determine how much oil and gas are present in a reservoir and the rates at which the oil and gas can be produced. Conversely, the properties must also be known for injection projects such as CCS and water disposal. We also use our proprietary services and technologies to correlate the reservoir description data to wireline logs and other subsurface data.

The combined use of both the reservoir rock and fluid data are invaluable inputs for clients in determining the economic viability of hydrocarbon deposits and in identifying the most efficient methods to optimize the recovery, processing and refinement of these hydrocarbons. Early evaluations and key decisions about well performance and viability are important for optimizing a reservoir. This is accomplished by using proprietary and patented laboratory methods, including both traditional physical measurements and more recently introduced new technologies, such as Core Lab’s Non-Invasive Technologies for Reservoir OptimizationSM (“NITROSM”) services. NITROSM services include: Dual Energy Computed Tomography (“DECT”), Micro Computed Tomography, high and low frequency nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution gamma logging and continuous high energy x-ray fluorescence, along with pressure-volume-temperature (“PVT”), compositional analysis, and other Core Lab proprietary technologies.

Core Lab conducts a wide variety of physical laboratory tests to measure and evaluate fluid flow through the rock, often at in-situ reservoir temperatures and pressures. These are most commonly applied to conventional reservoirs. We have also

2


 

developed unique analytical processes to understand the flow characteristics and saturation profiles of unconventional reservoir systems.

Core Lab has been at the forefront of digital transformation technologies for more than two decades. Core Lab’s extensive, proprietary databases and analog technologies, coupled with artificial intelligence (“AI”) and machine learning, help our clients improve efficiencies and lower operating costs throughout the upstream value chain. The analysis and integration of these critical datasets is enhanced because of Core Lab’s proprietary RAPIDTM database. Core Lab’s Digital Innovation Group works collaboratively with multiple international and national oil companies on projects that utilize Core Lab’s proprietary digital technologies and services. Core Lab’s proprietary Advanced Rock Typing technology combines Core Lab’s vast, comprehensive database of physical measurements and World Wide Rock CatalogTM with its proprietary image acquisition technology and innovative AI image recognition. Core Lab’s proprietary World Wide Rock CatalogTM provides a database and analog reference set for predicting properties when physical measurements are unavailable. These technologies provide clients with analog data sets in situations where acquisition of new conventional core may not be possible or where only wellbore drill cuttings are available. High-resolution images of wellbore cuttings and sidewall cores are quickly and efficiently matched with analogs from Core Lab’s proprietary database of samples from around the world. Physically measured data sets from the matching analogs are delivered to our clients in time to make appraisal and development decisions.

Core Lab’s proprietary legacy portfolio of geological studies and rock and fluid property datasets on conventional reservoirs and seals, accessible through Core Lab’s database platform, RAPIDTM, are being leveraged in energy transition projects as well, and are proving invaluable to operators evaluating potential CCS sites.

Core Lab holds various patents, trade secrets, and proprietary designs for laboratory equipment required to analyze reservoir rocks as well as the properties and phase behavior of reservoir fluids and derived products. We manufacture a wide range of ambient and reservoir condition rock and fluid analysis laboratory equipment for our own use throughout our international laboratory network. Among these devices are complex, high-pressure, high temperature, reservoir condition, multi-phase flow systems and full visualization Pressure-Volume-Temperature cells, along with the ancillary equipment required to support these laboratory programs. We also sell equipment of this type to universities, government institutes, and client company research labs.

While recognizing the need to optimize the full value chain of our clients, from producing well to retail sales of hydrocarbon products, a state-of-the-art IT platform CONNECT: was launched to efficiently acquire and optimize workflows of field data, laboratory results, and other observations relevant to our client base. The system is designed for single data entry, and that data can be used for further analysis and, more importantly, be shared with our clients by process flow dashboards with key performance indicators. The system can also share real-time data on mobile devices, enabling our clients to make quick decisions.

We continue to add new modules to our suite of data management platforms that enhance the customer experience and improve access to project results.

We conduct numerous large-scale, multi-company reservoir description projects, applying proprietary and state-of-the-art techniques from the earliest phases of a field development program until the last economic barrel of oil is recovered. We initiate and deliver a group of international and U.S. based consortium studies to evaluate both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. These projects, which often run more than a year, are of increasing importance to oil companies as the incremental barrel is often the lowest cost and most profitable barrel in the reservoir. Producing incremental barrels increases our clients' cash flows which we believe will result in additional capital expenditures by our clients, and ultimately further opportunities for us. Core Lab retains rights of ownership to complete joint industry projects studies, which can be resold at a later date.

Our databases, technology and analytical methods also allow us to assist our clients in other ways. Many of our clients have begun investing in and developing other sources of energy, including renewables. Some of these initiatives include deployment of technologies associated with the assessment of strata to establish strategies tied to subsurface gas storage and mining of elements such as lithium, which are critical components of batteries for energy storage. Measurement and analytical techniques are also be used to assist our clients with reporting requirements associated with carbon sequestration.

Production Enhancement

Core Lab's Production Enhancement group provides products and diagnostic services to help optimize well completions, reservoir operations and field development strategies, in order to increase recoverable reserves in the most efficient way. These product offerings include perforating technologies to establish communication between the wellbore and the reservoir. Diagnostic services are used to assess well completions and field floods. Two commonly used production enhancement methods are (i) hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock to improve flow and (ii) flooding a reservoir with water, carbon

3


 

dioxide, nitrogen or hydrocarbon gases to drive more oil and gas to the producing wellbores. Many oilfields today are hydraulically fractured and/or flooded to maximize oil and gas recovery. Although Core Lab is not a hydraulic fracturing company, Core Lab does provide services that are used by operators to develop and optimize hydraulic fracturing and field flood projects and to evaluate the success of those projects. These services, products and expertise play a key role in the success of stimulation and enhanced oil recovery programs.

The hydraulic fracturing of a producing formation is achieved by pumping a fluid slurry containing a proppant material into the reservoir zone at extremely high pressures. This fractures the rock and the proppant material “props” or holds the fracture open after the pressure pumping is complete, so that reservoir fluids can flow through a highly conductive fracture network into the production wellbore. Data on rock type and strength generated in the Reservoir Description operating segment are critical for determining the proper design of the hydraulic fracturing treatment. In addition, further testing indicates whether the fluid slurry is compatible with the reservoir rock so that damage does not occur that would otherwise restrict production. Core Lab also provides testing of various propping agents and software to help select the best propping agent based on net present value calculations of client investments. Clients leverage our diagnostic services and the associated proprietary and patented technologies in the Permian, Eagle Ford, Wolfcamp, Bakken, Haynesville and other plays to assist them in the following areas;

Chemical frac water tracing services are used to aid operators in determining the efficiency of the fracturing fluids used to optimize hydraulic fracture stimulation of long, multi-stage horizontal wells in oil- and gas-shale plays in unconventional reservoirs. This technology also enables clients to evaluate load recovery, gas breakthrough, fluid leak-off and breaker efficiency, all of which are important factors for optimizing oil and/or natural gas production after the formation is hydraulically fractured.
Well diagnostic data sets are used to determine if and how effectively each frac stage is flowing and cleanup efficiency of the stimulation fluid, to determine whether horizontal wells are unobstructed and flowing through the entire length of a horizontal well. Clients use this data to confirm optimum cluster efficiency, stage spacing, stimulated reservoir volume, and to increase ultimate recovery. By applying this technology, clients can identify and remediate well obstructions that can negatively impact well performance, reserve calculations and reserve-based lending. Additionally, hydrocarbon production can be quantified from discrete segments in multi-stage horizontal well completions in unconventional tight-oil or gas plays. Frac stages with ineffective flows may warrant further stimulation or remedial actions, while guiding improvements in future frac designs and flowback procedures.
The diagnostic services are also used as a completion monitoring system, to determine flow rates from reservoir zones after they have been hydraulically fractured. This provides clients with a baseline of early production information that can be compared to subsequent data later in the life of the well to see how hydrocarbon production from different reservoir layers or different quality rock varies over time.
To help optimize the placement of unconventional horizontal wells, our diagnostic services are used to monitor offset well interference by sampling offset well oil, gas and water production. The amount of tracer detected in offset wells is used to help clients optimize both horizontal and vertical well spacing and the optimum amount of fracturing fluids for each stage.
Dynamic flow tests of the reservoir fluids through reservoir rock are conducted, at actual reservoir pressure and temperature, to realistically simulate the flooding of a producing zone and assist in designing the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery projects. After a field flood is initiated, Core Lab is often involved in monitoring the progress of the flood to ensure the sweep efficiency during field flood is optimized and maximum incremental production is achieved.
Our tracer technologies and proprietary logging tools are also used in the evaluation of gravel pack effectiveness in unconsolidated reservoirs. Patented technologies are used to measure density changes in the gravel pack annulus to verify the competency of the gravel pack.

In addition to Core Lab’s many patented reservoir diagnostic technologies, Production Enhancement has established itself as a global leader in the manufacturing and distribution of high-performance perforating products. Core Lab’s manufacturing operations in the United States and Canada continue to meet the global demand for our perforating systems through facility expansion in addition to gains in efficiency and productivity. Core Lab’s unique understanding of complex reservoirs supports our ability to supply perforating systems engineered to maximize well productivity by reducing, eliminating and overcoming formation damage caused during the drilling and completion of oil and gas wells. This “systems” approach to the perforation of an oil or gas well has resulted in numerous patented products which are aimed at assisting clients with the following:

4


 

Perforating charges which provide a deeper and cleaner perforating tunnel into the oil and gas reservoir. This allows greater flow of hydrocarbons to the wellbore and helps to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from the reservoir.
Perforating charges designed specifically for optimizing fracture stimulation well completions by providing low standard deviation perforation hole size, which minimizes tortuosity effects. This not only results in better well stimulations and improved, cleaner perforation tunnels, but also less surface horsepower and less time to stimulate the well, which translates into lower costs.
Perforating technology which creates a uniform hole size through two strings of casing, utilized in mechanically isolated re-stimulation programs where the internal string is used to isolate older, depleted stages in previously under-stimulated wells.
Oriented perforating systems which deliver consistent-hole-size charges that can be aligned in a specific orientation in order to achieve uniform breakdown across each stage. These systems offer: 1) extreme limited entry perforating capability, 2) precisely aligned perforations, and 3) minimized connections and completion string length.
Proprietary plug and abandonment perforating systems, used in partial or full well abandonment projects, that allow for reduced rig time and efficient recovery of the interior casing, while eliminating risks and creating opportunities for production from untapped and still producing reservoir sections.
The patented X-SPAN® and GTX-SPAN® casing patches which have temperature ratings to as much as 600°F. These systems are capable of performing in high temperature as well as high pressure oil and gas environments and are used to seal non-productive reservoir zones from the producing wellbore.

Additionally, Core Lab’s Production Enhancement operating segment offers services to assist clients in determining the best energetic solutions for a specific rock type, to maximize productivity of an operator’s reservoir through our Reservoir Optimized Completions Lab (“ROC LabTM”). The ROC LabTM features an industry-leading, Ultra High Pressure/High Temperature perforation test vessel. The test vessel is paired with a proprietary flow system that uses highly specialized, internally developed and manufactured pumps and flow controllers. Combined, these technologies create a proprietary flow loop capable of dynamically displacing oil, brine and gas through rock samples that have been perforated with preselected energetics. Core Lab leverages its multi-decade expertise in conducting multi-phase fluid flow tests through porous medium to optimize this technological investment.

Core Lab’s proprietary downhole energetic solutions and instrumentation are designed to systemize, simplify, automate, and de-risk the deployment of perforating systems, which are utilized by international oil and gas operators for well completions. These technologies provide a unique range of perforating tools and equipment, which have been developed to provide a number of advantages over existing technology. Core Lab’s Production Enhancement team has experienced technical services personnel to support clients through our global network of offices for the everyday use of our perforating systems and the rapid introduction of new products. Our personnel are capable of providing client training and on-site services in the completion of oil and gas wells.

Marketing and Sales

We market and sell our services and products through a combination of sales representatives, technical seminars, trade shows and print advertising. Direct sales and marketing are carried out by our sales force, technical experts and operating managers, as well as by sales representatives and distributors in various markets where we do not have offices. Our Business Development group manages a Large Account Management Program to better serve our largest and most active clients by meeting with key personnel within their organizations to ensure the quality of our services and products are meeting their expectations and addressing any issues or needs in a timely manner.

Research and Development

The market for our services and products is characterized by changing technology and frequent product introduction. As a result, our success is dependent upon our ability to develop or acquire new services and products on a cost-effective basis and to introduce them into the marketplace in a timely manner. Many of our acquisitions have allowed us to obtain the benefits of the acquired company’s research and development projects without incurring significant costs if we had attempted to develop the services and products ourselves. We incur costs as part of internal research and development, and these costs are charged to expense as incurred and reflected in the operational results of the associated operating segment. We intend to continue committing financial resources and effort to the development and acquisition of new services and products. Over the years, we have made a number of technological advances, including the development of key technologies utilized in our operations.

5


 

Substantially all of our new technologies are the result of requests and guidance from our clients, particularly major oil companies.

Patents and Trademarks

We believe our trade secrets, patents, technology, trademarks and other intellectual property rights are an important factor in maintaining our technological advantage, although no single one of these is considered essential to our success. Typically, we will seek to protect our intellectual property in all jurisdictions where we believe the cost of such protection is warranted. While we have patented some of our key technologies, we do not patent all of our proprietary technology even where regarded as patentable. We protect our intellectual property, including through the use of appropriate confidentiality agreements, legal enforcement proceedings and by other means.

International Operations

We operate facilities in more than 50 countries. Our non-U.S. operations accounted for 65%, 66% and 68% of our revenue during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We attribute service revenue to the country in which the service was performed rather than where the reservoir or project is located, while we attribute product sales revenue to the country where the product was shipped as we feel this gives a clearer view of our operations. We do, however, have significant levels of service revenue performed and recorded in the U.S. that are sourced from projects on non-U.S. oilfields.

The following graphs and table summarize our reported revenue by geographic region for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

img196154354_0.jpgimg196154354_1.jpgimg196154354_2.jpg 

 

 

United States

 

Europe/Africa/ Middle East

 

Asia Pacific

 

Canada

 

Former Soviet Union

 

Latin/ South America

 

Consolidated

 

2023

$

178,549

 

$

213,339

 

$

32,770

 

$

26,898

 

$

26,118

 

$

32,116

 

$

509,790

 

2022

$

166,701

 

$

200,863

 

$

32,688

 

$

27,797

 

$

29,514

 

$

32,172

 

$

489,735

 

2021

$

148,183

 

$

199,798

 

$

39,308

 

$

26,167

 

$

33,804

 

$

22,992

 

$

470,252

 

While we are subject to fluctuations and changes in currency exchange rates relating to our international operations, we attempt to limit our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations by limiting the amount in which our foreign contracts are denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar. However, the ultimate decision as to the proportion of the foreign currency component within a contract usually resides with our clients. Consequently, we are not always able to eliminate our foreign currency exposure. We have not historically engaged in and are not currently engaged in any significant currency hedging or trading transactions designed to compensate for adverse currency fluctuations.

Environment and Climate

Governmental Laws and Regulations

We are subject to stringent governmental laws and regulations, both in the United States and other countries, pertaining to protection of the environment.

We have developed policies and procedures associated with the management, handling, recycling or disposal of chemicals and gases and other materials and wastes resulting from our operations. In areas where environmental regulations do not exist, we have established other policies and procedures in efforts to preserve the environment.

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Additionally, our analytical and manufacturing processes involve the handling and use of numerous chemicals and gases as well as the generation of wastes. Spills or other unauthorized releases of these chemicals, gases, and wastes at our facilities, whether by us or prior owners or operators, or at offsite locations where we transport them for recycling or disposal, could subject us to environmental liability, either from the applicable government agency or private landowners or other third parties. This could also include costs of cleaning up chemicals and wastes released into the environment and for damages to persons, properties or natural resources. As a result of such actions, we could be required to remove previously disposed wastes (including wastes disposed of or released by prior owners or operators), remediate environmental contamination (including contaminated groundwater), and undertake measures to prevent future contamination. Other countries where we operate have similar legal regimes. We may also be subject to claims alleging personal injury or property damage as a result of alleged exposure to hazardous substances as well as damage to natural resources. We may not be able to recover some or any of these remedial or corrective costs from insurance.

Environmental laws and regulations, and their interpretation, frequently change, and have tended to become more stringent over time. Our costs for compliance may not be fully recoverable from our clients and, thus, could reduce net income. New, modified or stricter enforcement of environmental laws and regulations could be adopted or implemented that significantly increase our compliance costs, pollution mitigation costs, or the cost of any remediation of environmental contamination that may become necessary, and these costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, or cash flows.

Historically, our environmental compliance costs have not had a material adverse effect on our results of operations; however, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future or that such future compliance will not have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.

In addition, we depend on the demand for our products and services from the oil and gas industry and, therefore, are affected by changing taxes (including subsidies), price controls, tariffs and trade restrictions, and other laws and regulations relating to the oil and gas industry in general, including those specifically directed to hydraulic fracturing, onshore production, air pollution, and climate change.

Likewise, governmental, scientific, and public concern over the threat of climate change arising from GHG emissions, including public and private incentive programs for alternative and renewable energy sources, may result in a change in consumer preferences for energy sources and therefore a decreased demand for our customers’ products. Sustained deviations from normal weather patterns, such as cooler or warmer summers and winters, can have a significant impact on demand as consumptions of energy, particularly natural gas, is seasonal.

See Item 1A. Risk Factors, “Risk factors associated with health, safety and the environment” for further discussion on environmental matters.

Climate Related Initiatives

We are committed to reducing our physical risks and environmental footprint associated with climate change while improving our performance and sustainability in line with the global transition toward lower carbon sources of energy. Core Lab has disclosed its environmental impact through the Carbon Disclosure Project (a non-profit that runs the world’s leading environmental disclosure platform, “CDP”) annual survey since 2014.

Physical Risk Analysis

In 2020, Core Lab conducted a physical risk assessment with the aid of a third-party sustainability data company for 100 of our locations to understand the exposure of our facilities and capital assets to climate change physical impacts under future climate change scenarios. Physical risks evaluated were water stress, flooding, heatwave, cold wave, hurricane, wildfire, and sea level rise using three climate scenarios over time periods of 2020 (baseline), 2030 and 2050. Overall, the assessment indicated that we face moderate physical risk with our greatest exposure to water stress and cold wave. Our overall exposure has remained consistent throughout the scenarios, although exposure to a cold wave shows a decline through the scenarios. These physical risks could result in loss of revenue, increase in our costs, including insurance premiums, or affect the availability of insurance against such risks.

We do not have locations that are in a natural, rural environment. Before opening a new location, potential impacts to the environment and community are considered by executive management. In the event we close a particular location, we try to ensure that the land and building are properly returned to a suitable condition. We also take steps designed to ensure that any potential environmental conditions have been remediated as required by local regulation and standards.

GHG Emissions

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Core Laboratories maintains a sustainability management system that tracks our consumption of non-renewable resources. We also have engaged a third-party sustainability data company to quantify the impact of emissions categorized as:

Scope 1 (direct GHG emissions that occur from sources that we control or own),
Scope 2 (indirect GHG emissions associated with the purchase of electricity, steam, heat, or cooling) or
Scope 3 (indirect emissions that occur upstream or downstream in our value chain)

This system assists us in setting science-based targets for our Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions. Science-based targets aim to help companies work towards limiting the increase in global average temperatures to below 2°C, a limit agreed upon by leading climate scientists and governments to ensure long-term sustainability and profitability. These tools focus our efforts on reducing our environmental footprint and provide the data needed to create other climate targets and goals.

Our operational footprint is primarily from our office buildings and laboratories and their related electricity consumption (Scope 2 emission) and use of natural gas and diesel for heating, backup generation and refrigeration processes (Scope 1 emission). In our efforts to reduce GHG emissions, we choose alternative sources of electricity, such as renewable sources or low-carbon emission natural gas when there are options available and feasible. We also consume fuel to operate field vehicles (Scope 1 emission), however, this is primarily limited to our staff working in the field and is not a significant emission component of our total operations. Most of the value chain emissions (Scope 3 emissions) occur upstream from our operations and are associated with employee commuting, purchased goods and services, activities associated with fuel and energy, and upstream transportation and distribution. Downstream emissions are primarily associated with transportation and distribution.

See Item 1A. Risk Factors, “Risk factors associated with health, safety and the environment” for further discussion on environmental matters.

Occupational Safety and Health Regulations

Our operations in the United Sates and foreign countries are subject to stringent occupational safety and health laws and regulations, which are intended to protect worker health and safety, including the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, which establishes requirements to protect the health and safety of workers. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) hazard communication standard, the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) community right-to-know regulations under Title III of the federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act and comparable state statutes require maintenance of information about hazardous materials used or produced in operations and provision of this information to employees, state and local government authorities and citizens. The federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (“ATF”) establishes requirements for the safe use and storage of explosives. Substantial fines and penalties can be imposed and orders or injunctions limiting or prohibiting certain operations may be issued in connection with any failure to comply with these laws and regulations. Foreign countries in which we conduct operations may also have analogous controls that regulate our worker safety-related activities, which controls may impose additional, or more stringent requirements.

As discussed above, our processes involve the handling and use of numerous chemicals and gases as well as the generation of waste which could cause harm to our employees. Such work is performed in an industrial or laboratory setting, or at our clients’ worksite which would also require travel. These types of conditions are susceptible to workplace accidents.

See Item 1A. Risk Factors, “Risk factors associated with health, safety and the environment” for further discussion on environmental matters.

Competition

The business in which we engage is competitive. Some of our competitors are divisions or subsidiaries of companies that are larger and have greater financial and other resources than we have. While no one company competes with us in all of our service and product lines, we face competition in these lines, primarily from independent regional companies and internal divisions of major integrated oil and gas companies. We compete in different service and product lines to various degrees on the basis of price, technical performance, availability, quality and technical support. Our ability to compete successfully depends on elements both within and outside of our control, including successful and timely development of new services and products, performance and quality, client service, pricing, industry trends and general economic trends.

Reliance on the Oil and Gas Industry

Our business and operations are substantially dependent upon the condition of the global oil and gas industry. Future downturns in the oil and gas industry, or in the oilfield services business as well as the adoption and implementation of legislation, executive orders, and other regulatory initiatives that seek to combat climate change by restricting fossil fuel activities, limiting GHG emissions, certain methods of extraction of oil and gas, or the locations in which such activities may be

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conducted, may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. This risk factor is perhaps amplified given recent pronouncements and actions taken by the executive and/or legislative branches of the U.S. government in an uncertain and shifting political environment.

The oil and gas industry is highly cyclical and has been subject to significant economic downturns at various times as a result of numerous factors affecting the supply of and demand for oil and natural gas, including the level of capital expenditures of the oil and gas industry, the level of drilling activity, the level of production activity, market prices of oil and gas, economic conditions existing in the world, interest rates and the cost of capital, environmental regulations, tax policies, the impact of certain geopolitical conflicts, political requirements of national governments, coordination by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil producing nations (“OPEC+”), cost of producing oil and natural gas, and technological advances.

The success of our business has been underpinned by developing industry leading technologies used in evaluating and improving reservoir performance, increasing oil and gas recovery from new and existing fields, as well as evaluating potential CCS sites in the subsurface both onshore and offshore. Many of these technologies have been developed to meet the needs of our clients, which continue to evolve with demands in both traditional energy sources and with energy transition. As energy transition continues to evolve, our business may become more dependent on the continued innovation and adoption of our industry leading technologies.

Human Capital

We are primarily a service provider in the oilfield services industry, so our workforce includes employees who are highly skilled professionals, including engineers and geologists, and other technical personnel, in addition to our administrative employees. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 3,600 employees. We do not have any material collective bargaining agreements and consider relations with our employees to be good.

Our Core Values: (1) Safety Awareness, (2) Honesty & Integrity, (3) Customer Focus, (4) Building Trust and (5) Employee Development, define us as a company and are the framework that unite us on the path toward achieving our goals and propelling Core Lab forward. These values represent and establish the foundation by which we treat each other, conduct our business and simply define “how we do things around here”. By embedding our Core Values into our operating strategies, we ensure that our company culture and mission also drive our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) sustainability efforts. We keep our employees informed of major business developments through CoreConnect, a communication initiative to drive connection and engagement between employees and executive leadership, and through contact by extended leadership teams, periodic emails, quarterly newsletters, quarterly reports, and annual events.

Core Lab values its employees and is committed to providing resources that engage employees, enhance their work experience, and develop them for the future. To assist in this pledge, Core Lab has created its talent management strategy based on the employee life cycle. Our total rewards approach is aligned to our business strategy and country-specific market influences. We offer competitive compensation and benefit programs in each country where we operate. Our approach not only encompasses competitive compensation and benefits, but also personal and professional growth opportunities within a global performance culture.

We develop our employees through performance management processes, competency-based development plans and training both in leadership and functional areas while also offering educational assistance programs. We expanded our talent assessment process to identify emerging technical and leadership talent across the Company. Our annual performance management cycle is an ongoing process that enables managers and employees to collaborate throughout the year to set performance goals and development objectives that align to business objectives. This process is designed to help employees understand where they add value to the organization, provide focus on and discussion around career aspirations, and reward employees for high performance.

We aspire to create an inclusive work culture where differences are valued. We recognize the unique perspectives and thoughts that our employees bring to our environment which stimulates innovation and generates out-of-the-box solutions that benefit our Company, clients and industry. We promote a culture-centric focus on the health and safety of our employees and the environment with a pro-active approach towards identifying and managing risks through recognition, evaluation, and education. We empower our employees by fostering a sense of responsibility for managing their own work environment through open communication, and a management-supported “zero accident” culture.

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Web Site Access to Our Periodic SEC Reports

Our primary internet address is https://www.corelab.com. We file or furnish Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These reports are available free of charge through our web site as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed or furnished electronically with the SEC. We may from time to time provide important disclosures to investors by posting them in the investor relations section of our web site, as allowed by SEC rules.

The SEC maintains an internet website at https://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding our company that we file electronically with the SEC. References to the Company’s website in this Form 10-K are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be deemed, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website, and such information should not be considered part of this Form 10-K.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that we believe to be reasonable but that may not prove to be accurate. All of our forward-looking information is, therefore, subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results expected. All known, material risks and uncertainties are discussed below.

 

Risk factors associated with the industry in which we operate

 

Events beyond Core Lab’s control, including a global or domestic health crisis, have resulted and may continue to result in unexpected adverse operating and financial results.

 

A global or domestic health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic may significantly reduce demand for our services, and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows over a long period of time. The effects may include significant and swift reduction in international and U.S. economic activity, reduced demand for oil, coupled with an oversupply of oil, leading to a decrease in oil prices. Government reaction to a pandemic and restrictions and limitations applied by governments, continued widespread growth in infections, travel restrictions, quarantines, or site closures as a result of the health crises could, among other things, impact the ability of Core Lab’s employees and contractors to perform their duties, cause increased technology and security risk due to extended and company-wide telecommuting, lead to disruptions in Core Lab’s logistics and negatively affect customer relationships. All of these factors may impact the timing of the recognition of revenue and results of operations for a particular quarter.

 

The extent to which our operating and financial results would continue to be affected depend on various factors and consequences beyond our control, which depend on numerous evolving factors and future developments that we are not able to predict, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

the length of time that the pandemic continues;
its effect on the demand for oil and natural gas;
the response of the overall economy and the financial markets;
the effect of governmental actions taken in response to the pandemic; and
the speed and effectiveness of responses to combat the health crises.

 

Any of those outcomes could have a material adverse effect on Core Lab’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could perhaps amplify risk factors described in this Form 10-K.

Any cost reduction initiatives that Core Lab undertakes may not deliver the results it expects, and these actions may adversely affect its business.

As business conditions change, the Company may need to implement cost-cutting measures that may adversely affect its business. These cost-cutting measures may include reductions in the quarterly dividend, base salaries of senior executives and employees, annual capital expenditures, implementation of temporary employee furloughs, and workforce reductions, among other reductions of corporate and operating costs.

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In addition, these initiatives could result in disruptions to Core Lab’s operations. Any cost-cutting measures could also negatively impact Core Lab’s business by delaying the introduction of new products or technologies, interrupting service of additional products, or impacting employee retention. There can be no assurance that additional costs will not offset any such reductions of its operations. If Core Lab’s operating costs are higher than expected, or if it does not maintain adequate control of its costs and expenses, Core Lab’s results of operations will suffer. If Core Lab is unable to mitigate these or other potential risks related to its cost cutting initiatives, it may disrupt Core Lab’s business or could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.

Downturns in the oil and gas industry, or in the oilfield services business, may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

The oil and gas industry is highly cyclical and demand for the majority of our oilfield services and products is substantially dependent on the level of expenditures by the oil and gas industry for the exploration, development and production of crude oil and natural gas reserves, which are sensitive to oil and natural gas prices and generally dependent on the industry's view of future oil and gas prices. There are numerous factors affecting the supply of and demand for our services and products, which are summarized as:

general and economic business conditions, including market prices of oil and gas and expectations about future prices;
the adoption of legal requirements or taxation;
changes in existing laws, regulations or other governmental actions;
cost of producing and the ability to deliver oil and natural gas;
the level of drilling and production activity;
financial condition of our client base and their ability to fund capital expenditures;
coordination by the OPEC+;
civil unrest or political uncertainty in oil producing or consuming countries;
level of consumption of oil, gas and petrochemicals by consumers;
availability of services and materials for our clients to grow their capital expenditures and to deliver product to market; and
availability of materials and equipment from key suppliers.

The oil and gas industry has historically experienced periodic downturns, which have been characterized by diminished demand for our oilfield services and products and downward pressure on the prices we charge. A significant downturn in the oil and gas industry could result in a reduction in demand for oilfield services and could adversely affect our operating results.

Changes in macro-economic factors impacting the oil and gas industry may negatively affect our ability to accurately predict client demand, which could cause us to hold excess or obsolete inventory and experience a reduction in gross margins and financial results.

We cannot accurately predict which or what level of our services and products our clients will need in the future. Orders are placed with our suppliers based on forecasts of client demand and, in some instances, we may establish buffer inventories to accommodate anticipated demand. Our forecasts of client demand are based on multiple assumptions, each of which may introduce errors into the estimates. In addition, many of our suppliers require a longer lead time to provide products than our clients’ demand for delivery of our finished products. If we overestimate client demand, we may allocate resources to the purchase of materials or manufactured products that we may not be able to sell when we expect to, if at all. As a result, we could hold excess or obsolete inventory, which would reduce gross margin and adversely affect financial results. Conversely, if we underestimate client demand or if insufficient manufacturing capacity is available, we could miss revenue opportunities and potentially lose market share and damage our client relationships. In addition, any future significant cancellations or deferrals of service contracts or product orders could materially and adversely affect profit margins, increase product obsolescence and restrict our ability to fund our operations.

We are subject to the physical effects of climate change, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We operate from locations around the globe and provides services in coastal regions and coastal cities and services related to marine shipping activities of our clients. These locations and activities are susceptible to the physical effects of climate change,

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such as increased frequency or severity of tropical storm systems, hurricanes, droughts, floods, extreme winter weather, or geologic/geophysical conditions that may result in:

decreased or lost production capacity;
loss of or reduced supply chain availability;
temporary closure of locations due to electricity outages, damages or disruptions caused by extreme weather events;
displacement of employees; and
increase in premium for or reduced ability to obtain insurance for property, business interruption and liability.

See Item 1A. Risk Factors, “Risk factors associated with health, safety and the environment” for further discussion on environmental matters.

Risk factors associated with our international presence

We depend on the results of our international operations, which expose us to risks inherent in doing business abroad.

We conduct our business in over 50 countries. Our operations, and those of our clients, are subject to the various laws, regulations and other legal requirements of those respective countries as well as various risks peculiar to each country, which may include, but are not limited to:

global economic conditions;
political actions and requirements of national governments including trade restrictions, embargoes, seizure, detention, nationalization and expropriation of assets;
interpretation of tax statutes and requirements of taxing authorities worldwide, including the United States, routine examination by taxing authorities and assessment of additional taxes, penalties and/or interest;
trade and economic sanctions, tariffs or other restrictions imposed by the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States or other countries;
civil unrest;
acts of terrorism;
fluctuations and changes in currency exchange rates (see section below);
the impact of inflation;
difficulty in repatriating foreign currency received in excess of the local currency requirements;
current conditions in oil producing countries such as Venezuela, Nigeria, Libya, Iran and Iraq considering their potential impact on the world markets; and
geopolitical conflicts in the countries or regions we operate in, including the Russia-Ukraine and Middle East conflicts.

Historically, economic downturns and political events have resulted in lower demand for our services and products in certain markets. The continuing instability in the Middle East, North Africa, South America and Ukraine, and the potential for activity from terrorist groups that the U.S. government has cautioned against have further heightened our exposure to international risks. The global economy is highly influenced by public confidence in the geopolitical environment, and the situations in the affected countries and regions, as mentioned above, continue to be highly fluid; therefore, we expect to experience heightened international risks.

From time to time, certain geopolitical conflicts may lead to imposition of economic sanctions and associated export controls applicable to our operations. These sanctions may be imposed against certain countries, companies and individuals that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving the countries, companies and individuals identified, which may also further restrict or prohibit us in conducting sales and maintaining operations in any of these jurisdictions.

Our operations may be adversely affected by sanctions, export controls, and similar measures targeting Russia and other countries and territories as well as other responses to Russia’s military conflict in Ukraine.

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The recent geopolitical conflict between Russia and Ukraine has resulted in the U.S. government, European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries imposing broad-ranging and coordinated economic sanctions and export control measures against Russia, Belarus, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic and the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic, including, among others:

a prohibition on doing business with certain Russian companies, large financial institutions, officials and oligarchs;
a prohibition on commercial activities in the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic and the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic;
a commitment by certain countries and the European Union to remove selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (“SWIFT”), the electronic banking network that connects banks globally;
a ban on imports of Russian crude oil, certain refined petroleum products, and liquefied propane gas originating in or exported from Russia to the European Union, subject to limited exceptions;
a ban on imports of Russian crude oil, liquefied natural gas and coal to the United States;
a ban on new investment in the Russian energy sector;
a prohibition by the U.S. on exporting, selling, or supplying certain categories of services, including engineering services, to persons located in Russia; and
enhanced export controls and trade sanctions targeting Russia’s importation of certain goods and technology, including restrictive measures on the export and re-export of dual-use goods, stricter licensing policy with respect to issuing export licenses, and increased use of “end-use” controls to block or impose licensing requirements on exports.

Due to the international scope of our operations, the Company is subject to various laws and regulations, including regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Treasury, the U.S. Department of State, the Bureau of Industry and Security and Office of Foreign Asset Control, as well as the counterparts of these agencies in foreign countries. The Company actively monitors changes in these regulations as they pertain to the goods and services we provide and their impact on our business, including our business partners and customers.

As the conflict in Ukraine continues, these sanctions may change and be expanded, which could further hinder the Company’s ability to do business in Russia or with certain Russian entities, which could have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, in retaliation against new international sanctions and as part of measures to stabilize and support the volatile Russian financial and currency markets, Russian authorities imposed significant currency control measures aimed at restricting the outflow of foreign currency and capital from Russia, imposed various restrictions on transacting with non-Russian parties, banned exports of various products and other economic and financial restrictions.

The Company routinely screens existing business partners globally against Specially Designated National / Restricted Persons lists. All new engagements with business partners are screened prior to the beginning of any business relationship. Individuals or entities that become subject to applicable sanctions are immediately blocked from further commercial activity with the Company until confirmed by the Company’s legal counsel whether permissible to proceed pursuant to a general or special license or other exemption, or a change in facts.

Furthermore, while we have policies, procedures and internal controls in place designed to ensure compliance with applicable sanctions and trade restrictions, and though the current effects from the Russia-Ukraine conflict have, thus far, not resulted in a material adverse impact to the Company’s financial condition or results of operations, our employees, contractors, and agents may take actions in violation of such policies and applicable law and we could be held ultimately responsible. We rely on our employees to adhere to the policies, procedures and internal controls we have established to maintain compliance with evolving sanctions and export controls. To that end, we have implemented training programs, both in person and online, to educate our employees on applicable sanctions and export controls laws. If we are held responsible for a violation of U.S. or other countries’ sanctions laws, we may be subject to various penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Should future sanctions require us to cease or wind down our Russian operations, our assets located there may be impacted and could become subject to impairment. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s fixed assets in Russia were $4.2 million, or approximately 4% of the Company’s total fixed assets and less than 1% of the Company’s total assets. Additionally, the Company leases its operating facilities in Russia, and as of December 31, 2023, the contractual obligation to exit these leased

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facilities is approximately $0.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2023, revenue attributable to our operations in Russia was $22.8 million, representing less than 5% of the Company’s total revenue. Cessation of our Russian operations resulting from future sanctions may cause us to incur employee severance and other associated costs statutorily required under local labor laws.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, revenue attributable to the Company’s Ukraine operations and assets located in Ukraine, were not significant to the Company’s total revenue and total assets.

We are actively monitoring the situation in Ukraine and assessing its impact on our operations in the region, including our business partners and customers. We have not experienced any material interruptions in our infrastructure, supplies or networks needed to support our operations. However, the situation is continuously evolving and the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries may implement additional sanctions, export controls or other measures against Russia, Belarus and other countries, regions, officials, individuals or industries in the respective territories. We have no way to predict the progress or outcome of the conflict in Ukraine or its impacts in Ukraine, Russia or Belarus as the conflict, and any resulting government responses, are fluid and beyond our control.

The Russia-Ukraine conflict may also heighten many other risks, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Such risks include, but are not limited to, adverse effects on global macroeconomic conditions, including increased inflation; increased volatility in the price and demand of oil and natural gas; increased exposure to cyber-attacks; limitations in our ability to implement and execute our business strategy; risks to employees and contractors that we have in the region; disruptions in global supply chains; exposure to foreign currency fluctuations; potential nationalizations and assets seizures in Russia; constraints or disruption in the capital markets and our sources of liquidity; our potential inability to service our remaining performance obligations; and potential contractual breaches and litigation.

Our results of operations may be significantly affected by foreign currency exchange rate risk.

We are exposed to risks due to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. By the nature of our business, we derive a substantial amount of our revenue from our international operations, where certain of our customer contracts are in foreign currencies that subject us to risks relating to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Our results of operations may be adversely affected because our efforts to comply with applicable anti-corruption laws such as the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and the United Kingdom’s Anti-Bribery Act (the “ABA”) could restrict our ability to do business in foreign markets relative to our competitors who are not subject to these laws.

We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. We may be subject to competitive disadvantages to the extent that our competitors are able to secure business, licenses or other preferential treatment by making payments to government officials and others in positions of influence or through other methods that we are prohibited from using.

We are subject to the regulations imposed by the FCPA and the ABA, which generally prohibits us and our intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business. In particular, we may be held liable for actions taken by our strategic or local partners even though our partners are not subject to these laws. Any such violations could result in substantial civil and/or criminal penalties and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, our ability to continue to work in these parts of the world discussed above could be adversely affected if we were found to have violated certain laws, including the FCPA and the ABA.

Risk factors associated with technology advancement

If we are not able to develop or acquire new services or products or our services and products become technologically obsolete, our results of operations may be adversely affected.

The market for our services and products is characterized by changing technology and product introduction. As a result, our success is dependent upon our ability to develop or acquire new services and products on a cost-effective basis and to introduce them into the marketplace in a timely manner. While we intend to continue committing substantial financial resources and effort to the development or acquisition of new services and products, we may not be able to successfully differentiate our services and products from those of our competitors. Our clients may not consider our proposed services and products to be of value to them; or if the proposed services and products are of a competitive nature, our clients may not view them as superior to

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our competitors’ services and products. In addition, we may not be able to adapt to evolving markets and technologies, develop or acquire new services or products, or achieve and maintain technological advantages.

If we are unable to continue developing or acquiring competitive services and products in a timely manner in response to changes in technology, our business and operating results may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, continuing development or acquisition of new products inherently carries the risk of inventory obsolescence with respect to our older products.

If we are unable to obtain patents, licenses and other intellectual property rights covering our services and products, our operating results may be adversely affected.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain patents, licenses and other intellectual property rights covering our services and products. To that end, we have obtained certain patents and intend to continue to seek patents on some of our inventions, services and products. While we have patented some of our key technologies, we do not patent all of our proprietary technology, even when regarded as patentable. The process of seeking patent protection can be long and expensive. There can be no assurance that patents will be issued from currently pending or future applications or that, if patents are issued, they will be of sufficient scope or strength to provide meaningful protection or any commercial advantage to us. In addition, effective copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in certain countries. Litigation, which could demand significant financial and management resources, may be necessary to enforce our patents or other intellectual property rights. Also, there can be no assurance that we can obtain licenses or other rights to necessary intellectual property on acceptable terms.

Our operations are subject to the risk of cyber-attacks that could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and consolidated financial condition.

Our information technology systems are subject to possible breaches and other threats, including insider threats, that could cause us harm. Although we devote significant resources to protect our systems, there can be no assurance that our systems will prevent or limit the effects of cyber-attacks or will be sufficient to prevent or detect, or to avoid a material adverse impact on our systems when such attacks do occur. If our systems for protecting against cyber-attacks prove not to be sufficient, we could be adversely affected by loss or damage of intellectual property, proprietary information, client data, employee data, financial data, our reputation, interruption of business operations, or additional costs to prevent, respond to, or mitigate cyber-attacks. These risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, and financial condition.

Risk factors associated with our supply chain, resources, liquidity and capital management

We are subject to the risk of supplier concentration.

Certain of our product lines depend on a limited number of third party suppliers and vendors available in the marketplace. As a result of this concentration in some of our supply chains, our business and operations could be negatively affected if our key suppliers were to experience significant disruptions affecting the price, quality, availability or timely delivery of their products. For example, we have a limited number of vendors for our manufactured product lines. The partial or complete loss of any one of our key suppliers, or a significant adverse change in the relationship with any of these suppliers, through consolidation or otherwise, would limit our ability to manufacture and sell certain of our products.

There are risks relating to our acquisition strategy. If we are unable to successfully integrate and manage businesses that we have acquired and any businesses acquired in the future, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

One of our key business strategies is to acquire technologies, operations and assets that are complementary to our existing business. There are financial, operational and legal risks inherent in any acquisition strategy, including:

increased financial leverage;
ability to obtain additional financing;
increased interest expense; and
difficulties involved in combining disparate company cultures and facilities.

The success of any completed acquisition will depend on our ability to effectively integrate the acquired business into our existing operations. The process of integrating acquired businesses may involve unforeseen difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of our managerial and financial resources. In addition, possible future acquisitions may be larger and

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for purchase prices significantly higher than those paid for earlier acquisitions. No assurance can be given that we will be able to continue to identify additional suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms, obtain financing for acquisitions on acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. Our failure to achieve consolidation savings, to incorporate the acquired businesses and assets into our existing operations successfully or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

We may be unable to attract and retain skilled and technically knowledgeable employees, which could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends upon attracting and retaining highly skilled professionals and other technical personnel. A number of our employees are highly skilled engineers, geologists and highly trained technicians, and our failure to continue to attract and retain such individuals could adversely affect our ability to compete in the oilfield services industry. In periods of high utilization, there may be a shortage of skilled and technical personnel available in the market, potentially compounding the difficulty of attracting and retaining these employees. As a result, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

We require a significant amount of cash to service our indebtedness, make capital expenditures, fund our working capital requirements and pay our dividend, and our ability to generate cash may depend on factors beyond our control.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, to fund planned capital expenditures, and pay our dividend depends, in part, on our ability to generate cash in the future. This ability is, to a certain extent, subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.

No assurance can be given that we will generate sufficient cash flows from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service and repay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs. If we are unable to satisfy our debt obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness, selling assets, reducing or delaying capital investments or seeking to raise additional capital. We cannot assure that any refinancing or debt restructuring would be possible or, if possible, would be completed on favorable or acceptable terms, that any assets could be sold or that, if sold, the timing of the sales and the amount of proceeds realized from those sales would be favorable to us or that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms.

Disruptions in the capital and credit markets could adversely affect our ability to refinance our indebtedness, including our ability to borrow under our existing revolving credit facility. Banks that are party to our existing revolving credit facility may not be able to meet their funding commitments to us if they experience shortages of capital and liquidity or if they experience excessive volumes of borrowing requests from us and other borrowers within a short period of time.

We may have greater difficulty accessing capital in the future due to the adoption of more stringent climate change policies as shareholders, bondholders and institutional lenders who currently invest in fossil-fuel energy companies or service companies such as ours express increased concern about the potential adverse effects of climate change and therefore elect to shift some or all of their investable or loanable funds into alternative energy investments.

Risk factors associated with health, safety and the environment

We are subject to a variety of environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations, which may result in increased costs and significant liability to our business.

We are subject to a variety of stringent governmental laws and regulations, both in the United States and foreign countries, pertaining to protection of the environment, and occupational health and safety.

Compliance with environmental legal requirements in the United States at the federal, state or local levels may require acquiring permits to conduct regulated activities, incurring capital expenditures to limit or prevent emissions, discharges and any unauthorized releases, and complying with stringent practices to handle, recycle and dispose of certain wastes. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of remedial or corrective obligations, the occurrence of delays or cancellations in the permitting, performance or expansion of projects and the issuance of injunctive relief in affected areas. Certain of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several, strict liability for environmental liabilities, such as the remediation of historical contamination or recent spills, and failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in the assessment of damages, fines and penalties, the imposition of remedial or corrective action obligations, the occurrence of delays or cancellations in permitting or development of projects, or the suspension or cessation of some or all of our operations. These stringent laws and regulations could require us to acquire permits or other authorizations to conduct regulated activities, install and maintain costly equipment and pollution

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control technologies, impose specific safety and health standards addressing work protection, or to incur costs or liabilities to mitigate or remediate pollution conditions caused by our operations or attributable to former owners or operators.

Environmental laws and regulations, and their interpretation, frequently change, and have tended to become more stringent over time. Our costs for compliance may not be fully recoverable from our clients and, thus, could reduce net income. New, modified or stricter enforcement of environmental laws and regulations could be adopted or implemented that significantly increase our compliance costs, pollution mitigation costs, or the cost of any remediation of environmental contamination that may become necessary, and these costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, or cash flows. Additionally, our clients are also subject to many of the same laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and occupational safety and health in the United States and in foreign countries where we operate. To the extent existing environmental laws and regulations or any new or more stringently enforced environmental legal requirements significantly increase our clients’ compliance costs, pollution mitigation costs or remedial costs, our clients could elect to delay, restrict or cancel drilling, exploration or production programs, which could reduce demand for our products and services and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Historically, our worker safety compliance costs have not had a material adverse effect on our results of operations; however, there can be no assurance that such costs will not be material in the future or that such future compliance will not have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.

Legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to oil and gas development and the potential for related litigation could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays for our clients, which could reduce demand for our products or services.

Environmental laws and regulations could limit our clients’ exploration and production activities. For example, hydraulic fracturing continues to attract considerable public and governmental attention, both in the United States and in foreign countries, resulting in various controls applied to fracturing activities or locations where such activities may be performed. Although we do not directly engage in drilling or hydraulic fracturing activities, we provide products and services to operators in the oil and gas industry.

Hydraulic fracturing is a process used by oil and gas exploration and production operators in the completion of certain oil and gas wells whereby water, sand or other proppants and chemical additives are injected under pressure into subsurface formations to stimulate gas and, to a lesser extent, oil production. Some countries outside the United States, such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and France, currently have imposed moratoria on hydraulic fracturing while other countries, such as Canada, allow fracturing activities but those activities are not as widely pursued as they are in the United States. In the United States, the fracturing process is typically regulated by state oil and gas commissions, but several federal agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process.

A growing number of states have adopted, and other states are considering adopting, legal requirements that could impose more stringent disclosure, permitting and/or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations, and local governments may also seek to adopt ordinances within their jurisdictions regulating the time, place and manner of hydraulic fracturing activities.

U.S., foreign federal, regional, state or local governmental actions aimed at species conservation, preventing hydraulic fracturing activities, or otherwise limiting oil and gas production in certain locations, could indirectly cause us to incur additional costs, cause our or our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers’ operations to become subject to operating restrictions or bans, result in new difficulties obtaining permits or other authorizations, and limit future development activity in affected areas. To the extent any such existing or future legal requirements result in increased costs or restrictions or cancellation in the operation of our clients, such developments could reduce demand for our products and services and have an indirect material adverse effect on our business.

See Part I, Item 1. Business, “Environment and Climate” and “Occupational Safety and Health Regulations” for further discussion on environmental and worker safety and health matters.

We are subject to compliance with governmental regulations associated with climate change, energy conservation measures, or initiatives that stimulate demand for alternative forms of energy that could result in increased costs, limit the areas in which our clients’ oil and natural gas production may occur and reduce demand for our services, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our clients in the oil and gas industry are also subject to many laws and regulations relating to environmental and natural resource protection in the United States and in foreign countries where we operate, and many are required to obtain permits and

17


 

other authorizations for their operations. In particular, we, our third-party vendors that supply us with goods and services in support of our business, and our clients are subject to an increased governmental, and public, political and scientific attention focus on risks associated with the threat of climate change arising from the emission of greenhouse gases (“GHG”). Various governments have adopted or are considering adopting legislation, regulations or other regulatory initiatives, including the Paris Agreement, the Europe Climate Law, that are focused on such areas as GHG cap and trade programs, carbon taxes, reporting and tracking programs, and restriction of emissions at national or local levels in jurisdictions where we operate. Our and our clients’ compliance with such existing, or any new or amended legal requirements that are placed into effect and applicable in areas where we or our clients conduct operations, could result in our or our clients’ incurring significant additional expense and operating restrictions.

New or amended legislation, executive actions, regulations or other regulatory initiatives that impose more stringent oil and gas sector requirements or fees on GHG emissions or restrict the areas in which this sector may produce oil and natural gas or generate GHG emissions could result in increased compliance costs or costs of producing fossil fuels. For example, in the U.S., some of our oil and gas customers will be required to pay a fee for certain methane emissions beginning in 2024 and in December 2023, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) finalized more stringent methane emissions rules for new, modified, and reconstructed facilities in the oil and gas sector, known as OOOOb, as well as standards for existing sources for the first time ever, known as OOOOc which may increase operating costs for some of our clients. Similarly, governments have and may continue to take actions to restrict where or how our clients are permitted to operate.

To the extent that climate change alters weather patterns, it can therefore impact the demand for our customers’ products. Our operations and the operations of our customers are also susceptible to the physical effects of climate change, such as increased frequency or severity storm systems, hurricanes, droughts, floods, extreme winter weather, or geologic/geophysical conditions. Such events can impact our operations directly and indirectly, and could also result in increased insurance costs.

Additionally, political, financial and litigation risks, as well as stakeholder pressures may result in our clients restricting, delaying or canceling operational or production activities, incurring liability for infrastructure damages as a result of climatic changes, restricting access to capital, or impairing the ability to continue to operate in an economic manner, which could reduce demand for our products and services. Fuel conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements and increasing consumer demand for, or legislative incentives supporting, alternative energy sources (such as wind, solar, geothermal and tidal) could also reduce demand for oil and natural gas. The occurrence of one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

Our customers may also face litigation risks based on allocations of their contribution to climate change. Consequently, to the extent one or more of these climate-related events are incurred by us, our third party vendors, or our clients, any of us could incur increased costs, we could incur disruptions to our operations as a result of our vendor’s inability to supply us with goods and services, and our clients in particular could elect to delay, restrict or cancel drilling, exploration or production programs, which could reduce demand for our products and services, any of which developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Increasing attention to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters may impact our business.

Regulations associated with ESG and sustainability have been, and are, being implemented and we anticipate that these regulatory requirements will continue to expand in the European Union (“EU”), the United States and globally, at all levels of government and from private institutions and stakeholders. As a result, numerous regulatory initiatives have been made, and are likely to continue to be made, to monitor and limit existing emissions of GHGs or implement laws, policies or regulatory initiatives that may contribute to energy conservation measures, stimulate demand for alternative forms of energy or limit areas where fossil fuel production may occur, which may translate into reduced demand for our services.

Investor and societal expectations regarding voluntary ESG disclosures, and consumer demand for alternative forms of energy may result in increased costs, reduced demand for our services, reduced profits, increased risks of governmental investigations and private party litigation, and negative impacts on our stock price and access to capital markets. These pressures could have similar impacts on our customers, and therefore, indirectly impact our operations by decreasing demand for our services. Our managerial ESG Steering Team is the primary group for overseeing and managing our ESG initiatives. Team members review the implementation and effectiveness of our ESG programs and policies and report on these matters to the Board of Directors. While we have sought voluntary aspirational goals for GHG emission reductions from base year 2018, we note that even with our governance oversight in place, we may not be able to adequately identify or manage ESG-related risks and opportunities, which may include failing to achieve ESG-related aspirational goals. We have published voluntary disclosures regarding ESG matters under an annual Sustainability Report and the Global Reporting Initiative, an international independent standards organization. From time to time, statements in those voluntary disclosures may be based on aspirational expectations and assumptions that may or may not be representative of current or actual risks or events or forecasts of expected

18


 

risks or events, including the costs associated therewith. Such expectations and assumptions may be prone to error or subject to misinterpretation given the lack of an established single approach to identifying, measuring and reporting on many ESG matters.

Risk factors associated with our common stock

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law may discourage a takeover attempt even if a takeover might be beneficial to our stockholders.

Provisions contained in our Certificate of Incorporation and our Bylaws, which we refer to herein as our “certificate of incorporation” and “bylaws,” respectively, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us. Provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it more difficult for stockholders to effect certain corporate actions. For example, our certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of unissued series of preferred stock without any vote or action by our stockholders. Thus, our board of directors can authorize and issue shares of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting or other rights of holders of our capital stock. These rights may have the effect of delaying or deterring a change of control of our company. Additionally, our bylaws establish limitations on the removal of directors and on the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings and include advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors and for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings. These provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee or agent of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee or agent of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each such case subject to such Court of Chancery having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein.

The exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation or similar governing documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable, including with respect to claims arising under the U.S. federal securities laws.

Risk factors associated with the Redomestication Transaction

The expected benefits of the Redomestication Transaction may not be realized.

There can be no assurance that all of the anticipated benefits of the Redomestication Transaction will be achieved. Achieving the anticipated benefits of the Redomestication Transaction is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including factors that we do not and cannot control. In addition, if the expected benefits of the Redomestication Transaction do not meet expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock may decline.

If the Redomestication Transaction does not qualify as a “reorganization” under Section 368(a) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, Core Lab Shareholders may be required to pay U.S. federal income taxes.

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It is intended that the steps in the Redomestication Transaction qualify as a form of “reorganization” within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). Although Vinson & Elkins L.L.P., Core Lab’s U.S. tax counsel, is currently of the opinion that the Redomestication Transaction should qualify as a form of reorganization within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the Code, and Core Laboratories N.V., Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. and Core Laboratories Inc. intend to file tax returns consistent with this intended tax treatment, this tax treatment is not free from doubt. Your tax advisor may not agree with our intended tax treatment and the IRS may assert, or a court may sustain, a contrary position.

If the Redomestication Transaction did not qualify as a form of reorganization within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the Code, Core Lab Shareholders would generally recognize taxable gain or loss upon their exchange of stock pursuant to the Redomestication Transaction, as applicable.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

The Company maintains information systems which contain personal data, financial reports and proprietary data. As a result, we are exposed to cybersecurity threats which could result in loss of or damage to our intellectual property, proprietary information, client data and reputation, or interruption of our business operations, or additional costs to prevent, respond to, or mitigate cyber-attacks.

Our Board of Directors is responsible for oversight of the risks that the Company faces, including cybersecurity threats. Our operating divisions and management teams help identify risks that are relevant to the Company during our periodic business planning and review cycle and rank these risks in relation to the achievement of business objectives. We understand cybersecurity threats to be dynamic and to intersect with various other enterprise risks within the organization. We have therefore integrated cybersecurity risk into our overall risk management program.

As a result, in addition to our information technology policies and procedures, we have implemented cybersecurity processes that aim to address, among other things, information security, password security, third party vetting, security incident response and vulnerability management. Our cybersecurity procedures include requiring multiple authentication factors prior to granting access to our assets, launching endpoint security software to guard against malware, viruses, and other cyber-attacks, use of third-party software to automate IT system monitoring for unusual or suspicious activity, conducting annual cybersecurity training for all employees, and providing cybersecurity information to employees through newsletters and fliers. We utilize third-party consultants to assist us with endpoint detection and response and routinely conduct penetration testing of our network infrastructure. Our consultants also provide digital forensics analysis of our systems, as needed. Additionally, we have sought to align our cybersecurity risk management in accordance with the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework.

We recognize that third-party service providers may introduce cybersecurity risks. In an effort to mitigate these risks, we assess third party cybersecurity controls through a cybersecurity questionnaire and include security and privacy addendums to our contracts where applicable.

We have established a permanent management position of Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance that reports directly to the Chief Financial Officer. Our current Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance, has an undergraduate degree in computer science and is a Certified Information Systems Security Professional. He possesses over 20 years of IT experience with more than 10 years in managerial positions and has been actively involved in IT security related projects, initiatives, audits and associated program management in the last seven years. As part of our cybersecurity incident response plan, we have established a dedicated incident response team to assess and manage risks arising from cybersecurity threats, consisting of our Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance and various members of senior management, including our Chief Financial Officer and General Counsel.

The Company also maintains an IT Steering Committee as part of its control environment, which meets regularly to address matters pertaining to the Company’s information technology systems. The IT Steering Committee is led by the Company’s three IT directors, one of which is the Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance, and is represented by leaders from corporate departments and operations. In each meeting, the Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance provides an overview of cybersecurity matters, including status update on threat reduction initiatives undertaken by the Company and future initiatives under consideration.

20


 

The Audit Committee is responsible for overseeing our cybersecurity threat risks and receives updates during its quarterly meetings from our Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance. At each meeting, the Audit Committee is briefed on matters pertaining to our exposure to material privacy and cybersecurity risks, as well as risks that are deemed to have a moderate or higher business impact, even if immaterial. The Director of Cybersecurity and IT Governance also routinely briefs senior management on such matters as they arise.

In addition, we have established a Data Privacy Committee coordinated by our Data Privacy Officer and represented by seven other committee members from various corporate functional departments. The objective of the Committee is to ensure that personal data is protected and handled in accordance with applicable law and Core Lab policies.

As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not aware of any cybersecurity incident or cybersecurity threat that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. However, we understand that cybersecurity threats are continually evolving, and the possibility of future discovery of cybersecurity incidents remains. Please see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for additional information about cybersecurity risks.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Currently, we have over 70 offices (totaling approximately 3.2 million square feet of space) in more than 50 countries. In these locations, we lease approximately 1.5 million square feet and own approximately 1.7 million square feet. We serve our worldwide clients through five Advanced Technology Centers (“ATCs”) that are located in Aberdeen, Scotland; Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Houston, Texas; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The ATCs provide support for our more than 50 regional specialty centers located throughout the global energy producing provinces. In addition, our more significant manufacturing facilities are located in Godley, Texas, Red Deer, Alberta, Canada and Pyle, Wales which are included in our Production Enhancement operating segment. Our facilities are adequate for our current operations; however, expansion into new facilities or the replacement or modification of existing facilities may be required to accommodate future growth.

See Note 13 - Commitments and Contingencies of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Price Range of Common Stock

Our common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “CLB”.

On January 31, 2024, the closing price, as quoted by the NYSE, was $15.77 per share and there were 46,856,536 shares of common stock issued and outstanding held by approximately 195 record holders. These amounts exclude shares held by us as treasury stock.

See Part III, “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for discussion of equity compensation plans.

Performance Graph

The following performance graph compares the performance of our common stock to the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index and the Philadelphia Oil Service Index (“OSX”) for the period beginning December 31, 2018 and ending December 31, 2023. Core Lab is now an established member of the OSX which includes a greater concentration of our most direct peers.

The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common shares and each index was $100 at December 31, 2018 and that all dividends were reinvested. The stockholder return set forth below is not necessarily indicative of future performance. The following graph and related information is “furnished” and shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) except to the extent that Core Laboratories specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.

img196154354_3.jpg 

22


 

Share Repurchases in the Fourth Quarter of 2023

The following table provides information about our purchases of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the three months ended December 31, 2023:

Period

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased

 

 

Average Price Paid Per Share

 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of a Publicly Announced Program

 

 

Maximum Number of Shares that may be Purchased Under the Program (2)

 

October 1, 2023 to October 31, 2023 (1)

 

 

11,118

 

 

$

23.99

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,672,858

 

November 1, 2023 to November 30, 2023 (1)

 

 

1,134

 

 

$

20.82

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,671,864

 

December 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023 (1)

 

 

84,499

 

 

$

17.67

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,611,835

 

Total

 

 

96,751

 

 

$

18.43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) During the quarter, 96,751 shares were surrendered to us by participants in a stock-based compensation plan to settle any personal tax liabilities which may result from the award.

 

(2) During the quarter, 17,267 treasury shares were distributed relating to stock-based awards, including 13,492 in October, 2,820 in November and 3,775 in December.

 

In connection with our initial public offering in September 1995, prior to the Redomestication Transaction and under Dutch law requirements, our shareholders authorized management to repurchase up to 10% of our issued share capital, for a period of 18 months. This authorization was renewed at subsequent annual or special shareholder meetings. Subsequent to the Redomestication Transaction in May 2023, shareholder approval is not required under U.S. or Delaware law and the repurchase of shares in the open market is at the discretion of our Board of Directors and management.

From the activation of the share repurchase program through December 31, 2023, we have repurchased 40,379,635 shares for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $1.7 billion, or an average price of $41.28 per share. At December 31, 2023, we held 82,021 shares in treasury and have the authority to repurchase 4,611,835 additional shares under our stock repurchase program as described in the preceding paragraph.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Core Laboratories Inc. is a Delaware corporation. We were established in 1936 and are one of the world’s leading providers of proprietary and patented reservoir description and production enhancement services and products to the oil and gas industry, primarily through client relationships with many of the world’s major, national and independent oil companies.

On May 1, 2023, Core Laboratories N.V. completed its previously announced redomestication transaction (the “Redomestication Transaction”), which included (i) the merger (the “Merger”) of Core Laboratories N.V. with and into Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A., a public limited liability company incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg, with Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. surviving, and (ii) following the completion of the Merger, the migration of Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. out of Luxembourg and its domestication as Core Laboratories Inc., a Delaware corporation. As a result of the Redomestication Transaction, all common shares in Core Laboratories N.V. were canceled and exchanged for common stock in Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A. on a one-for-one basis. Former holders of Core Laboratories N.V. common shares now hold one share of common stock of Core Laboratories Inc. (formerly Core Laboratories Luxembourg S.A.) for each Core Laboratories N.V. common share owned immediately prior to the consummation of the Redomestication Transaction, and the business, assets, liabilities, directors and officers of Core Laboratories Inc. became the same as the business, assets, liabilities, directors and officers of Core Laboratories N.V. immediately prior to the Redomestication Transaction. See Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 9 - Income Taxes, Note 11 - Long-Term Debt, net, Note 12 - Pension And Other Postretirement Benefit Plans, Note 14 - Equity, and Note 20 - Earnings Per Share of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Redomestication Transaction.

We operate our business in two segments. These complementary operating segments provide different services and products and utilize different technologies for evaluating and improving reservoir performance and increasing oil and gas recovery from new and existing fields:

Reservoir Description: Encompasses the characterization of petroleum reservoir rock and reservoir fluids samples to increase production and improve recovery of crude oil and natural gas from our clients’ reservoirs. We provide laboratory-based analytical and field services to characterize properties of crude oil and crude oil-derived products to the oil and gas industry. Services associated with these fluids include determining the quality and measuring the quantity of the reservoir fluids and their derived products, such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels. We also provide proprietary and joint industry studies based on these types of analyses and manufacture associated laboratory equipment. In addition, we provide reservoir description capabilities that support various activities associated with energy transition projects, including services that support carbon capture, utilization and storage, geothermal projects, and the evaluation and appraisal of mining activities around lithium and other elements necessary for energy storage.
Production Enhancement: Includes services and manufactured products associated with reservoir well completions, perforations, stimulation, production and well abandonment. We provide integrated diagnostic services to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of well completions and to develop solutions aimed at increasing the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery projects.

General Overview

We provide services as well as design and produce products which enable our clients to evaluate and improve reservoir performance and increase oil and gas recovery from new and existing fields. These services and products are generally in higher demand when our clients are investing capital in their field development programs that are designed to increase productivity from existing fields or when exploring for, appraising and developing new fields. Our clients’ investment in capital expenditure programs tends to correlate over the longer term to oil and natural gas commodity prices. During periods of higher, stable prices, our clients generally invest more in capital expenditures and, during periods of lower or volatile commodity prices, they tend to invest less. Consequently, the level of capital expenditures by our clients impacts the demand for our services and products.

The following table summarizes the annual average and year-end worldwide and U.S. rig counts for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, as well as the annual average and year-end spot price of a barrel of WTI crude, Europe Brent crude and a MMBtu of natural gas:

24


 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Baker Hughes Worldwide Average Rig Count (1)

 

 

1,814

 

 

 

1,747

 

 

 

1,362

 

Baker Hughes U.S. Average Rig Count (1)

 

 

689

 

 

 

721

 

 

 

475

 

Baker Hughes U.S. Land-based Average Rig Count (1)

 

 

670

 

 

 

706

 

 

 

461

 

Baker Hughes Worldwide Year-End Rig Count (2)

 

 

1,739

 

 

 

1,835

 

 

 

1,563

 

Baker Hughes U.S. Year-End Rig Count (2)

 

 

623

 

 

 

780

 

 

 

579

 

Baker Hughes U.S. Land-based Year-End Rig Count (2)

 

 

603

 

 

 

763

 

 

 

565

 

Average Crude Oil Price per Barrel WTI (3)

 

$

77.58

 

 

$

94.90

 

 

$

68.14

 

Average Crude Oil Price per Barrel Brent (4)

 

$

82.49

 

 

$

100.93

 

 

$

70.86

 

Average Natural Gas Price per MMBtu (5)

 

$

2.52

 

 

$

6.45

 

 

$

3.89

 

Year-end Crude Oil Price per Barrel WTI (3)

 

$

71.89

 

 

$

80.16

 

 

$

75.33

 

Year-end Crude Oil Price per Barrel Brent (4)

 

$

77.69

 

 

$

82.82

 

 

$

77.24

 

Year-end Natural Gas Price per MMBtu (5)

 

$

2.58

 

 

$

3.52

 

 

$

3.82

 

(1) Twelve month average rig count as reported by Baker Hughes - Worldwide Rig Count.

 

(2) Year-end rig count as reported by Baker Hughes - Worldwide Rig Count.

 

(3) Average daily and year-end West Texas Intermediate ("WTI") crude spot price as reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration ("EIA").

 

(4) Average daily and year-end Europe Brent crude spot price as reported by the EIA.

 

(5) Average daily and year-end Henry Hub natural gas spot price as reported by the EIA.

 

In general, activities associated with the exploration of oil and gas in the U.S. onshore market are more sensitive to changes in the crude-oil commodity prices, as opposed to larger international and offshore projects which take multiple years to plan and develop, and once announced and started, will continue through completion, despite changes in the current price of crude oil. In 2021, crude-oil prices recovered from the previous year with more significant improvement during the second half of 2021, as growth in production was not keeping pace with the resurgence in consumer demand. Subsequently, the geopolitical conflict between Russia and Ukraine that erupted in February 2022, caused disruptions to traditional maritime supply chains associated with the movement of crude oil, initially reducing the level of crude oil sourced from Russia and being imported into various European ports. The disruptions to traditional maritime supply chains of crude oil and derived products, such as diesel fuel, and associated sanctions imposed on maritime exports of these products out of Russia caused significant volatility in both the prices and trading patterns of these products during 2022 and into 2023. As a result, average crude-oil prices were elevated during 2022, but have since decreased and moderated in 2023. The maritime supply chains associated with the movement of crude oil have continued to realign and stabilize throughout 2023, which has reduced some of the volatility in crude-oil prices.

Core Lab expects crude-oil supply lines to remain more stable, although the recent conflict that erupted in the Middle East has resulted in additional disruptions in the movement and trading of crude oil which still continue. The Company's volume of associated laboratory services is expected to be commensurate with the trading and movement of crude-oil into Europe, the Middle East, Asia and across the globe. However, the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom and other countries may implement additional sanctions, export controls or other measures against Russia, Belarus and other countries, regions, officials, individuals or industries in the respective territories. We have no way to predict the progress or outcome of these events, and any resulting government responses are fluid and beyond our control. According to the latest International Energy Agency’s report, the current global demand for crude oil and natural gas remains at a high level though the growth momentum is expected to slow down in 2024 due to further weakening of the macroeconomic climate, as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth stays below trend in major economies, including China.

Coming out of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. land drilling and completion activities improved during 2021 and strengthened throughout 2022, however, activity decreased during 2023. Since April 2023, the U.S. land-based rig count has continuously declined resulting in a 21% reduction at the end of 2023 compared to 2022, as some drilling operators cut back new drilling projects.

Information published by the EIA, shows that the inventory of wells drilled but uncompleted (a “DUC” well) in the U.S., was 5,099 as of December 31, 2021, and declined to 4,577 and 4,374 at end of 2022 and 2023, respectively. This data indicates that during the period of higher activity, operators were drilling wells but not completing them as the DUC inventory grew. As activity levels began to decline, operators began to drill fewer new wells and were completing some of the wells that had been previously drilled but not completed. As drilling and completion activity levels began to recover in the second half of 2021, which continued in 2022 and 2023, the number of wells completed continued to outpace the number of new wells drilled during these periods.

In the U.S., the average land-based rig count increased approximately 53% from 2021 to 2022 as drilling activity accelerated due to the recovery from the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in 2023, U.S. land drilling activity decreased as natural gas prices declined significantly and efficiencies gains in drilling and completing wells allowed operators

25


 

to complete their 2023 drilling programs ahead of schedule. This resulted in the U.S. land-based rig count decreasing approximately 21% at the end of 2023 from the end of 2022, as discussed above. Demand for product sales and associated services will typically change in tandem with the changes in the rig count and associated drilling and completion activity.

Outside of the U.S., activities associated with the exploration for, and production of, oil also showed an increase in 2022 and 2023 as international markets recovered from the global pandemic as reflected by an increase of 16% and 10%, respectively, in the average number of active rigs outside the United States. Long-term international and offshore projects which are commonly announced through Final Investment Decisions and subsequently initiated are not as susceptible or at-risk to delay or suspension due to short-term volatility in crude-oil commodity prices. The Company has maintained its annual capital expenditures between $10.0 million and $13.5 million during the years 2021, 2022 and 2023, which is significantly reduced from average annual capital expenditures in years prior to the pandemic.

Results of Operations

Operating Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to the Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

We evaluate our operating results by analyzing revenue, operating income and operating income margin (defined as operating income divided by total revenue). Since we have a relatively fixed cost structure, decreases in revenue generally translate into lower operating income results. Results for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are summarized in the following chart.

 

img196154354_4.jpg 

 

26


 

Results of operations as a percentage of applicable revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are as follows (in thousands, except for per share information):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2023 / 2022

 

 

2022 / 2021

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

% Change

 

REVENUE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Services

 

$

371,914

 

 

73.0

%

 

$

346,974

 

 

70.8

%

 

$

344,342

 

 

73.2

%

 

 

7.2

%

 

 

0.8

%

Product sales

 

 

137,876

 

 

27.0

%

 

 

142,761

 

 

29.2

%

 

 

125,910

 

 

26.8

%

 

 

(3.4

)%

 

 

13.4

%

Total revenue

 

 

509,790

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

489,735

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

470,252

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

4.1

%

 

 

4.1

%

OPERATING EXPENSES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of services* (1)

 

 

282,135

 

 

75.9

%

 

 

274,297

 

 

79.1

%

 

 

267,641

 

 

77.7

%

 

 

2.9

%

 

 

2.5

%

Cost of product sales* (1)

 

 

117,822

 

 

85.5

%

 

 

119,358

 

 

83.6

%

 

 

100,255

 

 

79.6

%

 

 

(1.3

)%

 

 

19.1

%

Total cost of services and product
   sales

 

 

399,957

 

 

78.5

%

 

 

393,655

 

 

80.4

%

 

 

367,896

 

 

78.2

%

 

 

1.6

%

 

 

7.0

%

General and administrative expense (1)

 

 

40,259

 

 

7.9

%

 

 

38,117

 

 

7.8

%

 

 

44,173

 

 

9.4

%

 

 

5.6

%

 

 

(13.7

)%

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

15,784

 

 

3.1

%

 

 

17,161

 

 

3.5

%

 

 

18,516

 

 

3.9

%

 

 

(8.0

)%

 

 

(7.3

)%

Other (income) expense, net

 

 

(850

)

 

(0.2

)%

 

 

(722

)

 

(0.1

)%

 

 

(5,595

)

 

(1.2

)%

 

NM

 

 

NM

 

OPERATING INCOME

 

 

54,640

 

 

10.7

%

 

 

41,524

 

 

8.5

%

 

 

45,262

 

 

9.6

%

 

 

31.6

%

 

 

(8.3

)%

Interest expense

 

 

13,430

 

 

2.6

%

 

 

11,570

 

 

2.4

%

 

 

9,152

 

 

1.9

%

 

 

16.1

%

 

 

26.4

%

Income before income taxes

 

 

41,210

 

 

8.1

%

 

 

29,954

 

 

6.1

%

 

 

36,110

 

 

7.7

%

 

 

37.6

%

 

 

(17.0

)%

Income tax expense

 

 

4,185

 

 

0.8

%

 

 

10,296

 

 

2.1

%

 

 

15,891

 

 

3.4

%

 

 

(59.4

)%

 

 

(35.2

)%

Net income

 

 

37,025

 

 

7.3

%

 

 

19,658

 

 

4.0

%

 

 

20,219

 

 

4.3

%

 

 

88.3

%

 

 

(2.8

)%

Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

 

350

 

 

0.1

%

 

 

205

 

 

 

 

 

492

 

 

0.1

%

 

NM

 

 

NM

 

Net income attributable to Core Laboratories Inc.

 

$

36,675

 

 

7.2

%

 

$

19,453

 

 

4.0

%

 

$

19,727

 

 

4.2

%

 

 

88.5

%

 

 

(1.4

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per share

 

$

0.78

 

 

 

 

$

0.42

 

 

 

 

$

0.43

 

 

 

 

 

85.7

%

 

 

(2.3

)%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Core Laboratories Inc.

 

$

0.77

 

 

 

 

$

0.42

 

 

 

 

$

0.42

 

 

 

 

 

83.3

%

 

 

0.0

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding

 

 

47,523

 

 

 

 

 

46,813

 

 

 

 

 

46,690

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current ratio (2)

 

2.53:1

 

 

 

 

2.05:1

 

 

 

 

2.08:1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debt to EBITDA ratio (3)

 

2.11:1

 

 

 

 

2.68:1

 

 

 

 

2.70:1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio (4)

 

1.76:1

 

 

 

 

2.29:1

 

 

 

 

2.08:1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* Percentage based on applicable revenue rather than total revenue.

 

"NM" means not meaningful.

 

(1) Excludes depreciation.

 

(2) Current ratio is calculated as follows: current assets divided by current liabilities.

 

(3) Debt to EBITDA ratio is calculated as follows: debt less cash divided by the sum of consolidated net income plus interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.

 

(4) Debt to Adjusted EBITDA ratio is calculated as follows: debt less cash divided by the sum of consolidated net income plus interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, severance, and certain non-cash adjustments.

 

Service Revenue

Service revenue is primarily tied to activities associated with the exploration, production, movement and refinement of oil, gas and derived products outside the U.S. Service revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $371.9 million, an increase of 7% compared to 2022. The increase was due to growth in activity levels in both U.S. and international markets. Over 70% of service revenue is generated from international markets. In 2023, growth occurred in several international markets including the recovery of services in the European region. The Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflict that began in February 2022, initially disrupted supply chains and logistic patterns of maritime transportation of crude oil and derived products, which realigned and stabilized in 2023. The increase in U.S. operations benefited from growing client activity for our reservoir core and reservoir fluids analysis services on projects from across the globe that are often conducted in our advanced technology center located in Houston, Texas, as well as a growing demand for CCS projects. Service revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, was $347.0 million, relatively flat compared to 2021. Disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic started to ease, and demand for crude oil progressively increased during 2022, however, the growth was offset by the disruptions caused by the Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflict. Additionally, as indicated above, over 70% of service revenue is generated from international markets, though our customer contracts are primarily denominated in U.S. Dollars, there are certain customer contracts denominated in foreign currencies. Therefore, the devaluation of most major currencies against the U.S. Dollar, mainly the Euro and British Pound, adversely impacted the growth of service revenue during the year ended December 31, 2022.

27


 

Product Sales Revenue

Product sales revenue, which is equally tied to the completion of onshore wells in the U.S. and international activities, for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $137.9 million, a decrease of 3% compared to 2022. The decline in our product sales revenue is primarily associated with the activity decline in the U.S. onshore market, where the U.S. land rig count decreased 21% at the end of 2023 from the end of 2022. Additionally, one large international product sale in 2022, did not repeat in 2023. Product sales to international markets are typically shipped and delivered in bulk and the timing of delivery can vary from one period to another. Product sales revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, was $142.8 million, an increase of 13% compared to 2021. The increase in product sales, which primarily include differentiated well completion products and specialized laboratory instrumentation, was attributable to growth in both the U.S. and international markets.

Cost of Services, excluding depreciation

Cost of services for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $282.1 million, an increase of 3% compared to 2022, which corresponded to the change in service revenue. Cost of services for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $274.3 million, an increase of 2% compared to 2021, which corresponded with the change in service revenue. Additionally, during 2022 the restoration of substantially all employee compensation and benefit costs resulted in a higher employee compensation cost. Cost of services expressed as a percentage of service revenue improved to 76% in 2023 from 79% in 2022. Improvement in cost of services as a percentage of service revenue in 2023, was primarily associated with improved utilization of our global laboratory network on higher revenue. Cost of services expressed as a percentage of service revenue increased to approximately 79% in 2022 from 78% in 2021, primarily due to the effect of restoration of employee compensation costs as discussed above.

Cost of Product Sales, excluding depreciation

Cost of product sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $117.8 million, a decrease of 1% compared to 2022, which corresponded to the decrease in product sales revenue. Cost of product sales for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $119.4 million, an increase of 19% compared to 2021, which increased slightly higher than the change in revenue. The increase of costs in 2022, is associated with the restoration of substantially all employee compensation and benefit costs during the year, as discussed above. In addition, inflation and global supply chain challenges resulted in higher cost of raw materials and shipping increasing the costs of product sales in 2023 and 2022. Cost of product sales expressed as a percentage of product sales revenue increased to approximately 86% in 2023 from 84% in 2022, was primarily due to inflation in material costs throughout 2023 and higher absorption of fixed costs on a lower revenue base. Cost of product sales expressed as a percentage of product sales revenue increased to approximately 84% in 2022 from 80% in 2021, as a result of elevated inflation and increased employee compensation as discussed above.

General and Administrative Expense, excluding depreciation

General and administrative (“G&A”) expense includes corporate management and centralized administrative services that benefit our operations. G&A expense was $40.3 million in 2023, an increase of 6% or $2.1 million, was primarily due to 1) the recognition of additional stock compensation expense of $6.5 million in 2023, compared to $3.9 million in 2022, which was associated with the accelerated stock compensation expense for retirement eligible employees; and 2) the reversal of stock compensation expense previously recognized as the performance conditions associated with the performance share awards were determined to be unachievable in the amount of $1.1 million in 2023 compared to $3.3 million in 2022. These increases were partially offset by: 1) a net gain of $2.0 million from the company owned life insurance policies associated with death benefit proceeds in 2023; and 2) investment gains on company owned life insurance policies in 2023 compared to losses in 2022. G&A expense was $38.1 million in 2022, decreased 14% or $6.1 million compared to 2021. The decrease is primarily due to changes in compensation expense during the period and includes accelerated stock compensation expense recorded for retirement eligible employees of $3.9 million in 2022 compared to $7.2 million in 2021. Additionally, in 2022, an adjustment was recorded to reverse $3.3 million of previously recognized compensation expense as discussed above. The reduction in stock compensation expense was partially offset by the restoration of employee compensation and benefit costs during 2022. See Note 17 - Stock-Based Compensation of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.

Depreciation and Amortization

Depreciation and amortization expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $15.8 million, a decrease from $17.2 million and $18.5 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively, and are associated with lower capital expenditures in 2021 through 2023.

28


 

Other (Income) Expense, net

The components of other (income) expense, net are as follows (in thousands):

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Gain on sale of assets

 

$

(200

)

 

$

(1,068

)

 

$

(427

)

Results of non-consolidated subsidiaries

 

 

(394

)

 

 

(294

)

 

 

(62

)

Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net

 

 

176

 

 

 

229

 

 

 

(228

)

Rents and royalties

 

 

(698

)

 

 

(709

)

 

 

(571

)

Return on pension assets and other pension costs

 

 

(1,365

)

 

 

(545

)

 

 

(306

)

Loss on lease abandonment and other exit costs

 

 

1,146

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets write-down

 

 

1,143

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ATM termination costs

 

 

455

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insurance and other settlements

 

 

(604

)

 

 

(669

)

 

 

(2,236

)

Severance and other charges

 

 

 

 

 

3,332

 

 

 

 

Gain on sale of business

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1,012

)

Other, net

 

 

(509

)

 

 

(998

)

 

 

(753

)

Total other (income) expense, net

 

$

(850

)

 

$

(722

)

 

$

(5,595

)

In 2022, we sold our ownership interest in mineral rights of certain properties for a net gain of $0.7 million which is included in gain on sale of assets.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we abandoned certain leases in the U.S. and Canada and incurred costs of $1.1 million. We integrated and relocated these facilities and wrote down related leasehold improvements and right of use assets of $1.1 million.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, we wrote off previously deferred costs of $0.5 million upon termination of our 2022 ATM Program. See Note 14 - Equity for additional information.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the State of Louisiana expropriated the access road to one of our facilities and paid us a settlement of $0.6 million. The North America mid-continent winter storm in February 2021 caused business interruptions and property losses to certain facilities, and we received insurance settlements of $0.7 million and $1.6 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. We incurred property and other losses in a fire incident that occurred in 2020 for which we received full and final insurance settlement of $0.6 million in 2021.

Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net is summarized in the following table (in thousands):

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Angolan Kwanza

 

$

188

 

 

$

(2

)

 

$

(36

)

Australian Dollar

 

 

81

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

113

 

British Pound

 

 

(408

)

 

 

212

 

 

 

86

 

Canadian Dollar

 

 

156

 

 

 

238

 

 

 

77

 

Colombian Peso

 

 

92

 

 

 

(430

)

 

 

(281

)

Euro

 

 

438

 

 

 

(382

)

 

 

(450

)

Indonesian Rupiah

 

 

82

 

 

 

379

 

 

 

123

 

Norwegian Krone

 

 

103

 

 

 

(31

)

 

 

12

 

Russian Ruble

 

 

(375

)

 

 

35

 

 

 

(16

)

Turkish Lira

 

 

(472

)

 

 

114

 

 

 

47

 

Other currencies, net

 

 

291

 

 

 

87

 

 

 

97

 

Foreign exchange (gain) loss, net

 

$

176

 

 

$

229

 

 

$

(228

)

Interest Expense

Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $13.4 million compared to $11.6 million and $9.2 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. Although the Company reduced its outstanding debt in 2023 when compared to 2022, interest expense was higher in 2023 primarily due to: 1) rising interest rates on our aggregated variable rate debt during these periods, and 2) replacement of the 2011 Senior Notes of $75 million with fixed rate of 4.11% that matured in September 2023, by the

29


 

2023 Senior Notes of $50 million with higher fixed rates of 7.25% to 7.50%. See Note 11 - Long-term Debt, net of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail. Interest expense was also affected by changes associated with our interest rate swap agreements, as described in Note 15 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Income Tax Expense

Income tax expense was $4.2 million in 2023 and resulted in an effective tax rate of 10.2%. The 2023 tax expense was primarily impacted by the reversal of deferred tax liabilities of $11.6 million associated with the Redomestication Transaction, partially offset by the geographic mix of earnings. Income tax expense was $10.3 million in 2022 and resulted in an effective tax rate of 34.4%. The 2022 tax expense was primarily impacted by taxable gains in local jurisdictions associated with foreign currency revaluation of U.S. dollar denominated receivables, primarily in the United Kingdom and Turkey, and certain non-deductible stock compensation expense in the United States.

See Note 9 - Income Taxes of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail of income tax expense.

Segment Analysis

The following charts and tables summarize the annual revenue and operating results as a percentage of applicable revenue for our two complementary operating segments.

Segment Revenue

img196154354_5.jpgimg196154354_6.jpgimg196154354_7.jpg 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2023 / 2022

 

 

2022 / 2021

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

% Change

 

REVENUE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reservoir Description

 

$

333,345

 

 

65.4

%

 

$

307,691

 

 

62.8

%

 

$

313,609

 

 

66.7

%

 

 

8.3

%

 

 

(1.9

)%

Production Enhancement

 

 

176,445

 

 

34.6

%

 

 

182,044

 

 

37.2

%

 

 

156,643

 

 

33.3

%

 

 

(3.1

)%

 

 

16.2

%

Total revenue

 

$

509,790

 

 

100.0

%

 

$

489,735

 

 

100.0

%

 

$

470,252

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

4.1

%

 

 

4.1

%

OPERATING INCOME:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reservoir Description*

 

$

41,039

 

 

12.3

%

 

$

22,902

 

 

7.4

%

 

$

28,958

 

 

9.2

%

 

 

79.2

%

 

 

(20.9

)%

Production Enhancement*

 

 

12,519

 

 

7.1

%

 

 

16,351

 

 

9.0

%

 

 

15,163

 

 

9.7

%

 

 

(23.4

)%

 

 

7.8

%

Corporate and other (1)

 

 

1,082

 

 

0.2

%

 

 

2,271

 

 

0.5

%

 

 

1,141

 

 

0.2

%

 

NM

 

 

NM

 

OPERATING INCOME

 

$

54,640

 

 

10.7

%

 

$

41,524

 

 

8.5

%

 

$

45,262

 

 

9.6

%

 

 

31.6

%

 

 

(8.3

)%

* Percentage, which represents operating margin, is based on operating income divided by applicable revenue rather than total revenue.

“NM” means not meaningful.

(1) “Corporate and other” represents those items that are not directly relating to a particular operating segment.

Reservoir Description

Reservoir Description operations are closely correlated with trends in international and offshore activity levels, with approximately 80% of its revenue sourced from producing fields, development projects and movement of crude oil and derived products outside the U.S. The Company continues to see improvement in international projects across several international

30


 

regions; however, increases in project activity were partially offset by disruptions in the maritime movement and logistical trading patterns for crude oil and derived products, caused by the Russia-Ukraine and Middle East geopolitical conflicts.

Revenue from the Reservoir Description operating segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $333.3 million, an increase of 8% compared to 2022. The increased revenue in 2023 is primarily due to growing client activity for our reservoir core and reservoir fluids analysis services on projects in several regions across the globe, as well a growing demand for CCS projects. Additionally, crude assay services associated with the maritime movement of crude oil and derived products improved in 2023, which were impacted by the Russia-Ukraine conflict, as discussed above. Revenue from the Reservoir Description operating segment was $307.7 million in 2022, down slightly when compared to $313.6 million in 2021. Revenue associated with certain customer contracts denominated in foreign currencies was adversely impacted by the devaluation of most major currencies against the U.S. Dollar, mainly the Euro and British Pound. Additionally, 2022 revenue was adversely impacted by disruptions caused by the Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflict in February 2022, as discussed above.

Operating income for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $41.0 million, an increase of 79% compared to 2022. Operating margins increased to 12.3% in 2023 from 7.4% in 2022. The increase in operating income and operating margins in 2023 is primarily due to the incremental revenue of $25.7 million in 2023 and the improved utilization of our global laboratory network. Operating income in 2022 was $22.9 million, a decrease of 21% compared to 2021. Operating margins decreased to 7.4% in 2022 compared to 9.2% in 2021. The decrease in operating income and operating margin in 2022, correlates to the decrease in revenue and the decrease in operating margins reflect the increase in costs during 2022, associated with the Company restoring employee compensation costs and benefits and disruption in services and operational inefficiencies caused by the Russia-Ukraine conflict, as previously discussed.

Production Enhancement

Production Enhancement’s operations are largely focused on complex completions in unconventional, tight-oil reservoirs in the U.S. as well as conventional projects across the globe. During the year 2022, U.S. onshore drilling and completion activities continued to increase through mid-November, and subsequently had a typical seasonal decline at the end of the year. As 2023 began, U.S. onshore drilling and completion activities began to increase but peaked in April of 2023, and have since declined through the end of 2023. The decline in drilling and completion activity is due to the weakening of natural gas commodity prices in 2023, and some consolidation transactions of oil and gas operating companies. Additionally, operating companies reduced activity later in the year as they were ahead of schedule in their annual drilling programs due to efficiencies gained in drilling and completing wells. Operators have remained disciplined with their annual plans and remain focused on return of investment versus growing production. As a result, rig count in the U.S. land market at the end of 2023 declined by 21% compared to 2022.

Revenue from the Production Enhancement operating segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $176.4 million, a decrease of 3% compared to 2022, primarily due to the decrease in drilling and completion activities in the U.S. land market as discussed above. Revenue from the Production Enhancement operating segment was $182.0 million in 2022, an increase of 16% compared to 2021. In 2022, the increase was driven by both an increase in the drilling and completion of onshore wells in the U.S. and improved activity in international markets. International sales continue to be impacted by challenges in the global supply chains and logistical challenges that caused delays in delivery of our products to certain international locations.

Operating income for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $12.5 million, a decrease of 23%. Operating margins decreased to 7.1% in 2023 from 9.0% in 2022. The decrease in operating income and operating margin in 2023, correlates to the decrease in revenue and higher absorption of fixed costs on a lower revenue base, as well as continued inflationary impact on materials and shipping costs. Operating income was $16.4 million in 2022 compared to $15.2 million in 2021. The increase in operating income correlates to the increase in revenue, however, operating costs in 2022 increased due to the restoration of employee compensation and benefit costs and the inflationary impact on our raw materials and shipping costs. Operating margin of 9.0% in 2022 decreased from 9.7% in 2021 primarily due to the increase in costs as discussed above.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

General

We have historically financed our activities through cash on hand, cash flows from operations, bank credit facilities, equity financing and the issuance of debt. Cash flows from operating activities provide the primary source of funds to finance our operating needs, capital expenditures, dividends and share repurchase program. Our ability to maintain and grow our operating income and cash flow depends, to a large extent, on continued investing activities. We believe our future cash flows from operations, supplemented by our borrowing capacity and the ability to issue additional equity and debt, should be sufficient to

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fund our debt requirements, working capital, capital expenditures, dividends, share repurchase program and future acquisitions. The Company will continue to monitor and evaluate the availability of debt and equity markets.

We were a holding company incorporated in the Netherlands, and after the Redomestication Transaction completed in May 2023, we are a holding company incorporated in Delaware. Therefore, we conduct substantially all of our operations through our subsidiaries. Our cash availability is largely dependent upon the ability of our subsidiaries to pay cash dividends or otherwise distribute or advance funds to us and on the terms and conditions of our existing and future credit arrangements. There are no restrictions preventing any of our subsidiaries from repatriating earnings, except for the unrepatriated earnings of our Russian subsidiary which are not expected to be distributed in the foreseeable future, and there are no restrictions or income taxes associated with distributing cash to the parent company through loans or advances. As of December 31, 2023, substantially all of our $15.1 million of cash was held by our foreign subsidiaries.

The Company continues to maintain a quarterly dividend of $0.01 per share.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes cash flows (in thousands):

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Cash provided by (used in):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

 

$

24,789

 

 

$

24,956

 

 

$

36,579

 

Investing activities

 

 

(6,652

)

 

 

(3,856

)

 

 

(10,223

)

Financing activities

 

 

(18,445

)

 

 

(23,375

)

 

 

(22,459

)

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

 

$

(308

)

 

$

(2,275

)

 

$

3,897

 

Comparing the year ended December 31, 2023 to the year ended December 31, 2022, net income increased $17.4 million, however, cash provided by operating activities was relatively flat between these periods. Net income for the year ended December 31, 2023 includes a non-cash tax benefit of approximately $11.6 million associated with the Company’s Redomestication Transaction, partially offset by a decrease of $3.3 million in net deferred tax assets, and non-cash investment gains of $5.0 million in 2023 compared to non-cash losses of $5.1 million and a decrease in other non-cash items of $0.5 million in 2022.

Comparing the year ended December 31, 2022 to the year ended December 31, 2021, net income decreased $0.6 million while cash flows provided by operating activities decreased by $11.6 million. Cash taxes paid increased in 2022 by $5.0 million and we were building higher levels of inventory.

Cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 of $6.7 million was driven primarily by funding capital expenditures of $10.6 million offset by $3.4 million of net proceeds received on company owned life insurance policies and $0.5 million of proceeds from sales of assets. Cash used by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 of $3.9 million was primarily due to funding capital expenditures of $10.2 million, offset by $2.1 million of proceeds received from sale of assets and net proceeds of $4.2 million received from insurance and company-owned life insurance policies. Cash used by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 of $10.2 million was primarily due to capital expenditures of $13.5 million, offset by $1.6 million of proceeds received from sales of assets and $2.1 million net proceeds received from insurance and company-owned life insurance policies.

Cash used in financing activities in 2023 of $18.4 million was primarily due to: 1) a net reduction in debt of $9.0 million, 2) debt issuance costs of $1.3 million primarily associated with the issuance of the 2023 Senior Notes, 3) cash paid for costs incurred in the Redomestication Transaction of $4.1 million, 4) dividends paid of $1.9 million, and 5) repurchase of common stock of $2.2 million. Cash used in financing activities in 2022 of $23.4 million was primarily due to: 1) a net reduction in debt of $15.0 million, 2) debt issuance costs incurred of $2.2 million associated with renewing our credit facility in 2022, 3) dividends paid of $1.9 million, and 4) repurchase of common stock of $3.9 million. Cash used in financing activities in 2021 was as a result of: 1) a net reduction in debt of $71.0 million, which was partially paid by $59.1 million of net proceeds received from the issuance of common stock under the 2020 ATM Program, 2) dividends paid of $1.8 million, and 3) the repurchase of our common stock of $8.3 million.

During 2023, we repurchased 113,792 shares of our common stock for an aggregate amount of $2.2 million, or an average price of $19.35 per share. See Note 14 - Equity of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. We believe our share repurchase program has been beneficial to our shareholders over the longer term. Our share price has increased from $4.03 per share in 2002, when we began to repurchase shares, to $17.66 per share on December 31,

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2023, an increase exceeding 300%. The 1% stock buyback excise tax may apply to the shares repurchased under our share purchase program. The amount subject to the excise tax generally is the fair market value of stock repurchased by us net of the fair market value of any stock issued by us during such taxable year.

We utilize the non-GAAP financial measure of free cash flow to evaluate our cash flows and results of operations. Free cash flow is defined as net cash provided by operating activities (which is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure) less cash paid for capital expenditures. Management believes that free cash flow provides useful information to investors regarding the cash available in the period that was in excess of our needs to fund our capital expenditures and operating activities. Free cash flow is not a measure of operating performance under U.S. GAAP and should not be considered in isolation nor construed as an alternative to operating income, net income or cash flows from operating, investing or financing activities, each as determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Free cash flow does not represent residual cash available for distribution because we may have other non-discretionary expenditures that are not deducted from the measure. Moreover, since free cash flow is not a measure determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP and thus is susceptible to varying interpretations and calculations, free cash flow, as presented, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. The following table reconciles this non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP (in thousands):

 

 

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

Free Cash Flow Calculation

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

 

$

24,789

 

 

$

24,956

 

 

$

36,579

 

Less: cash paid for capital expenditures

 

 

(10,579

)

 

 

(10,216

)

 

 

(13,539

)

Free cash flow

 

$

14,210

 

 

$

14,740

 

 

$

23,040

 

Free cash flow decreased slightly by $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to a slightly higher level of capital spending in 2023.

Senior Notes, Credit Facility and Available Future Liquidity

We, along with our wholly owned subsidiary Core Laboratories (U.S.) Interests Holdings, Inc. (“CLIH”) as issuer, have senior notes that were issued through private placement transactions. Additionally, we, along with CLIH, have a secured credit facility, the Eighth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (as amended, the “Credit Facility”) for an aggregate borrowing commitment of $135.0 million with a $50.0 million “accordion” feature. As of December 31, 2023, the Credit Facility has an available borrowing capacity of approximately $69.1 million.

These debt instruments are summarized in the following table (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Interest Rate

 

Maturity Date

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

2011 Senior Notes Series B(1)

4.11%

 

September 30, 2023

 

$

 

 

$

75,000

 

2021 Senior Notes Series A(2)

4.09%

 

January 12, 2026

 

 

45,000

 

 

 

45,000

 

2021 Senior Notes Series B(2)

4.38%

 

January 12, 2028

 

 

15,000

 

 

 

15,000

 

2023 Senior Notes Series A(3)

7.25%

 

June 28, 2028

 

 

25,000

 

 

 

 

2023 Senior Notes Series B(3)

7.50%

 

June 28, 2030

 

 

25,000

 

 

 

 

Credit Facility