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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________________________________
FORM 20-F

  Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or (g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
or
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
  Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                           to                          
or
  Shell company report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report:                          
Commission file number: 1-14832
___________________________________________________________________
CELESTICA INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ontario, Canada
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7
(Address of principal executive offices)
Craig Oberg
416-448-2211
clsir@celestica.com
5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
___________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES REGISTERED OR TO BE REGISTERED
PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
Title of each class:Trading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered:
Subordinate Voting SharesCLSThe Toronto Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
___________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES REGISTERED OR TO BE REGISTERED
PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:
N/A
__________________________________________________________________
SECURITIES FOR WHICH THERE IS A REPORTING OBLIGATION
PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(d) OF THE ACT:
N/A
___________________________________________________________________
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
106,111,146Subordinate Voting Shares0Preference Shares
  18,600,193 Multiple Voting Shares 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Large accelerated filer ☒                                     Accelerated filer ☐                                    Non-accelerated filer ☐      Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
†The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP ☐                       International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒                        Other ☐
If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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B.
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D.
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Compensation
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D.
E.
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B.
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D.
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i


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ii


Part I.
        In this Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 (referred to herein as "this Annual Report"), "Celestica," the "Corporation," the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Celestica Inc. and its subsidiaries.
        In this Annual Report, the United States is referred to as the "U.S.," and all dollar amounts are expressed in U.S. dollars, except where we state otherwise. All references to "U.S.$" or "$" are to U.S. dollars and all references to "C$" are to Canadian dollars. Unless we indicate otherwise, any reference in this Annual Report to a conversion between U.S.$ and C$ is a conversion at the average of the exchange rates in effect for the year ended December 31, 2021. During that period, based on the relevant noon buying rates in New York City for cable transfers in Canadian dollars, as certified for customs purposes by the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, the average daily exchange rate was U.S.$1.00 = C$1.2533.
        Unless we indicate otherwise, all information in this Annual Report is stated as of February 22, 2022.
Forward-Looking Statements
Item 3(D), "Key Information — Risk Factors," Item 4, "Information on the Company," Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" and other sections of this Annual Report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the U.S. Securities Act, Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the U.S. Exchange Act, and forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws (collectively, forward-looking statements), including, without limitation, statements related to: anticipated and potential adverse impacts resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 and related mutations (COVID-19); our priorities, intended areas of focus, targets, objectives and goals (including, but not limited to, those set forth under the caption "Celestica's Strategy" in Item 4(B), and the captions "Operating Goals and Priorities" and "Our Strategy" in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects"); trends in the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry and our segments (and/or their constituent businesses), and their anticipated impact; the anticipated impact of current market conditions in each of our segments (and/or constituent businesses) and near-term expectations (positive and negative); anticipated restructuring and potential divestiture actions; our anticipated financial and/or operating results and outlook; our strategies; our credit risk; the anticipated impact of acquisitions (including the acquisition of PCI Private Limited (PCI)), and program wins, transfers, losses or disengagements; materials, component and supply chain constraints; shipping delays; anticipated expenses, capital expenditures and other working capital requirements and contractual obligations; our intended repatriation of certain undistributed earnings from foreign subsidiaries (and amounts we do not intend to repatriate in the foreseeable future); diversity and inclusion; the potential impact of tax and litigation outcomes; our ability to use certain tax losses; intended investments in our business; the potential impact of the pace of technological changes, customer outsourcing, program transfers, and the global economic environment; the intended method of funding subordinate voting share (SVS) repurchases and our restructuring provision; the lease for our temporary and new corporate headquarters; Toronto transition costs; the impact of our outstanding indebtedness; liquidity and the sufficiency of our capital resources; our intention (when in our discretion) to settle outstanding equity awards with SVS; our financial statement estimates and assumptions; recently-issued accounting pronouncements and amendments; the potential impact of price reductions and longer payment terms; our compliance with covenants under our credit facility; refinancing debt at maturity; interest rates and expense; the potential adverse impacts of events outside of our control, including, among others: U.S. policies or legislation, U.S. and global tax reform; product/component tariffs on items imported into the U.S. and related countermeasures, and/or the impact of, in addition to COVID-19, other widespread illness or disease (External Events); mandatory prepayments under our credit facility; pension plan funding requirements and the impact of annuity purchases; our income tax incentives; the anticipated impact of COVID-19-related governmental relief measures; accounts payable cash flow levels; expectations with respect to cash deposits; accounts receivable sales; internal relocation costs; our cash generating units with goodwill; our future warranty obligations; cybersecurity threats and incidents; our intentions with respect to environmental assessments for newly-leased or acquired properties; our expectations with respect to expiring leases; interest rate swap agreements; the pay-for-performance alignment of our executive compensation program; our intention to retain earnings for general corporate purposes; the timing of finalization of the PCI purchase price allocation and net working capital adjustment; increases in intangible asset amortization; and costs in connection with our pursuit of acquisitions and strategic transactions. Such forward-looking statements may, without limitation, be preceded by, followed by, or include words such as "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans," "continues," "target," "project," "potential," "possible," "contemplate," "seek," or similar expressions, or may employ such future or conditional verbs as "may," "might," "will," "could," "should" or "would," or may otherwise be indicated as forward-looking statements by grammatical construction, phrasing or context. For those statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, where applicable, and applicable Canadian securities laws.

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Forward-looking statements are provided to assist readers in understanding management's current expectations and plans relating to the future. Readers are cautioned that such information may not be appropriate for other purposes. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements, including, among others, as is described in more detail in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report, risks related to:

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
customer and segment concentration; challenges of replacing revenue from completed, lost or non-renewed programs or customer disengagements;
price, margin pressures, and other competitive factors and adverse market conditions affecting, and the highly competitive nature of, the EMS industry in general and our segments in particular (including the risk that anticipated market improvements do not materialize);
delays in the delivery and availability of components, services and materials, as well as their costs and quality;
our customers' ability to compete and succeed using our products and services;
changes in our mix of customers and/or the types of products or services we provide, including negative impacts of higher concentrations of lower margin programs;
managing changes in customer demand;
rapidly evolving and changing technologies, and changes in our customers' business or outsourcing strategies;
the cyclical and volatile nature of our semiconductor business;
the expansion or consolidation of our operations;
the inability to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce;
defects or deficiencies in our products, services or designs;
volatility in the commercial aerospace industry;
integrating and achieving the anticipated benefits from acquisitions (including our acquisition of PCI) and "operate-in-place" arrangements;
compliance with customer-driven policies and standards, and third-party certification requirements;
challenges associated with new customers or programs, or the provision of new services;
the impact of our restructuring actions and/or productivity initiatives, including a failure to achieve anticipated benefits therefrom;
negative impacts on our business resulting from newly-increased third-party indebtedness;
the incurrence of future restructuring charges, impairment charges, other write-downs of assets or operating losses;
managing our business during uncertain market, political and economic conditions, including among others, geopolitical and other risks associated with our international operations, including military actions, protectionism and reactive countermeasures, economic or other sanctions or trade barriers, including in relation to the evolving Ukraine/Russia conflict;
disruptions to our operations, or those of our customers, component suppliers and/or logistics partners, including as a result of External Events;
the scope, duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
changes to our operating model;
changing commodity, materials and component costs as well as labor costs and conditions;
execution and quality issues (including our ability to successfully resolve these challenges);
non-performance by counterparties;
maintaining sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities;
negative impacts on our business resulting from any significant uses of cash (including for the acquisition of PCI), securities issuances, and/or additional increases in third-party indebtedness (including as a result of an inability to sell desired amounts under our uncommitted accounts receivable sales program);
operational impacts that may affect PCI's ability to achieve anticipated financial results;
foreign currency volatility;
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our global operations and supply chain;
competitive bid selection processes;
customer relationships with emerging companies;
recruiting or retaining skilled talent;
our dependence on industries affected by rapid technological change;
our ability to adequately protect intellectual property and confidential information;
increasing taxes, tax audits, and challenges of defending our tax positions;
obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits;
the management of our information technology systems, and the fact that while we have not been materially impacted by computer viruses, malware, ransomware, hacking attempts or outages, we have been (and may continue to be) the target of such events;
the inability to prevent or detect all errors or fraud;
the variability of revenue and operating results;
unanticipated disruptions to our cash flows;
compliance with applicable laws and regulations;
our pension and other benefit plan obligations;
changes in accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions;
our ability to maintain compliance with applicable credit facility covenants;
interest rate fluctuations and the discontinuation of LIBOR;
our ability to refinance our indebtedness from time to time;
deterioration in financial markets or the macro-economic environment;
our credit rating;
the interest of our controlling shareholder;
current or future litigation, governmental actions, and/or changes in legislation or accounting standards;
negative publicity;
the impact of climate change;
that we will not be permitted to, or do not, repurchase SVS under any normal course issuer bid (NCIB); and
our ability to achieve our environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiative goals, including with respect to diversity and inclusion and climate change.

The foregoing and other material risks and uncertainties are discussed in our public filings, which can be found at www.sedar.com and www.sec.gov, including in this Annual Report, and subsequent reports on Form 6-K furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and as applicable, the Canadian Securities Administrators.
Our forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report are based on various assumptions, many of which involve factors that are beyond our control. Our material assumptions include those related to the following:
the scope and duration of materials constraints and the COVID-19 pandemic, and their impact on our sites, customers and suppliers;
fluctuation of production schedules from our customers in terms of volume and mix of products or services;
the timing and execution of, and investments associated with, ramping new business;
the success of our customers' products;
our ability to retain programs and customers;
the stability of general economic and market conditions, and currency exchange rates;
supplier performance and quality, pricing and terms;
compliance by third parties with their contractual obligations;
the costs and availability of components, materials, services, equipment, labor, energy and transportation;
that our customers will retain liability for product/component tariffs and countermeasures;
global tax legislation changes;
our ability to keep pace with rapidly changing technological developments;
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the timing, execution and effect of restructuring actions;
the successful resolution of quality issues that arise from time to time;
the components of our leverage ratio (as defined in our credit facility); 
our ability to successfully diversify our customer base and develop new capabilities;
the availability of cash resources for, and the permissibility under our credit facility of, repurchases of outstanding SVS under our current NCIB, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations pertaining to NCIBs;
compliance with applicable credit facility covenants;
anticipated demand strength in certain of our businesses;
anticipated demand weakness in, and/or the impact of anticipated adverse market conditions on, certain of our businesses;
anticipated financial results by PCI will be achieved; we are able to successfully integrate PCI, further develop our ATS segment business, and achieve the other expected synergies and benefits from the acquisition; all financial information provided by PCI is accurate and complete, and all forecasts of PCI’s operating results are reasonable and were provided to Celestica in good faith; and
we will continue to have sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities.
While management believes these assumptions to be reasonable under current circumstances, they may prove to be inaccurate, which could cause actual results to differ materially (and adversely) from those that would have been achieved had such assumptions been accurate.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. You should read this Annual Report, and the documents, if any, that we incorporate herein by reference, with the understanding that our actual results may be materially different from what we expect.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified by the cautionary statements included in this Annual Report.
Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3.    Key Information
A.   [Removed and Reserved]

B.    Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.    Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
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D.    Risk Factors

Each of the following risk factors, or any combination of them, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or operating results. Our shareholders and prospective investors should carefully consider each of the following risks and all of the other information set forth in this Annual Report.
We are dependent on a limited number of customers and end markets. A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We depend upon a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. Our top 10 customers in 2021 represented 66% (2020 — 66%; 2019 — 65%) of our total revenue. We also remain dependent upon revenue from our Connectivity and Cloud Solutions (CCS) segment, which represented 59% of our consolidated revenue in 2021 (2020 — 64%; 2019 — 61%). Notwithstanding the expansion of our Advanced Technology Solutions (ATS) segment, our newly-reshaped CCS segment portfolio, and growth in our Hardware Platform Solutions (HPS) business, we remain dependent on our traditional CCS business for a large portion of our revenue, which continues to experience slower growth rates, increased pricing pressures and a highly competitive marketplace, including from original design manufacturers (ODMs).
A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results. We cannot assure: (i) the replacement of completed, delayed, cancelled or reduced orders with new business; (ii) that our current customers will continue to utilize our services consistent with historical volumes or at all; and/or (iii) that our customers will renew their long-term manufacturing or services contracts with us on acceptable terms or at all. Disengagements resulting from our recent CCS segment portfolio review, including our disengagement from programs with Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco), resulted in an estimated annualized revenue decline of $1.25 billion in 2021, compared to revenue in 2018, the year such review commenced. Our disengagement from Cisco was completed in the fourth quarter of 2020.
There can also be no assurance that our efforts to secure new customers and programs will succeed in reducing our customer concentration. Failure to secure business from existing or new customers in any of our end markets would adversely impact our operating results.

Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our margins, cash flow, and our ability to grow our revenue, and may increase the variability of our operating results from period to period. See "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period" below.

We operate in an industry comprised of numerous competitors and aggressive pricing dynamics.

We operate in a highly competitive industry. Our competitors include large global EMS companies, ODMs that specialize in providing internally designed products and manufacturing services, smaller EMS companies that often have a regional, product, service or industry-specific focus, as well as component and sub-system suppliers, distributors and/or systems integrators. In addition, our HPS offering may compete with our traditional customers' hardware offerings. Offering products or services that compete with the offerings of our customers may negatively impact our relationship with, or result in a loss of business from, such customers. We face indirect competition from current and prospective customers who decide to manufacture products internally, or insource previously outsourced business. In addition to the foregoing, we may face competition from distribution and logistics providers expanding their services across the supply chain.

    The competitive environment in our industry is intense and aggressive pricing is a common business dynamic. Some of our competitors have greater scale and offer a broader range of services. Additionally, our current or potential competitors may: be more effective than we are in increasing or shifting their presence in new lower-cost, lower-tariff or tariff-free regions to try to offset continuous competitive pressure and increasing labor costs or to secure new business; develop or acquire services comparable or superior to ours; consolidate to form larger competitors; have greater name recognition, critical mass and/or geographic market presence; have greater manufacturing, research and development (R&D) and marketing resources; be better able to take advantage of acquisition opportunities; be willing to, or able to make sales or provide services at lower margins than we do; or adapt more quickly than we do to new technologies, evolving industry trends and changing customer requirements. In addition, our competitors may be more effective than we are in investing in information technology solutions to differentiate their offerings. Some of our competitors have increased their vertical capabilities by manufacturing modules or components used in the products they assemble. Although we have also expanded our capabilities, including through acquisitions and "operate-in-place" arrangements, our competitors' expansion efforts may be more successful than ours.
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Competition may cause pricing pressures, reduced profits or a loss of market share (for example, from program losses, non-renewals or customer disengagements). We may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors.

We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the quality, availability and cost of such materials.

    The purchase of materials and electronic components represents a significant portion of our costs. We rely on third parties to provide such items. Materials shortages or other issues affecting timely access to these materials (which often occur in our industry) may impact our ability to successfully complete a program. A delay or interruption in supply from a component supplier, especially for single-sourced components, could have a significant impact on our operations and on our customers if we are unable to deliver finished products in a timely manner. If the amount we are required to pay for equipment and supplies exceeds what we have estimated, especially in a fixed price contract, we may suffer losses on these contracts. If a supplier or manufacturer fails to provide components, supplies or equipment as required under a contract, we may be required to source these items from other third parties on a delayed basis or on less favorable terms, which could impact our profitability. Additionally, quality or reliability issues at any of our component providers, or financial difficulties that affect their production and ability to supply us with components, could halt or delay production of a customer's product, or result in claims against us for failure to meet required customer specifications, which could materially adversely impact our operating results. Shortages may also result in our carrying higher levels of inventory and extended lead-times, or result in increased component prices, which may require price increases in the products and services that we provide. Any increase in our costs that we are unable to recover would negatively impact our margins and operating results. Changes in forecasted volumes or in our customers' requirements can also negatively affect our ability to obtain components and adversely impact our operating results. We continue to experience materials constraints in both of our segments, due to global supply shortages for many electronic components, which have been significantly exacerbated during 2020 and 2021 as a result of COVID-19. Materials shortages have been aggravated by the significant impact of COVID-19-related workforce constraints on the factories of certain of our suppliers. We also recognize that some sub-tier suppliers providing raw materials such as palladium, neon gas and high-grade aluminum are partially dependent on supply from Russia/Ukraine. We will closely monitor the supply availability and price fluctuations of these raw materials. In addition, as a result of the evolving situation in Ukraine, we may experience, among other impacts, export restrictions and increases to fuel costs. As we are dependent on our suppliers to prioritize their manufacturing to produce the products we need to fulfill our customer orders, these shortages have caused delays in the production of customer products in both of our segments, and in combination with volatile market demand, negatively impacted our margins and resulted in higher-than-expected levels of inventory in 2020 and 2021. To address these adverse market conditions, which are expected to continue throughout 2022, we are placing purchase orders with longer-than-usual lead times (in some cases in excess of one year), in order to secure materials needed for production. See Item 5, Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A, "Recent Developments – Segment Environment" and "Liquidity — Contractual Obligations."
We are dependent on our customers' ability to compete and succeed in the marketplace using our products and services.
Our operating results are highly dependent upon our customers' ability to compete and succeed in the marketplace using our products and services. Factors that may adversely affect our customers include: rapid changes in technology; evolving industry standards; seasonal demand; their failure to successfully market, and/or a lack of widespread commercial acceptance of, their products; supply chain issues; dramatic shifts in demand which may cause them to lose market share or exit businesses; recessionary periods in our customers' markets; short product lifecycles resulting from continuous improvements in products and services, commoditization of certain products, changes in preferences by end customers, and the emergence of new entrants or competitors with disruptive products, services, or new business models that de-emphasize traditional original equipment manufacturer (OEM) solutions and distribution channels. In addition, certain of our customers have experienced, and may in the future experience, severe revenue erosion, pricing, margin and cash flow pressures, and excess inventories that, in turn, have adversely affected (and in the future may adversely affect) our operating results. If technologies or standards supported by our customers' products and services or their business models become obsolete, fail to gain widespread acceptance or are canceled, our business would be adversely affected. For example, declines in end-market demand for customer-specific proprietary systems in favor of open systems with standardized technologies has had an adverse impact on certain of our customers, and consequently, our business. See "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period" below.
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A change in the mix of customers and/or the types of products or services we provide could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
The mix of our customers and the type of products or services we provide may have an impact on our financial condition and operating results from period-to-period. For example, a higher concentration of lower-margin programs will have an adverse impact on our operating results in the relevant period. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) — Recent Developments" for a discussion of the impact on our operating results of customer and service mix during 2021. In addition, certain customer agreements require us to provide specific price reductions over the contract term, which negatively impact our financial condition and operating results if they are not offset.
Inherent challenges in managing changes in customer demand may impact our planning, supply chain execution and manufacturing, and may adversely affect our operating performance and results.
Our customers typically do not commit to production schedules for more than 30 to 90 days in advance (however, due to global supply shortages, some customers have provided us with longer commitments), and we often experience volatility in customer orders and inventory levels. Customers may terminate their agreements with us prior to scheduled expiration, fail to renew such agreements upon expiration, or significantly change, reduce or delay the volume of manufacturing or other services they order from us, any of which would adversely affect our operating results. Customers may also shift business to our competitors, in-source programs, or adjust the concentration of their supplier base. The global economic environment, adverse market conditions, political and geopolitical pressures, negative sentiment from our customers' customers or changes made by local governments (such as tax benefits or tariffs) may also impact our customers' business decisions. These and other factors could adversely affect the rate of outsourcing to EMS providers generally or to us in particular. A significant portion of our revenue can occur in the last month of the quarter, and purchase orders may be subject to change or cancellation, all of which affect our operating results when they occur. In 2021, we continued to experience significant demand reductions in certain markets, particularly in our commercial aerospace business, as a result of COVID-19. Because we cannot predict customer behavior, or if or when adverse market conditions will reverse, our forecasts of customer orders may be inaccurate, and may make it difficult to order appropriate levels of materials, schedule production, and maximize utilization of our manufacturing capacity and resources.
Our customers may change their forecasts, production quantities or product type requirements, or may accelerate, delay or cancel production quantities. When customers change production volumes or request different products to be manufactured from those in their original forecast, the unavailability of components and materials for such changes could also adversely impact our revenue and working capital performance. See "We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the quality, availability and cost of such materials" above.
    Further, to guarantee continuity of supply for many of our customers, we are required to manufacture and warehouse specified quantities of finished goods. The uncertainty of demand in our customers' end markets, intense competition in our customers' industries and general order volume volatility may result in customers delaying or canceling the delivery of products we manufacture for them or placing purchase orders for lower volumes of products than previously anticipated. This may result in higher than expected levels of inventory, which could in turn have a material adverse impact on our operating results and working capital performance. Although the levels of inventory we carry in any period reflect inventory required to support new program ramps, inventory levels are also impacted by demand volatility and significant product mix changes, including late changes from customers, as well as materials constraints from suppliers (which persisted throughout 2021). As a result of global supply constraints, and related customer requests for us to order sufficient components, there has been a significant increase in our purchase order obligations from prior periods. We may not be able to return or re-sell excess inventory resulting from these factors, or we may be required to hold such inventory for a period of time, any of which may result in higher working capital needs (offset in part by customer cash deposits), and/or a requirement to record additional (and higher-than-typical) reserves for excess or obsolete inventory (as occurred in 2020). Order cancellations and delays could also lower our asset utilization, resulting in higher levels of unproductive assets, lower inventory turns, and lower margins.

The semiconductor industry is cyclical and volatile in nature.

The semiconductor industry is highly cyclical and has experienced significant economic downturns, often in connection with, or in anticipation of, maturing product cycles or a decline in general economic conditions. These downturns are characterized by diminished product demand, lower volumes and rapid erosion of average selling prices, resulting in revenue declines, production overcapacity, and excess inventory (as was the case throughout 2019). The timing, length and volatility of these cycles are difficult to predict. The quick onset of demand changes, as well as the high level of fixed costs associated with this business, exacerbate the adverse impact of these downturns on our operating results. Actions taken to reduce our costs may be insufficient to align our structure with prevailing business conditions, and we may be unable to invest in R&D and
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engineering at the levels we believe are necessary to maintain our competitive position. On the other hand, in the event of a significant upturn, we may not be able to expand our workforce and operations in a sufficiently timely manner, procure adequate resources and raw materials, or locate suitable third-party suppliers to respond effectively to changes in demand for our existing products or to the demand for new products requested by our customers. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments – Segment Environment." Any of the foregoing may adversely affect our margins, cash flow, and our ability to grow our revenue, and may increase the variability of our operating results from period to period.
We may encounter difficulties expanding or consolidating our operations or introducing new competencies or new offerings, which could adversely affect our operating results.
As we expand our business, open new sites, enter into new markets, products and technologies, invest in research, design and development, acquire new businesses or capabilities, transfer business within our network, consolidate certain operations, and/or introduce new business models or programs, we may encounter difficulties that result in higher than expected costs associated with such activities. Potential difficulties related to such activities include our ability: to manage growth effectively; to maintain existing business relationships during periods of transition; to anticipate disruptions in our operations that may impact our ability to deliver to customers on time, produce quality products and ensure overall customer satisfaction; and to respond rapidly to changes in customer demand or volumes. For example, our profitability was adversely impacted during 2020 and 2021 as a result of significant reduced demand in our aerospace and defense (A&D) business, due in part to COVID-19, requiring cost reduction actions to appropriately adjust our cost base.

We may also encounter difficulties in ramping and executing new programs. Ramping new programs can range from several months to over a year before production starts, and often requires significant up-front investments and increased working capital. These programs may generate lower margins or losses during and/or following the ramp period, or may not achieve the expected financial performance, due to production ramp inefficiencies, lower than expected volume, or delays in ramping to volume. In addition, our customers may significantly change these programs, or even cancel them altogether, due to decreases in their end-market demand or in the actual or anticipated success of their products in the marketplace. We may incur increased ramping costs as we further expand our ATS segment, and ramp new programs, including in the facility formerly used for programs with Cisco. There can be no assurance that our increased investments will benefit us or result in business growth. As we pursue opportunities in new markets or technologies, we may encounter challenges due to our limited knowledge or experience in these areas. In addition, the success of new business models or programs depends on a number of factors including: understanding the new business or markets; timely and successful product development; market acceptance; the effective management of purchase commitments and inventory levels in line with anticipated demand; the development or acquisition of appropriate intellectual property and capital investments, to the extent required; the availability of materials in adequate quantities and at appropriate costs to meet anticipated demand; and the risk that new offerings may have quality or other defects in the early stages of introduction. Any of these factors could prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits of growth in new markets or technologies, which could materially adversely affect our business and operating results.
As part of our strategy to enhance our end-to-end service offerings, we intend to continue to expand our design and engineering capabilities. Providing these services may expose us to different or greater potential risks than those we face when providing our manufacturing services. Our design services require significant investments in R&D, technology licensing, testing and tooling equipment, patent applications and talent recruitment. Our margins may be adversely impacted if we incur higher than expected investment costs, or if our customers are not satisfied with our progress, or do not approve our completed designs. In addition, our design activities often require the purchase of inventory for initial production runs before we have a firm purchase commitment from a customer. Furthermore, we face increased competition with respect to this offering, as well as the recruitment of our HPS talent, from ODMs and other companies providing similar services. As we continue to grow our HPS business, costs required to support our design and engineering capabilities are expected to increase (for example, we expanded our HPS engineering network at our Richardson, Texas facility in 2021), and adversely impact our profitability. In addition, some of the products we design and develop must satisfy safety and regulatory standards and/or receive government certifications. If we fail to obtain these approvals or certifications on a timely basis, we would be unable to sell these products, which would harm our revenues, profitability and reputation.
There can be no assurance that our expansion into new markets or new business will be successful, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits.
In addition, there is no assurance that we will find suitable new acquisition targets, that we will be able to consummate any such transactions on terms and conditions acceptable to us, or that we will be able to fund any such acquisitions with existing cash resources or through financing provided by external lenders. We may be unable to obtain additional capital if and
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when required on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to consummate an acquisition we have deemed desirable, we may not be able to implement our intended business plan, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may incur costs to support our pursuit of acquisitions and/or other strategic opportunities, which may adversely impact our operating results, and may not result in the consummation of any such transactions. See "We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business" below.

Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce.

The cost of providing our services, including the extent to which we utilize our workforce, affects our profitability. Our workforce utilization rate is affected by a number of factors, including: our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new programs and to hire and assimilate new employees; our ability to forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate headcount in each of our geographies and operating sites; our ability to manage attrition; our need to devote time and resources to training and development; and our ability to match the skill sets of our employees to the needs of the marketplace. If we over-utilize our workforce, our employees may become disengaged, which could impact employee attrition. If we under-utilize our workforce, our margins and profitability could suffer. Manufacturing shut-downs and restrictions due to COVID-19 resulted in the incurrence of certain idled labor costs, which adversely impacted our financial results in 2020 and 2021.
There may be problems with the products we design or manufacture that could result in liability/warranty claims against us, which may reduce demand for our services, damage our reputation, and/or cause us to incur significant costs.
In most of our sales contracts, we provide warranties against defects or deficiencies in our products, services, or designs. We generally design and manufacture products to our customers' specifications, many of which are highly complex, and include products for regulated industries, such as HeathTech and A&D. The customized design solutions that form a part of our HPS offering also subject us to the risk of liability claims if defects are discovered or alleged. Despite our quality control and assurance efforts, problems may occur or be alleged, in or resulting from the design and/or manufacturing of these products. Whether or not we are responsible, problems in the products we design and/or manufacture, or in products which include components we manufacture, whether real or alleged, whether caused by faulty customer specifications, the design or manufacturing processes or a component defect, may result in increased costs to us, as well as delayed shipments to our customers, and/or reduced or canceled customer orders. These potential claims may include damages for the recall of a product and/or injury to person or property, including consequential and/or punitive damages.
Even if customers or third parties, such as component suppliers, are responsible for defects, they may not, or may not be able to, assume responsibility for any such costs or required payments to us. While we seek to insure against many of these risks, insurance coverage may be inadequate, not cost effective or unavailable, either in general or for particular types of products or issues.
    As we expand our service offerings (including our HPS offerings) and pursue business in new end markets, our warranty obligations have increased and we may not be successful in pricing our products to appropriately cover our warranty costs. A successful claim for damages arising from defects or deficiencies for which we are not adequately insured, and for which indemnification from a third party is not timely (or otherwise) available, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and/or our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to demand volatility in the commercial aerospace industry, and the sustained downturn in this industry as a result of COVID-19 has adversely impacted the revenues of our A&D business.

Our A&D business may be affected by certain characteristics and trends of the commercial aerospace industry, such as fluctuations in its business cycle, varying fuel and labor costs, intense price competition and regulatory scrutiny, certain trends, including a possible decrease in aviation activity and a decrease in outsourcing by aircraft manufacturers or the failure of projected market growth to materialize or continue. In the event that these characteristics and trends adversely affect customers in the commercial aerospace industry, they may reduce the overall demand for our commercial aerospace services. The Boeing 737 Max program halt led to demand reductions in our commercial aerospace business in 2020, which have not yet recovered. In addition, the severe and prolonged adverse impact of COVID-19 on the commercial aerospace industry due to quarantines, travel restrictions, business curtailments, resurgences and mutations of the virus and safety concerns had a material and adverse impact on our commercial aerospace revenues during 2020 and 2021.
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We may encounter integration and other significant challenges with respect to our acquisitions and strategic transactions which could adversely affect our operating results.
We have (and may continue to) expand our network, capabilities and presence in new regions and end markets through acquisitions and/or strategic transactions, including multi-year "operate-in-place" arrangements, where we manage certain production, assembly or other services for customers directly from their locations, acquire their inventory, equipment and/or other assets, hire their employees, and lease or acquire their manufacturing sites. Potential challenges related to these acquisitions and transactions include: integrating acquired operations, systems and businesses (which may include transferring production from acquired operations to our existing network, or downsizing or closing acquired locations, in each case to obtain anticipated operational synergies); meeting customers' expectations as to volume, product quality and timeliness; supporting legacy contractual obligations; retaining customer, supplier, employee or other business relationships of acquired operations; addressing unforeseen liabilities of acquired businesses; limited experience with new technologies and markets; failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements; failure to achieve anticipated business volumes or operating margins; valuation methodologies not accurately capturing the value of the acquired business; the effects of diverting management's attention from day-to-day operations to matters involving the integration of acquired businesses; incurring potentially substantial transaction costs associated with these transactions; increased burdens on our staff and on our administrative, internal control and operating systems, which may hinder our legal and regulatory compliance activities; overpayment for an acquisition; and potential impairments resulting from post-acquisition deterioration in, or reduced benefit from, an acquired business. While we often obtain indemnification rights from the sellers of acquired businesses, such rights may be difficult to enforce, the losses may exceed any dedicated escrow funds, and the indemnitors may not have the ability to financially support the indemnity. Any of these factors may prevent us from realizing the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, including additional revenue, operational synergies, and/or economies of scale. Any delay or failure to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions may adversely affect our business and operating results and may require us to write-down the carrying value of any related goodwill and intangible assets in periods subsequent to the acquisitions. For example, our profitability was adversely impacted during 2020 and 2021 as a result of significant reduced demand in our A&D business, due in part to COVID-19, requiring related cost reduction actions to adjust our cost base. Acquisitions may also involve businesses we are not familiar with, and expose us to additional business risks that are different than those we have traditionally experienced or anticipated at the time of acquisition.
Any failure to comply with customer-driven policies and standards, and third party certification requirements could adversely affect our business and reputation.
In addition to government regulations and industry standards, our customers may require us to comply with their own climate change, social responsibility, conflict minerals, quality or other business policies or standards, which may be more restrictive than current laws and regulations and our pre-existing policies. Such policies or standards may be customer-driven, established by the industries in which we operate, or imposed by third party organizations. For example, we are a member of the Responsible Business Alliance (RBA). The RBA is a non-profit coalition of electronics companies that, among other things, establishes standards for its members in responsible and ethical practices in the areas of labor, environmental compliance, employee health and safety, ethics and social responsibility. Our compliance with these policies, standards and third-party certification requirements could be costly, and our failure to comply could adversely affect our operations, customer relationships, reputation and profitability.
Challenges associated with new customers or programs, or the provision of new services, could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
In determining whether to pursue a potential new customer, program or service, we evaluate whether it fits with our value proposition as well as its potential end-market success. Where we proceed, our goal is to ensure that our terms of engagement appropriately reflect anticipated costs, risks and rewards. The failure to make prudent engagement decisions or to establish appropriate contractual terms could adversely affect our profitability and margins.

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There are also risks associated with the timing and ultimate realization of anticipated revenue from a new program or service. Certain new programs or services require us to devote significant capital and personnel to new technologies and competencies. We may not meet customer expectations, which could damage our relationships with such customers and impact our ability to timely deliver conforming products or services. The success of new programs may also depend heavily on factors including product reliability, supply chain dynamics, market acceptance, regulatory approvals and/or economic conditions. Any failure to meet expectations on these factors could adversely affect our results of operations.
We have incurred significant restructuring charges in recent periods, and expect to incur further restructuring charges during 2022; we may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits from our restructuring activities, these activities may adversely affect our business, and additional restructuring actions may be required once currently-contemplated actions are complete.
We incurred restructuring charges of $10.5 million in 2021, $25.8 million in 2020, and $37.9 million in 2019, and expect to incur incremental restructuring charges in 2022. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Results — Other charges (recoveries)." Implementation of our restructuring activities may be costly and disruptive to our business, and we may not achieve the cost savings and benefits anticipated from such activities. We may not be able to retain or expand existing business due to execution issues relating to anticipated headcount reductions, plant closures or product/service transfers, and we may incur higher operating expenses during the periods of transition. Additionally, restructuring actions may result in a loss of continuity and accumulated knowledge in our workforce and related operational inefficiencies, as well as negative publicity. Headcount reductions can also have a negative impact on morale and our ability to attract and hire new qualified personnel in the future. Our restructuring activities require a significant amount of management and other employees’ time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business. Any failure to achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring activities, including any delay in implementing planned related restructuring actions, may have a material adverse effect on our competitive position and operating results. In addition, we may implement additional future restructuring actions or divestitures as a result of changes in our business, the marketplace and/or our exit from less profitable, under-performing, non-core or non-strategic operations.
We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business.
Our outstanding indebtedness, together with the mandatory prepayment provisions of our credit facility, require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to make interest and principal payments on such indebtedness, thereby limiting the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, and may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements. Such indebtedness (which may increase if we are unable to sell desired amounts under our uncommitted accounts receivable sales program) may also: require us to pursue additional term financing for potential investments, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all; limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, business activities, and other general corporate requirements; limit our ability to refinance our indebtedness on terms acceptable to us or at all; limit our flexibility to plan for and adjust to changing business and market conditions; and increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions. In addition, such indebtedness could have a variety of other adverse effects, including: (i) default and foreclosure on our assets if we have insufficient funds to repay the debt obligations; (ii) acceleration of such indebtedness or cross-defaults if we breach financial or other covenants under applicable debt agreements and such breaches are not waived; (iii) increased vulnerability to adverse changes in competitive conditions or government regulation; and (iv) other disadvantages compared to our competitors who have less debt. Our credit facility also prohibits share repurchases for cancellation if our leverage ratio (as defined in such facility) exceeds a specified amount (this restriction is not currently, and during 2021 was not, in effect).

In addition, our credit ratings impact the cost and availability of future borrowings and, accordingly, our cost of capital. Our ratings reflect the opinions of the ratings agencies of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet our debt obligations. There can be no assurance that we will achieve a particular rating or maintain a particular rating in the future, which could place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors and prevent us from taking actions that could benefit us in the long term. Any negative change in our credit rating or outlook may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all. We may not be able to obtain financing arrangements on acceptable terms or in amounts sufficient to meet our needs in the future, which could harm our ability to grow our business, internally or through acquisitions.

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We have incurred impairment charges and operating losses in certain of our businesses, and may incur such charges and losses in future periods.

We have from time to time recorded impairment charges when we have determined that the carrying amount of our assets, or related cash generating unit or units (CGUs), may not be recoverable (last recorded in 2015). We have also recorded charges (including during 2019 - 2021) to write-down specified assets in connection with our restructuring actions (described in note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18). Determining the recoverable amount of our assets and CGUs is subjective and requires management to exercise significant judgment in estimating future growth, profitability, discount and terminal growth rates, and in projecting future cash flows, among other factors, including the impact of market conditions on management's assumptions. Future events and changing market conditions may impact our assumptions as to prices, costs, or other factors that may result in changes to our estimates of future cash flows, which may in turn result in impairment charges, which could be substantial and adversely affect our financial results. Factors that might reduce the recoverable amount of these assets below their respective carrying values include declines in our stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates, slower growth rates, or significant operating losses in any of our businesses. Sustained market price decreases, demand softness, and/or failure to realize future revenue at an appropriate profit margin in any CGU could negatively impact our operating results, including the incurrence of restructuring charges and/or impairment losses for such CGU or operating losses for the relevant business. Similar risks apply to assessing the recoverability of our deferred tax assets.
We continue to operate in an uncertain global economic and political environment.
Concerns over global economic conditions, financial markets, geopolitical issues, energy costs, inflation, and the availability and cost of credit, have contributed to increased global economic and political uncertainty. The political environment in the U.S., tensions between the U.S. and other countries, and the evolving Russia/Ukraine conflict, have contributed to such uncertainty. Trade actions between the U.S. and China have made our production from China less cost-competitive than other low-cost countries in recent periods. These geopolitical events, which are outside our control, have adversely impacted, and are expected to continue to adversely impact, our China operations. See "Our operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by events outside our control" and "U.S. policies or legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition" below. Uncertain global economies have adversely impacted, and may continue to unpredictably impact, currency exchange rates. See "We are exposed to translation and transaction risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; hedging instruments may not be effective in mitigating such risks" below. Financial market instability may result in lower returns on our financial investments, and lower values on some of our assets. Alternately, inflation may lead to higher costs for materials and/or increase our costs of borrowing and raising capital, and we have experienced wage and materials price inflation during 2021. Uncertainty surrounding the global economic environment and geopolitical outlook may impact current and future demand for some of the products we manufacture or services we provide, the financial condition of our customers and/or suppliers, as well as the number and pace of customer consolidations. If any of the foregoing impacts the financial condition of our customers, they may delay payments to us or request extended payment terms, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and working capital. If any of the foregoing impacts the financial condition of our suppliers, this may have an adverse effect on our operations, financial condition and/or customer relationships. We cannot predict the precise nature, extent, or duration of these economic or political conditions or if they will have any impact on our financial results. A deterioration in the economic environment may exacerbate the effect of the various risk factors described in this Annual Report and could result in other unforeseen events that may adversely impact our business and financial condition.
Our operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by events outside our control.
Our operations and those of our customers, component suppliers and/or our logistics partners may be disrupted by global or local events outside our control, including: natural disasters and related disruptions; political instability; geopolitical dynamics; terrorism; armed conflict; labor or social unrest; criminal activity; disease or illness that affects local, regional, national or international economies (see below); unusually adverse weather conditions; cybersecurity incidents (see "Our operations and our customer relationships may be adversely affected by disruptions to our information technology (IT) systems, including disruptions from cybersecurity breaches of our IT infrastructure" below); and other risks present in the jurisdictions in which we, our customers, our suppliers and/or our logistics partners operate. These types of events could disrupt operations at one or more of our sites or those of our customers, component suppliers and/or our logistics partners. These events could also lead to higher costs or supply shortages, and may disrupt the delivery of components to us or our ability to provide finished products or services to our customers, any of which could adversely affect our operating results materially. We carry insurance to cover damage to our sites and interruptions to our operations, including those that may occur as a result of natural disasters, such as flooding, earthquakes or other events. Our insurance policies, however, are subject to deductibles, coverage limitations and exclusions, and may not provide adequate (or any) coverage should such events occur.
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Our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected by the effects of a widespread outbreak of a contagious disease or other adverse public health developments. These effects could (and with respect to COVID-19, did and continue to) include disruptions or restrictions on our employees’ and other service providers’ ability to travel, as well as temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our customers, suppliers, or other vendors in our supply chain, including single source suppliers, and shipping delays and premiums. In addition, a significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could (and with respect to COVID-19, did and continues to) result in a widespread health crisis that adversely affects the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that affects demand for our end customers’ products and in turn adversely impacts our operating results. See "The effect of COVID-19 on our operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers and logistics providers has had, and may continue to have, a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations" below for a discussion of the actual and potential impact of COVID-19 on our business.

Increased international political volatility, including changes to previously accepted trading or other government policies or legislation in the U.S. and Europe, instability in parts of Europe and the Middle East, as well as the ongoing refugee crisis, anti-immigrant activities, social unrest and fears of terrorism, enhanced national security measures, armed conflicts (including the evolving situation in Ukraine), security issues at the U.S./Mexico border related to illegal immigration or criminal activities associated with illegal drug activities, labor or social unrest, strained international relations, including tensions between the U.S. and other countries, and any related decline in consumer confidence arising from these and other factors may materially hinder our ability to conduct business, or may reduce demand for our products or services. Any escalation in these events or similar future events may disrupt our operations or those of our customers and suppliers and could adversely affect the availability of materials needed to manufacture our products or the means to transport those materials to manufacturing sites and finished products to customers. Changes in policies by the U.S. or other governments could negatively affect our operating results due to changes in duties, tariffs or taxes, or limitations on currency or fund transfers, as well as government-imposed restrictions on producing certain products in, or shipping them to, specific countries. Also see "U.S. policies or legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition," "Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance," "We continue to operate in an uncertain global economic and political environment," and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business."
We rely on a variety of common carriers for the transportation of materials and products and for their ability to route these materials and products through various international ports and other transportation hubs. A work stoppage, strike or shutdown of any important supplier's site or operations, or at any major port or airport, or the inability to access any such site for any reason, could result in manufacturing and shipping delays or expediting charges, which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
The foregoing events have had and may in the future have an adverse impact on the U.S. and global economy in general, and on consumer confidence and spending, which may adversely affect our revenue and financial results. Such events could increase the volatility of the market price of our securities and may limit the capital resources available to us and our customers and suppliers.
The effect of COVID-19 on our operations and the operations of our customers, suppliers and logistics providers has had, and may continue to have, a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

COVID-19 had a material and adverse impact on our operations during 2020 and 2021. In addition to the impact of demand reductions due to COVID-19 on our revenue (most significantly in our Industrial and commercial aerospace businesses), we experienced significant adverse revenue impacts across our businesses resulting from materials constraints (including as a result of COVID-19). See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments — Segment Environment" for further detail. As a result of supply chain and workforce constraints, we were negatively impacted by approximately $32 million and $37 million during 2021 and 2020, respectively, in estimated COVID-19-related costs, comprised of both direct and indirect costs, including manufacturing inefficiencies related to lost revenue due to our inability to secure materials, idled labor costs resulting from shelter-in-place orders and manufacturing capacity restrictions, and incremental costs for labor, expedite fees and freight premiums, cleaning supplies, personal protective equipment, and IT-related services to support our work-from-home arrangements (collectively, COVID-19 Costs). Although we expect to continue to incur COVID-19 Costs in 2022, stemming most significantly from manufacturing inefficiencies related to lost revenue due to our inability to secure materials, we cannot quantify anticipated amounts. Adverse COVID-19-related impacts were mitigated in part by an aggregate of $11 million and $34 million in COVID-19-related government subsidies, grants or credits and $1 million and $3 million of COVID-19-related customer recoveries we recognized in 2021 and 2020, respectively. However, we do not anticipate that such relief will be available to us in 2022.

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We have experienced (and continue to experience) shipping surcharges on ocean freight, premiums on air freight, and increased transit times in receiving certain raw materials as a result of shipping delays due to, among other things, additional safety requirements imposed by port authorities, closures of or congestion at ports, reduced availability of commercial transportation, border restrictions and capacity constraints for air freight as a result of COVID-19, which have had an adverse impact on our ability to obtain materials and, at times, deliver our products in a timely manner, and consequently, our results of operations. Shipping delays and increased shipping costs are anticipated to continue to disrupt our operations, and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, until ocean and air freight capacity is no longer constrained.

The pandemic has impacted our customers and may create unpredictable reductions or increases in demand for our services. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments — Segment Environment." In addition, the ability of our employees to work may be significantly impacted by individuals contracting or being exposed to COVID-19. While we are following the requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees (including periodic cessations (other than very limited essential inter-regional travel) of employee travel, a global work-from-home policy for applicable employees, and for all other employees, physical distancing, enhanced screening, mandatory mask and use of other personal protective equipment, shift-splitting, and organization of vaccine clinics in regions where vaccines were not readily available, including Malaysia and Thailand), these measures may not be successful, and we may be required to temporarily close facilities or take other measures. If factory closures or significant reductions in capacity utilization occur, we would incur additional inefficiencies and direct costs, as well as a loss of revenue. If our suppliers experience additional closures or reductions in their capacity utilization levels, we may have further difficulty sourcing materials necessary to fulfill production requirements. A material adverse effect on our employees, customers, suppliers and/or logistics providers could have a material adverse effect on us.

In addition to the potential items noted above, future impacts from the pandemic may also include: (i) a further decrease in short-term and/or a decrease in long-term demand and/or pricing for certain of our products; (ii) further reductions in production levels and R&D activities; (iii) further increased costs resulting from our efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19; (iv) deterioration of worldwide credit and financial markets that could limit our ability to obtain external financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures, could result in losses on our holdings of cash and investments due to failures of financial institutions and other parties, and could result in a higher rate of losses on our accounts receivable (A/R) due to credit defaults; (v) further disruptions to our supply chain, including as a result of shipping delays; (vi) write-downs and/or impairments of assets; (vii) diversion of management’s attention from our key strategic priorities, causing us to reduce, delay, alter or abandon initiatives that may otherwise increase our long-term value or otherwise disrupt our business operations; and/or (viii) adverse impacts on our information technology systems and our internal control systems as a result of continued remote work arrangements.

In addition, to the extent government-required vaccine mandates in jurisdictions in which our businesses operate become effective, it could create operational burdens necessary to track vaccination status and/or enforce COVID-19 testing of non-vaccinated employees. We cannot predict with certainty the impact that any such regulations would have on our workforce. Our implementation of applicable requirements may result in workforce attrition or difficulty securing future labor needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The ultimate size of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and its duration will depend on future developments which cannot currently be predicted, including infection resurgences and mutations, government responses, the speed at which our suppliers and logistics providers can return to and maintain full production, the status of labor shortages and the impact of supplier prioritization of backlog. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may experience significant adverse impacts to our businesses as a result of its global economic impact, including any related recession, as well as lingering impacts on our suppliers, third-party service providers and/or customers (including movement of production in-country to decrease global exposures).

U.S. policies or legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The former U.S. administration created uncertainty with respect to, among other things, trade agreements and free trade generally, and imposed significant increases on tariffs on goods imported into the U.S. from specified countries, each of which has imposed retaliatory tariffs on specified items. These actions, and/or other governmental actions related to tariffs or international trade agreements, have increased (and could further increase) the cost to our U.S. customers who use our non-U.S. manufacturing sites and components, and vice versa, which may materially and adversely impact demand for our services, our
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results of operations or our financial condition. Although we have transferred numerous customer programs to countries unaffected by these tariffs (including Thailand), we anticipate continued actions from non-China based customers to exit China to avoid the impact of these additional tariffs. Given the uncertainty regarding the scope and duration of these (or further) trade actions, whether trade tensions will escalate further, and whether our customers will continue to bear the cost of the tariffs and/or avoid such costs by in-sourcing or shifting business to other providers, their impact on our operations and results for future periods cannot be currently quantified, but may be material. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business" for further detail.
In addition, it is unknown at this time to what extent new U.S. laws will be passed or new regulatory proposals will be adopted, if any (or whether current laws or regulations will be rolled back), or the effect that such events may have on the economy and/or our business. However, changes in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, taxes, manufacturing, clean energy, the healthcare industry, development and investment in the jurisdictions in which we and/or our customers or suppliers operate, could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. See "We are subject to the risk of increasing income and other taxes, tax audits, and the challenges of successfully defending our tax positions, and obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits, any of which may adversely affect our financial performance."
Changes to our operating model may adversely affect our business.
We continuously work to improve our productivity, quality, delivery performance and flexibility through various operational initiatives, including our recent CCS segment portfolio review (including our disengagement from programs with Cisco), which resulted in an estimated annualized aggregate CCS segment revenue decline of $1.25 billion in 2021 compared to revenue in 2018, the year such review commenced. We may be unable to replace all of such revenue in a timely manner or on acceptable terms.
Implementation of these initiatives also presents a number of risks, including: (i) failure to achieve anticipated margin improvements from such actions; (ii) actual or perceived disruption of service or reduction in service levels to customers; (iii) potential adverse effects on our internal control environment with respect to general and administrative functions during transitions resulting from such initiatives; (iv) actual or perceived disruption to suppliers, distribution networks and other important operational relationships and the inability to resolve potential conflicts in a timely manner; (v) diversion of management attention from ongoing business activities and strategic objectives; and (vi) failure to retain key employees. Because of these and other factors, we cannot predict whether we will fully realize the purpose and anticipated benefits or cost savings of these initiatives and, if we do not, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. Furthermore, adverse changes to our business may require additional restructuring or reorganization activities in the future. See "We have incurred significant restructuring charges in recent periods, and expect to incur further restructuring charges during 2022; we may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits from our restructuring activities, these activities may adversely affect our business, and additional restructuring actions may be required once currently-contemplated actions are complete" above.
Our results may be negatively affected by rising labor costs.
There is some uncertainty with respect to the pace of rising labor costs (including minimum wage increases that may be government-mandated from time to time), and increasing competition for specific talent/resources in various regions in which we operate. The competition for talent has been heightened as a result of COVID-19, due to government-imposed border controls, which limit the supply of foreign labor, and require us to rely on more expensive talent solutions. COVID-19 has also impacted our labor costs due to employees' idled time and paid time off to receive vaccines and/or stay in quarantine. Any increase in labor costs that we are unable to recover in our pricing to our customers would negatively impact our margins and operating results.

Volatility in commodity prices may negatively impact our operating results.

We rely on various energy sources in our production and transportation activities. Increases in prices for energy and other commodities have resulted in, and may result in further increased raw material and component costs and transportation costs. Any increase in our costs that we are unable to recover in our pricing to our customers would negatively impact our margins and operating results.
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Quality and execution issues may reduce demand for our services, damage our reputation, and/or have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
In any given quarter, we can experience quality and process variances related to materials, testing, or other manufacturing or supply chain activities. Although we are successful in resolving the majority of such issues, the existence of these variances could cause us to incur significant costs in relation to corrective actions, have a material adverse impact on the demand for our services in future periods from any affected customers, damage our reputation, and/or have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.
We are subject to financial and reputational risk due to non-performance by counterparties.
A failure by counterparties, including customers, suppliers, financial institutions (including the issuers of our purchased annuities), or other third parties with whom we conduct business, to fulfill their contractual obligations, may result in financial loss to us and may have adverse effects on our business.
If a key supplier, or any company within such supplier's supply chain, experiences financial or other difficulties, such difficulties may affect their ability to supply us with materials, components or services, which could halt or delay the production of a customer's products, and/or have a material adverse impact on our operations, financial results, and customer relationships. In addition, our ability to collect outstanding A/R depends, in part, on the financial strength of our customers. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business" for further detail. In each of 2021 and 2020, we had two customers individually representing 10% or more of total A/R. If a customer bankruptcy occurs, our profitability may be adversely impacted if affected A/R are in excess of our allowance for doubtful accounts. Additionally, our future revenues could be adversely impacted by a customer bankruptcy. Inability to collect A/R and/or the loss of one or more major customers could adversely impact our operating results, financial position and cash flows. We cannot reasonably determine the extent to which a customer or supplier may have financial difficulties, or whether we will be required to adjust customer pricing, payment terms and/or the amounts we pay to suppliers for materials and components.
To mitigate the actuarial and investment risks of our defined benefit pension plans, we purchase annuities (using existing plan assets) from time to time from third party insurance companies for certain, or all, of our obligations under specified pension plans. Failure by the insurance companies to fulfill their contractual obligations would result in a significant financial loss to us, as we retain ultimate responsibility for the payment of benefits to plan participants unless and until such pension plans are wound-up.
We may use cash on hand, issue debt or equity securities, and/or incur additional third-party debt (or any combination thereof) to complete future acquisitions or otherwise fund our operations, which may adversely affect our liquidity, credit ratings, financial condition and/or results of operations.
Any significant use of cash (for future acquisitions or otherwise) would adversely impact our cash position and liquidity. In addition, we may choose to issue debt securities or otherwise incur additional debt to fund future acquisitions or otherwise fund our operations. Any additional incurrence of debt (either through the issuance of debt securities or through a new or refinanced credit facility) would increase our debt leverage and debt service requirements (necessitating the use of additional cash flow for this purpose), may reduce our debt agency ratings, may further adversely impact our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or respond to unexpected capital requirements, may impose additional restrictions on our operations, and may have a variety of additional adverse effects, including, but not limited to, those described in "We have incurred substantial third-party debt to fund acquisitions, which has increased our debt service requirements, may reduce our ability to fund future acquisitions and/or to respond to unexpected capital requirements, and may have other adverse impacts on our business" above. To the extent we sell equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities (the pricing of which would be subject to market conditions at the time of issuance) could result in material dilution to our stockholders. Sales of our equity securities or convertible debt, or the perception that these sales could occur, could also cause the market price for our subordinate voting shares (SVS) to fall, and new securities could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to the holders of our SVS.
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We are exposed to translation and transaction risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; hedging instruments may not be effective in mitigating such risks.
Global currency markets can be volatile. Although we conduct the majority of our business in U.S. dollars, our global operations subject us to translation and transaction risks associated with fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and/or financial condition. A significant portion of our operational costs (including payroll, pensions, site costs, costs of locally sourced supplies and inventory, and income taxes) are denominated in various currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates may significantly increase the amount of translated U.S. dollars required for costs incurred in other currencies or significantly decrease the U.S. dollars received from non-U.S. dollar revenues.
Although our functional currency is the U.S. dollar, currency risk on our income tax expense arises as we are generally required to file our tax returns in the local currency for each particular country in which we have operations. A weakening of the local currency against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on our income taxes payable (related to increased local-currency taxable profits) and on our deferred tax costs (primarily related to the revaluation of non-monetary foreign assets from historical average exchange rates to the period-end exchange rates). See note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18. While our hedging program is designed to mitigate currency risk vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar, we remain subject to taxable foreign exchange impacts in our translated local currency financial results relevant for tax reporting purposes.
As part of our risk management program, we enter into foreign currency forward and swap contracts to lock in the exchange rates for future foreign currency transactions, which is intended to reduce the foreign currency risk related to our operating costs and future cash flows denominated in local currencies. While these contracts are intended to reduce the effects of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, our hedging strategy does not mitigate the longer-term impacts of changes to foreign exchange rates. In addition, these instruments are subject to transaction costs, credit requirements and counterparty risk. If our hedging program is not successful, or if we change our hedging activities in the future, we may experience significant unexpected expenses from fluctuations in exchange rates.
Our financial results have been adversely impacted by negative foreign currency translation effects, and such adverse effects, some of which may be substantial, are likely to recur in the future.
Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance.
We have sites in the following countries: Canada, the U.S., China, Ireland, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Romania, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Indonesia, India, Philippines and Thailand. During 2021, approximately 80% of our revenue was produced at locations outside of North America. We also purchase the majority of our components and materials from international suppliers.
Global operations are subject to inherent risks which may adversely affect us, including:
changes in local tax rates and tax incentives and the adverse tax consequences of repatriating earnings;
labor unrest and differences in regulations and statutes governing employee relations, including increased scrutiny of labor practices within our industry;
cultural differences and/or differences in local business customs;
negative impacts, or ineffectiveness, of our restructuring activities;
changes in regulatory requirements;
inflationary trends and rising costs;
changes in international political relations;
difficulty in staffing (including skilled labor availability and cost) and managing foreign operations;
challenges in building and maintaining infrastructure to support operations;
compliance with a variety of foreign laws, including import and export tariffs and regulations;
adverse changes in trade policies and/or agreements between countries in which we maintain operations;
changes in logistics costs;
changes in the availability, lead time, and cost of components and materials;
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weaker laws protecting intellectual property rights and/or greater difficulty enforcing such rights;
global economic, political and/or social instability, including military actions, protectionism and reactive countermeasures, economic or other sanctions or trade barriers;
potential restrictions on the transfer of funds and/or other restrictive actions by foreign governments;
the effects of terrorist activity, armed conflict, natural disasters and epidemics (including COVID-19); and
global currency fluctuations.
Any of these risks could disrupt the supply of our components or materials, slow or stop our production, and/or increase our costs. Compliance with trade and foreign tax laws may increase our costs and actual or alleged violations of such laws could result in enforcement actions or financial penalties that could result in substantial costs. In addition, the introduction or expansion of certain social programs in foreign jurisdictions may increase our costs, and certain supplier's costs, of doing business.
In particular, a significant portion of our manufacturing, design, support and storage operations are conducted in our facilities in China, and revenues associated with our China operations are important to our success (2021 — 16%; 2020 — 20%). Therefore, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by economic, political, legal, regulatory, competitive and other factors in China. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement and control over economic growth. In addition, our operations in China are governed by Chinese laws, rules and regulations, some of which are relatively new. The Chinese legal system continues to rapidly evolve, which may result in uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws, rules and regulations that could have a material adverse effect on our business. China experiences high turnover of direct labor in the manufacturing sector, and engineers in our design centers, due to the intensely competitive and fluid market for labor, and the retention of adequate labor is a challenge. If our labor turnover rates are higher than we expect, or we otherwise fail to adequately manage our labor needs, then our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. We are also subject to risks associated with our subsidiaries organized in China. For example, regulatory and registration requirements and government approvals affect the financing that we can provide to our subsidiaries. If we fail to receive required registrations and approvals to fund our subsidiaries organized in China, or if our ability to remit currency out of China is limited, then our business and liquidity could be adversely affected.

In addition, international trade disputes with China have resulted in increased tariffs and other measures that have, and may continue to, adversely affect the Company’s business. Our production from China has become less cost-competitive than other low-cost countries in recent periods, and we anticipate continued actions from non-China based customers to exit China to avoid the impact of additional tariffs. More generally, changes to, among other things, laws or policies in the U.S. regarding foreign trade, import/export duties, tariffs or taxes, manufacturing and/or investments, or other events outside of our control, could materially adversely affect our U.S. and foreign operations. See "U.S. policies or legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition" and "Our operations have been and could continue to be adversely affected by events outside our control" above, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — External Factors that May Impact our Business."

Our business is dependent on us winning competitive bid selection processes.

These selection processes are typically lengthy and can require us to dedicate significant development expenditures and engineering resources in pursuit of a single customer opportunity. Failure to obtain a particular design win may prevent us from obtaining design wins in subsequent generations of a particular product. This can result in lost revenue and could weaken our position in future competitive bid selection processes.

Customer relationships with emerging companies may present more risks than with established companies.

Customer relationships with emerging companies present special risks because we do not have an extensive product or customer relationship history. There is less demonstration of market acceptance of their products making it harder for us to anticipate requirements than with established customers. Our credit risk on these customers, especially in A/R and inventories, and the risk that these customers will be unable to fulfill indemnification obligations to us are potentially increased.
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If we are unable to recruit or retain highly skilled talent, our business could be adversely affected.
The recruitment of personnel in the EMS and ODM industry is highly competitive. We believe that our future success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled executive, technical and management talent in the various geographies in which we operate. Competitive dynamics, as well as the time required to replace or redistribute responsibilities related to the loss of the services of certain executive, management and technical employees, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our operations, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to retain their services. Regional competitive dynamics may also impact our ability to retain and acquire talent. Organizational changes may impact our relationships with customers, vendors, and employees, potentially resulting in loss of business, loss of vendor relationships, and the loss of key employees or declines in employee productivity. Uncertainties associated with any senior management transitions could lead to concerns from current and potential third parties with whom we do business, any of which could hurt our business prospects. Turnover in key leadership positions within the Company, or any failure to successfully integrate key new hires or promoted employees, may adversely impact our ability to manage the Company efficiently and effectively, could be disruptive and distracting to management and may lead to additional departures of existing personnel, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial results and internal controls over financial reporting.
We may not keep pace with rapidly evolving technology.
Many of the markets for our manufacturing and engineering services are characterized by rapidly changing technology and evolving process development, and we cannot assure that we will maintain or develop the capabilities required by our customers in the future. The emergence of new technologies, industry standards or customer requirements may render our equipment, designs, inventory or processes obsolete or noncompetitive. In addition, we may have to invest in new processes, capabilities or equipment to support new technologies used in our customers' current or future products, and to support their supply chain processes. Additionally, as we expand our service offerings or pursue business in new markets where our experience may be limited, we may be less effective in adapting to technological change. Our manufacturing, engineering, supply chain processes, and test development efforts and design capabilities may not be successful due to rapid technological shifts in any of these areas. The acquisition and implementation of new technologies and equipment and the offering of new or additional services to our customers may require significant expense or capital investment, which could reduce our operating margins and our operating results. Our failure to anticipate and adapt to our customers' changing technological needs and requirements or to hire and retain a sufficient number of engineers and maintain our engineering, technological and manufacturing expertise could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Various industry-specific standards, qualifications and certifications are required to produce certain types of products for our customers. Failure to obtain or maintain those certifications may adversely affect our ability to maintain existing levels of business or win new business.
We may not adequately protect our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others.
We believe that certain of our proprietary intellectual property rights and information provide us with a competitive advantage. Accordingly, we take steps to protect this proprietary information, including obtaining patents to safeguard our HPS intellectual property, entering into non-disclosure agreements with customers, suppliers, employees and other parties, and by implementing security measures. However, these measures may not be sufficient to prevent or detect the misappropriation or unauthorized use or disclosure of our intellectual property or information. We also conduct business in some countries where the extent of effective legal protection for intellectual property rights is uncertain. Even if we have intellectual property rights, there is no guarantee that such rights will provide adequate protection of items we consider to be proprietary. We may also be required to compromise protections or yield rights to technology, data or intellectual property in order to conduct business in or access markets in certain jurisdictions, either through formal written agreements or due to legal or administrative requirements in the host nation. If we are not able to protect our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
There is also a risk that claims of intellectual property infringement could be brought against us, our customers and/or our suppliers. If such claims are successful, we may be required to spend significant time and financial resources to develop non-infringing processes, technology or information or to obtain appropriate licenses from the owner. We may not be successful in such development, or any such licenses may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, any litigation could be lengthy and costly and could adversely affect us even if we are successful. As we expand our service offerings, we may be less effective in anticipating or mitigating the intellectual property risks related to new manufacturing, design and other services, which could be significant.
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We are subject to the risk of increasing income and other taxes, tax audits, and the challenges of successfully defending our tax positions, and obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits, any of which may adversely affect our financial performance.
We conduct business operations in a number of countries where tax incentives have been extended to encourage foreign investment or where income tax rates are low. Our income tax expense could increase significantly if certain tax incentives from which we benefit are retracted. A retraction could occur if we fail to satisfy the conditions on which these tax incentives are based, or if they are not renewed or replaced upon expiration. Our income tax expense could also increase if tax rates applicable to us in such jurisdictions are otherwise increased, or due to changes in legislation or administrative practices. Changes in our outlook in any particular country could impact our ability to meet the required conditions. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Results — Income taxes" and note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18 for a discussion of recently expired tax incentives, the status of existing tax incentives, and a challenge to our Brazilian sales tax levy rates and our Romanian tax position.
We develop our tax filing positions based upon the anticipated nature and structure of our business and the tax laws, administrative practices and judicial decisions currently in effect in the jurisdictions in which we have assets or conduct business, all of which are subject to change or differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect. The U.S. Biden administration has proposed legislative tax changes. Although such proposals, if adopted as currently contemplated, would not have a significant tax impact on our operations, we cannot predict the likelihood, timing or substance of U.S. tax reform. If the recent global minimum tax agreement is implemented in the jurisdictions in which we do business, it could, among other things, increase cash taxes, increase audit risk, and increase our worldwide corporate effective tax rate. In addition, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development continues to issue guidelines and proposals related to Base Erosion and Profit Shifting which may result in legislative changes that could reshape international tax rules in numerous countries and negatively impact our effective tax rate. We cannot predict the outcome of any specific legislative proposals or initiatives, and we cannot provide assurance that any such legislation or initiative will not apply to us. Legislation or other changes in U.S. and/or international tax laws could increase our tax liability or adversely affect our overall profitability and results of operations.
Certain of our subsidiaries provide financing or products and services to, and may from time-to-time undertake certain significant transactions with, other subsidiaries in different jurisdictions. Moreover, several jurisdictions in which we operate have tax laws with detailed transfer pricing rules which require that all transactions with non-resident related parties be priced using arm's-length pricing principles, and that contemporaneous documentation must exist to support such pricing.
We are subject to tax audits in various jurisdictions, which could result in additional tax expense in future periods related to prior results. Any such increase in our income tax expense and related interest and/or penalties could have a significant adverse impact on our future earnings and future cash flows. The successful pursuit of assertions made by any tax authority could result in our owing significant amounts of tax, interest, and possibly penalties. We believe we adequately accrue for any probable potential adverse tax ruling. However, there can be no assurance as to the final resolution of any claims and any resulting proceedings. If any claims and any ensuing proceedings are determined adversely to us, the amounts we may be required to pay could be material, and in excess of amounts accrued.
As at December 31, 2021, a significant portion of our cash and cash equivalents was held by foreign subsidiaries outside of Canada, a large part of which may be subject to withholding taxes upon repatriation under current tax laws. We repatriated in 2021, and currently expect to repatriate in the foreseeable future, an aggregate of approximately $290 million from various foreign subsidiaries (December 31, 2020 — expected to repatriate $300 million).
Our operations and our customer relationships may be adversely affected by disruptions to our information technology (IT) systems, including disruptions from cybersecurity breaches of our IT infrastructure.

As a complex, global company, we are heavily dependent on our IT systems to support our customers' requirements and to successfully manage our business. Any inability to successfully manage the procurement, development, implementation, execution or maintenance of such systems, including matters related to system and data security, cybersecurity, privacy, reliability, compliance, performance and access, as well as any inability of these systems to fulfill their intended purpose, could have an adverse effect on our business.

We are increasingly reliant on IT networks and systems, including our own and those of third-party service providers, to process, transmit and store electronic information. In particular, we depend on our IT infrastructure for a variety of functions, including (among others), product manufacturing, worldwide financial reporting, inventory and other data management, procurement, invoicing, employee payroll and benefits administration, and email communications. All of these systems are susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, sabotage and similar events.
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These systems are also susceptible to cybersecurity threats and incidents, ranging from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to our IT systems to sophisticated and targeted measures known as 'advanced persistent threats', and may include industrial espionage attacks, data theft, malware, phishing, ransomware attacks (which are becoming increasingly prevalent), or other cybersecurity threats or incidents. Similarly, third parties and infrastructure in our supply chain may become compromised or contain exploitable defects (of which we may be unaware) that could result in a breach or disruption of our systems and networks or the systems or networks of third parties that support us. We believe attempts to gain unauthorized access through the Internet or to introduce malicious software to our information systems are increasing in number and in technical sophistication.

If our security measures are compromised, or the security, confidentiality, integrity or availability of, our IT, software, services, communications or data is compromised, limited or fails, it could result in: damage to our system infrastructure; significant business interruption, delays or outages, either internally or at our third-party providers; data loss or leakage (including exposure to unauthorized persons or the public of sensitive data, including our intellectual property, trade secrets or personal information of our employees, customers or other business partners); significant extra expense to restore data or systems; reputational loss; significant fines, penalties and liability; breach or triggering of data protection laws, privacy policies and/or data protection obligations (discussed below); loss of customers or sales, and in the case of our defense business, debarment from future participation in U.S. government programs. In addition, we may be required to expend significant resources, change our business practices or modify our operations in an effort to protect against security breaches and to mitigate, detect, and remediate actual and potential vulnerabilities that could adversely affect our business and operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive information. If we are perceived to be unable to prevent or promptly identify and remedy such outages and breaches, this could result in reputational loss and/or loss of customers or sales.

While we have invested, and continue to invest, in the protection of our data and IT infrastructure, we regularly face attempts by others to access our information systems in an unauthorized manner, to introduce malicious software to such systems or both, and while we have not been materially impacted by computer viruses, malware, ransomware, hacking attempts, outages, or unauthorized access to data, we have been (and may continue to be) the target of such events. In addition, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent further service interruptions or identify breaches in our systems that could adversely affect our business and operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive information, which could result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm to us (as described above). Although this has not been an issue to date, our liability insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, cybersecurity attacks and other related breaches.

We expect that risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks will remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats, and the enhanced risk resulting from the number of employees currently working remotely due to COVID-19, through the increased use of home networks that may lack encryption or secure password protection, virtual meeting/conference security concerns and increase of phishing/cyber-attacks around COVID-19 digital resources.

We are also subject to increasing expectations and data security requirements from our customers, including those related to the U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulation, U.S. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and U.S. Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification. In addition, we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in various jurisdictions. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, and similar legislation in other jurisdictions in which we operate, impose additional obligations on companies regarding the handling of personal data and provide certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with customer expectations and existing, proposed and recently enacted laws and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these expectations and regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks. Misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others, fines and penalties, damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.
We may not be able to prevent or detect all errors or fraud.
Due to the inherent limitations of internal control systems, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected in a timely manner or at all. Accordingly, we cannot provide absolute assurance that all control issues, errors or instances of fraud, if any, impacting us have been or will be prevented or detected. In addition, over time, certain aspects of a control system may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate, which we may not be able to address quickly enough to prevent all instances of error or fraud. In connection with our on-going assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we may discover “material weaknesses” in our internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual
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or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The existence of any material weakness may require management to devote significant time and incur significant remediation expense. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting may result in errors in our financial statements that could require us to make corrective adjustments, restate our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, and cause shareholders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could materially and adversely affect the market price of our securities. If we are unable to successfully identify and remediate any material weaknesses that may arise in a timely manner, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, and we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports and applicable stock exchange listing requirements.
Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period.
Our quarterly and annual results may vary significantly depending on various factors, certain of which are described below, and many of which are beyond our control.
the volume and timing of customer demand relative to our capacity;
the typical short life cycle, and success in the marketplace, of our customers' products;
the cyclical nature of customer demand in several of our businesses;
customers' financial condition;
changes to our mix of customers, programs and/or end market demand;
how well we execute on our operational strategies, and the impact of changes to our business model;
varying revenues and gross margins among geographies and programs for the products or services we provide;
pricing pressures, the competitive environment and contract terms and conditions;
upfront investments and challenges associated with the ramping of programs for new or existing customers;
provisions or charges resulting from unexpected changes in market conditions impacting our industry or the end markets we serve;
customer disengagements or terminations or non-renewal of customer programs, arrangements or agreements;
the timing of expenditures in anticipation of future orders;
our effectiveness in planning production and managing inventory, fixed assets and manufacturing processes;
operational inefficiencies and disruptions in production at individual sites;
unanticipated disruptions to our cash flows;
changes in cost and availability of commodities, materials, components, services and labor;
current or future litigation;
seasonality in quarterly revenue patterns across some of our businesses;
governmental actions or changes in legislation;
currency fluctuations; and
changes in global economic and political conditions and world events, including the impact of External Events.
See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Overview" for a discussion of additional factors, including rapid shifts in technology, model obsolescence, commoditization of certain products, and the emergence of new business models, that contribute to the complexity of managing our operations and fluctuations in our financial results.
Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are subject to various federal/national, state/provincial, local, foreign and supra-national environmental laws and regulations. Our environmental management systems and practices have been designed to provide for compliance with these laws and regulations. Maintaining compliance with and responding to increasingly stringent environmental regulations requires a significant investment of time and resources and may restrict our ability to modify or expand our manufacturing sites or to continue production. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in significant fines and penalties, our operations may be suspended or subjected to increased oversight, and our cost of related investigations could be material in any period.
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More complex and stringent environmental legislation continues to be imposed globally, including laws that place increased responsibility and requirements on the "producers" of electronic equipment and, in turn, their providers and suppliers. Such laws may relate to product inputs (such as hazardous substances and energy consumption), product use (such as energy efficiency and waste management/recycling), and/or operational outputs/by-products from our manufacturing processes that can result in environmental contamination (such as waste water, air emissions and hazardous waste). Noncompliance with these requirements could result in substantial costs, including fines and penalties, and we may incur liability to our customers and consumers.

Even where compliance responsibility rests primarily with our customers, they may request our assistance in meeting their obligations. Our customers remain focused on issues such as waste management (including recycling), climate change (including the reduction of carbon emissions) and product stewardship, and expect their EMS providers to be environmental leaders. We strive to meet such customer expectations, although these demands may extend beyond our regulatory obligations and require significant investments of time and resources to attract and retain customers.
We generally conduct environmental assessments, or review assessment reports undertaken by others, for our manufacturing sites at the time of acquisition or leasing. However, such assessments may not reveal all environmental liabilities, and assessments have not been obtained for all sites. In addition, some of our operations involve the use of hazardous substances that could cause environmental impacts. While we have operational systems to provide environmental management, we cannot rule out all risk of non-compliance and could incur substantial costs to comply. Although if deemed necessary, we may investigate, remediate or monitor emissions and site conditions at some of our owned or leased sites (such as air, soil and/or groundwater conditions), we may not be aware of, or adequately address, all such emissions and conditions, and we may incur significant costs should such work be required. In many jurisdictions in which we operate, environmental laws impose liability for the costs of removal, remediation or risk assessment of hazardous or toxic substances on an owner, occupier or operator of real estate, even if such person or company was unaware of or not responsible for the discharge or migration of such substances. In some instances, where soil or groundwater contamination existed prior to our ownership or occupation, landlords or former owners may have retained some contractual responsibility or regulatory liability, but this may not provide sufficient protection to reduce or eliminate our liability. Third-party claims for damages or personal injury are also possible and could result in significant costs to us. If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, or the results of future testing and analyses at our current or former operating sites indicate that we are responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the air, ground and/or water, we may be subject to additional liability. Additional environmental matters may arise in the future at sites where no problem is currently known or at sites that we may acquire in the future.
Our HealthTech business is subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Canada, the European Medicines Agency, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, and similar regulatory bodies in other jurisdictions, relating to the medical devices and hardware we manufacture for our customers. Our sites that deliver products to the healthcare industry are certified or registered in quality management standards applicable to the healthcare industry. We are required to comply with various statutes and regulations related to the design, development, testing, manufacturing and labeling of our medical devices in addition to reporting of certain information with respect to the safety of such products. Any failure to comply with these regulations could result in fines, injunctions, product recalls, import detentions, additional regulatory controls, suspension of production, and/or the shutting down of one or more of our sites, among other adverse outcomes. Failure to comply with these regulations may also materially affect our reputation and/or relationships with customers and regulators.
We provide design, engineering and manufacturing related services to our customers in the A&D business. As part of these services, we are subject to substantial regulation from government agencies including the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration. Our A&D sites are certified in quality management standards applicable to the A&D industry. Failure to comply with these regulations or the loss of any of our quality management certifications may result in fines, penalties and injunctions, and could prevent us from executing on current or winning future contracts, any of which may materially adversely affect our financial condition and operating results. In addition to quality management standards, there are several other U.S. regulations with which we are required to comply, including the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), which provides uniform policies and procedures for acquisition; the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, a DOD agency supplement to the FAR that provides DOD-specific acquisition regulations that DOD government acquisition officials, and those contractors doing business with DOD, must comply with in the procurement process for goods and services; and the Truth in Negotiations Act, which requires full and fair disclosure by contractors in the conduct of negotiations with the government and its prime contractors. These rules are complex, our performance under them is subject to audit by the U.S. Defense Contract Audit Agency, the U.S. Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs and other government regulators, and in most cases must be complied with by our suppliers. If an audit or investigation reveals a failure
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to comply with regulations, we could become subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions by either the government or the prime customer, including government pre-approval of our government contracting activities, termination of the contract, payment of fines and suspension or debarment from doing further business with the U.S. government. Any of these actions could increase our expenses, reduce our revenue and damage our reputation as a reliable U.S. government supplier. We are also subject to the export control laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate, including, but not limited to, the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
Our international operations require us to comply with various anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) (CFPOA). In some countries in which we operate, it may be customary for businesses to engage in business practices that are prohibited by the FCPA, CFPOA or other laws and regulations. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with the FCPA, CFPOA and similar laws in other jurisdictions, there can be no assurance that all of our employees and agents, as well as those companies to which we outsource certain business operations, will not be in violation of these laws and our policies or procedures. In addition to the difficulty of monitoring compliance, any suspected or alleged activity would require a costly investigation by us and may result in the diversion of management's time, resources and attention. Failure to comply with these laws may subject us to, among other things, adverse publicity, penalties and legal expenses that may harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
As a public company, we are subject to stringent laws, regulations and other requirements, including the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the U.S. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), affecting, among other areas, our accounting, internal controls, corporate governance practices, securities disclosures and reporting. For example, due to our complex supply chain, compliance with Dodd-Frank diligence, disclosure and reporting requirements with respect to defined "conflict minerals" is time-consuming and costly. If we are unable to ascertain the origins of all such minerals used in the manufacturing of our products through the due diligence procedures we implement, we may be unable to satisfy our customers' certification requirements. This may harm our reputation, damage our customer relationships and result in a loss of revenue. If the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules or other new social or environmental standards limit our pool of suppliers in order to produce "conflict free" or "socially responsible" products, or otherwise adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in our products, we could also experience cost increases and a material adverse impact on our operating results.
    In addition, whenever we pursue business in new end markets, or our customers pursue new technologies or businesses, we are required to navigate the potentially heavy regulatory and legislative burdens of such end markets or technologies, as well as applicable quality standards with respect thereto.
The regulatory climate can itself affect the demand for our services. For example, government reimbursement rates and other regulations, as well as the financial health of healthcare providers, changes in how healthcare in the U.S. is structured, and how medical devices are taxed, could affect the willingness and ability of end customers to purchase the products of our customers in this market as well as impact our margins.
Our customers are also required to comply with various government regulations, legal requirements and industry standards, including many of the industry-specific regulations discussed above. Our customers' failure to comply could affect their businesses, which in turn would affect our sales to them. In addition, if our customers are required by regulation or other requirements to make changes in their product lines, these changes could significantly disrupt particular programs for these customers and create inefficiencies in our business.
In addition, a failure by a supplier or manufacturer to comply with applicable laws, regulations or customer requirements could negatively impact our business, and for governmental customers, could result in fines, penalties, suspension or even debarment being imposed on us, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance or the failure to comply with employment laws and regulations may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign employment laws, including those related to: workplace safety, discrimination, harassment, whistle-blowing, wages and overtime, personal taxation, classification of employees, work authorizations and severance. Compliance with such laws may increase our costs. In addition, such laws are subject to change, and enforcement activity relating to these laws, particularly outside of the U.S., may increase as a result of greater media attention due to alleged violations by other companies, changes in law, political and other factors. There can be no assurance that, in the future, we will not be found to have violated elements of such laws. Any such violations could lead to the
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assessment of fines or damages against us by regulatory authorities or claims by employees, any of which could adversely affect our operating results and/or our reputation.
We may be required to make larger contributions to our defined benefit pension and other benefit plans in the future.
We maintain defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans, as well as other benefit plans globally. Our pension obligations are based on certain assumptions relating to plan asset performance, salary changes, employee turnover, retirement ages, life expectancy, expected healthcare costs, the performance of the financial markets, future interest rates, and plan and legislative changes. If actual results or future expectations differ from these assumptions or if statutory funding requirements change, the amounts we are obligated to contribute to the pension plans may increase and such increase could be significant. We are also required to contribute amounts to our other benefit plans to meet local statutory or such plans' funding requirements. The amounts we are obligated to contribute may increase due to legislative or other changes.
There are inherent uncertainties involved in the judgments, estimates, and assumptions used in the preparation of our financial statements. Any changes in judgments, estimates and assumptions could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18 are prepared in accordance with IFRS, which requires management to make judgments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Judgments, estimates, and assumptions are inherently subject to change in future periods, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Our credit agreement contains restrictive and financial covenants that may impair our ability to conduct business, and the failure to comply with such covenants could cause our outstanding debt to become immediately payable.
Our credit agreement contains restrictive covenants that limit our management's discretion with respect to certain business matters. Among other factors, these covenants limit our ability and our subsidiaries' ability to incur additional debt, create liens or other encumbrances, change the nature of our business, sell or otherwise dispose of assets, make certain investments and payments, repurchase SVS for cancellation if a defined leverage ratio exceeds a specified amount, merge or consolidate with other entities, or effect specified changes in control. This agreement also contains certain financial covenants related to indebtedness and interest coverage. If we are not able to comply with these covenants, our outstanding debt could become immediately due and payable, and the incurrence of additional debt under our revolving credit facility may not be allowed, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and ability to conduct our business.
We are subject to interest rate fluctuations.
Borrowings under our credit agreement generally bear interest at a selected rate (depending on the currency of the borrowing and our election for such currency), plus a margin (based on the rate we select and a defined consolidated leverage ratio). Our term loans currently bear interest at LIBOR plus a specified margin (2.125% for one term loan and 2.0% for the other). These borrowings (which increased in 2021 compared to 2020 to fund a portion of our PCI acquisition) expose us to interest rate risks due to fluctuations in these rates and margins, and our interest rate swap agreements only apply to a portion of the total borrowings under our term loans. Significant interest rate fluctuations may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

The discontinuation of LIBOR may negatively impact us.

    Global reform of major interest rate benchmarks is currently underway, including the anticipated replacement of some Interbank Offered Rates (including LIBOR) with alternative nearly risk-free rates. We have obligations under our credit facility and certain lease arrangements and derivative instruments that are indexed to LIBOR (LIBOR Agreements), and most (including our credit facility), have not yet transitioned to alternative benchmark rates. The interest rates under these agreements are subject to change when relevant LIBOR benchmark rates cease to exist. See note 20 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18 for a discussion of the status of interest rate transitions under applicable agreements. We cannot assure that any applicable alternative reference rates under the LIBOR Agreements that have not yet transitioned from LIBOR will result in substantially similar interest rate calculations under such agreements. If any such alternative reference rates are higher than LIBOR, interest rates under the affected LIBOR Agreements would increase, which would adversely impact our interest expense, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, with respect to our interest rate swap agreements, hedge ineffectiveness could result due to the cessation of LIBOR if such agreements transition using a different benchmark or spread adjustment as compared to the underlying hedged debt. We will continue to monitor developments with respect to the cessation of LIBOR, and will evaluate potential impacts on the LIBOR Agreements and our financial results. However, we are currently unable to predict what the future replacement rates or consequences on our operations or financial results will be.
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We anticipate that we will refinance outstanding indebtedness from time to time, and an inability to refinance on favorable terms, or at all, would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

We anticipate that we will repay outstanding debt from time to time through refinancing. The amount of our existing indebtedness may impede our ability to obtain such refinancing on acceptable terms, or at all. If we cannot refinance, extend, or pay principal payments due at maturity with the proceeds of other capital transactions, our cash flows may not be sufficient to repay our debt upon maturity. In such event, we may be forced to dispose of one or more assets on disadvantageous terms. In addition, refinanced debt may carry higher interest rates and have more restrictive covenants than our current outstanding indebtedness. Although we anticipate that we will be able to repay or refinance our existing indebtedness when it matures, there can be no assurance we will be able to do so, or that the terms of any such refinancing will be favorable. An inability to refinance, extend or otherwise satisfy our debt as it matures would have a material adverse effect on our business, contracts, financial condition, operating results, cash flow, liquidity and prospects.
Deterioration in financial markets or in the macro-economic environment may adversely affect our ability to raise funds or increase the cost of raising funds.
Our ability to borrow or raise capital, or refinance or increase our third-party indebtedness may be impacted if financial markets are unstable. Disruptions in the capital and credit markets could adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolver (or any successor or additional facility). Our access to funds under our credit facility (or any successor or additional facility) will be dependent on the ability of our senior lenders to meet their funding commitments. They may not be able to meet their funding commitments to us if they experience shortages of capital and liquidity or if they experience excessive volumes of borrowing requests from us and other borrowers within a short period of time. Longer term disruptions in the capital and credit markets as a result of uncertainty, changing or increased regulation, reduced alternatives, or failures of significant financial institutions could adversely affect our access to liquidity needed for our business. Any disruption could require us to take measures to conserve cash until the markets stabilize or until alternative credit arrangements or other funding sources can be arranged. Such measures could include deferring capital expenditures, and reducing or eliminating discretionary uses of cash.
Our credit rating may be downgraded.
Any negative change in our credit rating or outlook may make it more expensive for us to raise additional capital in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all.
The interest of our controlling shareholder, Onex Corporation, with an 81.5% voting interest, may conflict with the interests of other shareholders.
Onex Corporation (Onex) beneficially owns all of our outstanding multiple voting shares (MVS) and less than 1% of our outstanding SVS. The number of SVS and MVS beneficially owned by Onex represents 81.5% of the voting interest in Celestica. Accordingly, Onex has the ability to exercise significant influence over our business and affairs and generally has the power to determine all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders where our shares vote together as a single class. Onex may make decisions regarding Celestica and our business that are opposed to other shareholders' interests or with which other shareholders may disagree. Onex's voting power could have the effect of deterring or preventing a change in control of our Corporation that might otherwise be beneficial to our other shareholders. Through its shareholdings, Onex has the power to elect our directors and its approval is required for significant corporate transactions such as certain amendments to our Restated Articles of Incorporation (Articles), the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and plans of arrangement. The directors so elected have the authority, subject to applicable laws, to appoint or replace senior management, cause us to issue additional SVS or MVS or repurchase SVS or MVS, declare dividends or take other actions.
Gerald W. Schwartz, the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, indirectly owns shares representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex. The interests of Onex and Mr. Schwartz may differ from the interests of the remaining holders of SVS. For additional information about our principal shareholders, see Item 7(A), "Major Shareholders." Also see Item 7(B), "Related Party Transactions" for a description of related party transactions involving Onex and/or Mr. Schwartz.
Onex has, from time-to-time, issued debentures exchangeable and redeemable under certain circumstances for our SVS, entered into forward equity agreements with respect to our SVS, sold our SVS (after exchanging MVS for SVS), or redeemed these debentures through the delivery of our SVS, and could take similar actions in the future. These sales may impact our share price or have consequences on our debt and ownership structure.
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We are subject to litigation and proceedings, which may result in substantial expenses, settlement costs or judgments, require the time and attention of key management resources, and result in adverse publicity, any of which may negatively impact our financial performance.
We are from time to time party to various copyright, patent and trademark infringement, unfair competition, breach of contract, customs, employment and other legal actions incidental to our business, as plaintiff or defendant, as well as various other claims, suits, investigations and legal or governmental proceedings (including securities class action and shareholder derivative lawsuits which have been settled or dismissed). Additional legal claims or regulatory matters may arise in the future and could involve matters relating to commercial disputes, government regulation and compliance, intellectual property, antitrust, tax, employment or shareholder issues, product liability claims and other issues on a global basis. Regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation or governmental proceedings may be both time-consuming and disruptive to our business. The defense and ultimate outcome of any lawsuits or other legal proceedings may result in higher expenses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. We cannot predict the final outcome of such lawsuits or proceedings or the likelihood that other proceedings will be initiated against us. Accordingly, the cost of defending against such lawsuits or proceedings, or any future lawsuits or proceedings may be high and, in any event, these legal proceedings may result in the diversion of our management's time and attention away from our business. In the event that there is an adverse ruling in any legal proceeding, we may be required to make payments to third parties that could be in excess or any amounts accrued, and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and/or results of operations.
Changes in accounting standards enacted by the relevant standard-setting bodies may adversely affect our reported operating results, profitability and financial performance.
Accounting standards are revised periodically and/or expanded upon by applicable standard-setting bodies. While these accounting changes do not typically affect the economics of our business, such standards have in the past, and may in the future, have a significant effect on our accounting methods and reported results. Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS, and as such, may not be comparable to the information reported by our competitors or other public companies that use different accounting standards.
The market price of our SVS has been volatile.
Volatility in our business can result in significant SVS price and volume fluctuations. Factors such as changes in our operating results, announcements by our customers, competitors or other events affecting companies in the electronics industry, currency fluctuations, general market fluctuations, macro-economic conditions, and External Events may cause the market price of our SVS to decline. In addition, if our operating results do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our SVS could decline. Furthermore, the existence of our NCIB may cause our SVS price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program, and repurchases under the NCIB expose us to risks resulting from a reduction in the size of our "public float," which may reduce our trading volume as well as our SVS price.
There can be no assurance that we will continue to repurchase SVS for cancellation.
Although we currently have an NCIB in effect, whether we repurchase SVS under such NCIB for cancellation, and the amount and timing of any such repurchases, is subject to the restrictions under our credit facility, capital availability and periodic determinations by our Board of Directors (Board) that SVS repurchases are in the best interest of our shareholders and are in compliance with all applicable laws and agreements. Any future permitted SVS repurchases, including their timing and amount, may be affected by, among other factors: our consolidated leverage ratio (as defined in our credit facility); our views on potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions; debt service requirements; our credit rating; changes to applicable tax laws or corporate laws; and changes to our business model. In addition, the amount we spend and the number of SVS we are able to repurchase for cancellation under any NCIB or substantial issuer bid may further be affected by a number of other factors, including the SVS we repurchase to satisfy stock-based compensation awards, the price of our SVS and blackout periods in which we are restricted from repurchasing SVS. Our SVS repurchases may change from time to time, and even if permitted under our credit facility, we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to repurchase SVS for cancellation in any particular amounts or at all. A reduction in or elimination of our SVS repurchases could have a negative effect on our stock price.
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Potential unenforceability of judgments.
We are incorporated under the laws of the Province of Ontario, Canada. Our controlling persons, half of our directors, and one of our executive officers are residents of (or are organized in) Canada. Also, a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside of the U.S. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the U.S. upon those directors, officers, or controlling persons who are not residents of the U.S, or to enforce judgments in the U.S. obtained in courts of the U.S. It may also be difficult for shareholders to enforce a U.S. judgment in Canada predicated upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal or state securities laws or to succeed in a lawsuit in Canada based only on U.S. federal or state securities laws.
Negative publicity could adversely affect our reputation as well as our business, financial results and share price.
Unfavorable media related to our industry, company, brand, marketing, personnel, operations, business performance, or prospects may affect our share price and the performance of our business, regardless of its accuracy or inaccuracy. The speed at which negative publicity can be disseminated has increased dramatically with the capabilities of electronic communication, including social media outlets, websites, blogs, and newsletters. Our success in maintaining, extending, and expanding our brand image depends on our ability to adapt to this rapidly changing media environment. Adverse publicity or negative commentary from any media outlet could damage our reputation and reduce the demand for our products, which would adversely affect our business.
Climate change could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

There is increasing concern that a gradual increase in global average temperatures due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in weather patterns around the globe and an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Changes in weather patterns and an increased frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather conditions could, among other things, impair our production capabilities, disrupt the operation of our supply chain, and impact our customers and their demand for our services. As a result, the effects of climate change could have a long-term adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business and operations could be adversely impacted by environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiatives.

Concern over climate change has led to international legislative and regulatory initiatives directed at limiting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed and existing efforts to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions could directly or indirectly affect our costs of energy, materials, manufacturing, distribution, packaging and other operating costs, which could adversely impact our business and financial results.

Further, investors are placing a greater emphasis on non-financial factors, including ESG factors, when evaluating investment opportunities. Although we actively manage a broad range of ESG matters, including the potential impact of our business on society and the environment, and matters relating to diversity and inclusion, there can be no certainty that we will manage such issues effectively, or that we will successfully meet society’s expectations in this regard. The perception of our operations held by our shareholders, potential investors, suppliers, customers, other stakeholders, or the communities in which we do business may depend, in part, on the ESG standards we have chosen to aspire to meet, whether or not we meet these standards on a timely basis or at all, and whether or not we meet external ESG factors they deem relevant. In addition, notwithstanding our achievements in these regards, the subjective nature and wide variety of methods and processes used by various stakeholders, including investors, to assess a company with respect to ESG criteria can result in the perception of negative ESG factors or a misrepresentation of our ESG policies and practices. In addition, by electing to set and publicly share our ESG standards, our business may face increased scrutiny related to ESG activities. As a result, our reputation could be harmed if we fail to act effectively in the areas in which we report. In addition, our failure to achieve progress on our ESG policies and practices on a timely basis, or at all, or to meet ESG criteria set by third parties, could adversely affect our SVS price, business, financial performance, or growth.

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Item 4.    Information on the Company
A.    History and Development of the Company
We were incorporated in Ontario, Canada on September 27, 1996. Our legal and commercial name is Celestica Inc. We are a corporation domiciled in the Province of Ontario, Canada and operate under the Business Corporations Act (Ontario) (OBCA). Our principal executive offices are located at 5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7. Our telephone number is (416) 448-5800, and our internet address is www.celestica.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.
Prior to our incorporation, we were an IBM manufacturing unit that provided manufacturing services to IBM for more than 75 years. In 1993, we began providing electronics manufacturing services to non-IBM customers. In October 1996, we were purchased from IBM by an investor group led by Onex, and in 1998, we completed our initial public offering.
A description of our acquisition activities (including our acquisition of PCI in November of 2021), our principal capital expenditures (including property, plant and equipment), and our financing activities over the last three financial years is set forth in notes 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 21, and 24 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A."
A description of our divestiture activities (including our restructuring activities) over the last three financial years is set forth in notes 6 and 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A," including a discussion of the 2019 sale of our real property located in Toronto, Ontario, and related transition matters. Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A" also describes principal divestitures (primarily our restructuring activities) currently in progress.
A description of our significant commitments for capital expenditures as at December 31, 2021 and those currently in progress and planned for 2022 is set forth in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Liquidity — Contractual Obligations: Additional Commitments."
    See "Overview — Celestica's business" and "Recent Developments" in Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A" for a discussion of the estimated annualized impact of disengagements associated with the review of our CCS segment portfolio; as well as recent trends impacting our businesses, including the impact of global supply constraints, due in part to COVID-19. 
There were no public takeover offers by third parties in respect of the Corporation's SVS or MVS or by the Corporation in respect of other companies' shares which occurred during the last or current financial year.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov.
B.    Business Overview
General
We deliver innovative supply chain solutions globally to customers in two operating and reporting segments: Advanced Technology Solutions (ATS) and Connectivity & Cloud Solutions (CCS).
Our ATS segment consists of our ATS end market, and is comprised of our A&D, Industrial, Energy, HealthTech, and Capital Equipment businesses. Our Capital Equipment business is comprised of our semiconductor, display, and power & signal distribution equipment businesses. Our CCS segment consists of our Communications and Enterprise end markets. Our Enterprise end market is comprised of our servers and storage businesses. All period percentages and financial information in this Annual Report reflect the current presentation. See note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
Our customers include original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), cloud-based and other service providers, including hyperscalers, and other companies in a wide range of industries. Our global headquarters is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We operate a network of sites and centers of excellence (discussed below) strategically located in North America, Europe and Asia, with specialized end-to-end supply chain capabilities tailored to meet specific market and customer product lifecycle requirements.

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We offer a comprehensive range of product manufacturing and related supply chain services to customers in both of our segments, including design and development, new product introduction, engineering services, component sourcing, electronics manufacturing and assembly, testing, complex mechanical assembly, systems integration, precision machining, order fulfillment, logistics, asset management, product licensing, and after-market repair and return services. Our HPS offering, within our CCS segment, includes the development of hardware platforms, design solutions and software services that can be used as-is, or customized for specific applications in collaboration with our customers, and management of program design and aspects of the supply chain, manufacturing, and after-market support.
We believe our services and solutions create value for our customers by enabling their strategies, while accelerating their time-to-market, and by providing higher quality, lower cost, and reduced cycle times (as compared to insourcing) in our customers' supply chains. We believe this results in lower total cost of ownership, greater flexibility, higher return on invested capital and improved competitive advantage for our customers in their respective markets.
We depend on a small number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. In the aggregate, our top 10 customers represented 66% of our total 2021 revenue (2020 — 66%). In 2021 and 2020, no customer individually represented 10% or more of total revenue. Cisco (a former CCS segment customer) accounted for 9% of total 2020 revenue, and 12% of total 2019 revenue (and was the only customer in 2019 that individually represented 10% or more of total revenue). Significant reductions in, or the loss of, revenue from these or any of our major customers may have a material adverse effect on us. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "We are dependent on a limited number of customers and end markets. A decline in revenue from, or the loss of, any significant customer, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results." Disengagements resulting from our recent CCS segment portfolio review resulted in an estimated annualized revenue decline of $1.25 billion compared to revenue in 2018, the year such review commenced.

Products and services in our ATS segment are extensive and are often more regulated than in our CCS segment, and can include the following: government-certified and highly-specialized manufacturing, electronic and enclosure-related services for A&D customers; high-precision semiconductor and display equipment and integrated subsystems; a wide range of industrial automation, controls, test and measurement devices; engineering-focused engagements, including full product development in the areas of telematics, human machine interface (HMI), Internet-of-Things (IoT) and embedded systems; advanced solutions for surgical instruments, diagnostic imaging and patient monitoring; and efficiency products to help manage and monitor the energy and power industries. Our ATS segment businesses typically have higher margin profiles and margin volatility, higher working capital requirements, and longer product life cycles than the businesses in our CCS segment. Products and services in our CCS segment consist predominantly of enterprise-level data communications and information processing infrastructure products and systems, and can include routers, switches, data center interconnects, edge solutions, and servers and storage-related products used by a wide range of businesses and cloud-based and other service providers to manage digital connectivity, commerce and social media applications. Our CCS segment businesses typically have lower margin profiles, lower working capital requirements, and higher volumes than the businesses in our ATS segment. Within our CCS segment, however, our HPS business (which includes firmware/software enablement across all primary IT infrastructure data center technologies and after-market services) typically has a higher margin profile than our traditional CCS businesses, but also requires specific investments (including R&D) and higher working capital. Our CCS segment generally experiences a high degree of volatility in terms of revenue and product/service mix, and as a result, our CCS segment margin can fluctuate from period to period. In recent periods, we have experienced an increasing shift in the mix of our programs towards cloud-based and other service providers, which are cyclically different from our traditional OEM customers, creating more volatility and unpredictability in our revenue patterns, and additional challenges with respect to the management of our supply chain and working capital requirements.
We remain committed to making the investments we deem necessary to support our long-term growth strategy, strengthen our competitive position, enhance customer satisfaction, and increase long-term shareholder value. Within both of our segments, we are focused on: increased penetration in our end markets; diversifying our customer mix and product portfolios, including increasing design and development, engineering, and after-market services (higher value-added services); and diversifying our capabilities and supply chains. In response to slower growth rates and increased pricing pressures in our traditional markets, which continue to account for a substantial portion of our revenue, we intend to continue to concentrate on expanding our business beyond such traditional markets, including through CCS segment growth initiatives focused on our newly-reshaped CCS segment portfolio, and by continuing to pursue new customers and acquisition opportunities in our ATS segment. See "Celestica’s Strategy" below for a discussion of our strategy, and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Goals and Priorities" for a discussion of our current priorities.
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Electronics Manufacturing Services Industry
Overview
Leading EMS companies manage global networks that are capable of delivering customized supply chain solutions. They offer end-to-end services for the entire product lifecycle, including design and engineering services, manufacturing, assembly, testing, systems integration, fulfillment and after-market services. Our customers, which include OEMs, cloud-based and other service providers (including hyperscalers), and other companies in a wide range of industries, outsource these services to address challenges related to cost, asset utilization, quality, time-to-market, demand volatility, customer support, and rapidly changing technologies. In particular, service providers have utilized our services to expand and optimize their data centers to enable their strategies.

We believe outsourcing by these companies will continue across a number of industries as a means to:
Reduce Operating Costs and Invested Capital. Global EMS companies can provide access to a network of manufacturing sites with supply chain management expertise, advanced engineering capabilities, flexible capacity and economies of scale. As a result, outsourcing to such companies can reduce customers' overall product lifecycle and operating costs, working capital, and property, plant and equipment investment requirements.
Focus Resources on Core Competencies. EMS customers are able to prioritize their resources on product development, sales, marketing and customer service by outsourcing design, engineering, manufacturing, supply chain, product lifecycle management, and other product support requirements.
Improve Time-to-Market. We believe that companies can significantly improve their product development cycles and enhance time-to-market by benefiting from the expertise and infrastructure of EMS providers, including their capabilities relating to design and engineering services, prototyping and the rapid ramp-up of new products to high-volume production, all with the critical support of global supply chain management and manufacturing networks.
Utilize EMS Companies' Procurement, Inventory Management and Logistics Expertise. We believe that the successful manufacturing of electronic products requires significant resources to manage the complexities in planning, procurement and inventory management, frequent design changes, short product lifecycles and product demand fluctuations. Companies can help manage these complexities by outsourcing to those EMS providers that (i) possess sophisticated IT systems and global supply chain management capabilities and (ii) can leverage significant component procurement advantages to lower product costs.
Access Leading Engineering Capabilities and Technologies. EMS providers can assist companies in the development of new product concepts, the re-design of existing products, and improvements with respect to the performance, cost and time required to bring products to market. In addition, companies can gain access to high-quality manufacturing expertise and capabilities in the areas of advanced process, interconnect and test technologies.
Improve Access to Global Markets. EMS companies with global infrastructure and support capabilities help to provide customers with efficient world-wide manufacturing solutions, distribution capabilities and after-market services.
Access Value-Added Service Offerings. EMS providers strive to expand their offerings to include services such as design, fulfillment and after-market services, including repair and recycling, to encourage companies to outsource more of their cost of goods sold.
Celestica's Strategy
We constantly seek to advance our quality, engineering, manufacturing, HPS, and supply chain capabilities. We will continue to focus on our pursuit of the following, intended to strengthen our competitive position and enhance customer satisfaction and shareholder value:
Increase Penetration in our End Markets/Offerings. We strive to further diversify our portfolio. Our goal is to increase our presence across our high-value end markets, with particular emphasis on HPS business within our CCS segment, and expanding our ATS segment, both organically and through acquisitions. Revenue from our HealthTech and Capital Equipment businesses for 2021 increased by an aggregate of approximately 30% from 2020. Within our CCS segment, we continue to expand our HPS offering, which accounted for 20% of our total 2021 revenue, up from 15% in 2020. We intend to continue to expand our portfolio in higher margin service offerings (including HPS).

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Our end market revenue as a percentage of total revenue is as follows:
201920202021
ATS39%36%41%
Communications40%42%40%
Enterprise21%22%19%

Selectively Pursue Acquisitions and Strategic Transactions. We will continue to selectively seek acquisition opportunities and strategic transactions in order to (i) profitably grow our revenue, (ii) further develop strategic relationships with customers in our end markets; (iii) enhance the scope of our capabilities and service offerings, (iv) enhance our intellectual property portfolio, and (v) expand our capabilities and offerings to include further after-market services and product licensing opportunities.
Continuously Improve Operational Performance. We will continue to focus on: (i) managing our mix and volume of business and service offerings to improve our overall margins, (ii) leveraging our supply chain practices globally to lower materials costs, minimize lead times and improve our planning cycle to better meet volatility in customer demand and improve asset utilization and inventory levels, (iii) successfully ramping new programs, and (iv) improving operating efficiencies to reduce costs and improve margins. In order to help us streamline our processes, we continue to invest in our "digital factory," which automates and connects our equipment, people and systems throughout our global network, including our customers and suppliers. Although our overall revenues decreased in 2021 compared to 2020, our mix of programs, and volume leverage across several of our businesses had a favorable impact on our gross margin in 2021. In addition, our cost reductions initiatives, intended to further streamline our business, increase operational efficiencies and improve our productivity, had a favorable impact on our profitability in 2021.
Develop and Grow Trusted Relationships with Leading Customers. We continue to pursue profitable, strategic relationships with industry leaders that we believe can benefit from our services and solutions. We strive to respond to our customers' needs with speed, flexibility and predictability. We have established and maintain strong relationships with a diverse mix of leading OEMs, cloud-based and other service providers and other companies across our end markets. We believe that our customer base is a strong potential source of growth for us as we seek to strengthen these relationships through the delivery of additional services.  
Expand Range of Service Offerings and Continue to Invest in Developing New Technology, Quality Products and Supply Chain Solutions and Services. We continually seek to expand the services we offer to our customers, and we are committed to meeting our customers' needs in the areas of technology, engineering, quality, product lifecycle management and supply chain management. We believe our expertise in these areas enables us to meet the rigorous demands of our customers, allows us to produce a variety of electronic products ranging from high-volume electronics to highly complex technology infrastructure products used in a broad array of end markets, and allows us to deliver consistently reliable products to our customers. We also believe the systems and collaborative processes associated with our expertise in supply chain management help us to adjust our operations to meet customer lead time requirements, and quickly and effectively deliver products directly to end customers. We collaborate with our suppliers to influence component design for the benefit of our customers. As a result of the successes that we have had in these areas, we have been recognized with numerous customer and industry achievement awards.
    See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Operating Goals and Priorities" for a discussion of our current priorities and areas of focus.
Celestica's Business
Innovative Supply Chain Solutions and Services
We are a global provider of innovative supply chain solutions. We offer a range of services including design and development, engineering services, supply chain management, new product introduction, component sourcing, electronics manufacturing, assembly, testing, complex mechanical assembly, systems integration, precision machining, order fulfillment, logistics, asset management, product licensing, and after-market repair and return services. Our design and development services include our HPS offering, which consists of developing hardware platforms, design solutions and software services in collaboration primarily with CCS segment customers, as well as managing aspects of the supply chain and manufacturing, including firmware/software enablement across all primary IT infrastructure data center technologies, and after-market support. We believe that our HPS offering helps to differentiate us from other EMS providers, by encompassing advanced technology
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design solutions that customers can tailor to their specific platform applications. We execute our business in our global network of sites, including our designated centers of excellence, strategically located in North America, Europe and Asia. We leverage these sites and centers of excellence, information technology, and our supply chain expertise using collaborative processes and a team of highly skilled, customer-focused employees. We believe that our ability to deliver a range of supply chain and hardware solutions to our customers provides them with a competitive lead time, and advantages in quality, flexibility and total cost of ownership.
The objective of our centers of excellence program is to help ensure that our operations reflect a solid understanding of the markets we serve, have current capabilities and standardized practices, and are positioned to provide efficiency, consistency, and value to our customers around the globe. To obtain "center of excellence" status, our sites must meet our defined criteria pertaining to quality, supply chain capabilities, Lean and Six Sigma, market specific certifications (to the extent applicable), and other matters regarding their operations. In September 2021, we assumed manufacturing, warehousing, and customer return goods activity under an outsourcing arrangement with Fujitsu Network Communications, Inc. (FNC), and signed a 10-year lease agreement for a portion of FNC's Richardson, Texas facility. We also established a center of excellence at the FNC facility, expanding our HPS engineering network and increasing our North America manufacturing capacity. In addition, we have established a Master Validation Plan to help ensure that our IT systems that support regulated industries, including HealthTech and A&D, are compliant with customer expectations with respect to data security.

Quality, Lean and Six Sigma Culture

We believe one of our strengths is our ability to consistently deliver high-quality services and products. We have an extensive quality management system that focuses on continual process improvement and achieving high levels of customer satisfaction. We employ a variety of advanced statistical engineering techniques and other tools to assist in improving product and service quality. Most of our principal sites are ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified (international quality management standards), and have other required industry-specific certifications.

Our Celestica Operating System (COS) consists of the application of global standard processes to all critical aspects of our operations, including quality, supply and operations planning, new product introduction, daily visual performance management, and continuous operational improvement through a “Plan Do Check Adjust” cycle. The COS is intended to improve cost productivity, create accountable teams, and assure consistent performance.
In addition to these standards, we deploy Lean initiatives to help drive manufacturing efficiencies, cycle times velocities and improved product quality, and use Six Sigma extensively in an effort to reduce process variation and to drive root cause problem-solving. Lean and Six Sigma methods are also used in non-production areas to streamline our processes and eliminate waste. We apply the knowledge we gain in our after-market services to help improve the quality and reliability of next-generation products. We believe that success in these areas helps our customers to lower their costs, positioning them more competitively in their respective markets.
Design and Engineering Services

Our global design teams are focused on delivering flexible solutions and expertise, intended to help customers reduce overall product costs, improve time-to-market, introduce competitively differentiated products, and drive hardware innovations. For customer-owned designs, we augment their design teams, and utilize our proprietary design analysis tools to minimize design revisions and to achieve improved manufacturing yields. Our HPS offering includes the development of hardware platforms and design solutions in collaboration with customers, managing aspects of the supply chain, manufacturing their products and providing asset management services (including IT asset disposition). Our HPS offering is an engineering-led, intellectual-property-based offering that allows us to drive hardware innovation and solutions for our customers and further broaden our value proposition by leveraging our ecosystem partners and broad range of capabilities across the product lifecycle. We continue to invest in leading-edge product roadmaps and design capabilities aligned with both market standards and emerging technologies in support of our HPS offering. We are currently delivering both partially customized HPS products, and complete hardware platform solutions to customers in the storage, servers, and communications markets. These products and solutions are intended to help our customers reach their markets faster and enable their strategies, while reducing total costs, increasing supply chain resilience and building valuable intellectual property for their product portfolios and/or data centers. Through our collective experience with common technologies across multiple industries and product groups, we believe we provide quality and cost-focused solutions for a wide range of our customers' design needs and strategies. Revenue attributable to our HPS business has more than doubled since 2019, due in part to increased demand resulting from COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021.
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We collaborate with some of our core customers' product designers in the early stages of product development, using advanced tools to enable new product ideas to progress from electrical and application-specific integrated circuit design, to simulation, physical layout and design review, all intended to ensure readiness for manufacturing. We use our design expertise to create innovative technologies and hardware product solutions, and leverage key ecosystem partners to drive both innovation and supply chain leverage. Our HPS offering encompasses advanced technology hardware design solutions that customers can tailor to their specific applications. We believe that collaboration between our customers' teams, key ecosystem partners, and our design and manufacturing groups helps to ensure that new designs are released rapidly, smoothly and cohesively into production.
Our engineering services team works with our customers throughout the product life-cycle. We believe our engineering expertise and experience in product and process design, design review, product test solutions, assembly technology, automation, and quality and reliability, position us to deliver the services required to address the challenges facing our customers. We maintain ties with key industry associations and engineering firms to help us stay apprised of advances in technical knowledge.
Prototyping and New Product Introduction
Prototyping is a critical early-stage process in the development of new products. Our engineers collaborate with our customers' engineers to provide quick responses in the early stages of the product development lifecycle.
Supply Chain Management and Services
We use advanced planning, analytics, enterprise resource planning, and supply chain management systems to optimize materials management from suppliers to our customers' customers. We believe that the effective management of the supply chain is critical to our customers' success, as it directly impacts the time and cost required to deliver products to market and the capital requirements associated with carrying inventory.
We strive to reduce our customers' total cost of ownership by providing lower costs and reduced cycle times in their supply chain, and by delivering higher quality products. We also strive to align our preferred suppliers in close proximity to our centers of excellence to increase the speed and flexibility of our supply chain, to deliver higher quality products and to reduce time-to-market.
Through our global supply chain management processes and integrated IT tools, we endeavor to provide our customers with enhanced visibility to balance their global demand and supply requirements, including inventory and order management.
Manufacturing Services
Printed Circuit Board Assembly
Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly includes the attachment of electronic components, such as capacitors, microprocessors, resistors and memory modules, to PCBs. Our global network of engineers helps us to provide our customers with full PCB assembly technology capabilities. These capabilities include design for manufacturing, PCB layout, packaging, assembly (circuit card assembly or CCA), lead-free soldering, test development, and data analytics for complex flexible and rigid-flex circuits and hybrid PCBs.
Complex Mechanical Assembly
We provide systems integration and precision machined components to our Capital Equipment customers. Complex mechanical systems integration consists of multiple interconnected subsystems that interact with various materials, e.g., fluids, solids, particles and rigid bodies. Such systems are often used in advanced manufacturing applications such as semiconductor manufacturing, display manufacturing (including LCD, OLED, QLED and other displays), medical applications using robotics, and other applications such as cash handling machines where precise standards are required. We also provide complex mechanical assembly primarily to our aerospace customers, including wire harness assembly, systems integration, sheet metal fabrication, welding and machining.
Precision Machining
We utilize specialized computer-controlled machines to manufacture high quality components to tight tolerance requirements. Such components are often used in applications similar to those noted above for complex mechanical assembly.
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Energy Services
We provide integrated solutions and services to our renewable energy customers in the areas of power generation, conversion and monitoring. Our energy portfolio includes power inverters, energy storage products, smart meters and other electronic componentry, and encompasses complete product lifecycle solutions, including design, manufacturing and reliability services.
Systems Assembly and Testing
We use sophisticated technologies in the assembly and testing of our products. We continue to make investments in the development of automated solutions, as well as new assembly and test process techniques intended to enhance product quality, reduce cost and improve delivery time to customers. We work independently and also collaborate with customers and suppliers to develop assembly and test technologies. Systems assembly and testing require sophisticated logistics capabilities to rapidly procure components, assemble products, perform complex testing and distribute products to customers around the world. Our full systems assembly services involve combining and testing a wide range of sub-assemblies and components before shipping them to their final destination. Some customers require custom build-to-order system solutions with very short lead times, and we are focused on using our advanced supply chain management capabilities to respond to our customers' needs.
Quality and Product Assurance
We provide complete product reliability testing, inspection and qualification capabilities to support our customers' full product lifecycle requirements. Our quality and product assurance teams perform product testing to ensure that designs meet or exceed required specifications. We are capable of testing to various industry standards, and we work closely with our customers to execute unique test protocols. We believe that this service allows our customers to assess certification risks early in the product development lifecycle, reducing cost and time-to-market.
Failure Analysis and After-Market Services
Our extensive failure analysis capabilities concentrate on identifying the root cause of product failures and determining corrective actions. Products are subjected to various environmental extremes, including temperature, humidity, vibration, voltage and contamination. Field conditions are simulated in failure analysis laboratories which employ electron microscopes, spectrometers and other advanced equipment. Our engineers work proactively in partnership with suppliers and customers in an effort to discover product failures before products are shipped, and to develop and implement solutions if required.
We also seek to provide value to our customers through our after-market services offerings which include repair, fulfillment, reverse logistics, asset management and disposition, reclamation and returns processing and prevention. Our fulfillment offering includes the design and management of integrated supply chain and materials management for light manufacturing and final assembly and reclamation. Our reverse logistics offering includes the design and management of transportation networks, warehousing and distribution of products, asset recovery services, and transportation and supply chain event monitoring. Our returns processing and prevention offering provides our customers with product screening and testing and product design and process analysis. Our reclamation offering includes product disassembly, reassembly and re-use, as well as certified scrap disposition processing. We offer these services individually or integrated through a 'Control Tower' model which coordinates our people, systems and processes with those of our customers to improve service levels by providing an increased level of visibility and analytics throughout the entire after-market value chain.
Product Licensing

With respect to our partners that are seeking to rationalize their product lines, licensing to us provides them with an alternative to sale or discontinuation. Celestica manages the entire business process for the licensed product or product line, including order acceptance, customer service, engineering, supply chain, obsolescence management, manufacturing, logistics, service parts offering, and after-market services. This allows our partners to continue to serve their customers while maintaining ownership of their intellectual property, and to redeploy their resources for other uses.
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Geographies
For each of 2019, 2020 and 2021, approximately 70% of our revenue was produced in Asia and approximately 20% of our revenue was produced in North America. Revenue produced in Canada represented 7% of revenue in 2021 (2020 — 6%; 2019 — 8%). Our property, plant and equipment in Canada represented 7% of our property, plant and equipment at December 31, 2021 (December 31, 2020 — 8%; December 31, 2019 — 10%). A listing of our principal locations is included in Item 4(D), "Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment." Certain geographic information for countries with 10% or more of our external revenue, property, plant and equipment and ROU assets, and intangible assets and goodwill is set forth in note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.
Marketing and Customer Experience

We structure our business development teams by end market, with a focus on offering market insight and expertise, and complete manufacturing, HPS (in the case of our CCS segment) and supply chain solutions to our customers. We have customer-focused teams, each headed by a group general manager who oversees the global relationship with our key customers. These teams work with our subject matter experts to meet the requirements of each customer's product or supply chain. Our global network is comprised of such customer-focused teams, as well as operational and project managers, supply chain management teams, and senior executives.
We provide comprehensive support before, during and after the delivery of our products and services. We seek to deepen and grow our customer relationships by providing consistent, high-quality implementation and customer support services, which we believe drives customer retention and additional opportunities within our existing customer base.
Customer Concentration and Relationship Management
We target industry-leading customers in each of our segments. Our current CCS segment customers include Dell Technologies, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Hewlett-Packard Inc., IBM Corporation, Juniper Networks, Inc., NEC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, and Polycom, Inc. Our current ATS segment customers include Applied Materials, Inc., Honeywell Inc., Lam Research and Raytheon Company. We are focused on strengthening our relationships with strategic customers through the delivery of new and expanding end-to-end solutions.
No customer individually represented 10% or more of total revenue in 2020 or 2021. Cisco (a former CCS segment customer) was the only customer that individually represented 10% or more of total revenue for 2019 (12%).
Our top 10 customers represented 66%, 66% and 65% of total revenue for 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
We generally enter into master supply agreements with our customers that provide the framework for our overall relationship, although such agreements do not typically guarantee a particular level of business or fixed pricing. Instead, we bid on a program-by-program basis and typically receive customer purchase orders for specific quantities and timing of products. We believe that our customer-focused factories are flexible and can be reconfigured as needed to meet customer-specific product requirements and fluctuations in volumes (although we do incur increased production costs from time to time in connection with unexpected demand changes). A majority of these supply agreements also require the customer to purchase unused inventory that we have purchased to fulfill that customer's forecasted manufacturing demand. Some of these agreements require us to provide specific price reductions to our customers over the term of the contracts, which has had (and is expected to continue to have) a significant adverse impact on our revenues, gross margin and operating results. Also see Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Inherent challenges in managing changes in customer demand may impact our planning, supply chain execution and manufacturing, and may adversely affect our operating performance and results."
Research and Technology Development
We use advanced technology to design, assemble and test the products we manufacture. We continue to invest in our global design services and capabilities to conceive differentiated HPS product solutions for our customers.
We have extensive capabilities across a broad range of specialized assembly, configuration and test processes. We work with a variety of substrates based on the products we build for our customers, from thin, flexible PCBs to highly complex, dense multi-layer PCBs, as well as a broad array of advanced component and attachment technologies employed in our customers' products and our own product designs. We believe that increasing demand for full-system assembly solutions continues to drive technical advancement in complex mechanical assembly and configuration. We also develop and manufacture sub-components, such as optical modules and complex machined parts, intended to drive targeted technical advancements to support these opportunities.
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Our automated electronics assembly lines are continuously refreshed with the latest generation technology, with a focus on flexible lines with quick changeover, large board capability, and small component capability. Our assembly capabilities are complemented by advanced test capabilities. The technologies we use include high-speed functional testing, optical, burn-in, vibration, radio frequency, and in-circuit and in-situ dynamic thermal cycling stress testing. Our inspection technology includes X-ray computed tomography, advanced automated optical inspection, three-dimensional paste volumetric inspection and scanning electron microscopy. We work directly with leaders in the equipment industry to optimize their products and solutions or to jointly design solutions to meet the needs of our customers. We apply automation solutions for higher volume products, where possible, to help improve product quality, lower product costs, and increase manufacturing efficiencies.
Our ongoing R&D activities include the development of processes, test technologies, and hardware platform solutions, spanning core data center technologies, that can be used as-is or customized to optimize a customer's specific applications. Our HPS offering is focused on developing design solutions and subsequently managing the other aspects of the supply chain, including product manufacturing and after-market services. We focus our solutions on developing current and next generation storage, server and communications products (in particular, elements of data centers, which include the development of complete hardware platform solutions to reduce product costs and accelerate time to market, and which we believe will continue to grow). We work directly with our customers to understand their product roadmaps and requirements, and to develop technology solutions intended to meet their particular needs. We are proactive in developing manufacturing techniques that take advantage of the latest component, product and packaging designs. We have worked with, and have taken leadership roles in, industry and academic groups that strive to advance the state of technology in the industry. As we continue to pursue deeper relationships with our customers, and participate in additional services and revenue opportunities with them, we anticipate an increase in our spending in these areas.
Supply Chain Management
We share data electronically with our key suppliers, and help ensure speed of supply through strong relationships with our component suppliers and logistics partners. We view the size and scale of our procurement activities, including our IT systems, as an important competitive advantage, as they enhance our ability to obtain better pricing, influence component packaging and designs, and obtain a supply of components in constrained markets. We procure substantially all of our materials and components on behalf of our customers pursuant to individual purchase orders that are generally short-term in nature.
Components and raw materials are sourced globally, with a majority of electronic components originating from Asian countries. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance" for a discussion of various risks related to our foreign operations. All of the products we manufacture or assemble require one or more components. In many cases, there may be only one supplier of a particular component. Some of these components could be rationed in response to supply shortages. We work with our suppliers and customers to attempt to ensure continuity in the supply of these components. In cases where unanticipated customer demand or supply shortages occur, we attempt to arrange for alternative sources of supply, where available, or defer planned production in response to the availability of the critical components. Notwithstanding these efforts, however, we experienced materials constraints from certain suppliers in both of our segments in recent years, due in part to global supply shortages for many electronic components. These constraints were also significantly exacerbated with respect to several of our businesses during 2020 and 2021 as a result of COVID-19. These shortages have been aggravated by the significant impact of COVID-19-related workforce constraints on the factories of certain of our suppliers. As we are dependent on our suppliers to prioritize their manufacturing to produce the products we need to fulfill our customer orders, these shortages caused delays in the production of customer products in both of our segments, and in combination with volatile market demand, negatively impacted our margins and led to higher-than-expected levels of inventory in 2020 and 2021, and resulted in operational and materials inefficiencies and a continued backlog of orders. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Recent Developments Segment Environment" for a discussion of the impact of materials constraints (including due to COVID-19) on our business during 2020 and 2021. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, "We are dependent on third parties to supply certain materials, and our results can be negatively affected by the quality, availability and cost of such materials." We recognize that some sub-tier suppliers providing raw materials such as palladium, neon gas and high-grade aluminum are partially dependent on supply from Russia/Ukraine. We will closely monitor the supply availability and price fluctuations of these raw materials. While the prices of principal raw materials are generally not volatile, price increases have resulted from materials shortages in recent periods. Price increases resulting from such shortages and/or other factors which we cannot recover from our customers have, and may continue to, adversely impact our results of operations.
We utilize our enterprise systems, as well as specific supply chain IT tools, to provide comprehensive information on our logistics, financial and engineering support functions. These systems provide management with the data and analytics required to manage the logistical complexities of our business and are augmented by and integrated with other applications, such as shop floor controls, component and product database management, and design tools.
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To minimize the risk associated with inventory, we primarily order materials and components only to the extent necessary to satisfy existing customer orders and forecasts covered by the applicable customer contract terms and conditions. However, in light of the constrained materials environment in recent periods, we have also been placing additional orders to secure supply, offset in part by the receipt of cash deposits from the relevant customers. We have implemented specific inventory management strategies with certain suppliers, such as "supplier managed inventory" (pulling inventory at the production line on an as-needed basis) and on-site stocking programs. Our initiatives in Lean and Six Sigma also focus on eliminating excess inventory throughout the supply chain. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, as a result of demand volatility from our customers and the materials constraints from certain suppliers discussed above, we carried higher than expected levels of certain inventory at December 31, 2021.
Intellectual Property
We hold licenses to various technologies which we have acquired in connection with acquisitions. In addition, we believe that we have secured access to technology sufficient for the current conduct of our business.
We regard our manufacturing processes and certain designs as proprietary trade secrets and confidential information. We rely largely upon a combination of trade secret laws, non-disclosure agreements with our customers, suppliers, employees and other parties, and upon our internal security systems, confidentiality procedures and employee confidentiality agreements to maintain the trade secrecy of our designs and manufacturing processes. Although we take steps to protect our trade secrets and other intellectual property, we cannot assure that misappropriation will not occur. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, "We may not adequately protect our intellectual property or the intellectual property of others."
Our increased research and design activities have resulted in the growth of our dependence on our patent portfolio. We have over 280 hardware patents that are integral to our HPS business. We anticipate that such growth (and importance) will continue as we expand our business activities. In addition, we currently have a limited number of other patents and patent applications pending to protect our intellectual property. Other factors significant to our proprietary rights include the knowledge and experience of management and personnel, and our ability to develop, enhance and market electronics manufacturing services.
Each of our customers typically provides us with a license to its technology for use in providing electronics manufacturing services to such customer. Generally, the agreements governing such technology grant to us non-exclusive, worldwide licenses with respect to the subject technologies, are typically provided without charge, and terminate upon a material breach by us of the terms of such agreements, or termination of the program to which such licenses relate.
We also license some technology from third parties that we use in providing electronics manufacturing services to our customers. We believe that such licenses are generally available on commercial terms from a number of licensors. Generally, the agreements governing such technology grant to us non-exclusive, worldwide licenses with respect to the subject technologies and terminate upon expiration, or a material breach by us of the terms, of such agreements.
Competition
The EMS industry is highly competitive with multiple global EMS providers competing for customers and programs. Our competitors include Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Flex Ltd., Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., Jabil Inc., Plexus Corp., and Sanmina Corporation, as well as smaller EMS companies that often have a regional, product, service or industry-specific focus, and ODMs (including Quanta Computer Inc., Wistron Corp., Delta Network, Inc., and Accton Technology Corp.) that provide internally designed products and manufacturing services. We provide hardware platform solutions as part of our HPS offering. There may be instances where our hardware platform solutions compete with a customer's hardware offerings.
We also face indirect competition from current and prospective customers who evaluate our capabilities and commercial models against the merits of manufacturing products internally, and from distribution and logistics providers expanding their services across the supply chain, including assembly, fulfillment, logistics and in some cases, engineering services. We compete with different companies depending on the type of service or geographic area. Some of our competitors have greater scale and provide a broader range of services than we provide. We believe our competitive advantage is our track record in manufacturing technology, quality, complexity, responsiveness and cost-effective, value-added services. To remain competitive, we believe we must continue to provide technologically advanced manufacturing services and solutions, maintain quality levels, offer flexible delivery schedules, deliver finished products and services on time and compete favorably on price.
The competitive landscape in our CCS segment remains aggressive, as demand growth continues to move from traditional enterprise network infrastructure providers to cloud-based and other service providers, resulting in aggressive bidding from EMS providers and increased competition from ODMs as they further penetrate these markets. As a result of the high concentration of our business in the CCS marketplace, these competitive pressures, aggressive pricing and technology-
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driven demand shifts, have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact our CCS businesses in future periods. We intend to continue to monitor these dynamics and focus on cost and portfolio management, including HPS growth initiatives, in response to these factors. To enhance our competitiveness, we continue to focus on expanding our service offerings and capabilities beyond our traditional areas of EMS expertise, including expanding our HPS and after-market services offerings.
See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "We operate in an industry comprised of numerous competitors and aggressive pricing dynamics" and Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Overview — Overview of business environment and Recent Developments."
Environmental Matters
We are subject to various federal/national, state/provincial, local, foreign and supra-national laws and regulations, including environmental measures relating to the release, use, storage, treatment, transportation, discharge, disposal and remediation of contaminants, hazardous substances and waste, and health and safety measures related to practices and procedures applicable to the construction and operation of our sites. We have management systems in place designed to maintain compliance with such laws and regulations.
Our past operations and the historical operation by others of our sites may have resulted in soil and groundwater contamination on our sites, and in many jurisdictions in which we operate, environmental laws impose liability for the costs of removal, remediation or risk assessment of hazardous or toxic substances on an owner, occupier or operator of real property even if such person or company was unaware of or not responsible for the discharge or migration of such substances. From time-to-time we investigate, remediate and monitor soil and groundwater contamination at certain operating sites. We generally obtain Phase I or similar environmental assessments (which involve general inspections without soil sampling or groundwater analysis), or review assessment reports undertaken by others, for our manufacturing sites at the time of acquisition or leasing. However, such assessments may not reveal all environmental liabilities (due, for example, to limited available information about prior operations at the properties or other gaps in information at the time we acquire or lease such sites), and assessments have not been obtained for all sites. Where contamination is suspected at sites being acquired or leased, Phase II intrusive environmental assessments (that can include soil and/or groundwater testing) are usually performed. We expect to conduct Phase I or similar environmental assessments in respect of future property acquisitions or leases and intend to perform Phase II assessments where appropriate. Past environmental assessments have not revealed any environmental liability that we believe will have a material adverse effect on our operating results or financial condition, in part because of contractual retention of liability by landlords and former owners at certain sites. However, any such contractual retention of liability may not provide sufficient protection to reduce or eliminate our liability. Third‑party claims for damages or personal injury are also possible and could result in significant costs to us. If more stringent compliance or cleanup standards under environmental laws or regulations are imposed, or the results of future testing and analyses at our current or former sites indicate that we are responsible for the release of hazardous substances into the air, ground and/or water, we may be subject to additional liability. Environmental matters may arise at sites where no problem is currently known or at sites that we may acquire in the future. See Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance."
Environmental legislation also occurs at the product level. Celestica works with its customers in connection with compliance with applicable product-level environmental legislation in the jurisdictions where products are manufactured and/or offered for use and sale by our customers.
Backlog

Our A&D business continued to be negatively impacted by materials shortages during 2021, most significantly with respect to the availability of certain high reliability parts and machined components, resulting in, among other things, a continued backlog of orders.

Although we obtain purchase orders from our customers, they typically do not commit to delivery of products more than 30 to 90 days in advance. However, due to global supply shortages, some customers have provided us with longer commitments. We do not believe that the backlog of expected product sales covered by purchase orders is a meaningful measure of future sales, since generally orders may be rescheduled or canceled.
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Seasonality
Seasonality is reflected in the mix of products we manufacture from quarter-to-quarter. From time to time, we experience some level of seasonality in our quarterly revenue patterns across certain of our businesses. The addition of new customers has introduced different demand cycles. For example, cloud-based service providers have increased their use of products in our CCS segment in recent periods. These customers and markets are cyclically different from our traditional OEM customers, creating more volatility and unpredictability in our revenue patterns, and additional challenges with respect to the management of our working capital requirements. The pace of technological change, the frequency of customers transferring business among EMS and/or ODM competitors and the constantly changing dynamics of the global economy will also continue to impact us. As a result of these factors, the impact of new program wins or program losses or non-renewals, overall demand variability, and limited visibility in technology end markets, it is difficult to isolate the impact of seasonality on our business. Recently, revenue from our Enterprise end market has decreased in the first quarter of the year compared to the previous quarter, and then increased in the second quarter, reflecting an increase in customer demand. In addition, we typically experience our lowest overall revenue levels during the first quarter of each year. There is no assurance that this pattern will continue. See also Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "Our revenue and operating results may vary significantly from period to period."
Controlling Shareholder Interest
Onex is our controlling shareholder with an 81.5% voting interest in Celestica. Accordingly, Onex has the ability to exercise a significant influence over our business and affairs and generally has the power to determine all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders where the SVS and MVS vote together as a single class. Such matters include electing our Board and thereby influencing significant corporate transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, divestitures and financing arrangements. Gerald W. Schwartz, the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, indirectly owns shares representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex. For further details, refer to Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors — "The interest of our controlling shareholder, Onex Corporation, with an 81.5% voting interest, may conflict with the interests of other shareholders" and footnotes 2 and 3 of Item 7(A) "Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Major Shareholders."
Government Regulation
Information regarding material effects of government regulations on Celestica's business is provided in the risk factors entitled "We are subject to the risk of increasing income and other taxes, tax audits and the challenges of successfully defending our tax positions, and obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits, any of which may adversely affect our financial performance," "Compliance with governmental laws and obligations could be costly and may negatively impact our financial performance," "Compliance or the failure to comply with employment laws and regulations may negatively impact our financial performance," "U.S. policies or legislation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition," and "Our business and operations could be adversely impacted by environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiatives" in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors.
Sustainability
We are committed to driving sustainability initiatives through collaboration with our employees, customers, suppliers and local communities. Our Sustainability Report, which is published annually, outlines our sustainability strategy, the progress we have made as a socially responsible organization, and the key activities and milestones we are working to achieve for each of our focus areas: our planet, our products and services, our people and our communities. Our most recent Sustainability Report, as well as our Corporate Values, can be found on our website: www.celestica.com (information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report).

We strive to minimize the impact of our operations on the environment by working to make our infrastructure sustainable and by reducing our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since 2009, we have published annual reports documenting our corporate social responsibility programs and environmental sustainability initiatives. We currently report in accordance with the guidance of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), and our most recent Sustainability Report includes disclosures aligned with the standards of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) and the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD). We are committed to reporting our GHG emissions annually, and have included third-party assurance of our GHG emissions in our annual report since 2013. Since 2010, we have responded to the CDP Climate Change questionnaire, which enables engagement on environmental issues worldwide. Our GHG emissions reduction target has been approved by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). In 2021, we increased the number of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which we have adopted as part of our sustainability strategy (increasing from four goals to ten goals). Although all 17 SDGs are relevant to Celestica, our communities, and our stakeholders, we have prioritized ten goals we believe present opportunities for us to affect the greatest change. We determine this annually through our materiality assessment and during
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stakeholder conversations. The new goals reflect our commitment to diversity and inclusion, investments in our employees, continued focus on climate action and increased focus on water. We have an established Conflict Minerals Policy in accordance with Dodd-Frank. We fully support the objectives of the conflict minerals legislation, which aims to minimize violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries, and expect our suppliers to provide all requested declarations.

Diversity and Inclusion

We believe in building an inclusive culture that encourages diversity of thought and attributes while allowing employees to thrive, be valued and celebrated. In our view, diversity includes, but is not limited to, gender or gender identity, race, age, ethnicity, religious or cultural background, disability, marital or family status, sexual orientation, education, experiences, perspectives, language and other areas of potential difference. In furtherance of these beliefs, we have adopted a Diversity and Inclusion Policy, under which we are committed to providing a work environment in which everyone feels accepted and valued, by being treated fairly and with respect across the enterprise. Our Diversity and Inclusion Steering Committee (D&I Steering Committee) is comprised of three members of senior management and is co-chaired by our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chief Human Resources Officer. The D&I Steering Committee oversees diversity and inclusion at Celestica and seeks to ensure that diversity and inclusion are incorporated into Celestica’s culture, workplace and talent practices. The D&I Steering Committee has designated a Diversity and Inclusion Committee (D&I Committee) for the purpose of developing and promoting diversity. Celestica’s diversity & inclusion practice (D&I Practice) is led by a Diversity and Inclusion Leader to drive our diversity and inclusion strategy. Employees were invited to participate in a global Diversity and Inclusion survey in November 2020, which provided the opportunity to anonymously provide perspectives on diversity and inclusion at Celestica, and thereby establish a baseline to measure progress as our D&I Practice matures. Management reviewed the survey data and identified key focus areas for action plans. The results of the survey and management’s action plans were reviewed with the Human Resources and Compensation Committee in April 2021, and were also shared with employees. In addition, the following actions were taken in 2021 with respect to diversity and inclusion at Celestica:

•     launched diversity and inclusion training to our global workforce in order to raise employee awareness of diversity and inclusion and how we can effect change within the organization;
•    held our first “Celestica Day for Diversity and Inclusion Awareness” to highlight the value of equity and reveal issues of inequity that may be unnoticed and unaddressed, understand diverse teams, cultural differences to develop intercultural fluency, spark ways of thinking about inclusion within Celestica and reinforce the value of diverse teams in the workplace;
•    reviewed our policies and practices to ensure they support our diversity and inclusion agenda, remove perception of favoritism and uphold equity; and
•    created four employee-led employee resource groups (Celestica Women’s Network, Celestica Black Employee Network, Celestica Pride Network and Celestica Indigenous Affinity Group).

In furtherance of Board diversity, the Board adopted a new Board Diversity Policy in January 2021. In accordance with the Board Diversity Policy, Celestica aspires to attain by its annual meeting in 2023, and thereafter maintain, a Board composition in which at least 30% of the Board are women. Further, when identifying candidates for election or appointment to the Board of Directors, the Board and its Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee (NCGC) will:

•    consider candidates who are qualified based on a balance of skills, background, experience and knowledge;
•    take into account diversity considerations such as age, geographical representation from the regions in which Celestica operates, cultural heritage (including Aboriginal peoples (as defined in the Employment Equity Act (Canada) and members of visible minorities) and different abilities (including persons with disabilities);
•    strive to use, to their fullest potential, the Board’s network of relationships, in addition to using third-party organizations, that may help identify diverse candidates for joining the Board;
•     ensure that the initial candidate list is comprised of no less than 50% women; and
•    periodically review recruitment and selection protocols to ensure diversity remains an important component of the Board.
Two director nominees at our upcoming 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (2022 Meeting) are women (22%), including the current Chair of the Audit Committee. Three of our other director nominees self-identify as members of visible minorities (33%) and none of the nominees self-identify as Aboriginal peoples or as persons with disabilities (each as defined under the Employment Equity Act (Canada)).

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From time to time, the Board will review the Board Diversity Policy and assess its effectiveness in promoting a diverse Board. We adhered to the Board Diversity Policy with respect to identifying women and other diverse candidates for our 2021 director search. An initial candidate list of 50% women was developed by our Director Search Committee with the assistance of a director search firm tasked with this objective. Suitable candidates were interviewed by the members of our Director Search Committee. Ultimately, Dr. Müller was appointed to the Board effective August 31, 2021 on the basis that he will make a strong contribution and provide the diversity, background, skills and experience needed by the Board in view of the Corporation’s strategy. We maintain our commitment to the 2023 target of 30% women on the Board and intend to commence a search for a new director, following the 2022 Meeting, with an initial candidate list comprised of no less than 50% women in accordance with our Board Diversity Policy.

COVID-19 Response

Celestica established a COVID-19 response committee in early 2020, which included members of our regional human resources, health and safety, IT and operations teams. During 2021, we maintained a robust COVID-19 business continuity management program to minimize disruptions during the pandemic and to minimize impacts to employee health and well-being across our global network. We continue to follow the requirements of governmental authorities and maintain preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees, including a range of health and safety protocols such as a cessation of employee travel (other than very limited essential inter-regional travel), a global work-from-home policy for applicable employees, and for all other employees: physical distancing, enhanced screening, mandatory mask and use of other personal protective equipment, and shift splitting. We have also strongly encouraged vaccination for all of our employees and we organized vaccination clinics in regions where vaccines were not readily available, including Malaysia and Thailand.

Employee Engagement

At Celestica, we know our success depends on our talented people and their commitment to excellence. We believe employee engagement is crucial for employee performance and productivity, and strong business outcomes. We therefore continually strive to enhance employee engagement.

In support of our efforts to foster a high-performing and engaged workforce, we launched a global employee engagement survey in 2021 in order to measure overall engagement and identify our strengths and areas for improvement. The results of the survey were reviewed by management and compared against the last employee engagement survey conducted in 2018. Management reviewed the survey results, together with management’s strategy to continue to improve engagement levels in response to the survey feedback, with the Human Resources and Compensation Committee. Employee engagement activities initiated during 2021 included:
•    diversity and inclusion training modules;
•    a formalized mentorship program and an enhanced leadership training program;
•    an enhanced Women In Action program;
•    a global wellness program; and
•    a “Grow Together” program to support ongoing talent development emphasizing growth opportunities for employees by providing specialized speaking events, leadership academies and modernized online learning experiences.
Celestica’s rewards and recognition programs acknowledge employees who are achieving business results by living our brand and values, and embracing the characteristics of our Leadership Imperatives. We encourage business and people leaders to acknowledge individual and team success in quarterly town halls, and in more formal ways through our Bravo! and Ignition Awards programs. Acknowledging the challenges presented by the lack of in-person connection as a result of the pandemic, we continually look for ways to reward our employees with virtual recognitions.

We believe that employee engagement and well-being is strengthened through healthy, supportive and safe workplaces. Globally, we have established a framework whereby all sites are required to measure and report on their environmental, health and safety performance regularly.

Community Engagement

We strive to support the local communities in which we live and work. We encourage all full-time employees to take up to 16 hours of paid time off per year to volunteer through our Time Off to Volunteer program. This program gives employees the opportunity to become involved in their communities in a meaningful way and to help those in need.

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United Way is a federated network of 71 local United Way Centraide offices serving more than 5,000 communities across Canada, each registered as its own non-profit organization. In 2021, Celestica’s annual United Way fundraising campaign raised C$240,000 plus a match of C$120,000 for a total of C$360,000, which brings Celestica’s lifetime fundraising amount to C$12.3 million.

Ethical Labor Practices
We maintain a Business Conduct Governance (BCG) Policy, which outlines the ethics and practices we consider necessary for a positive working environment, as well as the high legal and ethical standards to which our employees are held accountable. 100% of our employees have completed BCG Policy training, and we conduct annual re-certifications. Our BCG Policy is available on our website: www.celestica.com (information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report).
In addition, we have well-established policies regarding fair labor practices and guidelines intended to create a respectful, safe and healthy work environment for our employees globally.
We are a founding (and remain a) member of the RBA, a non-profit coalition of electronics companies that, among other things, establishes standards for its members in responsible and ethical practices in the areas of labor, environmental compliance, employee health and safety, ethics and social responsibility. The RBA Code of Conduct outlines industry standards intended to ensure that working conditions in the supply chain are safe, workers are treated with respect and dignity, and manufacturing processes are environmentally responsible. We continually work to implement, manage and audit our compliance with the RBA Code of Conduct.
We are committed to the development and fair treatment of our global workforce, including promotion of a diverse workforce, an inclusive work environment, equal employment opportunity hiring practices and policies, and anti-harassment, workforce safety and anti-reprisal policies.
Financial Information Regarding Geographic Areas
Details of our financial information regarding geographic areas are disclosed in note 25 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18, in Item 4(B) "Information on the Company — Business Overview — Geographies," and in Item 4(D) "Information on the Company — Property, Plants and Equipment." Risks associated with our foreign operations are disclosed in Item 3(D), Key Information — Risk Factors, including "Our ability to successfully manage unexpected changes or risks inherent in our global operations and supply chain may adversely impact our financial performance."
C.    Organizational Structure
Onex, an Ontario corporation, is the Corporation's controlling shareholder with an 81.5% voting interest in Celestica (via its direct and indirect beneficial ownership of approximately 18.6 million (100%) of the Corporation's MVS, and approximately 0.4 million of the Corporation's SVS). Gerald W. Schwartz is the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Onex, and indirectly owns multiple voting shares of Onex representing the majority of the voting rights of the shares of Onex (also see footnotes 2 and 3 to the Major Shareholders Table in Item 7(A) below).
Celestica conducts its business through subsidiaries operating on a worldwide basis. The following companies are considered significant subsidiaries of Celestica, and each of them is wholly-owned, directly or indirectly, by Celestica:
Celestica Cayman Holdings 1 Limited, a Cayman Islands corporation;
Celestica Hong Kong Limited, a Hong Kong corporation;
Celestica LLC, a Delaware, U.S. limited liability company;
Celestica (Thailand) Limited, a Thailand corporation;
Celestica (USA) Inc., a Delaware, U.S. corporation;
2480333 Ontario Inc., an Ontario, Canada corporation; and
Celestica Electronics (M.) Sdn. Bhd., a Malaysia corporation.
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D.    Property, Plants and Equipment
The following table summarizes our principal owned and leased properties as of February 22, 2022. These sites are used to provide manufacturing services and solutions, including the manufacture of PCBs, assembly and configuration of final systems, complex mechanical assembly, precision machining, as well as other related services and customer support activities, including design and development, warehousing, distribution, fulfillment and after-market services, with a total of approximately 7.0 million square feet of productive capacity.
Major locations
Square Footage(1)
SegmentOwned/Leased Lease Expiration Dates
Canada (3)(5)
341ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2025 and 2028
Arizona 111ATSLeased2027
California(3)
179ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2022 and 2026
China(3)(4)
979ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2023 and 2056
India5CCSLeased2024
Indonesia(3)(4)
204ATSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2028
Ireland(3)
82ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2024 and 2030
Japan(3)
594ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2023
Laos121CCSLeasedbetween 2022 and 2023
Malaysia(2)(3)(4)
1,451ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2060
Massachusetts(2)
60ATSOwnedN/A
Minnesota(3)
244ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2022 and 2032
Mexico(3)
498ATS/CCSLeasedbetween 2022 and 2027
Oregon(3)
240ATSLeased2026
Romania260ATS/CCSOwnedN/A
Singapore(3)(4)
171ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2053
South Korea(3)
207ATSOwned/Leased2026
Spain109ATSOwnedN/A
Texas(6)
191CCSLeased2032
Thailand(3)(4)
982ATS/CCSOwned/Leasedbetween 2022 and 2048
(1)Represents estimated square footage (in thousands) being used.
(2)Owned real properties are pledged as security under our credit facility.
(3)Represents multiple locations.
(4)With respect to these locations, the land is leased, and the buildings are either owned or leased by us.
(5)As part of our 2019 Toronto real property sale, we entered into a 10-year lease in March 2019 with the purchaser of such property for our new corporate headquarters (to be built by such purchaser on the site of our former location). The commencement date of this lease is currently targeted to be May 2023, with occupancy to commence in November 2023. In connection therewith, we completed a temporary relocation of our corporate headquarters in the second quarter of 2019. Although we expect to incur certain capitalized and transition costs once the move into our new corporate headquarters commences, such costs cannot be estimated at this time, but are expected to be funded from cash on hand. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Liquidity — Toronto Real Property and Related Transactions and Cash Requirements — Contractual Obligations."
(6)In connection with an outsourcing arrangement and 10-year lease agreement with FNC, we will occupy additional space at this site starting April 2022. See Item 5, "Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — MD&A — Liquidity — Cash Requirements — Contractual Obligations."

We consider each of the properties in the table above to be adequate for its purpose and suitably utilized according to the individual nature and requirements of the relevant operations. We currently expect to be able to extend the terms of expiring leases or to find replacement sites on commercially acceptable terms. Also see "Environmental Matters" in Item 4(B) above. Our principal executive office is located at 5140 Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2N 6L7. Our material tangible fixed assets (of which approximately one-third is pledged as security under our credit agreement) are described in note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 18.

Item 4A.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
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Item 5.    Operating and Financial Review and Prospects



CELESTICA INC.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021


The following Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with our 2021 audited consolidated financial statements (2021 AFS), which we prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Unless otherwise noted, all dollar amounts are expressed in United States (U.S.) dollars. The information in this discussion is provided as of February 22, 2022 unless we indicate otherwise. 

Certain statements contained in this MD&A constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (U.S. Exchange Act), and contain forward-looking information within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. Such forward-looking information includes, without limitation, statements related to: anticipated and potential adverse impacts resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 and related mutations (COVID-19); our priorities, intended areas of focus, targets, objectives, and goals; trends in the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry and our segments (and/or their constituent businesses) and their anticipated impact; the anticipated impact of current market conditions on each of our segments (and/or their constituent businesses) and near term expectations (positive and negative); anticipated restructuring and potential divestiture actions; our anticipated financial and/or operating results and outlook; our strategies; our credit risk; the anticipated impact of acquisitions (including the acquisition of PCI Private Limited (PCI)) and program wins, transfers, losses or disengagements; materials, component and supply chain constraints; shipping delays; anticipated expenses, capital expenditures and other working capital requirements and contractual obligations; the impact of our price reductions; our intended repatriation of certain undistributed earnings from foreign subsidiaries (and amounts we do not intend to repatriate in the foreseeable future); the potential impact of tax and litigation outcomes; our ability to use certain tax losses; intended investments in our business; the potential impact of the pace of technological changes, customer outsourcing, program transfers, and the global economic environment; the intended method of funding subordinate voting share (SVS) repurchases and our restructuring provision; the lease for our temporary and new corporate headquarters; Toronto transition costs; the impact of our outstanding indebtedness; liquidity and the sufficiency of our capital resources; our intention (when in our discretion) to settle outstanding equity awards with SVS; our financial statement estimates and assumptions; recently-issued accounting pronouncements and amendments; our compliance with covenants under our credit facility; interest rates and expense; interest rate swap agreements; the potential adverse impacts of events outside of our control, including, among others: U.S. policies or legislation, U.S. and global tax reform, product/component tariffs on items imported into the U.S. and related countermeasures, and/or the impact of, in addition to COVID-19, other widespread illness or disease (External Events); mandatory prepayments under our credit facility; income tax incentives; COVID-19-related governmental relief measures; accounts payable cash flow levels; expectations with respect to cash deposits; and accounts receivable sales. Such forward-looking statements may, without limitation, be preceded by, followed by, or include words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “continues,” “project,”“target,”“potential,” “possible,” “contemplate,” “seek,” or similar expressions, or may employ such future or conditional verbs as “may,” “might,” “will,” “could,” “should,” or “would,” or may otherwise be indicated as forward-looking statements by grammatical construction, phrasing or context. For those statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and applicable Canadian securities laws.

Forward-looking statements are provided to assist readers in understanding management’s current expectations and plans relating to the future. Readers are cautioned that such information may not be appropriate for other purposes. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements, including, among others, risks related to: customer and segment concentration; price, margin pressures, and other competitive factors and adverse market conditions affecting, and the highly competitive nature of, the EMS industry in general and our segments in particular (including the risk that anticipated market improvements do not materialize); delays in the delivery and availability of components, services and/or materials, as well as their costs and quality; challenges of replacing revenue from completed, lost or non-renewed programs or customer disengagements; our customers' ability to compete and succeed using our products and services; changes in our mix of customers and/or the types of products or services we provide, including negative impacts of higher concentrations of
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lower margin programs; managing changes in customer demand; rapidly evolving and changing technologies, and changes in our customers' business or outsourcing strategies; the cyclical and volatile nature of our semiconductor business; the expansion or consolidation of our operations; the inability to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce; defects or deficiencies in our products, services or designs; volatility in the commercial aerospace industry; integrating and achieving the anticipated benefits from acquisitions (including our acquisition of PCI) and "operate-in-place" arrangements; compliance with customer-driven policies and standards, and third-party certification requirements; challenges associated with new customers or programs, or the provision of new services; the impact of our restructuring actions, and/or productivity initiatives, including a failure to achieve anticipated benefits therefrom; negative impacts on our business resulting from newly-increased third-party indebtedness; the incurrence of future restructuring charges, impairment charges, other write-downs of assets or operating losses; managing our business during uncertain market, political and economic conditions, including among others, geopolitical and other risks associated with our international operations, including military actions, protectionism and reactive countermeasures, economic or other sanctions or trade barriers, including in relation to the evolving Ukraine/Russia conflict; disruptions to our operations, or those of our customers, component suppliers and/or logistics partners, including as a result of External Events; the scope, duration and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; changes to our operating model; changing commodity, materials and component costs as well as labor costs and conditions; execution and/or quality issues (including our ability to successfully resolve these challenges); non-performance by counterparties; maintaining sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities; negative impacts on our business resulting from any significant uses of cash (including for the acquisition of PCI), securities issuances, and/or additional increases in third-party indebtedness (including as a result of an inability to sell desired amounts under our uncommitted accounts receivable sales program); operational impacts that may affect PCI’s ability to achieve anticipated financial results; foreign currency volatility; our global operations and supply chain; competitive bid selection processes; customer relationships with emerging companies; recruiting or retaining skilled talent; our dependence on industries affected by rapid technological change; our ability to adequately protect intellectual property and confidential information; increasing taxes, tax audits, and challenges of defending our tax positions; obtaining, renewing or meeting the conditions of tax incentives and credits; the management of our information technology systems, and the fact that while we have not been materially impacted by computer viruses, malware, ransomware, hacking attempts or outages, we have been (and may continue to be) the target of such events; the inability to prevent or detect all errors or fraud; the variability of revenue and operating results; unanticipated disruptions to our cash flows; compliance with applicable laws and regulations; our pension and other benefit plan obligations; changes in accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions; our ability to maintain compliance with applicable credit facility covenants; interest rate fluctuations and the discontinuation of LIBOR; our ability to refinance our indebtedness from time to time; deterioration in financial markets or the macro-economic environment; our credit rating; the interest of our controlling shareholder; current or future litigation, governmental actions, and/or changes in legislation or accounting standards; negative publicity; that we will not be permitted to, or do not, repurchase SVS under any normal course issuer bid (NCIB); the impact of climate change; and our ability to achieve our environmental, social and governance (ESG) initiative goals, including with respect to diversity and inclusion and climate change. The foregoing and other material risks and uncertainties are discussed in our public filings at www.sedar.com and www.sec.gov, including in this MD&A, our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F filed with, and subsequent reports on Form 6-K furnished to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and as applicable, the Canadian Securities Administrators.

Our forward-looking statements are based on various assumptions, many of which involve factors that are beyond our control. Our material assumptions include those related to the following: the scope and duration of materials constraints and the COVID-19 pandemic, and their impact on our sites, customers and our suppliers; fluctuation of production schedules from our customers in terms of volume and mix of products or services; the timing and execution of, and investments associated with, ramping new business; the success of our customers’ products; our ability to retain programs and customers; the stability of general economic and market conditions, and currency exchange rates; supplier performance and quality, pricing and terms; compliance by third parties with their contractual obligations; the costs and availability of components, materials, services, equipment, labor, energy and transportation; that our customers will retain liability for product/component tariffs and countermeasures; global tax legislation changes; our ability to keep pace with rapidly changing technological developments; the timing, execution and effect of restructuring actions; the successful resolution of quality issues that arise from time to time; the components of our leverage ratio (as defined in our credit facility); our ability to successfully diversify our customer base and develop new capabilities; the availability of cash resources for, and the permissibility under our credit facility of, repurchases of outstanding SVS under NCIBs, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations pertaining to NCIBs; compliance with applicable credit facility covenants; anticipated demand strength in certain of our businesses; anticipated demand weakness in, and/or the impact of anticipated adverse market conditions on, certain of our businesses; and that: anticipated financial results by PCI will be achieved; we are able to successfully integrate PCI, further develop our ATS segment business, and achieve the other expected synergies and benefits from the acquisition; all financial information provided by PCI is accurate and complete, and all forecasts of PCI’s operating results are reasonable and were provided to
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Celestica in good faith; and we will continue to have sufficient financial resources to fund currently anticipated financial actions and obligations and to pursue desirable business opportunities. Although management believes its assumptions to be reasonable under the current circumstances, they may prove to be inaccurate, which could cause actual results to differ materially (and adversely) from those that would have been achieved had such assumptions been accurate. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which they are made, and we disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified by these cautionary statements.

Overview
 
Celestica's business: 

We deliver innovative supply chain solutions globally to customers in two operating and reportable segments: Advanced Technology Solutions (ATS) and Connectivity & Cloud Solutions (CCS). Our ATS segment consists of our ATS end market, and is comprised of our Aerospace and Defense (A&D), Industrial, Energy, HealthTech, and Capital Equipment businesses. Our Capital Equipment business is comprised of our semiconductor, display, and power & signal distribution equipment businesses. Our CCS segment consists of our Communications and Enterprise end markets. Our Enterprise end market is comprised of our servers and storage businesses. Additional information regarding our reportable segments is included in note 25 to the 2021 AFS.

Our customers include original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), cloud-based and other service providers, including hyperscalers, and other companies in a wide range of industries. Our global headquarters is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We operate a network of sites and centers of excellence strategically located in North America, Europe and Asia, with specialized end-to-end supply chain capabilities tailored to meet specific market and customer product lifecycle requirements.

We offer a comprehensive range of product manufacturing and related supply chain services to customers in both of our segments, including design and development, new product introduction, engineering services, component sourcing, electronics manufacturing and assembly, testing, complex mechanical assembly, systems integration, precision machining, order fulfillment, logistics, asset management, product licensing, and after-market repair and return services. Our Hardware Platform Solutions (HPS) offering (within our CCS segment) includes the development of hardware platforms, design solutions and software services, that can be used as-is, or customized for specific applications in collaboration with our customers, and management of program design and aspects of the supply chain, manufacturing, and after-market support.

Products and services in our ATS segment are extensive and are often more regulated than in our CCS segment, and can include the following: government-certified and highly-specialized manufacturing, electronic and enclosure-related services for A&D customers; high-precision semiconductor and display equipment and integrated subsystems; a wide range of industrial automation, controls, test and measurement devices; engineering-focused engagements, including full product development in the areas of telematics, human machine interface (HMI), Internet-of-Things (IoT) and embedded systems; advanced solutions for surgical instruments, diagnostic imaging and patient monitoring; and efficiency products to help manage and monitor the energy and power industries. Our ATS segment businesses typically have higher margin profiles and margin volatility, higher working capital requirements, and longer product life cycles than the businesses in our CCS segment.

Products and services in our CCS segment consist predominantly of enterprise-level data communications and information processing infrastructure products and systems, and can include routers, switches, data center interconnects, edge solutions, and servers and storage-related products used by a wide range of businesses and cloud-based and other service providers to manage digital connectivity, commerce and social media applications. Our CCS segment is subject to negative pricing pressures driven by the highly competitive nature of this market and is experiencing technology-driven demand shifts, which are not expected to abate. Our CCS segment businesses typically have lower margin profiles, lower working capital requirements, and higher volumes than the businesses in our ATS segment. Within our CCS segment, however, our HPS business (which includes firmware/software enablement across all primary IT infrastructure data center technologies and aftermarket services) typically has a higher margin profile than our traditional CCS businesses, but also requires specific investments, including research and development (R&D), and higher working capital. Our CCS segment generally experiences a high degree of volatility in terms of revenue and product/service mix, and as a result, our CCS segment margin can fluctuate from period to period. In recent periods, we have experienced an increasing shift in the mix of our programs towards cloud-
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based and other service providers, which are cyclically different from our traditional OEM customers, creating more volatility and unpredictability in our revenue patterns, and additional challenges with respect to the management of our supply chain and working capital requirements.

Overview of business environment:

The EMS industry is highly competitive. Demand can be volatile from period to period, and aggressive pricing is a common business dynamic. Customers may shift production between EMS providers for a number of reasons, including changes in demand for their products, pricing concessions, more favorable terms and conditions, execution or quality issues, their preference or need to modify or consolidate their supply chain capacity or change their supply chain partners, tax benefits, new trade policies or legislation, or consolidation among customers. Customers may also change the amount of business they outsource, or the concentration or location of their EMS suppliers. As a result, customer and segment revenue and mix, as well as overall profitability, are difficult to forecast. The loss of one or more major customers could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial position and cash flows.

    Managing our operations is complex, and our financial results often fluctuate, in each case as a result of, among other factors, product lifecycles in the markets we serve, production lead times required by our customers, our ability to secure materials and components, our ability to manage staffing and talent dynamics, rapid shifts in technology, model obsolescence, commoditization of certain products, the emergence of new business models, shifting patterns of demand, the proliferation of software-defined technologies enabling the disaggregation of software and hardware, product oversupply, changing supply chains and customer supply chain requirements, and the build-up by customers of inventory buffers. For example, the shift from traditional network infrastructures to highly virtualized and cloud-based environments, and declines in end-market demand for proprietary systems in favor of open systems with standardized technologies in recent periods, have adversely impacted some of our traditional CCS segment customers, and favorably impacted our service provider customers and our HPS business. We continue to experience operational challenges as a result of global supply chain constraints, and to a lesser extent, from periodic COVID-19-related regional lockdowns and workforce constraints. In addition, notwithstanding recent increases in travel, our A&D business continues to experience reduced demand resulting from the prolonged impact of COVID-19, particularly in the commercial aerospace market (see "Recent Developments — Segment Environment" below).
    
Capacity utilization, customer mix and the types of products and services we provide are important factors affecting our financial performance. The number of sites, the location of qualified personnel, the manufacturing and engineering capacity and network, and the mix of business through that capacity are vital considerations for EMS and original design manufacturing (ODM) providers in terms of supporting their customers and generating appropriate returns. Because the EMS industry is working capital intensive, we believe that non-IFRS adjusted return on invested capital (adjusted ROIC), which is primarily based on non-IFRS operating earnings (each discussed in "Non-IFRS Financial Measures" below) and investments in working capital and equipment, is an important metric for measuring an EMS provider’s financial performance.
    
See "Recent Developments" and "External Factors that May Impact our Business" below for a discussion of certain factors, including COVID-19 and the impact of global supply chain constraints, that have (and/or may in the future), adversely impact our business.
Recent Developments
Segment Environment:
ATS Segment
    ATS segm