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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2023

or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from      to    
Commission File Number: 001-39820

Clever Leaves Holdings Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
____________________________
British Columbia, CanadaNot Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Bodega 19-B Parque Industrial Tibitoc P.H,
Tocancipá - Cundinamarca, Colombia
N/A
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (561) 634-7430
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common shares without par valueCLVRThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants, each warrant exercisable for 1/30th common share at an exercise price of $11.50CLVRWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $11.9 million as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (based on a closing price of $6.08 per share as reported by the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on June 30, 2023). For purposes of this calculation, common shares held as of June 30, 2023, by each of the registrant’s executive officers and directors, as well as shares held by holders of 10% or more of the registrant's common shares known to the registrant, have been excluded. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of the registrant’s common shares outstanding as of March 19, 2024 was 1,754,795.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement relating to its 2024 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into
Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such proxy statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
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CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
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53
SIGNATURES



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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”) includes certain statements that are not historical facts but are forward-looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions under the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You should not place undue reliance on such statements because they are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control and could cause our actual results to differ from the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategy. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “could,” “may,” “would,” “should,” “intend,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “forecast,” “will,” “expect,” “budget,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “continue,” “project,” “positioned,” “strategy,” “outlook” and similar expressions. You should read statements that contain these words carefully because they:

discuss future expectations;
contain projections of future results of operations or financial condition; or
state other “forward-looking” information.

All such forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and involve estimates and assumptions that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results expressed in the statements. We believe it is important to communicate our expectations to our security holders. However, there may be future events that we are not able to predict accurately or over which we have no control. The risk factors and cautionary language discussed in this Form 10-K provide examples of risks, contingencies, uncertainties, and events that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations described by us in such forward-looking statements, including among other things:

our ability to continue as a going concern;
our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on Nasdaq;
changes adversely affecting the industry in which we operate;
our restructuring plans;
the availability or terms of future financing;
our ability to achieve our business strategies or to manage our expenses;
regional political and economic conditions, including emerging market conditions;
the impact and magnitude of rising energy costs;
the impact and magnitude of inflation and currency fluctuations;
the regulation and legalization of adult-use, recreational cannabis;
our ability to retain our key employees; and
other factors that are more fully discussed in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

These risks could cause actual results to differ materially from those implied by the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K.

All forward-looking statements included herein attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Except to the extent required by applicable laws and regulations, we undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

This Form 10-K contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for our products. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

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PART I
Item 1. Business

Our Mission

Our mission is to innovate in cannabis products and services, from raw materials to finished products, in an environmentally friendly manner and to be an industry-leading global cannabinoid company recognized for our principles, people, and performance while fostering a healthier global community.

Our Company

We are a multi-national operator in the botanical cannabinoid and nutraceutical industries, with operations and investments in Colombia, the United States, and Canada. We are working to develop one of the industry’s leading, low-cost global supply chains with the goal of providing high quality, pharmaceutical grade cannabis and wellness products to customers and patients at competitive prices produced in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Our customers consist of retail distributors, pharmaceutical and cannabis companies, and pharmacies.

We have invested in ecologically sustainable, large-scale cultivation and processing as the cornerstone of our medical cannabinoid business, and we seek to continue to develop strategic distribution channels and brands. We currently own approximately 1.8 million square feet of greenhouse cultivation capacity in Colombia. In addition, our pharmaceutical-grade extraction facility is capable of processing 108,000 kilograms of dry flower per year.

In July 2020, we became one of a small number of vertically integrated cannabis companies in the world to receive European Union Good Manufacturing Practices (“EU GMP”) certification for our Colombian operations. We believe this certification will provide us with one of the largest quality-certified licensed capacities for cannabis cultivation and cannabinoid extraction globally, while our strategically located operations allow us to produce our products at a fraction of the average cost of production incurred by our peers in Canada and the United States.

The Company approved a plan to shut down its cultivation activities in Portugal in December 2022 and further approved the wind-down of the entire Portuguese operations in January 2023 to preserve cash and to cease all operations in Portugal. In July 2023, we sold certain laboratory and processing equipment for the production of cannabinoid products, as well as informational rights to policies and procedures for the production and manufacture of such cannabinoids that we used in our EU-GMP certified cannabis processing facility in Setubal, Portugal, which was a key milestone of the wind-down process. On January 26, 2024, we sold certain real property with certain existing furniture and structures in Portugal, which completed the wind-down of our Portugal operations.

In addition to the cannabinoid business, we were also engaged in the non-cannabinoid business of formulating, manufacturing, marketing, selling, distributing, and otherwise commercializing nutraceutical and other natural remedies and wellness products, to more than 20,000 retail locations across the United States, through our wholly owned subsidiary Herbal Brands, Inc. (“Herbal Brands”) for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Our principal operations are in two key geographies:

Colombia. We believe we have one of the largest licensed production capacity footprints to produce medical cannabis in Colombia with 18 greenhouses creating 1.8 million square feet of cultivation space. We have let our option to acquire additional square feet of agricultural land to lapse. With 6 million square feet of leased or owned land, our greenhouse cultivation can be expanded to approximately 2.5 million square feet at our existing operating site. In 2020, our greenhouses, propagation area, and post-harvest facility were granted Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (“GACP”) certification by Control Union Medical Cannabis Standard (“CUMCS”) which in 2022 was complemented with the Israeli standard certification also by Control Union (“IMC-GAP GACP”). As a quality assurance standard, we believe GACP and IMC-GAP GACP certifications increase our ability to attract customers and enable us to produce pharmaceutical-grade flower and cannabis derived products for domestic and international markets. Our Colombian manufacturing facilities were granted Colombian GMP certification by the National Institute of Surveillance of Pharmaceuticals and Food (Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos), Colombia’s food and drug regulatory agency (“INVIMA”) in August 2019 and EU GMP
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certification by the Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices “HALMED”) in July 2020. Our post-harvest facility also received EU GMP certification in July 2020. With 39 genetic strains of cannabinoids registered in Colombia (and 133 more in our genetics bank which we will seek to register as we test them), we are mainly focused on cultivation, extraction and manufacturing activities. In May 2023, we were GMP certified by the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (“ANVISA”), the Brazilian regulatory body. In September 2023 we were granted the EU-GMP re-certification from HALMED, and in December 2023, we received Australian GMP certifications for our facilities in Colombia by the Therapeutic Goods Administration ("TGA"), the regulatory body for health products in Australia. This certification authorizes Clever Leaves to manufacture cannabis products for patients in Australia.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe we distinguish ourselves from our competitors by virtue of the following strengths:

Leader in low-cost, high-quality pharma-grade cannabinoid cultivation and extraction

In Colombia, we believe we have one of the largest licensed productive capacity footprints to produce medical cannabis with 18 greenhouses creating 1.8 million square feet of cultivation space. With 6 million square feet of leased or owned land, our greenhouse cultivating can be expanded to approximately 2.5 million square feet at our existing operating site. We have 108,000 kilograms of dry flower extraction capacity per year in one of the world’s few EU GMP certified vertically-integrated operations. In addition to the favorable climate, 12 hours of daily sunlight year-round and topographical benefits, Colombia’s lower cost of living, labor and construction costs (as compared to the United States or Canada) help to reduce labor overhead and capital expenditure, enabling us to operate and scale our business with operating costs that are competitive across our industry.

Pharmaceutical-grade, GMP-certified production

Our production chain has been awarded good manufacturing practices certifications by the regulatory entities of Colombia, the European Union, Brazil and Australia, which demonstrate compliance with some of the world’s most stringent pharmaceutical quality standards. With GACP and IMC-GAP GACP certified cultivation and EU GMP certified post-harvest and extraction in Colombia, our EU GMP certified product portfolio is distinctive in that it includes active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), semi-finished and finished pharmaceutical products. We believe there are a few cannabis companies globally with the breadth of EU GMP certification that we were awarded for cannabis extracts. In December 2023, we were granted Australian GMP certifications for our Colombian facilities by the TGA, the regulatory body for health products in Australia. This certification authorizes us to manufacture cannabis products for patients in Australia. In May 2023 we were also awarded GMP certification by ANVISA, the Brazilian regulatory entity. In September 2023 we were re-certified as EU-GMPcompliant by HALMED, the Croatian authority.

The EU GMP certification is a requirement for commercialization of pharmaceutical products in Europe and indicates that the products are produced to the high-quality requirements necessary in the European Union. The EU GMP certification governs the manufacture of medicinal products within the EU and constitutes one of the highest globally recognized product quality standards. The EU GMP certification asserts the manufacturer's compliance with consistent and controlled quality standards in the covered manufacturing processes of medicines and API. The EU GMP standards are compiled in the EU GMP Guidelines, which encompass the quality standards in the production, handling, storage and packaging of the medicinal products and active pharmaceutical ingredients.

A prerequisite under EU GMP is that medicinal products are of consistently high quality and provide detailed traceability of their components. As such, EU GMP provides our customers and potential customers comfort that our products may be more suitable for their intended use than those of our non-EU GMP certified competitors. Importantly, these customers may use the product in clinical trials and in obtaining marketing authorizations. As a result, our EU GMP certification facilitates the movement of goods, contributes to the credibility of our products and expands our ability to serve the burgeoning European medical cannabis markets, which are subject to strict quality, compliance and regulatory requirements.

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For emerging medical cannabis markets that have not yet established quality standards, or which do not necessarily require EU GMP certification, EU GMP certification also serves as a strong quality signal, potentially attracting customers that may not otherwise require EU GMP certification. We expect that EU GMP certification will be significant in unlocking new international markets that require such certification as well as higher price points for our products given the pharma-quality advantage and validation of quality and consistency.

The EU GMP certification we received in July 2020 covers the part of the manufacturing process that begins with the trimming of the flower at the cultivation site until packaging, which is conducted at our extraction facility in Colombia. In July 2022 we received EU GMP specifically for the isolation manufacturing process for CBD Crystals by the German authority RP Darmstadt, later included in our EU GMP certification by HALMED upon renewal on September 11, 2023. If we develop a new product that requires a manufacturing process not covered by our existing EU GMP certifications, we must request an audit of the new manufacturing process and its inclusion in our existing EU GMP certifications.

Each EU GMP certification is granted to specific manufacturing processes, conducted under specific conditions and, thus, it is tied to the specific facility where those manufacturing conditions were audited and certified as compliant. The EU GMP certifications we received are valid for three years, which is the maximum validity period, the new period having been extended since September 11, 2023. The EU GMP certifications are renewable upon assessment by EU GMP inspectors. In order to maintain our EU GMP certifications, we are required to comply with the EU GMP Guidelines and may be subject to inspections and information requests by EU GMP inspectors.

Similar to the stringent standards of the EU-GMP certification, the Australian GMP certification from the TGA is intended to ensure the delivery of high-quality medicinal cannabis to patients. It is aimed at safeguarding against product contamination, variations in compound concentrations, mix-ups, incorrect labeling, and other potential issues. This certification is a prerequisite for manufacturing and commercializing cannabis products in the Australian market.

Optimized footprint for long-term

We have operations in Latin America in regards to our cannabinoid products, and in North America with respect to our non-cannabinoid nutraceutical products. Our business model is focused on geographic diversification and optimization, which we believe distinguishes us from many Canadian licensed producers ("LPs"), U.S. multi-state operators ("MSOs") and U.S. single-state operators ("SSOs"), which are commonly confined to one geography and may be reliant on initial market protections afforded by the existing regulatory framework in their respective jurisdictions. Unlike certain Canadian LPs, U.S. MSOs and SSOs, we can scale our production in low-cost regions in Colombia, while maintaining access to some higher value-added end markets such as the EU because of our EU GMP certifications and our global operating network. U.S. MSOs typically construct semi-redundant or incompatible infrastructure due to state specific regulation and licensing and face a variety of legal and operational challenges because cannabis is not legal under U.S. federal law and interstate commerce is prohibited. Although certain Canadian LPs, U.S. MSOs and SSOs may benefit from restrictions on importation of cannabis or hemp from other geographies, creating current market protections, legalization of imported cannabinoid products, should this occur, may create future new opportunities in Canada and the United States for multi-national operator ("MNOs") and create competition for incumbents.

Developing export distribution channels

We continue to build our sales pipeline with businesses in various jurisdictions that have legalized medical cannabis derived products or low THC and hemp derived products. To date, we have had export shipments of our cannabis products for different purposes to Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay. Germany, as the largest economy in the EU and a country with public insurance coverage for medical cannabis, is strategically positioned as our launch point for a further expansion into the European cannabis industry.

Advantages from early establishment in Colombia

In Colombia, plant varietals cannot be commercialized until they have been registered with Colombian Agricultural Institute ("ICA"), the Colombian agricultural regulator. We have 43 genetic strains of cannabinoids registered in Colombia. Prior to
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December 2018, cannabis strains were subject to a more streamlined regulatory registration process by ICA. A cannabis producer entering the Colombian cannabis industry today would likely be required to comply with more stringent and lengthy genetics registration and quarantine protocols.

In late July 2021, the Colombian government passed Decree 811, which replaced Decree 613. Decree 811 removed the prohibition contained in Decree 613 to allow the exportation of cannabis flowers. In February 2022, the Colombian government passed Regulation 227, which defines the procedures to begin cultivating cannabis for exporting the flower for medicinal use. Later, in April 2022, a joint resolution 539 was passed which allows us to export cannabis flower for medicinal use.

Our relatively long-term presence in Colombia and established track record with Colombian regulators has contributed to our receipt of some of the country’s first and largest quotas for the cultivation and extraction of high-THC cannabis products. In September 2020, the Colombian National Government declared our company as a National Strategic Interest Project (“PINE”), which means that Colombian governmental institutions will attempt to expedite processes, permits and documentation for Clever Leaves. In 2019, we were the first medicinal cannabis company to receive Colombian GMP certification by INVIMA. These achievements, along with the EU GMP certifications of our post-harvest and manufacturing sites in 2020, paved the way to become the first Colombian-based manufacturer to export commercial batches of EU GMP certified cannabis-based APIs to Europe in late 2021.The EU-GMP was renewed in 2023 after the facilities being inspected by HALMED, the Croatian regulatory agency.

Talented and experienced leadership with operational and regulatory expertise

Our Company is led by a highly knowledgeable management team of experienced professionals.

Andres Fajardo serves as our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"), and a member of the Board. He has more than 20 years of management experience, having served as CEO of IQ Outsourcing, a leading Colombian business processing firm, and as a principal member at Booz & Company.

Julian Wilches, our Chief Regulatory Officer, brings extensive regulatory experience as he previously served as Director of Drug Policy for the Colombian Ministry of Justice and Law.

Henry Hague III, our Chief Financial Officer, brings extensive experience in providing financial leadership to various public and private entities in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and cannabinoid industries.

Georgette Otero, our new General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, leads our global legal and compliance function, while also leading our international regulatory department since 2018. Georgette’s experience includes extensive in intellectual property and regulatory strategic counsel to diverse industries with a focus on pharmaceuticals, at an international law firm where she was a partner.

Our management team has significant experience identifying and scaling attractive business models, and with evaluating investment opportunities, partnerships, and other growth opportunities. We focus on making strategic decisions that will allow us to grow our business over the long-term and increase shareholder value. We intend to leverage this experience and existing relationships to build strategic partnerships with leading companies across the cannabis supply chain, including wellness, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical companies.




Our Strategy for Growth

We plan to utilize our existing infrastructure in Colombia and make future incremental investments to drive sales growth in the cannabis markets globally. We aspire to build a leading international low-cost and pharmaceutical-grade cannabinoid company through the following strategies:

Securing strategic partnerships
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Our business model is focused on partnering with leading and emerging cannabis and pharmaceutical businesses by providing them with lower cost product, variable cost structures, reliable supply throughout the year, and accelerated speed to market. We believe this is achievable due to our production location in Colombia, capacity, product registrations and various product certifications.

Expanding our sales and distribution footprint

We believe that our Colombian production footprint will allow us to take advantage of the opportunities arising from the global cannabis industry.

Our primary distribution channels are for wellness products and pharmaceutical products. We structure our sales efforts regionally into Australia, Germany, Israel, Latin America, the United Kingdom, the United States and rest of the world. Within each sales channel, there are a variety of products that we are licensed to manufacture and sell under various distribution arrangements. Our distribution of cannabis products to date consists of export shipments for commercial or research purposes to Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Uruguay. However, we anticipate that our Colombian GACP, IMC-GAP GACP, GMP, AU GMP and EU GMP certifications will allow us to expand our pharmaceutical distribution channel, which typically has a higher margin but a longer sales cycle.

We are focused on expanding in the following main geographies: Australia, Brazil, Germany, Israel, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Australia: Our extracts and API sales from Colombia have been increasing to established cannabis companies in Australia. . In 2023 we initiated sales of our first strain of Colombian-grown cannabis flower into the country. We expect Australia to be one of the largest markets for Colombian flower in 2024.

Brazil: We have been generating final product sales under the “Compassionate Use” legal framework. We have also worked with our partners in Brazil and to date there are 6 Clever Leaves products with a special marketing authorization under the RDC 327 (Cannabis Framework), which allows us to import and distribute products in Brazil. Our first product registration was granted in November 2021, and five additional products in our portfolio have received special marketing authorization under RDC 327. We have been shipping product under RDC 327 since Q1 2022.

Germany: Distribution of medical cannabis products in Germany is regulated by the German national and federal pharmaceutical regulators. Cannabis products are prescribed by traditional and specialist physicians and fulfilled by pharmacies. The pharmacy industry is fragmented by law, with limits on ownership of multiple pharmacy locations. Imports of cannabis into Germany is facilitated by a limited set of licensed importers and distributors. In order to navigate the challenges of entering the German market and reducing our reliance on German import partners, we executed a strategic investment in an EU GDP and EU GMP certified German distributor, Cansativa GmbH ("Cansativa"). However, in 2023, we sold our holdings in Cansativa for approximately €1.8 million. See Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information. In Germany, we are actively commercializing API and finished products, establishing licensing partnerships with local and regional companies which includes a global pharmaceutical company. We expect Germany to be one of the largest markets for Colombian flower in 2024.

Israel: Our API product - sales grew since April 2020 until Q3 of 2023. In 2024, we expect Israel to start selling our Colombian flower into the market and expect it to grow significantly into 2025. In 2022 we signed an agreement with Intercure to import and distribute our products in the country.

United Kingdom: We commenced shipment of oral solutions into the UK market during 2023 and expect to expand in 2024. We have already setup commercial and regulatory pathways to the market.

United States: In 2023, our distribution in the United States was comprised of primarily Herbal Brands nutraceutical products. Either directly or through distributors, we distribute Herbal Brands products to more than 20,000 retail locations in the United States, which includes specialty and health retail stores. Subsequent to year end, we entered into a stock purchase
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agreement on March 21, 2024, to sell Herbal Brands. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information.

In addition, we are building relationships with businesses in other countries with the objective of preparing, planning or executing commercial shipments to such businesses, although completion of these shipments is not guaranteed and is subject to many evolving factors including regulatory progress and approvals, agreement on commercial terms, negotiation of definitive documentation, successful test shipments, and validation by third party laboratories. We believe these are attractive markets due to their long-term potential, stringent quality requirements that fit our supply chain strengths, and improving regulatory frameworks.

Capitalize on regulatory developments

As cannabis regulations evolve, we intend to broaden our product offering.

In February 2022, the Colombian government passed a regulation that defines the procedures to begin cultivating cannabis for exporting the flower for medicinal use. We believe this represents a significant opportunity for our Company. We believe that our GACP, IMC-GAP GACP, Brazilian GMP,Australian GMP and EU GMP certifications for the sale of cannabis flower and cannabis derivatives positions us to benefit from this significant regulatory change.

We have seen an emergence of interest in products derived from hemp or cannabis that have non-detectable or ultra-low levels of THC. These products may be compliant with a broader range of regulations to facilitate CBD or other hemp-derived botanical products. Expanding our capacity for THC removal could yield additional demand from our customers.

We also closely monitor the regulation of cannabinoid products in the United States. To date, we have imported cannabis and cannabinoid products from Colombia and Portugal, some of them with explicit import permits from the U.S. DEA for research purposes, and under the Farm Bill for product development purposes. However, evolving regulation surrounding the 2018 Farm Bill, by the FDA for CBD or around the legalization of broader cannabis use for medical or other purposes, may create the opportunity either for imports from Colombia and/or the commercialization of cannabis and cannabinoid products in the United States.

We are also closely monitoring the regulatory developments in the following countries, among others,which may represent actual markets for our products in the coming years:

a.France: National Assembly approved the 2024 Social Security Financing Bill, including the amendment on medical cannabis.
b.Spain: The Ministry of Health confirmed in late December that they expect to have a regulatory framework for medicinal cannabis “in the next months” based on the draft elaborated by the State Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices AEMPS).

In Colombia, as of January 1, 2023, the Ministry of Health included CBD and THC magistral preparations in the list of medications that health insurance entities (EPS) pay to health service providers (IPS) with funds preapproved and budgeted under the health plan coverage (effective on January 1st, 2023). This is subject to the condition that the use of the cannabis magistral preparation is cost-efficient against alternative therapies available in the market and the patient’s medical condition is among those recognized as conditions treatable with cannabis products (for which the system will take into account the guides issued by the local agency for assessment of health technologies-IETS). With this regulation, a patient registered with a health insurance entity (EPS) with a valid medical prescription can go directly to a pharmacy allied with the EPS that will deliver the cannabis product to the patient with a copayment (standard price). Then, the pharmacy charges the product to the EPS that assumes its cost with the system funds. The medical conditions initially accepted for this new coverage include chronic pain, oncological pain, epilepsy and insomnia. This new process does not impede patients to directly purchase the product (“out-of-pocket”) with a medical prescription.

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Our Products

Our product portfolio has historically been split into two primary categories: nutraceuticals and cannabis/cannabinoids. Subsequent to year end, we through our wholly owned subsidiary sold our non cannabinoid business segment comprised of nutraceutical and other natural remedies, wellness products, detoxification products, and nutritional and dietary supplements. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information.

Nutraceuticals

Our nutraceutical products consist primarily of a variety of beverage and powder products. These products primarily include cleanses or other wellness products. We provide a limited amount of contract manufacturing for other nutraceutical companies that produce similar products.

Cannabis/Cannabinoids

The growth of our cannabis/cannabinoid product portfolio is a significant focus area, and it emphasizes business to business solutions for our customers. We generally categorize our products as flower or extracts and offer both bulk raw materials (APIs) and finished products.

Flower

Our dried flower products are generally classified as either containing low levels of THC or high levels of THC.

Low-THC Flower. We currently cultivate low-THC flower (sometimes referred to as hemp) in Colombia. We are generally not subject to any limitations on the amount of low-THC flower that we can cultivate in Colombia and which is generally processed into different types of high CBD extracts and products for further distribution in Colombia and internationally

This product can be sold as dried and unprocessed flower, but it can also undergo various forms of processing, such as decarboxylation or milling, before sale. Packaging is typically suitable for large volumes of product, such as vacuum sealed pouches or other containers.

High-THC Flower. Our flower with high levels of THC is commonly referred to as cannabis and is often considered to be psychoactive. We cultivate cannabis in Colombia where we process our high THC flower into extract products for future distribution in Colombia and internationally. In addition, we are now exporting high THC flower. In 2023, we exported high THC cannabis flower (i) for commercial purposes to Australia, Germany and Portugal, and (ii) for research purposes to Germany and Australia, among others.

Extracts

By extracting and processing our flower grown in Colombia, we produce a variety of extracted products including isolates, crude oil extracts, standardized extracts, and oral solutions. Extracted products are often defined by their formulation, typically specifying the level of cannabinoids contained therein. We currently market more than 10 different formulations of extracted products, and we plan to gradually grow our portfolio of formulations over time. These products also vary by container type, such as a bulk glass or plastic containers, and by size, such as 10 or 30 milliliter bottles.

Our extracts are generally classified as containing either low, balanced or high levels of THC. Usually the regulatory requirements applicable to each product are more stringent as the level of THC increases. Extracts with low levels of THC can be commercialized in some countries more readily without requiring as many approvals, such as quotas or import and export permits, while extracts with high levels of THC are classified and regulated as controlled substances and subject to more stringent regulatory requirements, including production quotas, import and export permits, and product specific certifications.

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Some of our customers have requested additional assistance with extracts, either in the form of extraction as a service or to assist with their own product development. We have engaged in these services on a limited basis. These ancillary services require substantial time and know-how, but we believe our ability to provide a broader array of business-to-business solutions can help strengthen our existing customer relationships.

Operational Overview

Genetics

In Colombia, plant varietals cannot be commercialized until they have been registered with ICA, the Colombian agricultural regulator. In Colombia, we have registered 43 genetic strains of cannabinoids and we are currently planning to increase this number. We have also partnered with third parties to use their strains as a tool to complement our current portfolio. We continue to optimize the use of these strains for our specific cultivation environment and have substantially increased our productivity as measured by weight per plant since our initial harvests.

Cultivation

Colombia

We believe we have one of the largest licensed productive capacity footprints to produce medical cannabis in Colombia with 18 greenhouses and 1.8 million square feet of cultivation space. Although we have built a limited amount of preliminary infrastructure on this expansion property and we have licensed it for cultivation activity, we are currently waiting to develop it pending future increases in customer demand. Due to the scale and novelty of the operation, we may need to build additional infrastructure and develop new processes to manage the scale of biomass production at this operation.

Our Colombian cultivation operations benefit from the following certifications:

• In May 2020, some of our Colombian cultivation operations, representing approximately 100,000 square feet of propagation and nursery areas, approximately 400,000 square feet of our vegetative and flowering greenhouses, and approximately 20,000 square feet of our post-harvest and processing facility, were granted GACP certification by the Control Union Medical Cannabis Standard ("CUMCS"). This certification is recognized globally and certifies that our production complies with CUMCS’ guidelines for quality and consistency based on a review and approval of our trained personnel practices, use of qualified equipment, and documentation and approval procedures. In addition, we operate under procedures to produce crops free of heavy metals and agrochemicals, an important differentiator for our business because of the safety measures required for pharmaceutical manufacturing. We obtained the GACP certification for an additional 14 greenhouses in November 2020 thereby, completing the certification process for all 18 of our greenhouses in Colombia.

• In July 2020, we received our EU GMP certifications from HALMED for our post-harvest facility on our cultivation site as well as for our manufacturing processes at our extraction facility, both in Colombia. EU GMP certification is an essential requirement for exporting medical cannabis for commercial and medicinal purposes to European countries, including but not limited to Germany, and the United Kingdom. The EU GMP certifications were renewed in September 2023, after the inspection of HALMED, the Croatian Authority.

In June 2022 and in addition to our CUMCS-GACP certification we received the IMC-GACP certification also provided by Control Union and which is the standard required by the Israeli market.

In July 2022, we received the EU GMP certification from RP Darmstadt, including the CBD crystallization process.

In December 2023, we received the Australian GMP certifications from the TGA.
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Since our decision to shut down our cultivation activities in Portugal in December 2022 and following the wind down of our entire Portuguese operations in January 2024, our cultivation operations are focused on Colombia, which benefits from the following key advantages:

• Geographic conditions make Colombia well situated for cannabis cultivation. Its proximity to the equator provides approximately 12 hours of daily sunlight throughout the year. Its high-quality soil, water and warm weather provide favorable conditions for year-round cultivation without the expense of significant light supplementation;

• Within Colombia, our greenhouse cultivation operations are located at over 8,000 feet of elevation, which reduces the population of pests that can complicate agricultural operations;

• The Colombian agronomical conditions result in lower expansion costs compared to those of Canadian, European and U.S. competitors;

• The regulatory framework for cannabis and hemp operations is relatively well-established and was recently updated, providing more competitive advantages, in the context of a global highly regulatory-driven industry;

• Colombia has a lower cost of living, labor and construction compared to costs in the United States, Europe and Canada; and

• Due to the incumbent flower export industry in Colombia, export and logistics infrastructure is well established.

Extraction

Our Colombian extraction operations are conducted in approximately 44,000 square feet of pharmaceutical grade facilities with a fully equipped R&D laboratory. We currently lease three adjacent or nearby properties in the secured industrial park where our extraction operations are located.

Our Colombian extraction facility is capable of processing 108,000 kilograms of dry flower per year and is expandable to over 252,000 kilograms of dry flower per year with limited additional investment. Of the 108,000 annual kilograms of dry flower extraction potential, approximately 36,000 kilograms per year can be extracted in our EU GMP-certified operation. By extracting and processing our flower produced in Colombia, we produce a variety of extracted products including isolates, crude oil extracts, standardized extracts, and oral solutions. Extraction of cannabis and processing of concentrates for medical and scientific purposes in Colombia requires a license, which allows sale of such final products in the domestic Colombian market. We are one of the first companies in Colombia to have obtained the requisite extraction license.

In August 2019, our Colombian manufacturing facilities were granted Colombian GMP certification by INVIMA. We were the first Colombian cannabis company to receive Colombian GMP certification from INVIMA. This Colombian GMP certification allows the manufacture of pharmaceutical-grade products that can be prescribed through medical distribution channels.

In July 2020, our Colombian extraction facilities also received EU GMP certifications from HALMED. Our EU GMP certifications are distinctive in that they cover API, semi-finished and finished cannabis products. EU GMP certification is often a required qualification for the European market, which adheres to strict pharmaceutical quality standards, and for other markets that accept EU GMP certification within their territories.

In July 2022 The Colombian extraction facility received the EU GMP certification for the crystallization process of the CBD, issued by the RP Darmstadt, the regional authority in Frankfurt, Germany. In September 2023 the crystallization process was included by HALMED in our EU GMP recertification.

In May 2023, the Colombian facility received the Brazilian Certificate of Good Manufacturing Practice granted by the ANVISA.

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In December 2023, the Colombian facilities received the Australian Certificate of GMP Compliance for the purposes of Therapeutic Goods Order 93 granted by the TGA.

Research and Development

As part of our Colombian operations, we also have a quality control laboratory and fully equipped R&D laboratory, where we develop processes and formulations for safe and high efficacy products, develop ingredients and raw materials for new products, conduct stability tests on new products or formulations, and develop product master files or dossiers. We are developing extraction processes and methods to improve yields and efficiency as well as to create new product formats. We are also developing new products and formulations to improve efficacy or meet regulatory requirements in new markets.

Brands
Our largest brands in terms of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 were those managed by Herbal Brands.

Strategic Investments

We seek to partner with several value-add companies to develop and strengthen market access and global reach. From time to time we have made, and may in the future make, strategic investments in developing companies. In December 2018, we made an initial investment into Cansativa, one of the largest German GMP and GDP certified pharmaceutical cannabis importers and distributors. In 2023 we sold our holdings in Cansativa for approximately €1.8 million ($1.9 million).

Regulatory Environment

We are committed to operating in compliance with applicable law, including U.S. federal and state laws, and have focused our activities in those countries that have legalized key aspects of the production, distribution, sale and use of cannabis and cannabis derivatives, including cannabinoids. However, the patchwork of federal and local legal frameworks governing our markets and related business activities are subject to change and have the potential to affect all areas of our business. We monitor the global regulatory landscape in order to ensure ongoing regulatory compliance in our relevant markets, and to identify and capitalize on new opportunities as they emerge around the world.

Regulatory Environment in Colombia

Cannabis-related activities are regulated in Colombia, under strict compliance with the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, to which Colombia is a signatory. Law 1787 of 2016 (the “Medical Cannabis Law”), which together with related regulations provide for the traceability of cannabis plants, the work-in-progress and resulting products and the specific activities of the licensed companies, specify the types of licenses, approvals and permits required for the respective activities, and establish various requirements applicable to the medical, veterinarian, industrial and wellness markets.

Adopted in 2016, the Medical Cannabis Law created a legal framework for the medical and scientific use of cannabis and its derivatives in Colombia and imposed the obligation on the Colombian government to create proper regulatory cannabis framework.




Licensing Requirements

In late July 2021, the Colombian government passed Decree 811, which replaced Decree 613. Decree 811 removed the prohibition contained in Decree 613, allowing the exportation of cannabis flowers. In February 2022, the Colombian government passed Joint Resolution 227, with the regulations to Decree 811 related to all activities regarding cultivation of cannabis plants for production of seeds, vegetable materials or cannabis flower, sales and export of the same materials, and
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manufacture of cannabis derivatives. In April 2022, the Colombian government issued Joint Resolution 539, to regulate the procedures for exporting seeds, plants, vegetable materials, cannabis flowers and cannabis derivatives.

From a legal and regulatory perspective, there are two classes of cannabis plants and cannabis derivatives which are categorized according to their THC content. A plant is considered psychoactive if its inflorescence has or may have a THC content of 1% or more on a dry weight basis. Non-psychoactive plants are those which inflorescences have or may have less than 1% THC content on a dry weight basis. Psychoactive derivatives are those resins, oils, extracts, distillates that have or may have a THC content of 1% or more. Non-psychoactive derivatives are those with less than 1% THC content.

A license is required for the cultivation of both psychoactive and non-psychoactive plants, and for the manufacture of psychoactive and non-psychoactive cannabis derivatives.

There are seven types of licenses issued with respect to the following activities relating to cannabis and cannabis derivatives for medical and scientific use:

• License to handle seeds, which covers the acquisition of seeds under any title, import, storage, marketing, distribution, possession, and final disposal, as well as their use, export and commercialization.

• License to grow psychoactive cannabis, which permits its cultivation, sowing, acquisition and production of seeds, storage, marketing, distribution, export, and final disposal.

• License to grow non-psychoactive cannabis, which permits its cultivation, sowing, acquisition and production of seeds, storage, marketing, distribution, export, and final disposal.

• License to manufacture cannabis derivatives, which is required for the transformation of cannabis into psychoactive derivatives for medical and scientific purposes and covers the manufacture, acquisition under any title, import, export, storage, transport, marketing, and distribution of psychoactive cannabis derivatives. This license to manufacture non-psychoactive derivatives (those with a THC content of less than 1%), including CBD crystals.

• License to manufacture non-psychoactive derivatives (those with a T-HC content of less than 1%), including CBD crystals.

• Extraordinary license for the cultivation of cannabis plants, granted on an as-needed basis with the option to run-out on hand inventory balances and for non-commercial investigation purposes.

• Extraordinary license for the manufacture of cannabis derivatives, granted on an as-needed basis with the option to run-out on hand inventory balances and for non-commercial investigation purposes.

Psychoactive plants also require the grant of a cultivation quota for their breeding, sowing and cultivation. The grant of a cultivation quota entails full traceability from the beginning stages of cultivation with mother plants, to the final destination of the cannabis flower (which may be for exportation, manufacture of derivatives or research). For manufacture of cannabis derivatives a manufacturing quota is required, to produce psychoactive derivatives for research, local use (i.e. sales or use as API for pharmaceutical products) or exports. All these actions are reported to and verified by the Narcotics National Fund (“Fondo Nacional de Estupefacientes - FNE”) and the Ministry of Justice. Non-psychoactive plants do not require quota for their sowing and cultivation, neither do non-psychoactive derivatives for their manufacture.


We believe we have obtained the required licenses and quotas to perform our current activities.

Relevant Governmental Bodies

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The regulation, oversight and enforcement of cannabis licenses are performed by several governmental bodies in Colombia, including the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the Ministry of Justice and Law, the Ministry of Agriculture, FNE, INVIMA and ICA.

The Ministry of Justice is responsible for the evaluation of documents, the issuance of licenses to handle seeds, to grow psychoactive and non- psychoactive cannabis and to follow up with licensees for the compliance of all the requirements and reports..

The ICA regulates the registration, protection and use of cannabis seeds and cannabis-based finished products for veterinary use, as well as the export and import processes.

INVIMA is responsible for the evaluation of documents and the issuance of the licenses to manufacture cannabis derivatives. In addition, INVIMA is responsible for the authorization of the cannabis-based finished products for human consumption or use, according to the following categories: (i) phytotherapeutics (herbal medicines), (ii) pharmaceutical products, (iii) cosmetics, and (iv) magistral formulae.

The FNE regulates all activities related to the commercialization of psychoactive raw material and finished products containing more than 0.2% of THC. Marketing of non-psychoactive raw material is not under the control regime and all products with 0.2% or less of THC are not considered a controlled substance.

Allocation of Quotas to Licensed Companies

Quotas for breeding, sowing and cultivating psychoactive plants are allocated by the Ministry of Justice, based on a pre-authorized or simultaneously approved manufacture quota which is granted by the FNE based either on written commercial agreements or letters of intention with customers that reflect estimated sales for the next calendar year, or on production history of the licensee. Ordinary Quotas are granted for two years, extendable for three. Supplementary Quotas (fast track quotas for small/standardized quantities) are granted for one a year. To apply for a quota an applicant must have the relevant licenses for psychoactive cannabis. After receiving quotas for cultivation and manufacture, licensees are subject to several reports to guarantee traceability in front of the regulating bodies.

Quotas granted to private companies for local use are related to the cannabis estimates confirmed to Colombia each year by the INCB. Quotas for exports are no longer tied to the INCB confirmed national estimates for Colombia.

Current cannabis-related licenses in good standing were issued with a five-year term, and Decree 811 allows them to be extended for five (5) additional years, or to be renewed for a completely new 10-year period, subject to the licensee's formal petition and fulfillment of requirements.

Cannabis Derivatives

The FNE regulates the disposal, import and export of controlled substances in Colombia, including cannabis-controlled derivatives. All inventory movements of psychoactive derivatives must be reported to FNE in a timely manner and must be consistent with the quotas allocated to the respective cannabis producers.

In addition to the 1% THC limit for dry weight in the plant material, in March 2020, the Colombian government established a 0.2% THC threshold for cannabis-based finished products to be considered a controlled substance which is also applicable for imports and exports of all cannabis and cannabis derived products. Finished products with less than 0.2% THC content are considered non-controlled and are not subject to the above-mentioned requirements.

Decree 811 also creates a regulatory framework for the manufacture, sale and export of food and beverages and the export of flower from Colombia. The regulatory framework for food and beverages is still under development, while the framework for exporting cannabis flower in Colombia is already in place.

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Export Permits

The export of controlled substances and products (including raw material, pharmaceutical products and phytotherapeutics) outside Colombia requires an export permit issued by the FNE. The FNE grants (i) non-control certifications for general exports of cannabis products below the 0.2% THC limit and for cannabis derivatives below the 1% THC limit, if these products are considered non-controlled in the country of destination, and (ii) export permits based on the corresponding import permits issued by the authority of the destination country.

Colombian GMP Certification

In September 2019, we received Colombian GMP certification for our Colombian facility to manufacture cannabis-based finished products for liquid-oral pharmaceutical dosage forms from INVIMA, which confirms that the products we manufacture are produced according to Colombian pharmaceutical quality standards. In May 2022 INVIMA inspected us and included Warehouse 60 in our Colombian GMP certificate, thereby expanding our certified manufacturing area.

European Union (EU) Regulatory Environment

Regulations regarding medical cannabis
There is no formal EU definition of “medical cannabis.” Medical cannabis can be described as whole-plant cannabis-derived products (generally cannabis flower or oils) that are licensed by member state health systems for prescription by a physician. As recognized by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, medical cannabis refers to a wide variety of preparations and products that may contain different active ingredients and use different routes of administration.

From a legal and regulatory perspective, there are two categories of medical cannabis products: cannabis-derived medicinal products and cannabis preparations for medical use.

• Cannabis-derived medicinal products are products which have been granted a marketing authorization from a regulatory authority (the European Medicines Agency at EU level or national competent authorities at EU member state level), after going through extensive clinical trials to test the products’ safety and effectiveness. These products are regulated as (cannabis-derived) “medicinal products” in accordance with the harmonized EU regulatory system set forth by EU Directive 2001/83/EC. To date, some cannabinoid-containing medicinal products have been authorized for marketing in the EU and certain EU member states, including, among others, plant-based products Sativex® (nabiximols) and Epidyolex® (CBD), and synthetic products Marinol® (dronabinol) and Cesamet® (nabilone).

• Cannabis preparations for medical use are products which may be authorized through national distribution and use authorizations or licenses in certain EU member states. This group of products includes, among others, raw cannabis (such as the flowering tops, resin, and oils extracted from the plant). Alternatively, raw cannabis can be transformed by a pharmacist into a magistral preparation in accordance with a medical prescription, or the raw cannabis may already have been transformed by the manufacturer into standardized cannabis preparations. These cannabis preparations can vary greatly in composition, depending for example on the strain of cannabis, the growing conditions and how the preparations are stored.

Since the EU is not a party to the international conventions related to the control of drugs, the obligation to implement the requirements of said conventions sits with the individual EU member states. The regulation of medical cannabis falls largely within the competence of the EU member states, which may decide to permit the medical use of cannabis preparations (without requiring a marketing authorization in accordance with EU Directive 2001/83/EC) under specific conditions. Pursuant to Article 5(1) of Directive 2001/83/EC (which relates to so-called “named patient use” of medicinal products), the use of medical cannabis can only be authorized by member states upon medical prescription and when there is a medical need for the patient.

The regulations with respect to medical cannabis vary greatly amongst member states. While some EU member states have adopted specific legal provisions and frameworks governing the distribution and use of medical cannabis, including Germany,
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Czech Republic, Poland, Italy, Malta and Portugal, the status of medical cannabis in other member states remains unclear and is developing. By late 2023, regulatory changes for medicinal cannabis were announced in France and Spain.

Regulations regarding CBD-containing products

CBD is a naturally occurring cannabinoid found in cannabis/hemp plants, which is not in itself considered as a narcotic or psychotropic substance under the International Conventions or the laws of some EU Member States, including Germany. The substance can be isolated as a pure compound, and in principle can be extracted from all parts of the plant, practically free from other cannabinoids (such as THC) and therefore free from any psychotropic or narcotic properties. The WHO considers that CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile and does not exhibit effects indicative of any abuse or dependency potential.

Nevertheless, to date, the status of CBD, which can be included in different types of regulated products (e.g., cosmetics, food, etc.), remains unclear in the European Union. For example, CBD can be included as an ingredient for cosmetics, while the use of CBD in edibles is not yet clear in some countries of the European Union.

The following sections describe the legal and regulatory landscape in Germany, the EU member state in which the Company conducts its main commercial efforts for the extracts portfolio.

Germany Regulatory Landscape

Regulations regarding medical cannabis

The importation and distribution of medical cannabis in Germany is mainly covered by §3, 5, 7, and 11 of the German Narcotics Law or BtMG (Betäubungsmittelgesetz), §52a,72, and 73 of the German Medicines Act or AMG (Arzneimittelgesetz), and the German Narcotics Foreign Trade Ordinance or BtMAHV (Betäubungsmittel-Außenhandelsverordnung) as well as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961). The relevant competent authority is the Federal Opium Agency or Bundesopiumstelle (“BOPST”), a sub-unit of the BfArM, and the German Federal authorities.

Pursuant to sec. 1 (1) in conjunction with annex I BtMG, cannabis is a narcotic drug, subject to certain exceptions including seeds and cannabis with a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of less than 0.2%, which are not classified as narcotic drugs. It is a criminal offense in Germany to illicitly cultivate, produce and trade in cannabis or, without engaging in its trade, to import, export, transit, sell, supply, otherwise place it on the market or acquire or procure it in any other way.

The Act on the Amendment of Narcotic Drugs and Other Regulations (Gesetz zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher und anderer Vorschriften) which came into force on March 10, 2017, introduced an exception to allow the prescription and trade of cannabis for medical purposes. Prior to March 2017, the import of cannabis was not permitted, and pharmacies could request medical cannabis from abroad for specific patients only in exceptional circumstances (upon medical prescription), subject to a special case-by-case approval issued by BfArM. Since March 2017, cannabis cultivated for medical purposes outside Germany can be imported and marketed in Germany by private companies provided they have obtained all relevant licenses that must be in line with the Single Convention and that the products comply with all the technical and quality requirements. In late 2023, The European Pharmacopoeia released monographs detailing standards for cannabis flowers and CBD isolate, establishing clear criteria for the quality of these products. This monographs are poised to serve as the foundation for ensuring the quality of medicinal cannabis and will enter in force in July 2024.

Prescribing and Dispensing Regime

In Germany, the legal framework enables doctors to prescribe medical cannabis. Generally, medical cannabis is distributed in the form of medicinal cannabis flowers, as a cannabis extract, as a THC active single substance (dronabinol) or as a finished product. Pursuant to the German Narcotics Law, only pharmacies are permitted upon a narcotics prescription to supply cannabis to patients in the form of cannabis flowers, cannabis extracts (magistral preparations) or dronabinol or as finished products containing natural or synthetic cannabinoids. The exact recipe instructions for such magistral preparations are laid down in the New Prescription Form, which is the standard work for drug production in pharmacies and is part of the German Drug Codex.

Reimbursement Regime
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Health insurance is statutorily mandated in Germany, and residents are covered by either statutory health insurance plans (covering approximately 90% of the population) or private health insurance. Prior to March 2017, only cannabis intended for the manufacture of finished medicinal products containing cannabis could be imported into Germany. Since March 10, 2017, medical cannabis can be prescribed at the expense of the statutory health insurance companies in Germany upon their prior approval.

Currently, the costs of medical cannabis can be covered by German health insurance. Insured persons with a serious disease are entitled to be supplied with cannabis in the form of dried flowers or extracts in standardized quality (and pharmaceuticals containing the active substances dronabinol or nabilone) if a generally recognized treatment in accordance with medical standards is not available or cannot be used in the individual case and there is a prospect of positive effect on the course of the disease or person’s symptoms according to Section 31 Paragraph 6 German Social Insurance Code (Fünftes Sozialgesetzbuch).

The new Law for More Safety in the Supply of Pharmaceuticals (Gesetz für mehr Sicherheit in der Arzneimittelversorgung) which became effective in August 2019 enables patients who have been granted an approval to switch smoothly between cannabis products without having to wait for a new approval.

Licensing Requirements

In order to import and distribute medical cannabis in Germany, a private company needs to secure a license for the Trade in Narcotic Drugs at the federal level from the Federal Opium Agency or BOPST, and a Wholesale Trading License from local health authorities (§§52a, 72, and 73 of AMG and §§3,5,7 and 11 of BtMG). In addition, if cannabis is imported, the company will also need an Import/manufacture License for pharmaceuticals issued by the relevant health authority. For each individual shipment of cannabis an import permit will be required after the Narcotics License is granted.

EU GMP Certification

The guidelines on EU GMP describe the minimum standard that a pharmaceutical manufacturer must meet in its production processes according to European standards. Any pharmaceutical manufacturer wishing to import medicinal products into the EU must comply with EU GMP.

In July 2020, Clever Leaves received EU GMP certifications from HALMED allowing Clever Leaves’ pharmaceutical post-harvest facility and laboratory located outside Bogota, Colombia, to produce API, semi-finished and finished cannabis products for medical purposes. In July 2022 the Colombian extraction facility received the EU GMP certification for the crystallization process of the CBD, issued by the RP Darmstadt, the regional authority in Frankfurt, Germany. Then in September 2023 the crystallization process was included by HALMED in our EU GMP re-certifications.

Regulatory Framework in the United States

While Clever Leaves owns a U.S. business that manufactures and distributes health and wellness products in the United States, neither Clever Leaves or any of its subsidiaries currently engage in the cultivation, distribution, sale or possession of medical or adult use cannabis in the United States and, as such, are not required to obtain licenses related to such activities under any state law. However, we have imported cannabis and cannabinoid products from Colombia through explicit import permits from the U.S. DEA for research purposes and under the Farm Bill for product development purposes.

Legal status of cannabis, other than hemp

All but three of the 50 U.S. states have legalized cannabis for medical purposes to some extent, and eighteen of those states and the District of Columbia have also legalized cannabis for adults for non-medical purposes (sometimes referred to as recreational use.) Those cannabis activities, however, are illegal under U.S. federal law. The Controlled Substances Act (the “CSA”) continues to list cannabis (marijuana, but not hemp) as a Schedule I controlled substance (i.e., deemed to have no medical value. Accordingly, the manufacture (growth), sale or possession of cannabis is federally illegal, even for personal medical purposes.
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Although the U.S. government has not recently prosecuted any state law compliant cannabis entity, the risk of future enforcement cannot be dismissed entirely. Enforcement in the U.S. could slow the progress of global legalization, which could negatively impact cannabis businesses like ours even though we are not operating in the U.S. Any federal enforcement action could, in turn, negatively impact our business.

Legal status of hemp and hemp derivatives

Until December 2018, hemp (defined by the U.S. government as Cannabis sativa L. with a THC concentration of not more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis) and hemp extracts were illegal Schedule I controlled substances under the CSA.

The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, Pub.L. 115-334 (the “2018 Farm Bill”), removed hemp and extracts of hemp, including CBD, from the CSA schedules. Accordingly, the production, sale and possession of hemp or extracts of hemp, including CBD, no longer violate the CSA. The 2018 Farm Bill allows hemp cultivation and the transfer of hemp and hemp-derived products across U.S. state lines for commercial or other purposes.

Despite the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp products’ legal status is complicated further by other state and federal laws. The U.S. states are a patchwork of different laws with regard to hemp and its extracts, including CBD. Additionally, the FDA claims that the Food, Drugs & Cosmetics Act (the “FD&C Act”) significantly limits the legality of hemp-derived CBD products, especially for ingestibles.

It is the FDA’s position that “it’s unlawful under the FD&C Act to introduce food containing added CBD or THC into interstate commerce, or to market CBD or THC products, as, or in, dietary supplements, regardless of whether the substances are hemp-derived,” and regardless of whether health claims are made. This is because CBD (and THC) are active ingredients in FDA-approved drugs and became the subject of public substantial clinical investigations when GW Pharmaceuticals submitted investigational new drug (IND) applications for Sativex and Epidiolex, both containing CBD as an active ingredient. The FDA has also warned against health claims: prior to introduction into interstate commerce, any cannabis product, whether derived from hemp or otherwise, marketed with a disease claim (e.g., therapeutic benefit, disease prevention) must first be approved by the FDA for its intended use through one of the drug approval pathways. In determining “intended use,” the FDA has traditionally looked beyond a product’s label to statements made on websites, on social media or orally by the company’s representatives.

On January 23, 2023, FDA issued a statement and concluded that a new regulatory pathway for CBD is needed that balances individuals’ desire for access to CBD products with the regulatory oversight needed to manage risks. A new regulatory pathway would benefit consumers by providing safeguards and oversight to manage and minimize risks related to CBD products.

Certain CBD products are arguably federally legal today, notwithstanding the FDA’s position. To the extent that a CBD product is outside the FDA’s jurisdiction, the product is likely federally legal because CBD, unlike many drugs that the FDA regulates, is no longer listed on the FDA’s schedules. CBD products other than food, beverages and supplements which are not marketed drugs, and do not include health claims, may fall outside of the FDA’s authority. If so, some products that may be legal today include topical products, such as cosmetics, massage oils, lotions, and creams. Additionally, the FDA lacks authority, except in limited circumstances, to enforce claims against companies which sell CBD products provided that they do not engage in “interstate commerce.” However the definition of "interstate commerce" is amorphous and may include sources of ingredients, components, or even investments, that in some way impact more than one state.

Enforcement under the FD&C Act may be criminal or civil in nature may can include those who aid and abet a violation, or conspire to violate, the FD&C Act. Criminal violations of the FD&C Act are punishable by fines and imprisonment. Civil remedies under the FD&C Act may include civil money penalties, injunctions, and seizures. The FDA also has a number of administrative remedies (such as warning letters, recalls, and debarment.) With respect to CBD products, the FDA so far has limited its enforcement to sending cease and desist letters to companies which sell CBD products that make “egregious, over-the-line” claims, such as “cures cancer”, “treats Alzheimer’s Disease”, or “treats chronic pain.”

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The Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) has also sent warning letters to companies making unsubstantiated health claims about CBD products and has even filed a lawsuit against one. Neither the FDA nor the FTC has employed additional enforcement actions against companies selling CBD cosmetics without health claims.

Regulatory Framework in Canada

Canada has federal legislation which uniformly governs the cultivation, distribution, sale and possession of cannabis under the Cannabis Act (Canada). While Clever Leaves is incorporated under the laws of British Columbia, neither Clever Leaves or any of its subsidiaries currently engage in the cultivation, distribution, sale or possession of cannabis in Canada and, as such, are not required to obtain licenses related to such activities under the Cannabis Act. We have previously received three import permits from Health Canada for the import of cannabis for research purposes and are currently pursuing commercial import permits in compliance with the Cannabis Act.

Environmental, Social and Governance

We are subject to environmental legislation, including federal and provincial statutes and regulations and municipal by-laws, which govern activities or operations that may have adverse environmental effects, including the presence or migration of contaminants at or from our properties. We believe that we are in substantial compliance with current environmental laws and are not currently aware of any material environmental liabilities.

Clever Leaves focuses on Sustainable Development Goals by promoting decent work and economic growth through prioritizing local employment, achieving gender equality through initiatives supporting women's employment and family welfare, conserving water resources via advanced irrigation and wastewater treatment, and reducing carbon footprint by declaring carbon neutrality and implementing sustainable waste management practices.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2023 we had approximately 296 employees. Our workforce is diversified across multiple locations with 88%, 11%, and 1% of our employees located in South America, North America and Europe/Other respectively. We believe that our entrepreneurial, decentralized, and diversified work environment have contributed to our success. We also believe that our ability to retain our workforce is dependent on our ability to foster an environment that is sustainably safe, respectful, fair, and inclusive and promotes diversity, equity, and inclusion inside and outside of our business. We are not party to any collective bargaining agreements, and we believe we have a good relationship with our employees. Our Board of Directors guides the implementation of our corporate mission, vision, and values as an important element of risk oversight because our people are integral to the success of our corporate strategy. Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants. The principal purposes of our equity and cash incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of stock-based and cash-based compensation awards in order to increase shareholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives.

Available Information

Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”), are available free of charge on our website at www.cleverleaves.com or directly through the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) at www.sec.gov. Reports filed with or furnished to the SEC will be available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.

We announce material information to the public through a variety of means, including filings with the SEC, press releases, public conference calls, and our website. We use these channels, as well as social media, including our Twitter account (@clever_leaves), and our LinkedIn page (https://www.linkedin.com/company/clever-leaves), to communicate with investors and the public about our Company, our products, and other matters. Therefore, we encourage investors, the media, and others
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interested in our Company to review the information we make public in these locations, as such information could be deemed to be material information. Information on or that can be accessed through our websites or these social media channels is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the inclusion of our website addresses and social media channels are inactive textual references only.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Below is a discussion of the risks that we believe are significant to our business. These risks are not the only ones we face. We may face additional risks that we do not currently consider to be significant or of which we are not currently aware, and any of these risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from historical or anticipated results. You should carefully consider these risks along with the other information provided in this Form 10-K, including the information in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our accompanying consolidated financial statements, as well as the information under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” before investing in our securities.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses, may never be profitable and require substantial funds to continue to operate.

We have had operating losses, including a net loss attributable to the Company's common shareholders of $17.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2023, and negative cash flows from operations since inception. We may never become profitable and, if we do, may not maintain profitability. We expect to continue to incur losses from operations, including due to costs associated with commercialization, marketing and production activities, and compliance with regulatory requirements. We will need to raise substantial funds to continue to operate, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.

We have a limited operating history, an unproven business model and operate in a relatively new industry.

We have a limited operating history and are subject to the risks and uncertainties inherent to an emerging company operating in an emerging industry. The cannabis industry and market in the jurisdictions in which we operate may not continue to exist or grow as anticipated, or we may ultimately be unable to succeed in this new, highly uncertain, and extremely volatile industry and market. These factors make it difficult to evaluate or predict our performance.

There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as going concern. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit and cash and cash equivalents of $198.8 million and $6.8 million respectively, which our management believes will be insufficient to meet our obligations as they become due within twelve months from the date our consolidated financial statements were issued. We have had operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception, and expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. Our audited consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments for the recovery and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to continue as a going concern, our shareholders would likely lose some or all of their investment in our securities.

In addition, we are actively seeking sources of financing to fund our continued operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to complete any financing transaction in a timely manner or on acceptable terms or otherwise. If we are not able to raise additional cash, we may be forced to suspend or curtail planned programs, or cease operations altogether.

Our current or future restructuring plans, including our recent decision to wind-down our operations in Portugal, may not achieve the expected cost savings that we expect and may materially impair our business operations.

In January 2023, our board of directors authorized a restructuring plan designed to improve our operating margin and support our growth, scale and profitability objectives. As part of the restructuring plan, we began to wind-down our operations in Portugal, which historically housed certain of our cultivation, post-harvesting and manufacturing facilities and in which we have invested significant resources. As a result, we now exclusively rely on our operations in Colombia for cannabinoid cultivation and production. The winding down of our operations in Portugal has, and any additional restructuring efforts may, divert management's attention, increase expenses on a short term basis and lead to potential issues with employees, customers, or suppliers. If we do not complete these activities in a timely manner; or do not realize anticipated cost savings, synergies and efficiencies; or business disruption occurs during or following such activities; or we incur unanticipated charges, our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows may be materially impaired.
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Agricultural events, such as crop disease, mold or mildew, insect infestations, volatile weather, drought, absorption of heavy metals, climate change, and other conditions could result in substantial losses and weaken our financial results.

Our business is reliant on the cultivation, processing, and sale of cannabinoids, which is an agricultural product. As a result, our financial results are subject to the risks inherent to the agricultural business, such as crop disease, mold or mildew, insect infestations, volatile weather, drought, absorption of heavy metals, climate change and similar agricultural risks, which may adversely affect supply, reduce production and sales volumes, increase production costs, or prevent or impair shipments. Natural elements have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on the production of our cannabis or hemp products, while prior use of pesticides at our agricultural sites, if not discovered prior to cultivation on such sites, could lead to the production of tainted and unsaleable product, which could negatively impact the results of our operations. Additionally, crop insurance is generally not available to cannabis companies, and if it becomes available, it may not be available at commercially reasonable prices.

A significant failure or deterioration in our quality control systems or product recalls could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

The quality and safety of our products are critical to the success of our business and operations. As such, it is imperative that our (and our service providers’) quality control systems operate effectively and successfully. Quality control systems can be negatively impacted by the design of the quality control systems, the quality training programs and adherence by employees to quality control guidelines. Any significant failure or deterioration of such quality control systems could lead to a product recall, which may require us to incur significant expense, divert management attention, decrease the demand for our products and negatively impact our reputation.

Supply and distribution chain interruptions have impaired and may continue to impair our operations.

Our business is dependent on our timely access to transportation, raw materials, packaging, supplies and equipment, some of which we source from other countries. Our third-party suppliers, manufacturers, engineers, contractors and distributors may elect, at any time, to decline or withdraw supplies and services necessary for our operations. Any significant interruption, price increase including as a result of inflationary pressures, or other negative change in the supply or distribution chain could curtail or preclude our ability to continue production, sales and distribution of our products, which has and may continue to materially impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may fail to attract and retain customers.

Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain customers. There are many factors that could impact our ability to attract and retain customers, including our ability to successfully compete on the basis of price, produce desirable and effective products that are superior to others in the market, anticipate or respond to changing customer preferences, successfully implement our customer acquisition plan and the ability and success of our customer commercialization plans in their respective geographies; any of these factors may be impacted by shifting regulatory requirements. Failure to attract and retain customers could materially impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are vulnerable to rising energy costs.

Our cultivation operations consume considerable energy, which makes our company vulnerable to rising energy costs and the availability of stable energy sources. Accordingly, rising or volatile energy costs, including those due to the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and unrest in the Middle East, including as a result of the conflict in Gaza, or our inability to access stable energy sources, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Disruptions in the global economy and supply chains may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Recent disruptions to the global economy have impeded global supply chains, resulting in longer lead times and also increased critical component costs and freight expenses. We took steps to minimize the impact of these disruptions in lead times and increased costs by working closely with our suppliers and other third parties on whom we rely for the conduct of our business. While supply chains have stabilized, there is no guarantee that similar disruptions will not occur in the future. Despite the actions we have undertaken or may have to undertake to minimize the impacts from disruptions to the global economy, there can be no assurances that unforeseen future events in the global supply chain will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Furthermore, inflation can adversely affect us by increased raw-material, labor, freight costs, as well as administration, research and development, and other costs of doing business. In an inflationary environment, cost increases may outpace our expectations, causing us to use our cash and other liquid assets faster than forecasted. If this happens, we may need to raise additional capital to fund our operations, which may not be available in sufficient amounts or on reasonable terms, if at all, sooner than expected.

The legalization of adult-use, recreational cannabis may reduce sales of medical cannabis.

Legalization of the sale to adults of recreational, non-medical cannabis in any country may increase competition in the medical cannabis market. For example, in October 2022, President Biden granted a pardon to people convicted of simple marijuana possession under U.S. federal law and called on the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General to review how marijuana is scheduled under U.S. federal law. Additionally, it was recently announced that Germany may legalize self-cultivation and cannabis clubs for adult use, as well as initiate a second phase of the legalization process by allowing some pilot projects in different regions. Both countries currently have heavy regulations around medicinal cannabis and high-quality standards, making cannabis costly to produce. At the same time, adult use programs may deter medical cannabis patients from going through the process of obtaining a prescription. We may not be able to achieve our business plan in a highly competitive market where recreational, adult-use cannabis is legal, or the market may experience a drop in the price of cannabis and cannabis products over time, decreasing our profit margins.

We may be subject to risks related to our information technology systems, including the risk that we may be the subject of a cyber-attack.

Our operations depend, in part, on how well we and our vendors protect networks, equipment, IT systems and software against damage from a number of threats, including, but not limited to, cable cuts, damage to physical plants, natural disasters, intentional damage and destruction, fire, power loss, hacking, computer viruses, vandalism, theft, malware, ransomware and phishing attacks. Any of these and other events could result in IT system failures, delays or increases in capital expenses. Our operations also depend on the timely maintenance, upgrade and replacement of networks, equipment and IT systems and software, as well as preemptive expenses to mitigate the risks of failures. The failure of IT systems or a component of IT systems could, depending on the nature of any such failure, adversely impact our reputation and results of operations.

Additionally, we have identified a material weakness in our information technology general controls. These controls over user
access to certain information technology systems that support our financial reporting process were not properly designed and
implemented. Any security breach could compromise our networks, and the information contained therein could be improperly
accessed, disclosed, lost or stolen. Because techniques used to sabotage, obtain unauthorized access to systems or prohibit
authorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not detected until successfully launched against a target, we
may not be able to anticipate these attacks nor prevent them from harming our business or network. Any unauthorized activities
could disrupt our operations, damage our reputation, be costly to fix or result in legal claims or proceedings, any of which could
adversely affect our business, reputation or results of operations.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our intellectual property and proprietary information, our business could be adversely affected.

In jurisdictions where cannabinoids sales, use or possession is not legal, we may be restricted with respect to obtaining patents, trademarks and other protections from the authorities for our brands and products. As a result, we rely heavily on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property and proprietary information. Although we have entered into agreements with some of our employees, consultants, advisors and other third parties that contain confidentiality, non-compete, non-solicitation and invention assignment provisions, these agreements do not cover all eventualities, and they may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. In addition, others may independently discover or develop our intellectual property and proprietary information. If we are unable to prevent disclosure of our intellectual property and proprietary information to third parties, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our markets, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is not diversified.

Larger companies have the ability to manage their risk through diversification. Our business lacks such diversification. Our Herbal Brands business in the United States, a nutraceutical business, which generated [62.35]% and [71.18]% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, was sold subsequent to year end in March 2024. As a result, we could potentially be more impacted by factors affecting the cannabinoid industry in general and us in particular than would be the case if our business was more diversified, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our recent completion of the wind-down of our operations in Portugal has further reduced
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our ability to manage risk through diversification since, as a result, we are solely reliant on our operations in Colombia for cannabinoid cultivation and production.

We could be adversely affected by the loss of one or more key executives or by an inability to attract and retain qualified personnel.

Our success depends on our ability to retain the services of our existing key executives and to attract and retain additional qualified personnel in the future. Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract and retain them. In addition, we do not, and we do not intend to, maintain key person life insurance policies with respect to our employees. The loss or inability to retain our key personnel or recruit additional personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Foreign currency fluctuations may adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Our international operations make us subject to foreign currency fluctuations and inflationary pressures, which may adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. We are affected by changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies. We do not currently invest in foreign currency contracts to mitigate these risks, and if we elect to conduct any form of currency hedging, it may require significant financial resources to do so.

The cannabinoid industry faces strong opposition in certain jurisdictions and may in the future face similar opposition in jurisdictions in which we operate.

Many political and social organizations oppose hemp and cannabis and their legalization, and many people, even those who support legalization, oppose the sale of hemp and cannabis in their localities. Our business requires the support of local governments, industry participants, consumers, communities, and residents to be successful. Additionally, there are large, well-funded businesses that may have a strong opposition to the cannabis industry. For example, the pharmaceutical and alcohol industries have traditionally opposed cannabis legalization. Any successful efforts by these or other industries halting or impeding the cannabis industry could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Unfavorable scientific findings, publicity or consumer perception of the legal cannabis industry and nutraceutical products market could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We believe that the economic viability of the legal cannabis industry and nutraceutical products market is highly dependent upon consumer perception regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of the cannabis and nutraceutical products produced. Consumer perception of cannabis or nutraceutical products can be significantly influenced by scientific research or findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, media attention and other publicity regarding the consumption of these products. Future clinical research studies may lead to conclusions that dispute or conflict with our understanding and belief regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing and social acceptance of cannabis, and may cause reputational harm. Reputational harm may negatively impact our ability to enter into new (or maintain existing) customer, distributor, or supplier relationships, reduce investor confidence and impede our access to capital.

We currently depend on a limited number of customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. If we fail to retain or expand our customer relationships and partnerships or if one or more significant customers or partners were to terminate their relationship with us or reduce their purchases, our revenue could decline significantly.

Our revenue could be materially and disproportionately impacted by purchasing decisions of our customers. In the future, our customers may decide to purchase less product from us than they have in the past, may alter purchasing patterns at any time with limited notice, or may decide not to continue to purchase our products at all, any of which could cause our revenue to decline materially and materially harm our financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to diversify our customer base, maintain our existing strategic partnerships and expand our supply network with other partners, we will continue to be susceptible to risks associated with customer concentration. In addition, we have granted certain product exclusivities to key customers in various geographies and that could constrain our ability to grow, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.



General market conditions may continue to affect our sales, profitability and operating results.

The global economy is experiencing substantial inflationary and recessionary pressures and declines in consumer confidence that have negatively impacted economic growth. This environment has led to and may continue to result in reduced consumer
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spending, including reduced demand for our products and order cancellations, which may adversely affect our sales and profitability.

Fluctuations in wholesale and retail prices, including price erosion, could result in earnings volatility.

There is currently not an established market price for cannabis and the price of cannabis is affected by numerous factors beyond our control. Cannabis and hemp products are subject to end market price erosion in several markets in which we compete. Consequently, profitability is sensitive to fluctuations in wholesale and retail prices caused by changes in supply (which itself depends on other factors such as weather, fuel, equipment and labor costs, shipping costs, economic situation and demand), taxes, government programs and policies for the cannabis industry (including price controls and wholesale price restrictions that may be imposed by government agencies responsible for the sale of cannabis), and other market conditions, including pricing in the illicit market, all of which are factors beyond our control. Our operating income may be significantly and adversely affected by a decline in the price of cannabis and hemp.

Increases in labor benefits, union disputes, strikes and other labor-related disturbances may adversely affect us.

We operate in a labor-intensive industry that is subject to the effects of instabilities in the labor market, including strikes, work stoppages, protests, lawsuits and changes in employment regulations, increases in wages, controversies regarding salary and labor allowances and the establishment of collective bargaining agreements that, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters

Our business is dependent on legislation in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate, and the way regulators interpret and implement current regulations.

The authorities that regulate the cannabis and hemp industry in the countries in which we conduct business may take actions that materially affect our operations and profitability. The nature and degree of the legislation affecting cannabis companies varies across the various jurisdictions in which we operate, and are subject to further changes, which may arise rapidly. Each jurisdiction may have its own highly specialized legislation for the cultivation, production and sale of cannabis and hemp products.

Changes in relevant regulations, changes in interpretation of regulations, more vigorous or even varied or inconsistent enforcement thereof or other unanticipated events could require extensive changes to operations, increased compliance costs or give rise to material liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We expend significant resources in an effort to comply with the evolving laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions, but may be unsuccessful in doing so.

We expend significant resources and incur substantial ongoing costs and obligations in an effort to comply with the evolving legal and regulatory requirements to which we are or may become subject, and expect to continue to do so in the future. The resources necessary to comply with such requirements may hinder our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions, expand into new jurisdictions or result in production, sale or distribution delays. For example, evolving environmental laws may increase our costs of cultivation, production, or scientific research activities or make it impracticable to operate in an otherwise advantageous jurisdiction. Laws and regulations relating to cannabis and hemp may be incomplete or ambiguous, or selectively or inconsistently enforced, making compliance difficult. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in corrective costs, civil or criminal penalties, restrictions on our operations, or the loss of licenses, quotas, certifications, or accreditation, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and operating results.


We may fail to obtain or maintain licenses, permits, certifications, authorizations, quotas, or accreditations needed to operate our business or achieve our business plans.

Our business depends on receiving and maintaining regulatory licenses, permits, certifications, authorizations, quotas or accreditations (collectively, “permits”) from various governmental authorities in multiple jurisdictions, including international organizations. For example, we rely on licenses to produce cannabis or hemp derivatives that are tied to an identified real property parcel. Circumstances that affect the ownership or agreement for use of the land could therefore affect the cannabis or hemp license itself. Permits requirements are stringent, and there is no guarantee that the regulatory authorities will issue, extend or renew any permits or, if they are extended or renewed, that they will be extended or renewed on time and on suitable terms.
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Specifically, in order to commercialize certain pharmaceutical classes of products in Colombia, we need to have GMP certifications for our facilities in Colombia. Because these certifications apply to specific manufacturing processes, were conducted under specific conditions, and are tied to specific facilities, if the facilities are damaged, destroyed or need to be moved, we cannot assure that the authorities will issue GMP certification for any new facility. In addition, in some countries, certain certifications are also required for the sale of our products. Failure to obtain these certifications could limit our ability to sell our products in these countries.

Countries may not accept, according to the mutual recognition agreements in place between countries or the Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme affiliation, the quality certifications that we have or are currently pursuing. If a certificate is not recognized in any country, we will have to apply and receive new certifications from that country. Failure to obtain, comply with or maintain necessary permits could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results. Additionally, failure to renew our GMP certifications or obtain additional GMP certifications for any new facilities could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results. Additionally, failure to renew our GMP certifications or obtain additional GMP certifications for any new facilities could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may have difficulty conducting business with banks and other financial institutions.

Because cannabis sales, use or possession are highly regulated or prohibited in most countries, banks in the United States and many other countries will not accept funds for deposit from, or facilitate transactions with, businesses involved with cannabis, due mostly to perceived risk related to anti-money laundering laws. This is the case even if the cannabis business is compliant with applicable law. As a result, we may have difficulty opening a bank account, maintaining an existing bank account or obtaining a credit facility in certain jurisdictions, which may make it difficult for us to operate and for potential customers, suppliers and partners to do business with us, and may raise the cost and burden of banking for us.

We are constrained by law in our ability to market our products in certain jurisdictions.

The development of our business and operating results may be hindered by applicable restrictions on sales and marketing activities imposed by regulatory bodies. The regulatory environment in certain jurisdictions limits our ability to compete for market share in a manner similar to other less-regulated industries. If we are unable to effectively market our products and compete for market share, or if the costs of compliance with government legislation and regulation cannot be absorbed through increased selling prices for our products, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected.


Risks Related to Our International Operations

We are subject to additional risks as a result of international operations.

We operate mainly in Colombia, and the United States, while our commercial efforts are focused in Australia, Brazil, Israel and Europe. Our operations and marketing initiatives expose us and our representatives, agents and distributors to risks inherent to operating in foreign jurisdictions that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These risks include (i) country-specific taxation policies, and potential additional tax liabilities resulting from changes to tax regulation and interpretation, (ii) imposition of additional foreign governmental controls or regulations, (iii) export and import and permits, registrations and license requirements, (iv) changes in tariffs and other trade restrictions, (v) international trade barriers due to national or international policies, (vi) complexity of collecting receivables and managing cash receipts in a foreign jurisdiction and (vii) government economic interventions.

Moreover, applicable agreements relating to business in foreign jurisdictions are governed by foreign laws and are subject to dispute resolution in the courts of, or through arbitration proceedings in, the country or region in which the parties are located, or another jurisdiction agreed upon by the parties. We cannot accurately predict whether such forum will provide an effective and efficient means of resolving disputes that may arise in the future. Even if we obtain a satisfactory decision through arbitration or a court proceeding, we could have difficulty in enforcing any award or judgment on a timely basis or at all.

We may not be able to obtain import permits in the destination countries or export permits in Colombia in a timely manner or of the required quantities

International trade of cannabis requires, for the most part, import permits from the destination countries and export permits from Colombia. Authorities in receiving countries and in Colombia may fail to deliver import or export permits respectively on
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time (as defined in regulation) resulting in delayed revenues and potentially lost sales and product. Permits can also be issued with quantities that are below the requested amount potentially resulting in delayed or lost revenues. These situations could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may be subject to global or regional economic crises, particularly in the emerging markets in which we operate.

Global or regional economic crises could negatively affect investor confidence in emerging markets or the economies of the countries in which we operate. A significant decline in economic growth or a sustained economic downturn for any one of our operating jurisdictions’ major trading partners (including the EU, the United States, and Latin American countries) could have a material adverse impact on the balance of trade and remittances, resulting in lower economic growth. Global economic downturns, such as that resulting from the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and economic sanctions related thereto, have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, the global economy and cause instability in the regions in which we operate. In addition, regional economic crises, such as the ongoing conflict in Gaza, may impact our ability to carry out our commercial efforts ways that are difficult to predict.

Additionally, our operations in emerging markets poses a greater degree of risk than investment in more mature market economies because the economies in the developing world are more susceptible to destabilization resulting from domestic and international developments. For example, Colombia, where we have historically conducted most of our production, has a history of economic instability and crises (such as inflation or recession). Inflation, foreign currency fluctuations, regulatory policies or business and tax regulations occurring in emerging markets in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Conditions in Israel, including the attack by Hamas, has limited our ability to market and sell our products in Israel and, as a result, may adversely affect our results of operations.

Israel is one of our five key markets. As a result, our business and operations are directly affected by economic, political, geopolitical and military conditions affecting Israel. On October 7, 2023, Hamas militants infiltrated Israel’s southern border from the Gaza Strip and conducted a series of attacks on civilian and military targets. Thereafter, extensive rocket attacks on Israel resulted in a declaration of war by the Israeli government.

The intensity and duration of this war, and its resulting impact on our company, is difficult to predict. Within a matter of days, the value of Israeli currency decreased to the point that its Central Bank took steps to protect it from collapse, although it has since largely stabilized. These events may imply wider macroeconomic indications of a deterioration in Israel’s economic standing, which may have a negative impact on demand for our products from within the region. Such a decrease in demand would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In addition to any potential decrease in demand, distributing our products into the region has become more difficult. In the immediate aftermath of the Hamas attack, many freight companies temporarily halted shipments to Israel. There can be no guarantee that these or other distribution chain disruptions will not occur in the future. Distribution to the region could also incur greater costs as a result of the emergency conditions in the region. Any impact to our distribution logistics and network in the region could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Litigation


We are subject to laws and regulations relating to our relationship with our employees, and could be subject to liability arising from illegal activity by our employees, contractors and consultants.

We are subject to various laws and regulations relating to our relationship with our employees in each of the countries in which we operate, including, among others, those relating to minimum wage and break requirements, health benefits, overtime, and working conditions and immigration status. These laws and regulations continually evolve and change, and compliance may be costly and time-consuming. Changes in applicable laws and regulations, or failure to comply with them could result in, among other things, increased exposure to litigation, including employee litigation, administrative enforcement actions, audits or governmental investigations or proceedings, revocation of licenses or approvals, and fines.

Additionally, in certain circumstances we may be legally responsible for fraudulent or other illegal activity of our employees, contractors and consultants. Violations by these parties of (i) government regulations, (ii) manufacturing standards, (iii) federal, state and provincial healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations, or (iv) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data could result in liability for us. If any actions are brought against us, including by regulators, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, financial and contractual
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damages, reputational harm and the curtailment of our operations, any of which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results from operations.

Our sale of cannabinoids-related and nutraceutical products exposes us to significant product liability risks.

As a manufacturer and distributor of products designed to be consumed by humans, we face an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims, regulatory action and litigation if our products are alleged to have caused significant loss or injury. In addition, the manufacture and sale of our products involve the risk of injury to consumers due to tampering by unauthorized third parties or product contamination. Any damage to our products, such as product spoilage, could expose us to potential product liability. Previously unknown adverse reactions resulting from human or veterinary consumption of our products alone or in combination with other medications or substance could occur. We may be subject to various product liability claims, including, among others, that our products caused injury or illness, include inadequate instructions for use or include inadequate warnings concerning possible side effects or interactions with other substances. A product liability claims or regulatory action against us could result in increased costs, could adversely affect our reputation with our clients and consumers generally, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage to cover any claims we may face.

Directors’ and officers’, workers’ compensation, product liability and general commercial liability insurance, while generally available to cannabis companies, are often not available at commercially reasonable prices. There can be no assurance that we will have appropriate insurance in place sufficient to cover events that may occur, the amount of liabilities we may incur or claims to which we may become subject.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

An active trading market for our common shares and warrants may not be sustained, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

Although our common shares and warrants are traded on Nasdaq, an active trading market for our securities may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities has fluctuated and could continue to fluctuate significantly for various reasons, many of which are outside our control, such as our performance, large purchases or sales of our common shares, legislative changes and general economic, political or regulatory conditions. The release of our financial results may also cause our share price to vary. If an active market for our securities is not sustained, it may be difficult for you to sell our common shares and/or warrants you own or purchase without depressing the market price for our securities or to sell the securities at all. The existence of an active trading market for our securities depends to a significant extent on our ability to continue to meet Nasdaq’s listing requirements, which we may be unable to accomplish.

We effected a one-for-thirty reverse share split of our common shares (the “Reverse Share Split”), in August 2023.The Reverse Share Split may adversely impact the liquidity of our common shares and warrants and may not be effective in facilitating our efforts to maintain compliance with the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq.

The liquidity of our common shares and warrants may be adversely affected by the Reverse Share Split, given the significantly reduced number of common shares that are outstanding following its effectiveness. In addition, there can be no assurance that the trading price of our common shares will remain at or above $1.00 per share.

Following the Reverse Share Split, the market price of our common shares may not attract new investors or satisfy the investing requirements of those investors. As a result, the trading liquidity of our common share may not necessarily improve.

In addition, the Reverse Share Split has resulted in some shareholders owning “odd lots” of less than 100 common shares on a post-reverse share split basis. Odd lots may be more difficult to sell, or require greater transaction costs per share to sell, than shares in “round lots” of even multiples of 100 shares.

The Reverse Share Split was effected to regain compliance with Nasdaq's minimum bid price requirement of at least $1.00 per share. However, there can be no assurance that we will maintain compliant with such requirement, or that , we will not become deficient with respect to other Nasdaq listing requirements following, or as a result of, the Reverse Share Split.


The market price of our securities has been volatile and may be volatile in the future, and, as a result, investors in our securities could incur substantial losses.

Our common shares and warrants began trading on Nasdaq on December 18, 2020 in connection with the closing of the business combination with Schultze Special Purpose Acquisition Corp. and Novel Merger Sub Inc. During the year ended
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December 31, 2023, the high and low closing prices for our common shares were $16.95 and $1.87, respectively, with an intraday high and low of $17.25 and $1.72 in each case, on a post-Reverse Share Split basis, respectively. In 2024, through the date of this Form 10-K, the high and low closing prices of our common shares were $4.42 and $2.08, respectively, with an intraday high and low of $4.71 and $2.00, respectively. We have experienced price volatility in our stock, which could cause investors to experience losses on their investment in our securities.

Further, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. If this occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall further and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.

A possible “short squeeze,” due to a sudden increase in demand of our common shares that largely exceeds supply, may lead to additional price volatility.

Historically there has not been a large short position in our common shares. However, in the future investors may purchase our common shares to hedge existing exposure or to speculate on the price of our common shares. Speculation on the price of our common shares may involve long and short exposures. To the extent an aggregate short exposure in our common shares becomes significant, investors with short exposure may be required to pay a premium to purchase shares for delivery to share lenders if purchases are made when the price of our common shares is experiencing a significant increase, particularly over a short period of time. Those purchases may in turn, dramatically increase the price of our common shares. This is often referred to as a “short squeeze.” A short squeeze could lead to additional volatility in our common shares that is not directly correlated to our operating performance.

We may issue additional common shares or other equity securities without shareholder approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of our common shares.

As of March 19, 2024, we had 1,754,795 common shares and 12,877,361 warrants to acquire common shares issued and outstanding. Subject to the requirements of the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) (“BCA”), our Articles authorize us to issue common shares and rights relating to our common shares for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our board of directors in its sole discretion, whether in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. There are 212,793 common shares reserved for issuance under the 2020 Plan, subject to adjustment in certain events. We issued and sold 253,898 shares on a post-Reverse Share Split basis for the year ended December 31, 2023, and may continue to issue shares under our “at-the-market” (“ATM”) program pursuant to our effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Shelf Registration Statement”). Any common shares issued or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future would dilute the percentage ownership held by you.

Future sales, conversions, or exercises by existing security-holders or future offerings of securities by us may cause dilution to our existing shareholders and cause the market price of our securities to fall.

If we issue and sell or our existing shareholders, including our executive officers, directors, and their affiliates sell a substantial number of our common shares in the public market, our shareholders will experience dilution. In addition, sales of substantial amounts of our common shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales will occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

In addition, we may attempt to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional common shares or offering debt or other equity securities, including commercial paper, medium-term notes, senior or subordinated notes, debt securities convertible into equity or preferred shares. To facilitate such financing, we have the Shelf Registration Statement on file with the SEC, which includes a prospectus supplement for an ATM offering. To date, no shares have been issued and sold following Reverse Share Split basis pursuant to the ATM Prospectus. Future acquisitions could require substantial additional capital in excess of cash from operations. We may obtain the capital required for acquisitions through a combination of additional issuances of equity, corporate indebtedness and/or cash from operations.

Issuing additional common shares or other equity securities or securities convertible into equity may dilute the economic and voting rights of existing shareholders or reduce the market price of our common shares or both. Upon liquidation, holders of such debt securities and preferred shares, if issued, and lenders with respect to other borrowings would receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common shares. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred shares, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our common shares. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing and nature of our future offerings.

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We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to successfully remediate these material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, it could have an adverse effect on our company.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires our management to furnish a report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. The applicable rules require us to disclose any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As initially reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, management determined that we did not design and maintain an effective control environment, specifically around (a) lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals with an appropriate level of accounting knowledge, training and experience to appropriately analyze, record and disclose accounting matters timely and accurately, and to allow for proper segregation of duties; (b) lack of structures, reporting lines and appropriate authorities and responsibilities to achieve financial reporting objectives; and, (c) lack of evidence to support the performance of controls and the adequacy of review procedures, including the completeness and accuracy of information used in the performance of controls. Additionally, in 2023 an additional material
weakness was identified regarding user access over certain information technology systems that support our financial reporting
process.

In an effort to remediate the material weaknesses in our internal control, we hired additional accounting and finance personnel, including Accurax, an outsourcing firm through which we hired an SEC Reporting Manager and a Senior Accountant. Due to funding limitations, additional hiring is challenging and we have no plans to hire additional personnel unless absolutely necessary. We have also retained external consulting firms to provide additional depth and breadth in our technical accounting and financial reporting capabilities. We intend to continue this arrangement until additional permanent technical accounting resources are identified and hired. We intend to formalize our policies and procedures surrounding our financial close, financial reporting and other accounting processes. We intend to further develop and document necessary policies and procedures regarding our internal control over financial reporting. We are in the process of recruiting additional qualified accounting and finance personnel to provide needed levels of expertise in our internal accounting function. We expect to incur additional costs as we continue to remediate these control deficiencies, though there can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful or avoid potential future material weaknesses. If we are unable to successfully remediate our existing or any future material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, or if we identify any additional material weaknesses, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable stock exchange listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in our financial reporting, and our share price may decline as a result. We also could become subject to investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

We believe corrective actions and controls need to be in operation for a sufficient period for management to conclude that the control environment is operating effectively and has been adequately tested through audit procedures. The material weaknesses that were identified and initially reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, have not been remediated as of the date of this Form 10-K.

Certain provisions of our Articles could hinder, delay or prevent a change in control of the Company, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for our securities.

Certain provisions of our Articles could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire the Company without the consent of our board of directors. These provisions include the advance notice policy adopted by us, terms of any future rights or restrictions of the preferred shares, rights of the directors to issue our shares or other securities, and our rights to purchase our own shares. In addition, limitations on the ability to acquire and hold our common shares may be imposed by the Competition Act in Canada. This legislation permits the Commissioner of Competition of Canada to review any acquisition of a significant interest in our Company. Further, our Articles provide for the exclusive forum of the provincial courts in British Columbia, Canada for substantially all disputes between us and our shareholders (except claims arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act), which could limit our shareholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, other employees or shareholders. These provisions may make it difficult and expensive for a third party to pursue a tender offer, change in control or takeover attempt that is opposed by our management or our board of directors. These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede your ability to benefit from a change in control or change in our management and our board of directors and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our common shares and your ability to realize any potential change of control premium.

If securities and industry analysts no longer publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common shares and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common shares relies and will continue to rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us, our business, our markets and our competitors. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common shares would likely decline, as could the trading volume.
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We may choose to delist our securities from Nasdaq and deregister under the Exchange Act, which could negatively affect the liquidity and trading prices of our common shares would result in substantially less disclosure about us and severely impair our ability to raise capital.

Given the cost and resource demands of being a public company, our board of directors may determine that it is in the best interest of our shareholders to “go dark,” or discontinue our obligation to make periodic filings with the SEC, by delisting our securities with Nasdaq and deregistering our securities pursuant to the Exchange Act. While no decision has been made, should we ultimately make the decision to do so, there would be a substantial decrease in disclosure about our company, a materially reduced ability to raise capital and a decrease in the liquidity in our common shares even though shareholders may still continue to trade our common shares on an over-the-counter market. As a result of going dark, investors may find it more difficult to obtain accurate quotations as to the market value of our common shares, and the ability of our shareholders to sell our common shares in the secondary market may be materially limited.

The terms of the warrants may be amended in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval of the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding warrants.

Our warrants are issued in registered form under the warrant agreement (as amended) between us and the warrant agent (the “Warrant Agreement”). The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the warrants with the consent of at least a majority of the then outstanding warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of common shares purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.

There can be no assurance that the warrants will be in the money prior to their expiration, and they may expire worthless.

The exercise price for the outstanding warrants is $11.50 for 1/30th common share, and each warrant entitles the holder to purchase 1/30th common share. On March 19, 2024 the closing price of our common shares was $3.90. The exercise period for the warrants expires five years following the closing of the business combination with Schultze Special Purpose Acquisition Corp. and Novel Merger Sub, Inc., which occurred on December 18, 2020. There can be no assurance that the warrants will be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless.

We may redeem unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to the holder, thereby making the warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant in the case that the last reported sales price of our common shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share splits, share dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of such redemption to the warrant holders. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you (i) to exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants. In addition, we may redeem your warrants for a number of common shares determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our common shares. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above.

We are a “smaller reporting company” and the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies may make our common shares less attractive to investors.

As of December 31, 2023, we are no longer considered an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. Notwithstanding, we still qualify as a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, and are thus allowed to provide simplified executive compensation disclosures in our SEC filings, will be exempt from the provisions of Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley requiring that an independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting and will have certain other reduced disclosure obligations with respect to our SEC filings. We will remain a “smaller reporting company” as long as, as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, (i) the aggregate market value of our outstanding common shares held by non-affiliates (“public float”) is less than $250 million, or (ii) we have annual revenues of less than $100 million and either no public float or public float of less than $700 million.

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We cannot predict whether investors will find our common shares less attractive because of our reliance on any of these exemptions. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and our share price may be more volatile.

Shareholders may have difficulty enforcing judgments against our management.

Substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States and certain of our officers and directors reside outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult, or in some cases impossible, for investors in the United States to enforce their legal rights against or to effect service of process upon certain of our directors or officers or to enforce judgments of United States courts predicated upon civil liabilities under United States laws. Our Articles also provide for the exclusive jurisdiction of provincial courts in British Columbia, Canada for certain shareholder lawsuits (except claims arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act), which may limit your ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, other employees or shareholders.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 1C. Cyber Security
Integrated Risk Management

Management is responsible for the day-to-day management of our risk exposures in a manner consistent with the strategic direction and objectives established by the Board. As a critical component of our risk management process, management has adopted an integrated risk management framework to continuously identify, assess, measure, prioritize, manage, monitor and report current and emerging information security related risks, including risks associated with our use of third-party service providers. As part of this framework, we have an Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program which is implemented across the Company to promote a strong Company-wide culture of risk management, compliance, and control.

Our processes for assessing, identifying and managing information security risks and vulnerabilities are embedded across our business as part of our ERM program. As part of ERM program, we perform risk assessments in which we map and prioritizes information security risks identified and addressed through a multi-faceted approach of processes described here, including third party assessments. We execute periodic audits and tests of our information system security controls in-house such as a vulnerability analysis of the information and the infrastructure of our sites. We engage third-party services to assist in designing the ITGC controls and evaluating them periodically either through independent audits or consulting on best practices to address new challenges. These evaluations include both the design and operational effectiveness of the controls. Our risk management program also assesses third party risks, and we perform third party risk management to identify and mitigate risks from third parties such as vendors and suppliers associated with our use of third-party service providers. Cybersecurity risks are evaluated when determining the selection and oversight of applicable third party service providers. Among other things, we conduct periodic infrastructure monitoring including assessment of existing technology hardware and software configurations, patches and updates and also implement automated tools. We provide recurrent information security awareness training for employees and carry out periodic campaigns related to safety awareness which include interactive activities involving the employee participation. Additionally, we have also implemented incident management protocols to analyze, remediate, and respond to activities that implicate potential risk to data and information. Through this methodology we remediate information security incidents and comply with potential legal obligations mitigating brand and reputational damage.

Impact of Risks from Cybersecurity Threats

We have identified a material weakness in our information technology general controls. These controls over user access to certain information technology systems that support our financial reporting process were not properly designed and implemented. We have since made efforts to remediate the identified material weakness. There have otherwise been no risks from cybersecurity threats at the Company to date that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition.

Governance.

The board of directors of the Company (the “Board”) has oversight responsibility for our risk management framework, including technology and cybersecurity risks facing the Company. The ERM program enables the board to establish a mutual understanding with the management of the effectiveness of its information security risk management practices and capabilities
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including the division of responsibilities for reviewing its information security risk exposure and risk tolerance, tracking emerging information risks, and reviewing for proper escalation of certain key risks for periodic review by the Board.

The Board receives briefings from management and security and technological infrastructure team on enterprise-wide technology, cybersecurity risk management and the overall technology and cybersecurity environment by management. Specifically, the Board receives an Annual Security Information Report which details the plan for cybersecurity management, reviews the result of the implementation of threat control activities and conclusions for the period evaluated.

Role of Management

In addition to the risk management activities undertaken under the ERM Program, where management assesses and manages material risks from cybersecurity threats, our security and technological infrastructure team led by Technology Infrastructure and Security Manager, is responsible for day-to-day identification, assessment and management of the information security risks we face. Personnel in our security and infrastructure team collectively have decades of experience in information security, information technology and cybersecurity operations. These personnel are informed about and monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents detected through automated detection and monitoring tools. The team manages and continually enhances the Company’s enterprise security structure with the goal of preventing cybersecurity incidents to the extent feasible, while simultaneously increasing our system resilience to minimize the business impact should an incident occur. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, the Company is equipped with an incident response plan that includes procedures such as: (i) reporting of the incident through a ticket management tool designated by the Company, (ii) identification and analysis, (iii) monitoring, containment, and eradication, (iv) remediation and creation of controls, and (v) lessons learned and preparation for future incidents. The Technology Infrastructure and Security Manager provides regular updates to the Board concerning the Company’s technology and cybersecurity programs, associated risks and the Company’s efforts to help mitigate those risks.

Item 2. Properties

The Company is a corporation organized under the laws of British Columbia, Canada. The Company was formed on July 23, 2020. Our registered and records office is located at 20th Floor, 250 Howe St., Vancouver, British Columbia, V6C 3R8. Our principal executive office is located at Bodega 19-B Parque Industrial Tibitoc P.H, Tocancipá - Cundinamarca, Colombia.

Colombia. We have 18 greenhouses which include 1.8 million square feet of cultivation space. With 6 million square feet of leased or owned land, our greenhouse cultivation can be expanded to approximately 2.5 million square feet at our existing operating site. We also own a 40,000 square feet post-harvest facility. We own approximately 14,000 square feet and lease approximately 78,000 square feet of industrial property near Bogota. We lease a corporate office of approximately 1,100 square feet in Bogota.

Portugal. The Company owned agricultural and post-harvest facilities in Portugal which were sold during the year ended December 31, 2023 as a result of a restructuring initiative that was undertaken by management during December 2022. On January 26, 2024, the Company sold certain real property with certain existing furniture and structures in Portugal, which completed the wind-down of its Portugal operations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are involved in various investigations, claims and lawsuits arising in the normal conduct of our business, none of which, in our opinion, will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. We cannot assure you that we will prevail in any litigation. Regardless of the outcome, any litigation may require us to incur significant litigation expense and may result in significant diversion of management attention.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information

Our common shares and warrants are traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “CLVR” and “CLVRW,” respectively.

Holders

As of March 19, 2024, we had approximately 176 holders of record of our common shares and one holder of record of our warrants. The actual number of holders of our common shares and warrants is greater than this number of record holders, and includes holders who are beneficial owners, but whose securities are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common shares to date, and there are no current plans to pay cash dividends on our common shares. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends will be at the sole discretion of the Board.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

There were no repurchases of our equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2023.

Unregistered Securities Sold During Fiscal Year 2023

There were no unregistered sales of our securities during the year ended December 31, 2023.


ITEM 6. [Reserved]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” should be read in conjunction with the “Business” section and our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, which are included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The financial information contained herein is taken or derived from such consolidated financial statements, unless otherwise indicated. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those that are discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, particularly under “Risk Factors.”
Amounts are presented in thousands of U.S. dollars, except for per share data or as otherwise noted.
Our Company

We are a multi-national operator in the botanical cannabinoid and nutraceutical industries, with operations and investments in Colombia, the United States and Canada. We are working to develop one of the industry’s leading, low-cost global supply chains with the goal of providing high quality, pharmaceutical grade cannabis and wellness products to customers and patients at competitive prices produced in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Our customers consist of retail distributors and pharmaceutical and cannabis companies, and pharmacies.

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We have invested in ecologically sustainable, large-scale, cultivation and processing, as the cornerstone of our medical cannabinoid business, and we seek to continue to develop strategic distribution channels and brands.
We currently own approximately 1.8 million square feet of greenhouse cultivation capacity in Colombia. In addition, our pharmaceutical-grade extraction facility is capable of processing 108,000 kilograms of dry flower per year.

In July 2020, we became one of a small number of vertically integrated cannabis companies in the world to receive European Union Good Manufacturing Practices (“EU GMP”) certification for our Colombian operations.

In July 2022 the Colombian extraction facility received the EU GMP certification for the crystallization process of the CBD, issued by the RP Darmstadt, the regional authority in Frankfurt, Germany. Then in September 2023 the crystallization process was included by HALMED in our EU GMP re-certification.

In May 2023, the Colombian facility received the Brazilian Certificate of Good Manufacturing Practice granted by the ANVISA.

In December 2023, the Colombian facilities received the Australian Certificate of GMP Compliance for the purposes of Therapeutic Goods Order 93 granted by the TGA.

We believe these certifications will provide us with one of the largest quality-certified licensed capacities for cannabis cultivation and cannabinoid extraction globally, while our strategically located operations allow us to produce our products at a fraction of the average cost of production incurred by our peers in Canada, Europe and the United States.

In addition to the cannabinoid business, we were also engaged in the non-cannabinoid business of formulating, manufacturing, marketing, selling, distributing, and otherwise commercializing nutraceutical and other natural remedies, and wellness products to more than 20,000 retail locations across the United States for the year ended December 31, 2023. Subsequent to year end, we sold our non cannabinoid business segment comprised of nutraceutical and other natural remedies, wellness products, detoxification products, and nutritional and dietary supplements. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information.

Our business model is focused on partnering with leading and emerging cannabis and pharmaceutical businesses by providing them with lower cost product, variable cost structures, reliable supply throughout the year, and accelerated speed to market. We believe this is achievable due to our production locations, capacity, product registrations and various product certifications.
We manage our business in two segments: the Cannabinoid and Non-Cannabinoid segments.

1. The Cannabinoid operating segment is comprised of the Company’s cultivation, extraction, manufacturing, commercialization, and distribution of cannabinoid products. This operating segment is in the early stages of commercializing cannabinoid products internationally subject to applicable international and state laws and regulations. Our customers and sales for our cannabinoid segment products are mostly outside of the U.S.

2. The Non-Cannabinoid operating segment is comprised of the brands and manufacturing assets acquired as part of our acquisition of Herbal Brands. The segment is engaged in the business of formulating, manufacturing, marketing, selling, distributing, and otherwise commercializing wellness products and nutraceuticals, excluding cannabinoid products. Our principal customers for the Herbal Brands products include specialty and health retailers, mass retailers and specialty and health stores in the United States. Subsequent to year end, we sold our non cannabinoid business segment comprised of nutraceutical and other natural remedies, wellness products, detoxification products, and nutritional and dietary supplements. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information.

The Company has been reviewing, planning, and implementing various strategic initiatives targeted principally at reducing
costs, enhancing organizational efficiency and optimizing its business model. As part of this process, the Company approved a plan to shut down its cultivation activities in Portugal in December 2022 to preserve cash and in January 2023, to cease all operations in Portugal to improve operating margin and solely focusing its Cannabis cultivating and production in Colombia.
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On January 26, 2024, we sold certain real property with certain existing furniture and structures in Portugal ,which completed the wind-down of our Portugal operations.
Factors Impacting our Business

We believe that our future success will primarily depend on the following factors:

Globalization of the industry. Due to our multi-national operator model focused on geographic diversification, which distinguishes us from many of our competitors and allows us to scale our production in low-cost regions of the world, we believe we are well positioned to capitalize in markets where the medical cannabis and hemp industry offers a reasonably regulated and free flow of goods across national boundaries. While certain countries, such as Canada, have historically not welcomed imported cannabis or hemp products for commercial purposes, other countries, such as Germany and Brazil, depend primarily on imports.

Global medical market expansion. Medical cannabis is now authorized at the national or federal level in over 41 countries, and more than half of these countries have legalized or introduced significant reforms to their cannabis-use laws to broaden the scope of permitted medical uses beyond the original parameters. Over the past four years, we have established operations and commercial relationships in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Israel, Portugal, Germany, the United States and Canada, and we have invested significant resources in personnel and partnerships to build the foundation for new export channels. The Company also owned agricultural and post-harvest facilities in Portugal which have since been wound down as a result of a restructuring initiative that was initiated by management in December 2022 and completed in January 2024.

Product development and innovation. Because of the rapid evolution of the cannabis industry, the disparate regulations across different geographies, and the time required to develop and validate pharmaceutical-grade products, the pace at which we can expand our portfolio of products and formulations will impact market acceptance for our products. To increase our output while maintaining or reducing unit costs, we may need to enhance our cultivation, extraction, and other processing methods. We believe our focus on the production of proprietary and exclusive products or formulations that comply with stringent regulations, or that result in enhanced benefits for patients or consumers, could create advantages in various markets.

Regulatory expertise and adaptation. As more markets welcome the importation of cannabis or hemp products for commercial purposes, this will require navigating and complying with the strict and evolving cannabis regulations across the different geographies. We have built a global regulatory team that is experienced in developing good relationships with regulatory agencies and governments that govern and shape the cannabis industry in their respective jurisdictions. Key expertise includes complying with and securing quotas, product approvals, export permits, import permits and other geographic specific licenses.
Strategically expanding productive capacity and manufacturing capabilities. It is beneficial to have low operating costs and to control the production process to generate consistency and quality on a large scale. As we seek to expand into new markets and grow our presence in existing markets, we will need significant investments in cultivation and processing, which will necessitate additional capital. We also aim to increase productive capacity through innovation in cultivation or processing methods, improving yields and output levels of our existing assets. While we believe our core cultivation and extraction operations in Colombia are adequately sized for our current business operations, as our cannabis sales grow and expand to flower products, we plan to expand our operations in Colombia and invest in advanced processing or finished good manufacturing capabilities to match any growth in cannabis sales and expansion to local products.

Economic and Political Environment. Our results of operations can also be affected by the global volatility, legislative, regulatory, political, economic, legal actions and general market disruption resulting from geopolitical tensions. Macro level economic conditions such as inflation, recession, supply chain disruptions, monetary exchange rates and interest, government fiscal policies can have a significant impact on operations. Accordingly, we could be affected by regulatory, administrative, civil and criminal actions, claims or proceedings.

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Key Operating Metrics
We use the following key operating metrics to evaluate our business and operations, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, project our future performance and make strategic decisions. Other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate key operating metrics with similar names differently, which may reduce their usefulness as comparative measures.
The following table presents select operational and financial information of the Cannabinoid segment for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:

Year ended December 31, 
Operational information:20232022 Change
(In $000s, except kilogram and per gram
data)
Kilograms (dry flower) harvested(a)
4,753 8,064  (3,311)(41)%
Costs to produce (b)
$3,560 $2,913  $647 22 %
Costs to produce per gram$0.75  $0.36  $0.39 108 %
Selected financial information:
Revenue$6,558 $4,996 1,562 31 %
Kilograms sold(c)
17,869 13,035 4,834 37 %
Revenue per grams sold$0.37 $0.38 $(0.01)N/M
(*)Prior period numbers are re-stated to exclude discontinued operations to make it comparative with current period numbers.

N/M: Not a meaningful percentage
(a)    Kilograms (dry flower) harvested - represents the weight of dried plants post-harvest both for sale and for research and development purposes. This operating metric is used to measure the productivity of our farms.
(b)    Costs to produce - includes costs associated with cultivation, extraction, depreciation and quality assurance related to kilograms (dry flower) harvested.
(c)    Kilograms sold - represents the amount in kilograms of product sold in dry plant equivalents. Extract is converted to dry plant equivalent for purposes of this metric.

During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 we sold 17,869 and 13,035 kilograms, respectively, of dry flower equivalent supporting demand strength for our cannabinoid extracts and continued refining of Colombian flower. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, our cannabinoid segment sales were primarily in Australia, Israel, and Brazil. The increase in sale of dry flower equivalent for the Cannabinoid segment was due to continued expansion of sales activity including improvement in product mix.
We harvested 4,753 kilograms of cannabinoids in the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 8,064 kilograms in the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to the shut down of our Portugal facility in 2023 and was also due to the continued reduction in our planned reduction of production at our Columbia facility.

Costs to produce were approximately $0.75 per gram of dry flower equivalent for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $0.36 per gram of dry flower equivalent for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily driven by our significantly reduced agricultural output in Colombia and changes in the cultivation techniques to improve the quality and properties of the flower as well as meet more stringent market and regulatory requirements, along with ongoing extraction and processing costs at its Colombian operations.

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Recent Developments

Bid Price Deficiency & Reverse Split


On September 29, 2022, the Company received a notice (the “Notice”) from the Listing Qualifications department (the “Staff”) of Nasdaq notifying the Company that, based upon the closing bid price of the Company’s common shares for the 30 consecutive business day period between August 17, 2022 through September 28, 2022, the Company did not meet the minimum bid price of $1.00 per share required for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) (the “Minimum Bid Price Requirement”). The Notice also indicated that the Company would be provided 180 calendar days, or until March 28, 2023, to regain compliance pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A).

On March 29, 2023, the Company received a second notice (the “Second Notice”) from Nasdaq indicating that, while the Company has not regained compliance with the Minimum Bid Price Requirement, the Staff has determined that the Company is eligible for an additional 180 calendar day period, or until September 25, 2023 (the “Second Compliance Period”), to regain compliance. According to the Second Notice, the Staff’s determination was based on (i) the Company meeting the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other applicable requirements for initial listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market, with the exception of the Minimum Bid Price Requirement, and (ii) the Company’s written notice of its intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period by effecting a reverse share split, if necessary.

On June 28, 2023, the board of directors of the Company approved a 1-for-30 reverse share split. On August 24, 2023, the Company effected the reverse share split in order to demonstrate compliance with Nasdaq’s Minimum Bid Price Requirement prior to the end of the Second Compliance Period, in accordance with Nasdaq rules. As a result of the reverse share split, the Company’s outstanding common shares were reduced from approximately 45.7 million to approximately 1.5 million, based on the number of common shares outstanding as of August 24, 2023. All share and per share information in these financial statements has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse share split. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the reverse share split. Instead, pursuant to the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia), each fractional share remaining after completion of the reverse share split that was less than half of a whole share was rounded down and canceled without consideration to the holders thereof and each fractional share that was at least half of a whole share was rounded up to one whole common share. The reverse share split was applied to all the Company’s outstanding common shares and therefore did not affect any shareholder’s ownership percentage of the shares, except for changes as a result of the elimination of fractional shares. The reverse share split did not alter the voting rights or other rights attached to the shares.

The reverse share split was effected to, regain compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2), which requires the Company, to maintain a minimum bid price of at least $1.00 per share. On September 11, 2023, the Company received a letter from Nasdaq confirming it had regained compliance with Listing Rule 5550(a)(2).

The common shares issuable upon exercise of the Company’s warrants, as well as the exercise price per share, was ratably adjusted. The number of shares available for issuance under each of the Company’s 2020 Incentive Award Plan, as amended (the “Incentive Award Plan”), and the Company’s 2020 Earnout Award Plan (the “Earnout Plan”) were equitably adjusted to reflect the reverse share split. The number of common shares underlying each award of restricted share units (whether vesting based on time or performance) issued under the Incentive Award Plan and the 2020 Earnout Plan that are outstanding as of immediately prior to the reverse share split were ratably adjusted to reflect the reverse share split. Each award of restricted share units issued under the Earnout Award Plan that vests based on the achievement by the Company of certain threshold share prices, outstanding as of immediately prior to the reverse share split, had its share price targets ratably adjusted to reflect the reverse share split. The number of common shares underlying stock option awards issued under each of the Northern Swan Holdings, Inc. 2018 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan and the Incentive Award Plan that are outstanding and unexercised as of immediately prior to the reverse share split and the exercise price of such stock options were ratably adjusted to reflect the reverse share split.

Warrants

As of December 31, 2022, excluding the Rock Cliff warrants, the Company had 12,877,361 of its public warrants classified as a component of equity and 4,900,000 of its private warrants recognized as liability. In connection with the Reverse Share Split, the warrants were adjusted in accordance with their terms such that each warrant entitles the holder to purchase 1/30 common share at an exercise price of $11.50 per warrant. The warrants expire on December 18, 2025, at 5:00 p.m., New York City time, or earlier upon redemption. The Company may redeem the outstanding public warrants at a price of $0.01 per warrant if the last

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reported sales price of the Company’s common shares equals or exceeds $540 per share (on a post-Reverse Share Split basis) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which the Company will send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. The private warrants were issued in the same form as the public warrants, but they (i) are not redeemable by the Company and (ii) may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis at the holder’s option, in either case as long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees (as defined in the warrant agreement). Once a private warrant is transferred to a holder other than an affiliate or permitted transferee, it is treated as a public warrant for all purposes. The terms of the warrants may be amended in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval of the holders of at least a majority 50.1% of the then outstanding warrants.

In accordance to ASC 815, certain provisions of private warrants that do not meet the criteria for equity treatment are recorded as liabilities with the offset to additional paid-in capital and are measured at fair value at inception and at each reporting period in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of operations and comprehensive loss in the period of change.

For the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company performed a valuation of the private warrants and as a result recorded, in the statement of operations, a net gain on remeasurement of approximately $2,092.

On December 10, 2023, the Company terminated the private warrants and recorded a net gain of approximately $107 on termination which is included in the statement of operations for the year ended on December 31, 2023 along with the net gain of $6 directly attributable to remeasurement of the warrant liability at the end of each quarter during the year. As of December 31, 2023 there were no private warrants recognized as a liability.
Equity Distribution Agreement

On January 14, 2022, we entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”) with Canaccord Genuity LLC, as sales agent (the “Agent”). Under the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, we may issue and sell our common shares, without par value, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000 from time to time through the Agent. The issuance and sale of the common shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement have been made, and any such future sales will be made, pursuant to our effective registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-262183), which includes an “at-the-market” (“ATM”) offering prospectus supplement (the “Prospectus Supplement”), as amended from time to time.

Following the filing of this Form 10-K, we expect to continue to be subject to the limitations under General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3. As such, we will not be able to sell more than one-third of the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, with such aggregate market value calculated using figures from a date or dates, as the case may be, within the preceding 60 days from the filing of this Form 10-K. We will file any prospectus supplements as may be required to reflect such lower maximum offering amount. If our public float increases such that we may sell additional amounts under the Equity Distribution Agreement and the Prospectus Supplement, we will file another amendment to the Prospectus Supplement prior to making additional sales.

For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company issued and sold 253,898 shares on a post-Reverse Share Split basis pursuant to the ATM offering, for aggregate net proceeds $1,140, which consisted of gross proceeds of $1,340 and $200 equity issuance costs. No shares were sold pursuant to the ATM offering during the three months ended December 31, 2023.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue — in our Cannabinoid segment, revenue is primarily comprised of sales of our cannabis products, which currently include cannabis flowers, cannabidiol isolate, full spectrum and standardized extracts as well as dry smokable flowers. In our Non-Cannabinoid segment, revenue was primarily composed of sales of our nutraceutical products to our retail customers. Subsequent to year end, we sold our non cannabinoid business segment. See Note 22 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K for more information.

Cost of Sales — in our Cannabinoid segment, cost of sales is primarily composed of pre-harvest, post-harvest and shipment and fulfillment costs. Pre-harvest costs include labor and direct materials to grow cannabis, which includes water, electricity, nutrients, integrated pest management, growing supplies and allocated overhead. Post-harvest costs include costs associated with drying, trimming, blending, extraction, purification, quality testing and allocated overhead. Shipment and fulfillment costs include the costs of packaging, labelling, courier services and allocated overhead. Total cost of sales also includes cost of sales

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associated with accessories and inventory adjustments. In our Non-Cannabinoid segment, cost of sales primarily includes raw materials, labor, and attributable overhead, as well as packaging, labelling and fulfillment costs.

Operating Expenses —We classify our operating expenses as general and administrative, sales and marketing, and research and development expenses.

•    General and administrative expenses include salary and benefit expenses for employees, other than in sales and marketing and research and development, including share-based compensation, costs of legal expenses, professional services, general liability insurance, rent and other office and general expenses.
•    Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of services engaged in marketing and promotion of our products and costs associated with initiatives and development programs and salary and benefit expenses for certain employees.
•    Research and development expenses primarily consist of salary and benefit expenses for employees engaged in research and development activities, as well as other general costs associated with R&D activities.

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Results of Operations

Discontinued Operations - Portugal

We were successful in disposing of our Portugal assets and discontinuing operations therein, which we expect to reduce the complexity of our operations, allow us to prioritize higher-margin activities and conserve cash. Our Portugal operations generated revenue from the sale of cannabinoids produced within the region. As such, the prior Portugal operations has been presented as discontinued operations in our financial statements. All comparative information has been restated to remove the Portugal discontinued operations results, practically meaning that in our statement of operations, we no longer show the revenues and costs of the Portugal operations consolidated with our continuing operations but rather the just the net losses incurred from these operations below loss from continuing operations (i.e., discontinued operations, net of tax, gain of $1,898 for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to a discontinued operations, net of tax, loss of ($28,361) in the year ended December 31, 2022). The Company believes exiting these operations will reduce operating losses going forward.

Year Ended December 31, 2023 compared to year ended December 31, 2022

Consolidated Statements of Net Loss Data
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Year ended December 31,
20232022
Revenue, net$17,417 $16,410 
Cost of sales(10,861)(9,193)
Gross profit
6,556 7,217 
General and administrative expenses17,993 23,830 
Sales and marketing expenses2,036 1,897 
Research and development1,140 1,719 
Intangible asset impairment
— 19,000 
Depreciation and amortization 981 1,241 
Restructuring expenses 6,449 
Total expenses22,150 54,136 
Loss from operations
(15,594)(46,919)
Interest expense and amortization of debt issuance cost46 2,672 
Gain on remeasurement of warrant liability(113)(2,092)
Loss/(gain) on investments3,738 (6,851)
Loss on debt extinguishment, net 2,263 
Foreign exchange loss433 963 
Other expense, net31 220 
Total other income, net4,135 (2,825)
Loss before income taxes and equity investment loss
(19,729)(44,094)
Deferred income tax recovery (6,650)
Current income tax expense68 296 
Equity investment and securities loss 64 
Net loss from continuing operations
$(19,797)$(37,804)
(*)Prior period numbers are re-stated to exclude discontinued operations to make it comparative with current period numbers.

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Revenue by Channel
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
The following table provides our revenues by channel for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

Year ended December 31,
20232022
Mass retail$11,377 $8,531 
Distributors4,838 6,796 
Specialty, health and other retail255 577 
E-commerce947 506 
Total$17,417 $16,410 

Revenue
Revenue increased to $17,417 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $16,410 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was driven by increased sales in our Cannabinoid segment, in part offset by a slight decrease in our Non-Cannabinoid segment. The growth in our Cannabinoid segment sales reflects continued expansion of sales activity including increased sales of higher margin products and ramping commercial pathways across the segment’s mass retail channel. The decreased sales in our Non-Cannabinoid segment were driven by current economic challenges faced by our distributors and specialty health channels during the year ended December 31, 2023 partially offset by a growth in mass retail and e-commerce market place.
Cost of sales

Cost of sales, increased to $10,861 for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to $9,193 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was due to direct costs attributable to the cultivation and production of Cannabinoid segment products in part offset by a decrease in costs for Non-Cannabinoid segment products for the year ended December 31, 2023.The increase in costs is in the line with the higher sales volume for the Cannabinoid segment and increased inventory provisions related to aged, obsolete or unusable inventory, during the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the prior year. The decrease in cost of sales for the Non Cannabinoid segment was directly attributable to better cost management of raw materials and components and a decrease in CBD reserve during the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the prior year.

During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recognized inventory provision of $1,359 and $2,018, respectively, to cost of sales for inventory, primarily related to aged, obsolete or unsaleable inventories.
Operating expenses
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)

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Year ended December 31,
 20232022Change
General and administrative$17,993 $23,830 $(5,837) (24)%
Sales and marketing2,036 1,897 139  7%
Research and development1,140 1,719 (579)(34)%
Depreciation and amortization981 1,241 (260) (21)%
Intangible asset impairment 19,000 (19,000)(100)%
Restructuring expenses 6,449 (6,449)(100)%
Total operating expenses$22,150 $54,136 $(31,986)(59)%
(as a percentage of revenue)  
General and administrative103 %145 %
Sales and marketing12 %12 %
Research and development7 %10 %
Depreciation and amortization6 %%
Total operating expenses127 %330 %
N/M: Not a meaningful percentage
General and administrative. General and administrative expenses decreased to $17,993 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $23,830 for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily due to reduced share-based compensation, payroll expenses, and office and administration expenses, reflecting the continued benefits of the cost cutting measures, and restructuring initiatives the Company previously implemented.

Sales and marketing. Sales and marketing expenses increased to $2,036 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $1,897 for the year ended December 31, 2022 due to increase in advertisement and marketing costs in relation to the Cannabinoid segment.

Research and development. Research and development expenses decreased to $1,140 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $1,719 for the year ended December 31, 2022. due to decrease in external costs such as sampling and testing associated with development of new cannabinoid products.
Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization expenses decreased to $981 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $1,241 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decreased depreciation in the period is a result of reduced tangible assets level due to write off as part of restructuring and continuous deterioration in the value of assets through its useful life. The decreased amortization in the period is a result of periodic reduction in the value of intangible assets through its useful life.

Restructuring expense. Restructuring expense decreased to $0 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $6,449 for the year ended December 31, 2022. In 2022, restructuring expenses was due to one-time asset write-off and restructuring initiatives taken in Colombia for cost-cutting measures. There was no such restructuring expense charged for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Intangible asset impairment. During the year ended December 31, 2023, no charges in intangible asset impairment was recognized as compared to a charge of $19,000 during the year ended December 31, 2022 related to Colombian cannabis-related licenses. The impairment charge reducing the carrying value of the cannabis-related licenses was fully recognized in the prior year as not recoverable based on the excess of the carrying value of the asset group over the undiscounted future cash flow.









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Non-operating income and expenses
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Change
Interest expense, net and amortization of debt issuance cost$46 $2,672 $(2,626)(98)%
Gain on remeasurement of warrant liability(113)(2,092)1,979 (95)%
Loss (Gain) on investments3,738 (6,851)10,589 N/M
Loss on debt extinguishment, net 2,263 (2,263)(100)%
Foreign exchange loss433 963 (530)(55)%
Other expense (income), net31 220 (189)(86)%
Total$4,135 $(2,825)$6,960 N/M
(*)Prior period numbers are re-stated to exclude discontinued operations to make it comparative with current period numbers.
N/M: Not a meaningful percentage

Interest expense, net and amortization of debt issuance cost. Interest expense, net and amortization of debt issuance cost, net for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $46 as compared to $2,672 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to writing off of debt discount costs recognized in connection with the beneficial conversion factor related to the Catalina LP Convertible Note issued in connection with the Notes Purchase Agreement, dated July 19, 2021 (the “Catalina Note”) and the Loan and Security Agreement, dated May 3, 2019 in the comparable prior year period, which were fully re-paid in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

Gain on remeasurement of warrant liability. Gains on remeasurement for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were $113 and $2,092, respectively. The gains for the year ended December 31, 2023 includes gain on termination of private warrants along with gain directly attributable to remeasurement of the warrant liability at December 2023. The gains for the year ended December 31, 2022 are directly attributable to the decline in the underlying value of the private warrants. For more information refer to Note 11 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.

Loss/(gain) on investments. The company recognized a net loss on investment of $3,738 for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to $(6,851) gain on investment for the year ended December 31, 2022. The loss on investments for the year ended December 31, 2023 was related to the loss incurred due to sale of Cansativa shares to Cansativa and EIP Entrepreneurial Investment GmbH below carrying value. The gain on investments in 2022 was related to the sale of Cansativa shares to an unrelated third-party and revaluation of the Company's retained interest of the shares held as of December 31, 2022. For more information, see Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.

Loss (gain) on debt extinguishment, net. Net loss on debt extinguishment was nil for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to recognizing a net loss on debt extinguishment of $2,263 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The net loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to debt extinguishment as a result of the amendment of the Catalina Note on January 13, 2022. For additional details, see Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.

Foreign exchange loss. The impact of foreign exchange for the year ended December 31, 2023 was a loss of $433 compared to a loss of $963 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The foreign exchange losses for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were primarily driven by the currency fluctuations of the Colombian Pesos versus the U.S. Dollar and primarily comprised of Euro versus U.S. Dollar currency fluctuations related to remeasurement of Cansativa investment on a quarterly basis.
Other expense (income), net. Other expense (income), net includes costs not individually material to our consolidated financial statements.

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Operating Results by Business Segment

Our management evaluates segment profit/loss for each of our reportable segments. We define segment profit/loss as income from operations before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, share-based compensation expense, gains/losses on foreign currency fluctuations, gains/losses on the early extinguishment of debt and miscellaneous expenses. Segment profit/loss also excludes the impact of certain items that are not directly attributable to the reportable segments’ underlying operating performance. For a reconciliation of segment profit to loss from continuing operations before income taxes, see Note 15 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.
Revenue by segment
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Year ended December 31,
20232022
Segment Revenue:
Cannabinoid$6,558 $4,729 
Non-Cannabinoid10,859 11,681 
Total Revenue$17,417 $16,410 
(*)Prior period numbers are re-stated to exclude discontinued operations to make it comparative with current period numbers.

Cannabinoid. Cannabinoid revenue increased to $6,558 for the year ended December 31, 2023, from $4,729 for the year ended December 31, 2022, driven primarily by increased sales of higher margin products and ramping commercial pathways across our core markets, particularly in Brazil and Australia.

Non-Cannabinoid. Revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to $10,859 from $11,681 for the year ended December 31, 2022 due to continued demand headwinds on implementing new sales terms in the segment’s specialty channel, which resulted in lower inventory orders during the year ended December 31, 2023.
Segment Profit/(Loss)
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
Year ended December 31,Change
20232022$%
Segment Profit/(Loss):
Cannabinoid$(10,783)$(17,354)$6,571 (38)%
Non-Cannabinoid2,247 1,346 901 67 %
Total Segment Loss (a)
$(8,536)$(16,008)$7,472 (47)%
(a) For a reconciliation of segment profit/(loss) to loss before income tax (recovery) see Note 15 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.
(*)Prior period numbers are re-stated to exclude discontinued operations to make it comparative with current period numbers.

Cannabinoid — Cannabinoid segment loss decreased to $10,783 for the year ended December 31, 2023 from $17,354 for the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily due to decrease in expenses related to the effective implementation of cost-cutting measures.

Non-Cannabinoid — Non-Cannabinoid segment profit increased to $2,247 for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to $1,346 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily attributable to effective implementation of cost cutting measures leading to decreased payroll related costs and sales and marketing costs.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

We are actively seeking sources of financing to fund our continued operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to complete any financing transaction in a timely manner or on acceptable terms or otherwise. If we are not able to raise additional cash, we may be forced to suspend or curtail planned programs, or cease operations altogether.

The following table sets forth the major components of our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the periods presented:
(in thousands of U.S. dollars)
 Year ended December 31,
  2023 2022
Net cash used in operating activities $(11,508)$(29,066)
Net cash provided by investing activities 4,694 1,192 
Net cash provided by financing activities 656 3,289 
Effect of foreign currency translation on cash and cash equivalents 171 (226)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash beginning of period $12,888 $37,699 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash end of period $6,901 $12,888 
(Decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash $(5,987)$(24,811)
Cash flows used in operating activities
The decrease in net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was predominantly attributable to the implementation of cost-saving measures, restructuring and associated expenses, and changes in operating assets and liabilities.
Cash flows from investing activities
The increase in net cash provided by investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributed to diminished capital expenditure, and proceeds from the sale of fixed assets from our discontinued operations in Portugal in 2023. Furthermore, the increase resulted from divestment of remaining investments in Cansativa. For more information, see Note 7 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.
Cash flows from financing activities
The decrease in net cash provided by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily attributable to a decrease in net proceeds from the issuance of shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement and the related shelf registration statement which was partially offset by the extinguishment of debt in the year ended December 31, 2022. For more information refer to Note 11 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023 included in this Form 10-K.
Sources of Liquidity
We have historically financed our operations through the issuance of shares, the issuance of convertible debt and our cash from operations. As of December 31, 2023, and December 31, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents (excluding restricted cash) of $6,831 and $12,449, respectively, which were held for working capital and general corporate purposes. This represents an overall decrease of $5,618. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s current working capital, anticipated operating expenses and net losses, and the uncertainties surrounding its ability to raise additional capital as needed, raise substantial doubt as to whether existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet its obligations as they come due within twelve months from the date the consolidated financial statements were issued. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments for the recovery and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.


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Our outstanding warrants entitle the holder to receive 1/30th common share for each warrant, at an exercise price of $11.50 per warrant. Our private warrants were terminated in December 2023 and a gain on termination of $107 was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2023. No amount was received from the exercise of warrants during the year ended December 31, 2023.

On January 14, 2022, the Company entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”) with Canaccord Genuity LLC, as sales agent (the “Agent”). Under the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, the Company may issue and sell its common shares, without par value, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000 from time to time through the Agent. The issuance and sale of the common shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement have been made, and any such future sales will be made, pursuant to the Company’s effective registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-262183), which includes an “at-the-market” (“ATM”) offering prospectus supplement (the "Prospectus Supplement"), as amended from time to time.

Following the filing of this Form 10-K, we expect to continue to be subject to the limitations under General Instruction I.B.6 of
Form S-3. As such, we will not be able to sell more than one-third of the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, with such aggregate market value calculated using figures from a date or dates, as the case may be, within the preceding 60 days from the filing of this Form 10-K. We will file any prospectus supplements as may be required to reflect such lower maximum offering amount. If our public float increases such that we may sell additional amounts under the Equity Distribution Agreement and the Prospectus Supplement, we will file another amendment to the Prospectus Supplement prior to making additional sales.

We have had operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future until such time, if ever, that we can generate significant revenue from the sale of our available inventories. We anticipate that we will continue to incur losses from operations due to commercialization activities, marketing and manufacturing activities, and general and administrative costs to support operations.

We have historically been able to manage liquidity requirements through cost management and cost reduction measures, supplemented with raising additional financing. While we have been successful in raising financing in the past, there can be no assurances that additional financing will be available when needed on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are not able to secure adequate additional funding, we may be forced to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, suspend or curtail planned programs, sale of certain assets to cover operating expenses or cease operations altogether. Any of these actions could materially harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.See Item 1A Risks Factors - Related to Our Business and Industry - There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern included in this Form 10-K for more information.
Uses of Liquidity

Our primary need for liquidity is to fund working capital requirements, capital expenditures, and for general corporate purposes. Our ability to fund operations and make planned capital expenditures and debt service obligations depends on future operating performance and cash flows, which are subject to prevailing economic conditions and financial, business and other factors. Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which assumes that we will continue to be in operation for the foreseeable future and, accordingly, will be able to realize our assets and discharge our liabilities in the normal course of operations as they come due. See Item 1A Risks Factors - Related to Our Business and Industry - There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern included in this Form 10-K for more information.

We manage our liquidity risk by preparing budgets and cash forecasts to ensure we have sufficient funds to meet obligations. In managing working capital, we may limit the amount of our cash needs by selling inventory at wholesale rates, pursuing additional financing sources, and managing the timing of capital expenditures

However, at December 31, 2023, the Company’s current working capital needs, anticipated operating expenses and net losses, and the uncertainties surrounding its ability to raise additional capital as needed, raise substantial doubt as to whether existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet its obligations as they come due within twelve months from the date the consolidated financial statements were issued. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments for the

47

recovery and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

The Company’s ability to execute its operating plans through 2024 and beyond depends on its ability to obtain additional funding which may include several initiatives such as raising capital, reducing working capital, and monetizing non-core assets to meet planned growth requirements and to fund future operations, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.

Debt

Total debt outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $1,218 and $1,530, respectively. The debt outstanding as of December 31, 2023 was comprised of our current and non-current portions of other borrowings of $498 and $720, respectively, related to the Colombia and Portugal working capital loans. The debt outstanding as of December 31, 2022 was comprised of current and non-current portions of other borrowings of $465 and $1,065, respectively, related to the Colombia and Portugal working capital loans. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we fully repaid our 2024 Convertible Note with accrued interest and Herbal Brands loan with accrued interest. For more information, refer to Notes 10 and 11 to the audited consolidated financial statements included within this Form 10-K.
Portugal Debt

In January 2021, Clever Leaves Portugal Unipessoal LDA borrowed €1,000 ($1,213) (the "Portugal Debt"), from a local lender (the "Portugal Lender") under the terms of its credit line agreement. The Portugal Debt requires interest payments quarterly at a rate of Euribor plus 3 percentage points.

For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized interest expense of approximately €41 ($44) and €28 ($30), respectively, and repaid principal of approximately €250 ($268) and €250 ($264), respectively, of the Portugal Debt in accordance with the terms of the loan agreement. The outstanding principal balance of the Portugal Debt as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was €500 ($552) and €750 ($805), respectively. In December 2022, the Company approved a plan to shut-down its cultivation activities in Portugal in order to preserve cash. The Portugal Debt was not discharged as part of the restructuring and remains outstanding.
Colombia Debt

Ecomedics S.A.S. has entered into loan agreements with multiple local lenders (collectively, the "Colombia Debt"), under which the Company borrowed approximately COP$5,305,800 ($1,295) of mainly working capital loans. The working capital loans are secured by mortgage of our farm land in Colombia as collateral. These loans bear interest at a range of 10.96% to 12.25% per annum denominated in Colombian pesos. The principal and interest are repaid semi-annually. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the outstanding principal balance was approximately COP$2,543,867 ($666) and COP$3,471,576 ($725), respectively.

Contingencies
We are involved in various investigations, claims and lawsuits arising in the normal conduct of our business. Other than as disclosed in Item 1A Risk Factor of this Form 10-K and except for the matter as discussed below, in the opinion of management, as of December 31, 2023 any potential liabilities resulting from claims we have received would not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements. We cannot assure you that we will prevail in any litigation. Regardless of the outcome, any litigation may require us to incur significant litigation expense and may result in significant diversion of management attention.

On July 1, 2023, an APA was entered into by and among the Company as guarantor, Clever Leaves Portugal a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, as the seller, and Terra Verde, Lda. As the purchaser a wholly-owned subsidiary of Curaleaf International, part of Curaleaf Holdings, Inc. Pursuant to the APA, the Purchaser agreed to acquire, and the Seller agreed to sell, certain laboratory and processing equipment for the production of cannabinoid products, as well as informational rights to policies and procedures for the production and manufacture of such cannabinoids that the Seller used in its EU-GMP certified cannabis processing facility in Setubal, Portugal. Under the terms of the APA, the Company has provided a guarantee in case of

48

malfunctioning of the equipment for a period of 12 months expiring July 2024. The total amount of the guarantee will not exceed, in any circumstances, €500 and undertakes the obligation of principal payor renouncing to the benefit of prior foreclosure of the Seller’s assets. The Company considers the probability of requiring payment under the guarantee to be remote. Hence, no liabilities or expenses are recorded in the financial statements.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements during the periods presented, other than as discussed above.
Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Estimates
A critical accounting policy is one that is both important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and requires management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. The preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, and revenue and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in Note 3, Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, we believe the following accounting estimates and policies to be critical.

Share-Based Payments
We measure all stock option awards granted to employees, non-employee directors and consultants based on the fair value on the date of grant and recognize compensation expense over the requisite estimated service period which is generally the vesting period of the respective award. The straight-line method of expense recognition is applied to all awards with service-only conditions. We account for forfeitures as they occur.

The fair value of each option grant is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and restricted stock units, with a performance vesting condition based on risk-neutral Monte-Carlo model which requires assumptions regarding the expected volatility of our stock, the expected life of the options, an expectation regarding future dividends on our common shares, estimation of an appropriate risk-free interest rate and expected term. The assumptions used in our option-pricing model are as follows:

Expected Term. The expected term of employee options is calculated considering the weighted average midpoint of the vesting and expiry dates, compared to the grant date.

Expected Volatility. The expected volatility is based on our historical volatilities and that of similar entities within our industry for periods commensurate with the expected term assumption.

Risk-Free Interest Rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the interest rate payable on U.S. Treasury securities in effect at the time of grant for a period that is commensurate with the assumed expected term.

Expected Dividends. The expected dividend yield is 0% because we have not historically paid, and do not expect for the foreseeable future to pay, a dividend on our common shares.

While assumptions used to calculate and account for share-based compensation awards represent management’s best estimates, these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgement. As a result, if revisions are made to our underlying assumptions and estimates, our share-based compensation expense could vary significantly from period to period.

Inventories

We value our inventory at a lower cost or net realizable value determined using weighted average cost. Inventory is reflected at the lower of cost or net realizable value considering future demand, market conditions and market prices. The net realizable value of inventories represents the estimated selling price for inventories in the ordinary course of business, less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale. Our estimates are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but that are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. These valuations require the use of management’s assumptions that do not reflect unanticipated events and circumstances that may occur. The determination of net realizable value requires significant judgment, including consideration of factors such as shrinkage, the aging of and future demand for inventory, expected future selling price, what we expect to realize by selling the inventory and the contractual arrangements with customers. Reserves for excess and obsolete inventory are based upon quantities on hand, projected volumes from demand forecasts and net realizable

49

value. The estimates are judgmental in nature and are made at a point in time, using available information, expected business plans and expected market conditions. As a result, the actual amount received on sale could differ from the estimated value of inventory. Periodic reviews are performed on the inventory balance. The impact of changes in inventory reserves is reflected in cost of goods sold.

Estimated Useful Lives and Amortization of Intangible Assets

Amortization of intangible assets is recorded on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, which do not exceed the contractual period, if any. Intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives are not subject to amortization and are tested annually for impairment, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that they may be impaired.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets are primarily comprised of property, plant, and equipment and definite-lived intangible assets. We evaluate long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate, in management’s judgment, that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. We regularly review our long-lived assets for impairment indicators, such as changes in market conditions or the usage of assets. If an impairment indicator is present, we perform an impairment test to determine whether the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. If the carrying amount exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows as part of the recoverability assessment, an impairment charge is recognized equal to the difference between the carrying amount and fair value of the asset. The impairment test involves significant estimates and judgments, including the selection of appropriate valuation methods, assumptions related to future cash flows and growth rates, and the determination of appropriate discount rates. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could result in impairment charges, which could have a material impact on our financial results.

We believe the accounting estimates used in the long-lived asset impairment assessment are critical accounting estimates because of the judgment required in identifying indicators of impairment, determining asset groups, assessing future undiscounted cash flows of the asset groups, and as applicable, evaluating the fair value of the determined asset groups as well as the underlying long-lived assets, once indicators of impairment have been identified.

We periodically evaluate whether impairment indicators related to our property, plant and equipment, operating leases and other long-lived assets are present. These impairment indicators may include a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, early termination of an operating lease, a significant adverse change to the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used or in its physical condition, or a current-period operating or cash flow loss combined with a history of operating or cash flow losses or a forecast that demonstrates continuing losses associated with the use of a long-lived asset. If impairment indicators are present, we estimate the fair value for the asset. We estimate fair value of long-lived assets through various valuation methods, including the use of the indirect cost approach, income approach, and direct comparison approach. The estimation of future undiscounted cash flows of the assets as well as each of these fair value approaches are significantly impacted by market conditions. A significant adverse change in market conditions could result in fair values that differ from our estimates, which could adversely impact whether an impairment exists and the extent to which an asset group and underlying assets are impaired. The difference between the fair value and the carrying amount of the asset is recorded as an impairment charge.

We periodically evaluate our long-lived assets that we plan to dispose of through sale for held-for-sale classification. To be classified as held-for-sale, management must have committed to a plan to sell, the asset must be available for immediate sale in its present condition, an active program to locate a buyer must have been initiated, the sale must be probable to close within one year, the asset must be marketed at a reasonable sales price, and it must be unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made. Once an asset meets all of the above criteria, it is reclassified as assets held for sale on the consolidated balance sheet, and the asset(s) cease depreciation and are written down to their fair value, less costs to sell, if applicable.

Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts

Management determines the allowance for uncollectible accounts by evaluating individual receivable balances and considering accounts and other receivable financial condition and current economic conditions. The Company maintains an allowance for expected credit losses to reflect the expected non-collectability of accounts receivable based on historical collection data and specific risks identified among uncollected accounts, as well as management’s expectation of future economic conditions. Accounts receivable and financial assets recorded in other receivables are written off after exhaustive collection efforts occur and the receivable is deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded as income when received.





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Income Taxes

The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on enacted tax rates and laws for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company recognizes uncertain income tax positions at the largest amount that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by the relevant taxing authority. An uncertain income tax position will not be recognized if it has less than a 50% likelihood of being sustained. Recognition or measurement is reflected in the period in which the likelihood changes.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.
We are a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and are not required to provide the information under this item.



ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and the reports of the independent registered public accounting firm are filed as part of this Report and incorporated herein by reference.


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of
Clever Leaves Holdings Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Clever Leaves Holdings Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, shareholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Explanatory Paragraph – Going Concern

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As more fully described in Note 2, the Company has incurred significant losses and needs to raise additional funds to meet its obligations and sustain its operations. These conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Valuation of Inventory

Critical Audit Matter Description

As described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s inventories consist of raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods, and are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. As described in Note 5, the Company’ cannabis inventory balance as of December 31, 2023, was $3.5 million. The significant inputs and assumptions used in the valuation of cannabis inventory include attrition rates of plants, average yield per plant, cumulative stage of completion in the production process and allocation of cost of sales. In addition, the Company records a provision for obsolete inventories, which can involve a high degree of judgment.

The principal considerations for our determination that valuation of inventory was a critical audit matter are the significant assumptions and management estimates involved in the valuation of inventory, the significance of this statement of financial position item, and the extensive auditor effort in performing procedures in this audit area.

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How the Critical Audit Matter was addressed in the Audit

Out audit procedures related to the valuation of inventory included the following, among others:

We evaluated the significant assumptions stated above and tested the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used in management’s costing and valuation.

We tested attrition rates, average yield and cumulative stage of completion including performing physical observations of the growing cannabis and assessing quantities and growth stage compared to the plant’s life cycle.

We tested harvest and extract yields including performing physical observations of each process.

We tested management’s assumptions and estimates used and evaluated whether they were reasonable considering (i) historical actual information, (ii) independent calculations and observations of inputs, and (iii) whether these assumptions and estimates were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit.

We evaluated management’s provision for obsolete inventories by reviewing inputs and on-hand inventory levels and recalculating items included within the provision.

/s/ Marcum LLP

Marcum LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2022.

New York City, New York,
April 1, 2024






53


CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position
(Amounts in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except share and per share data)
Note
December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
  
Current:  
Cash and cash equivalents$6,831 $12,449 
Restricted cash70 439 
Accounts receivable, net907 2,252 
Prepaids, deposits and other receivables61,649 2,708 
Inventories, net54,483 8,399 
Total current assets13,940 26,247 
 
Investment – Cansativa7 5,679 
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $8,793 and $7,120 for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
912,321 13,963 
Land held for sale1,500 1,500 
Intangible assets, net82,653 3,354 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net18829 1,303 
Other non-current assets 52 
Total Assets
$31,243 $52,098 
 
Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity
Current:
Accounts payable$2,063 $2,299 
Accrued expense and other current liabilities2,844 4,238 
Loans and borrowings, current portion10498 465 
Warrant liability11 113 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion18386 1,239 
Deferred revenue20 1,072 
Total current liabilities5,811 9,426 
Loans and borrowings10720 1,065 
Operating lease liabilities — long-term18483 1,087 
Other long-term liabilities12 112 
Total Liabilities
$7,026 $11,690 
Contingencies and commitments20
Shareholders’ equity
Preferred shares, without par value, unlimited shares authorized, nil shares issued and outstanding for each of December 31, 2023 and 2022
11  
Common shares, without par value, unlimited shares authorized: 1,727,698 and 1,454,559 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
11  
Additional paid-in capital223,021 221,313 
Accumulated deficit(198,804)(180,905)
Total shareholders' equity
24,217 40,408 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
$31,243 $52,098 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements

54


CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(Amounts in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except share and per share data)

For the year ended
NoteDecember 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Revenue, net14$17,417 $16,410 
Cost of sales(10,861)(9,193)
Gross profit6,556 7,217 
Expenses
General and administrative1217,993 23,830 
Sales and marketing2,036 1,897 

Research and development1,140 1,719 
Restructuring expenses21 6,449 
Intangible asset impairment 19,000 
Depreciation and amortization9981 1,241 
Total expenses22,150 54,136 
Loss from operations(15,594)(46,919)
Other Expense (Income), net
Interest expense and amortization of debt issuance cost46 2,672 
Gain on remeasurement of warrant liability11(113)(2,092)
Loss (Gain) on investments73,738 (6,851)
Loss on debt extinguishment, net10 2,263 
Foreign exchange loss433 963 
Other expense, net31 220 
Total other expense (income), net4,135 (2,825)
Loss before income taxes and equity investment loss(19,729)(44,094)
Deferred income tax recovery (6,650)
Income tax provision68 296 
Equity investment share of loss7 64 
Loss from continuing operations
(19,797)(37,804)
Gain/(loss) from discontinued operations1,898 (28,361)
Net loss attributable to Clever Leaves Holdings Inc. common shareholders$(17,899)$(66,165)
Basic and diluted - continuing operations17$(12.63)$(29.54)
Basic and diluted - discontinuing operations$1.21 $(22.16)
Net loss per share(11.42)(51.70)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted1,567,601 1,279,746 


See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

55


CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity
(Amounts in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except share and per share data)


Note

Common Shares
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Shares$
Balance at December 31, 2021886,860 $ $187,510 $(114,740)$72,770 
Issuance of common shares, gross499,826 — 27,686 — 27,686 
Issuance of common shares upon vesting of RSUs12,584 — — — — 
Stock option exercise5,056 — 22 — 22 
Share-based compensation expense— — 2,343 — 2,343 
Beneficial conversion feature of Convertible Note— — 1,750 — 1,750 
Conversions of Convertible Note to common shares50,233 — 3,363 — 3,363 
Equity issuance costs— — (1,361)— (1,361)
Net Loss $ $ $(66,165)$(66,165)
Balance at December 31, 20221,454,559 $ $221,313 $(180,905)$40,408 
Issuance of common shares, gross11253,898 — 1,339 — 1,339 
Issuance of common shares upon vesting of RSUs1319,540 — — — — 
Cancellation of shares(312)— (250)— (250)
Share-based compensation expense13— — 818 — 818 
Equity issuance costs— — (199)— (199)
Round off due to reverse split13 — — — — 
Net Loss— — — (17,899)(17,899)
Balance at December 31, 20231,727,698 $ $223,021 $(198,804)$24,217 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.




56


CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Amounts in thousands of U.S. Dollars)
For the year ended
  December 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Notes
Net loss from continuing operations
(19,797)(37,804)
Net Income/ (loss) from discontinuing operations1,898 (28,361)
Net loss$(17,899)$(66,165)
Adjustments to reconcile to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization92,374 3,672 
Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance cost 1,949 

Inventory provision51,359 4,736 
Restructuring and related costs 25,809 
Gain on sale of fixed assets (2,862) 
Gain on remeasurement of warrant liability11(113)(2,092)
Deferred income tax recovery16 (6,650)
Foreign exchange loss468 1,129 
Share-based compensation expense13818 2,343 
Intangible asset impairment 19,000 
Amortization of right of use assets18474  
Loss on equity method investment, net7 64 
Loss (Gain) on investment3,738 (6,851)
Loss on debt extinguishment, net10 2,263 
Other non-cash expense, net 727 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Decrease (Increase) in accounts receivable1,345 (278)
Decrease in prepaid expenses6809 190 
Decrease in other receivables and other non-current assets52 538 
Decrease (Increase) in inventory52,556 (4,453)
(Decrease) in lease liabilities(588) 
(Decrease) in accounts payable and other current liabilities(2,886)(4,749)
(Decrease) in deferred revenue(1,052) 
(Decrease) in accrued and other non-current liabilities(101)(248)
Net cash used in operating activities(11,508)(29,066)
Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Proceeds from sale of assets 2,862  
Purchase of property, plant and equipment(31)(1,306)
Proceeds from sale of investments1,863 2,498 
Net cash provided by investing activities4,694 1,192 
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Repayment of debt10(484)(23,131)
Other borrowings 73 
Proceeds from issuance of shares1,339 27,686 
Equity issuance costs(199)(1,361)
Stock option exercised13 22 
Net cash provided by financing activities656 3,289 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents & restricted cash171 (226)
(Decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(5,987)(24,811)
Cash, cash equivalents & restricted cash, beginning of period (a)
12,888 37,699 
Cash, cash equivalents & restricted cash, end of period (a)
6,901 12,888 
Supplemental schedule of cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest205 285 
Supplemental disclosures for non-cash activity:
Conversions of debt to common shares10 3,363 
Cancellation of shares(250) 
Right-of-use asset recognized176 3,764 
Beneficial conversion feature10 1,749 
Non-cash paid-in-kind-interest10 281 
(a) These amounts include restricted cash of $70 and $439 as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, which are comprised primarily of cash on deposits for certain lease arrangements.
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.

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CLEVER LEAVES HOLDINGS INC.
Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
(Amounts in thousands of U.S. dollars, except share and per share amounts and where otherwise noted)

1. CORPORATE INFORMATION

Clever Leaves Holdings Inc., (the “Company”) is a multi-national U.S. based holding company focused on cannabinoids. In addition to the cannabinoid business, the Company is also engaged in the non-cannabinoid business of nutraceutical and other natural remedies and wellness products. The Company is incorporated under the Business Corporations Act of British Columbia, Canada.

The mailing address of the Company's principal executive office is Bodega 19-B Parque Industrial Tibitoc P.H, Tocancipá - Cundinamarca, Colombia.

Business Combination

On December 18, 2020 (the "Closing Date"), Clever Leaves International Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of British Columbia, Canada (“Clever Leaves”), and SAMA consummated the previously announced Business Combination contemplated by the Amended and Restated Business Combination Agreement, dated as of November 9, 2020 (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among SAMA, Clever Leaves, Clever Leaves Holdings Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of British Columbia, Canada (“Holdco” or the “Company”), and Novel Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Merger Sub”). Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, SAMA agreed to combine with Clever Leaves in the Business Combination that resulted in both Clever Leaves and SAMA becoming wholly-owned subsidiaries of Holdco.

Clever Leaves was deemed the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination based on an analysis of the criteria outlined in Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 805. This determination was primarily based on Clever Leaves’ stockholders prior to the Business Combination having a majority of the voting interests in the combined company, Clever Leaves’ operations comprising the ongoing operations of the combined company, Clever Leaves’ board of directors comprising a majority of the board of directors of the combined company, and Clever Leaves’ senior management comprising the senior management of the combined company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Clever Leaves’ issuing stock for the net assets of SAMA, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of SAMA are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.

While Holdco was the legal acquirer in the Business Combination, because Clever Leaves was deemed the accounting acquirer, the historical financial statements of Clever Leaves became the historical financial statements of the combined company upon the consummation of the Business Combination.

In accordance with applicable guidance, the equity structure has been restated in all comparative periods to reflect the number of shares of the Company’s common shares, issued to Clever Leaves’ shareholders in connection with the recapitalization transaction. As such, the shares and corresponding capital amounts and earnings per share related to Clever Leaves’ convertible preferred shares and Clever Leaves’ common shares prior to the Business Combination have been retroactively restated as shares reflecting the exchange ratio of 0.3288 shares (the “Exchange Rate”) established in the Business Combination Agreement. Activity within the statement of shareholders' equity for the issuances and repurchases of Clever Leaves’ convertible preferred shares were also retroactively converted to Clever Leaves’ common shares.
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The Company's consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP") and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The financial statements of the subsidiaries are prepared for the same reporting period as the parent company. All intercompany transactions, balances, unrealized gains and losses resulting from intra-group transactions, have been eliminated.