10-Q 1 cms-20220331.htm FORM 10-Q (CMS ENERGY AND CONSUMERS) cms-20220331
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
OR
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____to_____
Commission File NumberRegistrant; State of Incorporation; Address; and Telephone NumberIRS Employer Identification No.
1-9513CMS ENERGY CORPORATION38-2726431
(A Michigan Corporation)
One Energy Plaza, Jackson, Michigan 49201
(517) 788‑0550
1-5611CONSUMERS ENERGY COMPANY38-0442310
(A Michigan Corporation)
One Energy Plaza, Jackson, Michigan 49201
(517) 788‑0550
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock, $0.01 par value
CMSNew York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.625% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2078CMSANew York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.875% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2078CMSCNew York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.875% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2079CMSDNew York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/1,000th interest in a share of 4.200% Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series C
CMS PRCNew York Stock Exchange
Consumers Energy Company Cumulative Preferred Stock, $100 par value: $4.50 SeriesCMS-PBNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
CMS Energy Corporation:YesxNoConsumers Energy Company:YesxNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‑T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
CMS Energy Corporation:YesxNoConsumers Energy Company:YesxNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non‑accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:Consumers Energy Company:
Large accelerated filerxLarge accelerated filer
Non‑accelerated filerNon‑accelerated filerx
Accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Smaller reporting companySmaller reporting company
Emerging growth companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:Consumers Energy Company:
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act).
CMS Energy Corporation:YesNoxConsumers Energy Company:YesNox
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock at April 11, 2022:
CMS Energy Corporation:
CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock, $0.01 par value
290,129,103
Consumers Energy Company:
Consumers Common Stock, $10 par value, privately held by CMS Energy Corporation84,108,789





CMS Energy Corporation
Consumers Energy Company
Report on Form 10-Q to the Securities and Exchange Commission for the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2022
Table of Contents
1

Glossary
Certain terms used in the text and financial statements are defined below.
2016 Energy Law
Michigan’s Public Acts 341 and 342 of 2016
2021 Form 10‑K
Each of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2021
ABATE
Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity
AOCI
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
Aviator Wind
Aviator Wind, LLC, a VIE in which Aviator Wind Equity Holdings holds a Class B membership interest
Aviator Wind Equity Holdings
Aviator Wind Equity Holdings, LLC, a VIE in which Grand River Wind, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 51‑percent interest
Bay Harbor
A residential/commercial real estate area located near Petoskey, Michigan, in which CMS Energy sold its interest in 2002
bcf
Billion cubic feet
CCR
Coal combustion residual
CDC
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CEO
Chief Executive Officer
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended
2

CFO
Chief Financial Officer
Clean Air Act
Federal Clean Air Act of 1963, as amended
Clean Energy Plan
Consumers’ long-term strategy for delivering clean, reliable, and affordable energy to its customers through the increased use of energy efficiency and customer demand management programs, additional renewable energy generation, and conservation voltage reduction
Clean Water Act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended
CMS Energy
CMS Energy Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted; the parent of Consumers, CMS Enterprises, and, until October 1, 2021, EnerBank; on October 1, 2021, EnerBank was acquired by Regions Bank
CMS Enterprises
CMS Enterprises Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
CMS ERM
CMS Energy Resource Management Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, formerly known as CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company
CMS Generation Michigan Power
CMS Generation Michigan Power L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises
CMS Land
CMS Land Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Capital, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
Consumers
Consumers Energy Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted; a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
COVID‑19
Coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory illness that was declared a pandemic in March 2020 and to which public and private agencies initially responded by instituting social-distancing and other measures designed to slow the spread of the disease
3

Craven
Craven County Wood Energy Limited Partnership, a VIE in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
CSAPR
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule of 2011, as amended
DB Pension Plan A
Defined benefit pension plan of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries, created as of December 31, 2017 for active employees who were covered under the defined benefit pension plan that closed in 2005
DB Pension Plans
Defined benefit pension plans of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries
DB SERP
Defined Benefit Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
DIG
Dearborn Industrial Generation, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of Dearborn Industrial Energy, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises
Dodd-Frank Act
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
DTE Electric
DTE Electric Company, a non‑affiliated company
EGLE
Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy
EnerBank
EnerBank USA, until October 1, 2021, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Capital, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy; on October 1, 2021, EnerBank was acquired by Regions Bank
energy waste reduction
The reduction of energy consumption through energy efficiency and demand-side energy conservation, as established under the 2016 Energy Law
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
4

EPS
Earnings per share
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FTR
Financial transmission right
GAAP
U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GCR
Gas cost recovery
Genesee
Genesee Power Station Limited Partnership, a VIE in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
Grayling
Grayling Generating Station Limited Partnership, a VIE in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
IRP
Integrated resource plan
IRS
Internal Revenue Service
kWh
Kilowatt-hour, a unit of energy equal to one thousand watt-hours
LIBOR
London Interbank Offered Rate
Ludington
Ludington pumped-storage plant, jointly owned by Consumers and DTE Electric
5

MATS
Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, which limit mercury, acid gases, and other toxic pollution from coal‑fueled and oil‑fueled power plants
MD&A
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
METC
Michigan Electric Transmission Company, LLC, a non‑affiliated company
MGP
Manufactured gas plant
MIOSHA
Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration
MISO
Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
mothball
To place a generating unit into a state of extended reserve shutdown in which the unit is inactive and unavailable for service for a specified period, during which the unit can be brought back into service after receiving appropriate notification and completing any necessary maintenance or other work; generation owners in MISO must request approval to mothball a unit, and MISO then evaluates the request for reliability impacts
MPSC
Michigan Public Service Commission
MW
Megawatt, a unit of power equal to one million watts
NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, a permit system for regulating point sources of pollution under the Clean Water Act
NREPA
Part 201 of Michigan’s Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act of 1994, as amended
6

NSR
New Source Review, a construction-permitting program under the Clean Air Act
OPEB
Other Post-Employment Benefits
OPEB Plan
Postretirement health care and life insurance plans of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PCB
Polychlorinated biphenyl
PHMSA
U.S. Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PPA
Power purchase agreement
PSCR
Power supply cost recovery
PURPA
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978
RCRA
Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
REC
Renewable energy credit
Regions Bank
A subsidiary of Regions Financial Corporation, a non-affiliated company
ROA
Retail Open Access, which allows electric generation customers to choose alternative electric suppliers pursuant to Michigan’s Public Acts 141 and 142 of 2000, as amended
7

SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
securitization
A financing method authorized by statute and approved by the MPSC which allows a utility to sell its right to receive a portion of the rate payments received from its customers for the repayment of securitization bonds issued by a special-purpose entity affiliated with such utility
TAES
Toshiba America Energy Systems Corporation, a non-affiliated company
TCJA
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
T.E.S. Filer City
T.E.S. Filer City Station Limited Partnership, a VIE in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
VIE
Variable interest entity
8

Filing Format
This combined Form 10-Q is separately filed by CMS Energy and Consumers. Information in this combined Form 10-Q relating to each individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf. Consumers makes no representation regarding information relating to any other companies affiliated with CMS Energy other than its own subsidiaries.
CMS Energy is the parent holding company of several subsidiaries, including Consumers and CMS Enterprises. None of CMS Energy, CMS Enterprises, nor any of CMS Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than Consumers) has any obligation in respect of Consumers’ debt securities or preferred stock and holders of such securities should not consider the financial resources or results of operations of CMS Energy, CMS Enterprises, nor any of CMS Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than Consumers and its own subsidiaries (in relevant circumstances)) in making a decision with respect to Consumers’ debt securities or preferred stock. Similarly, neither Consumers nor any other subsidiary of CMS Energy has any obligation in respect of securities of CMS Energy.
This report should be read in its entirety. No one section of this report deals with all aspects of the subject matter of this report. This report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and with MD&A included in the 2021 Form 10-K.
Available Information
CMS Energy’s internet address is www.cmsenergy.com. CMS Energy routinely posts important information on its website and considers the Investor Relations section, www.cmsenergy.com/investor-relations, a channel of distribution for material information. Information contained on CMS Energy’s website is not incorporated herein.
Forward-Looking Statements and Information
This Form 10-Q and other CMS Energy and Consumers disclosures may contain forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The use of “might,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” “forecasts,” “predicts,” “assumes,” and other similar words is intended to identify forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainty. This discussion of potential risks and uncertainties is designed to highlight important factors that may impact CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ businesses and financial outlook. CMS Energy and Consumers have no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements regardless of whether new information, future events, or any other factors affect the information contained in the statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to various factors that could cause CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ actual results to differ materially from the results anticipated in these statements. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following, all of which are potentially significant:
the impact and effect of recent events, such as the war in Ukraine, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the responses to these events, and related economic disruptions including, but not limited to, labor shortages, inflation, and supply chain disruptions, all of which could impact CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ workforce, operations, revenues, expenses, uncollectible accounts, energy efficiency programs, pension funding, PSCR and GCR costs, capital investment programs, cash flows, liquidity, maintenance of existing assets, and other operating expenses
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the impact of new regulation by the MPSC, FERC, and other applicable governmental proceedings and regulations, including any associated impact on electric or gas rates or rate structures
potentially adverse regulatory treatment or failure to receive timely regulatory orders affecting Consumers that are or could come before the MPSC, FERC, or other governmental authorities
changes in the performance of or regulations applicable to MISO, METC, pipelines, railroads, vessels, or other service providers that CMS Energy, Consumers, or any of their affiliates rely on to serve their customers
the adoption of or challenges to federal or state laws or regulations or changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, principles, or practices, or in their interpretation, such as those related to energy policy, ROA, PURPA, infrastructure integrity or security, cybersecurity, gas pipeline safety, gas pipeline capacity, energy waste reduction, the environment, regulation or deregulation, reliability, COVID-19 vaccination and testing requirements, health care reforms (including comprehensive health care reform enacted in 2010), taxes, accounting matters, climate change, air emissions, renewable energy, the Dodd-Frank Act, and other business issues that could have an impact on CMS Energy’s, Consumers’, or any of their affiliates’ businesses or financial results
factors affecting operations, such as costs and availability of personnel, equipment, and materials; weather conditions; natural disasters; catastrophic weather-related damage; scheduled or unscheduled equipment outages; maintenance or repairs; environmental incidents; failures of equipment or materials; electric transmission and distribution or gas pipeline system constraints; interconnection requirements; political and social unrest; general strikes; the government and/or paramilitary response to political or social events; and changes in trade policies or regulations
the ability of CMS Energy and Consumers to execute cost-reduction strategies
potentially adverse regulatory or legal interpretations or decisions regarding environmental matters, or delayed regulatory treatment or permitting decisions that are or could come before EGLE, the EPA, and/or the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and potential environmental remediation costs associated with these interpretations or decisions, including those that may affect Consumers’ routine maintenance, repair, and replacement classification under NSR regulations
changes in energy markets, including availability and price of electric capacity and the timing and extent of changes in commodity prices and availability and deliverability of coal, natural gas, natural gas liquids, electricity, oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, and certain related products
the price of CMS Energy common stock, the credit ratings of CMS Energy and Consumers, capital and financial market conditions, and the effect of these market conditions on CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ interest costs and access to the capital markets, including availability of financing to CMS Energy, Consumers, or any of their affiliates
the potential effects of the future transition from LIBOR to an alternative reference interest rate in the credit and capital markets
the investment performance of the assets of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ pension and benefit plans, the discount rates, mortality assumptions, and future medical costs used in calculating the plans’ obligations, and the resulting impact on future funding requirements
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the impact of the economy, particularly in Michigan, and potential future volatility in the financial and credit markets on CMS Energy’s, Consumers’, or any of their affiliates’ revenues, ability to collect accounts receivable from customers, or cost and availability of capital
changes in the economic and financial viability of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ suppliers, customers, and other counterparties and the continued ability of these third parties, including those in bankruptcy, to meet their obligations to CMS Energy and Consumers
population changes in the geographic areas where CMS Energy and Consumers conduct business
national, regional, and local economic, competitive, and regulatory policies, conditions, and developments
loss of customer demand for electric generation supply to alternative electric suppliers, increased use of self-generation including distributed generation, or energy waste reduction and storage
increased renewable energy demand due to customers seeking to meet their own sustainability goals
the reputational or other impact on CMS Energy and Consumers of the failure to achieve ambitions related to reducing their impact on climate change
adverse consequences of employee, director, or third-party fraud or non‑compliance with codes of conduct or with laws or regulations
federal regulation of electric sales, including periodic re‑examination by federal regulators of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ market-based sales authorizations
any event, change, development, occurrence, or circumstance that could impact the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP filing or give rise to the termination of the associated purchase agreement, including any action by a regulatory authority or other third party to prohibit, delay, impair, or deny approval for or consent to the 2021 IRP or the consummation of the proposed acquisition
the availability, cost, coverage, and terms of insurance, the stability of insurance providers, and the ability of Consumers to recover the costs of any insurance from customers
the effectiveness of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ risk management policies, procedures, and strategies, including strategies to hedge risk related to interest rates and future prices of electricity, natural gas, and other energy-related commodities
factors affecting development of electric generation projects, gas transmission, and gas and electric distribution infrastructure replacement, conversion, and expansion projects, including factors related to project site identification, construction material pricing, schedule delays, availability of qualified construction personnel, permitting, acquisition of property rights, and government approvals
potential disruption to, interruption of, or other impacts on facilities, utility infrastructure, operations, or backup systems due to accidents, explosions, physical disasters, global pandemics, cyber incidents, civil unrest, vandalism, war, or terrorism, and the ability to obtain or maintain insurance coverage for these events
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changes or disruption in fuel supply, including but not limited to supplier bankruptcy and delivery disruptions
potential costs, lost revenues, reputational harm, or other consequences resulting from misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data, or operational disruption in connection with a cyberattack or other cyber incident
potential disruption to, interruption or failure of, or other impacts on information technology backup or disaster recovery systems
technological developments in energy production, storage, delivery, usage, and metering
the ability to implement technology successfully
the impact of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ integrated business software system and its effects on their operations, including utility customer billing and collections
adverse consequences resulting from any past, present, or future assertion of indemnity or warranty claims associated with assets and businesses previously owned by CMS Energy or Consumers, including claims resulting from attempts by foreign or domestic governments to assess taxes on or to impose environmental liability associated with past operations or transactions
the outcome, cost, and other effects of any legal or administrative claims, proceedings, investigations, or settlements
the reputational impact on CMS Energy and Consumers of operational incidents, violations of corporate policies, regulatory violations, inappropriate use of social media, and other events
restrictions imposed by various financing arrangements and regulatory requirements on the ability of Consumers and other subsidiaries of CMS Energy to transfer funds to CMS Energy in the form of cash dividends, loans, or advances
earnings volatility resulting from the application of fair value accounting to certain energy commodity contracts or interest rate contracts
changes in financial or regulatory accounting principles or policies (e.g., the adoption of the hypothetical liquidation at book value method of accounting for certain non-regulated renewable energy projects)
other matters that may be disclosed from time to time in CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ SEC filings, or in other public documents
All forward-looking statements should be considered in the context of the risk and other factors described above and as detailed from time to time in CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ SEC filings. For additional details regarding these and other uncertainties, see Part I—Item 1. Financial Statements—MD&A—Outlook and Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters and Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments; and Part I—Item 1A. Risk Factors in the 2021 Form 10-K.
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Part I—Financial Information
Item 1.    Financial Statements
Index to Financial Statements
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CMS Energy Corporation
Consumers Energy Company
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This MD&A is a combined report of CMS Energy and Consumers.
Executive Overview
CMS Energy is an energy company operating primarily in Michigan. It is the parent holding company of several subsidiaries, including Consumers, an electric and gas utility, and CMS Enterprises, primarily a domestic independent power producer and marketer. CMS Energy was also the parent holding company of EnerBank, an industrial bank located in Utah, until October 1, 2021 when EnerBank was acquired by Regions Bank. Consumers’ electric utility operations include the generation, purchase, distribution, and sale of electricity, and Consumers’ gas utility operations include the purchase, transmission, storage, distribution, and sale of natural gas. Consumers’ customer base consists of a mix of primarily residential, commercial, and diversified industrial customers. CMS Enterprises, through its subsidiaries and equity investments, is engaged in domestic independent power production, including the development and operation of renewable generation, and the marketing of independent power production.
CMS Energy and Consumers manage their businesses by the nature of services each provides. CMS Energy operates principally in three business segments: electric utility; gas utility; and enterprises, its non‑utility operations and investments. Consumers operates principally in two business segments: electric utility and gas utility. CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ businesses are affected primarily by:
regulation and regulatory matters
state and federal legislation
economic conditions
weather
energy commodity prices
interest rates
their securities’ credit ratings
The Triple Bottom Line
CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ purpose is to achieve world class performance while delivering hometown service. In support of this purpose, CMS Energy and Consumers employ the “CE Way,” a lean operating model designed to improve safety, quality, cost, delivery, and employee morale.
CMS Energy and Consumers measure their progress toward the purpose by considering their impact on the “triple bottom line” of people, planet, and profit, which is underpinned by performance; this consideration takes into account not only the economic value that CMS Energy and Consumers create for customers and investors, but also their responsibility to social and environmental goals. The triple bottom line balances the interests of employees, customers, suppliers, regulators, creditors, Michigan’s residents,
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the investment community, and other stakeholders, and it reflects the broader societal impacts of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ activities.
cms-20220331_g1.jpg
CMS Energy’s Environmental, Social, Governance and Sustainability Report, which is available to the public, describes CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ progress toward world class performance measured in the areas of people, planet, and profit.
People: The people element of the triple bottom line represents CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ commitment to their employees, their customers, the residents of local communities in which they do business, and other stakeholders.
The safety of employees, customers, and the general public is a priority of CMS Energy and Consumers. Accordingly, CMS Energy and Consumers have worked to integrate a set of safety principles into their business operations and culture. These principles include complying with applicable safety, health, and security regulations and implementing programs and processes aimed at continually improving safety and security conditions. Since 2010, Consumers’ OSHA recordable incident rate has decreased by 40 percent.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, CMS Energy and Consumers have issued a response plan that is focused on the health, safety, and well-being of their co-workers, customers, and communities. CMS Energy and Consumers have aligned with safety and health guidelines from the CDC, OSHA, MIOSHA, and the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services in order to protect their employees, customers, and contractors to ensure the continued delivery of critical energy services.
In addition, while CMS Energy and Consumers have experienced some supply chain disruptions, they continue to provide safe and reliable service to customers.
CMS Energy and Consumers also place a high priority on customer value and on providing a hometown customer experience. Consumers’ customer-driven investment program is aimed at improving safety and increasing electric and gas reliability, which has resulted in measurable improvements in customer satisfaction.
Central to Consumers’ commitment to its customers are the initiatives it has undertaken to keep electricity and natural gas affordable, including:
replacement of coal-fueled generation and PPAs with a cost-efficient mix of renewable energy and energy waste reduction and demand response programs
targeted infrastructure investment to reduce maintenance costs and improve reliability and safety
supply chain optimization
economic development to increase sales and reduce overall rates
information and control system efficiencies
employee and retiree health care cost sharing
workforce productivity enhancements
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Planet: The planet element of the triple bottom line represents CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ commitment to protect the environment. This commitment extends beyond compliance with various state and federal environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations. Management considers climate change and other environmental risks in strategy development, business planning, and enterprise risk management processes.
CMS Energy and Consumers continue to focus on opportunities to protect the environment and to reduce their carbon footprint. As a result of actions already taken, CMS Energy and Consumers have:
decreased their combined percentage of electric supply (self-generated and purchased) from coal by 13 percentage points since 2015
reduced carbon dioxide emissions by over 30 percent since 2005
reduced the amount of water used to generate electricity by nearly 30 percent since 2012
reduced landfill waste disposal by over 1.6 million tons since 1992
reduced methane emissions by nearly 20 percent since 2012
Since 2005, Consumers has reduced its sulfur dioxide and particulate matter emissions by over 90 percent and its nitrogen oxide emissions by over 80 percent. Consumers began tracking mercury emissions in 2007; since that time, it has reduced such emissions by nearly 90 percent.
The 2016 Energy Law:
raised the renewable energy standard to 15 percent in 2021; Consumers met the 15-percent requirement in 2021 and expects to meet the requirement in future years with a combination of newly generated RECs and previously generated RECs carried over from prior years
established a goal of 35 percent combined renewable energy and energy waste reduction by 2025; Consumers achieved 30 percent combined renewable energy and energy waste reduction through 2021
authorized incentives for demand response programs and energy efficiency programs, referring to the combined initiatives as energy waste reduction programs
established an integrated planning process for new capacity and energy resources
Consumers’ Clean Energy Plan details its strategy to meet customers’ long-term energy needs. The Clean Energy Plan was originally outlined in Consumers’ 2018 IRP, which was approved by the MPSC in 2019. Under its Clean Energy Plan, Consumers will meet the requirements of the 2016 Energy Law using its clean and lean strategy, which focuses on increasing the generation of renewable energy, helping customers use less energy, and offering demand response programs to reduce demand during critical peak times.
In June 2021, Consumers filed its 2021 IRP with the MPSC, proposing updates to the Clean Energy Plan. In April 2022, Consumers and a broad coalition of key stakeholders, including customer groups, environmental organizations, the MPSC Staff, energy industry representatives, and the Michigan Attorney General, filed a settlement agreement with the MPSC resolving Consumers’ 2021 IRP. The settlement agreement is pending approval by the MPSC.
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The settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP outlines Consumers’ long-term strategy for delivering clean, reliable, resilient, and affordable energy to its customers, including plans to:
end the use of coal-fueled generation in 2025, 15 years sooner than initially planned
purchase an existing natural gas-fueled generating unit, providing an additional 1,176 MW of nameplate capacity and allowing Consumers to continue providing controllable sources of electricity to customers
solicit approximately 700 MW of capacity from sources in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula beginning in 2025
expand its investment in renewable energy, adding nearly 8,000 MW of solar generation by 2040
Under the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, Consumers would continue to earn a return equal to its weighted-average cost of capital on payments made under new competitively bid PPAs approved by the MPSC.
The 2021 IRP, as settled, would allow Consumers to exceed its breakthrough goal of at least 50 percent combined renewable energy and energy waste reduction by 2030.
Presented in the following illustration is Consumers’ 2021 capacity portfolio and its future capacity portfolio under the proposed 2021 IRP settlement. This illustration includes the effects of purchased capacity and energy waste reduction and uses the nameplate capacity for all energy sources:
cms-20220331_g2.jpg
1    Does not include RECs.
2    These amounts and fuel sources will vary and are dependent on a one-time competitive solicitation to acquire approximately 700 MW of capacity from sources in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula beginning in 2025.
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In addition to its plan to eliminate its use of coal-fueled generation by 2025, Consumers has set the net-zero emissions goals discussed below.
Net-zero methane emissions from natural gas delivery system by 2030: Under its Methane Reduction Plan, Consumers plans to reduce methane emissions from its system by about 80 percent by accelerating the replacement of aging pipe, rehabilitating or retiring outdated infrastructure, and adopting new technologies and practices. The remaining emissions will likely be offset by purchasing and/or producing renewable natural gas.
Net-zero carbon emissions from electric business by 2040: This goal includes not only emissions from Consumers’ owned generation, but also emissions from the generation of power purchased through long-term PPAs and from the MISO energy market. Consumers expects to meet 90 percent of its customers’ needs with clean energy sources by 2040 through execution of its Clean Energy Plan. Carbon offset measures including, but not limited to, carbon sequestration, methane emission capture, forest preservation, and reforestation may be used to close the gap to achieving net-zero carbon emissions.
Net-zero greenhouse gas emissions target for entire natural gas system by 2050: This goal, announced in March 2022, includes suppliers and customers, and has an interim goal of reducing customer emissions by 20 percent by 2030. Consumers expects to meet this goal through carbon offset measures, renewable natural gas, energy efficiency and demand response programs, and adopting emerging technologies.
Additionally, to advance its environmental stewardship in Michigan and to minimize the impact of future regulations, Consumers announced the following five‑year targets during 2018:
to reduce its water use by one billion gallons; since 2017, Consumers reduced its water usage by over 1.3 billion gallons cumulatively
to enhance, restore, or protect 5,000 acres of land; since 2017, Consumers enhanced, restored, or protected over 6,000 acres of land cumulatively
to reduce the amount of waste taken to landfills by 35 percent; compared to 2017, Consumers reduced its landfill waste by 44 percent in 2021
Consumers exceeded each of these targets and is evaluating new targets for the coming years.
CMS Energy and Consumers are monitoring numerous legislative, policy, and regulatory initiatives, including those to regulate greenhouse gases, and related litigation. While CMS Energy and Consumers cannot predict the outcome of these matters, which could affect them materially, they intend to continue to move forward with their clean and lean strategy.
Profit: The profit element of the triple bottom line represents CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ commitment to meeting their financial objectives and providing economic development opportunities and benefits in the communities in which they do business. CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ financial strength allows them to maintain solid investment-grade credit ratings and thereby reduce funding costs for the benefit of customers and investors, to preserve and create jobs, and to reinvest in the communities they serve.
For the three months ended March 31, 2022, CMS Energy’s net income available to common stockholders was $351 million, and diluted EPS were $1.21. This compares with net income available to common stockholders of $349 million and diluted EPS of $1.21 for the three months ended March 31, 2021. In 2022, higher electric and gas sales due primarily to favorable weather were offset partially by increased distribution, transmission, generation, and compression expenses and increased depreciation and property taxes, reflecting higher capital spending. A more detailed discussion of the
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factors affecting CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ performance can be found in the Results of Operations section that follows this Executive Overview.
Over the next five years, Consumers expects weather-normalized electric and gas deliveries to remain stable relative to 2021. This outlook reflects the effects of energy waste reduction programs offset largely by modest growth in electric and gas demand.
Performance: Impacting the Triple Bottom Line
CMS Energy and Consumers remain committed to achieving world class performance while delivering hometown service and positively impacting the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profit. During 2021, CMS Energy and Consumers:
realized approximately $55 million in cost reductions by leveraging the CE Way and through other initiatives
introduced a new economic development rate designed to attract new business to Michigan and encourage existing businesses to expand their operations
achieved five-year planet goals, set in 2018, to save one billion gallons of water; enhance, restore or protect 5,000 acres of land in Michigan; and reduce waste sent to landfills by 35 percent
introduced a new three-year electric vehicle pilot program designed to help fleet owners transition to electric vehicles
announced plans to begin development of a renewable natural gas facility that will convert agricultural waste into clean, renewable natural gas
expanded their renewable energy programs that assist both business and residential customers in meeting their sustainability goals
received recognition as #1 utility company in the U.S. for America’s Best Employers for Women and America’s Best Employers for Diversity by Forbes®
CMS Energy and Consumers will continue to utilize the CE Way to enable them to achieve world class performance and positively impact the triple bottom line. Consumers’ investment plan and the regulatory environment in which it operates also drive its ability to impact the triple bottom line.
Investment Plan: Consumers expects to make capital investments of $25 billion over the next ten years. Over the next five years, Consumers expects to make significant expenditures on infrastructure upgrades and replacements and electric supply projects. While it has a large number of potential investment opportunities that would add customer value, Consumers has prioritized its spending based on the criteria of enhancing public safety, increasing reliability, maintaining affordability for its customers, and advancing its environmental stewardship. Consumers’ investment program is expected to result in annual rate-base growth of six to eight percent. This rate-base growth, together with cost-control measures, should allow Consumers to maintain affordable customer prices.
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The settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, which is subject to MPSC approval, would add nearly $1 billion of capital expenditures to the $14.3 billion that Consumers already expects to make from 2022 through 2026, which are presented in the following illustration:
cms-20220331_g3.jpg
Of this amount, Consumers plans to spend $10.8 billion over the next five years to maintain and upgrade its gas infrastructure and electric distribution systems in order to enhance safety and reliability, improve customer satisfaction, reduce energy waste on those systems, and facilitate its clean energy transformation. The gas infrastructure projects comprise $6.4 billion to sustain deliverability, enhance pipeline integrity and safety, and reduce methane emissions. The electric distribution projects comprise $4.4 billion to strengthen circuits and substations, replace poles, and interconnect clean energy resources. Consumers also expects to spend $2.8 billion on new clean generation, which includes investments in wind, solar, and hydro electric generation resources, and $0.7 billion on other electric supply projects.
Regulation: Regulatory matters are a key aspect of Consumers’ business, particularly rate cases and regulatory proceedings before the MPSC, which permit recovery of new investments while helping to ensure that customer rates are fair and affordable. Important regulatory events and developments not already discussed are summarized below.
2022 Electric Rate Case: In April 2022, Consumers filed an application with the MPSC seeking a rate increase of $272 million, made up of two components. First, Consumers requested a $266 million annual rate increase, based on a 10.25 percent authorized return on equity for the projected twelve-month period ending December 31, 2023. The filing requested authority to recover future investments associated with distribution system reliability, solar generation, environmental compliance, and enhanced technology. Second, Consumers requested approval of a surcharge for the recovery of $6 million of distribution investments made in 2021 that exceeded what was authorized in rates in accordance with the December 2020 electric rate order.
2021 Gas Rate Case: In December 2021, Consumers filed an application with the MPSC seeking an annual rate increase of $278 million, based on a 10.5 percent authorized return on equity and a projected
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twelve-month period ending September 30, 2023. The filing requests authority to recover new infrastructure investment and related costs that are expected to allow Consumers to improve system safety and reliability and reduce fugitive methane emissions. In April 2022, Consumers reduced its requested annual rate increase to $233 million, based on a 10.25 percent authorized return on equity.
Looking Forward
CMS Energy and Consumers will continue to consider the impact on the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profit in their daily operations as well as in their long-term strategic decisions. Consumers will continue to seek fair and timely regulatory treatment that will support its customer-driven investment plan, while pursuing cost-control measures that will allow it to maintain sustainable customer base rates. The CE Way is an important means of realizing CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ purpose of achieving world class performance while delivering hometown service.
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Results of Operations
CMS Energy Consolidated Results of Operations
In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts
Three Months Ended March 3120222021Change
Net Income Available to Common Stockholders$351 $349 $
Basic Earnings Per Average Common Share$1.21 $1.21 $— 
Diluted Earnings Per Average Common Share$1.21 $1.21 $— 
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 3120222021Change
Electric utility$167 $155 $12 
Gas utility216 181 35 
Enterprises14 (6)
Corporate interest and other(44)(35)(9)
Discontinued operations34 (30)
Net Income Available to Common Stockholders$351 $349 $
Presented in the following table is a summary of after-tax changes to net income available to common stockholders for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$349 
Reasons for the change
Consumers electric utility and gas utility
Electric sales$16 
Gas sales39 
Electric rate increase
Lower income tax expense17 
Lower non-operating retirement benefits expenses
Higher distribution, transmission, generation, and compression expenses(13)
Higher property taxes, reflecting higher capital spending(6)
Higher depreciation and amortization(5)
Higher forestry costs(4)
Other(6)
$47 
Enterprises(6)
Corporate interest and other(9)
Discontinued operations(30)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$351 
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Consumers Electric Utility Results of Operations
Presented in the following table are the detailed changes to the electric utility’s net income available to common stockholders for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021 (amounts are presented pre-tax, with the exception of income tax changes):
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$155 
Reasons for the change
Electric deliveries1 and rate increases
Higher revenue due primarily to favorable weather and sales mix$22 
Rate increase, including return on higher renewable capital spending
Lower energy waste reduction program revenues(5)
Lower other revenues(1)
$21 
Maintenance and other operating expenses
Lower energy waste reduction program costs
Higher distribution, transmission, and generation expenses(8)
Higher forestry costs(5)
Higher maintenance and other operating expenses(4)
(12)
Depreciation and amortization
Increased plant in service, reflecting higher capital spending, net of impact from depreciation rate case settlement
General taxes
Higher property taxes, reflecting higher capital spending(3)
Other income, net of expenses
Lower non-operating retirement benefits expenses and other
Interest charges
Income taxes
Higher electric utility pre-tax earnings
(3)
Lower other income taxes
(1)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$167 
1Deliveries to end-use customers were 9.2 billion kWh in 2022 and 8.7 billion kWh in 2021.
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Consumers Gas Utility Results of Operations
Presented in the following table are the detailed changes to the gas utility’s net income available to common stockholders for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021 (amounts are presented pre-tax, with the exception of income tax changes):
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$181 
Reasons for the change
Gas deliveries1 and rate increases
Higher revenue due primarily to favorable weather and sales mix$54 
Lower other revenues(3)
$51 
Maintenance and other operating expenses
Higher distribution, transmission, and compression expenses(9)
Higher maintenance and other operating expenses(1)
(10)
Depreciation and amortization
Increased plant in service, reflecting higher capital spending(9)
General taxes
Higher property taxes, reflecting higher capital spending(7)
Other income, net of expenses
Lower non-operating retirement benefits expenses and other
Interest charges(1)
Income taxes
Lower income tax expense due primarily to accelerated amortization of excess deferred income taxes2
Lower income tax expense due primarily to acceleration of tax benefits associated with cost of removal2
Higher gas utility pre-tax earnings(7)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$216 
1Deliveries to end-use customers were 140 bcf in 2022 and 124 bcf in 2021.
2See Note 7, Income Taxes.
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Enterprises Results of Operations
Presented in the following table are the detailed after-tax changes to the enterprises segment’s net income available to common stockholders for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$14 
Reason for the change
Lower earnings at DIG and equity method investees
$(6)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$
Corporate Interest and Other Results of Operations
Presented in the following table are the detailed after-tax changes to corporate interest and other results for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$(35)
Reasons for the change
Consolidated tax adjustment
$(7)
Preferred stock dividends(2)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$(44)
Results of Discontinued Operations
On October 1, 2021, EnerBank was acquired by Regions Bank. As a result, EnerBank’s results of operations through the date of the sale are presented as income from discontinued operations on CMS Energy’s consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2021. For additional details see, Note 13, Exit Activities and Discontinued Operations.
Presented in the following table are the detailed after-tax changes to discontinued operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$34 
Reason for the change
Additional EnerBank sale proceeds, net of tax and transaction costs$
Absence of 2021 earnings from discontinued operations(34)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$
25

Cash Position, Investing, and Financing
At March 31, 2022, CMS Energy had $474 million of consolidated cash and cash equivalents, which included $28 million of restricted cash and cash equivalents. At March 31, 2022, Consumers had $38 million of consolidated cash and cash equivalents, which included $26 million of restricted cash and cash equivalents.
Operating Activities
Presented in the following table are specific components of net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
CMS Energy, including Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$832 
Reasons for the change
Higher net income$
Non‑cash transactions1
(17)
Gain from post-closing adjustment to 2021 sale of EnerBank2
(5)
Unfavorable impact of changes in core working capital,3 due primarily to the timing of collections on higher gas and electric deliveries in 2022
(125)
Favorable impact of changes in other assets and liabilities, due primarily to an insurance recovery19 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$707 
Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$841 
Reasons for the change
Higher net income$47 
Non‑cash transactions1
(8)
Unfavorable impact of changes in core working capital,3 due primarily to the timing of collections on higher gas and electric deliveries in 2022
(144)
Favorable impact of changes in other assets and liabilities, due primarily to an insurance recovery
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$745 
1Noncash transactions comprise depreciation and amortization, changes in deferred income taxes and investment tax credits, and other non‑cash operating activities and reconciling adjustments.
2For information regarding the sale of EnerBank, see Note 13, Exit Activities and Discontinued Operations.
3Core working capital comprises accounts receivable, accrued revenue, inventories, accounts payable, and accrued rate refunds.
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Investing Activities
Presented in the following table are specific components of net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
CMS Energy, including Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$(283)
Reasons for the change
Higher capital expenditures$(84)
Additional proceeds from post-closing adjustment related to 2021 sale of EnerBank1
Absence of cash provided by discontinued operations in 20211
(178)
Other investing activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$(539)
Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$(458)
Reasons for the change
Higher capital expenditures$(73)
Other investing activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$(529)
1For information regarding the sale of EnerBank, see Note 13, Exit Activities and Discontinued Operations.
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Financing Activities
Presented in the following table are specific components of net cash used in financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 versus 2021:
In Millions
CMS Energy, including Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$(210)
Reasons for the change
Higher debt retirements$(1)
Lower issuances of common stock(5)
Higher payments of dividends on common and preferred stock(10)
Absence of cash used in discontinued operations in 20211
73 
Other financing activities, primarily the payment of a long-term contract liability(17)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$(170)
Consumers
Three Months Ended March 31, 2021$(384)
Reasons for the change
Higher repayments of borrowings from CMS Energy$(142)
Higher stockholder contribution from CMS Energy300 
Lower payments of dividends on common stock
Other financing activities
Three Months Ended March 31, 2022$(222)
1For information regarding the sale of EnerBank, see Note 13, Exit Activities and Discontinued Operations.
Capital Resources and Liquidity
CMS Energy and Consumers expect to have sufficient liquidity to fund their present and future commitments. CMS Energy uses dividends and tax-sharing payments from its subsidiaries and external financing and capital transactions to invest in its utility and nonutility businesses, retire debt, pay dividends, and fund its other obligations. The ability of CMS Energy’s subsidiaries, including Consumers, to pay dividends to CMS Energy depends upon each subsidiary’s revenues, earnings, cash needs, and other factors. In addition, Consumers’ ability to pay dividends is restricted by certain terms included in its articles of incorporation and potentially by FERC requirements and provisions under the Federal Power Act and the Natural Gas Act. For additional details on Consumers’ dividend restrictions, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 3, Financings and Capitalization—Dividend Restrictions. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, Consumers paid $275 million in dividends on its common stock to CMS Energy.
Consumers uses cash flows generated from operations and external financing transactions, as well as stockholder contributions from CMS Energy, to fund capital expenditures, retire debt, pay dividends, and fund its other obligations. Consumers also uses these sources of funding to contribute to its employee benefit plans.
Financing and Capital Resources: CMS Energy and Consumers rely on the capital markets to fund their robust capital plan. Barring any sustained market dislocations or disruptions, CMS Energy and Consumers expect to continue to have ready access to the financial and capital markets and will continue
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to explore possibilities to take advantage of market opportunities as they arise with respect to future funding needs. If access to these markets were to diminish or otherwise become restricted, CMS Energy and Consumers would implement contingency plans to address debt maturities, which could include reduced capital spending.
In 2020, CMS Energy entered into an equity offering program under which it may sell shares of its common stock having an aggregate sales price of up to $500 million in privately negotiated transactions, in “at the market” offerings, through forward sales transactions, or otherwise.
CMS Energy has entered into forward sales transactions under this program, which allow CMS Energy to either physically settle the contracts by issuing shares of its common stock at the then-applicable forward sale price specified by the agreement or net settle the contracts through the delivery or receipt of cash or shares. CMS Energy may settle the contracts at any time through their maturity dates, and presently intends to physically settle the contracts by delivering shares of its common stock. As of March 31, 2022, these contracts have an aggregate sales price of $56 million, maturing through June 2022. For more information on these forward sale contracts, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 3, Financings and Capitalization—Issuance of Common Stock.
At March 31, 2022, CMS Energy had $526 million of its revolving credit facility available and Consumers had $1.1 billion available under its revolving credit facilities. CMS Energy and Consumers use these credit facilities for general working capital purposes and to issue letters of credit. An additional source of liquidity is Consumers’ commercial paper program, which allows Consumers to issue, in one or more placements, up to $500 million in the aggregate in commercial paper notes with maturities of up to 365 days at market interest rates. These issuances are supported by Consumers’ revolving credit facilities. While the amount of outstanding commercial paper does not reduce the available capacity of the revolving credit facilities, Consumers does not intend to issue commercial paper in an amount exceeding the available capacity of the facilities. At March 31, 2022, there were no commercial paper notes outstanding under this program. For additional details on CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ revolving credit facilities and commercial paper program, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 3, Financings and Capitalization.
Certain of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ credit agreements contain covenants that require CMS Energy and Consumers to maintain certain financial ratios, as defined therein. At March 31, 2022, no default had occurred with respect to any financial covenants contained in CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ credit agreements. CMS Energy and Consumers were each in compliance with these covenants as of March 31, 2022, as presented in the following table:
Limit Actual 
CMS Energy, parent only
Debt to Capital1
< 0.70 to 1.0
0.54 to 1.0
Consumers
Debt to Capital2
< 0.65 to 1.0
0.46 to 1.0
1Applies to CMS Energy’s revolving credit agreement and letter of credit reimbursement agreement.
2Applies to Consumers’ revolving credit agreements and letter of credit agreement.
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Outlook
Several business trends and uncertainties may affect CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ financial condition and results of operations. These trends and uncertainties could have a material impact on CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ consolidated income, cash flows, or financial position. For additional details regarding these and other uncertainties, see Forward-Looking Statements and Information; Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters and Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments; and Part II—Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Consumers Electric Utility Outlook and Uncertainties
Clean Energy Plan: Consumers’ Clean Energy Plan details its strategy to meet customers’ long-term energy needs and provides the foundation for its goal to achieve net-zero carbon emissions from its electric business by 2040. Under this net-zero goal, Consumers plans to eliminate the impact of carbon emissions created by the electricity it generates or purchases for customers. Additionally, through its Clean Energy Plan, Consumers continues to make progress on expanding its customer programs, namely its demand response, energy efficiency, and conservation voltage reduction programs, as well as increasing its renewable energy and pumped storage generation.
The Clean Energy Plan was originally outlined in Consumers’ 2018 IRP, which was approved by the MPSC in 2019. In June 2021, Consumers filed its 2021 IRP with the MPSC, proposing updates to the Clean Energy Plan. In April 2022, Consumers and a broad coalition of key stakeholders, including customer groups, environmental organizations, the MPSC Staff, energy industry representatives, and the Michigan Attorney General, filed a settlement agreement with the MPSC resolving Consumers’ 2021 IRP. The settlement agreement is pending approval by the MPSC.
Under the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, Consumers would eliminate the use of coal-fueled generation in 2025 and would expect to meet 90 percent of its customers’ needs with clean energy sources by 2040. Specifically, the settlement agreement includes:
the retirement of the D.E. Karn coal-fueled generating units, totaling 515 MW of nameplate capacity, in 2023
the retirement of the J.H. Campbell coal-fueled generating units, totaling 1,407 MW of nameplate capacity, in 2025
the retirement of the D.E. Karn oil and gas-fueled generating units, totaling 1,219 MW of nameplate capacity, in 2031, the units’ original retirement date
The MPSC has authorized Consumers to issue securitization bonds to finance the recovery of and return on the D.E. Karn coal-fueled generating units. Under the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, Consumers would receive regulatory asset treatment to recover the remaining book value of the J.H. Campbell coal-fueled generating units, as well as 9.0 percent return on equity.
The settlement agreement proposes that Consumers bridge the transition away from coal generation with:
the purchase of the New Covert Generating Facility, a natural gas-fueled generating unit with 1,176 MW of nameplate capacity in Van Buren County, Michigan, for $815 million, subject to certain adjustments, in 2023
a one-time competitive solicitation to acquire approximately 700 MW of capacity from sources in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula beginning in 2025; of this amount, 500 MW would be from dispatchable sources
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These actions are expected to allow Consumers to continue providing controllable sources of electricity to customers while expanding its investment in renewable energy. The 2021 IRP forecasts renewable energy capacity levels of 30 percent in 2025, 43 percent in 2030, and 61 percent in 2040, including the addition of nearly 8,000 MW of solar generation. Additionally, the settlement agreement would accelerate Consumers’ deployment of battery storage from 2030 to 2024, with 75 MW of energy storage by 2027 and 550 MW by 2040.
Under its 2021 IRP, Consumers would continue to bid new capacity competitively and would own and operate at least 50 percent of new capacity, with the remainder being built and owned by third parties. Under the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, Consumers would continue to earn a return equal to its weighted-average cost of capital on payments made under new competitively bid PPAs approved by the MPSC.
In support of its Clean Energy Plan, Consumers issued requests for proposals in 2019 and 2020, each to acquire up to 300 MW of new capacity from projects to be operational in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula by May 2023. Specifically, Consumers solicited offers to enter into PPAs with or purchase solar generation projects ranging in size from 20 MW to 150 MW and to enter into PPAs with PURPA qualifying facilities up to 20 MW.
In addition, Consumers issued a request for proposals in September 2021 to acquire up to 500 MW of new capacity from projects to be operational in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula by December 2024. Specifically, Consumers solicited offers to enter into PPAs with or purchase solar generation projects up to 300 MW in size and to enter into PPAs with PURPA qualifying facilities up to five MW in size. Consumers expects to acquire at least 250 MW through long-term PPAs. Any contracts entered into as a result of the requests for proposals would be subject to MPSC approval.
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As a result of the requests for proposals, Consumers has entered into PPAs to purchase renewable capacity, energy, and RECs from solar generating facilities and build transfer agreements to purchase solar generating facilities, as presented in the following table:
Type of Agreement
Capacity (MW)
Location of Facility
Targeted Commercial Operation1
Date of AgreementDate of MPSC Approval
2019 request
PPA (25 years)140Calhoun County, Michigan2022
December 2020
April 2021
Build transfer agreement150Southeastern Michigan2024
January 2021
April 2021
2020 request
PPA (20 years)30Manistee, Michigan2022
May 2021
September 2021
PPA (25 years)2
100Calhoun County, Michigan2023October 2021November 2021
PPA (20 years)2
125Jackson County, Michigan2023October 2021November 2021
Build transfer agreement150Southeastern Michigan2024October 2021November 2021
2021 request
PPA (25 years)3
150Genesee and Saginaw County, Michigan2024March 2022Pending
PPA (25 years)3
150Hillsdale County, Michigan2024March 2022Pending
1    For build transfer agreements, represents the date Consumers expects to take full ownership and begin commercial operation.
2    This agreement provides Consumers the option to purchase the associated solar generating facility after ten years.
3    This agreement provides Consumers a right of first refusal option to purchase the associated solar generating facility.
In March 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced it is opening inquiries into whether manufacturers of solar modules that are produced in certain countries using supplies obtained from China are circumventing antidumping and countervailing duties which apply to Chinese modules. The U.S. Department of Commerce’s inquiry process is expected to last until at least the second half of 2022 or early 2023. Consumers anticipates that the supply of solar modules into the U.S. from affected countries will be substantially restricted until a final decision is reached and any additional tariffs or duties that may apply are known. Consumers is closely monitoring this situation and its impacts on pending and planned solar projects.
Renewable Energy Plan: The 2016 Energy Law raised the renewable energy standard to 15 percent in 2021. Consumers is required to submit RECs, which represent proof that the associated electricity was generated from a renewable energy resource, in an amount equal to at least the required percentage of Consumers’ electric sales volume each year. Under its renewable energy plan, Consumers met the 15-
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percent requirement in 2021 and expects to meet the requirement in future years with a combination of newly generated RECs and previously generated RECs carried over from prior years.
Under Consumers’ renewable energy plan, the MPSC has approved the acquisition of up to 525 MW of new wind generation projects and authorized Consumers to earn a 10.7 percent return on equity on any projects approved by the MPSC. Specifically, the MPSC has approved the following:
purchase and construction of a 150-MW wind generation project in Gratiot County, Michigan; the project became operational in 2020
purchase of a 166-MW wind generation project in Hillsdale, Michigan; the project became operational and Consumers took full ownership in February 2021
purchase of a wind generation project under development, with capacity of up to 201 MW, in Gratiot County, Michigan; Consumers expects to take full ownership and begin commercial operation of the project before 2024
The MPSC also approved the execution of a 20-year PPA under which Consumers will purchase 100 MW of renewable capacity, energy, and RECs from a 149-MW solar generating facility to be constructed in Calhoun County, Michigan; the facility is targeted to be operational in 2022.
Voluntary Large Customer Renewable Energy Program: Consumers provides service under a program that provides large full-service electric customers with the opportunity to advance the development of renewable energy beyond the requirements of the 2016 Energy Law. In September 2021, the MPSC approved Consumers’ request to amend its renewable energy plan to remove the annual subscription limit associated with this program. The MPSC also approved up to 1,000 MW of new wind and solar generation projects between 2024 and 2027 to meet customer demand for the program. Consumers will competitively solicit for additional renewable energy assets based on customer applications and will construct the assets based on customer subscriptions to the program. Consumers issued the first request for proposals in March 2022.
Electric Customer Deliveries and Revenue: Consumers’ electric customer deliveries are seasonal and largely dependent on Michigan’s economy. The consumption of electric energy typically increases in the summer months, due primarily to the use of air conditioners and other cooling equipment. In addition, Consumers’ electric rates, which follow a seasonal rate design, are higher in the summer months than in the remaining months of the year. In June 2021, electric residential customers transitioned to a summer peak time-of-use rate that allows them to take advantage of lower-cost energy during off-peak times during the summer months. Thus, customers can reduce their electric bills by shifting their consumption from on‑peak to off‑peak times.
Over the next five years, Consumers expects weather-normalized electric deliveries to remain stable relative to 2021. This outlook reflects the effects of energy waste reduction programs offset largely by modest growth in electric demand. Actual delivery levels will depend on:
energy conservation measures and results of energy waste reduction programs
weather fluctuations
Michigan’s economic conditions, including utilization, expansion, or contraction of manufacturing facilities, population trends, and housing activity
Electric ROA: Michigan law allows electric customers in Consumers’ service territory to buy electric generation service from alternative electric suppliers in an aggregate amount capped at ten percent of Consumers’ sales, with certain exceptions. At March 31, 2022, electric deliveries under the ROA program were at the ten‑percent limit. Of Consumers’ 1.9 million electric customers, fewer than 300, or 0.02 percent, purchased electric generation service under the ROA program.
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The 2016 Energy Law established a path to ensure that forward capacity is secured for all electric customers in Michigan, including customers served by alternative electric suppliers under ROA. The law also authorized the MPSC to ensure that alternative electric suppliers have procured enough capacity to cover their anticipated capacity requirements for the four-year forward period. In 2017, the MPSC issued an order establishing a state reliability mechanism for Consumers. Under this mechanism, if an alternative electric supplier does not demonstrate that it has procured its capacity requirements for the four-year forward period, its customers will pay a set charge to the utility for capacity that is not provided by the alternative electric supplier. All alternative electric suppliers have demonstrated that they have procured their capacity requirements through the MISO planning year beginning June 1, 2024.
During 2017, the MPSC issued orders finding that it has statutory authority to determine and implement a local clearing requirement, which requires all electric suppliers to demonstrate that a portion of the capacity procured to serve customers during peak demand times is located in the MISO footprint in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. In 2020, the Michigan Supreme Court affirmed the MPSC’s statutory authority to implement a local clearing requirement on individual electric providers.
In 2020, ABATE and another intervenor filed a complaint against the MPSC in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan challenging the constitutionality of a local clearing requirement. The complaint requests the federal court to issue a permanent injunction prohibiting the MPSC from implementing a local clearing requirement on individual electric providers. Consumers filed a motion to intervene and defend the local clearing requirement in that federal litigation; this motion was granted in January 2021 and a non-jury trial is scheduled for August 2022.
Electric Rate Matters: Rate matters are critical to Consumers’ electric utility business. For additional details on rate matters, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters and Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments.
2022 Electric Rate Case: In April 2022, Consumers filed an application with the MPSC seeking a rate increase of $272 million, made up of two components. First, Consumers requested a $266 million annual rate increase, based on a 10.25 percent authorized return on equity for the projected twelve-month period ending December 31, 2023. The filing requested authority to recover future investments associated with distribution system reliability, solar generation, environmental compliance, and enhanced technology. Second, Consumers requested approval of a surcharge for the recovery of $6 million of distribution investments made in 2021 that exceeded what was authorized in rates in accordance with the December 2020 electric rate order. In its application, Consumers provided extensive cost/benefit analysis and other information to support the prudence of certain categories of capital expenditures, as requested by the MPSC in its final order in Consumers’ 2021 electric rate case. For additional details on the 2021 electric rate case, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters.
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Presented in the following table are the components of the requested increase in revenue:
In Millions
Projected Twelve-Month Period Ending December 312023
Components of the requested rate increase
Investment in rate base$120 
Operating and maintenance costs55 
Cost of capital42 
Sales and other revenue49 
Subtotal$266 
Surcharge
Total$272 
Ludington Plant Overhaul Contract Dispute: Consumers and DTE Electric, co-owners of Ludington, are parties to a 2010 engineering, procurement, and construction contract with TAES, under which TAES is charged with performing a major overhaul and upgrade of Ludington. TAES’ performance has been unsatisfactory and resulted in overhaul project delays. Consumers and DTE Electric have demanded that TAES provide a comprehensive plan to resolve quality control concerns, including adherence to its warranty commitments and other contractual obligations. Consumers and DTE Electric have taken extensive efforts to resolve these issues with TAES, including a formal demand to TAES’ parent, Toshiba Corporation, under a parent guaranty it provided in the contract. TAES has not provided a comprehensive plan or otherwise met its performance obligations. In order to enforce the contract, Consumers and DTE Electric filed a complaint against TAES and Toshiba Corporation in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan in April 2022. Consumers cannot predict the financial impact or outcome of this matter. An unfavorable outcome could have a material adverse effect on CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Retention Incentive Program: In 2019, Consumers announced a retention incentive program to ensure necessary staffing at the D.E. Karn generating complex through the anticipated retirement of the coal-fueled generating units. Based on the number of employees that have chosen to participate, the aggregate cost of the program through 2023 is estimated to be $35 million. In its order in Consumers’ 2020 electric rate case, the MPSC approved deferred accounting treatment for these costs. Consumers expects to recognize $5 million of retention benefit costs in 2022; this expense will be deferred as a regulatory asset. For additional details on this program, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 13, Exit Activities and Discontinued Operations.
Under the settlement agreement resolving the 2021 IRP, Consumers would retire the J.H. Campbell coal-fueled generating units in 2025. Similar to the D.E. Karn program, Consumers would provide a retention incentive program to ensure necessary staffing at the J.H. Campbell generating complex through retirement. No retention incentive costs related to this program will be recognized unless the MPSC approves the settlement agreement, which provides deferred accounting treatment for these costs.
Electric Environmental Outlook: Consumers’ operations are subject to various state and federal environmental laws and regulations. Consumers estimates that it will incur capital expenditures of $255 million from 2022 through 2026 to continue to comply with RCRA, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and numerous state and federal environmental regulations. Consumers expects to recover these costs in customer rates, but cannot guarantee this result. Consumers’ primary environmental compliance focus includes, but is not limited to, the following matters.
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Air Quality: Multiple air quality regulations apply, or may apply, to Consumers.
In 2012, the EPA published emission standards for electric generating units, known as MATS, based on Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. Under MATS, all of Consumers’ existing coal-fueled electric generating units were required to add additional controls for hazardous air pollutants. Consumers met the deadline for five coal-fueled units and two oil/gas-fueled units it continues to operate and retired its seven remaining coal-fueled units. In 2020, the EPA finalized changes to the supporting analysis used to enact the MATS rule. However, in January 2022, the EPA announced a proposed rule to revoke this 2020 finding and reaffirm that it is appropriate and necessary to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal- and oil-fueled power plants. The EPA is also considering whether more stringent protections for hazardous air pollution from power plants are feasible and warranted. Consumers will continue to monitor the MATS rule status and any pending litigation. Consumers does not expect any changes to the MATS rule will have a significant impact on its current MATS compliance strategy.
CSAPR, which initially became effective in 2015, requires Michigan and many other states to improve air quality by reducing power plant emissions that, according to EPA modeling, contribute to ground-level ozone and fine particle pollution in other downwind states. In 2016, the EPA finalized ozone season standards for CSAPR, which became effective in 2017. In 2020, in response to a court-ordered remand due to litigation, the EPA proposed a revised CSAPR rule to reflect updated emission reductions from electric generating units in 12 states, including Michigan. The EPA finalized this revised rule in March 2021, with continued emission reductions through 2024. Consumers has evaluated its emission compliance strategy for existing units based on the proposed number of allowances allocated to Michigan for 2021 through 2024 and believes the impact of this rule should be minimal. In March 2022, the EPA proposed another revision to CSAPR with emission allowance allocations beginning in 2025. Consumers is evaluating this proposed rule and any potential impact on its generating units.
In 2015, the EPA lowered the NAAQS for ozone. The 2015 ozone NAAQS made it more difficult to construct or modify power plants and other emission sources in areas of the country that have not met the 2015 ozone standard. In 2018, the EPA designated certain areas of Michigan as not meeting the ozone standard. Specifically, seven counties in southeastern Michigan and three counties in western Michigan were not in attainment with the ozone standard by an August 2021 regulatory deadline, and thus will have their nonattainment designations increased from marginal to moderate. None of Consumers’ fossil-fuel-fired generating units are located in these areas. The State of Michigan has convened industry workgroups to seek implementation and control strategy ideas for statewide compliance of the 2015 ozone standard, which will need to be in place by early 2023. In January 2022, EGLE submitted a request to the EPA for redesignation of the seven counties in southeastern Michigan to be in attainment with the 2015 ozone standard based on the most recent data. The EPA has proposed rulemaking to approve the redesignation request for southeastern Michigan and is expected to finalize the decision following a public comment period, which closed in April 2022. Consumers will continue to stay engaged with EGLE and the workgroups to assess potential impacts to its generating assets.
In 2020, the EPA decided to retain the 2015 NAAQS for ozone without revision. In October 2021, the EPA provided notice that it was going to reconsider the 2020 ozone NAAQS decision. The EPA believes it will complete this reconsideration by December 2023. This action may ultimately result in more ozone nonattainment areas in Michigan. Consumers will evaluate the impacts of the proposed NAAQS for ozone on its operations when the EPA releases its proposal.
In February 2022, the EPA proposed a federal implementation plan to address the “good neighbor” obligations of the Clean Air Act to reduce interstate transport issues that contribute to downwind states attaining or maintaining compliance with the 2015 NAAQS for ozone. The EPA has included 26 states within the federal implementation plan, including Michigan. The EPA is proposing a combination of compliance approaches by reducing allowance budgets under the CSAPR program as well as potentially
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addressing non-electric generating unit emission sources. The prior CSAPR regulations have primarily focused on electric generating units, but this latest proposal also includes other emission sources. Consumers is currently evaluating the proposal and will evaluate the applicability and potential impacts to its electric operations.
In June 2021, the EPA announced that it would reconsider its previous decision to retain the current standard of NAAQS for particulate matter. In December 2021, the EPA indicated that the new NAAQS for particulate matter would be proposed in the summer of 2022. The new standard is expected to be significantly lower. Consumers will evaluate the impact of the proposed NAAQS for particulate matter on its operations when the EPA releases its proposal.
Consumers’ strategy to comply with air quality regulations, including CSAPR, MATS, and NAAQS, as well as its legal obligations, involved the installation and operation of emission control equipment at some facilities and the suspension of operations at others; however, Consumers continues to evaluate these rules in conjunction with other EPA and EGLE rulemakings, litigation, executive orders, treaties, and congressional action. This evaluation could result in:
a change in Consumers’ fuel mix
changes in the types of generating units Consumers may purchase or build in the future
changes in how certain units are operated
the retirement, mothballing, or repowering with an alternative fuel of some of Consumers’ generating units
changes in Consumers’ environmental compliance costs
Greenhouse Gases: There have been numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives at the state, regional, national, and international levels that involve the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. Consumers continues to monitor and comment on these initiatives and to follow litigation involving greenhouse gases.
In 2015, the EPA finalized new rules pursuant to Section 111(b) of the Clean Air Act to limit carbon dioxide emissions from new electric generating units, as well as modified or reconstructed electric generating units. New coal-fueled units would not be able to meet this limit without installing carbon dioxide control equipment using such methods as carbon capture and sequestration.
In 2019, the EPA finalized the Affordable Clean Energy rule, which required individual states to evaluate coal‑fueled power plants for heat‑rate improvements that could increase overall plant efficiency. In January 2021, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals vacated and remanded this rule to the EPA, which, in turn, appealed the rule to the U.S. Supreme Court. In October 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear an appeal of this case, and oral arguments were held in February 2022. A decision is expected by June 2022. Consumers cannot evaluate the potential impact of the rule until any appeals and EPA actions are resolved. It is anticipated that the EPA will propose a new regulation in 2022 addressing greenhouse gas emissions from existing fossil-fueled electric generating units, potentially under the Clean Air Act; however, Consumers cannot predict the form and extent of such potential regulation as it is likely to be impacted by the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision on the Affordable Clean Energy rule.
In 2015, a group of 195 countries, including the U.S., finalized the Paris Agreement, which addresses carbon dioxide reduction measures beginning in 2020. While the U.S. had withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, it rejoined the Paris Agreement in 2021. In April 2021, the U.S. announced it is committing to a nationally determined contribution under the Paris Agreement. Nationally determined contributions are the efforts by each country to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions. The commitment made by the U.S. is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 to 52 percent from 2005 levels by 2030. The settlement agreement resolving Consumers’ 2021 IRP, which is pending MPSC approval, proposes a 60-percent reduction in its carbon emissions from 2005 levels by 2025. At this time, Consumers does not
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expect any adverse changes to its environmental strategy as a result of these events, as the nationally determined contribution is not binding without new Congressional legislation.
In 2020, Michigan’s Governor signed an executive order creating the Michigan Healthy Climate Plan, which outlines goals for Michigan to achieve economy-wide net-zero greenhouse gas emissions and to be carbon neutral by 2050. The executive order aims for a 28-percent reduction below 2005 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. Consumers has already surpassed the 28-percent reduction milestone for its owned electric generation and previously announced a goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions from its electric business by 2040. The order directs EGLE to develop and oversee an action plan for achieving these goals. In addition, the Governor established the Council on Climate Solutions, an advisory group of key stakeholders to be appointed by the Governor that will assist EGLE in implementing the plan. These goals are aspirational in nature and any changes in law or regulation to achieve these goals would need to be approved by the Michigan Legislature or the relevant regulatory agency. The MPSC has requested comments from utilities and other stakeholders on how the Governor’s goal should be incorporated into future IRP filings, which Consumers has provided. Consumers does not expect any adverse changes to its environmental strategy as a result of these events.
While Consumers cannot predict the outcome of changes in U.S. policy or of other legislative or regulatory initiatives involving the potential regulation of greenhouse gases, it intends to continue to move forward with its Clean Energy Plan, its present net-zero carbon reduction goal, and its emphasis on reliable and resilient supply. Consumers will continue to monitor regulatory and legislative activity and related litigation regarding greenhouse gas emissions standards that may affect electric generating units.
Increased frequency of severe weather events, including those due to climate change, could materially impact Consumers’ facilities, energy sales, and results of operations. Consumers is unable to predict these events or their financial impact; however, Consumers evaluates the potential physical impacts of climate change on its operations, including increased temperature, increased storm activity, increased rainfall, and higher lake and river levels. Consumers released a report addressing the physical risks of climate change on its infrastructure in February 2022. Consumers is taking steps to mitigate these risks as appropriate.
Litigation, international treaties, executive orders, federal laws and regulations (including regulations by the EPA), and state laws and regulations, if enacted or ratified, could ultimately impact Consumers. Consumers may be required to replace equipment; install additional emission control equipment; purchase emission allowances or credits (including potential greenhouse gas offset credits); curtail operations; arrange for alternative sources of supply; purchase facilities that generate fewer emissions; mothball or retire facilities that generate certain emissions; pursue energy efficiency or demand response measures more swiftly; or take other steps to manage or lower the emission of greenhouse gases. Although associated capital or operating costs relating to greenhouse gas regulation or legislation could be material and cost recovery cannot be assured, Consumers expects to recover these costs in rates consistent with the recovery of other reasonable costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations.
CCRs: In 2015, the EPA published a rule regulating CCRs under RCRA. This 2015 rule adopts minimum standards for beneficially reusing and disposing of non‑hazardous CCRs. The rule establishes new minimum requirements for CCR unit location, design, structural stability, groundwater monitoring and correction action, flood protection, fugitive dust control, recordkeeping, and public disclosure of certain records, including any groundwater protection standard exceedances. The 2015 rule also sets out conditions under which some CCR units would be forced to cease receiving CCR and non‑CCR wastewater and initiate closure based on the inability to achieve minimum safety standards, meet a location standard, or meet minimum groundwater standards. Due to litigation, many aspects of the 2015 CCR rule have been remanded to the EPA, which has resulted in numerous proposed rules and three final rules. One of the final rules is in litigation. Anticipated litigation related to remanded aspects that
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have not been addressed will add uncertainty around requirements for compliance and state permit programs.
The EPA amended the conditions of forced closure in a rule published in 2020. The 2020 rule required all unlined CCR units to initiate closure by mid-April 2021, unless conditions that satisfied an alternate closure schedule were approved by the EPA. Consumers, with agreement from EGLE, completed the work necessary to initiate closure by excavating CCRs or placing a final cover over each of its relevant CCR units prior to the April 2021 closure initiation deadline.
Separate from the 2015 and 2020 rules, Congress passed legislation in 2016 allowing participating states to develop permitting programs for CCRs under RCRA Subtitle D. In 2018, the Michigan Legislature adopted standards for a permitting program, which requires the EPA’s authorization. This program should reduce costly, duplicative oversight over CCRs and provide local oversight to CCR issues unique to Michigan. In 2020, EGLE submitted a regulatory package for Michigan’s permit program to the EPA for its review, which is still pending. Federal rulemaking challenges may delay EPA approval of the Michigan permitting program.
Consumers has historically been authorized to recover in electric rates costs related to coal ash disposal sites.
Water: Multiple water-related regulations apply, or may apply, to Consumers.
The EPA regulates cooling water intake systems of existing electric generating plants under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act and the corresponding rules that were revised in 2014. The rules seek to reduce alleged harmful impacts on aquatic organisms, such as fish. In 2018, Consumers submitted to EGLE for approval all required studies and recommended plans to comply with Section 316(b), but has not yet received final approval.
In 2015, the EPA released its final effluent limitation guidelines for steam electric generating plants. These guidelines, which are presently being litigated, set stringent new requirements for the discharge from electric generating units into surface waters. The EPA published a final rule in October 2020, with an effective date of December 2020, revising the 2015 guidelines related to the discharge of certain wastewater streams from electric generating units. The rule also allows for extension of the compliance deadline from the end of 2023 to the end of 2025, upon approval by EGLE through the NPDES permitting process. Consumers received such an extension to 2025 for its Campbell generating facility in 2021. Consumers does not expect any adverse changes to its environmental strategy as a result of these revisions to the rule or any litigation of the guidelines.
The EPA recently stated its intent to issue a proposed rule in 2022 revising its effluent limitation guidelines for certain wastewater streams, including bottom ash transport water, combustion residual leachate, and legacy wastewater. Consumers cannot evaluate the impact the potential rule will have on its facilities until the proposed rule is released.
In 2020, the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers finalized a rule under the Clean Water Act that repealed a 2015 definition of “Waters of the United States,” narrowed the scope of federal jurisdiction, and reduced the frequency of dual jurisdiction in states with authority to regulate the same waters; Michigan is one such state. In November 2021, the EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed to revise the 2020 “Waters of the United States” definition to revert to the 2015 “Waters of the United States” definition, with changes reflecting the EPA’s interpretation of intervening U.S. Supreme Court decisions. The proposed November 2021 rulemaking may change how Consumers interacts with federal jurisdictional waters within Michigan, which may add additional requirements to existing compliance programs, or may require additional permitting for infrastructure projects. However, Consumers does not
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expect adverse changes to its environmental strategy as a result of the current interpretations. The “Waters of the United States” definition continues to be litigated in multiple jurisdictions.
Many of Consumers’ facilities maintain NPDES permits, which are renewed every five years and are vital to the facilities’ operations. Failure of EGLE to renew any NPDES permit, a successful appeal against a permit, a change in the interpretation or scope of NPDES permitting, or onerous terms contained in a permit could have a significant detrimental effect on the operations of a facility.
Protected Wildlife: Multiple regulations apply, or may apply, to Consumers relating to protected species and habitats.
Statutes like the Endangered Species Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act may impact operations at Consumers’ facilities. In May 2021, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to repeal a January 2021 rule related to incidental take of migratory birds. In November 2021, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking outlining its intent to regulate incidental take under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Permitting and monitoring fees and restrictions on operations associated with the rules could impact Consumers’ existing and future operations, including wind and solar generation facilities.
Additionally, Consumers is monitoring proposed changes to the listing status of several species within its operational area due to an increase in wildlife-related regulatory activity. A change in species listed under the Endangered Species Act may impact Consumers’ costs to mitigate its impact on protected species and habitats at certain existing facilities as well as siting choices for new facilities.
Other Matters: Other electric environmental matters could have a material impact on Consumers’ outlook. For additional details on other electric environmental matters, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments—Consumers Electric Utility Contingencies—Electric Environmental Matters.
Consumers Gas Utility Outlook and Uncertainties
Gas Deliveries: Consumers’ gas customer deliveries are seasonal. The peak demand for natural gas typically occurs in the winter due to colder temperatures and the resulting use of natural gas as heating fuel.
Over the next five years, Consumers expects weather-normalized gas deliveries to remain stable relative to 2021. This outlook reflects the effects of energy waste reduction programs offset largely by modest growth in gas demand. Actual delivery levels will depend on:
weather fluctuations
use by power producers
availability and development of renewable energy sources
gas price changes
Michigan’s economic conditions, including population trends and housing activity
the price or demand of competing energy sources or fuels
energy efficiency and conservation impacts
Gas Rate Matters: Rate matters are critical to Consumers’ gas utility business. For additional details on rate matters, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters and Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments.
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2021 Gas Rate Case: In December 2021, Consumers filed an application with the MPSC seeking an annual rate increase of $278 million, based on a 10.5 percent authorized return on equity and a projected twelve-month period ending September 30, 2023. The filing requests authority to recover new infrastructure investment and related costs that are expected to allow Consumers to improve system safety and reliability and reduce fugitive methane emissions. In April 2022, Consumers reduced its requested annual rate increase to $233 million, based on a 10.25 percent authorized return on equity.
Presented in the following table are the components of the revised requested increase in revenue:
In Millions
Projected Twelve-Month Period Ending September 302023
Components of the requested rate increase
Investment in rate base$237 
Operating and maintenance costs(22)
Cost of capital
Sales13 
Total$233 
The filing also seeks approval of a revenue decoupling mechanism that would annually reconcile Consumers’ actual weather-normalized non-fuel revenues with the revenues approved by the MPSC.
Depreciation Rate Case: In December 2021, Consumers filed a depreciation case related to its gas utility plant property. In this case, Consumers requested a decrease in depreciation expense of $1 million annually based on December 31, 2020 balances.
Gas Pipeline and Storage Integrity and Safety: The PHMSA has published various rules that expand federal safety standards for gas transmission pipelines and underground storage facilities. To comply with these rules, Consumers will incur increased capital and operating and maintenance costs to install and remediate pipelines and to expand inspections, maintenance, and monitoring of its existing pipelines and storage facilities. The initial requirements in the regulation took effect in 2020, with future regulation phases to be released over numerous years.
Although associated capital or operating and maintenance costs relating to these regulations could be material and cost recovery cannot be assured, Consumers expects to recover such costs in rates consistent with the recovery of other reasonable costs of complying with laws and regulations. Consumers will continue to monitor gas safety regulations and continue implementation of the American Petroleum Institute’s Recommended Practice 1173, Pipeline Safety Management Systems. This program minimizes gas system asset- and performance-related risks by ensuring that there are policies, procedures, work instructions, forms, and records in place to streamline adoption and deployment of any existing or future regulations.
Gas Environmental Outlook: Consumers expects to incur response activity costs at a number of sites, including 23 former MGP sites. For additional details, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments—Consumers Gas Utility Contingencies—Gas Environmental Matters.
Air Quality: In 2015, the EPA lowered the NAAQS for ozone. The 2015 ozone NAAQS made it more difficult to construct or modify power plants and other emission sources in areas of the country that have not met the 2015 ozone standard. In 2018, the EPA designated certain areas of Michigan as not meeting the ozone standard. Specifically, seven counties in southeastern Michigan and three counties in western Michigan were not in attainment with the ozone standard by an August 2021 regulatory deadline, and thus
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will have their nonattainment designations increased from marginal to moderate. Some of Consumers’ compressor stations are located in these areas. The State of Michigan has convened industry workgroups to seek implementation and control strategy ideas for statewide compliance of the 2015 ozone standard, which will need to be in place by early 2023. In January 2022, EGLE submitted a request to the EPA for redesignation of the seven counties in southeastern Michigan to be in attainment with the 2015 ozone standard based on the most recent data. The EPA has proposed rulemaking to approve the redesignation request for southeastern Michigan and is expected to finalize the decision following a public comment period, which closed in April 2022.
In 2020, the EPA decided to retain the 2015 NAAQS for ozone without revision. In October 2021, the EPA provided notice that it was going to reconsider the 2020 ozone NAAQS decision. The EPA believes it will complete this reconsideration by December 2023. Consumers will continue to stay engaged with EGLE and the workgroups to assess potential impacts to its compressor stations.
In February 2022, the EPA proposed a federal implementation plan to address the “good neighbor” obligations of the Clean Air Act to reduce interstate transport issues that contribute to downwind states attaining or maintaining compliance with the 2015 NAAQS for ozone. The EPA has included 26 states within the federal implementation plan, including Michigan. The EPA is proposing a combination of compliance approaches by reducing allowance budgets under the CSAPR program as well as potentially addressing non-electric generating unit emission sources. The prior CSAPR regulations have primarily focused on electric generating units, but this latest proposal also includes other emission sources, and may impact the large auxiliary boilers and natural gas-fired engines at compressor stations. Consumers is currently evaluating the proposal and will evaluate the applicability and potential impacts to its gas operations.
In June 2021, the EPA announced that it would reconsider its previous decision to retain the current standard of NAAQS for particulate matter. In December 2021, the EPA indicated that the new NAAQS for particulate matter would be proposed in the summer of 2022. The new standard is expected to be significantly lower. Consumers will evaluate the impact of the proposed NAAQS for particulate matter on its operations when the EPA releases its proposal.
Greenhouse Gases: Consumers is making voluntary efforts to reduce its gas utility’s methane emissions. In 2019, Consumers released its Methane Reduction Plan, which set a goal of net-zero methane emissions from its natural gas delivery system by 2030. Consumers plans to reduce methane emissions from its system by about 80 percent by accelerating the replacement of aging pipe, rehabilitating or retiring outdated infrastructure, and adopting new technologies and practices. The remaining emissions will likely be offset by purchasing and/or producing renewable natural gas.
In March 2022, Consumers also announced a net-zero greenhouse gas emissions target for its entire natural gas system by 2050. This includes suppliers and customers, and has an interim goal of reducing customer emissions by 20 percent by 2030.
In November 2021, the EPA released a proposed rule to regulate methane for the oil and gas sector. This proposed rule is not expected to have a material adverse impact on Consumers’ natural gas storage, compressor stations, and distribution systems, as it applies upstream of Consumers’ facilities.
In 2020, Michigan’s Governor signed an executive order creating the Michigan Healthy Climate Plan, which outlines goals for Michigan to achieve economy-wide net-zero greenhouse gas emissions and to be carbon neutral by 2050. The executive order aims for a 28-percent reduction below 2005 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. These new goals could impact Consumers’ gas business over the long term. Consumers is evaluating decarbonization options for its gas business including energy efficiency, renewable natural gas, carbon offsets, and other decarbonization methods. As one strategy, which was
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recently approved by the MPSC, Consumers proposed a program that would allow gas customers to purchase carbon offset credits on a voluntary basis. Similarly, in December 2021, Consumers announced plans to begin development of a renewable natural gas facility that will capture methane from manure generated at a neighboring farm and convert it into renewable natural gas. For additional details on the executive order, see Consumers Electric Utility Outlook and Uncertainties—Electric Environmental Outlook.
In 2015, a group of 195 countries, including the U.S., finalized the Paris Agreement, which addresses carbon dioxide reduction measures beginning in 2020. While the U.S. had withdrawn from the Paris Agreement, it rejoined the Paris Agreement in 2021. In April 2021, the U.S. announced it is committing to a nationally determined contribution under the Paris Agreement. Nationally determined contributions are the efforts by each country to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions. The commitment made by the U.S. is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 to 52 percent from 2005 levels by 2030. The settlement agreement resolving Consumers’ 2021 IRP, which is pending MPSC approval, proposes a 60-percent reduction in its carbon emissions from 2005 levels by 2025. At this time, Consumers does not expect any adverse changes to its environmental strategy as a result of these events, as the nationally determined contribution is not binding without new Congressional legislation.
There is increasing interest at the federal, state, and local levels involving potential regulation of greenhouse gases or its sources. Such regulation, if adopted, may involve requirements to reduce methane emissions from Consumers’ gas utility operations and carbon dioxide emissions from natural gas customer use. No such measures apply to Consumers at this time. Consumers continues to monitor these initiatives and comment as appropriate. Consumers cannot predict the impact of any potential future legislation or regulation on its gas utility.
Consumers Electric Utility and Gas Utility Outlook and Uncertainties
Energy Waste Reduction Plan: The 2016 Energy Law authorized incentives for demand response programs and energy efficiency programs, referring to the combined initiatives as energy waste reduction programs. The law also set a requirement to achieve annual reductions of 1.0 percent in customers’ electricity use through 2021 and 0.75 percent in customers’ natural gas use indefinitely and established a goal of 35 percent combined renewable energy and energy waste reduction by 2025. Consumers achieved 30 percent combined renewable energy and energy waste reduction through 2021.
Additionally, the MPSC has approved the recovery of demand response costs and an associated financial incentive based on demand response target performance.
Under its energy waste reduction plan, Consumers provides its customers with incentives to reduce usage by offering energy audits; rebates and discounts on purchases of highly efficient appliances; and other incentives and programs.
Enterprises Outlook and Uncertainties
CMS Energy’s primary focus with respect to its enterprises businesses is to maximize the value of generating assets, its share of which represents 1,483 MW of capacity, and to pursue opportunities for the development of renewable generation projects.
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In June 2021, DIG, CMS Generation Michigan Power, and CMS ERM entered into an agreement with Consumers to sell, for $515 million, subject to certain adjustments, the enterprises segment’s three natural gas-fueled generating units, totaling 1,001 MW of nameplate capacity:
the 770-MW DIG plant located in Dearborn, Michigan
a 156-MW peaking generating unit located in Gaylord, Michigan
a 75-MW peaking generating unit located in Comstock, Michigan
Consumers had proposed its purchase of these generating units as part of its 2021 IRP. In accordance with the terms of the pending settlement of the 2021 IRP, CMS Enterprises does not expect that this sale will occur.
The enterprises segment’s assets may be affected by environmental laws and regulations. The 2015 ozone NAAQS made it more difficult to construct or modify power plants and other emission sources in areas of the country that have not met the 2015 ozone standard. In 2018, the EPA designated certain areas of Michigan as not meeting the ozone standard. The DIG plant is in one such area and, as a result, would be subject to additional permitting restrictions in the event of any future modifications. For additional details regarding the new ozone NAAQS, see Consumers Electric Utility Outlook and Uncertainties—Electric Environmental Outlook.
Trends, uncertainties, and other matters related to the enterprises segment that could have a material impact on CMS Energy’s consolidated income, cash flows, or financial position include:
investment in and financial benefits received from renewable energy and energy storage projects
changes in energy and capacity prices
severe weather events and climate change associated with increasing levels of greenhouse gases
changes in commodity prices and interest rates on certain derivative contracts that do not qualify for hedge accounting and must be marked to market through earnings
changes in various environmental laws, regulations, principles, or practices, or in their interpretation
indemnity and environmental remediation obligations at Bay Harbor
indemnity obligations assumed in connection with the purchase or ownership of an interest in one or more facilities that involve tax equity financing
representations, warranties, and indemnities provided by CMS Energy in connection with previous sales of assets
In March 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced it is opening inquiries into whether manufacturers of solar modules that are produced in certain countries using supplies obtained from China are circumventing antidumping and countervailing duties which apply to Chinese modules. The U.S. Department of Commerce’s inquiry process is expected to last until at least the second half of 2022 or early 2023. CMS Energy anticipates that the supply of solar modules into the U.S. from affected countries will be substantially restricted until a final decision is reached and any additional tariffs or duties that may apply are known. CMS Energy is closely monitoring this situation and its impacts on pending and planned solar projects.
For additional details regarding the enterprises segment’s uncertainties, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments.
Other Outlook and Uncertainties
Litigation: CMS Energy, Consumers, and certain of their subsidiaries are named as parties in various litigation matters, as well as in administrative proceedings before various courts and governmental
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agencies, arising in the ordinary course of business. For additional details regarding these and other legal matters, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1, Regulatory Matters and Note 2, Contingencies and Commitments.
Employee Separation Program: In April 2022, CMS Energy and Consumers announced a voluntary separation program for salaried non-union employees. Under the program, employees can elect to request separation, and management will decide which requests to accept. In May 2022, management will communicate its decisions to interested employees, who will have 45 days to decide whether to separate. The program is expected to result in recognition of additional expense in the second quarter of 2022; however, CMS Energy and Consumers expect to benefit from future cost savings, as employee staffing levels will be better matched to workload demand, which reflects the companies’ ongoing workforce productivity improvements.
As a result of this announcement, CMS Energy and Consumers determined it was probable that 2022 lump-sum payments to participants under DB Pension Plan A would exceed the plan’s service cost and interest cost components of net periodic cost for the year. These lump-sum payments constitute pension plan liability settlements; once it is probable such settlements will meet the service and interest cost threshold, recognition in earnings is required. As a result, in accordance with GAAP, CMS Energy, including Consumers, performed a remeasurement of DB Pension Plan A as of March 31, 2022. Depending on employee participation in the separation program, curtailment of DB Pension Plan A and the OPEB Plan may occur in 2022; CMS Energy and Consumers will continue to monitor for potential curtailment. For additional details on the pension settlement, see Notes to the Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 6, Retirement Benefits.
Presented in the following table are estimates of credits and cash contributions through 2024 for the DB Pension Plans, reflecting the remeasurement as of March 31, 2022. Actual future costs, credits, and contributions will depend on future investment performance, discount rates, and various factors related to the participants of the DB Pension Plans. CMS Energy and Consumers will, at a minimum, contribute to the plans as needed to comply with federal funding requirements.
In Millions
CreditContribution
CMS Energy, including Consumers
2022$(26)$— 
2023(44)— 
2024(58)— 
Consumers1
2022$(23)$— 
2023(40)— 
2024(53)— 
1Consumers’ pension costs are recoverable through its general ratemaking process.
New Accounting Standards
There are no new accounting standards issued but not yet effective that are expected to have a material impact on CMS Energy’s or Consumers’ consolidated financial statements.
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CMS Energy Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Income (Unaudited)
In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts
Three Months Ended March 3120222021
Operating Revenue$2,374 $2,013 
Operating Expenses
Fuel for electric generation167 138 
Purchased and interchange power455 377 
Purchased power – related parties17 18 
Cost of gas sold468 279 
Maintenance and other operating expenses334 311 
Depreciation and amortization345 338 
General taxes132 122 
Total operating expenses1,918 

1,583 
Operating Income456 

430 
Other Income (Expense)
Interest income1 1 
Allowance for equity funds used during construction2 1 
Income from equity method investees 2 
Non-operating retirement benefits, net48 41 
Other income1 1 
Other expense(4)(2)
Total other income48 

44 
Interest Charges
Interest on long-term debt121 119 
Interest expense – related parties3 3 
Other interest expense1 3 
Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction(1)(1)
Total interest charges124 

124 
Income Before Income Taxes380 350 
Income Tax Expense39 42 
Income From Continuing Operations341 308 
Income From Discontinued Operations, Net of Tax of $1 and $9
4 34 
Net Income345 342 
Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests(8)(7)
Net Income Attributable to CMS Energy353 349 
Preferred Stock Dividends2  
Net Income Available to Common Stockholders$351 $349 
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In Millions, Except Per Share Amounts
Three Months Ended March 3120222021
Basic Earnings Per Average Common Share
Income from continuing operations per average common share available to common stockholders$1.20 $1.09 
Income from discontinued operations per average common share available to common stockholders0.01 0.12 
Basic earnings per average common share$1.21 $1.21 
Diluted Earnings Per Average Common Share
Income from continuing operations per average common share available to common stockholders$1.20 $1.09 
Income from discontinued operations per average common share available to common stockholders0.01 0.12 
Diluted earnings per average common share$1.21 $1.21 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements.
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CMS Energy Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Unaudited)
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 3120222021
Net Income$345 $342 
Retirement Benefits Liability
Net gain arising during the period, net of tax of $1 and $
2  
Amortization of net actuarial loss, net of tax of $ for both periods
1 1 
Derivatives
Unrealized gain on derivative instruments, net of tax of $1 and $
2 1 
Other Comprehensive Income5 2 
Comprehensive Income350 344 
Comprehensive Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests(8)(7)
Comprehensive Income Attributable to CMS Energy$358 $351 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these statements.
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CMS Energy Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
In Millions
Three Months Ended March 3120222021
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net income$345 $342 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities
Depreciation and amortization345 338 
Deferred income taxes and investment tax credits33 48 
Gain from sale of EnerBank(5) 
Other non‑cash operating activities and reconciling adjustments(22)(13)
Changes in assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable and accrued revenue(121)29 
Inventories213 168 
Accounts payable and accrued rate refunds(129)(109)
Other current assets and liabilities7 (12)
Other non‑current assets and liabilities41 41 
Net cash provided by operating activities707 

832 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Capital expenditures (excludes assets placed under finance lease)(520)(436)
Net proceeds from sale of EnerBank5  
Net cash provided by discontinued operations 178 
Cost to retire property and other investing activities(24)(25)
Net cash used in investing activities(539)

(283)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Retirement of debt(3)(2)
Issuance of common stock4 9 
Payment of dividends on common and preferred stock(136)(126)
Net cash used in discontinued operations (73)
Other financing costs(35)(18)
Net cash used in financing activities(170)

(210)
Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents, Including Restricted Amounts(2)339 
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Including Restricted Amounts, Beginning of Period476 185 
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Including Restricted Amounts, End of Period$474 

$524