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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________________
FORM 20-F
____________________________________
    REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
    SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-36085
____________________________________
CNH INDUSTRIAL N.V.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________
The Netherlands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
25 St. James’s Street
London
SW1A 1HA
United Kingdom
(Address of principal executive offices)
Roberto Russo
Chief Legal and Compliance Officer
25 St. James's Street
London
SW1A 1HA
United Kingdom
Telephone: 39 011 0072257
FAX: + 0207930 6603
Email: roberto.russo@cnhind.com
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol (s)Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Shares, par value €0.01
CNHINew York Stock Exchange
4.50% Notes due 2023
CNHI23New York Stock Exchange
3.850% Notes due 2027
CNHI27New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
_______________________________________
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 1,356,077,000 common shares, par value €0.01 per share, and 371,218,250 special voting shares, par value €0.01 per share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes      No 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act of 1934.  Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). 
 Yes      No 
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer   
  
Non-accelerated filer    
Emerging Growth Company    
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of this internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing: U.S. GAAP   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board     Other  
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17  or Item 18 .
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No  
(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.  Yes     No  




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
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Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 4A.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16A.
Item 16B.
Item 16C.
Item 16D.
Item 16E.
Item 16F.
Item 16G.
Item 16H.
Item 16I.
Item 17.
Item 18.
Item 19.






Certain Defined Terms
CNH Industrial N.V. is incorporated in, and under the laws of, the Netherlands. CNH Industrial has its corporate seat in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and its principal office in London, England. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, as used in this annual report, the terms “CNH Industrial”, “we”, “us”, “our” or “the Company” refer to CNH Industrial N.V., together with its consolidated subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2021, CNH Industrial owned and controlled the Agriculture equipment business, the Construction equipment business, and the related Financial Services business (collectively, the “Off-Highway business”) as well as the Commercial and Specialty Vehicles business, the Powertrain business and the related Financial Services business (collectively, the “On Highway business” or the “Iveco Group business”).

Presentation of Financial and Certain Other Information
We have prepared our annual consolidated financial statements presented in this Annual Report in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Our consolidated financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars and, unless otherwise indicated, all financial data set forth in this annual report are expressed in U.S. dollars.
Certain financial information in this report has been presented by geographic region. Our geographic regions are: (1) North America; (2) Europe; (3) South America and (4) Rest of World. The geographic designations have the following meanings:
North America: United States, Canada and Mexico;
Europe: member countries of the European Union, European Free Trade Association, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and Balkans;
South America: Central and South America, and the Caribbean Islands; and
Rest of World: Continental Asia (including Turkey and Russia), Oceania and member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the African continent, and Middle East.
Certain industry and market share information in this Annual Report has been presented on a worldwide basis which includes all countries. In this Annual Report, management estimates of market share information are generally based on retail unit sales data in North America, on registrations of equipment in most of Europe, Brazil, and various Rest of World markets, and on retail and shipment unit data collected by a central information bureau appointed by equipment manufacturers associations, including the Association of Equipment Manufacturers in North America, the Committee for European Construction Equipment in Europe, the Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (“ANFAVEA”) in Brazil, the Japan Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association, and the Korea Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association, as well as on other shipment data collected by independent service bureaus. Not all agricultural or construction equipment is registered, and registration data may thus underestimate, perhaps substantially, actual retail industry unit sales demand, particularly for local manufacturers in China, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, Turkey, Brazil, and any country where local shipments are not reported. For Commercial Vehicles, regions are defined as: Europe (the 27 countries where our Commercial Vehicles business competes, excluding the United Kingdom and Ireland, for market share and total industry volume (“TIV”) reporting purposes), South America (Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela) and Rest of World (Russia, Turkey, South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand). In addition, there may be a period of time between the shipment, delivery, sale and/or registration of a unit, which must be estimated, in making any adjustments to the shipment, delivery, sale, or registration data to determine our estimates of retail unit data in any period.



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PART I
Item 1.    Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Not applicable.
Item 2.    Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
Item 3.    Key Information
A. Reserved
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D. Risk Factors
The following risks should be considered in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” beginning on page 34, the other risks described in the Safe Harbor Statement beginning on page 62 and notes to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page F-10. These risks may affect our operating results and, individually or in the aggregate, could cause our actual results to differ materially from past and projected future results. Some of these risks and uncertainties could affect particular lines of business, while others could affect all of our businesses. Although risks are organized by headings, and each risk is discussed separately, many are interrelated. The following discussion of risks may contain forward-looking statements that are intended to be covered by the Safe Harbor Statement beginning on page 62. Except as may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. It is impossible to predict or identify all risk factors and, consequently, you should not consider the following factors to be a complete discussion of risks and uncertainties that may affect us. We invite you to consult any further related disclosures we make from time to time in materials filed with or furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
COVID-19 RISKS
The COVID-19 pandemic could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or liquidity. COVID-19 was first identified in late 2019, spread globally and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Efforts to combat the virus have been complicated by viral variants and uneven access to, and acceptance and effectiveness of, vaccines globally. The global spread of the virus led governments around the world to implement numerous measures to contain the virus, such as travel bans, mandated shutdowns, border closures and other restrictions on the free movement of people and goods. These measures have impacted, and may further impact, our future ability to operate as well as the ability of our suppliers and distributors to operate. Any future closing of manufacturing facilities due to government mandates, insufficient staffing, weaker demand, or supply constraints, or similar limitations or restrictions for our suppliers, or the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our ability to execute business continuity plans, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and/or liquidity.
Disruption caused by business responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, including remote working arrangements, may create increased vulnerability to cybersecurity or data privacy incidents, including breaches of information technology and systems. Risks related to information technology and systems are described in our risk factor “A cybersecurity breach could interfere with our operations, compromise confidential information, negatively impact our corporate reputation and expose us to liability”.
From an economic perspective, COVID-19 initially led to a global recession and there is no certainty that the economies in which we operate will experience sustained economic recovery. The COVID-19 pandemic has also significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty and has led to disruptions in our supply chain, higher raw materials pricing and volatility in demand for our
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products and in global capital markets. The COVID-19 pandemic may materially adversely impact many of our customers, borrowers and other third parties and may affect their ability to fulfill their obligations to us in a timely manner.
The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or liquidity will depend on the scale, duration, severity and geographic reach of future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including notably the possibility of “further waves” of COVID-19 infections or the appearance of new variants in the virus. There have been instances of re-imposed local lockdowns where infection rates have started to increase again and there is a risk that widespread measures such as strict social distancing and curtailing or ceasing normal business activities may be reintroduced in the future until effective treatments or vaccines have been deployed. In late 2021, in response to a rapid acceleration of infections, the governments of several European countries including France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom have started re-imposing increasingly stringent public health measures. Continued uncertainties and persistent effects also include: disruptions in the supply chain and a prolonged delay in resumption of operations by one or more key suppliers, or the failure of key suppliers; our ability to meet commitments to our customers on a timely basis as a result of increased costs and supply challenges; the ability to receive goods on a timely basis and at anticipated costs; increased logistics costs; delays in our strategic initiatives as a result of the uncertain environment; absence of employees due to illness; the impact of the pandemic on our customers and dealers, and delays in their plans to purchase new equipment; requests by our customers or dealers for, or government mandated, payment deferrals and contract modifications; the impact of disruptions in the global capital markets and/or declines in our financial performance, outlook or credit ratings, which could impact our ability to obtain funding in the future; and the impact of the pandemic on demand for our products and services as discussed above. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate many of the other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
STRATEGIC RISKS
Global economic conditions impact our businesses. Our results of operations and financial position are and will continue to be influenced by macroeconomic factors – including changes in gross domestic product, the level of consumer and business confidence, changes in interest rates, the availability of credit, inflation and deflation, energy prices, and the cost of commodities or other raw materials – which exist in the countries and regions in which we operate. Such macroeconomic factors vary from time to time and their effect on our results of operations and financial position cannot be specifically and singularly assessed and/or isolated.
Economic conditions vary across regions and countries, and demand for our products and services generally increases in those regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment. Slower economic growth or a change in global mix of regions and countries experiencing economic growth and investment could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In a weaker economic environment, dealers and customers may delay or cancel plans to purchase our products and services and may not be able to fulfill their obligations to us in a timely fashion. Our suppliers may also be impacted by economic pressures, which may adversely affect their ability to fulfill their obligations to us or the price or availability of supplies we require. These factors could result in product delays, increased accounts receivable, defaults and inventory challenges. In addition, demand for our products and services can be significantly impacted by concerns regarding the diverse economic and political circumstances in the European Union, the debt burden of several countries in the European Union, the risk that one or more European Union countries could come under increasing pressure to leave the European Union and the long-term stability of the euro as a single common currency. These concerns, along with persistent disparity with respect to the widely varying economic conditions amongst the individual countries of the European Union, and their implications for the euro as well as market perceptions concerning these and related issues, have led to further pressure on economic growth and may lead to new periods of economic volatility and recession in the European Union. Similarly, in Brazil and Argentina, macroeconomic conditions remain volatile. It is unclear what the macroeconomic effects will be of the economic stimulus actions taken by various countries in order to mitigate the adverse economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting increase in government debt. If there is continued deterioration in the global economy or the economies of key countries or regions, the demand for our products and services would likely decrease and our results of operations, financial position and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We are exposed to political, economic, trade and other risks beyond our control as a result of operating a global business. We manufacture and sell products and offer services in several continents and numerous countries around the world including those experiencing varying degrees of political and economic instability. Given the global nature of our activities, we are exposed to risks associated with international business activities that may increase our costs, impact our ability to manufacture and sell our products and require significant management attention. These risks include:
changes in laws, regulations and policies that affect, among other things:
import and export duties and quotas;
currency restrictions;
the design, manufacture and sale of our products, including, for example, engine emissions regulations;
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interest rates and the availability of credit to our dealers and customers;
property, contract rights and intellectual property;
where, to whom, and what type of products may be sold, including new or additional trade or economic sanctions imposed by the U.S., EU or other governmental authorities and supranational organizations (e.g., the United Nations); and
taxes;
regulations from changing world organization initiatives and agreements;
changes in the dynamics of the industries and markets in which we operate;
labor disruptions;
disruption in the supply of raw materials and components (e.g. as a result of pandemics), including rare materials (the latter might be more easily the target of sudden cost increases due to a variety of factors, including speculative measures or unforeseen political changes);
changes in governmental debt relief and subsidy program policies in certain significant markets, including the Brazilian government discontinuing programs subsidizing interest rates on equipment loans;
withdrawal from or changes to trade agreements or trade terms, negotiation of new trade agreements and the imposition of new (and retaliatory) tariffs on certain countries or covering certain products or raw materials or embargoes, including developments in U.S.-China trade relations; and
war, civil unrest and acts of terrorism.
In recent years, acts of terrorism have occurred around the world, leading to personal safety anxieties and political instability in many countries and, ultimately, an impact on consumers’ confidence. More recently, growing populist and nationalist political movements in several major developed countries, changes in or uncertainty surrounding global trade policies and other unanticipated changes to the previous geopolitical order may have negative effects on the global economy.
Further, escalating tensions between Russia and Ukraine and massive military actions between Russia and Ukraine could adversely impact macroeconomic conditions, give rise to regional instability and result in heightened economic sanctions from the U.S., EU, and UK which may adversely affect us and our business in Russia, Ukraine and potentially elsewhere in Eastern Europe, including possible restrictions on our ability to do business with certain vendors or suppliers as well as the ability to repatriate funds from the region. We have conducted business in jurisdictions that may be subject to trade or economic sanction regimes and such sanctions could be expanded. If we fail to comply with sanction regimes or other similar laws or regulations we could be subject to damages and potentially other financial penalties, suspension of licenses, or a cessation of operations at our businesses, as well as damage to our brands’ images and reputations.
There can be no guarantee that we will be able to quickly and completely adapt our business model to changes that could result from the foregoing, and any such changes may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Reduced demand for equipment would reduce our sales and profitability. The agricultural equipment market is influenced by factors such as:
the price of agricultural commodities and the ability to competitively export agricultural commodities;
the profitability of agricultural enterprises, farmers’ income and their capitalization;
the demand for food products;
the availability of stocks from previous harvests; and
agricultural policies, including aid and subsidies to agricultural enterprises provided by governments and/or supranational organizations, policies impacting commodity prices or limiting the export or import of commodities, and alternative fuel mandates.
In addition, droughts, floods and other unfavorable climatic conditions, especially during the spring, a particularly important period for generating sales orders, could have a negative impact on decisions to buy agricultural equipment and, consequently, on our revenues.
The construction equipment market is influenced by factors such as:
public infrastructure spending;
new residential and non-residential construction; and
capital spending in oil and gas and, to a lesser extent, in mining.
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The above factors can significantly influence the demand for agricultural and construction equipment and consequently, our financial results. Additionally, demand for our products is influenced by engine emissions and other applicable legal requirements, as well as the effective date of such requirements. If demand for our products is less than we expect, we may experience excess inventories and be forced to incur additional charges and our profitability will suffer, including lower fixed costs absorption associated with lower production levels at our plants. Our business may be negatively impacted if we experience excess inventories or if we are unable to adjust on a timely basis our production schedules or our purchases from suppliers to reflect changes in customer demand and market fluctuations.
Competitive activity, or failure by us to respond to actions by our competitors, could adversely affect our results of operations. We operate in highly competitive global and regional markets. Depending on the particular country and product, we compete with other international, regional and local manufacturers and distributors of agricultural and construction equipment. Certain of our global competitors have substantial resources and may be able to provide products and services at little or no profit, or even at a loss, to compete with certain of our product and service offerings. We compete primarily on the basis of product performance, innovation, quality, distribution, customer service, and price. Aggressive pricing or other strategies pursued by competitors, unanticipated product or manufacturing delays, quality issues, or our failure to price our products competitively could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, there has been a trend toward consolidation in the construction equipment industries that has resulted in larger and potentially stronger competitors in those industries. The markets in which we compete are highly competitive in terms of product quality, innovation, pricing, fuel economy, reliability, safety, customer service and financial services offered. Competition, particularly on pricing, has increased significantly in the markets in which we compete. Should we be unable to adapt effectively to market conditions, this could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in government monetary or fiscal policies may negatively impact our results. Most countries where our products and services are sold have established central banks to regulate monetary systems and influence economic activities, generally by adjusting interest rates. Some governments may implement measures designed to slow economic growth in their countries (e.g. higher interest rates, reduced bank lending and other anti-inflation measures). Rising interest rates could have a dampening effect on the overall economic activity and/or the financial condition of our customers, either or both of which could negatively affect demand for our products and our customers’ ability to repay obligations to us. Central banks and other policy arms of many countries may take further actions to vary the amount of liquidity and credit available in an economy. The impact from a change in liquidity and credit policies could negatively affect the customers and markets we serve or our suppliers, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. Government initiatives that are intended to stimulate demand for products sold by us, such as changes in tax treatment or purchase incentives for new equipment, can significantly influence the timing and level of our revenues. The terms, size and duration of such government actions are unpredictable and outside of our control. Any adverse change in government policy relating to those initiatives could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. As noted above, it is unclear what the macroeconomic effects will be of the economic stimulus actions taken by various countries in order to mitigate the adverse economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting increase in government debt.
Our future performance depends on our ability to innovate and on market acceptance of new or existing products. Our success depends on our ability to maintain or increase our market share in existing markets and to expand into new markets through the development of innovative, high-quality products that provide adequate profitability. We have a strategic plan covering investments in innovation designed to further develop existing, and create new, product and service offerings responsive to customer needs, including developing and delivering connected and digital solutions, automation, electrification and autonomy. Achievement of these objectives is dependent on a number of factors, including our ability to maintain key dealer relationships, our ability to design and produce products that meet our customers’ quality, performance and price expectations, our ability to develop connected and digital solutions that improve the profitability and sustainability of customers through their production systems, our ability to develop effective sales, dealer training and marketing programs, and the ability of our dealers to support and service connected and digital solutions. Failure to develop and offer innovative products that compare favorably to those of our principal competitors in terms of price, quality, functionality, features, mobility and connected services, vehicle electrification, fuel cell technology and autonomy, or delays in bringing strategic new products to market, or the inability to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or supply products that meet regulatory requirements, including engine emissions requirements, could result in reduced revenue and market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may face challenges to our intellectual property rights which could adversely affect our reputation, business and competitive position. We own important intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. Our intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in the markets that we serve. Our competitors may develop technologies that are similar or superior to our proprietary technologies or design around the intellectual property that we own or license. Despite our controls and safeguards, our technology may be misappropriated by employees, competitors or third parties. The pursuit of remedies for any misappropriation of intellectual property is expensive and the ultimate remedies may be insufficient. Further, in jurisdictions where the enforcement of intellectual property rights is less robust, the risk of misappropriation of our
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intellectual property is higher notwithstanding the efforts we undertake to protect it. Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights, and any inability to protect or enforce our rights sufficiently, could adversely affect our business, competitive position and results of operations.
We may not realize all of the anticipated benefits from our business initiatives and cost management initiatives. As part of our strategic plan, we are actively engaged in a number of initiatives to strengthen our business and increase our productivity, market positioning, efficiency and cash flow, all of which we expect will have a positive long-term effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. These initiatives include our enhanced focus on digital, precision farming and alternative propulsion, as well as other initiatives aimed at improving our product portfolio and customer focus. There can be no assurance that these initiatives or others will be beneficial to the extent anticipated, or that the estimated efficiency or cash flow improvements will be realized as anticipated or at all. If these initiatives are not implemented successfully, they could have an adverse effect on our operations. We also expect to take targeted restructuring actions as we continue to optimize our cost structure and improve the efficiency of our operations. In order to complete these actions, we will incur charges. Failure to realize anticipated savings or benefits from our cost reduction actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and cash flows.
We may not be able to realize anticipated benefits from any acquisitions and, further, challenges associated with strategic alliances may have an adverse impact on our results of operations. We have engaged in the past, and may engage in the future, in investments or mergers and acquisitions or enter into, expand or exit from strategic alliances and joint ventures that could involve risks that could prevent us from realizing the expected benefits of the transactions or the achievement of strategic objectives or could divert management’s time and attention. Such risks, many of which are outside our control, include:
technological and product synergies, economies of scale and cost reductions not occurring as expected;
unexpected liabilities;
incompatibility of operating, information or other systems;
unexpected changes in laws;
inability to retain key employees;
protecting intellectual property rights;
inability to source certain products or components (or the cost thereof);
significant costs associated with terminating or modifying alliances; and
problems in retaining customers and integrating operations, services, personnel, and customer bases.
If problems or issues were to arise among the parties to one or more strategic alliances or other relationships for managerial, financial, or other reasons, or if such strategic alliances or other relationships were terminated, our product lines, businesses, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our business may be affected by climate change, unfavorable weather conditions or other calamities. Poor, severe or unusual weather conditions caused by climate change or other factors, particularly during the planting and early growing season, can significantly affect the purchasing decisions of our agricultural equipment customers. The timing and quantity of rainfall are two of the most important factors in agricultural production. Insufficient levels of rain prevent farmers from planting crops or may cause growing crops to die, resulting in lower yields. Excessive rain or flooding can also prevent planting or harvesting from occurring at optimal times and may cause crop loss through increased disease or mold growth. Temperature affects the rate of growth, crop maturity, crop quality and yield.
Temperatures outside normal ranges can cause crop failure or decreased yields and may also affect disease incidence. Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, storms, droughts, diseases and pests can have a negative impact on agricultural production. The resulting negative impact on farm income can strongly affect demand for our agricultural equipment in any given period.
In addition, natural disasters, pandemic illness, acts of terrorism or violence, equipment failures, power outages, disruptions to our information technology systems and networks or other unexpected events could result in physical damage to, and complete or partial closure of, one or more of our manufacturing facilities or distribution centers, temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of parts or component products and disruption and delay in the transport of our products to dealers and customers. In the event such events occur, our financial results might be negatively impacted. Our existing insurance arrangements may not protect against all costs that may arise from such events.
Furthermore, the potentially long-term physical impacts of climate change on our facilities, suppliers and customers and therefore on our operations are highly uncertain and will be driven by the circumstances developing in various geographical regions. These may
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include long-term changes in temperature and water availability. These potential physical effects may adversely impact the demand for our products and the cost, production, sales and financial performance of our operations.
Changes in demand for food and alternate energy sources could impact our revenues. Changing worldwide demand for farm outputs to meet the world’s growing food and alternative energy demands, driven in part by a growing world population and government policies, are likely to result in fluctuating agricultural commodity prices, which affect sales of agricultural equipment. While higher commodity prices will benefit our crop producing agricultural equipment customers, higher commodity prices also result in greater feed costs for livestock and poultry producers, which in turn may result in lower levels of equipment purchased by these customers. Lower commodity prices directly affect farm income, which could negatively affect sales of agricultural equipment. Moreover, changing alternative energy demands may cause farmers to change the types or quantities of the crops they grow, with corresponding changes in equipment demands. Finally, changes in governmental policies regulating bio-fuel utilization could affect demand for our equipment and result in higher research and development costs related to equipment fuel standards.
International trade policies may impact demand for our products and our competitive position. Government policies on international trade and investment such as sanctions, import quotas, capital controls or tariffs, whether adopted by non-governmental bodies, individual governments or addressed by regional trade blocks, may affect the demand for our products, technology and services, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products to certain customers or in certain countries. The implementation of more protectionist trade policies, such as more detailed inspections, higher tariffs, or new barriers to entry, in countries where we sell products and provide services could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial position. For example, a government’s adoption of trade sanctions or “buy national” policies or retaliation by another government against such policies could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
OPERATIONAL RISKS
We depend on suppliers for raw materials, parts and components. We rely upon many suppliers for raw materials, parts and components that we require to manufacture our products. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to maintain access to raw materials, parts and components, and in some cases, this access may be affected by factors outside of our control and the control of our suppliers. Certain components and parts used in our products are available from a single supplier and cannot be quickly sourced from other suppliers. Significant disruptions to the supply chain resulting from shortages of raw materials, components, and whole-goods can adversely affect our ability to meet customer demand. For example, during 2021, as economies around the world have reopened, sharp increases in demand have exacerbated significant disruptions to the global supply chain stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, which have affected our ability to receive certain materials and components on a timely basis and at anticipated costs. These supply chain disruptions have been caused and compounded by many factors, including changes in supply and demand, industry capacity constraints, labor shortages and the COVID pandemic. Global logistics network challenges include ocean freight capacity constraints, international port delays, trucking and chassis shortages, railway and air freight capacity, and labor availability constraints, which have resulted in delays, shortages of key manufacturing components, increased order backlogs, and increased transportation costs. While we diligently monitor our supply chain risk and seek to respond promptly to address supply chain and logistics bottlenecks, there can be no assurance that our mitigation plans will be effective to prevent disruptions that may arise from shortages of materials that we use in the production of our products. Uncertainties related to the magnitude and duration of global supply chain disruptions have adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our business and outlook.
We use a variety of raw materials in our businesses, including steel, aluminum, lead, resin and copper, and precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium. The availability and price of these raw materials fluctuate, particularly during times of economic volatility or regulatory instability or in response to changes in tariffs, and while we seek to manage this exposure, we may not be successful in mitigating these risks. Further, increases in the prices for raw materials can significantly increase our costs of production, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, particularly if we are unable to offset the increased costs through an increase in product pricing.
Our existing operations and expansion plans in emerging markets could entail significant risks. Our ability to grow our businesses depends to an increasing degree on our ability to increase market share and operate profitably worldwide and, in particular, in emerging market countries, such as Brazil, Russia, India, China, Argentina and Turkey. In addition, we could increase our use of suppliers located in such countries. Our implementation of these strategies will involve a significant investment of capital and other resources and exposes us to multiple and potentially conflicting cultural practices, business practices and legal requirements that are subject to change, including those related to tariffs, trade barriers, investments, property ownership rights, taxation, and sanction and export control requirements. For example, we may encounter difficulties in obtaining necessary governmental approvals in a timely manner. In addition, we may experience delays and incur significant costs in constructing facilities, establishing supply channels, and commencing manufacturing operations. Further, customers in these markets may not readily accept our products as compared with products manufactured and commercialized by our competitors. The emerging market countries may also be subject to a greater
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degree of economic and political volatility that could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Many emerging market economies have experienced slower growth, volatility, and other economic challenges in recent periods and may be subject to a further slowdown in gross domestic product expansion and/or be impacted by domestic political or currency volatility, potential hyperinflationary conditions, and/or increase of public debt.
Dealer equipment sourcing and inventory management decisions could adversely affect our sales. We sell our products primarily through independent dealers and are subject to risks relating to their inventory management decisions and operating and sourcing practices. Our dealers carry inventories of finished products and parts as part of ongoing operations and adjust those inventories based on their assessment of future sales opportunities and market conditions, including the level of used equipment inventory. If our dealers’ inventory levels are higher than they desire, they may postpone product purchases from us, which could cause our sales to be lower than the end-user demand for our products and negatively impact our results. Similarly, our sales could be negatively impacted through the loss of time-sensitive sales if our dealers do not maintain inventory sufficient to meet customer demand. Further, dealers who carry other products that compete with our products may focus their inventory purchases and sales efforts on goods provided by other suppliers due to industry demand or profitability. Such inventory adjustments and sourcing decisions can adversely impact our sales, results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations may be adversely impacted by various types of claims, lawsuits, and other contingent obligations. In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in litigation and investigations on a wide range of topics, including dealer and supplier litigation, intellectual property rights disputes, product warranty and defective product claims, product performance, asbestos, personal injury, engine emissions and/or fuel economy regulatory and contract issues, and environmental claims. The industries in which we operate are also periodically reviewed or investigated by regulators, which could lead to enforcement actions, fines and penalties or the assertion of private litigation claims. The ultimate outcome of these legal matters pending against us is uncertain, and although such legal matters are not expected individually to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or profitability, such legal matters could, in the aggregate, in the event of unfavorable resolutions thereof, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, we could in the future be subject to judgments or enter into settlements of lawsuits and claims that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period. In addition, while we maintain insurance coverage with respect to certain risks, we may not be able to obtain such insurance on acceptable terms in the future, if at all, and any such insurance may not provide adequate coverage against claims under such policies. We establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies, including contingencies related to legal claims asserted against us. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a reserve and require us to make payments that exceed our reserves, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and/or financial position. For further information see “Note 14: Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 for additional information.
A cybersecurity breach could interfere with our operations, compromise confidential information, negatively impact our corporate reputation and expose us to liability. We rely upon information technology systems and networks, some of which are managed by third parties, in connection with a variety of our business activities. These systems include supply chain, manufacturing, distribution, invoicing and collection of payments from dealers or other purchasers of our products and from customers of our financial services business, and connectivity services with and among equipment. We use information technology systems to record, process and summarize financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting, legal and tax requirements. Additionally, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and the proprietary information of our customers, suppliers and dealers, as well as personally identifiable information of our dealers, customers and employees, in data centers and on information technology networks. Operating these information technology systems and networks, and processing and maintaining this data, in a secure manner, are critical to our business operations and strategy. Increased information technology security threats (e.g. worms, viruses, malware, phishing attacks, ransomware, and other malicious threats) and more sophisticated computer crime pose a significant risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. Cybersecurity attacks could also include attacks targeting customer data or the security, integrity and/or reliability of the hardware and software installed in our products. The foregoing risks are heightened in the current environment where our employees have been working and continue to work from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
While we actively manage information technology security risks within our control through security measures, business continuity plans and employee training around phishing and other cyber risks, these attacks have proliferated and there can be no assurance that our actions will be sufficient to successfully prevent attacks or to mitigate potential risks to our systems, networks, data, and products. Furthermore, third parties on which we rely, including internet, mobile communications technology and cloud service providers, pose their own information security risk to us.
A failure or breach in security, whether of our systems and networks or those of third parties on which we rely, could expose us and our customers, dealers and suppliers to risks of misuse of information or systems, the compromising of confidential information, loss
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of financial resources, manipulation and destruction of data, defective products, production downtimes and operations disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our reputation, competitive position, businesses and results of operations. Security breaches could also result in litigation, regulatory action, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data, as well as remediation costs and higher operational and other costs of implementing further data protection measures. In addition, as security threats continue to evolve, we may need to invest additional resources to protect the security of our systems and data. The amount or scope of insurance coverage we maintain may be inadequate to cover claims or liabilities relating to a cybersecurity attack.
Security breaches with respect to our products could interfere with our business and our dealers, and/or customers, exposing us to liability that would cause our business and reputation to suffer. Some of our products include connectivity hardware typically used for telematics services and remote system updates. While we have implemented security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to these products, malicious actors have reportedly attempted, and may attempt in the future, to gain unauthorized access to such products including through such connectivity hardware in order to gain control of the products, change the products’ functionality, user interface, or performance characteristics, or gain access to data stored in or generated by the products. Any unauthorized access to or control of our products or systems or any loss of data could result in legal claims against us or government investigations. In addition, reports of unauthorized access to our products, systems, and data, regardless of their veracity, may result in the perception that the products, systems, or data are capable of being hacked, which could harm our brands, prospects, and operating results.
Following the spin-off of our On-Highway business, our financial profile has changed, and we will be a somewhat smaller, less diversified company than prior to the spin-off. The spin-off will result in each of the On-Highway Business and the Off-Highway Business being smaller, less diversified companies with more businesses concentrated in their respective industries. As a result, we may be more vulnerable to changing market conditions particularly those affecting the agricultural sector, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the diversification of our revenues, costs, and cash flows will diminish as a standalone company, such that our results of operations, cash flows, working capital and financing requirements may be subject to increased volatility and our ability to fund capital expenditures and investments, pay dividends and service debt may be diminished. Following the spin-off we may also have more limited capital allocation efficiency and flexibility, as we will no longer be able to use cash flow from the combined business to fund investments into one of our businesses. We may however, benefit from no longer being a source of capital and support for the On-Highway business.
We face risks associated with our employment relationships. In many countries where we operate, our employees are protected by laws and/or collective labor agreements that guarantee them, through local and national representatives, the right of consultation on specific matters, including repurposing, downsizing or closure of production facilities and reductions in personnel. Laws and/or collective labor agreements applicable to us could impair our flexibility in reshaping and/or strategically repositioning our business activities. Therefore, our ability to efficiently deploy personnel or implement permanent or temporary redundancy measures is subject to government approvals and/or the agreement of labor unions where such laws and agreements are applicable. Furthermore, we are at greater risk of work interruptions or stoppages than non-unionized companies and any work interruption or stoppage could significantly impact the volume of products we manufacture and sell, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in material changes in how and where employees work.
Our ability to execute our strategy is dependent upon our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel. Our ability to compete successfully, to manage our business effectively, to expand our business and to execute our strategic direction, in particular the implementation of our Strategic Business Plan, depends, in part, on our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel in key functions and markets. In particular, we are dependent on our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel with the requisite education, skills, background, talents and industry experience. Failure to attract and retain qualified personnel, whether as a result of an insufficient number of qualified applicants, difficulty in recruiting new personnel, or the inability to integrate and retain qualified personnel, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and meet our business objectives. These may be affected by the loss of employees, particularly when departures involve larger numbers of employees, such as those experienced by many employers and industries since 2020. Higher rates of employee separations may adversely affect us through decreased employee morale, the loss of knowledge of departing employees, and the devotion of resources to recruiting and onboarding new employees.
COMPLIANCE RISKS
We are subject to increasingly stringent and evolving laws that impose significant compliance costs. We are subject to comprehensive and constantly evolving laws, regulations and policies in numerous jurisdictions around the world. We expect the extent of legal requirements affecting our businesses and our costs of compliance to continue to increase in the future. Such laws govern, among other things, products – with requirements on emissions of polluting gases and particulate matter, increased fuel efficiency and safety becoming increasingly strict – and industrial plants – with requirements for reduced air emissions, treatment of waste and water, and prohibitions on soil contamination also becoming increasingly strict. To comply with such laws, we make
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significant investments in research and development and capital expenditures and expect to continue to incur substantial costs in the future. Failure to comply with such laws could limit or prohibit our ability to sell our products in a particular jurisdiction, expose us to penalties or clean-up costs, civil or criminal liability and sanctions on certain of our activities, as well as damage to property or natural resources. Liabilities, sanctions, damages and remediation efforts related to any non-compliance with such laws, including those that may be adopted or imposed in the future, could negatively impact our ability to conduct our operations and our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will not be adversely affected by costs, liabilities or claims with respect to any subsequently acquired operations.
Further, environmental, health and safety regulations change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. For example, changes in environmental and climate change laws, including laws relating to engine and vehicle emissions, safety regulations, fuel requirements, restricted substances, or greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to new or additional investments in product designs and could increase environmental compliance expenditures. If these laws are either changed or adopted and impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements on our products or operations, they could result in higher capital expenditures and negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial position and competitive position.
Changes to existing laws and regulations or changes to how they are interpreted or the implementation of new, more stringent laws or regulations could adversely affect our business by increasing compliance costs, limiting our ability to offer a product or service, requiring changes to our business practices, or otherwise making our products and services less attractive to customers. For example, so-called “right to repair” legislation proposals in certain states and at the federal level in the U.S. could require us to provide access to the software code embedded in our products, which, among other harmful consequences, could create product safety issues, compromise engine emissions and performance controls, adversely affect the protection of our intellectual property, and discourage innovation and investments in research and development.
We are subject to extensive laws and regulations. Due to the global scope of our operations, we are subject to many laws and regulations that apply to our operations around the world, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and the U.K. Bribery Act, as well as a range of national anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws that apply to conduct in a particular jurisdiction. These anti-corruption laws prohibit improper payments in cash or anything of value to improperly influence third parties to obtain or retain business or gain a business advantage. These laws tend to apply regardless of whether those practices are legal or culturally acceptable in a particular jurisdiction. Over the past several years there has been an increase in the enforcement of anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws both globally and in particular jurisdictions and we have from time to time been subject to investigations and charges claiming violations of anti-corruption or antitrust or competition laws, including Iveco’s settlement of the EU antitrust investigation announced on July 19, 2016. Following this settlement, Iveco, the Company and other parties have been defending against private litigation commenced in Europe. We are committed to operating in compliance with all applicable laws, in particular, anti-corruption and antitrust or competition laws. We have implemented a program to promote compliance with these laws and to reduce the likelihood of potential violations. Our compliance program, however, may not in every instance protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, contractors, or collaborators that may violate the applicable laws or regulations of the jurisdictions in which we operate. Such improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations and monetary, injunctive and other penalties as well as damage claims. Investigations of alleged violations of these laws tend to be expensive and require significant management time and attention, and these investigations of purported violations, as well as any publicity regarding potential violations, could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. For further information see "Note 14: Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2021.
Changes in privacy laws could disrupt our business. The regulatory framework for privacy and data security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We collect personal information and other data as part of our business operations. This data is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws and regulations. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation imposes more stringent data protection requirements and provides for significant penalties for noncompliance. New privacy laws will continue to come into effect around the world. We may be required to incur significant costs to comply with these and other privacy and data security laws, rules and regulations. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, rules and regulations could have an adverse effect on our business prospects, results of operations and/or financial position.
New regulations or changes in financial services regulations could adversely impact us. Our Financial Services’ operations are highly regulated by governmental and banking authorities in the locations where they operate, which can impose significant additional costs and/or restrictions on their business. In the U.S., for example, the requirements of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”), including its regulations, as well as other efforts at regulatory reform in financial services may substantially affect the origination, servicing, and securitization programs of our Financial Services segment as well as limit the ability of our customers to enter into hedging transaction or finance purchases of our equipment. The Dodd-Frank Act also strengthens the regulatory oversight of these securities and related capital market activities by the SEC and increases the regulation of the asset-backed securities ("ABS") markets through, among other things, a mandated risk retention requirement for
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securitizers and a direction to regulate credit rating agencies. Future regulations may affect our ability to engage in these capital market activities or increase the effective cost of such transactions, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
FINANCIAL AND TAXATION RISKS
Difficulty in obtaining financing or refinancing existing debt could impact our financial performance. Our performance will depend on, among other things, our ability to finance debt repayment obligations and planned investments from operating cash flow, available liquidity, the renewal or refinancing of existing bank loans and/or facilities and access to capital markets or other sources of financing. A decline in revenues could have a negative impact on the cash-generating capacity of our operations. Consequently, we could find ourselves in the position of having to seek additional financing and/or having to refinance existing debt, including in unfavorable market conditions with limited availability of funding and a general increase in funding costs. Instability in global capital markets, including market disruptions, limited liquidity and interest rate and exchange rate volatility, could reduce our access to capital markets or increase the cost of our short and long-term financing. Any difficulty in obtaining financing could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Our ability to access the capital markets or other forms of financing and related costs are highly dependent on, among other things, the credit ratings of CNH Industrial N.V., its subsidiaries, ABS and other debt instruments. Rating agencies may review and revise their ratings from time to time, and any downgrade or other negative action with respect to our credit ratings by one or more rating agencies may increase our cost of capital, potentially limit our access to sources of financing, and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to exchange rate fluctuations, interest rate changes and other market risks. We operate in numerous markets worldwide and are exposed to market risks stemming from fluctuations in currency and interest rates, including as a result of changes in monetary or fiscal policies of governmental authorities from time to time. We are subject to currency exchange risk to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenues. In addition, the reporting currency for our consolidated financial statements is the U.S. dollar. Certain of our assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues are denominated in other currencies. Those assets, liabilities, expenses and revenues are translated into the U.S. dollar at the applicable exchange rates to prepare our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, increases or decreases in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and those other currencies affect the value of those items reflected in our consolidated financial statements, even if their value remains unchanged in their original currency. Changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had, and will continue to have, an impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We use various forms of financing to cover the funding requirements of our Industrial Activities and for financing offered to customers and dealers by Financial Services. Financial Services normally implements a matching policy to offset the impact of differences in interest rates on the financed portfolio and related liabilities. Nevertheless, any future changes in interest rates can result in increases or decreases in revenues, finance costs and margins.
Although we seek to manage our currency risk and interest rate risk, including through hedging activities, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so successfully, and our business, results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected. In addition, by utilizing these instruments, we potentially forego the benefits that may result from favorable fluctuations in currency exchange and interest rates. For additional information, see “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” to the consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2021.
We also face risks from currency devaluations. Currency devaluations result in a diminished value of funds denominated in the currency of the country suffering the devaluation.
Because Financial Services provides financing for a significant portion of our sales worldwide, our operations and financial results could be impacted materially should negative economic conditions affect the financial services industry. Negative economic conditions can have an adverse effect on the financial services industry in which Financial Services operates. Financial Services, through wholly-owned financial services companies and joint ventures, provides financing for a significant portion of our sales worldwide. Financial Services may experience credit losses that exceed its expectations and adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations. Financial Services’ inability to access funds at cost-effective rates to support its financing activities could have a material adverse effect on our business. Financial Services’ liquidity and ongoing profitability depend largely on timely access to capital in order to meet future cash flow requirements and to fund operations and costs associated with engaging in diversified funding activities. Additionally, negative market conditions could reduce customer confidence levels, resulting in declines in credit applications and increases in delinquencies and default rates, which could materially impact Financial Services’ write-offs and provision for credit losses. Financial Services may also experience residual value losses that exceed its expectations caused by lower pricing for used vehicles or equipment and higher than expected vehicle or equipment returns at lease maturity.

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We are subject to interest rate risks and changes in interest rates can reduce demand for equipment, adversely affect the interest margins in our Financial Services segment, and limit access to capital markets while increasing borrowing costs. Rising interest rates could have a dampening effect on overall economic activity as well as on the financial health of our customers, either of which could negatively affect customer demand for our products and services as well as customers’ ability to service any financing provided by our Financial Services segment. In addition, credit market dislocations could have an impact on funding costs, which in turn may make it more difficult for our Financial Services Segment to offer customers competitive financing rates. While we aim to limit the exposure of our net financial assets to changes in prevailing interest rates, interest rates volatility could have an adverse effect on our net interest rate margin-i.e., the difference between the yield we earn on assets and the interest rates we pay. Actions by credit rating agencies, such as downgrades or negative changes to ratings outlooks, can affect the availability and cost of funding for the Company and can increase the Company’s cost of capital and hurt its competitive position.
An increase in delinquencies or repossessions could adversely affect the results of Financial Services. Fundamental in the operation of Financial Services is the credit risk associated with its customers/borrowers. The creditworthiness of each customer, rates of delinquency and default, repossessions and net losses on loans to customers are impacted by many factors, including: relevant industry and general economic conditions; the availability of capital; the terms and conditions applicable to extensions of credit; the experience and skills of the customer’s management team; commodity prices; political events, including government mandated moratoria on payments; weather; and the value of the collateral securing the extension of credit. An increase in delinquencies or defaults, or a reduction in repossessions could have an adverse impact on the performance of Financial Services and our earnings and cash flows. In addition, although Financial Services evaluates and adjusts its allowance for credit losses related to past due or non-performing receivables on a regular basis, adverse economic conditions or other factors that might cause deterioration of the customers' financial health could change the timing and level of payments received and thus necessitate an increase in Financial Services’ reserves for estimated losses, which could have a material adverse effect on Financial Services’ and our results of operations and cash flows.
We may be exposed to shortfalls in our pension plans. At December 31, 2021, the funded status for our defined benefit pension, healthcare and other postemployment benefit plans was a deficit of $1,177 million of which $633 million was relating to the Off Highway business and $544 million relating to the On Highway business. The funded status is subject to many factors, as discussed in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Application of Critical Accounting Estimates—Pension and Other Postemployment Benefits,” as well as “Note 12: Employee Benefit Plans and Postretirement Benefits” to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021.
To the extent that our obligations under a plan are unfunded or underfunded, we will have to use cash flows from operations and other sources to pay our obligations as they become due. In addition, since the assets that currently fund these obligations are primarily invested in debt instruments and equity securities, the value of these assets is subject to changes due to market fluctuations.
We have significant outstanding indebtedness, which may limit our ability to obtain additional funding and may limit our financial and operating flexibility. As of December 31, 2021, we had an aggregate of $23,745 million (including $19,435 million relating to Financial Services’ activities) of consolidated gross indebtedness, and our equity was $6,808 million, including noncontrolling interests. At December 31, 2021, $20,897 million and $2,848 million of the aggregate consolidated gross indebtedness was related to the Off-Highway business and the On-Highway business, respectively. The extent of our indebtedness could have important consequences on our operations and financial results, including:
we may not be able to secure additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements or general corporate purposes;
we may need to use a portion of our projected future cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, which may reduce the amount of funds available to us for other purposes;
we may be more financially leveraged than some of our competitors, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage;
we may not be able to invest in the development or introduction of new products or new business opportunities;
our future cash flow may be exposed to the risk of interest rate volatility (see above);
we may not be able to adjust rapidly to changing market conditions, which may make us more vulnerable to a downturn in general economic conditions; and
we may not be able to access the capital markets on favorable terms, which may adversely affect our ability to provide competitive retail and wholesale financing programs.
These risks are exacerbated by the ongoing volatility in the financial markets, in part resulting from perceived strains on the finances and creditworthiness of several governments and financial institutions, particularly in the European Union and Latin America, and from continued concerns about global economic growth, particularly in emerging markets, as a result of, among others, the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Further, our indebtedness under some of our instruments including certain derivative transactions may bear interest at variable interest rates or have other terms based on LIBOR. The LIBOR benchmark has been subject to national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Although this deadline has subsequently been extended to June 2023, these reforms may cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past and in particular may do so in the future as the deadline approaches potentially making it unsuitable to use as a benchmark. The consequences of any potential cessation, modification or other reform of LIBOR cannot be predicted at this time. Any new benchmark rate will likely not replicate LIBOR exactly, which could impact new variable rate credit facilities and derivative transaction. Any changes to benchmark rates could have an impact on our cost of funds and our access to the capital markets, which could impact our results of operations and cash flows. Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes may also adversely affect the trading market for our securities.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements could limit our financial and operating flexibility. The agreements governing our outstanding debt securities and other credit agreements to which we are a party from time to time contain, or may contain, covenants that restrict our ability to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness by certain subsidiaries;
make certain investments;
enter into certain types of transactions with affiliates;
sell or acquire certain assets or merge with or into other companies; and/or
use assets as security in other transactions.
Although we do not believe any of these covenants materially restrict our operations currently, a breach of one or more of the covenants could result in adverse consequences that could negatively impact our businesses, results of operations, and financial position. These consequences may include the acceleration of amounts outstanding under certain of our credit facilities, triggering an obligation to redeem certain debt securities, termination of existing unused commitments by our lenders, refusal by our lenders to extend further credit under one or more of the facilities or to enter into new facilities or the lowering or modification of CNH Industrial’s credit ratings or those of one or more of its subsidiaries. For further information, see “Note 10: Debt” to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 for additional information.
CNH Industrial operates and will continue to operate, as a company that is resident in the U.K. for tax purposes; other tax authorities may treat CNH Industrial as being tax resident elsewhere. CNH Industrial is not incorporated in the U.K.; therefore, in order to be resident in the U.K. for tax purposes, CNH Industrial’s central management and control must be located (in whole or in part) in the U.K. The test of central management and control is largely a question of fact based on all the circumstances. The decisions of the U.K. courts and the published practice of Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs, or HMRC, suggest that CNH Industrial should be regarded as being U.K.-resident on this basis. The competent authority ruling referred to below supports this analysis. Although CNH Industrial’s “central management and control” is in the U.K., it would not be treated as U.K.-resident if (a) CNH Industrial were concurrently resident in another jurisdiction (applying the tax residence rules of that jurisdiction) which has a double tax treaty with the U.K.; and (b) that tax treaty allocates exclusive residence to that other jurisdiction.
Although CNH Industrial’s central management and control is in the U.K., CNH Industrial is considered to be resident in the Netherlands for Dutch corporate income tax and Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes because CNH Industrial is incorporated in the Netherlands. The U.K. and Dutch competent authorities have agreed, following a mutual agreement procedure (as contemplated by the Netherlands-U.K. tax treaty), that CNH Industrial will be regarded as solely resident in the U.K. for purposes of the application of the Netherlands-U.K. tax treaty provided that CNH Industrial operates as planned and provides appropriate required evidence to the U.K. and Dutch competent tax authorities. If the facts upon which the competent authorities issued this ruling change over time, this ruling may be withdrawn or cease to apply and in that case the Netherlands may levy corporate income tax on CNH Industrial and impose withholding taxes on dividends distributed by CNH Industrial.
CNH Industrial’s residence for Italian tax purposes is also largely a question of fact based on all the circumstances. CNH Industrial has a management and organizational structure such that CNH Industrial should not be deemed resident in Italy under Italian domestic law except to the extent of CNH Industrial's Italian branch, and should be deemed resident exclusively in the U.K. from the date of its incorporation for purposes of the Italy-U.K. tax treaty. Because this analysis is highly factual and may depend on future changes in CNH Industrial’s management and organizational structure, there can be no assurance regarding the final determination of its tax residence. Should CNH Industrial be treated as an Italian tax resident, CNH Industrial would be subject to corporate income tax in Italy on its worldwide income and may be required to comply with withholding tax on dividends and other distributions and/or reporting obligations under Italian law, which could result in additional costs and expenses.
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Tax may be required to be withheld from dividend payments. Although the U.K. and Dutch competent authorities have ruled that we should be treated as solely resident in the U.K. for the purposes of the Netherlands-U.K. double tax treaty, under Dutch domestic law dividend payments made by us to Dutch residents are still subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax and we would have no obligation to pay additional amounts in respect of such payments.
Should withholding taxes be imposed on future dividends or distributions with respect to our common shares, whether such withholding taxes are creditable against a tax liability to which a shareholder is otherwise subject depends on the laws of such shareholder’s jurisdiction and such shareholder’s particular circumstances. Shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors in respect of the consequences of the potential imposition of withholding taxes.
We may incur additional tax expense or become subject to additional tax exposure. We are subject to income taxes in many jurisdictions around the world. Our tax liabilities are dependent upon the location of earnings among these different jurisdictions. Our future results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the consolidated effective tax rate as a result of a change in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in our overall profitability, changes in tax legislation and rates, changes in generally accepted accounting principles and changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities. If our effective tax rates were to increase, or if the ultimate determination of our taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued or paid, our operating results, cash flows, and financial position could be adversely affected. For further information, see “Item 10. Additional Information -E. Taxation.” to the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON SHARES
Our maintenance of two exchange listings may adversely affect liquidity in the market for our common shares and could result in pricing differentials of our common shares between the two exchanges. The dual listing of our common shares on the NYSE and the Euronext Milan (previously named MTA) may split trading between the two markets and adversely affect the liquidity of the shares in one or both markets and the development of an active trading market for our common shares on the NYSE and may result in price differentials between the exchanges. Differences in the trading schedules, trading volume and investor bases, as well as volatility in the exchange rate between the two trading currencies, among other factors, may result in different trading prices for our common shares on the two exchanges or otherwise adversely affect liquidity and trading prices of our shares.
The loyalty voting program may affect the liquidity of our common shares and reduce our share price. CNH Industrial’s loyalty voting program is intended to reward shareholders for maintaining long-term share ownership by granting initial shareholders and persons holding shares continuously for at least three years, the option to elect to receive special voting shares. Special voting shares cannot be traded and, immediately prior to the transfer of our common shares from the CNH Industrial Loyalty Register, any corresponding special voting shares shall be transferred to CNH Industrial for no consideration (om niet). This loyalty voting program is designed to encourage a stable shareholder base and, conversely, it may deter trading by those shareholders who are interested in gaining or retaining special voting shares. Therefore, the loyalty voting structure may reduce liquidity in our common shares and adversely affect their trading price.
The loyalty voting program may prevent or frustrate attempts by our shareholders to change our management and hinder efforts to acquire a controlling interest in us, and the market price of our common shares may be lower as a result. The provisions of our Articles of Association establishing the loyalty voting program may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of us, even if a change of control is considered favorably by shareholders holding a majority of our common shares. As a result of the loyalty voting program, a relatively large proportion of the voting power of our common shares could be concentrated in a relatively small number of shareholders who would have significant influence over us. As of January 31, 2021, EXOR N.V. had a voting interest in CNH Industrial of approximately 42.5%. For further information, see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” to the consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2020. Such shareholders participating in the loyalty voting program could effectively prevent change of control transactions that may otherwise benefit our shareholders.
The loyalty voting program may also prevent or discourage shareholders’ initiatives aimed at changes in our management.
Item 4.    Information on the Company
A. History and Development of the Company
CNH Industrial N.V. is the company initially formed by the business combination transaction, completed on September 29, 2013, between Fiat Industrial S.p.A. and its subsidiary CNH Global N.V. CNH Industrial N.V. was incorporated on November 23, 2012, as a public limited liability company (naamloze vennootschap) under the laws of the Netherlands. The Company's principal office is located at 25 St. James’s Street, London, England, United Kingdom (telephone number: +44-207-7660-346). CNH Industrial’s agent
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for U.S. federal securities law purposes is Emily Sturges, c/o CNH Industrial America LLC, 6900 Veterans Boulevard, Burr Ridge, Illinois 60527 (telephone number +1-331-256-0594).
We make capital expenditures in the regions in which we operate principally related to initiatives to introduce new products, enhance manufacturing efficiency and increase capacity, and for maintenance and engineering. We continually analyze the allocation of our industrial resources, taking into account such things as relative currency values, existing and anticipated industry and product demand, the location of customers and suppliers, the cost of goods and labor, and plant utilization levels. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—D. Property, Plant and Equipment” for additional information.
The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, from which the public may obtain any materials the company files with the SEC.
We also make our periodic reports, as well as other information filed with or furnished to the SEC, available free of charge through our website, at www.cnhindustrial.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports and other information are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this report.
Iveco Group N.V. Demerger
Until December 31, 2021, CNH Industrial N.V. owned and controlled the Off-Highway business and On-HIghway business. Effective January 1, 2022, the Iveco Group business was separated from CNH Industrial N.V. by way of a demerger under Dutch law to Iveco Group N.V. (the Demerger) and Iveco Group became a public listed company independent from CNH Industrial. At December 31, 2021, Iveco Group did not qualify for discontinued operations presentation under U.S. GAAP. Therefore, the results presented below include the results of Iveco Group.
B. Business Overview
General
CNH Industrial is a leading equipment and services company engaged in the design, production, marketing, sale, and financing of agricultural and construction equipment. Prior to the Demerger, CNH Industrial also engaged in the design, production, marketing, sale and financing of trucks, commercial vehicles, buses and specialty vehicles for firefighting, defense and other uses, as well as engines, transmissions and axles for those vehicles and engines for marine and power generation applications. We have industrial and financial services companies located in 44 countries and a commercial presence in approximately 180 countries.
Off-Highway Business - Industrial Activities Segments:
Agriculture designs, manufactures and distributes a full line of farm machinery and implements, including two-wheel and four-wheel drive tractors, crawler tractors (Quadtrac®), combines, cotton pickers, grape and sugar cane harvesters, hay and forage equipment, planting and seeding equipment, soil preparation and cultivation implements, and material handling equipment. Agricultural equipment is sold under the New Holland Agriculture and Case IH brands, as well as the STEYR, Kongskilde and Överum brands in Europe and the Miller brand, primarily in North America and Australia.
Construction designs, manufactures and distributes a full line of construction equipment including excavators, crawler dozers, graders, wheel loaders, backhoe loaders, skid steer loaders, and compact track loaders. Construction equipment is sold under the CASE Construction Equipment and New Holland Construction brands.
On-Highway Business - Industrial Activities Segments:
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles designs, manufactures and distributes a full range of light, medium, and heavy vehicles for the transportation and distribution of goods under the IVECO brand, city-buses, commuter buses under the IVECO BUS (previously Iveco Irisbus) and HEULIEZ BUS brands, quarry and mining equipment under the IVECO ASTRA brand, firefighting vehicles under the Magirus brand, and vehicles for civil defense and peace-keeping missions under the Iveco Defence Vehicles brand.
Powertrain designs, manufactures and distributes, under the FPT Industrial brand, a range of combustion engines, alternative propulsion systems, transmission systems and axles for on- and off-road applications, as well as for marine and power generation.
Financial Services:
Financial Services, prior to the Demerger, offered a range of financial products and services to dealers and customers of both Off-Highway and On-Highway Industrial Activities segments. Financial Services provided and administered retail financing to customers for the purchase or lease of new and used vehicles and other equipment sold by CNH Industrial brand dealers. In addition, Financial Services provided wholesale financing to CNH Industrial brand dealers. Wholesale financing consists primarily of floor plan financing
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and allows the dealers to purchase and maintain a representative inventory of products. Financial Services also provided trade receivables factoring services to CNH Industrial companies.
Following the Demerger, the European operations of CNH Industrial Financial Services will be separated as follows: the receivable portfolios related to the captive activity of each group (CNH Industrial and Iveco Group), together with the related funding, will be attributed to each group, while the servicing of these separated portfolios will be performed by Iveco Group’s Financial Services segment. CNH Industrial will provide financial services to Iveco Group companies in the rest of the world.
Net Revenues by Segment and by Region:
Net revenues by segment in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
202120202019
(in millions)
Revenues:
Agriculture$14,721 $10,923 $10,959 
Construction3,081 2,170 2,768 
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles12,160 9,421 10,439 
Powertrain4,419 3,629 4,117 
Eliminations and other(2,759)(1,858)(2,134)
Total Net sales of Industrial Activities31,622 24,285 26,149 
Financial Services1,870 1,823 2,011 
Eliminations and other(64)(76)(81)
Total Revenues$33,428 $26,032 $28,079 
Net revenues by region in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
202120202019
(in millions)(%)(in millions)(%)(in millions)(%)
Revenues:
Europe$15,848 47.4 %$12,878 49.5 %$14,203 50.6 %
North America7,989 23.9 6,142 23.6 6,806 24.2 
South America4,270 12.8 2,666 10.2 2,893 10.3 
Rest of World5,321 15.9 4,346 16.7 4,177 14.9 
Total Revenues$33,428 100.0 %$26,032 100.0 %$28,079 100.0 %
Industry Overview
Agriculture
The operators of dairy, livestock and row crop producing farms, as well as independent contractors that provide services to such farms, purchase most agricultural equipment. Row crop farmers typically purchase tractors at the mid-to-upper end of the horsepower ("hp") range, combines and harvesting equipment and crop production equipment. Dairy and livestock farmers typically utilize tractors in the mid-to-lower hp range and crop preparation and crop packaging implements. The key factors influencing sales of agricultural equipment are the level of net farm income and, to a lesser extent, general economic conditions, interest rates and the availability of financing and related subsidy programs, farm land prices and farm debt levels. Net farm income is primarily impacted by the volume of acreage planted, commodity and/or livestock prices and stock levels, the impacts of fuel ethanol demand, crop yields, farm operating expenses (including fuel and fertilizer costs), fluctuations in currency exchange rates, government subsidies, tax incentives and trade policies. Farmers tend to postpone the purchase of equipment when the farm economy is deteriorating and to increase their purchases when economic conditions improve. The availability, quality, and cost of used equipment for sale also affect the level of new equipment sales. Weather conditions are a major determinant of crop yields and therefore affect equipment-buying decisions. In addition, geographical variations in weather from season-to-season may affect sales volumes differently in different markets. Government policies may affect the market for agricultural equipment by regulating the amount of acreage planted, with direct subsidies affecting specific commodity prices, or with other payments made directly to farmers. Global organization initiatives, such as those of the World Trade Organization, also can affect the market with demands for changes in governmental policies and practices regarding agricultural subsidies, tariffs and acceptance of genetically modified organisms such as seed, feed and animals.
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Demand for agricultural equipment also varies seasonally by region and product, primarily due to differing climates and farming calendars. Peak retail demand for tractors and planting, seeding, and application equipment typically occurs in March through June in the Northern hemisphere and in September through December in the Southern hemisphere. Dealers order equipment year-round but harvesting equipment orders in the Northern hemisphere generally increase in the late fall and winter so that the dealers can receive inventory prior to the peak retail selling season, which generally extends from March through June. In the Southern hemisphere, dealers generally order between August and October so they can receive inventory prior to the peak retail-selling season, which extends from November through February. Agriculture's production levels are based upon estimated retail demand, which takes into account, among other things, the timing of dealer shipments (which occur in advance of retail demand), dealer and Company inventory levels, the need to retool manufacturing facilities to produce new or different models, and the efficient use of labor and facilities. Production levels are adjusted to reflect changes in estimated demand and dealer inventory levels. However, because production and wholesale shipments adjust throughout the year to take into account the factors described above, wholesale sales of agricultural equipment products in any given period may not reflect the timing of dealer orders and retail demand for that period. This situation has been emphasized during the current pandemic environment where the global supply chain has been disrupted for a series of reasons linked with production not able to match demand and transportation becoming congested with increases in lead times and expenses.
Customer preferences regarding farming practices, and thus product types and features, vary by region. In North America, Australia and other areas where soil conditions, climate, economic factors and population density allow for intensive mechanized agriculture, farmers generally demand high capacity, sophisticated machines equipped with the most advanced technology. In Europe, where farms are generally smaller in size than those in North America and Australia, there is greater demand for somewhat smaller, yet equally sophisticated, machines. In the developing regions of the world where labor is more abundant and infrastructure, soil conditions and/or climate are not conducive to intensive agriculture, customers generally prefer simple, robust and durable machines with relatively lower acquisition and operating costs. In many developing countries, tractors are the primary, if not the sole, type of agricultural equipment used, and much of the agricultural work in such countries that cannot be performed by tractors is carried out by hand. A growing number of part-time farmers, hobby farmers and customers engaged in landscaping, municipality and park maintenance, golf course and roadside mowing in Western Europe and North America prefer relatively simple, low-cost agricultural equipment. Our position as a geographically diversified manufacturer of agricultural equipment and our broad geographic network of dealers allows us to provide customers in each significant market with equipment that meets their specific requirements.
Major trends in the North American and Western European agricultural industries include a reduction in number but growth in size of farms, supporting increased demand for higher capacity agricultural equipment. In addition, we believe that the use of technology and other precision farming solutions (including the development of autonomously operated equipment) to enhance productivity and profitability are becoming more important in the buyers’ purchasing decision. In South America and in other emerging markets, the number of farms is growing, and mechanization is replacing manual labor. In Rest of World, long-term demographic trends, increasing urbanization, and low level of farm mechanization represent the key drivers of demand for agricultural equipment.
Government farm programs, including the amount and timing of government payments, are a key income driver for farmers raising certain commodity crops in the United States (the "U.S.") and the European Union. The existence of a high level of subsidies in these markets for agricultural equipment reduces the effects of cyclicality in the agricultural equipment business. The effect of these subsidies on agricultural equipment demand depends largely on the U.S. Farm Bill and programs administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union and World Trade Organization negotiations. Additionally, the Brazilian government subsidizes the purchase of agricultural equipment through low-rate financing programs administered by the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (“BNDES”). These programs have a significant influence on sales.
Agricultural equipment manufacturers are subject to, among other things, continuous changes in engine emission regulations and restrictions. These changes require frequent changes in engine technology, which can involve significant research and development investments. Manufacturers generally attempt to pass these incremental costs on their customers, but these price increases must be balanced with the affordability of the equipment. Each market may have its own unique emissions regulations, which adds a level of complexity required to meet global product needs.
Global demand for renewable fuels increased considerably in recent years driven by consumer preference, government renewable fuel mandates, renewable fuel tax and production incentives. Biofuels, which include fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, have become one of the most prevalent types of renewable fuels. The primary type of biofuel supported by government mandates and incentives varies by region. North America and Brazil are promoting ethanol first and then biodiesel, while Europe is primarily focused on biodiesel.
The demand for biofuels has created an associated demand for agriculturally based feedstocks, which are used to produce biofuels. Currently, most of the ethanol in the U.S. and Europe is extracted from corn, while in Brazil it is extracted from sugar cane. Biodiesel is typically extracted from soybeans and rapeseed oil in the U.S. and Brazil, and from rapeseed and other oil seeds as well as food waste by-products in Europe. The use of corn and soybeans for biofuel has been one of the main factors affecting the supply and demand relationships, as well as the price for these crops. The economic feasibility of biofuels is significantly impacted by the price of oil. As the price of oil falls, biofuels become a less attractive alternative energy source. This relationship will, however, be impacted by government policy and mandates as governments around the world consider ways to combat global warming and avoid potential energy resource issues in the future.
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Sustainability and being a Clean Energy Leader has been a focus of CNH Industrial since 2009. During the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP26 event in Scotland, there was an emphasis on carbon reduction with significant attention on livestock and dairy farming and their impact on emissions from animal waste. With the use of a bio-digester, animal waste and food waste can be processed to produce bio-methane. CNH Industrial has developed a Methane Powered Tractor, which started production in 2021, that runs on methane produced on the farm from the animal and food waste. The CNH Industrial developed Methane Powered Tractor was twice awarded the prestigious Sustainable Tractor of the Year award, most recently at the 2022 EIMA international show and several Methane Power tractors were retailed after intensive testing around the world. Moreover, in 2021 CNH Industrial has participated with a minority equity share participation into the U.K. based technology start-up, Bennamann, which has developed an on-site kit for small-medium size livestock farms to capture and repurpose fugitive methane as a green fuel from their waste and generate bio-methane which would allow a successful implementation of the circular economy in the core of that Agricultural space where we see concerning CO2 emissions.
This approach also improves the sustainability of farmland management practices through minimizing artificial inputs such as manufactured fertilizer, lowering operational costs and reducing pollutants. This concept will contribute to the dairy farms decarbonization and the ‘Energy Independent’ approach is currently being tested across a number of pilot farms in South West England. Bio-methane production started demonstrating the viability of the closed loop energy system.
The most significant change in U.S. crop production was the increase in acreage devoted to corn, typically using land previously planted with soybeans and cotton. In addition, a change in crop rotation resulted in more acres of corn being planted. As a result, agricultural producers are faced with new challenges for managing crop residues and are changing the type of equipment they use and how they use it.
Although the demand for new agricultural equipment tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the aftersales market is historically less volatile than the new equipment market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new equipment sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Agriculture.
Construction
The construction equipment market consists of two principal segments: heavy construction equipment (excluding the mining and the specialized forestry equipment markets in which we do not participate), with equipment generally weighing more than 12 metric tons, and light construction equipment, with equipment generally weighing less than 12 metric tons.
In developed markets, customers tend to prefer more sophisticated machines equipped with the latest technology and features to improve operator productivity. In developing markets, customers tend to prefer equipment that is relatively less costly and has greater perceived durability. In North America and Europe, where the cost of machine operators is higher relative to fuel costs and machine depreciation, customers typically emphasize productivity, performance and reliability. In other markets, where the relative cost for machine operators is lower, customers often continue to use equipment after its performance and efficiency have begun to diminish.
Customer demand for power and operating capacity does not vary significantly from market to market. However, in many countries, restrictions on equipment weight or dimensions, as well as road regulations or job site constraints can limit demand for larger machines.
Although the demand for new construction equipment tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the aftersales market is historically less volatile than the new equipment market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new equipment sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Construction.
Heavy Construction
Heavy construction equipment typically includes general construction equipment such as large wheel loaders and excavators, and road building and site preparation equipment such as graders, compactors and dozers. Purchasers of heavy construction equipment include construction companies, municipalities, local governments, rental fleet owners, quarrying and mining companies, waste management companies and forestry-related concerns.
Sales of heavy construction equipment depend on the expected volume of major infrastructure construction and repair projects such as highway, tunnel, dam and harbor projects, which depend on government spending and economic growth. Demand for aggregate mining and quarrying equipment is more closely linked to the general economy and commodity prices, while growing demand for environmental equipment is becoming less sensitive to the economic cycle. In North America, a portion of heavy equipment demand has historically been linked to the development of new housing subdivisions, where the entire infrastructure needs to be created, thus linking demand for both heavy and light construction equipment. The heavy equipment industry generally follows macroeconomic cyclicality, linked to growth in gross domestic product.
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Light Construction
Light construction equipment is also known as compact and service equipment, and it includes skid-steer loaders, compact track loaders, tractor loaders, rough terrain forklifts, backhoe loaders, small wheel loaders and excavators. Purchasers of light construction equipment include contractors, residential builders, utilities, road construction companies, rental fleet owners, landscapers, logistics companies, and farmers. The principal factor influencing sales of light construction equipment is the level of residential and commercial construction, remodeling and renovation, which is influenced by interest rates and the availability of financing. Other major factors include the construction of light infrastructure, such as utilities, cabling and piping and maintenance expenditures. The principal use of light construction equipment is to replace relatively high-cost, slower manual work. Product demand in the United States and Europe has generally tended to mirror housing starts, but with lags of six to twelve months. In areas where labor is abundant, and the cost of labor is inexpensive relative to other inputs, such as in India, Africa and South America, the light construction equipment market is generally smaller. These regions represent potential areas of growth for light construction equipment in the medium to long-term as labor costs rise relative to the cost of equipment or the supply of labor contraction leading to increased mechanization.
Equipment rental is a significant element of the construction equipment market. Compared to the U.K. and Japan, where there is an established market for long-term equipment rentals as a result of favorable tax treatment, the rental market in North America and Western Europe (except for the U.K.) consists mainly of short-term rentals of light construction equipment to individuals or small contractors for which the purchase of equipment is not cost effective or that need specialized equipment for specific jobs. In North America, the main rental product has traditionally been the backhoe loader and, in Western Europe, it has been the mini-excavator. As the market has evolved, a greater variety of light and heavy equipment products have become available to rent. In addition, rental companies have allowed contractors to rent machines for longer periods instead of purchasing the equipment, enabling contractors to complete specific job requirements with greater flexibility and cost control. Large, national rental companies can significantly impact the construction equipment market, with purchase volumes being driven by their decisions to increase or decrease the size of their rental fleets based on rental utilization rates.
Seasonal demand for construction equipment fluctuates somewhat less than for agricultural equipment. Nevertheless, in North America and Western Europe, housing construction generally slows during the winter months. North American and European industry retail demand for construction equipment is generally strongest in the second and fourth quarters.
Agricultural and Landscaping customers also contribute to a significant portion of the North America light equipment market. In this segment the main applications are related to material handling.
In markets outside of North America, Western Europe and Japan, equipment demand may also be partially satisfied by importing used equipment. Used heavy construction equipment from North America may fulfill demand in the South American market and equipment from Western Europe may be sold to Central and Eastern European, North African and Middle Eastern markets. Used heavy and light equipment from Japan is mostly sold to other Southeast Asian markets, while used excavators from Japan are sold to almost every other market in the world. This flow of used equipment is highly influenced by exchange rates, the weight and dimensions of the equipment and the different local regulations in terms of safety and/or engine emissions.
The construction equipment industry has seen an increase in the use of hydraulic excavators and wheel loaders in earth-moving and material handling applications. In addition, the light equipment sector has grown as more manual labor is being replaced on construction sites by machines with a variety of attachments for specialized applications, such as skid steer loaders, compact track loaders and mini-crawler excavators.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Trucks and Commercial Vehicles
The world truck market is generally divided into two segments: Light Commercial Vehicles (“LCV”) market (gross vehicle weight (“GVW”) 3.5-7.49 metric tons), and Medium and Heavy (“M&H”) truck market (GVW above 7.5 metric tons). The M&H segment is characterized by a higher level of engineering specialization due to the technologies and production systems utilized, while the LCV segment has many engineering and design characteristics in common with the automobile industry. In addition, operators of M&H trucks often require vehicles with a higher degree of customization than the more standardized products that serve the LCV market. Customers generally purchase heavy trucks for one of three primary uses: long distance haulage, construction haulage, and/or distribution.
The regional variation in demand for trucks and commercial vehicles is influenced by differing economic conditions, levels of infrastructure development, and geographic region, all of which lead to differing transport requirements.
M&H truck demand tends to be closely aligned with the general economic cycle and the capital investment cycle including the general level of interest rates and, governmental subsidy programs, particularly in more developed markets such as Europe, North America and Japan, as economic growth provides increased demand for haulage services and an incentive for transporters to invest in more
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efficient, less polluting, higher capacity vehicles and renew vehicle fleets. The product life cycle for M&H trucks typically covers a seven to ten-year period.
Although economic cycles have a significant influence on demand for M&H trucks in emerging economies, the processes of industrialization and infrastructure development have generally driven long-term growth trends in these countries. As a country’s economy becomes more industrialized and its infrastructure develops, transport needs tend to grow in response to increases in production and consumption. Developing economies, however, tend to display volatility in short-term demand resulting from government intervention, changes in the availability of financial resources and protectionist trade policies. In developing markets, demand for M&H trucks increases when it becomes more cost-effective to transport heavier loads, especially as the infrastructure, primarily roads and bridges, becomes capable of supporting heavier trucks. At the same time, the need to transport goods tends to increase in these markets, resulting in increased demand for LCV.
Industry forecasts indicate that transportation of goods by road, currently the predominant mode of transport, will remain so for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, Iveco also offers personalized aftersales customer assistance programs that provide a wide range of modular and flexible maintenance and repair contracts, as well as warranty extension services, to meet a variety of customers’ needs and to support the vehicle’s value over time: demand for those services, as well as for parts, is a function of the number of vehicles in use. Although demand for new commercial vehicles tends to decrease during periods of economic stagnation or recession, the demand for those services is historically less volatile than the new vehicle market and, therefore, helps limit the impact of declines in new vehicle sales on the operating results of full-line manufacturers, such as Commercial and Specialty Vehicles.
Commercial vehicles markets are subject to intense competition based on initial sales price, cost and performance of vehicles over their life cycle (i.e., purchase price, operating and maintenance costs and residual value of the vehicle at the end of its useful life), services and service-related products and the availability of financing options. High reliability and low variable costs contribute to customer profitability over the life of the vehicle and are usually important factors in an operator’s purchase decision. Additional competitive factors include the manufacturer’s ability to address customer transport requirements, driver safety, comfort, and brand loyalty through vehicle design.
Demand for trucks varies seasonally by region and by product class. In Europe, the peak retail demand occurs in the second and fourth quarters due to key fleet customer demands and customer budgetary cycles. In South America, demand is relatively stable throughout the year except for increased demand for heavy trucks in the first and fourth quarters from customers who transport foodstuffs. In Rest of World, sales tend to be higher in the second and fourth quarters due to local holiday periods.
Although we believe that diesel remains, for the foreseeable future, a key fuel source for commercial vehicles and industrial equipment in general, the adoption of new engine technological solutions and growing public opinion in favor of more environmentally friendly solutions are pushing for increased penetration of both alternative and renewable fuels (such as compressed natural gas (“CNG”), liquefied natural gas (“LNG”), and methane and hydrogen) and full electric vehicles.
The car industry is leading autonomous vehicle development, but commercial vehicles are also making advances in platooning and autonomous technologies. We expect this development to intensify. We believe that the growing automation in transportation and infrastructure solutions through the use of self-driving vehicles will also allow the industry to provide greater safety, fuel savings, and transport efficiency.
Buses
The global bus business is organized by mission, from city and intercity transport to tourism purposes, with a capacity ranging from 7 to 150 seated/standing passengers. IVECO BUS (previously Iveco Irisbus) and HEULIEZ BUS target markets include urban and intercity buses. Operators in this industry include three types of manufacturers: those specialized in providing chassis to bodybuilders, those that build bodies on chassis produced by third parties, and those, like IVECO BUS, that produce the entire vehicle.
The primary customers of the bus segment are tour and intercity bus service operators, while the principal customers of the city bus segment are the transport authorities in urban areas.
Deregulation and privatization of transport services in many markets have favored concentration towards large private companies operating in one country, in more than one neighboring country, or at an international level. Demand has increased for highly standardized, high-use products for large fleets, with financing and maintenance agreements or kilometric pricing. Deregulation and privatization have also increased competition between large transport service companies, raising the level of vehicle use and increasing the choice of brands for operators in the market.
Sales for urban and intercity buses are generally higher in the second half of the year, due to public entities budgeting processes, tender rules, and bus production lead-time.
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Powertrain
The dynamics of the industrial powertrain business vary across the different market segments in which the various propulsion systems are used. For vehicle and equipment applications, product development is driven by regulatory requirements (i.e., legislation on pollutant emissions and, increasingly, CO2 emissions), as well as the need to reduce total operating costs: customers are seeking more efficient propulsion systems that lower the total cost of ownership and improve productivity.
For on-road applications in developed markets, where economy and infrastructure drive demand for local and haulage transportation, demand for engines is driven by general economic conditions, capital investment, industrialization, and infrastructure developments.
In the bus and marine markets, engine demand is increasingly influenced by the environmental policies of governments and local authorities (i.e., requirements for natural gas, hybrid and electric solutions).
Demand for off-road applications in the agricultural industry is influenced by many factors, including the price of agricultural commodities and the relative level of new and used inventories, the profitability of agricultural enterprises, net farm income, the demand for food products, agricultural policies, as well as climatic conditions. At the same time, the construction equipment business is driven by general economic factors and the level of public investment in infrastructure, which affects the need for replacement of old equipment and investment in more innovative solutions to boost productivity.
Increasingly stringent emission regulations in Europe, the U.S. and Asia represent an opportunity for Powertrain to gain a competitive advantage through technological solutions developed for engines and after-treatment systems (such as our High Efficiency SCR technology). Alternative fuels represent a viable alternative to diesel for transport vehicles, as they are more environment friendly and offer better fuel economy than diesel while performing comparably to diesel engines (e.g. LNG for Buses and Commercial Vehicles). Increasing demand for alternative propulsion systems (such as electrified powertrain or fuel cell) is expected to continue, as related technologies are growing quickly and will offer business opportunities in the industrial sector. The increasing trend among mid-sized original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") to outsource engine development, due to the significant research and development expenditures required to meet the new emission requirements, presents an opportunity for Powertrain to increase sales to third party customers.
Competition
The industries in which we operate are highly competitive. We believe that we have many competitive strengths that will enable us to improve our position in markets where we are already well established while we direct additional resources to markets and products with high growth potential.
We compete with: (i) large global full-line equipment manufacturers with a presence in every market and a broad range of products that cover most customer needs, (ii) manufacturers who are product specialists focused on particular industry segments on either a global or regional basis, (iii) regional full-line manufacturers, some of which are expanding worldwide to build a global presence, and (iv) local, low-cost manufacturers in individual markets, particularly in emerging markets such as Eastern Europe, India and China.
Our competitive strengths include well-recognized brands, a full range of competitive products and features, a strong presence, distribution and customer service network. There are multiple factors that influence a buyer’s choice of industrial equipment. These factors include the strength and quality of the distribution network, brand loyalty, product features, quality and performance, availability of a full product range, pricing, technological innovations, product availability, financing terms, parts and warranty programs, resale value and customer service and satisfaction. The ability to meet or exceed applicable engine emissions standards as they take effect is also a key competitive factor, particularly in those markets where such standards are the subject of frequent legislative or regulatory scrutiny and change, such as Europe and North America. Emission regulations are becoming a significant competitive factor at global level with new legislation in India and China. We continually seek to improve in each of these areas but focus primarily on providing high-quality and high-value products and on supporting those products through our dealer networks. Customers’ perceptions of product value in terms of productivity, reliability, resale value and dealer support are formed over many years. Buyers tend to favor brands based on experience with the product and the dealer.
The efficiency of our manufacturing, logistic and scheduling systems are dependent on forecasts of industry volumes and our anticipated share of industry sales, which is predicated on our ability to compete successfully with others in the marketplace. We compete based on product performance, customer service, quality, innovation and price. The environment remains competitive from a pricing standpoint, and actions taken to maintain our competitive position in the current challenging economic environment could result in lower than anticipated price realization. The ability of our supply chain and manufacturing system to timely deliver finished goods is also critical to meeting customer expectations. Failure to do so might imply losses of market share and competitiveness.
Our main competitors in the agricultural equipment market are Deere & Company, AGCO Corporation, Claas Group, Argo Tractors S.p.A., the Same Deutz Fahr Group, and Kubota Tractor Corporation.
Our principal competitors in the commercial and specialty vehicles market are Daimler Truck, the Traton Group, the Stellantis Group, Paccar Inc., the Volvo Group, Rosenbauer International AG, Rheinmetall AG, Oshkosh Corporation.
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Our principal competitors in the construction equipment market are Caterpillar Inc., Komatsu Ltd., J C Bamford Excavators Ltd., Hitachi Construction Machinery Co, Ltd., Volvo Group, Liebherr Group, Doosan Group, Kubota Tractor Corporation, and Deere & Company.
The main competitors of Powertrain include Cummins Inc., Daimler Group, Deere & Company, Deutz AG, Traton Group, Volvo Group, Yanmar Co., Ltd, Caterpillar/Perkins and Weichai Power Co. Ltd.
Products and Markets
Agriculture
To capitalize on customer loyalty to its dealers and its brands, Agriculture’s product lines are sold primarily under the Case IH and New Holland Agriculture brands as well as the STEYR brand in Europe and the Miller brand, primarily in North America and Australia. Certain agricultural equipment products are also sold under the Kongskilde, Överum, K-Line and JF brands. We believe that these brands enjoy high levels of brand identification and loyalty among both customers and dealers.
Although newer generation tractors have a high percentage of common mechanical components, each brand and product remains differentiated by features, color, interior and exterior styling, warranty terms, technology offering, and model designation. Flagship products such as row crop tractors and large combine harvesters may have significantly greater differentiation.
Distinctive features that are specific to a particular brand such as the Supersteer® tractor axle or Twin Rotor combine threshing technology for New Holland, the Case IH tracked four-wheel drive tractor, Quadtrac®, and the front axle mounted hitch for STEYR tractors remain an important part of each brand’s unique identity.
Agriculture’s product lines include tractors, combine harvesters, hay and forage equipment, seeding and planting equipment, and self-propelled sprayers. Agriculture also specializes in other key market segments like cotton picker packagers and sugar cane harvesters, where Case IH is a worldwide leader, and in self-propelled grape harvesters, where New Holland Agriculture is a worldwide leader. These brands each offer parts and support services for all of their product lines. Our agricultural equipment is sold with a limited warranty that typically runs from one to three years.
Case IH and New Holland Agriculture brands enable their customers to visualize and share in-depth real-time machine information within the respective AFS-PLM Farm solution and offers data sharing to a vast number of third party providers at full control of the customer. Agriculture launched the AGXTENDTM brand, focused exclusively on aftermarket precision farming technology solutions. AGXTENDTM is designed to provide our dealers and customers access to innovative and more sustainable productivity enhancing precision farming technologies operating seamlessly with the rest of the CNH Industrial Digital and Precision Solution offering.
AFS and PLM Farm (Previously AgDNA) is an industry leading Farm Management Information System (FMIS) that automatically collects and analyzes data from equipment manufactured by CNH Industrial and third-party manufacturers. The cloud-based platform analyzes equipment, agronomic and environmental data to deliver actionable insights directly to customers' smartphones and tablets to help them maximize the agronomic performance of their CNH Industrial and other equipment to increase farm profitability.
Raven Industries, Inc., formerly a long-term strategic supplier, was acquired in order to expand our portfolio of precision agriculture technology offerings and to accelerate the development of advanced machine automation and autonomous agriculture technology.
Raven Applied Technology designs, manufactures, sells, and services innovative precision agriculture products, autonomous solutions, and information management tools, which are collectively referred to as precision agriculture equipment, that help farmers reduce costs, more precisely control inputs, and improve farm yields for the global agriculture market. The Applied Technology product families include application controls, GPS-guidance steering systems, field computers, automatic boom controls, advanced machine automation including autonomous agriculture technology and platforms, information management tools, and injection systems. Applied Technology's services include high-speed in-field internet connectivity and cloud-based data management.
Construction
Construction’s product lines are sold primarily under the CASE Construction Equipment and New Holland Construction brands. CASE provides a wide range of products on a global scale, including crawler excavators and mini-excavators. The New Holland Construction brand family also markets a full product line of construction equipment in South America and focuses on light equipment distributed by the Agriculture network in the other regions.
Construction's products often share common components to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing, purchasing, and development. Construction differentiates these products based on the relative product value, technology, design concept, productivity, product serviceability, color, and styling to preserve the unique identity of each brand.
Heavy construction equipment product lines include general construction equipment such as large excavators and wheel loaders, and road building and site preparation equipment such as compactors, graders and dozers. Light construction equipment is also known as compact and service equipment, and its product lines include backhoe loaders, skid steer and tracked loaders, mini- and midi-
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excavators, and compact wheel loaders. The brands each offer parts and support services for all of their product lines. Our construction equipment is generally sold with a limited warranty that typically runs from one to two years.
We continue to evaluate our Construction business with a view toward increasing efficiencies and profitability as well as evaluating its strategic alliances to improve its position in key markets. In 2021, we completed the acquisition of Sampierana S.p.A., which provides Construction direct control over technology and manufacturing of Mini Excavators.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Trucks and Commercial Vehicles (IVECO and IVECO ASTRA)
Under the IVECO brand, we produce a range of light, medium, and heavy trucks and commercial vehicles for both on-road and off-road use, with approximately 3,700 different models available. Our key products include the Daily, a vehicle that covers the 3.5 – 7.5 ton vehicle weight range, the Eurocargo, that covers the 7.5 – 16 ton range, and the Heavy Duty Trucks with vehicle weight range > 16 ton, which include the Trakker, a vehicle capable of off-road transport, and the S-Way, dedicated to on-road transport. Starting from 2019, IVECO started a process of complete renewal of the heavy product offering with the launch of the S-Way (the new range for long haulage and distribution) and X-Way (dedicated to construction logistics and municipalities); the new T-Way for off-road was introduced in 2021. The product offering is complemented by a series of aftersales and used vehicle assistance services.
Light vehicles include on-road vans and chassis cabs used for short and medium distance transportation and distribution of goods, and off-road trucks for use in quarries and other work sites. We have an estimated 25% market share in Europe in professional heavy cab chassis (above 5 ton GVW). We also offer shuttle vehicles used by public transportation authorities, tourist operators, hotels and sports clubs and campers for recreational travel.
The M&H vehicle product lines include on-road chassis cabs designed for medium and long-distance hauling and distribution. Medium GVW off-road models are typically used for building roads, winter road maintenance, construction, transportation, maintenance of power lines and other installations in off-road areas, civil protection and roadside emergency service. Heavy GVW off-road models are designed to operate in virtually any climate and on any terrain and are typically used to transport construction plant materials, transport and mix concrete, maintain roads in winter and transport exceptionally heavy loads.
We offer ecological diesel and natural gas engines on our entire range of vehicles. We continue to develop engines with specific components and configurations optimized for use with CNG and LNG and we have developed a comprehensive roadmap for the introduction in the market of a complete range of zero emission vehicles (from Light to Heavy).
Under the IVECO ASTRA brand, we build vehicles that can enter otherwise inaccessible quarries and mines and move large quantities of material, such as rock or mud, and perform heavy-duty tasks in extreme climatic conditions. Our product range for IVECO ASTRA includes mining and construction vehicles, rigid and articulated dump trucks and other special vehicles.
On September 3, 2019, CNH Industrial announced a strategic and exclusive Heavy-Duty Truck partnership with Nikola Corporation, a U.S. based company pursuing fuel cell truck technology development. In this context, CNH Industrial, through its wholly owned subsidiary Iveco S.p.A., made an initial subscription to Nikola's share capital (approximately 2.5% shareholding) through a cash contribution of $50 million and an in-kind contribution of $50 million, granting Nikola access to IVECO S-Way technology.
During the second quarter of 2020, Nikola completed a business combination with VectoIQ Acquisition Corp., a publicly-traded special purpose acquisition company. Under the terms and conditions of the business combination, the former shareholders of Nikola received 1.901 shares of VectoIQ for each share held in Nikola and became shareholders of VectoIQ, which, in turn, changed its name to “Nikola Corporation”. The combined company's shares continue to be listed on NASDAQ under the new ticker symbol “NKLA”. Before the completion of the business combination, CNH Industrial increased its investment in Nikola, to $250 million. At December 31, 2021 Iveco S.p.A. beneficially owned approximately 6.208% of Nikola Corporation's common stock.
Iveco S.p.A. and Nikola Corporation are jointly developing cab over battery-electric vehicle (“BEV”) and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (“FCEV”) trucks, which will be manufactured in Europe through a joint venture 50/50 owned by Iveco S.p.A. and Nikola Corporation, and in the U.S. by Nikola Corporation. During 2020, Iveco S.p.A. and Nikola entered into a series of agreements to establish the European joint venture including two licenses granted by the two shareholders to allow this joint venture to manufacture BEVs and at a later stage FCEVs. Furthermore, under these agreements, Iveco S.p.A. will be the manufacturer for any EU emission-related purposes of the vehicles produced and distributed in EU by this European legal entity and will responsible for their distribution in the EU different jurisdictions. The set-up activities of the joint venture started in the fourth quarter of 2020 and are progressing according to internal schedules and production started in Q4 2021.
Buses (IVECO BUS and HEULIEZ BUS)
Under the IVECO BUS and HEULIEZ BUS brands, we offer local and inter-city commuter buses, minibuses, school buses and tourism coaches, and we are leader in inter-city buses as well as in low and zero emissions solutions. IVECO BUS is one of the major European manufacturers in the passenger transport sector, with an estimated market share of 26% in heavy buses in Europe, and is
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expanding its activities globally. HEULIEZ BUS produces city buses for public transportation and is a leader in France for the urban bus market. We have a competitive footprint in Europe, the Middle East and Africa and is looking to grow in Latin America through portfolio expansion. Our bus segment also benefits from sharing technology with IVECO trucks and commercial vehicles.
Specialty Vehicles (Magirus and Iveco Defence Vehicles)
Under the Magirus brand, we manufacture vehicles designed to respond to natural disasters and civil emergencies, such as fires, floods, earthquakes and explosions, using new digital and innovative technologies. Iveco Defence Vehicles develops and manufactures specialized vehicles for defense missions and civil protection.
Powertrain
Powertrain is dedicated to the design, development, manufacture and sale of combustion engines, alternative propulsion systems, transmissions, and axles under the FPT Industrial brand.
FPT Industrial has a wide product offering, including six engine ranges (F1, F5, S8000, NEF, Cursor, V20) from 2 to 20 liter and from 42 hp up to 1,006 hp. Furthermore, FPT Industrial offers the most complete Natural Gas engines line-up on the market for industrial applications, including engine ranges from 136 hp up to 460 hp. FPT Industrial’s product portfolio includes engines for buses and for light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles, engines for industrial machinery including construction, agricultural and industrial equipment, engines for special-purpose vehicles and engines for power generation units and marine applications.
FPT Industrial’s product line-up is completed by versions that use alternative fuels, including engines that run on natural gas and engines compatible with renewable diesel (such as hydro-treated vegetable oil, xTL). With more than 20 years of experience in the research, development and production of natural gas engine technologies for industrial applications, FPT Industrial is an industry leader in this field. In 2018 a dedicated E-Powertrain team was established to develop dedicated projects in the e-powertrain field in industrial applications.
Launches. During 2021, FPT Industrial collected a series of product launches and news. In February, the Brand presented a three-year partnership with Fontanafredda, which includes is the supply of a concept of New Holland Agriculture TK Methane Power crawler vineyard tractor with biomethane to enable the world’s first zero-emissions harvest of a Barolo cru. The tractor is fueled FPT Industrial F28 Natural Gas engines and worked in the Vigna La Rosa cru that produces the grapes for the legendary Barolo of the same name, a wine which has been included in the Wine Spectator Top 100 of the world’s best wines. In April, during the 19th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition, FPT Industrial presented the innovative Cursor 9, Cursor 11, and Cursor 13 engines meeting in advance the GBVI emission standards that were fully implemented in China, starting from July 1, 2021. The three new engines unveiled together with SFH fully expressed brand product strength, based on continuous technological development. The key advancements equipping the Cursor GBVI engines are the Ti-V (Titanium – Vanadium), guaranteeing the engine to be unstoppable, and the eVGT (Electronically-controlled Variable Geometry Turbocharger) for Cursor 13, making the GBVI the best choice for heavy duty truck. In the same month, with a global digital launch called “Marine Virtual Experience”, FPT Industrial presented its further extension of the marine engine line-up for pleasure and commercial applications, specifically tuned for meeting the requirements of a wider audience. The core of the launch was the unveiling of the new C90 170 Stage V dedicated to heavy-duty missions and featuring an optimized fuel map that avoids the need for a urea-based after treatment system. The other highlight was the presentation of the keel cooling system, a solution for effectively cooling engines operating in sandy, muddy and shallow water, without the risk of obstructing the seawater filters and damaging the seawater pumps. During the digital presentation FPT Industrial also showed the N40 170 Stage V and the N67 450 N. Furthermore, the Brand expands its products and services portfolio offering for USA and Canada customers with the launch of a new and comprehensive line of high-quality, high-performance lubricants. From October 18 to 23, FPT Industrial took part in EIMA International 2021, the International Agricultural and Gardening Machinery Exhibition being held in Bologna (Italy). This was the occasion of displaying the F28 engine in its NG and hybrid versions, together with the N67 NG, the F34 Stage V PowerPack and the N45.
Deliveries. In March, FPT Industrial was chosen as preferred engine supplier by TATA DAEWOO Commercial Vehicles for the launch of the new “the CEN”, an innovative formula of semi-medium truck designed to make a strong impact on the domestic South Korean market. In April, in Korea, LS Mtron has become the first Korean tractor manufacturer to adopt the class-leading F34 Stage V engine from FPT Industrial. Offering 55kW of maximum power at 2200 rpm and 375Nm of torque at 1400 rpm, the F34 Stage V is the driving force behind the new LS Mtron XP7074 Utility class 2 AG tractor. In the last quarter, Amazon signed an agreement for the supply of 1,064 IVECO S-Way CNG trucks which are equipped with the Cursor 13 Natural Gas engines. Amazon has already taken delivery of the first batch of 216 units to be operated by its partners in Europe, and another 848 units are on order with deliveries to start in mid-2022. Built in the WCM Gold-Level Plant in Bourbon-Lancy (France), FPT Industrial’s Cursor 13 NG engine represents the best low environmental impact alternative for long-range operations. To be even more close to its customers, FPT Industrial launched MyFPT, an App for smartphone for all engine users. Clients all around the world can have at their fingertips data, user's manuals and service schedules for FPT Industrial engines and machinery equipped with the brand's engines. The App also ensures the status of the power unit in real time (such as the RPM, temperature, consumption, etc.) and granted assistance with a simple “tap”. In May, the Brand signed two Memoranda of Understanding with Landi Renzo Group, a leading company in the design, production and
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distribution of Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Natural Gas and Hydrogen components and systems, with the aim of exploring the possibility of collaborating on Clean Fuel projects. The Memoranda are focused on the possible development of Natural Gas and Hydrogen technology respectively.
Prizes and achievements. 2021 was a year of prizes for the Brand. At the beginning of 2021, FPT Industrial received the Good Design Award for its Cursor X, the innovative Multi-power, Modular, Multi-application and Mindful 4.0 power source concept. Founded in Chicago in 1950 by Eero Saarinen and Charles and Ray Eames, and currently managed by The Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture and Design and The European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies, Good Design remains the oldest and the world’s most recognized program for design excellence worldwide. After that, FPT Industrial celebrated the “Sustainable Tractor of the Year 2021” received by the Claas AXION 960 CEMOS. The winning tractor is fitted with the latest generation of FPT Industrial’s Cursor 9 Stage V engine. This 6-cylinder engine delivers maximum power of 327 kW /460 hp at 1,800 rpm and maximum torque of 1,860 Nm at 1,400 rpm. In July 2021, FPT Industrial and its Bourbon-Lancy plant, France, was awarded with the Gold Medal for the World Class Manufacturing. The road to the highest honor was built on solid pillars and high knowledge, and key gold points mentioned were: quality, machining maintenance and karakuri system. The Bourbon-Lancy plant celebrated also the production of the 10,000th Cursor 13 NG engine, rolling off the line of its line on March 9. Moreover, in October, the 2022 “Tractor of the Year” was given to New Holland T6.180 Methane Power, powered by the FPT Industrial N67 NG engine; the jury underlined the step forward towards more sustainable farming of the powering system. In the end of the year, the innovation, sustainability and the design of the Red Horizon was awarded as Gold Winner of the 2021 edition of the New York Product Design Awards. The jury selected the Red Horizon for the Watercraft Category for successfully consolidating technology, performance, power and design in a beautiful zero emission powerboat concept.
Sales and Distribution
Agriculture and Construction
Agriculture sells and distributes products through approximately 2,500 full-line dealers and distributors with over 6,500 points of sale. Construction sells and distributes products through approximately 470 full-line dealers and distributors with over 1,500 points of sale. Agriculture’s and Construction’s dealers are almost all independently owned and operated. Some Agriculture dealers also sell construction equipment. In the United States, Canada, Mexico, most of Western Europe, Brazil, Argentina, India, China, Russia, Thailand, Australia, and South Africa products are generally distributed directly through the independent dealer network. In the rest of the world, products are either sold to independent distributors who then resell to dealers, or to importers who have their own branches to sell product to retail customers. In both cases, the importers/distributors can take advantage of their size and knowledge of the market to minimize their marketing costs.
Consistent with our brand promotion program, we generally seek to have dealers sell a full range of our products. Typically, greater market penetration is achieved where each dealer sells the full line of products from only one of the brands. Although appointing dealers to sell more than one brand is not part of our business model, some joint dealers exist, either for historic reasons or in limited markets where it is not feasible to have a separate dealer for each brand. In some cases, dealerships are operated under common ownership but with separate points of sale for each brand. In each region, we seek to optimize our distribution strategy to maximize customer satisfaction and sales while reducing structural costs.
In North America and Australia, a trade-in of used equipment typically accompanies the sale of new equipment to end-users. We often provide marketing assistance to our dealers to support the sale of used, trade-in equipment through subsidized financing incentives, inventory carrying cost defrayment, or other methods.
Exclusive, dedicated dealers generally provide a higher level of market penetration. Some dealers may sell complementary products manufactured by other suppliers to complete their product offerings or to satisfy local demand for a particular specialty application or segment.
A strong dealer network with wide geographic coverage is a critical element in the success of Agriculture and Construction. We work to enhance our dealer network through the expansion of our product lines and customer services, including enhanced financial services offerings, and an increased focus on dealer support. To assist dealers in building rewarding relationships with their customers, focused customer satisfaction programs have been introduced and they are expected to incorporate customer input into the relevant product development and service delivery processes.
As the equipment rental business becomes a more significant factor in both the agricultural and construction equipment markets, Agriculture and Construction are continuing to support their dealer network by facilitating sales of equipment to the local, regional and national rental companies through their dealers as well as by encouraging dealers to develop their own rental activities. A strong dealer service network is required to maintain the rental equipment, and to help ensure that the equipment remains at peak performance levels both during its life as rental equipment and afterward when resold into the used equipment market. Agriculture and Construction have launched several programs to support their dealer service and rental operations, including training, improved dealer standards, financing, and advertising. As the rental market is a capital-intensive sector and sensitive to cyclical variations, we expand such
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activities gradually, with special attention to managing the resale of rental units into the used equipment market by our dealers, who can utilize this opportunity to improve their customer base and generate additional parts and service business.
We believe that it is generally more cost-effective to distribute our agricultural and construction equipment products through independent dealers, although Agriculture and Construction maintain a limited number of company-owned dealerships in some markets. As of December 31, 2021, we operated two Agriculture and Construction dealerships in North America and six company-owned Agriculture and Construction dealerships in Europe. We also operate a selective dealer development program, in territories with growth potential but underdeveloped representation by our agricultural and construction equipment brands, that typically involves a transfer of ownership to a qualified operator through a buy-out or private investment after a few years.
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles
Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ worldwide distribution strategy is based on a network of independent dealers, in addition to its own dealerships and branches. As of December 31, 2021, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles had approximately 670 dealers globally (of which 16 were directly owned by us and 11 were branches). All dealers sell spare parts for the relevant vehicles. Commercial and Specialty Vehicles bolsters its distribution strategy by offering incentives to its dealers based on target achievements for sales of new vehicles and parts and providing high quality aftersales services.
As of December 31, 2021, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles had approximately 5,000 sales and/or service network points. In addition to Commercial and Specialty Vehicles' standard one-year full vehicle warranty and two-year powertrain warranty, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles offers personalized aftersales customer assistance programs.
A key element of Commercial and Specialty Vehicles’ growth strategy is its distribution network. In Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Russia, Australia and Latin America, continued consolidation of the distribution network is aimed at improving service to customers (such as the implementation of the Truck Stations network of specialized workshops), increasing profitability and reducing overall distribution costs. In Africa and the Middle East, the distribution network is being expanded to fully exploit growth in these markets.
In the U.K., Commercial and Specialty Vehicles is one of the OEMs that sells trucks and other commercial vehicles to companies which offer commercial vehicle rental solutions, such as Ryder, Fraikin and Burntree, among others.
Powertrain
Powertrain provides propulsion solution products for Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, Agriculture, and Construction segments, powertrain generation units and marine applications. Additionally, Powertrain’s commercial strategy and business model are focused on the development of a portfolio of medium-to-large OEM customers. Powertrain has entered into long-term supply agreements with a growing number of third-party customers.
At December 31, 2021, Powertrain has a network of approximately 66 distributors and 703 dealers/service points globally that cover its entire product range and related market sectors. Large OEMs use their own internal networks to obtain parts and services for purchased equipment, while small OEMs frequently rely on us for delivery of parts and services through Powertrain’s worldwide network.
Pricing and Promotion
The retail price of any particular piece of equipment or vehicle is determined by the individual dealer or distributor and generally depends on market conditions, features, options and, potentially, regulatory requirements. Retail sale prices may differ from the manufacturer-suggested list prices, as a result of different factors (markets' demand, customers' specific requirements, local market conditions, general economic conditions, access to financing, etc.). We sell most of our portfolio to our dealers and distributors at wholesale prices that reflect a discount from the manufacturer-suggested list prices. In the ordinary course of business, we engage in promotional campaigns that may include price incentives or preferential financing terms with respect to the purchase of products.
We regularly advertise our products to the community of farmers, builders, transporters and agricultural and construction contractors, as well as to distributors and dealers in each of our major markets. To reach our target audience, we use a combination of general media, specialized design and trade magazines, the Internet and direct mail. We also regularly participate in major international and national trade shows and engage in co-operative advertising programs with distributors and dealers. The promotion strategy for each brand varies according to the target customers for that brand.
Parts and Services
The quality and timely availability of parts and services are important competitive factors for each of our businesses, as they are significant elements in overall dealer and customer satisfaction and important considerations in a customer’s original equipment purchase decision. We supply parts, many of which are proprietary, to support items in the current product line as well as for products
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we have sold in the past. We also offer personalized aftersales customer assistance programs that provide a wide range of modular and flexible maintenance and repair contracts, as well as warranty extension services, to meet a variety of customers’ needs and to support the vehicle’s value over time. Many of our products can have economically productive lives of up to 20 years when properly maintained, and each unit has the potential to produce a long-term parts and services revenue stream for us and our dealers.
As of December 31, 2021we operated and administered 46 parts depots worldwide either directly, through a joint venture, or through arrangements with warehouse service providers. This network includes 9 parts depots in North America, 14 in Europe, 3 in South America, and 20 in Rest of World. The network includes 31 parts depots that support Agriculture, 27 that support Construction, 19 that support Commercial and Specialty Vehicles and 6 that support Powertrain. These depots supply parts to dealers and distributors, which are responsible for sales to retail customers. Our parts depots and parts delivery systems provide customers with access to substantially all the parts required to support our products.
Joint Ventures
As part of a strategy to enter and expand in new markets, we are also involved in several commercial and/or manufacturing joint ventures. At December 31, 2021, they included the following:
in Japan, we own 50.0% of New Holland HFT Japan Inc. (“HFT”), which distributes its products in Japan. HFT imports and sells the full range of New Holland agricultural equipment;
in Pakistan, we own 43.2% of Al Ghazi Tractors Ltd., which manufactures and distributes New Holland tractors;
in Turkey, we own 37.5% of Turk Traktor ve Ziraat Makineleri A.S., which manufactures and distributes various models of both New Holland and Case IH tractors;
in Mexico, we own 50.0% of CNH de Mexico S.A. de C.V., which manufactures New Holland agricultural equipment and distributes our agricultural equipment through one or more of its wholly-owned subsidiaries;
in China, we control 60% of SAIC Fiat Powertrain Hongyan Ltd (“SFH”), a manufacturing company located in Chongqing, which produces diesel engines under license from us to be sold in the Chinese market and to be exported to Europe, the U.S. and Latin America;
in South Africa, we own 60.0% of Iveco South Africa Works (Pty) Ltd., which manufactures medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicles and buses; and
in Germany, we own 50% of Nikola Iveco Europe GmbH, a 50/50 joint venture with Nikola Corporation, which will manufacture cab over battery-electric vehicle and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle trucks, jointly developed by Iveco S.p.A. and Nikola Corporation.
Suppliers
We purchase materials, parts, and components from third party suppliers. We had approximately 4,142 global direct material suppliers for Industrial Activities at December 31, 2021. Our focus on quality improvement, cost reduction, product innovation and production flexibility requires us to rely upon suppliers with a focus on quality, reliability and the ability to provide cost reductions. We view our relationships with suppliers as critical to our operational effectiveness, and in recent years, we have established closer ties with a significantly reduced number of suppliers, selecting those that enjoy a leading position in the relevant markets.
Certain components and parts used in our products are available from a single supplier and cannot be sourced quickly otherwise. The sudden or unexpected interruption in the availability of certain of our suppliers’ raw materials, parts, and components could result in delays in, or increases in the costs of production. During 2021, some of our operations were temporarily impacted by certain material or component shortages and price volatility due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Financial Services
Financial Services offers a range of financial products and services to dealers and customers in the various regions in which it operates. The principal products offered are retail loan and lease financing for the purchase or lease of new and used equipment and vehicles, wholesale financing to dealers and factoring of trade receivables from CNH Industrial companies. Wholesale financing consists primarily of dealer floor plan financing and gives the dealers the ability to maintain a representative inventory of new products. In addition, Financial Services provides financing to dealers for used equipment and vehicles taken in trade, equipment utilized in dealer-owned rental yards, parts inventory, working capital and other financing needs. As a captive finance business, Financial Services is reliant on and supports the operations of Agriculture, Construction, Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, and Powertrain, their dealers, and customers.
Financial Services supports the growth of Industrial Activities by developing and structuring financial products with the objective of increasing equipment and vehicle sales as well as profitability and customer loyalty. Financial Services’ strategy is to grow a core
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financing business to support the sale of our equipment and vehicles while at the same time maintaining its portfolio credit quality, service levels, operational effectiveness and customer satisfaction. Financial Services also offers products to finance third party equipment and vehicles sold through our dealer network or within our core businesses. Financed third party equipment and vehicles include used equipment and vehicles taken in trade on our products or equipment used in conjunction with or attached to our products.
In North America, customer and dealer financing activities, which support the sales of Agriculture and Construction, are managed through our wholly-owned financial services companies.
In Europe, there are two joint ventures that provide retail financing to customers of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, depending on the country of origin. CNH Industrial Capital Europe S.a.S., a joint venture with BNP Paribas Group, is 49.9% owned by CNH Industrial N.V. and accounted for under the equity method, until the Demerger. Post-Demerger, CNH Industrial N.V. will own 24.95% and Iveco Group will own 24.95%. Transolver Finance Establecimiento Financiero de Credito S.A. (“Transolver Finance”), a joint venture with the Santander Group, is 49% owned by CNH Industrial N.V. and accounted for under the equity method until the Demerger. Post-Demerger, Transolver Finance will be part of the Iveco Group. Transolver Finance also provides wholesale financing to dealers. Additionally, there are vendor programs with banking partners that provide customer financing of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, in different countries. Customer and dealer financing activities not included in the joint ventures or vendor programs, such as factoring of trade receivables, are managed through our wholly-owned financial services companies until the Demerger. Post-Demerger these activities will be serviced by the Iveco Group, who will receive a fee for services rendered.
Post-Demerger, in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), the Iveco Group Financial Services organization will provide services to the CNH Industrial Post-Demerger financial services on customer financing and factoring regulated in a specific Master Service Agreement (Financial Services Master Service Agreement). In Europe, CNH Industrial Financial Services S.A. (renamed in 2022 as Iveco Capital Financial Services S.A.), a French specialized credit institution with passporting to operate in main European countries, wholly-owned by Iveco Group, will manage CNH Industrial Post-Demerger dealer financing through a dedicated securitization. CNH Industrial Capital Solutions S.p.A. will retain the securitization program junior notes.
For South America, customer and dealer financing activities in Brazil are managed through our wholly-owned financial services company, Banco CNH Industrial Capital S.A. (“Banco CNH Industrial Capital”), which support the sales of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles. For customer financing, Banco CNH Industrial Capital mainly serves as a lender for funding provided by BNDES, a federally-owned financial institution linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. In Argentina, customer and dealer financing activities, which support the sales of Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles, are managed through a wholly-owned financial services company. Vendor programs with banking partners are also in place in Argentina.
Post-Demerger, for South America, Banco CNH Industrial Capital S.A. will support and serve sales of Iveco Group with a Vendor Program. Banco CNH Industrial Capital will continue to serve as a lender for Iveco Group. In Argentina, CNH Industrial Post-Demerger Financial Services will support and serve sales of Iveco Group with a Vendor Program.
For Rest of World, customer and dealer financing activities in Australia, New Zealand, Russia and India are managed through wholly-owned financial services companies. In China, dealer financing activities are managed through wholly-owned financial services companies. Post-Demerger CNH Industrial Financial Services will provide dealer and customer financing activities for Iveco Group in Australia, New Zealand and Russia. CNH Industrial Financial Services will continue to provide customer and dealer financing activities for CNH Industrial activities in Australia, New Zealand, Russia, India and dealer financing activities in China.
Customer Financing
Financial Services has certain retail underwriting and portfolio management policies and procedures that are specific to Agriculture, Construction, and Commercial and Specialty Vehicles. This distinction allows Financial Services to reduce risk by deploying industry-specific expertise in each of these businesses. We provide retail financial products primarily through our dealers, who are trained in the use of the various financial products. Dedicated credit analysis teams perform retail credit underwriting. The terms for financing equipment and vehicle retail sales typically provide for retention of a security interest in the equipment or vehicles financed.
Financial Services’ guidelines for minimum down payments for equipment and vehicles generally range from 5% to 30% of the actual sales price, depending on equipment types, repayment terms, and customer credit quality. Finance charges are sometimes waived for specified periods or reduced on certain equipment sold or leased in advance of the season of use or in connection with other sales promotions. For periods during which finance charges are waived or reduced on the retail notes or leases, Financial Services generally receives compensation from the applicable Industrial Activities segment based on Financial Services’ estimated costs and a targeted return on equity. The cost is recognized as a reduction in net sales for the applicable Industrial Activities segment.
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Dealer Financing
Financial Services provides wholesale floor plan financing for nearly all our dealers. This allows them to acquire and maintain a representative inventory of products. Financial Services also provides financing to dealers for used equipment taken in trade, equipment utilized in dealer-owned rental yards, parts inventory, working capital, and other financing needs. For floor plan financing, Financial Services generally provides a fixed period of “interest free” financing to the dealers. This practice helps to level fluctuations in factory demand and provides a buffer from the impact of sales seasonality. For the “interest-free” period, the applicable Industrial Activities segment compensates Financial Services based on Financial Services’ estimated costs and a targeted return on equity. The cost is recognized as a reduction in net sales for the applicable Industrial Activities segment. After the expiration of any “interest-free” period, interest is charged to dealers on outstanding balances until Financial Services receives payment in full.
A wholesale underwriting group reviews dealer financial information and payment performance to establish credit lines for each dealer. In setting these credit lines, Financial Services seeks to meet the reasonable requirements of each dealer while managing its exposure to any one dealer. The credit lines are secured by the equipment or vehicles financed. Dealer credit agreements generally include a requirement to repay the particular financing at the time of the retail sale of the unit. Financial Services leverages employees, third party contractors, and new digital technologies like “geo-fencing” to conduct periodic stock audits at each dealership to confirm that the financed equipment or vehicle is maintained in inventory. These audits are unannounced, and their frequency varies by dealer and depends on the dealer’s financial strength, payment history, and prior performance.
Factoring
Financial Services also provides intragroup factoring of trade and other receivables. This activity involves the purchase (without recourse) of receivables of CNH Industrial companies, originating from the different Industrial Activities segments, and due from third or related parties.
Sources of Funding
The long-term profitability of Financial Services’ activities largely depends on the cyclical nature of the industries in which we operate, interest rate volatility, and the ability to access funding on competitive terms. Financial Services funds its operations and lending activity through a combination of term receivable securitizations, committed secured and unsecured facilities, uncommitted lines of credit, unsecured bonds, unsecured commercial paper, affiliated financing, and retained earnings. Financial Services’ current funding strategy is to maintain sufficient liquidity and flexible access to a wide variety of financial instruments and funding options.
Financial Services has periodically accessed the asset-backed securities (“ABS”) markets in the United States, Canada, and Australia, as part of its retail and wholesale financing programs when those markets offer funding opportunities on competitive terms. Financial Services has also accessed the unsecured bond market in the United States, Brazil, Argentina and Australia and commercial paper markets in the United States and France to diversify its funding sources. Financial Services’ ability to access these markets will depend, in part, upon general economic conditions and Financial Services’ financial condition and portfolio performance. These factors can be negatively affected by cyclical swings in the industries in which we operate.
Competition
The financial services industry is highly competitive. Financial Services competes primarily with banks, equipment finance and leasing companies and other financial institutions. Typically, this competition is based upon the financial products and services offered, customer service, financial terms, and interest rates charged. Financial Services’ ability to compete successfully depends upon, among other things, the availability and competitiveness of funding resources, the development of competitive financial products and services, and licensing or other governmental regulations.
Legal Proceedings
As a global company with a diverse business portfolio, CNH Industrial in the ordinary course of business is exposed to numerous legal risks, including, without limitation, dealer and supplier litigation, intellectual property right disputes, product warranty and defective product claims, product performance, asbestos, personal injury, emissions and/or fuel economy regulatory and contractual issues, competition law and other investigations and environmental claims. The most significant of these matters are described in “Note 14: Commitments and Contingencies” to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2021.
The outcome of any current or future proceedings, claims, or investigations cannot be predicted with certainty. Adverse decisions in one or more of these proceedings, claims or investigations could require CNH Industrial to pay substantial damages or fines or undertake service actions, recall campaigns or other costly actions. It is therefore possible that legal judgments could give rise to expenses that are not covered, or not fully covered, by insurers’ compensation payments and could affect CNH Industrial’s financial position and results.
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Although the ultimate outcome of legal matters pending against CNH Industrial and its subsidiaries cannot be predicted, management believes the reasonable possible range of losses for these unresolved legal matters in addition to the amounts accrued would not have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Follow-up on Damages Claims: in 2011 Iveco S.p.A. ("Iveco"), which, following the Demerger, is now part of Iveco Group N.V., and its competitors in the European Union were subject to an investigation by the European Commission (the “Commission”) into certain business practices in the European Union (in the period 1997-2011) in relation to Medium & Heavy trucks. On July 19, 2016, the Commission announced a settlement with Iveco ("the Decision"). Following the Decision, the Company, Iveco and Iveco Magirus AG ("IMAG") have been named as defendants in proceedings across Europe. The consummation of the Demerger will not allow CNH Industrial to be excluded from current and future follow on proceedings originating from the Decision because under EU competition law a company cannot use corporate reorganizations to avoid liability for private damage claims. In the event one or more of these judicial proceedings would result in a decision against CNH Industrial ordering it to compensate such claimants as a result of the conduct that was the subject matter of the Decision, and Iveco and IMAG does not comply with such decisions, as a result of various intercompany arrangements, then CNH Industrial will ultimately have recourse against Iveco and IMAG for the reimbursement of the damages effectively paid to such claimants. The extent and outcome of these claims cannot be predicted at this time.
FPT Emissions Investigation: on July 22, 2020, a number of CNH Industrial's offices in Europe were visited by investigators in the context of a request for assistance by the public prosecutors of Frankfurt am Main, Germany and Turin, Italy in relation to alleged noncompliance of two engine models produced by FPT Industrial S.p.A. ("FPT"), which is now part of the Iveco Group N.V., installed in certain Ducato (a vehicle distributed by Stellantis) and Iveco Daily vehicles. FPT is providing its full cooperation to properly address the requests received. FPT, other companies of Iveco Group, and in certain instances CNH Industrial and other third parties have received various requests for compensation by German and Austrian customers on various contractual and tort grounds, including requests for damages resulting out of the termination of the purchase contracts, or in the form of requests for an alleged lower residual value of their vehicles as a consequence of the alleged non-compliance with type approval regulations regarding emissions. In certain instances, other customers have brought judicial claims on the same legal and factual bases. Although, at the date hereof, the Company has been informed by the Iveco Group that it has no evidence of any wrongdoing, it cannot predict at this time the extent and outcome of these requests and directly or indirectly related legal proceedings, including customer claims or potential class actions alleging emissions non-compliance.
Insurance
We maintain insurance with third party insurers to cover various risks arising from our business activities including, but not limited to, risk of loss or damage to our assets or facilities, business interruption losses, general liability, automobile liability, product liability and directors' and officers' liability insurance. We believe that we maintain insurance coverage that is customary in our industry. We use a broker that is a subsidiary of Stellantis N.V. ("Stellantis", formerly Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. which, effective January 16, 2021, merged with Peugeot S.A. by means of a cross-border legal merger) to place a portion of our insurance coverage.
C. Organizational Structure
As of December 31, 2021, CNH Industrial had 202 consolidated subsidiaries of which 111 related to the Off Highway business and 91 related to the On Highway business. A listing of our subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021, including the country of incorporation or residence, proportion of ownership interest and proportion of voting power held, is set forth in Exhibit 8.1 to this annual report on Form 20-F.
The following table sets forth a list of the principal subsidiaries that are directly or indirectly controlled by CNH Industrial at December 31, 2021. For each principal subsidiary, the following information is provided: name, country of incorporation or residence, and the percentage interest held by CNH Industrial and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2021 and whether the legal entity is part of the Off Highway Business or the On Highway Business.

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Principal Subsidiaries at December 31, 2021:

Name of SubsidiaryBusinessCountry of IncorporationPercentage Interest Held
Banco CNH Industrial Capital S.A.Off-HighwayBrazil100%
Case Credit Holdings LimitedOff-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
Case New Holland Industrial Inc.Off-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Industrial America LLCOff-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Industrial U.S. Holdings Inc.Off-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Industrial Brasil Ltda.Off-HighwayBrazil100%
CNH Industrial Capital LimitedOff-HighwayUnited Kingdom100%
CNH Industrial Capital LLCOff-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Industrial Capital America LLCOff-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Capital Receivables LLCOff-HighwayUnited States (Delaware)100%
CNH Industrial Capital Canada Ltd.Off-HighwayCanada100%
CNH Industrial Capital Solutions S.p.A.Off-HighwayItaly100%
CNH Industrial Finance Europe S.A.Off-HighwayLuxembourg100%
CNH Industrial Finance S.p.A.Off-HighwayItaly100%
CNHI International S.A.Off-HighwaySwitzerland100%
FPT Industrial S.p.A.On-HighwayItaly100%
Iveco Capital Solutions S.p.A.On-HighwayItaly100%
Iveco S.p.A.On-HighwayItaly100%
Iveco Espana S.L.On-HighwaySpain100%
Iveco France SASOn-HighwayFrance100%
New Holland Ltd.Off-HighwayUnited Kingdom100%
Raven Industries Inc.Off-HighwayUnited States (South Dakota)100%
D. Property, Plant and Equipment
As of December 31, 2021, we owned 70 manufacturing facilities. We also own other significant properties including spare parts depots, research laboratories, test tracks, warehouses, and office buildings.
We make capital expenditures in the regions in which we operate principally related to initiatives to introduce new products, enhance manufacturing efficiency and improve capacity, and for maintenance and engineering. In 2021, our total capital expenditures in long-lived assets, excluding assets sold with buy-back commitments and equipment on operating leases, were $714 million of which 15% was spent in North America, 7% in South America, 73% in Europe and 5% in Rest of World. These capital expenditures were funded through a combination of cash generated from operating activities and borrowings under short-term facilities. In 2020, our total capital expenditures were $484 million. In 2021, capital expenditures were higher than in 2020 as expenditures returned to more normal levels from the pandemic-affected low levels experienced last year.
The following table provides information about our manufacturing and engineering facilities of the Off-Highway business as of December 31, 2021:
LocationPrimary Functions
Approximate Covered
Area (Sqm/ 000)
Italy
Bagno di RomagnaEarthmoving machines40
JesiTractors77
LecceWheel loaders, compact track loaders, telehandlers; graders; R&D center130
ModenaComponents (Agriculture and Construction)102
S. MatteoR&D center (Agriculture)51
United States
BensonSprayers, cotton pickers; R&D center41
BurlingtonBackhoe loaders, forklift trucks; R&D center91
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Burr Ridge (Hinsdale)R&D center (Agriculture, Construction and Diesel engines)44
FargoTractors, wheeled loaders; R&D center88
GoodfieldSoil management equipment; R&D center39
Grand IslandTractors and combines128
Mt. JoyR&D center (Agriculture)11
Mt. VernonTracks; R&D center7
New HollandHay & Forage; R&D center104
RacineTractors, transmissions105
Sioux FallsAg Assembly Mfg, Repair Shop, Training and R&D center20
St. NazianzSelf-propelled sprayers24
WichitaSkid steer loaders; R&D center46
France
CoexGrape Harvesters; R&D center26 
CroixCabins (Agriculture)12 
Tracy-Le-MontHydraulic cylinders (Agriculture and Construction)16 
Brazil
Belo HorizonteCrawler excavators, crawler dozers, wheel loaders, graders, backhoe loaders; R&D center70 
CuritibaCombines and tractors; R&D center117 
PiracicabaSugar cane harvesters, coffee harvesters, sprayers; R&D center20 
SorocabaCombines and other Agriculture; R&D center188 
China
HarbinCombines, tractors, balers; R&D center121 
UrumqiCotton pickers10 
Belgium
AntwerpComponents (Agriculture)77 
ZedelgemCombines, forage harvesters and balers; R&D center154 
India
NoidaTractors; R&D center92 
PithampurBackhoe loaders, earth compactors, crawler excavator; R&D center45 
PuneSugar cane harvesters and combines; R&D center77 
Poland
KutnoRow crop, cultivators, harvesters; R&D center33 
PlockCombines, balers and headers; R&D center129 
Others
Cordoba (Argentina)Tractors and combines30 
St. Valentin (Austria)Tractors; R&D center53 
Cowra (Australia)Tillage; R&D center
Saskatoon (Canada)Sprayers, seeders; R&D center61 
Queretaro (Mexico)Components (Agriculture and Construction)15 
Naberezhnye Chelny (Russia)Tractors and combines50 
Wieringerwerf (Netherlands)Ag Assembly Mfg
Överum (Sweden)Ploughs; R&D center49 
Basildon (United Kingdom)Tractors; R&D center129 
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The following table provides information about our manufacturing and engineering facilities of the On-Highway business as of December 31, 2021:
LocationPrimary Functions
Approximate Covered
Area (Sqm/000)
Italy
BresciaMedium vehicles, cabs, chassis; R&D center276
BresciaFirefighting vehicles; R&D center28
BolzanoDefense vehicles; R&D center83
FoggiaEngines; drive shafts; R&D center151
PiacenzaQuarry and construction vehicles; R&D center64
SuzzaraLight vehicles; R&D center170
TorinoTransmissions and axles239
TorinoEngines142
TorinoR&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)41
TorinoR&D center (Powertrain)28
France
AnnonayBuses (Coaches & City); R&D center114
Bourbon LancyEngines; R&D center107
FecampEngines (power generation units)16
FourchambaultEngines (remanufacturing)24
RorthaisBuses (City); R&D center29
VenissieuxR&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)17
Brazil
Sete LagoasHeavy, medium and light vehicles; R&D center160
Sete LagoasDefense vehicles19
Sete LagoasEngines; R&D center
Germany
UlmFirefighting vehicles; R&D center92 
UlmR&D center (Commercial and Specialty Vehicles)45
China
ChongqingEngine; R&D centers76 
ChongqingATS plant
ShanghaiR&D center (Powertrain)— 
Argentina
Cordoba(Medium/Heavy) Trucks and buses; R&D center94 
CordobaEngines20 
Spain
MadridHeavy vehicles; R&D center134 
ValladolidLight vehicles, heavy cab components81 
United Kingdom