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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 ________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
  _________________________________________________ 

(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number: 001-14901
  __________________________________________________
CNX Resources Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 51-0337383
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
CNX Center
1000 Horizon Vue Drive
Canonsburg, PA 15317-6506
(724) 485-4000
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 __________________________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($.01 par value)CNXNew York Stock Exchange
Preferred Share Purchase Rights--New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer      Non-accelerated filer      Smaller Reporting Company   Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the closing price of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date was $2,216,454,440.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of February 6, 2024 is 151,791,457 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of CNX's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 2, 2024, are incorporated by reference in Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page
PART I
ITEM 1.Business
ITEM 1A.Risk Factors
ITEM 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
ITEM 1C.Cybersecurity
ITEM 2.Properties
ITEM 3.Legal Proceedings
ITEM 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
PART II
ITEM 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
ITEM 6.Reserved
ITEM 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
ITEM 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
ITEM 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
ITEM 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures
ITEM 9A.Controls and Procedures
ITEM 9B.Other Information
ITEM 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
PART III
ITEM 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
ITEM 11.Executive Compensation
ITEM 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
ITEM 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
ITEM 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
PART IV
ITEM 15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
ITEM 16.Form 10-K Summary
SIGNATURES


2


GLOSSARY OF CERTAIN OIL AND GAS TERMS

The following are certain terms and abbreviations commonly used in the oil and gas industry and included within this Form 10-K:

Bbl - One stock tank barrel, or 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume, used in reference to oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.
Bcf - One billion cubic feet of natural gas.
Bcfe - One billion cubic feet of natural gas equivalents, with one barrel of oil being equivalent to 6,000 cubic feet of gas.
Btu - One British Thermal Unit.
BBtu - One billion British Thermal Units.
Mbbls - One thousand barrels of oil or other liquid hydrocarbons.
Mcf - One thousand cubic feet of natural gas.
Mcfe - One thousand cubic feet of natural gas equivalents, with one barrel of oil being equivalent to 6,000 cubic feet of gas.
MMBtu - One million British Thermal Units.
MMcfe - One million cubic feet of natural gas equivalents, with one barrel of oil being equivalent to 6,000 cubic feet of gas.
Tcfe - One trillion cubic feet of natural gas equivalents, with one barrel of oil being equivalent to 6,000 cubic feet of gas.
NGL - natural gas liquids - those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation or other methods in gas processing plants.
net - “net” natural gas or “net” acres are determined by adding the fractional ownership working interests the Company has in gross wells or acres.
TIL - turn-in-line; a well turned to sales.
NYMEX - New York Mercantile Exchange.
basis – when referring to commodity pricing, the difference between the price for a commodity at a primary trading hub and the corresponding sales price at various regional sales points. The differential commonly is related to factors such as product quality, location, transportation capacity availability and contract pricing.
blending - process of mixing dry and damp gas in order to meet downstream pipeline specifications.
condensate - a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the gaseous phase at original reservoir temperature and pressure, but that, when produced, is in the liquid phase at surface pressure and temperature.
conventional play - a term used in the oil and natural gas industry to refer to an area believed to be capable of producing crude oil and natural gas occurring in discrete accumulations in structural and stratigraphic traps utilizing conventional recovery methods.
coal mine methane - any gaseous hydrocarbon that is extracted or released through wells, degasification boreholes, ventilation or bleeder shafts for the purposes of degasifying underground coal mining operations. Coal Mine Methane may be extracted or released within or above mining activities and produced during, before, or after mining activity occurs or had occurred in connection with the degasification activities.
developed reserves - developed reserves are reserves that can be expected to be recovered: (i) through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well; and (ii) through installed extraction equipment and infrastructure operational at the time of the reserves estimate if the extraction is by means not involving a well.
development well - a well drilled within the proved area of an oil or natural gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.
dry gas - natural gas that contains little to no liquid hydrocarbons.
environmental attributes - items such as (but not limited to): carbon credits, air quality credits, renewable or alternative energy credits, methane capture credits, methane performance certificates, emission reductions, offsets and/or allowances.
exploratory well - a well drilled to find a new field or to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or natural gas in another reservoir. Generally, an exploratory well is any well that is not a development well, an extension well, a service well or a stratigraphic test well.
exploration costs - costs incurred in identifying areas that may warrant examination and in examining specific areas that are considered to have prospects of containing oil and natural gas reserves, including costs of drilling exploratory wells and exploratory-type stratigraphic test wells. Exploration costs may be incurred both before acquiring the related property (sometimes referred to in part as prospecting costs) and after acquiring the property. Principal types of exploration costs, which include depreciation and applicable operating costs of support equipment and facilities and other costs of exploration activities, are: (i) costs of topographical, geographical and geophysical studies and the rights to access the properties in order to conduct those studies, (ii) costs of carrying and retaining undeveloped properties, such as delay rentals and the maintenance of land and lease records, (iii) dry hole contributions (iv) costs of drilling and equipping exploratory wells, and (v) costs of drilling exploratory-type stratigraphic test wells.
gob well  - a well drilled or vent hole converted to a well which produces or is capable of producing coalbed methane or other natural gas from a distressed zone created above and below a mined-out coal seam by any prior full seam extraction of the coal.
gross acres - the total acres in which a working interest is owned.

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gross wells - the total wells in which a working interest is owned.
lease operating expense - costs of operating wells and equipment on a producing lease, many of which are recurring. Includes items such as water disposals, repairs and maintenance, equipment rental and operating supplies, among others.
net acres - the number of acres an owner has out of a particular number of gross acres.
net wells - the percentage ownership interest in a well that an owner has based on the working interest.
New Technologies - currently represents what CNX views as a unique set of market opportunities in the areas of environmental attributes, proprietary technology and derivative product development. See Part I, Item 1- Business of this Form 10-K for a discussion of CNX’s New Technology efforts.
play - a proven geological formation that contains commercial amounts of hydrocarbons.
production costs - costs incurred to operate and maintain wells and related equipment and facilities, including depreciation and applicable operating costs of support equipment and facilities, which become part of the cost of oil and natural gas produced.
proved reserves - quantities of oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGLs) which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation.
proved developed reserves (PDPs) - proved reserves which can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods.
proved undeveloped reserves (PUDs) - proved reserves that can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be recovered from new wells on undrilled proved acreage or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for completion.
reservoir - a porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible natural gas and/or oil that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is separate from other reservoirs.
royalty interest - an interest in an oil and natural gas lease that gives the owner of the interest the right to receive a portion of the production from the leased acreage (or of the proceeds of the sale thereof), but generally does not require the owner to pay any portion of the costs of drilling or operating the wells on the leased acreage. Royalties may be either landowners' royalties, which are reserved by the owner of the leased acreage at the time the lease is granted, or overriding royalties, which are usually reserved by an owner of the leasehold in connection with a transfer to a subsequent owner.
throughput - the volume of natural gas transported or passing through a pipeline, plant, terminal, or other facility during a particular period. 
transportation, gathering and compression - cost incurred related to transporting natural gas to the ultimate point of sale. These costs also include costs related to physically preparing natural gas, natural gas liquids and condensate for ultimate sale which include costs related to processing, compressing, dehydrating and fractionating, among others.
service well - a well drilled or completed for the purpose of supporting production in an existing field. Specific purposes of service wells include, among other things, gas injection, water injection and salt-water disposal.
unconventional formations - a term used in the oil and gas industry to refer to a play in which the targeted reservoirs generally fall into one of three categories: (1) tight sands, (2) coal beds or (3) shales. The reservoirs tend to cover large areas and lack the readily apparent traps, seals and discrete hydrocarbon-water boundaries that typically define conventional reservoirs. These reservoirs generally require fracture stimulation treatments or other special recovery processes in order to achieve economic flow rates.
undeveloped reserves - undeveloped reserves are reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required. Reserves on undrilled acreage are limited to those directly offsetting development spacing areas that are reasonably certain of production when drilled, unless evidence exists that establishes reasonable certainty of economic producibility at greater distances. Undrilled locations can be classified as having proved undeveloped reserves only if a development plan has been adopted indicating that they are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless the specific circumstances justify a longer time. Under no circumstances shall estimates for undeveloped reserves be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual projects in the same reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or by other evidence using reliable technology establishing reasonable certainty.
unproved properties - properties with no proved reserves.
working interest - an interest that gives the owner the right to drill, produce and conduct operating activities on a property and receive a share of any production.
wet gas - natural gas that contains significant heavy hydrocarbons, such as propane, butane and other liquid hydrocarbons.


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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K) includes the following cautionary statement to make applicable and take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any forward-looking statements made by, or on behalf of us. With the exception of historical matters, the matters discussed in this Form 10-K are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. The forward-looking statements may include projections and estimates concerning the timing and success of specific projects and our future production, revenues, income and capital spending. When we use the words “believe,” “intend,” “expect,” “may,” “should,” “anticipate,” “could,” “estimate,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” "will," or their negatives, or other similar expressions, the statements which include those words are usually forward-looking statements. When we describe strategy that involves risks or uncertainties, we are making forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements are neither predictions nor guarantees of future events, circumstances or performance and are inherently subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and assumptions about future events. While our management considers these expectations and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently subject to significant business, economic, competitive, regulatory and other risks, contingencies and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Factors that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from our expectations, estimates, assumptions, projections and/or forward-looking statements include (i) the risks, contingencies and uncertainties described in the Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K and (ii) the factors described in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K; we disclaim any obligation to update these statements unless required by securities law, and we caution you not to rely on them unduly.

PART I

ITEM 1.Business

General

CNX Resources Corporation (“CNX,” the “Company,” or “we,” “us,” or “our”) is a premier independent low carbon intensity natural gas development, production, midstream and technology company centered in the Appalachian Basin. The majority of our operations are centered on unconventional shale formations, primarily the Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale, in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia. Additionally, we operate and develop Coalbed Methane (CBM) properties in Virginia. We believe that our extensive held-by-production acreage position and development inventory, combined with our regional operating expertise, extensive data set from development and non-operational participation wells, midstream infrastructure ownership, low-cost operations and legacy surface acreage position provide us with significant competitive advantages that position us for long-term value creation.

CNX's Strategy and Corporate Values

CNX’s strategy is to use our substantial asset base, leading core operational competencies, technology development and innovation, and astute capital allocation methodologies to responsibly develop our resources and create long-term value for our shareholders. Our mission is to empower our team to embrace and drive innovative change that creates long-term per share value for our investors, enhances our communities and delivers energy solutions for today and tomorrow.

CNX defines itself through its corporate values that serve as our road map and guide every aspect of our business as we strive to achieve our corporate mission:

Responsibility: Be a safe and compliant operator; be a trusted community partner and respected corporate citizen; act with pride and integrity;
Ownership: Be accountable for our actions and learn from our outcomes, both positive and negative; be calculated risk-takers and seek creative ways to solve problems; be prudent capital allocators; and
Excellence: Be a lean, efficient, nimble organization; be a disciplined, reliable, performance-driven company; be an inclusive team treating each other with fairness and respect.


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These values are the foundation of CNX's identity and are the basis for how management defines continued success. With the benefit of a more than 155-year legacy and a substantial asset base amassed over many generations, the Company deploys a strategy focused on responsibly developing its resources to create long-term per share value for its shareholders, as well as enhancing the communities where it operates.

CNX believes that natural gas is central to a low-cost, reliable, secure, lower-carbon energy future that benefits American consumers, workers and the environment. CNX has the benefit of having its operations centered in the Appalachian Basin, which the Company believes is one of the largest, most efficient, and environmentally sustainable sources of natural gas in the world.

2023 Operational Highlights and Outlook

Over the past ten years, CNX's total sales volumes have grown by approximately 225% to a total of 560.4 net Bcfe in 2023;
Total average production of 1,535,250 Mcfe per day in 2023;
92% Natural Gas, 8% Liquids; and
93% Shale, 7% coalbed methane.

At December 31, 2023, our proved natural gas, NGL, condensate and oil reserves (collectively, “natural gas reserves”) had the following characteristics:

8.7 Tcfe of proved reserves;
90.6% natural gas;
69.0% proved developed; and
99.5% operated.

In 2024, CNX expects capital expenditures to be between $575 million and $625 million. The Company continuously evaluates multiple factors to determine activity throughout the year, and as such, may update guidance accordingly.

DETAIL OF OPERATIONS

Our operations include the following plays:

Shale

Our Shale properties represent our primary operating and growth area in terms of reserves, production, and capital investment. We have rights to extract natural gas from Shale formations in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio from approximately 527,000 net Marcellus Shale acres and approximately 607,000 net Utica Shale acres at December 31, 2023. Approximately 341,000 Utica Shale acres coincide with Marcellus Shale acreage in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio.

The Upper Devonian Shale formation, which includes both the Burkett Shale and Rhinestreet Shale, lies above the Marcellus Shale formation in southwestern Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia. The Company holds approximately 53,000 acres of incremental Upper Devonian acres; however, these acres have historically not been disclosed separately as they generally coincide with our Marcellus acreage, and we have no current drilling program targeting this formation.

Coalbed Methane (CBM)

We have rights to extract CBM in Virginia from approximately 278,000 net CBM acres at December 31, 2023. We extract CBM natural gas primarily from the Pocahontas #3 seam. CNX also has the right to capture Coal Mine Methane (CMM) from active and abandoned mines in this region. The CMM we capture would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere as third-party mining operations progress.

CNX also has rights to extract CBM from approximately 1,755,000 net CBM acres, and rights to capture CMM from various active and abandoned mines in other states including West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and New Mexico; however, the Company has no current plans to drill CBM wells or capture CMM in these areas.




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Other Gas

We have rights to extract natural gas from other Shale and shallow oil and gas formations primarily in Illinois, Indiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia from approximately 939,000 net acres at December 31, 2023. The majority of our shallow oil and gas leasehold position is held by third-party production and all of it is extensively overlain by existing third-party natural gas gathering and transmission infrastructure.

Summary of Properties as of December 31, 2023
ShaleCBMOther Gas
SegmentSegmentSegmentTotal
Estimated Net Proved Reserves (MMcfe)
7,923,341 812,320 5,081 8,740,742 
Percent Developed (1)
69 %64 %100 %69 %
Net Producing Wells (including oil and gob wells)588 3,792 45 4,425 
Net Acreage Position:
Net Proved Developed Acres 112,282 234,686 38,119 385,087 
Net Proved Undeveloped Acres (2)
40,811 — — 40,811 
Net Unproved Acres (3)
692,746 1,798,774 900,612 3,392,132 
     Total Net Acres (4)
845,839 2,033,460 938,731 3,818,030 
_________
(1)    Percent developed is calculated as net proved developed reserves divided by net proved reserves, measured in MMcfe.
(2)    Net proved undeveloped acres represent undrilled locations and can only be classified as having proved undeveloped reserves if a development plan has been adopted indicating that they are scheduled to be drilled within five years, unless the specific circumstances justify a longer time (See glossary of oil and gas terms for additional information).
(3)    Net acres include acreage attributable to our working interests in the properties. Additional adjustments (either increases or decreases) may be required as we further develop title to and further confirm our rights with respect to our various properties in anticipation of development. We believe that our assumptions and methodology in this regard are reasonable.
(4)    Acreage amounts are only included under the target strata CNX expects to produce, with the exception of certain CBM acres governed by separate leases.

Producing Wells and Acreage

Most of our development wells and proved acreage are located in Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania. Some leases are beyond their primary term, but these leases are extended in accordance with their terms as long as certain drilling commitments or other term commitments are satisfied.

The following table sets forth, at December 31, 2023, the number of producing wells, developed acreage and undeveloped acreage:
Gross(1)
Net(2)
Producing Gas Wells (including gob wells) - Working Interest4,499 4,425 
Producing Oil Wells - Working Interest— 
Producing Gas Wells - Royalty Interest320 — 
Producing Oil Wells - Royalty Interest126 — 
Net Acreage Position:
Proved Developed Acreage385,087 385,087 
Proved Undeveloped Acreage40,811 40,811 
Unproved Acreage4,704,922 3,392,132 
     Total Acreage5,130,820 3,818,030 
_________
(1)    All of our acreage identified as proved developed and undeveloped is controlled fully by CNX through ownership of a 100% working interest.
(2)    Net acres include acreage attributable to our working interests in the properties. Additional adjustments (either increases or decreases) may be required as we further develop title to and further confirm our rights with respect to our various

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properties in anticipation of development. We believe that our assumptions and methodology in this regard are reasonable.

The following table represents the terms under which we hold these acres:    
Gross Unproved AcresNet Unproved AcresGross Proved Undeveloped AcresNet Proved Undeveloped Acres
Held by Production/Fee4,623,168 3,349,590 29,977 29,977 
Expiration Within 2 Years31,812 17,377 4,319 4,319 
Expiration Beyond 2 Years49,942 25,165 6,515 6,515 
    Total Acreage4,704,922 3,392,132 40,811 40,811 

The leases reflected above as Gross and Net Unproved Acres with expiration dates are included in our current drill plan or active land program. Leases with expiration dates within two years represent approximately 1% of our total net unproved acres and leases with expiration dates beyond two years represent approximately 1% of our total net unproved acres. In each case, we deemed this acreage to not be material to our overall acreage position. Additionally, based on our current drill plans and lease management we do not anticipate any material impact to our consolidated financial statements from the expiration of such leases.

Development Wells (Net)

During the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, we drilled 30.8, 37.0 and 33.0 net development wells, respectively. Gob wells and wells drilled by other operators in which we own an interest are excluded from net development wells. As of December 31, 2023, there were 13.8 net development wells and no exploratory wells drilled but uncompleted. The Company includes drilled and uncompleted net development wells in proved undeveloped reserves and the Company intends to complete and turn-in-line the wells within five years of the initial disclosure. There were no net dry development wells in 2023, 2022 or 2021. As of December 31, 2023, there were no net completed developmental wells ready to be turned in-line.

The following table illustrates the net wells drilled by well classification type:
For the Years
Ended December 31,
202320222021
Shale Segment30.8 37.0 33.0 
CBM Segment— — — 
Other Gas Segment— — — 
     Total Development Wells (Net)30.8 37.0 33.0 

Exploratory Wells (Net)

There were no net exploratory wells drilled during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. As of December 31, 2023, there are no net exploratory wells in process.

Reserves

The following table shows our estimated proved developed and proved undeveloped reserves. Reserve information is net of royalty interest. Proved developed and proved undeveloped reserves are reserves that could be commercially recovered under current economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations. Proved developed and proved undeveloped reserves are defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Net Reserves (Millions of Cubic Feet Equivalent)
As of December 31,
202320222021
Proved Developed Reserves6,027,762 6,221,422 5,905,611 
Proved Undeveloped Reserves2,712,980 3,585,468 3,720,119 
Total Proved Developed and Undeveloped Reserves (1)
8,740,742 9,806,890 9,625,730 

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___________
(1)    For additional information on our reserves, see Note 22 – Supplemental Gas Data (unaudited) to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Discounted Future Net Cash Flows

The following table shows our estimated future net cash flows and total standardized measure of discounted future net cash flows at 10%:
As of December 31,
202320222021
(Dollars in millions)
Estimated Future Net Cash Flows (pre-tax) less Undiscounted Income Taxes$7,356 $31,559 $16,017 
Total PV-10 Non-GAAP Measure of Pre-Tax Discounted Future Net Cash Flows (1)
$4,201 $14,501 $8,081 
Total Standardized GAAP Measure of After-Tax Discounted Future Net Cash Flows$3,110 $10,763 $5,882 
____________
(1)    We calculate our present value at 10% (PV-10) in accordance with the following table. Management believes that the presentation of the non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (non-GAAP) financial measure of PV-10 provides useful information to investors because it is widely used by professional analysts and sophisticated investors in evaluating oil and gas companies. Because many factors that are unique to each individual company impact the amount of future income taxes estimated to be paid, the use of a pre-tax measure is valuable when comparing companies based on reserves. PV-10 is not a measure of the financial or operating performance under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). PV-10 should not be considered as an alternative to the standardized measure as defined under GAAP. We have included a reconciliation of the most directly comparable GAAP measure-after-tax discounted future net cash flows.

Reconciliation of PV-10 to Standardized GAAP Measure
As of December 31,
202320222021
(Dollars in millions)
Average Henry Hub Price ($/MMBtu)(1)
$2.637 $6.357 $3.598 
Future Cash Inflows$20,281 $54,714 $31,839 
Future Production Costs(8,515)(10,225)(8,247)
Future Development Costs (including Abandonments)(2)
(1,903)(2,234)(1,736)
Future Net Cash Flows (pre-tax)9,863 42,255 21,856 
10% Discount Factor(5,662)(27,754)(13,775)
PV-10 (Non-GAAP Measure)4,201 14,501 8,081 
Undiscounted Income Taxes(2,507)(10,696)(5,839)
10% Discount Factor1,416 6,958 3,640 
Discounted Income Taxes(1,091)(3,738)(2,199)
Standardized GAAP Measure(3)
$3,110 $10,763 $5,882 
___________
(1)    Based on the average, first day-of-the-month price.
(2)    Future development costs for 2023 include $535 million of plugging and abandonment costs and $210 million of midstream and water infrastructure capital on an undiscounted pre-tax basis. On a PV-10 pre-tax discounted basis, these amounts equate to $49 million and $173 million, respectively.
Future development costs for 2022 include $442 million of plugging and abandonment costs and $293 million of midstream and water infrastructure capital on an undiscounted pre-tax basis. On a PV-10 pre-tax discounted basis, these amounts equate to $8 million and $242 million, respectively.
Future development costs for 2021 include $406 million of plugging and abandonment costs and $235 million of midstream and water infrastructure capital on an undiscounted pre-tax basis. On a PV-10 pre-tax discounted basis, these amounts equate to $7 million and $198 million, respectively.
(3)    For additional information on our reserves, see Note 22 – Supplemental Gas Data (unaudited) to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

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Sales Volumes Produced

The following table sets forth net sales volumes produced for the periods indicated:
For the Year
Ended December 31,
202320222021
Natural Gas
  Sales Volume (MMcf)
      Shale473,828 496,614 502,184 
      CBM40,598 43,733 49,570 
      Other242 349 234 
          Total514,668 540,696 551,988 
NGL*
  Sales Volume (Mbbls)
      Shale7,410 6,333 5,976 
          Total7,410 6,333 5,976 
Oil and Condensate*
  Sales Volume (Mbbls)
      Shale203 240 396 
      Other
          Total206 246 400 
Total Sales Volume (MMcfe)
      Shale519,503 536,050 540,413 
      CBM40,598 43,733 49,570 
      Other265 386 265 
          Total**560,366 580,169 590,248 
*Oil, NGLs, and Condensate are converted to Mcfe at the rate of one barrel equals six Mcf based upon the approximate relative energy content of oil and natural gas.
**See Part II. Item 7. “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K for a breakdown of sales volume variances.

CNX expects 2024 annual sales volumes to be approximately 570-590 Bcfe (This includes approximately 15-18 Bcfe of coal mine methane. See New Technologies below for more information).



















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Average Sales Price and Average Lifting Cost

The following table sets forth the total average sales price and the total average lifting cost for all of our natural gas and NGL production for the periods indicated. Total lifting cost is the cost of raising gas to the gathering system and does not include depreciation, depletion or amortization. See Part II. Item 7. “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K for a breakdown by segment.
For the Year
Ended December 31,
202320222021
Average Sales Price - Gas (per Mcf)$2.20 $6.27 $3.55 
Gain (Loss) on Commodity Derivative Instruments - Cash Settlement (per Mcf)$0.32 $(3.35)$(0.98)
Average Sales Price - NGLs (per Mcfe)**$3.54 $6.36 $5.65 
Average Sales Price - Oil/Condensate (per Mcfe)**$10.98 $13.65 $9.39 
Total Average Sales Price (per Mcfe) Including Effect of Derivative Instruments$2.61 $3.17 $2.79 
Total Average Sales Price (per Mcfe) Excluding Effect of Derivative Instruments
$2.32 $6.29 $3.70 
Average Lifting Costs Excluding Ad Valorem and Severance Taxes (per Mcfe)
$0.11 $0.11 $0.08 
Average Sales Price - NGLs (per Bbl)$21.24 $38.16 $33.90 
Average Sales Price - Oil/Condensate (per Bbl)$65.88 $81.90 $56.34 
**Oil, NGLs, and Condensate are converted to Mcfe at the rate of one barrel equals six Mcf based upon the approximate relative energy content of oil and natural gas.

Sales of NGLs, condensates and oil enhance our reported natural gas equivalent sales price. Across all volumes, when excluding the impact of hedging, sales of liquids added $0.12 per Mcfe, $0.02 per Mcfe, and $0.15 per Mcfe for 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively, to average gas sales prices. CNX expects to continue to realize a liquids uplift benefit as additional wells are turned-in-line, primarily in the liquid-rich areas of the Marcellus Shale. We continue to sell the majority of our NGLs through the large midstream companies that process our natural gas. This approach allows us to take advantage of the processors’ transportation efficiencies and diversified markets. CNX directly markets certain NGLs taken “in-kind” pursuant to processing contracts that provide for the ability to take our NGLs “in-kind.” The processed purity products are ultimately sold to industrial, commercial and petrochemical markets.

In order to manage the market risk exposure of volatile natural gas prices in the future, CNX enters into various physical natural gas supply transactions with both gas marketers and end users for terms varying in length. Reserves and production estimates are believed to be sufficient to satisfy these obligations. In the past, we have delivered quantities required under these contracts. CNX also enters into various financial natural gas swap transactions to manage the market risk exposure to in-basin and out-of-basin pricing. These transactions exist parallel to the underlying physical transactions and represented approximately 420.3 Bcf of our total sales volumes for the year ended December 31, 2023 at an average price of $2.51 per Mcf. The notional volumes associated with these gas swaps represented approximately 460.3 Bcf of our total sales volumes for the year ended December 31, 2022 at an average price of $2.43 per Mcf. As of January 5, 2024, these physical and swap transactions represent approximately 434.2 Bcf of our estimated 2024 production at an average price of $2.53 per Mcf, 375.1 Bcf of our estimated 2025 production at an average price of $2.41 per Mcf, 339.0 Bcf of our estimated 2026 production at an average price of $2.53 per Mcf, and 216.2 Bcf of our estimated 2027 production at an average price of $3.35 per Mcf.
CNX's hedging strategy and information regarding derivative instruments used are outlined in Part II. Item 7A. “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” and in Note 19 – Derivative Instruments in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Midstream Gas Services

CNX designs, builds and operates natural gas gathering systems to move natural gas from the wellhead to interstate pipelines or other local sales points. In addition, over time CNX has acquired extensive gathering assets through acquisitions. CNX owns or operates approximately 2,700 miles of natural gas gathering pipelines as well as a number of natural gas processing facilities.



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CNX owns substantially all of its Shale gathering systems in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. With respect to CNX’s Shale wells in Ohio, CNX primarily contracts with third-party gathering services. CNX also provides natural gas gathering services to third parties.

CNX has developed a diversified portfolio of firm transportation capacity options to support its production. CNX plans to selectively acquire firm capacity on an as-needed basis, while minimizing transportation costs and long-term financial obligations. Optimization of our firm transportation portfolio may also include, from time to time and as appropriate, releasing firm transportation to others. CNX also benefits from the strategic location of our primary production areas in southwestern Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia and eastern Ohio. These areas are currently served by a large concentration of major pipelines that provide CNX with access to major gas markets without the necessity of transporting our natural gas out of the region. In addition to firm transportation capacity, CNX has developed a processing portfolio to support produced volumes from its wet gas production areas and has the operational and contractual flexibility to potentially convert a portion of currently processed wet gas volumes to be marketed as dry gas volumes, or vice-versa, as economically appropriate.
 
CNX has the advantage of having natural gas production from lower Btu wells in close proximity to higher Btu wells. Separately, the low Btu natural gas and the high Btu natural gas may need processing in order to meet downstream pipeline specifications. The geographic proximity and interconnected gathering system servicing these wells, however, allow CNX to blend this gas together and in some cases eliminate the need for the costly processing of natural gas that does not meet pipeline specification. This allows us more flexibility in bringing wells online at qualities that meet interstate pipeline specifications.

CNX also supplies turn-key solutions for water sourcing, delivery and disposal for our natural gas operations and supplies solutions for water sourcing as well as delivery and disposal for third parties. In coordination with our midstream operations, CNX works to develop solutions that coincide with our midstream operations to offer natural gas gathering and water delivery solutions in one package to third parties.

Marketing

Substantially all of our natural gas is sold at market prices primarily under short-term sales contracts and is subject to seasonal and general market price swings. The principal markets for our natural gas are in the Appalachian Basin where we sell natural gas to gas marketers, industrial customers, local distribution companies, and power generation facilities. Our extensive hedge position mitigates unpredictability in pricing on hedged volumes.

We also incur gathering, compression, processing, and transportation expenses to move our natural gas production from the wellhead to our principal markets in the United States. Although we own midstream facilities, we also gather, process, and transport our natural gas to market by utilizing pipelines and facilities owned by others where we have long-term contractual capacity arrangements or use purchaser-owned capacity under both long-term and short-term sales contracts.

To date, we have not experienced significant difficulty in transporting or marketing our natural gas production as it becomes available; however, there is no assurance that we will always be able to transport and market all of our production.

CNX expects natural gas to continue to be a significant contributor to the domestic electric generation mix in the long term, as well as to fuel industrial growth in the U.S. economy. Continued demand for CNX's natural gas and the prices that CNX obtains are affected by natural gas use in the production of electricity, pipeline capacity, weather, U.S. manufacturing and the overall strength of the economy, environmental and government regulation, technological developments, the availability and price of competing alternative fuel supplies, and national and regional supply and demand dynamics.

Natural Gas Competition

CNX gas operations are primarily located in the eastern United States, specifically the Appalachian Basin, which is highly fragmented and not dominated by any single producer. We believe that competition among producers is based primarily on acreage position, drilling and operating costs as well as pipeline transportation availability to the various markets. CNX competes with other large producers, as well as a myriad of smaller producers and marketers. CNX also competes for pipeline capacity and other services to deliver its products to customers.

New Technologies

CNX’s New Technologies efforts are rooted in the Company’s extensive legacy asset base and innovative tradition. They currently represent what CNX views as a unique set of market opportunities in the areas of environmental attributes, proprietary technology and derivative product development.

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Environmental Attributes. CNX actively explores potential pathways to develop and qualify environmental attributes under various programs. The environmental attributes that we generate and sell can include items such as (but are not limited to): carbon credits, air quality credits, renewable or alternative energy credits, methane capture credits, methane performance certificates, emission reductions, offsets and/or allowances. In the near term, we anticipate the majority of our New Technologies’ earnings to result from CMM capture activities being monetized through the Pennsylvania Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (AEPS) program, other compliance programs, and sales to various voluntary market counterparties that desire to purchase carbon offsets to be used towards their own emission reduction goals. We expect the annual volumes of waste methane captured for 2024 that would qualify for these various programs to be approximately 15-18 Bcfe.

We continue to focus efforts on opportunities to grow both the volume and value of environmental attributes as a source of future earnings. These new markets are volatile and have significant risk associated with eligibility, qualification and compliance with applicable programs, changing market conditions, increased competition, as well as political and regulatory risk. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors - We may be unable to qualify for existing federal and state level environmental attribute credits and new markets for environmental attributes are currently volatile, and otherwise may not develop as quickly or efficiently as we anticipate or at all.” for certain risks associated with environmental attributes.

Proprietary Technology. CNX is actively pursuing the commercialization of internally developed proprietary technologies that seek to reduce both cost and emissions during various natural gas development phases. The ability to achieve commercial success with these activities is dependent on, among other considerations, successful testing and validation of our technology and future market adoption. To date, no revenue has been generated associated with these activities.

Derivative Products. CNX believes that using natural gas as a sustainable fuel source for high-emitting economic sectors like transportation, manufacturing, and other industrial processes could dramatically reduce emissions footprints in those sectors while creating new vertical markets for compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and help fast-track the implementation of downstream products such as hydrogen and ammonia. As an active participant in West Virginia’s pursuit of a regional hydrogen energy hub, CNX joined the Appalachian Regional Clean Hydrogen Hub (ARCH2) coalition in 2022. CNX brings local expertise, low-carbon technology capabilities, infrastructure, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) skill sets to the coalition, which is composed of energy producers, end-users, infrastructure developers and technological experts.

CNX expects capital expenditures associated with New Technologies and other emission reduction activities to be between $5 million to $10 million in 2024. As mining progresses, new sources of waste methane are created every year throughout our region, in addition to the currently unabated sources that exist from historical mining activity. Each of these potential abatement opportunities represents a stand-alone discrete investment decision. While CNX will make new investments each year to capture some of these unabated sources, currently available incentives do not provide sufficient economic justification to significantly expand our activities. As such, we do not anticipate any major investments in new capture projects until an alternate monetization pathway improves the economics of these projects.

Non-Core Mineral Assets and Surface Properties

CNX owns significant natural gas assets that are not in our short-term or medium-term development plans. We continually explore the monetization of these non-core assets by means of sale, lease, contribution to joint ventures or a combination of the foregoing in order to bring the value of these assets forward for the benefit of our shareholders. We also control a significant amount of surface acreage. This surface acreage is valuable to us in the development of the gathering system for our Shale production. We also derive value from this surface control by granting rights of way or development rights to third parties.

Human Capital Management

As of December 31, 2023, CNX had 470 employees, which includes 47 employees directly attributable to our midstream operations and 63 employees directly attributable to our CBM operations in Virginia. CNX is not a party to any collective bargaining agreements. CNX recognizes that our future success depends on the expertise and services of our employees and is firmly committed to the health and safety of not only our employees and service providers, but also the communities in which CNX operates.






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Training and Education. CNX employs a variety of initiatives dedicated to ensuring that our employee and contractor workforce is appropriately trained and aligned on expectations regarding safety and environmental performance. These programs utilize behavior-based techniques, which embrace a collaboration between management, employees, and the service provider workforce to continually focus attention and actions on appropriate daily safety behaviors. This is accomplished through an evergreen approach, with consistent evaluation and adaptation for workforce, safety, and business objectives. Fundamentally, daily on-site safety meetings, job safety analyses (JSA) and the universal expectation for any employee or contractor to stop work if a risk is identified combine to enforce our cultural focus on Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) awareness, also known as Operational Excellence. Accountability is an expectation at all levels of the Company—from individual contributors and service providers to management and executive leadership. In addition to continual analysis and assessment, CNX empowers its employees and contractors to take corrective action or stop work immediately if adverse safety or environmental conditions are identified. CNX expects all of its employees and service providers to meet the training requirements outlined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and all other appropriate regulatory entities, and to always conduct our daily business consistent with our core values of Responsibility, Ownership and Excellence. CNX also provides the opportunity for all employees to obtain certification in First Aid, CPR, and AED administration. The Company’s safety training content is published on its corporate website to afford service providers ready access to CNX’s expectation of individual empowerment and accountability.

Diversity and Inclusion. CNX values diversity throughout the organization. The Company believes that a diverse, talented team working together in an inclusive culture is key to achieving long-term goals. CNX prioritizes diversity within recruiting and hiring practices and believes in cultivating a culture sensitive to the importance of diversity in the workplace. In addition, the Company’s Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council (D&I Council) and cross-training rotational program for diverse employees augment the Company’s broader talent management and diversity goals. The D&I Council hosts/facilitates multiple events throughout the year to create awareness and training opportunities focused on a variety of topics. These events allow employees to be exposed to cultural experiences of individuals with identities that may be different from their own and gives them the opportunity to learn how others may experience the same workplace in very different ways.

Employee Attraction and Retention. CNX recognizes the importance of attracting and retaining top talent to help drive the Company’s strategy forward. The Company is committed to attracting, developing, engaging, retaining, and rewarding a diverse team of highly skilled individuals dedicated to accountability, fairness, and respect. The continued success of CNX is not only contingent upon seeking out the best possible candidates, but, more importantly, retaining and developing the Company’s existing talent. CNX is proud to offer opportunities for employees to improve their skills and help achieve individual career goals, including continuing education assistance and professional development for employees pursuing advanced education, certifications, or skill building. Goal attainment and outstanding achievements contribute to the year-end discretionary incentive pay awarded to employees that perform above expectations.

Quality Management Systems. CNX is committed to fostering a culture of accountability and continuous improvement through the utilization of a Quality Management System (QMS), which strengthens accountability across the enterprise, and reinforces our core values of Responsibility, Ownership, and Excellence. QMS provides all employees, visitors, contractors and subcontractors who operate on our behalf with a practical, easily accessible system that defines clear expectations, responsibilities and standards that provide the basis of accountability for quality and excellence in all aspects of our business. QMS allows for continual identification, development of documentation control, and standardization of all processes and procedures throughout the organization. The elements of health, safety, environmental and quality control are housed in a unified system that allows for widespread utilization and measurement. CNX has formalized our approach in these areas to deliver results that are consistently safe, predictable and environmentally responsible. CNX conducts regular internal and external audits to ensure compliance, adherence to best-in-class processes and continuous improvement, as we relentlessly strive to be the most responsible and efficient operator in the industry. CNX’s management expectation is that QMS will serve as the platform through which the senior leadership manages and measures excellence in all operational aspects.

Health and Safety. No job or activity is considered a success if CNX compromises the safety of its employees and contractors. CNX employs stop work empowerment, where every person working at CNX locations is empowered to stop work if they feel there is a safety risk to themselves or others. This empowerment approach is reactive, when necessary, but also includes proactive measures such as procedural enhancements and communication. CNX further promotes empowerment through its CNX Hazard Training compliance, and verification of contractor training and short service employee program. Our safety professionals provide support throughout all phases of operation with education, training, policy development, audits and emergency preparedness and response. The evaluation of our health and safety performance is an ongoing, daily discussion, with key performance indicators being regularly monitored and analyzed for trends across operations. As trends are identified, CNX utilizes the information to amend policies, training and company-wide communication. CNX’s hybrid approach, where the traditional safety group is merged with an operational field compliance team, forms the Operational Excellence department. The Operational Excellence department falls under the direction of the Chief Operating Officer. The Environmental, Safety and

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Corporate Responsibility (ESCR) Committee of the Board of Directors is kept apprised of quality, health, safety, and environmental related matters as needed and with monthly updates and quarterly meetings. CNX employs safety, health, compliance, and quality professionals with a variety of certifications such as an Occupational Health Nurse, Emergency Medical Technicians, Certified Safety Professionals, Certified Welding Inspectors, and Certified Piping Inspectors.

Emergency Preparedness and Response. Emergency response plans are developed for all CNX locations and operations. The plans are reviewed for effectiveness biannually and are communicated to affected employees through safety meetings and training. Drills and mock emergency exercises are conducted to ensure all employees understand their roles and responsibilities during an actual event. These exercises range from tabletop exercises to internal drills, up to and including events involving external resources. CNX actively engages with local municipalities and emergency responders to ensure they are aware of our planned activities. This helps to familiarize emergency response resources with CNX personnel, facilities and operations. This proactive approach gives emergency responders the opportunity to ask questions and understand CNX protocols, so they are prepared in the case of an emergency.

Industry Segments

Financial information concerning industry segments, as defined by GAAP, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 is included in Note 21 – Segment Information in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K and is incorporated herein by reference.

Laws and Regulations

General

Our operations are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations, with a heavy emphasis placed on compliance with environmental laws and regulations, which cover virtually every aspect of our operations including, among other things: transportation and use of public roads; construction of well pads, impoundments, tanks and roads; pooling and unitizations; water withdrawal and procurement for well stimulation purposes; well drilling, casing and hydraulic fracturing; stormwater management; well production; well plugging; venting or flaring of natural gas; pipeline construction and the compression and transmission of natural gas and liquids; reclamation and restoration of properties after natural gas operations are completed; handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of materials used or generated by natural gas operations; the calculation, reporting and payment of taxes on gas production; and gathering of natural gas production. In addition to various laws and regulations governing our natural gas operations, CNX is also subject to laws and regulations with respect to our employees, including health and safety regulations, those relating to our status as a public company, and those governing our participation in derivative markets. Further, our customers, including those in the electric power generation industry, are themselves subject to extensive regulation, including environmental impact.

CNX endeavors to conduct our natural gas and midstream operations in compliance with all applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations. However, because of extensive and comprehensive regulatory requirements against a backdrop of variable geologic and seasonal conditions, exceedances and violations of permits and other regulatory requirements during operations can and do occur. Such exceedances and violations generally result in fines or penalties but could also result in operational changes and/or make it more difficult for us to obtain necessary permits in the future. The possibility exists that new legislation or regulations may be adopted which would have a significant impact on our operations or on our customers' ability to use our natural gas and may require us or our customers to change our or their operations significantly or incur substantial costs. See “Risk Factors -- Existing and future governmental laws, regulations, other legal requirements and judicial decisions that govern our business may increase our costs of doing business and may restrict our operations” for additional discussion regarding additional laws and regulations affecting our business, operations and industry.

The Company anticipates that compliance with existing laws and regulations governing the Company and its current operations will not have a material adverse effect upon its capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. Additional proposals that affect the oil and natural gas industry are regularly considered by Congress, the states, local governments, regulatory agencies and the courts. The Company cannot predict when or whether any such proposals may become effective or the effect that such proposals may have on the Company.

Environmental Laws

Many of the laws and regulations governing our operations are state-level environmental laws and regulations, which vary according to the state where CNX is operating. Our natural gas and midstream operations are also subject to numerous federal environmental laws and regulations.

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In addition to routine reviews and inspections by regulators to confirm compliance with applicable regulatory and permit requirements, CNX has established protocols for ongoing assessments to identify potential environmental exposures. These assessments take into account industry and internal best management practices and evaluate compliance with laws and regulations, and applicable permits, and include reviews of our third-party service providers, including, for instance, waste management transporters and related facilities.

Hydraulic Fracturing Activities. Hydraulic fracturing is typically regulated by state oil and natural gas commissions and similar agencies; however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has asserted certain regulatory authority over hydraulic fracturing and has moved forward with various regulatory actions, including regulations requiring green completions for hydraulically fractured wells. In addition, the EPA in 2014 disclosed its intent to develop regulations to require companies to disclose information regarding the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing. Some states, including states in which CNX operates, have adopted regulations that could impose more stringent disclosure and/or well construction requirements on hydraulic fracturing operations, or otherwise seek to ban some or all of these activities. Additionally, these and other federal requirements and proposals may be subject to further development, review and revision by the EPA.
 
Scrutiny of hydraulic fracturing activities also continues in other ways at the federal and local levels. For example, in June 2015, the EPA issued its draft report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water and groundwater. The draft report found no systemic negative impacts from hydraulic fracturing. In December 2016, the EPA released its final report on the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water. While the language was changed and included the possibility of negative impacts from hydraulic fracturing, it also included the guidance to industry and regulators on how the process can be performed. CNX cannot predict whether any other legislation or regulations will be enacted and, if so, what its provisions will be.

Clean Air Act. The federal Clean Air Act and corresponding state laws and regulations regulate air emissions primarily through permitting and/or emissions control requirements. This affects natural gas production and processing operations. Various activities in our operations are subject to air quality regulation, including pipeline compression, venting and flaring of natural gas, and hydraulic fracturing and completion processes, as well as fugitive emissions from operations. CNX obtains permits, typically from state or local authorities, to conduct these activities. Additionally, CNX is required to obtain pre-approval for construction or modification of certain facilities, to meet stringent air permit requirements, or to use specific equipment, technologies or best management practices to control emissions. Further, some states and the federal government have proposed that emissions from certain proximate and related sources should be aggregated to provide for regulation and permitting of a single, major source. Federal and state governmental agencies continue to investigate the potential for emissions from oil and natural gas activities and further regulation could increase our cost or temporarily restrict our ability to produce. For example, the EPA sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards for certain pollutants and changes to such standards could cause us to make additional capital expenditures or alter our business operations in some manner. See “Risk Factors - Climate change risk, legislation, litigation and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions at the federal or state level may increase our operating costs and reduce the value of our natural gas assets” for additional discussion regarding certain laws and regulations related to air emissions and related matters.

Clean Water Act. The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and corresponding state laws affect our natural gas operations by regulating storm water or other regulated substance discharges, including pollutants, erosion, sediment and spills and releases of oil, brine and other substances, into surface waters (and under some state statutory schemes groundwater) and in certain instances imposing requirements to dispose of produced wastes and other oil and natural gas wastes at approved disposal facilities. The discharge of pollutants into jurisdictional waters is prohibited, except in accordance with the terms of a permit issued by the EPA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or a delegated state agency. These permits require regular monitoring and compliance with effluent limitations and reporting requirements and govern the discharge of pollutants into regulated waters. Federal and state regulatory agencies can impose administrative, civil and/or criminal penalties for non-compliance with discharge permits or other requirements of the CWA and analogous state laws and regulations. See “Risk Factors -Environmental regulations can increase costs and introduce uncertainty that could adversely impact the market for natural gas with potential short and long-term liabilities” for additional discussion regarding certain laws and regulations related to clean water, the disposal or use of water and related matters.

Endangered Species Act. The Endangered Species Act and related state laws and regulations protect plant and animal species that are threatened or endangered. Some of our operations are located in areas that are or may be designated as protected habitats for endangered or threatened species, including the Northern Long-Eared and Indiana bats, which has a seasonal impact on our construction activities and operations. New or additional species that may be identified as requiring protection or consideration may lead to delays in permits and/or other restrictions on construction and development.


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Safety of Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipelines. Natural gas pipelines serving our operations are subject to regulation by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) pursuant to the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, (NGPSA), as amended by the Pipeline Safety Act of 1992, the Accountable Pipeline Safety and Partnership Act of 1996, the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002 (PSIA), the Pipeline Inspection, Protection, Enforcement and Safety Act of 2006 and the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011. The NGPSA regulates safety requirements in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of natural gas pipeline facilities, while the PSIA establishes mandatory inspections for all U.S. oil and natural gas transmission pipelines in high-consequence areas. Additionally, certain states, such as West Virginia, also maintain jurisdiction over intrastate natural gas lines. These statutes and related regulations may be revised or amended which may lead to additional safety requirements. See “Risk Factors -- CNX may incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of pipeline operations and/or increases in the regulation of natural gas pipelines and gathering facilities” for additional discussion regarding gas transmission and gathering pipelines.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and corresponding state laws and regulations affect natural gas operations by imposing requirements for the management, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes, including wastes generated by natural gas operations. Facilities at which hazardous wastes have been treated, stored or disposed of are subject to corrective action orders issued by the EPA that could adversely affect our financial results, financial condition and cash flows. On December 28, 2016 the EPA entered into a consent order to resolve outstanding litigation brought by environmental and citizen groups regarding the applicability of RCRA to wastes from oil and gas development activities. In April 2019, the EPA issued a report pursuant to the consent order concluding that revisions to the federal regulations for the management of exploration and production wastes under RCRA were not necessary at the time the report was issued. Many state governments have specific regulations and guidance for exploration and production wastes. CNX cannot predict whether the EPA may change its conclusion at some point, or whether any other legislation or regulations will be enacted at a federal or state level and if so, what its provisions will be.

Other Laws and Regulations

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Regulations and orders issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) impact our natural gas business to a certain degree. Although the FERC does not currently directly regulate our natural gas production activities, the FERC has stated that it intends for certain of its orders to foster increased competition within all phases of the natural gas industry. Additionally, the FERC has jurisdiction over the transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce, and regulates the terms, conditions of service and rates for the interstate transportation of our natural gas production. The FERC possesses regulatory oversight over natural gas markets, including anti-market manipulation regulation. The FERC has the ability to assess civil penalties, order disgorgement of profits and recommend criminal penalties for violations of the Natural Gas Act or the FERC’s regulations and policies thereunder.

Section 1(b) of the Natural Gas Act exempts natural gas gathering facilities from regulation by the FERC. However, the distinction between federally unregulated gathering facilities and FERC-regulated transmission facilities is a fact-based determination, and the classification of such facilities may be the subject of dispute and, potentially, litigation. CNX owns certain natural gas pipeline facilities that CNX believes meet the traditional tests used to establish a pipeline's status as a gatherer not subject to FERC jurisdiction.

Natural gas prices are currently unregulated, but Congress historically has been active in the area of natural gas regulation. CNX cannot predict whether new legislation to regulate natural gas sales might be enacted in the future or what effect, if any, any such legislation might have on our operations.

Occupational Safety and Health Act. Our natural gas operations are subject to regulation under the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and comparable state laws in some states, all of which regulate health and safety of employees at our natural gas operations. Additionally, OSHA's hazardous communication standard, the EPA community right-to-know regulations under Title III of the federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act and comparable state laws and regulations require that information be maintained about hazardous materials used or produced by our natural gas operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local governments and the public.

Climate Change Laws and Regulations. Climate change continues to be an area of legislative and regulatory focus. There are a number of proposed and final laws and regulations intended to limit or increase disclosure or transparency with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, and proposed regulations that restrict emissions or require more stringent reporting could increase our costs should the requirements necessitate the installation of new equipment or the purchase of emission credits or allowances. These laws and regulations could also impact our customers, including the electric generation industry, by making alternative sources of energy more competitive. Additional regulation could also lead to permitting delays and additional monitoring and administrative requirements, with commensurate impacts on electricity generating operations. See “Risk

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Factors - Climate change risk, legislation, litigation and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions at the federal or state level may increase our operating costs and reduce the value of our natural gas assets” for additional discussion regarding certain laws and regulations related to climate change, greenhouse gas and related matters.

Real Estate and Title Regulations. CNX acquires ownership or leasehold rights to oil and natural gas properties prior to conducting operations on those properties. The legal requirements of such ownership or leasehold rights generally are established by state statutory or common law. As is customary in the natural gas industry, CNX has generally conducted only a summary review of the title to oil and gas rights that are not yet in our development plans, but which CNX believes it controls. This summary review is conducted at the time of acquisition or as part of a review of our land records. Prior to the commencement of development operations on natural gas and CBM properties, CNX conducts a thorough title examination and performs curative work with respect to significant title defects. Our discovering title defects which CNX is unable to cure may adversely impact our ability to develop those properties and CNX may have to reduce our estimated gas reserves including our proved undeveloped reserves. In accordance with the foregoing, CNX has completed title work on substantially all of our natural gas and CBM properties that are currently producing and believes that CNX has satisfactory title to our producing properties in accordance with standards generally accepted in the industry. See “Risk Factors - CNX may incur losses as a result of title defects in the properties in which CNX invests or the loss of certain leasehold or other rights related to our midstream activities.”

Financial and Derivatives Regulations. In 2010, Congress adopted comprehensive financial reform legislation that established federal oversight and regulation of the OTC derivative market and entities, such as the Company, which participate in that market. This legislation, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act), required the CFTC, the SEC and other regulatory agencies to promulgate rules and regulations implementing this legislation. The CFTC has adopted and implemented final rules that impose regulatory obligations on all market participants, including the Company, such as recordkeeping, certain reporting obligations and other regulations relevant to natural gas hedging activities. However, it is still not possible at this time to predict the full extent of the impact of the regulations on the Company's hedging program or regulatory compliance obligations. See “Risk Factors- Our hedging activities may prevent us from benefiting from price increases and may expose us to other risks.”

Available Information

Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). CNX is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we file or furnish reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Such reports and other information CNX files with the SEC are available free of charge at our website www.cnx.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports and other information are filed with or furnished to the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. CNX periodically provides other information for investors on its corporate website, including press releases and other information about financial performance, information on corporate governance and presentations. Our references to website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only. The information found on, or that can be accessed from or that is hyperlinked to, our website does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated into, this Form 10-K.

Information About Our Executive Officers

Incorporated by reference into this Part I is the information set forth in Part III. Item 10 under the caption “Information About Our Executive Officers” (included herein pursuant to Item 401(b) of Regulation S-K).

Risk Factors Summary

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations and financial results. Please refer to Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K below for additional discussion of the risks summarized in this Risk Factors Summary.

Risks Related to Economic Conditions and our Industry

Prices for natural gas and NGLs are volatile and can fluctuate widely based upon a number of factors beyond our control, including supply and demand for our products.

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If natural gas prices decrease or operational efforts are unsuccessful, CNX may be required to record write-downs of the quantity and value of our proved natural gas properties.
Competition and consolidation within the natural gas industry may adversely affect our ability to sell our products and midstream services or other parts of the business.
Deterioration in the economic conditions in any of the industries in which our customers or their customers operate, a domestic or worldwide financial downturn, or negative credit market conditions may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations, business and financial condition that CNX cannot predict.
Our hedging activities may prevent us from benefiting from price increases and may expose us to other risks.
Negative public perception regarding our Company or industry could have an adverse effect on our operations, financial results or stock price.
Events beyond our control, including a global or domestic health crisis or global instability and actual and threatened geopolitical conflict, may result in unexpected adverse operating and financial results.
Increasing attention to environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters may adversely impact our business.

Risks Related to our Business Operations

Our dependence on third party pipeline and processing systems could adversely affect our operations and limit sales of our natural gas and NGLs as a result of disruptions, capacity constraints, proximity issues or decreases in availability of pipelines or other midstream facilities.
Uncertainties exist in the estimation of economical recovery of natural gas reserves.
Developing, producing and operating natural gas wells is subject to operating risks and hazards that could increase expenses, decrease our production levels and expose us to losses or liabilities that may not be fully covered under our insurance policies.
Our identified development locations are scheduled over multiple future years, making them susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of their actual development.
Our exploration and development projects and midstream development require substantial capital expenditures and are subject to regulatory, environmental, political, legal and economic risks and if CNX fails to generate sufficient cash flow, obtain required capital or financing on satisfactory terms or respond to regulatory and political developments, our natural gas reserves may decline, and our operations and financial results may suffer.
CNX may not be able to obtain required personnel, services, equipment, parts and raw materials in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities or at reasonable costs to support our operations.
If CNX cannot find adequate sources of water for our use or if CNX is unable to dispose of or recycle water produced from our operations at a reasonable cost and within applicable environmental rules, our ability to produce natural gas economically and in sufficient quantities could be impaired.
Failure to successfully replace our current natural gas reserves through economic development of our existing or acquired undeveloped assets or through acquisition of additional producing assets, would lead to a decline in our natural gas, NGL and oil production levels and reserves.
CNX may incur losses as a result of title defects in the properties in which CNX invests or the loss of certain leasehold or other rights related to our midstream activities.

Legal, Environmental and Regulatory Risks

Climate change risk, legislation, litigation and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions at the federal or state level may increase our operating costs and reduce the value of our natural gas assets.
Environmental regulations can increase costs and introduce uncertainty that could adversely impact the market for natural gas with potential short and long-term liabilities.
Existing and future governmental laws, regulations, other legal requirements and judicial decisions that govern our business may increase our costs of doing business and may restrict our operations.
CNX may incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of pipeline operations and/or increases in the regulation of natural gas pipelines and midstream facilities.
Changes in federal or state tax laws focused on natural gas exploration and development could cause our financial position and profitability to deteriorate.
Our future tax liability may be greater than expected if our net operating loss carryforwards are limited, CNX does not generate expected deductions, or tax authorities challenge certain of our tax positions.
We may be unable to qualify for existing federal and state level environmental attribute credits and new markets for environmental attributes are currently volatile, and otherwise may not develop as quickly or efficiently as we anticipate or at all.
CNX and its subsidiaries are subject to various legal proceedings and investigations, which may have an adverse effect on our business.

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Financing, Investment and Indebtedness Risks

Our current long-term debt obligations, the terms of the agreements that govern that debt, and the risks associated therewith, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
Our borrowing base under our revolving credit facility could decrease for a variety of reasons including lower natural gas prices, declines in natural gas reserves, asset sales and lending requirements or regulations.
The capped call transactions may affect the value of the Convertible Notes and our common stock, and subject CNX to counterparty performance risk.
Conversion of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
CNX may be unable to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the Convertible Notes for cash following a fundamental change, or to pay any cash amounts due upon conversion, and our other indebtedness may impact our ability to repurchase the Convertible Notes or pay cash upon their conversion.
The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Provisions of our unsecured debt agreements, including the Convertible Notes, could delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover of us.

Risks Related to Strategic Transactions

Strategic determinations, including the allocation of capital and other resources to strategic opportunities, are subject to risk and uncertainties, and our failure to appropriately allocate capital and resources among our strategic opportunities may adversely affect our financial condition.
CNX does not completely control the timing of any divestitures that CNX may engage in, and they may not provide anticipated benefits.
There is no guarantee that CNX will continue to repurchase shares of our common stock under our current or any future share repurchase program at levels undertaken previously or at all.
CNX may operate a portion of our business with one or more joint venture partners or in circumstances where CNX is not the operator, which may restrict our operational and corporate flexibility.
In connection with the separation of our coal business, CONSOL Energy has agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities, and we have agreed to indemnify CONSOL Energy for certain liabilities.

Other General Risks

Cyber-incidents targeting our systems, oil and natural gas industry systems and infrastructure, or the systems of our third-party service providers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Terrorist activities could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

ITEM 1A.Risk Factors

Investment in our securities is subject to various risks, including risks and uncertainties inherent in our business. In addition to the other information contained in this Form 10-K, the following risk factors related to our industry, business, operations, financial position and performance should be considered in evaluating our Company. If any of the following risks were to occur, it could negatively impact our Company and cause an investment in our securities to decline in value.

Risks Related to Economic Conditions and our Industry

Prices for natural gas and NGLs are volatile and can fluctuate widely based upon a number of factors beyond our control, including supply and demand for our products. An extended decline in the prices CNX receives for our natural gas and NGLs will adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.

Our financial results are significantly affected by the prices we receive for our natural gas and NGLs (which includes oil and condensate). Natural gas and NGL pricing is very volatile and can fluctuate widely based upon supply from energy producers relative to demand for these products and other factors beyond our control. In particular, the U.S. natural gas industry faces oversupply due to the success of domestic Shale development, associated natural gas produced by oil producers, other North American Shale gas plays, and an outpacing of demand that impact domestic pricing. This oversupply of natural gas, beginning in 2012, has resulted in depressed domestic prices for most of that period. Development has continued in these plays, despite these lower gas prices, as producers continue to become more efficient. Evidence of volatility was present during 2022 and 2023 as natural gas prices spiked in the first half of 2022 due to lower domestic production, lower storage levels, and

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increased LNG export demand, but thereafter retreated to the depressed prices that we have witnessed over the past ten years. CNX expects continued volatility of natural gas prices in the future.

Our producing properties are geographically concentrated in the Appalachian Basin, which exacerbates the impact of regional supply and demand factors on our business, including the pricing of our natural gas. Not all of the natural gas produced in this region can be consumed by regional demand and must, therefore, be exported to other regions, which causes natural gas produced and sold locally to be priced at a discount to many other market hubs, such as the benchmark Henry Hub price. This discount, or negative basis, to the Henry Hub price is forecasted to continue in future years for all Appalachian Basin producers. While new interstate pipeline projects could reduce this discount, it could increase further if production in the basin continues to grow and projects to move natural gas out of the basin are cancelled, delayed or denied for any reason, such as permitting and regulatory issues or environmental lawsuits. For example, in July 2020, the Atlantic Coast Pipeline project, which was designed to move produced natural gas out of the northeast, was cancelled by its partners after nearly six years of work; and the Mountain Valley Pipeline, which is to move produced natural gas from northwestern West Virginia through southern Virginia and into North Carolina, has experienced numerous delays.

Our development plans and operations also include some activity in areas of Shale formations that may also contain NGLs. The price for NGLs is also volatile for reasons similar to those described above for natural gas. Although the Company is able to hedge natural gas benchmarks and local basis differentials, it generally does not hedge its relatively minor quantities of NGLs. In addition, similar to natural gas, increased drilling activity by third parties in formations containing NGLs may lead to a decline in the price CNX receives for our NGLs. International demand and storage levels also affect NGL prices. Further, an oversupply of NGLs in the local markets where CNX operates requires excess NGLs to be transported out of our region and into the broader market, including international exports. NGLs are transported by a variety of methods, including pipeline, rail, and truck. Any disruption in those means of transportation could have a further detrimental impact on the price CNX receives for our NGLs. Our results of operations may be adversely affected by a depressed level of, or downward fluctuations in the price for NGLs.

Apart from issues with respect to the supply of products CNX produces, demand can fluctuate widely due to a number of matters beyond our control, including:
weather conditions in our markets that affect the demand for natural gas;
changes in the consumption pattern of industrial consumers, electricity generators and residential users of electricity and natural gas;
with respect to natural gas, the price and availability of alternative fuel sources used by electricity generators;
technological advances affecting energy consumption and conservation measures reducing demand;
the costs, availability and capacity of transportation infrastructure;
proximity and capacity of natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities;
changes in levels of international demand and tariffs associated with international export; and
the impact of domestic and foreign governmental laws and regulations, including environmental and climate change regulations and delays.

Lack of market demand could result in temporarily shut-in wells due to low commodity prices and it is possible that some of our wells may be shut-in in the future or sales terms may be less favorable than might otherwise be obtained should demand for our products decrease and/or prices decrease.

If natural gas prices decrease or operational efforts are unsuccessful, CNX may be required to record write-downs of the quantity and value of our proved natural gas properties. Additionally, changes in assumptions impacting management’s estimates of future financial results as well as other assumptions related to the Company's stock price, weighted-average cost of capital, terminal growth rates and industry multiples, could cause goodwill and other intangible assets CNX holds to become impaired and result in material non-cash charges to earnings.

Lower natural gas prices or wells that produce less than expected quantities of natural gas, have in the past and may in the future reduce the amount of natural gas that CNX can produce economically. This results in our having to make substantial downward adjustments to our estimated proved reserves. When this occurs, or when our estimates of development costs increase, production data factors change or our exploration results deteriorate, accounting rules require us to write down, as a non-cash charge to earnings, the carrying value of our natural gas properties. CNX is required to perform impairment tests on our assets at least annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances lead to a reduction of the estimated useful life or estimated future cash flows that would indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable, indicate a potential impairment in the carrying value of goodwill or intangible assets as defined by GAAP, or whenever development plans change with respect to those assets. In the past CNX has had to record an impairment charge related to certain assets and CNX may

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incur impairment charges in the future, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations in the period taken. There were no impairments for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.

Future acquisitions may lead to the acquisition of additional goodwill or other intangible assets. At least annually, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate a potential impairment in the carrying value as defined by GAAP, CNX will evaluate this goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment by first assessing qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying amount. Estimated fair values could change if, for example, there are changes in the business climate, unanticipated changes in the competitive environment, adverse legal or regulatory actions or developments, changes in capital structure, cost of debt, interest rates, capital expenditure levels, operating cash flows, or market capitalization. The future impairment of these assets could require material non-cash charges to our results of operations, which could materially adversely affect our reported earnings and results of operations for the affected periods.

Competition and consolidation within the natural gas industry may adversely affect our ability to sell our products and midstream services or other parts of the business. Increased competition or a loss of our competitive position can adversely affect our sales of, or our prices for, our products, which can impair our profitability.

The natural gas, exploration, production and midstream industries are intensely competitive with companies from various regions of the United States, and increasingly face competition in international markets. The industry has been experiencing increased competitive pressures as a result of both consolidation within the exploration and production space, along with the continued competition from stand-alone midstream companies. Midstream, transmission and processing consolidation in the industry could lead to a less competitive environment for CNX to find partners for projects needed to support development, which could increase costs. Many of the companies with which CNX competes are larger and have more resources to deploy, and if CNX were unable to compete, our company, our operating results, financial position or other parts of the business may be adversely affected. In addition, CNX competes with larger companies to acquire new natural gas properties for future exploration, limiting our ability to replace the natural gas CNX produces or to grow our production. There is also increased competition within the industry as a result of oil-focused drilling, where natural gas is produced as an ancillary byproduct and may be sold at prices below market. Some of such “byproduct” gas could be transported to our key markets, thereby affecting regional supply. The industry also faces competition from alternative energy sources. The highly competitive environment in which CNX operates may negatively impact our ability to acquire additional properties at prices or upon terms CNX views as favorable. Any reduction in our ability to compete in current or future natural gas markets could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, potential third-party customers who are significant producers of natural gas and condensate may develop their own midstream systems in lieu of using our systems. All of these competitive pressures could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Deterioration in the economic conditions in any of the industries in which our customers and their customers operate, a domestic or worldwide financial downturn, or negative credit market conditions can have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, results of operations, business and financial condition that CNX cannot predict.

Economic conditions in a number of industries in which our customers and their customers operate, such as electric power generation, have experienced substantial deterioration in the past, resulting in reduced demand for natural gas. Renewed or continued weakness in the economic conditions of any of the industries CNX serves or that are served by our customers, or the increased focus by markets on carbon-neutrality or alternative energy sources, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and liquidity in a number of ways. For example:

demand for natural gas and electricity in the United States is impacted by industrial production, which if weakened would negatively impact the revenues, margins and profitability of our natural gas business;
a decrease in international demand for natural gas or NGLs produced in the United States could adversely affect the pricing for such products, which could adversely affect our results of operations and liquidity;
the tightening of credit or lack of credit availability to our customers could adversely affect our liquidity, as our ability to receive payment for our products sold and delivered depends on the continued creditworthiness of our customers;
our ability to refinance our existing senior notes may be limited and the terms on which we are able to do so may be less favorable to us depending on the strength of the capital markets or our credit ratings;
our ability to access the capital markets may be restricted at a time when CNX would like, or need, to raise capital for our business including for exploration and/or development of our natural gas reserves;
increased capital markets scrutiny of E&P companies leading to increased costs of capital or lack of credit availability;

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a decline in our creditworthiness may require us to post letters of credit, cash collateral, or surety bonds to secure certain obligations, all of which would have an adverse effect on our liquidity; and
increased inflationary pressure in the broader macro-economic environment may impact our business by increasing costs and tightening the supply of critical goods and services needed to support our operations.

In addition, the repercussions of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and the governments’ response thereto, materially and adversely impacted many businesses, industries and economies. For further detail regarding the risks to our business resulting from COVID-19 or a similar or separate pandemic, see the Risk Factor titled “Events beyond our control, including a global or domestic health crisis or global instability and actual and threatened geopolitical conflict, may result in unexpected adverse operating and financial results.

Our hedging activities may prevent us from benefiting from price increases and may expose us to other risks.

To manage our exposure to fluctuations in the price of natural gas, CNX enters into hedging arrangements with respect to a portion of our expected production. As of January 5, 2024, CNX expects these transactions will represent approximately 434.2 Bcf of our estimated 2024 production at an average price of $2.53 per Mcf, 375.1 Bcf of our estimated 2025 production at an average price of $2.41 per Mcf, 339.0 Bcf of our estimated 2026 production at an average price of $2.53 per Mcf, and 216.2 Bcf of our estimated 2027 production at an average price of $3.35 per Mcf. To the extent that CNX engages in hedging activities, CNX may be prevented from realizing the near-term benefits of price increases above the levels of the hedges. If CNX chooses not to engage in or otherwise reduce our future use of hedging arrangements or is unable to engage in hedging arrangements due to lack of acceptable counterparties, CNX may be more adversely affected by declines in natural gas prices than our competitors who engage in hedging arrangements to a greater extent than CNX does. Increases or decreases in forward market prices could result in material unrealized (non-cash) losses or gains on commodity derivative instruments resulting in volatility in reported earnings. Future legislation regarding derivatives could have an adverse effect on our ability to use derivative instruments to reduce the effect of commodity price risks associated with our business.

In addition, such transactions may expose us to the risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including instances in which:

our production is less than expected;
market prices for natural gas rise significantly in excess of our derivative hedge price resulting in significant cash payments to our hedge counterparties;
we are unable to find available counterparties in the future with which to enter into hedges and counterparties able to enter into basis hedge contracts;
the creditworthiness of our counterparties or their guarantors is substantially impaired; and
counterparties have credit limits that may constrain our ability to hedge additional volumes.

Negative public perception regarding our Company or industry could have an adverse effect on our operations, financial results or stock price.

Negative public perception regarding our industry resulting from, among other things, operational incidents or concerns raised by advocacy groups, related to environmental, health, or community impacts has resulted in increased regulatory scrutiny, which has resulted in additional laws, regulations, guidelines and enforcement interpretations, at the federal and state level. These actions may cause operational delays or restrictions, increased operating costs, additional regulatory burdens and an increased risk of litigation that may negatively impact our future financial results or our stock price. Moreover, governmental authorities exercise considerable discretion in the timing and scope of permit issuance and the public may engage in the permitting process, including through intervention in the administrative process or in the courts. This could cause the permits CNX needs to conduct our operations to be withheld, delayed, or burdened by requirements that restrict our ability to profitably conduct our business.

In addition, in recent years increasing attention has been given to corporate activities related to environmental issues in public discourse and the investment community. A number of advocacy groups, both domestically and internationally, have campaigned for the investment community, including investment advisors, sovereign wealth funds, public pension funds, universities, and other groups, to promote change at public companies, including through investment and voting practices. These activities include increasing attention and demands for action related to climate change and energy transition matters, such as promoting the use of substitutes to fossil fuel products and encouraging the divestment of fossil fuel equities, as well as pressuring lenders and other financial services companies to limit or curtail activities with fossil fuel companies. As a result, some capital markets participants have reduced or ceased lending to, or investing in, companies that operate in industries with higher perceived environmental exposure, such as the energy industry. If divestment efforts continue, the price of our common

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stock or debt securities, and our ability to access capital markets or to otherwise obtain new investment or financing, may be negatively impacted and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Events beyond our control, including a global or domestic health crisis or global instability and actual and threatened geopolitical conflict, may result in unexpected adverse operating and financial results.

While CNX has not incurred significant disruptions to its operations during the past three fiscal years as a direct result of the COVID-19 pandemic or geopolitical conflict, including the ongoing war in Ukraine, the resulting global instability and any similar disruptions may materially and adversely affect, our business, operating and financial results and liquidity in the future. As the pandemic and global instability has significantly impacted economic activity and markets around the world, similar pandemics and conflicts could negatively impact our business in numerous ways, including, but not limited to, the following:

our revenue may be reduced if there is a resulting economic downturn or recession, to the extent it leads to a prolonged decrease in the demand for or disruption in the global supply of natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) and, to a lesser extent, NGLs and oil; and
the operations of our midstream service providers, on whom CNX relies for the transmission, gathering and processing of a significant portion of our produced natural gas, NGLs, oil and condensate, and our other service providers and suppliers may be disrupted or suspended in response to containing the outbreak, geopolitical instability and/or the difficult economic environment may lead to the bankruptcy or closing of service providers, facilities and infrastructure or delays or disruptions in our supply chain, which may result in substantial discounts in the prices CNX receives for our produced natural gas, NGLs, oil and condensate or result in the shut-in of producing wells or the delay or discontinuance of development plans for our properties.

To the extent events were to adversely affect our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks set forth in this Risk Factors section of this Form 10-K, such as those relating to our financial performance and debt obligations. Any of these disruptions or outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, financial results and liquidity.

Increasing attention to environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters may adversely impact our business.

Organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters. Such ratings, while not standardized or fully transparent, are used by some investors to evaluate their investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ESG ratings may lead to increased negative investor sentiment toward us and to the diversion of their investment away from the fossil fuel industry to other industries. Such diversion could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and costs of capital.

Additionally, increased governmental attention to ESG matters, including rules promulgated by the SEC, as well as state actions such as, for example, California’s Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act and its Climate-Related Financial Risk Act, may require the production and public reporting of additional data for investors’ evaluation of investment and voting decisions. This could lead to negative investor sentiment toward us and to the diversion of their investment away from the fossil fuel industry to other industries. Such diversion could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and costs of capital.

Risks Related to our Business Operations

Our dependence on third party pipeline and processing systems could adversely affect our operations and limit sales of our natural gas and NGLs as a result of disruptions, capacity constraints, proximity issues or decreases in availability of pipelines or other midstream facilities.

Although CNX owns midstream facilities, we also depend on third party facilities to gather, process and transport our natural gas to market. Reductions, limitations or disruptions (including force majeure events) in pipeline, gathering, or processing facility capacity could force us to reduce our production, reduce our sales or transportation of natural gas and/or NGLs or purchase higher cost replacement gas, negatively affecting our profitability, and causing our unit costs to increase. A significant portion of our natural gas is sold on or through two pipeline systems, Texas Eastern Transmission and Columbia Gas Transmission, which could experience capacity issues, operational disruptions and unexpected downtime, including from cyberattacks, with either no or little alternative transportation options available for our natural gas. Further, if pipeline quality standards change or we cannot meet applicable standards, we might be required to install additional processing equipment which could increase our costs. Pipelines could also curtail our flows until the natural gas delivered to their pipeline is in

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compliance with predetermined gas quality specifications. Any reduction in our production of natural gas or increase in our costs could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

CNX has various third-party firm transportation, processing, gathering and other agreements in place, many of which have minimum volume delivery commitments that obligate us to pay fixed demand charges or fees on minimum volumes regardless of actual volume throughput. Reductions in our drilling program may result in insufficient production to fully utilize these arrangements or otherwise use our full firm transportation and processing capacity, reducing our cash flow from operations, which may require us to reduce or delay our planned investments and capital expenditures or seek alternative means of financing, all of which may have a material adverse effect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our continuing investment in midstream infrastructure development and maintenance programs is intended, among other items, to connect our wells to other existing gathering and transmission pipelines and can involve significant risks, including those relating to timing, cost overruns and operational efficiency. Significant portions of our natural gas production are dependent on a small number of key compression and processing stations. An operational issue at any of those stations would materially impact our production, cash flow and results of operation.

Uncertainties exist in the estimation of economic recovery of natural gas reserves. Due to these uncertainties, estimates of revenues, operating and development costs and future profitability may prove to be inaccurate.

Natural gas reserves are economically recoverable when the revenue expected to be generated from the products sold exceeds their expected cost of development and production. Estimating reserves requires the use of assumptions concerning natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon prices, production levels, recoverable reserve quantities, production and ad valorem taxes and operating and development costs. For example, a significant amount of our natural gas reserves are identified as proved undeveloped reserves and may be more susceptible to positive or negative changes in reserve estimates than our proved developed reserves. Also, we make certain assumptions regarding natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon prices, production levels, production and ad valorem taxes and operating and development costs that may prove to be incorrect. Any significant variance from these assumptions to actual figures could greatly affect our estimates of our natural gas reserves, the economically recoverable quantities of oil and natural gas attributable to any particular group of properties, the classifications of natural gas reserves based on risk of recovery and estimates of the future net cash flows. The PV-10 measure of pre-tax discounted future net cash flows and the standardized measure of after-tax discounted future net cash flows from our proved reserves included within this Form 10-K are not necessarily the same as the current market value of our estimated natural gas reserves. Actual future net cash flows from our proved and unproved oil and natural gas properties may be affected by factors such as:

geological conditions;
our acreage position, and our ability to acquire additional acreage, including purchases and third-party swaps to develop our position efficiently;
changes in governmental regulations and taxation;
the amount and timing of actual production;
future prices and our hedging position;
future operating costs;
operational risks and results; and
capital costs of drilling, completion and gathering assets.

The timing of both our production and our incurrence of expenses in connection with the development and production of natural gas, NGLs and oil and/or condensate will affect the timing of actual future net cash flows from proved reserves and thus their actual present value. In addition, the prescribed 10% discount factor used when calculating discounted future net cash flows may not be the most appropriate discount factor based on interest rates in effect from time to time and risks associated with us or the oil and natural gas industry in general. If natural gas prices decline by $0.10 per MMBtu, then the pre-tax present value using a 10% discount rate of our proved natural gas reserves as of December 31, 2023 would decrease from $4.2 billion to $4.0 billion.

Developing, producing and operating natural gas wells is subject to operating risks and hazards that could increase expenses, decrease our production levels and expose us to losses or liabilities that may not be fully covered under our insurance policies.

The development of natural gas involves numerous risks, including the risk that an encountered well does not produce in sufficient quantities to make the well economically viable. The cost of drilling, completing and operating wells is substantial and uncertain, and our operations may be curtailed, delayed or canceled as a result of a variety of factors beyond our control.

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Our future development activities may not be successful, and if they are unsuccessful, such failure will have an adverse effect on our future results of operations and financial condition. CNX may be unable to develop identified or budgeted wells within our expected time frame, or at all for various reasons, and a final determination with respect to the development of any scheduled or budgeted wells will be dependent on a number of factors, including:

the results of delineation efforts and the acquisition, review and analysis of data, including seismic data;
the availability of sufficient capital resources to us and any other participants in a well for the development of the well;
whether we are able to acquire on a timely basis all of the leasehold interests required for the well, including through swap transactions with other operators;
whether we are able to obtain, on a timely basis or at all, the permits required for the development of wells;
whether production levels align with estimates; and
economic and industry conditions at the time of development, including prevailing and anticipated prices for natural gas, NGLs and oil and the availability and cost of oilfield services.

Our business strategy focuses on horizontal drilling and production in unconventional Shale formations, primarily the Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale in the Appalachian Basin. Drilling and stimulating horizontal wells is technologically complex, expensive and involves a higher risk of failure when compared to vertical wells. Due to the higher costs, the risks of our development program are spread over a smaller number of wells, and in order to be profitable, each horizontal well will need to produce at higher levels. In addition, we use multi-well pads instead of single-well sites. The use of multi-well pad drilling increases some operational risks because problems affecting the pad, or a single well could adversely affect production from all of the wells on the pad. Pad development can also make our overall production, and therefore our revenue and cash flows, more volatile, because production from multiple wells on a pad will typically commence simultaneously. While we believe that we are better served by drilling horizontal wells using multi-well pads, the risk component involved in such development will be increased in some respects, with the result that CNX might find it more difficult to achieve economic success in our development program.

The exploration, production, and transporting of natural gas involves numerous operational risks. The cost of developing and operating a well is often uncertain, and a number of factors can delay, suspend, or prevent development operations, decrease production and/or increase the cost of our natural gas operations at particular sites for varying lengths of time, including unexpected development and production conditions (such as pressure or irregularities in geologic formations or wells, material and equipment failures, fires, ruptures, loss of well control, landslides, mine subsidence, explosions or other accidents and environmental concerns and adverse weather conditions), which conditions and risks may be amplified as we increase the vertical and horizontal length of drilling endeavors; similar operational or design issues relating to pipelines, compressor stations, pump stations, related equipment and surrounding properties; challenges relating to transportation, pipeline infrastructure and capacity for treatment or disposal of waste water generated in operations and failure to obtain, or delays in the issuance of, permits at the state or local level and the resolution of regulatory concerns.

The realization of any of these risks could adversely affect our ability to conduct our operations, materially increase our costs, or result in substantial loss to us as a result of claims for:

personal injury or loss of life;
damage to and destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, including our properties and our natural gas production or transportation facilities;
pollution and other environmental damage to our properties or the properties of others;
potential legal liability and monetary losses;
damage to our reputation within the industry or with customers;
regulatory enforcement, investigations and penalties;
suspension of our operations; and
repair and remediation costs.

The occurrence of any operational event that prevents delivery of natural gas to a customer and is not excusable as a force majeure event under our supply agreement, could result in economic penalties, suspension or ultimately termination of the supply agreement.

Although CNX maintains insurance for a number of risks and hazards, we may not be adequately insured against the losses or liabilities that could arise from a significant accident or disruption in our operations. The occurrence of an event that is not fully covered by insurance, such as pollution or environmental issues, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


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Our identified development locations are scheduled over multiple future years, making them susceptible to uncertainties that could materially alter the occurrence or timing of their actual development.

Our management team has specifically identified and scheduled certain locations as an estimation of our future multi-year development activities on our existing acreage which represent a significant part of our development strategy. Our ability to develop these locations may be dependent on a number of factors, including natural gas, NGL and oil prices, the availability and cost of capital, drilling, completions and production costs, obtaining required regulatory permits, the acquisition on acceptable terms of any leasehold interests we do not control but that are necessary to complete the drilling unit (including potentially through third-party swap transactions), availability of drilling services and equipment, drilling results, lease expirations for the failure to timely develop or otherwise, transportation constraints, regulatory and zoning approvals and other factors. Because of these uncertain factors, we do not know if the numerous development locations we have identified will ever be drilled. CNX may require significant additional capital over a prolonged period in order to pursue the development of these locations, and we may not be able to raise or generate the capital required to do so. Any development activities we are able to conduct on these locations may be unsuccessful, which may result in our inability to add additional proved reserves or may result in a downward revision of our estimated proved reserves, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our exploration and development projects and midstream development require substantial capital expenditures and are subject to regulatory, environmental, political, legal and economic risks and if CNX fails to generate sufficient cash flow, obtain required capital or financing on satisfactory terms or respond to regulatory and political developments, our natural gas reserves may decline, and our operations and financial results may suffer.

As part of our strategic determinations, CNX expects to continue to make substantial capital expenditures in the development and acquisition of natural gas reserves and the maintenance, purchase or construction of midstream systems. If CNX is unable to make sufficient or effective capital expenditures, we will be unable to maintain and grow our business. The gas gathering agreements that we have with third parties may impose obligations on us to invest capital in our midstream systems which are not fully protected against volumetric risks associated with lower-than-forecast volumes flowing through our gathering systems. If our customers fail to develop their properties in the areas covered by these acreage dedications, or otherwise sell, exchange, farm-out or otherwise dispose of all of, or an undivided interest in, the development of the dedicated acreage, the resulting decrease in the development of reserves by our midstream customers could result in reduced volumes serviced by us and a commensurate decline in revenues and cash flows.

Additionally, the construction of additions or modifications to our existing midstream systems involves numerous regulatory, environmental, political and legal uncertainties beyond our control and may require the expenditure of significant amounts of capital. If these projects are undertaken, they may not be completed on schedule, at the budgeted cost or at all. The construction of additions to our existing assets may require us to obtain new land rights and regulatory permits prior to constructing new pipelines or facilities, which may not be obtained in a timely, cost-effective fashion or in a way that allows us to connect new natural gas supplies to existing gathering pipelines or capitalize on other attractive expansion opportunities Also, these midstream assets may not be able to attract enough throughput to achieve the expected investment return.

Revenues may not increase immediately (or at all) upon the expenditure of funds on a particular project. There is no assurance that CNX will have sufficient cash from operations, borrowing capacity under our credit facilities, or the ability to raise additional funds in the capital markets to meet our capital requirements. Without sufficient capital, CNX could be required to curtail the pace of the development of our natural gas properties and midstream activities, which in turn could lead to a decline in our reserves and production, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

CNX may not be able to obtain required personnel, services, equipment, parts and raw materials in a timely manner, in sufficient quantities or at reasonable costs to support our operations.

CNX relies on third-party contractors to provide key services and equipment for our operations. CNX contracts with third parties for well services, related equipment and qualified experienced field personnel to drill and complete wells, construct pipelines and conduct field operations. We also utilize third-party contractors to provide land acquisition and related services to support our land operational needs. The demand for these services, equipment and personnel can fluctuate significantly, often in correlation with natural gas and NGL prices, causing periodic shortages.

Historically, there have been shortages of drilling and work-over rigs, pipe, compressors and other equipment as demand for rigs and equipment has grown, along with the number of wells being drilled and/or completed. The costs and delivery times of equipment and supplies are substantially greater in periods of peak demand, including increased demand for plays outside of our area of geographic focus. Weather may also play a role with respect to the relative availability of certain materials.

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In addition, accelerated levels of inflation may lead to price increases beyond CNX’s control that could lead to CNX incurring increased costs for contractors and/or materials. For example, fuel pricing and labor shortages have led to increased ground transportation costs. Accordingly, CNX cannot be assured that we will be able to obtain necessary services, drilling and completions equipment and supplies in a timely manner or on satisfactory terms, and CNX may experience shortages of or quality assurance issues with, or increases in the costs of, drilling and completions equipment, crews and associated supplies, equipment and field services used in the support of our operations.

Our future success depends to a large extent on the services of our and our service providers’ key employees. The loss of one or more of these individuals could materially adversely affect our business. Furthermore, competition for experienced technical and other professional personnel, as well as diverse candidates which bring with them valuable perspectives and experiences, remains strong. If CNX and our service providers cannot retain our current personnel or attract additional experienced personnel, our ability to compete could be adversely affected. Also, the loss of experienced personnel could lead to a loss of technical expertise. Continued service and equipment provider consolidation poses a potential risk to CNX of increasing the likelihood of key personnel turnover within our service providers. Service provider consolidation also poses the risk of individuals or equipment being relocated to another basin based on the service provider’s business plan.

Shortages may lead to escalating prices, poor service, inefficient operations and increase the possibility of accidents due to the hiring of less experienced personnel and overuse of equipment by contractors. A decrease in the availability of these services, equipment or personnel could lead to a decrease in our natural gas production levels, increase our costs of natural gas production, and decrease our anticipated profitability. Such shortages could delay or cause us to incur significant expenditures that are not provided for in our capital budget, which events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

CNX attempts to mitigate the risks involved with increased natural gas production activity by entering into “take or pay” contracts with well service providers which commit them to provide field services to us at specified levels and commit us to pay for field services at specified levels even if we do not use those services. However, these types of contracts expose us to economic risk during a downturn in demand or during periods of oversupply. Having to pay for services we do not use decreases our cash flow and increases our costs.

Global politics can also create additional risk to CNX. This could lead to shortages in raw materials or finished goods which ultimately impact CNX’s pricing and availability. In addition, global transportation can be impacted which can affect CNX’s ability to receive material in a timely manner, while also increasing cost.

If CNX cannot find adequate sources of water for our use or if CNX is unable to dispose of or recycle water produced from our operations at a reasonable cost and within applicable environmental rules, our ability to produce natural gas economically and in sufficient quantities could be impaired.

As part of our drilling and production in Shale formations, CNX uses hydraulic fracturing processes that require access to adequate sources of water, which may not be available in proximity to our operations or at certain times of the year. To ensure adequate water for our operations, CNX may be required to invest substantial amounts of capital in water pipelines which are used for relatively short periods of time. Increased regulation of these water pipelines could cause us to invest additional capital, alter our disposal or transportation method or negatively affect our operations. Alternatively, CNX may be required to transport water by truck, and CNX may not be able to contract for sufficient water hauling trucks or drivers to meet our needs.

Further, our operations generate significant volumes of wastewater that must be treated, reused or disposed. This produced water or wastewater can be generated from various aspects of our operations, including from drilling fluids, completions activities and normal production over the life of the well, and are associated with all types of natural gas wells. A significant portion of this water can be recycled for use in other hydraulic fracturing operations. To the extent we must dispose of water rather than recycle it, our costs may increase, which will detrimentally affect our cash flows. We attempt to minimize the expense associated with the transportation of wastewater by optimizing the transportation between the sources of wastewater and locations where the wastewater can be reused or disposed. Various interruptions in our planned transportation of this wastewater, including operational issues and regulatory matters, could increase our operating costs, which would detrimentally affect our cash flows. The risk of pollution also exists while handling, transferring, storing, recycling and disposing wastewater and other wastes, as well as in development or production of a well.

Our inability to obtain sufficient amounts of water with respect to our Shale operations or to dispose of or recycle water and other wastes produced from our Shale and our CBM operations in an economically efficient manner, could increase our costs and delay our operations, which will adversely impact our cash flow and results of operations.


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Failure to successfully replace our current natural gas reserves through economic development of our existing or acquired undeveloped assets or through acquisition of additional producing assets, would lead to a decline in our natural gas, NGL and oil production levels and reserves.

Producing natural gas and oil reservoirs generally are characterized by declining production rates that vary depending upon reservoir characteristics and other factors. The rate of decline can change if production from our existing wells is different than what has been estimated, operating conditions change, or other circumstances arise that affect our ability to produce the wells. The ability to offset the declining production or natural gas reserves is dependent upon our success in efficiently developing and selling our current reserves and economically finding or acquiring additional economically recoverable reserves. CNX may not be able to develop, find or acquire additional economically recoverable reserves to replace our current and future production at acceptable costs, which would negatively impact our future cash flows and income.

In addition, the level of natural gas, NGL and condensate volumes handled through our midstream systems depends on the level of production from natural gas wells feeding into such midstream systems, which may be less than expected and which will naturally decline over time. In order to maintain or increase throughput levels on our midstream systems, CNX must supply natural gas, NGLs and condensate from new wells on acreage in close proximity to our midstream systems. This can take the form of wells we develop on our own, wells developed by others on acreage that is dedicated to our midstream systems or through contracts with third-party customers to flow volumes on our midstream systems. CNX has no control over third party producers’ levels of development and completion activity in areas adjacent to our midstream systems, or the amount of reserves associated with or rate of production decline from those third-party wells – and only limited control over those factors on our own wells.

CNX may incur losses as a result of title defects in the properties in which CNX invests or the loss of certain leasehold or other rights related to our midstream activities.

As is common in the oil and natural gas industry, it is our practice when CNX acquires natural gas leases or interests not to conduct a comprehensive chain of title examination to the mineral interest. Prior to the drilling of a well, however, it is the normal practice in our industry for the operator to obtain a complete title review to ensure there are no obvious defects in title to the underlying property interest. As a result of such examinations, certain curative work may be required to correct defects in the marketability of the title and such curative work entails expense. Our inability to cure any title defects in a timely and cost-efficient manner may delay or prevent us from utilizing the associated mineral interest, which may adversely impact our ability in the future to increase production and reserves. The existence of a material title deficiency can render a lease worthless and can adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

Additionally, most of the land on which our midstream systems have been constructed is not owned in fee by us; rather, the properties are held by surface use agreements, rights-of-way or other easement rights. CNX is, therefore, subject to the possibility of more onerous terms or increased costs to retain necessary land use if we do not have valid rights-of-way or if such rights-of-way lapse or terminate. CNX may obtain the rights to construct and operate our pipelines on land owned by third parties and governmental agencies for a specific period of time. Our loss of these rights, through our inability to renew the right-of-way or for other reasons, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Legal, Environmental and Regulatory Risks

Climate change risk, legislation, litigation and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions at the federal or state level may increase our operating costs and reduce the value of our natural gas assets. Any such regulation that may be implemented, as well as uncertainty concerning such regulation and public policy pressures, could adversely impact the market for natural gas, as well as for our securities.

The issue of global climate change continues to attract considerable public and scientific attention, with underlying concern about the impacts of human activity, especially the emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) such as carbon dioxide (“CO2”) and methane into the environment and is increasingly the subject of civil litigation and regulatory focus. The regulatory focus has resulted in varying regulatory requirements between governmental administrations.

The EPA, in 2013, and under the Climate Action Plan, elected to regulate GHGs under the Clean Air Act (“CAA”) to limit emissions of CO2 from natural gas-fired power plants. In April 2017, the EPA announced that it was initiating a review of the Clean Power Plan consistent with President Trump’s Executive Order 13783, and in October 2017 published a proposed rule to formally repeal the Clean Power Plan. On August 20, 2018, the EPA issued the proposed “Affordable Clean Energy Rule.” On June 19, 2019, the EPA issued the final Affordable Clean Energy Rule, replacing the Clean Power Plan. The

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Affordable Clean Energy Rule was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit on the last day of the Trump administration in January 2021. Accordingly, the Biden administration is taking a different direction than the Trump administration regarding these regulatory actions. For example, the Biden administration re-entered the United States in the Paris Climate Accord, and the EPA adopted a new Climate Adaptation Action Plan in October of 2021. Additionally, in 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) which could accelerate the transition to a lower carbon economy. The IRA provides incentives for the development of renewable energy, clean hydrogen, clean fuels and supporting infrastructure and carbon capture and sequestration. In addition, the IRA amends the federal Clean Air Act to impose a fee on the emission of methane from sources required to report their GHG emissions to the EPA, including those sources in natural gas production and gathering. The methane emissions charge would be imposed on emissions above specified limits and would start in calendar year 2024 at $900 per ton of methane, increase to $1,200 in 2025, and be set at $1,500 for 2026 and each year after. The methane charge and the incentives for renewable energy infrastructure development could impose additional costs on our operations and further accelerate the transition of the economy away from the use of natural gas towards lower- or zero-carbon emissions alternatives. This could decrease demand for natural gas and consequently adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The EPA has adopted regulations under existing provisions of the federal Clean Air Act that establish Prevention of Significant Deterioration, or PSD, construction and Title V operating permits for large stationary sources. Facilities requiring PSD permits may also be required to meet “best available control technology” (BACT) standards. Rulemaking related to GHG could alter or delay our ability (or our customers’ ability) to obtain new and/or modified air source permits.

The EPA has also adopted, changed and amended rules to control volatile organic compound emissions from certain oil and natural gas equipment and operations as part of its initiative to reduce methane emissions. In response to subsequent judicial involvement, the EPA issued a proposed rule in July 2017 that would stay the methane rule for two years (which rule was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit). Thereafter in September 2018, the EPA proposed revisions to the 2016 New Source Performance Standards for the oil and natural gas industry. Additional revisions were proposed in August 2019, August 2020 and November 2021. As these proposed rules and any replacements or updates thereto are adopted, changed, rescinded or modified, these rules may result in increased costs for permitting, equipping, and monitoring methane emissions or otherwise restrict operations or increase the costs thereof.

Additionally, some states have issued mandates to reduce emissions of GHGs, primarily through the planned development of GHG emission inventories and potential cap-and-trade programs. For example, Pennsylvania has taken steps to bring Pennsylvania into an eleven -state consortium of Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States - the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) -- that sets price and declining limits on CO2 emissions from power plants. In December 2021, the Pennsylvania Attorney General approved a proposed regulation which would allow Pennsylvania to join RGGI; however, the Pennsylvania General Assembly issued a concurrent regulatory review resolution process disapproving the proposed regulation. The regulation has been subject to challenges pending in Pennsylvania appellate courts, with one of Pennsylvania’s intermediate appellate courts ruling in November 2023 against the regulation as an improperly imposed tax in violation of the Pennsylvania Constitution. Most of these types of programs require major sources of emissions or major producers of fuels to acquire and subsequently surrender emission allowances, with the number of allowances available being reduced each year until a target goal is achieved. The cost of these allowances could increase over time. While new laws and regulations that are aimed at reducing GHG emissions will increase demand for natural gas, they may also result in increased costs for permitting, equipping, monitoring and reporting GHGs associated with natural gas production and use.

In addition, spurred by increasing concerns regarding climate change, the oil and natural gas industry faces growing demand for corporate transparency and a demonstrated commitment to sustainability goals. Environmental, social and governance (ESG) goals and programs, which typically include extralegal targets related to environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and corporate governance, have become an increasing focus of investors and stakeholders across the industry.

Finally, there are currently close to two dozen lawsuits filed on behalf of various states and municipalities seeking to hold producers of oil, natural gas and coal liable for the consequences of certain weather-related events, like rising sea levels and more frequent and severe flooding, storms and heatwaves, and seeking money damages for remedial measures aimed at eliminating or ameliorating damages caused by climate change. For further discussion of pending legal proceedings, see Note 20 – Commitments and Contingent Liabilities in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.






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Environmental regulations can increase costs and introduce uncertainty that could adversely impact the market for natural gas with potential short and long-term liabilities.

CNX is subject to various stringent federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to the discharge of materials into, and protection of, the environment. These laws and regulations may impose numerous obligations that are applicable to us and our customers’ operations. Failure to comply with these laws, regulations and related permit requirements may result in joint and several or strict liability or the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, the imposition of remedial obligations, and/or the issuance of injunctions limiting or preventing some or all of our operations. Private parties, including the owners of the properties through which CNX’s gathering systems pass, and some local municipalities may also have the right to pursue legal actions to enforce compliance, challenge governmental actions, as well as seek damages for non-compliance, with environmental laws and regulations or for personal injury or property damage. CNX may not be able to recover all or any of these costs from insurance. There is no assurance that changes in or additions to regulations and public policies regarding enforcement and the protection of the environment will not have a significant impact on our operations and profitability.

Our operations also pose risks of environmental liability due to leakage, migration, releases or spills from our operations to surface or subsurface soils, surface water or groundwater. Certain environmental laws impose strict as well as joint and several liability for costs required to investigate, remediate and restore sites where regulated substances have been disposed, stored or released, as well as fines and penalties for such releases. CNX may be required to remediate contaminated properties currently or formerly operated by us regardless of the cause of contamination or whether such contamination resulted from the conduct of others. In addition, claims for damages to persons or property, including natural resources, may result from the environmental, health and safety impacts of our operations. Additionally, the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and similar state laws protect species endangered or threatened with extinction and may cause us to modify a natural gas well pad siting or pipeline right of ways or routes, or to develop and implement species-specific protection and enhancement plans and schedules to avoid or minimize impacts to endangered species or their habitats during construction or operations.

CNX utilizes pipelines extensively for its operations. Stream encroachment and crossing permits from the states in which we operate and/or the Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) are often required for the location of or certain impacts these pipelines cause to streams and wetlands. The EPA and the ACOE have developed a rule that revised the definition of “waters of the United States” under the Clean Water Act. The EPA moved forward with the first step on December 11, 2018, when it issued a proposed, revised rule which would replace a prior 2015 rule with pre-2015 regulations, and which narrowed language defining “waters of the United States” under the Clean Water Act that existed prior to that time. In September 2019, the EPA and the ACOE announced that the agencies were repealing the 2015 rule. This second step was a notice-and-comment rulemaking in which federal agencies conducted a substantive reevaluation of such definition. On June 22, 2020, the Navigable Waters Protection Rule became effective. On June 9, 2021, the EPA announced its intent to revise the rule again. On August 4, 2021, the EPA and ACOE announced a rulemaking process to revise the definition of “waters of the United States.” On December 30, 2022, the EPA and ACOE announced a final rule for a “Revised Definition of ‘Waters of the United States’” which will be effective sixty days after publication in the Federal Register. On January 18, 2023, the EPA and ACOE published the final rule, which became effective on March 20, 2023. While CNX cannot at this time predict how this rule will be enforced by the Biden administration, such rulemaking, its enforcement, and future revisions to, or replacement of, the rulemaking could lead to additional mitigation costs and severely limit CNX’s operations.

The foregoing and other regulations applicable to the natural gas industry are under constant review for modification, amendment or expansion at both the federal and state levels. Any future changes may increase the costs of producing natural gas and other hydrocarbons, which would adversely impact our cash flows and results of operations. For example, hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice that is used to stimulate production of hydrocarbons from tight unconventional Shale formations. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into formations to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production. The process is typically regulated by state environmental or oil and natural gas agencies. The disposal of flowback and produced water and other wastes in underground injection disposal wells is regulated by the EPA under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act and by various states in which we conduct operations under counterpart state laws and regulations. The imposition of new environmental initiatives and regulations could include restrictions on our ability to conduct hydraulic fracturing operations or to dispose of waste resulting from such operations.

Public interest in the protection of the environment has increased dramatically in recent years. The trend of more expansive and stringent environmental legislation and regulations applied to the oil and natural gas industry could continue, potentially resulting in increased costs of doing business and consequently affecting profitability. Please read “Business - Regulation of Environmental and Occupational Safety and Health Matters” under Item 1 of Part I of this Form 10-K.




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Existing and future governmental laws, regulations, other legal requirements and judicial decisions that govern our business may increase our costs of doing business and may restrict our operations.

There are numerous federal and state governmental regulations applicable to the natural gas industry that are not directly related to environmental regulation, many of which are under perpetual review for amendment, expansion, or modifications which may adversely affect, among other things, our ability to develop the resource, obtain and operate under permits, as well as pricing or marketing of natural gas production.

For example, currently CNX’s gathering operations are exempt from regulation by the FERC under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). Although the FERC has not made any formal determinations with respect to any of our gathering facilities, CNX believes that the natural gas pipelines in our midstream systems meet the traditional tests the FERC has used to establish that a natural gas pipeline is a gathering pipeline not subject to the FERC jurisdiction. However, this issue has been the subject of substantial litigation, and if the FERC were to consider the status of an individual facility and determine that it is not exempt from FERC regulation under the NGA, the rates for, and terms and conditions of, services provided by such facility would become subject to regulation by the FERC. Such regulation could decrease revenue, increase operating costs, and depending upon the facility in question, could adversely affect results of operations and cash flows.

Additionally, some states have adopted more stringent regulation and oversight of natural gas gathering lines than is currently required by federal standards. Pennsylvania, under Act 127 of 2011, authorized Public Utility Commission (PUC) to oversee Class I gathering lines, and required standards and fees for Class II and Class III pipelines. The State of Ohio also moved to regulate natural gas gathering lines in a similar manner pursuant to Ohio Senate Bill 315 (SB315). SB315 expanded the Ohio PUC’s authority over rural natural gas gathering lines. These changes in interpretation and regulation affect our midstream activities, requiring changes in reporting, as well as increased costs. Various judicial decisions that may directly or indirectly impact natural gas drilling could also serve to increase our cost of doing business or restrict our operations.

Pennsylvania courts have been considering cases involving concepts of landowner rights, trespass claims and the historic common law concept of “rule of capture” as well as the role that Pennsylvania’s Environmental Rights Amendment (Pa. Const. art. I, § 27) may play in natural gas drilling activities. These cases, and similar cases testing these, and other legal principles could result in judicial outcomes that could negatively impact future Shale drilling and hydraulic fracturing within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania if the court finds that hydraulic fracturing could violate the constitutional or property rights of Pennsylvania citizens and residents.

Further, the Biden administration has taken a different direction than the Trump administration regarding certain regulatory measures impacting air emissions or clean water standards. For example, the Biden administration re-entered the United States in the Paris Climate Accords and the EPA adopted a new Climate Adaptation Action Plan in October of 2021, and may attempt to establish more stringent standards to replace the Affordable Clean Energy Rule, which was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit on the last day of the Trump administration in January 2021. For additional detail regarding the risks to our business resulting from governmental regulation, see Risk Factor titled, “Climate change risk, legislation, litigation and regulation of greenhouse gas emissions at the federal or state level may increase our operating costs and reduce the value of our natural gas assets. Any such regulation that may be implemented, as well as uncertainty concerning such regulation and public policy pressures, could adversely impact the market for natural gas, as well as for our securities” (See Note 20 – Commitments and Contingent Liabilities in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion of pending legal proceedings).

CNX may incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of pipeline operations and/or increases in the regulation of natural gas pipelines and midstream facilities.

The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) has adopted safety, transportation and operational regulations applicable to pipeline operators. Should our operations fail to comply with PHMSA or comparable state regulations, CNX could be subject to substantial penalties and fines. In October 2019, PHMSA issued a final rule, effective July 2020, regarding hazardous pipeline safety regulations that significantly extends the integrity management requirements to previously exempt pipelines and imposes additional obligations on hazardous liquid pipeline operators that are already subject to the integrity management requirements. A further amendment of the rule addressing, among other things, integrity management provisions, pipeline corrosion control requirements, and addressing repair criteria for high consequent and non-high consequence areas became effective May 5, 2023.

In October 2019, PHMSA published a final rule that significantly modifies existing regulations related to reporting, impact, design, construction, maintenance, operations and integrity management of gas transmission and gathering pipelines. Compliance with the rule could materially adversely affect our operations. In May 2020, PHMSA proposed additional

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amendments to Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations. In November 2021, PHMSA published a final rule in the Federal Register with an effective date of May 15, 2022, expanding certain federal pipeline safety requirements to all onshore gas gathering pipelines. The adoption of these regulations, which may apply different and/or more comprehensive or stringent safety standards than CNX has been subject to, could require us to install new or modified safety controls, pursue new capital projects, or conduct maintenance programs on an accelerated basis, all of which could require us to incur increased operational costs that could be significant. While CNX cannot predict the outcome of legislative or regulatory initiatives, such legislative and regulatory changes could have a material effect on our cash flow.

Changes in federal or state tax laws focused on natural gas exploration and development could cause our financial position and profitability to deteriorate.

CNX is subject to extensive tax laws and regulations, including federal and state income taxes and transactional taxes such as excise, sales/use, severance, payroll, franchise and ad valorem taxes. New tax laws and regulations and changes in existing tax laws and regulations are continuously being enacted that could result in increased tax expenditures in the future.

Any passage of future legislation or any other changes in U.S. federal or state income tax laws that would eliminate or postpone certain tax deductions that are currently available with respect to natural gas exploration and development could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. For example, previous tax law legislation decreased the regular U.S. federal income tax rate, limited the ability of corporations to take certain interest deductions, increased the limitation on deductibility of executive compensation, and eliminated a corporation’s ability to take deductions for income attributable to domestic production activities.

Additionally, legislation has been proposed from time to time in the states in which we operate - primarily Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia and West Virginia - that would impose additional taxes or increase taxes on the production from our wells. The proposed tax rates have varied but would represent a greater financial burden on the economics of the wells we drill in these states. Such changes in the rates of existing production taxes could adversely impact our earnings, capital allocation, cash flows and financial position.

Our future tax liability may be greater than expected if our net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards are limited, CNX does not generate expected deductions, or tax authorities challenge certain of our tax positions.

As of December 31, 2023, CNX has U.S. federal and state NOL carryforwards of $0.8 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively, some of which expire at various dates from 2024 to 2041 while others have no expiration date. CNX expects to be able to utilize these NOL carryforwards and generate deductions to offset our future taxable income. This expectation is based upon assumptions we have made regarding, among other things, our income, capital expenditures and net working capital and the current expectation that our NOL carryforwards will not become subject to future limitations under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or otherwise. Additionally, any significant variance in our interpretation of current income tax laws, including as result of the release of any Treasury Regulations or other interpretive guidance or a challenge of one or more of our tax positions by the IRS or other tax authorities could affect our tax position. While CNX expects to be able to utilize our NOL carryforwards and generate deductions to offset our future taxable income, in the event that deductions are not generated as expected, one or more of our tax positions are successfully challenged by the IRS (in a tax audit or otherwise), or our NOL carryforwards are subject to future limitations, our future tax liability may be greater than expected.

We may be unable to qualify for existing federal and state level environmental attribute credits and new markets for environmental attributes are currently volatile, and otherwise may not develop as quickly or efficiently as we anticipate or at all.

We expect environmental attributes (including but not limited to carbon credits, air quality credits, renewable or alternative energy credits, alternate energy credits, methane capture credits, methane performance certificates, emission reductions, differentiated energy attribute tokens, offsets and/or allowances) to continue to grow as a source of future revenue. These new markets are volatile and have significant risk associated with current market conditions. We have limited experience in marketing and selling environmental attributes and as such, our ability to sell environmental attributes or credits is currently dependent on third parties to market them on our behalf. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our environmental attributes will generate significant revenue, as pricing continues to be volatile and program qualification requirements can change. Additionally, the value of environmental attributes may fluctuate based on the quantities and types of environmental attributes we sell and the associated revenue can vary depending on a number of factors, including the market for these credits, changes to the various voluntary or compliance programs under which the credits are generated and sold, and our ability to strictly comply with the programs under which the attributes can be sold. CNX also does not have control over the availability of environmental attributes, competition for those attributes, markets for those attributes, or pricing and other terms related to

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such attributes. The value of environmental attributes may also be adversely affected by legislative, agency, or judicial determinations. These and other factors could impact our future results of operations and cash flows.

CNX and its subsidiaries are subject to various legal proceedings and investigations, which may have an adverse effect on our business.

CNX is party to a number of legal proceedings and, from time to time, investigations, in the normal course of business activities. Responding to investigations or defending these actions, especially purported class actions, can be costly and can distract management. For example, CNX is a party to four climate change lawsuits being pursued by communities against fossil fuel producers relating to climate change, which are beginning to gain prevalence in the courts. There is also the possibility that CNX may become involved in future investigations or suits regarding its business activities. There is the potential that the costs of defending litigation in an individual matter or the aggregation of many matters could have an adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations or financial position. See Note 20 – Commitments and Contingent Liabilities in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion of pending legal proceedings.

Financing, Investment and Indebtedness Risks

Our current long-term debt obligations, and the terms of the agreements that govern that debt and the risks associated therewith, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.

As of December 31, 2023, CNX’s total long-term indebtedness was approximately $2.2 billion, excluding unamortized debt issuance costs, of which approximately (i) $500 million was under our 7.375% Senior Notes due 2031 less $5 million of unamortized discount, (ii) $500 million of 6.00% Senior Notes due 2029, (iii) $400 million of 4.75% Senior Notes due 2030 issued by our midstream business, less $4 million of unamortized bond discount (CNX is not a guarantor of these notes), (iv) $350 million of 7.25% Senior Notes due 2027 plus $2 million of unamortized bond premium, (v) $331 million of 2.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2026 less $5 million of unamortized discount and issuance cost, (vi) $105 million in outstanding borrowings under our midstream revolver (CNX is not a guarantor of this revolving credit facility), and (vii) $52 million in outstanding borrowings under our senior secured credit facility (the “Credit Facility”). The degree to which CNX is leveraged could have important consequences, including, but not limited to:

increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of interest and principal due under our outstanding debt, which will limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, development of our natural gas reserves or other general corporate requirements;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and in the natural gas industry;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with lower leverage and better access to capital resources; and
limiting our ability to implement our business strategy.

Our senior secured revolving credit facility and the indentures governing certain of our Senior Notes limit the incurrence of additional indebtedness unless specified tests or exceptions are met, subject our operations to compliance with certain financial covenants on a quarterly basis, and impose a number of restrictions upon us, such as restrictions on granting liens on our assets, making investments, paying dividends, stock repurchases, selling assets and engaging in acquisitions. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could materially adversely affect us. Further, CNX Midstream Partners LP’s (CNXM) existing $600 million revolving credit facility and $400 million of 4.75% Senior Notes, neither of which are guaranteed by CNX, subjects CNXM to similar financial and/or other restrictive covenants and other restrictions.

If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, including repayment of such obligations at maturity, CNX may be: forced to sell assets, seek additional capital or seek to restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our respective scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, CNX could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to sell material assets or operations to attempt to meet our debt service and other obligations; however, our existing debt documents restrict our ability to sell assets and the use of the proceeds from the sales, such that we may not be able to consummate those sales or to obtain the proceeds which we could realize from them and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.



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Our borrowing base under our senior secured revolving credit facility could decrease for a variety of reasons including lower natural gas prices, declines in natural gas reserves, asset sales and lending requirements or regulations. Significant reductions in our borrowing base below $2.3 billion could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

Our ability to borrow and have letters of credit issued under our $1.4 billion senior secured revolving credit facility is generally limited to a borrowing base. Our borrowing base is determined by the required number of lenders in good faith calculating a loan value of the Company’s proved natural gas reserves. The borrowing base under our senior secured revolving credit facility is currently $2.3 billion. Our borrowing base is redetermined by the lenders twice per year, and the next scheduled borrowing base redetermination is expected to occur in the Spring of 2024. The various matters which we describe in other risk factors that can decrease our proved natural gas reserves including lower natural gas prices, operating difficulties and failure to replace our proved reserves could also decrease our borrowing base. Our borrowing base could also decrease as a result of new lending requirements or regulations or the issuance of new indebtedness. If our borrowing base declined significantly below $2.3 billion, CNX may be unable to implement our development plans, make acquisitions or otherwise execute our business plan which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. CNX also could be required to repay any outstanding indebtedness in excess of the redetermined borrowing base. CNX could face substantial liquidity problems, might not be able to access the equity or debt capital markets and might be required to sell material assets or operations to attempt to meet our debt service and other obligations. CNX may not be able to consummate those sales or to obtain the proceeds which CNX could realize from them, and those proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.

The capped call transactions may affect the value of the Convertible Notes and our common stock, and subject CNX to counterparty performance risk.

Concurrently with the pricing of the Convertible Notes, CNX entered into capped call transactions with certain financial institutions, which are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the Convertible Notes and/or offset any potential cash payments CNX is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted Convertible Notes, as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.

In connection with establishing their initial hedges of the capped call transactions, these financial institutions or their respective affiliates purchased shares of our common stock and/or entered into various derivative transactions with respect to our common stock, and they may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the Convertible Notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of Convertible Notes). Further, CNX will be subject to the unsecured risk that the financial institutions might default under the capped call transactions. If a counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings with respect to such counterparty’s obligations under the relevant capped call transaction, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under our transactions with that counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors, but, generally, the increase in our exposure will be positively correlated to the increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock.

The potential effect, if any, of these transactions and activities on the price of our common stock or the Convertible Notes will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time. In addition, upon a default by a counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. CNX can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of any counterparty.

Conversion of the Convertible Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the Convertible Notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent CNX delivers shares of our common stock upon conversion of any of the Convertible Notes and the potential dilution is not reduced or offset by the capped call transactions CNX entered into. The Convertible Notes may become convertible at the option of holders prior to their scheduled terms under certain circumstances. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Convertible Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.


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CNX may be unable to raise the funds necessary to repurchase the Convertible Notes for cash following a fundamental change, or to pay any cash amounts due upon conversion, and our other indebtedness may impact our ability to repurchase the Convertible Notes or pay cash upon their conversion.

Noteholders may, subject to a limited exception, require us to repurchase their Convertible Notes following a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture) at a cash repurchase price generally equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Convertible Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion, CNX will satisfy part or all of our conversion obligation in cash unless CNX elects to settle conversions solely in shares of our common stock. CNX may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to repurchase the Convertible Notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion. In addition, applicable law, regulatory authorities and the agreements governing our other indebtedness may restrict our ability to repurchase the Convertible Notes or pay the cash amounts due upon conversion.

Our failure to repurchase the Convertible Notes or to pay the cash amounts due upon conversion when required would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the occurrence of the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our other indebtedness, which may result in that other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full. CNX may not have sufficient funds to satisfy all amounts due under the other indebtedness and the Convertible Notes. The occurrence of any of these events as a result of our inability to satisfy our obligations under the Convertible Notes could also negatively affect our reputation and affect the trading price of our common stock.

The conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Convertible Notes is triggered, holders of Convertible Notes will be entitled to convert their Convertible Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Convertible Notes, unless CNX elects to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional shares), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity.

Provisions of our Convertible Notes could delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover of us.

Certain provisions of our Convertible Notes and the indenture governing the Convertible Notes could make a third-party attempt to acquire us more difficult or expensive. For example, if a takeover constitutes a “fundamental change” (as defined in the indenture), then noteholders will have the right to require us to repurchase their Convertible Notes for cash. In addition, if a takeover constitutes a “make-whole fundamental change” (as defined in the indenture), then CNX may be required to temporarily increase the conversion rate. In either case, and in other cases, our obligations under the Convertible Notes and the indenture could increase the cost of acquiring us or otherwise discourage a third party from acquiring us, including in a transaction that noteholders or holders of our common stock may view as favorable.

Risks Related to Strategic Transactions

Strategic determinations, including the allocation of capital and other resources to strategic opportunities, are subject to risk and uncertainties, and our failure to appropriately allocate capital and resources among our strategic opportunities may adversely affect our financial condition.

Our future growth prospects are dependent upon our ability to identify optimal strategies for investing our capital resources to produce superior rates of return. In developing our business plan, we consider allocating capital and other resources to various aspects of our businesses including well development, reserve acquisitions, exploratory activity, corporate items (including share and debt repurchases) and other alternatives, including investments into new proprietary technologies and strategies surrounding the generation and monetization of environmental attributes from our operations, including but not limited to carbon credit offsets. We also consider our likely sources of capital, including cash generated from operations and borrowings under our credit facilities. Notwithstanding the determinations made in the development of our core business plan, business opportunities not previously identified periodically come to our attention, including possible acquisitions and dispositions and opportunities to monetize technological improvements to our operations.

If CNX fails to identify optimal business strategies, optimize our capital investment and capital raising opportunities, use our other resources in furtherance of our business strategies, make appropriate capital investment decisions, or anticipate regulatory, policy and market changes associated with any of our strategic determinations, our financial condition and future growth may be adversely affected. Moreover, economic or other circumstances may change from those contemplated by our

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business plan, and our failure to recognize or respond to those changes may limit our ability to achieve our objectives.

CNX does not completely control the timing of any divestitures that CNX may engage in, and they may not provide anticipated benefits. Additionally, CNX may be unable to acquire additional properties in the future and any acquired properties may not provide the anticipated benefits.

Our business and financing plans may include divesting certain assets over time. However, CNX does not completely control the timing of divestitures, and delays in completing divestitures may reduce the benefits CNX may receive from them, such as the timing of the receipt of cash proceeds. Also, there can be no assurance that the assets we divest will produce anticipated proceeds. Further, the terms of our existing indentures may place restrictions on our ability to divest or sell certain assets.

In the future, CNX may make acquisitions of assets or businesses that complement or expand our current business. No assurance can be given that CNX will be able to identify suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms, obtain financing for acquisitions on acceptable terms or successfully acquire the identified targets. The success of any completed acquisition will depend on our ability to effectively integrate the acquired business into our existing operations and to identify and appropriately manage any liabilities assumed as part of the acquisition. The process of integrating acquired businesses or assets may involve unforeseen difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of our managerial and financial resources. Our failure to make acquisitions in the future and successfully integrate the acquired businesses or assets into our existing operations could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

There is no guarantee that CNX will continue to repurchase shares of our common stock under our current or any future share repurchase program at levels undertaken previously or at all. Any determinations to repurchase shares of our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors based upon a review of all relevant considerations.

CNX currently has a repurchase program in place authorized by our board of directors, which is not subject to an expiration date, and for which $1.1 billion remains available for repurchases as of February 6, 2024. The repurchase program does not require us to acquire any specific number of shares. Our board of directors determination to repurchase shares of our common stock will depend upon market conditions, applicable legal requirements, contractual obligations and other factors that the board of directors deems relevant. Based on an evaluation of these factors, our board of directors may determine not to repurchase shares or to repurchase shares at reduced levels from those anticipated by our shareholders See Note 5 – Stock Repurchase in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion.

CNX may operate a portion of our business with one or more joint venture partners or in circumstances where CNX is not the operator, which may restrict our operational and corporate flexibility.

As is common in the natural gas industry, CNX may operate one or more of our properties with a joint venture partner, or contract with a third-party to control operations. These relationships could require us to share operational and other control, such that CNX may no longer have the flexibility to control completely the development and operation of these properties. If CNX does not timely meet our financial commitments in such circumstances, our rights to participate may be adversely affected. If a joint venture partner is unable or fails to pay its portion of development costs or if a third-party operator does not operate in accordance with our expectations, our costs of operations could be increased. CNX could also incur liability as a result of actions taken or not taken by a joint venture partner or third-party operator. Disputes between us and the other party may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses, delay or terminate projects and distract our officers and directors from focusing their time and effort on our business.

In connection with the separation of our coal business, CONSOL Energy has agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities, and we have agreed to indemnify CONSOL Energy for certain liabilities. If we are required to pay under these indemnities to CONSOL Energy, our financial results could be negatively impacted. The CONSOL Energy indemnity may not be sufficient to hold us harmless from the full amount of liabilities for which CONSOL Energy has been allocated responsibility, and CONSOL Energy may not be able to satisfy its indemnification obligations in the future.

Pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement and certain other agreements with CONSOL Energy, CNX and CONSOL Energy have agreed to indemnify the other for certain liabilities in each case for uncapped amounts. We remain liable as a guarantor on certain liabilities that were assumed by CONSOL Energy in connection with the separation. The estimated value of these guarantees was approximately $114 million as of December 31, 2023. Although CONSOL Energy agreed to indemnify us to the extent that we are called upon to pay any of these liabilities, there is no assurance that CONSOL Energy will satisfy its obligations to indemnify us in these situations.


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Indemnities that CNX may be required to provide CONSOL Energy are not subject to any cap, may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that CONSOL Energy has agreed to retain, including in respect of certain statutory obligations related to, among others, health and environmental matters. For example, see disclosure in Note 20 – Commitments and Contingent Liabilities in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further discussion regarding a lawsuit filed by the UMWA 1992 Benefit Plan against CNX and CONSOL Energy in May 2020.

Any amounts we are required to pay pursuant to these indemnification obligations and other liabilities could require us to divert cash that would otherwise have been used in furtherance of our operating business. Further, the indemnity from CONSOL Energy may not be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, and CONSOL Energy may not be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from CONSOL Energy any amounts for which we are held liable, CNX may be temporarily required to bear such losses. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Other General Risks
 
Cyber-incidents targeting our systems, oil and natural gas industry systems and infrastructure, or the systems of our third-party service providers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Cyber-incidents, including cybersecurity incidents, data misuse and ransomware attacks, continue to proliferate and become more sophisticated, and could significantly affect us, third party operators on whom we depend, or the operations of our customers and business partners, as well as impact general economic conditions, consumer confidence and spending and market liquidity. Strategic targets, including energy-related assets, may be at greater risk of future incidents than other targets in the United States. A cyber incident could result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption, including environmental and safety issues resulting from a loss of control of field equipment and assets, and/or financial loss. Consequently, it is possible that any of these occurrences, or a combination of them, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and impact our production. Our insurance may not protect us against all such occurrences.

The natural gas industry, and our business partners have become increasingly dependent upon digital technologies, including information systems, infrastructure and cloud applications and services, and third-party risk management and oversight to operate our businesses, process and record financial and operating data, market our natural gas, arrange transportation, communicate with our employees and business partners, analyze geologic and operational information, estimate quantities of natural gas reserves, monitor and control our field equipment and assets and perform other activities related to our businesses. Our business partners, including vendors, service providers and financial institutions, are also dependent on digital technology.

As dependence on digital technologies has increased the threat of cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks or unintentional events, have also increased. A cyber-incident could include gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption, or result in denial-of-service on websites. SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) based systems are potentially vulnerable to targeted cyber-attacks due to their critical role in operations.

Our technologies, systems, networks, data centers and those of our business partners and suppliers may become the target of cyber-incidents or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, or other disruption of our business operations. In addition, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period.

Deliberate attacks on our assets, or security breaches in our systems or infrastructure, the systems or infrastructure of third-parties or off-premise service providers could lead to corruption or loss of our proprietary data and potentially sensitive data, delays in production or delivery, difficulty in completing and settling transactions, challenges in maintaining our books and records, environmental damage, communication interruptions, damage to our reputation, other operational disruptions and third-party liability, including the following:

a cyber-incident impacting one of our vendors or service providers could result in supply chain disruptions, loss or corruption of our information or other negative consequences, any of which could delay or halt development of additional infrastructure, effectively delaying the start of cash flows from the project;
a cyber-incident related to our facilities may result in equipment damage or failure;
a cyber-incident impacting a communications network or power grid could cause operational disruption resulting in impact to our production;

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A cyber-incident affecting an interstate pipeline company could result in an inability to deliver our natural gas to certain markets;
a deliberate corruption of our financial or operational data could result in events of non-compliance which could lead to regulatory fines or penalties; and
business interruptions could result in expensive remediation efforts, distraction of management, damage to our reputation, or a negative impact on the price of our stock.

Our implementation of various internal and external controls and processes, including appropriate internal risk assessment and internal policy implementation, incorporating a risk-based cyber security framework to monitor and mitigate security threats and other strategies to increase security for our information, facilities and infrastructure is costly and labor intensive. Moreover, there can be no assurance that such measures will be sufficient to prevent security breaches or other cyber-incidents from occurring. As cyber threats continue to evolve, CNX may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities.

Cyber-attacks continue to evolve in frequency and complexity. While no industry is immune, industrial networks have come under increased targeted attacks recently (such as, Colonial Pipeline and JBS Foods Group). This has led to increased scrutiny by cyber insurance carriers. As a result, securing a policy with sufficient protection has become more challenging. Our ability to obtain insurance to mitigate the financial impact of cyber incidents may be challenged by the future prevalence and nature of incidences experienced by companies and insurance markets willingness to underwrite this risk.

Terrorist activities could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Terrorist attacks, including eco-terrorism, the threat of terrorist attacks, whether domestic or foreign, as well as military or other actions taken in response to these acts, could affect the energy industry, the environment and industry related economic conditions, including our operations, the operations of our customers, as well as general economic conditions, consumer confidence, spending and market liquidity. Strategic targets, including energy-related assets, may be at greater risk of future attacks than other targets in the United States. The occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries could adversely affect the global economy in unpredictable ways, including the disruption of energy supplies and markets, increased volatility in commodity prices or the possibility that the infrastructure on which we rely could be a direct target or an indirect casualty of an act of terrorism, and, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our insurance may not protect us against such occurrences.

ITEM 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 1C.    Cybersecurity

Overview

CNX maintains a comprehensive cybersecurity program that aims to provide a robust, dynamic, and secure environment that protects the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data required by our business to be stored, analyzed, transported, and/or processed. The Company has implemented various internal and external controls and processes, including appropriate internal risk assessment and policy implementation, incorporating a risk-based cybersecurity framework to monitor and mitigate security threats and other strategies to increase security for our information, facilities, and infrastructure.

Risk Management and Strategy

The Company recognizes the risk that cybersecurity threats pose to our operations, and cybersecurity is an integral component of our overall risk management strategy. We have adopted the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework (the Framework) to guide our cybersecurity program. Developed in 2013, the Framework is a voluntary set of standards, guidelines, and best practices designed to help organizations better manage cybersecurity risks. CNX’s cybersecurity team consists of certain of our executive officers as well as dedicated cybersecurity personnel – including without limitation, our Chief Information Officer (CIO), Director of Cybersecurity, and multiple cybersecurity engineers. The cybersecurity team, led by professionals with deep cybersecurity expertise across multiple industries, takes a cross-functional approach to addressing these risks and engages in discussions with the Board of Directors (The Board) and our executive management team accordingly on an as-needed basis.



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We have developed a written incident response plan (IRP) that delineates the procedures to be followed for handling a variety of cybersecurity incidents; categorizes potential cybersecurity incidents and the required timeframe for reporting each; establishes cybersecurity incident response levels; provides for the conducting of legally privileged investigations to enable us to meet applicable legal obligations, including possible notification requirements; and outlines the roles and responsibilities for various personnel in the event of a cybersecurity incident.

We have also established a vulnerability management program to address the identification, prioritization, and remediation of potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities. These procedures allocate responsibility among various members of our cybersecurity team to detect vulnerabilities, assess their urgency, backup appropriate systems, and prioritize, select, test, and verify remediation methods. We hold weekly and monthly vulnerability management meetings with our internal technical and business partners and regularly review these procedures to ensure that this vulnerability management program continues to be effective.

Third parties also play a role in the Company’s comprehensive approach to cybersecurity and its associated risk management framework. CNX leverages substantial technological tools and partners to augment and enable the efforts of its internal cybersecurity team. Separately, management and oversight of the risks from cybersecurity threats associated with our engagement of third-party service providers is currently included in our internal auditing procedures, however, we have plans to further mature these procedures in the current fiscal year.

Governance

The Board, in coordination with the ESCR Committee, is responsible for the oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats. The responsibilities of the ESCR Committee include overseeing policies and management systems for cybersecurity matters and reviewing CNX’s strategy, objectives, and policies relative to cybersecurity. In addition, the Board and the ESCR Committee receive regular presentations and reports on cybersecurity risks that address a wide range of topics, including recent developments, personnel changes, discussion of testing and vulnerability assessment efforts, technological trends or tools, third party updates, and regulatory standards. The CNX IRP calls for prompt and timely direct notifications and updates to the Board (or its committees) as necessary in connection with any cybersecurity incidents that may occur. On a periodic basis, the Board and the ESCR Committee discuss our approach to cybersecurity with our CIO and Director of Cybersecurity.

Management’s role in assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats, as well as making final materiality determinations and disclosures and other compliance decisions, is documented in the CNX IRP, and our processes for identifying, prioritizing, and remediating vulnerabilities are documented via the Company’s vulnerability management program procedures. In connection with and pursuant to the IRP, our dedicated incident response team works collaboratively across CNX to carry out a program that has been designed to protect our information system from cybersecurity threats, assess and manage risks arising from any such threats, and to promptly respond to potential cybersecurity incidents.

To date, there have been no risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, which have materially affected, or have been reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. Notwithstanding the extensive approach we take to cybersecurity, we may not be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on us. While CNX maintains cybersecurity insurance, the costs related to cybersecurity threats or incidents may not be fully insured. For more information on our cybersecurity related risks, see Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 2.Properties

See “Detail of Operations” in Part I. Item 1 of this Form 10-K for a description of CNX's properties.

ITEM 3.Legal Proceedings

The first three paragraphs of “Note 20 – Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K are incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


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PART II

ITEM 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The Company's common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CNX”.

As of December 31, 2023, there were 84 holders of record of our common stock.

The following performance graph compares the yearly percentage change in the cumulative total shareholder return on the common stock of CNX to the cumulative shareholder return for the same period of a peer group and the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index. The current peer group is comprised of CNX, Antero Resources Corporation, Chesapeake Energy Corporation, EQT Corporation, Gulfport Energy Corporation, Range Resources Corporation and Southwestern Energy Co. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in CNX common stock and each index was $100 at December 31, 2018. The graph also assumes that all dividends were reinvested and that the investments were held through December 31, 2023.
201820192020202120222023
CNX Resources Corporation100.0 77.5 94.6 120.4 147.4 175.2 
Peer Group100.0 52.5 57.4 128.4 191.9 197.4 
S&P 500 Stock Index100.0 128.9 149.9 190.2 153.3 190.4 

Cumulative Total Shareholder Return Among CNX Resources Corporation, Peer Group and S&P 500 Stock Index
Stock Graph 2023.jpg
The above information is being furnished pursuant to Regulation S-K, Item 201(e) (Performance Graph).

The determination to declare and pay dividends is made by CNX's Board of Directors. CNX has not paid dividends on its common stock since 2016. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will depend upon, among other things, general business conditions, CNX’s financial results, contractual and legal restrictions regarding the payment of dividends by CNX, planned investments by CNX, and other factors as the Board of Directors deems relevant.





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The Company's Credit Facility currently limits CNX's ability to pay dividends in excess of an annual rate of $0.10 per share when the Company's net leverage ratio exceeds 3.00 to 1.00 and is subject to availability under the Credit Facility of at least 20% of the aggregate commitments and there being no borrowing base deficiency. The Credit Facility does not permit such dividend payments when an event of default has occurred and is continuing. The indentures to the 7.25% Senior Notes due March 2027, the 6.00% Senior Notes due January 2029, and the 7.375% Senior Notes due January 2031 limit dividends to $0.50 per share annually unless several conditions are met. These conditions include no defaults, ability to incur additional debt and other payment limitations under the indentures. There were no defaults under the Company’s Credit Facility or Notes in the year ended December 31, 2023.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

The following table sets forth repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023:

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (2)
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (000's omitted)
October 1, 2023-
October 31, 2023
2,078,116 $22.33 2,077,174 $1,194,118 
November 1, 2023-
November 30, 2023
1,553,205 $21.25 1,553,205 $1,161,119 
December 1, 2023-
December 31, 2023
1,643,117 $20.08 1,643,117 $1,128,119 
Total5,274,438 5,273,496 

(1) Includes shares withheld from employees to satisfy minimum tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock during the period.
(2) Shares repurchased as part of the Company's current $2,900 million share repurchase program authorized by the Board of Directors, which is not subject to an expiration date. See Note 5 – Stock Repurchase in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
See Part III. Item 12. “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for information relating to CNX's equity compensation plans.

ITEM 6. Reserved

Not applicable.











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ITEM 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The information provided below supplements, but does not form part of, CNX's financial statements. This discussion contains forward‑looking statements that are based on the views and beliefs of management, as well as assumptions and estimates made by management. Actual results could differ materially from such forward‑looking statements as a result of various risk factors, including those that may not be in the control of management. For further information on items that could impact future operating performance or financial condition, please see “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors” and the section entitled “Forward‑Looking Statements.” CNX does not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements except as otherwise required by applicable law.

General

CNX continually monitors factors that could cause actual results of operations to differ from historical results or current expectations. Examples include global events such as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the announcement by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to extend production cuts through the first quarter of 2024, both of which have had an impact on global commodity prices. These and other factors could affect the Company’s operations, earnings and cash flows for any period and could cause such results to not be comparable to those of the same period in previous years. The results presented in this Form 10-K are not necessarily indicative of future operating results.

Natural Gas, NGL, and Oil Pricing

Prices for natural gas, NGLs and oil that CNX produces significantly impact revenue and cash flows. In the current economic environment, CNX expects that commodity prices for some or all of the commodities we produce will remain volatile. In order to manage the market risk exposure of volatile natural gas prices in the future, CNX enters into various physical natural gas supply transactions with both gas marketers and end users for terms varying in length as well as financial hedges. However, this market volatility is beyond our control and may adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and future cash flows.

Inflation

Heightened levels of inflation, primarily related to steel, diesel fuel and labor, continue to present risk for CNX and the broader natural gas industry. If inflation continues at its current levels or increases further for any extended period of time, and CNX is unable to successfully mitigate the impact, our costs could increase further, thus having a greater impact on our financial position. Rising interest rates increased our costs on borrowings under our Credit Facility in 2023, but it is currently anticipated that the Federal Reserve will make cuts to relevant interest rates in 2024. CNX remains committed to our ongoing efforts to increase the efficiency of our operations and improve costs, which may, in part, offset any additional cost increases from inflation.

New Technologies Update

As previously disclosed, CNX continues to devote resources to the development of unique, proprietary technologies to further enable vertical and horizontal business growth. This includes the development and use of proprietary technology to enhance and alter manufacturing processes for the extraction and delivery of natural gas through the development and commercialization of emerging technologies, as well as the development and sale of environmental attributes from our operations. CNX is also focusing on forging strategic partnerships for the use of low carbon intensity feedstocks and creation of derivative products.

For the year ended December 31, 2023, CNX had $41 million of sales of environmental attributes which includes items such as (but is not limited to): carbon credits, air quality credits, renewable or alternative energy credits, methane capture credits, methane performance certificates, emission reductions, offsets and/or allowances. These sales are included as part of Other Revenue and Operating Income in the Other Segment. For the year ended December 31, 2023, CNX incurred $7 million of environmental attribute fees which represent costs related to the sale of environmental attributes and are included in Other Operating Expense in the Other Segment.



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On December 15, 2023, citing delays and increasing uncertainty over implementation rules guiding the use of the 45V hydrogen production tax credit provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) and an inability to reach final commercial terms with project developers, CNX announced it had ended coordination with the Adams Fork project. The Company continues to evaluate several viable alternative sites in southern West Virginia for clean hydrogen projects.

The Company remains committed to supporting the Appalachian Regional Clean Hydrogen Hub (ARCH2) via use of its local, low cost, low carbon intensity feedstock, which is ideal for affordable, clean hydrogen production in historically disadvantaged energy communities across Appalachia. CNX's final investment decision remains contingent upon the future issuance of tax credit guidance that unambiguously supports low carbon intensity feedstock projects that will facilitate development of the regional clean hydrogen hubs, including ARCH2.

2023 Highlights:

Proved developed reserves of 6.0 Tcfe.
Total sales volumes of 560.4 Bcfe.
Shale sales volumes of 519.5 Bcfe.
Repurchased 17.6 million shares of CNX common stock for $322 million on the open market.

2024 Outlook:

Our 2024 annual sales volumes are expected to be approximately 570-590 Bcfe (This includes approximately 15-18 Bcfe of CMM. See New Technologies section in “Item 1. Business” of this Form 10-K for additional information).
Our 2024 capital expenditures are expected to be approximately $575-$625 million.
Our 2024 sales of environmental attributes, net of corresponding fees, are expected to be approximately $75 million. However, our ability to sell environmental attributes can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" of this Form 10-K.





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Results of Operations:
The following discussion and analysis of our Results of Operations and Liquidity and Capital Resources includes a comparison of the year ended December 31, 2023 to the year ended December 31, 2022. A similar discussion and analysis that compares year ended December 31, 2022 to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 is omitted from this Form 10-K and may be found in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Net Income (Loss)
CNX reported net income of $1,721 million, or earnings per diluted share of $8.99, for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to a net loss of $142 million, or a loss per diluted share of $0.75, for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Included in earnings for the year ended December 31, 2023 was an unrealized gain on commodity derivative instruments of $1,765 million and a net gain on asset sales and abandonments of $132 million. Included in the loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 was an unrealized loss on commodity derivative instruments of $851 million and a net gain on asset sales and abandonments of $9 million. See Note 4 – Acquisitions and Dispositions in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information related to the gain on asset sales and abandonments.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

CNX's management uses certain non-GAAP financial measures for planning, forecasting and evaluating business and financial performance, and believes that they are useful for investors in analyzing the Company. Although these are not measures of performance calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), management believes that these financial measures are useful to an investor in evaluating CNX because these metrics are widely used to evaluate a natural gas company’s operating performance. Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including cash settlements is a non-GAAP measure that excludes the impacts of changes in the fair value of commodity derivative instruments prior to settlement, which are often volatile, and only includes the impact of settled commodity derivative instruments. Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including cash settlements also excludes purchased gas revenue and other revenue and operating income, which are not directly related to CNX’s natural gas producing activities. Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Costs is a non-GAAP measure that excludes certain expenses that are not directly related to CNX’s natural gas producing activities and are managed outside our production operations (See Note 21 – Segment Information in the Notes to the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information). These expenses include, but are not limited to, interest expense, other operating expense and other corporate expenses such as selling, general and administrative costs. We believe that Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including cash settlements, Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Costs and Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Margin (which is derived by subtracting Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Costs from Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including cash settlements) provide useful information to investors for evaluating period-to-period comparisons of earnings trends. These metrics should not be viewed as a substitute for measures of performance that are calculated in accordance with GAAP. In addition, because all companies do not calculate these measures identically, these measures may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.



















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Non-GAAP Financial Measures Reconciliation
For the Years Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)20232022
Total Revenue and Other Operating Income$3,435 $1,261 
(Deduct) Add:
Purchased Gas Revenue(75)(186)
(Gain) Loss on Commodity Derivative Instruments (1,765)851 
Other Revenue and Operating Income(130)(87)
Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including Cash Settlements, a Non-GAAP Financial Measure
$1,465 $1,839 
Total Operating Expense$1,192 $1,321 
(Deduct):
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization (DD&A) - Corporate (14)(13)
   Exploration and Production Related Other Costs(10)(8)
Purchased Gas Costs(70)(185)
Selling, General and Administrative Costs(125)(122)
Other Operating Expense(80)(63)
Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Costs, a Non-GAAP Financial Measure1
$893 $930 
1 Natural Gas, NGL and Oil production costs consists primarily of lease operating expense, production ad valorem and other fees, transportation, gathering and compression and production related depreciation, depletion and amortization.

Selected Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Financial Data

The following table presents a summary of our total sales volumes, sales of natural gas, NGL and oil including cash settlements, natural gas, NGL and oil production costs and natural gas, NGL and oil production margin related to our production operations on a total company basis (See Non-GAAP Financial Measures Reconciliation above for the reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP):
For the Years Ended December 31,
20232022Variance
in MillionsPer Mcfein MillionsPer Mcfein MillionsPer Mcfe
Total Sales Volumes (Bcfe)*560.4 580.2 (19.8)
Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Revenue$1,302 $2.29 $3,652 $6.52 $(2,350)$(4.23)
Gain (Loss) on Commodity Derivative Instruments - Cash Settlement 163 0.32 (1,813)(3.35)1,976 3.67 
Sales of Natural Gas, NGL and Oil, including Cash Settlements, a Non-GAAP Financial Measure
1,465 2.61 1,839 3.17 (374)(0.56)
Lease Operating Expense63 0.11 67 0.11 (4)— 
Production, Ad Valorem, and Other Fees28 0.05 45 0.08 (17)(0.03)
Transportation, Gathering and Compression382 0.68 370 0.64 12 0.04 
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization (DD&A)420 0.75 448 0.77 (28)(0.02)
Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Costs, a Non-GAAP Financial Measure
893 1.59 930 1.60 (37)(0.01)
Natural Gas, NGL and Oil Production Margin, a Non-GAAP Financial Measure
$572 $1.02 $909 $1.57 $(337)$(0.55)
*NGLs and Oil/Condensate are converted to Mcfe at the rate of one barrel equals six Mcf based upon the approximate relative energy content of oil and natural gas, which is not indicative of the relationship of NGL, condensate, and natural gas prices.

The 19.8 Bcfe decrease in volumes in the period-to period comparison was primarily due to various operational delays and challenges that occurred in 2022 which impacted current period production due to the timing of wells being turned-in-line. The remaining variance is primarily due to normal production declines offset, in part, by an increase in NGL sales volume from new wells turned-in-line and an increase in ethane recoveries.

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Changes in the average costs per Mcfe were primarily related to the following items:
Production, ad valorem and other fees decreased on a per unit basis primarily due to decreased realized prices on natural gas.
Transportation, gathering and compression expense increased on a per unit basis primarily due to increased processing fees, increased electrical compression expense, increased repairs and maintenance expense and lower volumes.
Depreciation, depletion and amortization expense decreased on a per unit basis due to a lower annual depletion rate primarily resulting from low-cost reserve additions from development during the 2022 period.

Average Realized Price Reconciliation

The following table presents a breakout of liquids and natural gas sales information and settled derivative information to assist in the understanding of the Company’s natural gas production and sales portfolio and information regarding settled commodity derivatives:
For the Years Ended December 31,
 in thousands (unless noted)20232022VariancePercent Change
LIQUIDS
NGL:
Sales Volume (MMcfe)44,461 37,997 6,464 17.0 %
Sales Volume (Mbbls)7,410 6,333 1,077 17.0 %
Gross Price ($/Bbl)$21.24 $38.16 $(16.92)(44.3)%
Gross NGL Revenue$157,573 $241,535 $(83,962)(34.8)%
Oil/Condensate:
Sales Volume (MMcfe)1,236 1,476 (240)(16.3)%
Sales Volume (Mbbls)206 246 (40)(16.3)%
Gross Price ($/Bbl)$65.88 $81.90 $(16.02)(19.6)%
Gross Oil/Condensate Revenue$13,577 $20,155 $(6,578)(32.6)%
GAS
Sales Volume (MMcf)514,669 540,696 (26,027)(4.8)%
Sales Price ($/Mcf) $2.20 $6.27 $(4.07)(64.9)%
Gross Gas Revenue$1,131,068 $3,390,422 $(2,259,354)(66.6)%
Hedging Impact ($/Mcf)$0.32 $(3.35)$3.67 109.6 %
Gain (Loss) on Commodity Derivative Instruments - Cash Settlement$163,026 $(1,812,777)$1,975,803 109.0 %

The decrease in gross revenue was primarily the result of the $4.07 per Mcf decrease in natural gas prices, when excluding the impact of hedging, the $16.92 per Bbl decrease in NGL prices, and the 19.8 Bcfe decrease in sales volume. These decreases were offset, in-part, by the impact of the change in the gain (loss) on commodity derivative instruments - cash settlement related to the Company's hedging program.

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SEGMENT ANALYSIS for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022:

For the Year EndedDifference to Year Ended
 December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
 (in millions)ShaleCBMOtherTotalShaleCBMOtherTotal
Natural Gas, NGLs and Oil Revenue$1,170 $131 $$1,302 $(2,165)$(184)$(1)$(2,350)
Gain on Commodity Derivative Instruments151 12 1,765 1,928 1,824 151 2,617 4,592 
Purchased Gas Revenue— — 75 75 — — (111)(111)
Other Revenue and Operating Income67 — 63 130 (2)— 45 43 
Total Revenue and Other Operating Income1,388 143 1,904 3,435 (343)(33)2,550 2,174 
Lease Operating Expense44 19 — 63 (6)— (4)
Production, Ad Valorem, and Other Fees21 — 28 (12)(5)— (17)
Transportation, Gathering and Compression316 66 — 382 (3)17 (2)12 
Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization365 50 19 434 (24)(4)(27)
Exploration and Production Related Other Costs— — 10 10 — — 
Purchased Gas Costs— — 70 70 — — (115)(115)
Selling, General and Administrative Costs— — 125 125 — — 
Other Operating Expense— — 80 80 — — 17 17 
Total Operating Costs and Expenses746 142 304 1,192 (45)10 (94)(129)
Other Expense— — — — (1)(1)
Gain on Asset Sales and Abandonments, net— — (132)(132)— — (123)(123)
Loss on Debt Extinguishment— — — — — — (23)(23)
Interest Expense— — 143 143 — — 15 15 
Total Other Expenses— — 20 20 — — (132)(132)
Total Costs and Expenses746 142 324 1,212 (45)10 (226)(261)
Earnings Before Income Tax$642 $$1,580 $2,223 $(298)$(43)$2,776 $2,435 





















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        SHALE SEGMENT

The Shale segment had earnings before income tax of $642 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to earnings before income tax of $940 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
 For the Years Ended December 31,
 2023