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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended:December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the transition period from                                        to                                       .
Commission file number: 000-20288

COLUMBIA BANKING SYSTEM, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Washington91-1422237
(State or Other Jurisdiction(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
of Incorporation or Organization)
1301 A Street  
Tacoma, Washington 98402-2156 
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code) 
(253) 305-1900
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
TITLE OF EACH CLASSTRADING SYMBOLNAME OF EXCHANGE
Common StockCOLBThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.      Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒   No  ☐ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statement of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to Section 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes   No  ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, based on the closing price on that date of $20.28 per share, and 166,512,408 shares held was $3,376,871,634.

The registrant had outstanding 208,625,649 shares of common stock as of January 31, 2024.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Columbia Banking System, Inc. ("Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.



COLUMBIA BANKING SYSTEM, INC.
FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
ITEM 6. RESERVED



2

The acronyms, abbreviations, and terms listed below are used in various sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS
ACHAutomated Clearing House
ACLAllowance for Credit Losses
ACLLLAllowance for Credit Losses on Loans and Leases
ALCOAsset/Liability Management Committee
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
ATMAutomated Teller Machine
BankUmpqua Bank
Basel IIIBasel capital framework (third accord)
BHCABank Holding Company Act of 1956
BIPOCBlack, Indigenous, and People of Color
BoardThe Company's Board of Directors
BOLIBank Owned Life Insurance
BSABank Secrecy Act
BTFPBank Term Funding Program
Capital RulesRisk-based capital standards currently applicable to the Company and the Bank
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act
CCPACalifornia Consumer Protection Act of 2018
CDLCollateral-Dependent Loans
CECLCurrent Expected Credit Losses (ASC Topic 326)
CET1 Common Equity Tier 1
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection Bureau
ColumbiaColumbia Banking System, Inc.
CompanyColumbia Banking System, Inc. and its Subsidiaries
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019
CPRACalifornia Privacy Rights Act
CRACommunity Reinvestment Act of 1977
CVACredit Valuation Adjustments
DCBSOregon Department of Consumer and Business Services Division of Financial Regulation
DCFDiscounted Cash Flow
DCPDeferred Compensation Plan
DEIDiversity, Equity, and Inclusion
DIFDeposit Insurance Fund
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
DTADeferred Tax Assets
ESGEnvironmental, Social, and Governance
ESPEmployee Stock Purchase
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FDIAFederal Deposit Insurance Act
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal ReserveBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bank

3

GLOSSARY OF DEFINED TERMS (CONTINUED)
FinPacFinancial Pacific Leasing, Inc.
FintechFinancial technology
FRBFederal Reserve Bank
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles
GDPGross Domestic Product
GNMAGovernment National Mortgage Association
HELOCHome Equity Line of Credit
IDIInsured Depository Institutions
LGDLoss Given Default
LIBORLondon Inter-Bank Offered Rate
MergerUmpqua Holdings Corporation merged with and into Columbia, with Columbia as the surviving corporation
Merger Agreement
Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of October 11, 2021, by and among UHC, Columbia, and Cascade Merger Sub, Inc., as amended on January 9, 2023
Merger DateFebruary 28, 2023
MSRMortgage Servicing Rights
NOLNet Operating Loss
OCCOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency
PCDPurchased Credit Deteriorated
PDProbability of Default
ROURight-Of-Use
RSARestricted Stock Awards
RSURestricted Stock Units
RUCReserve for Unfunded Commitments
SBASmall Business Administration
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
SERPSupplemental Retirement Plan associated with legacy Columbia
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
SOXSarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
SRPSupplemental Retirement Plan
SRP/DCPUmpqua Supplemental Retirement & Deferred Compensation Plan
TDRTroubled Debt Restructured
TrustsTrusts wholly-owned by the Company
UHCUmpqua Holdings Corporation
USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture
UmpquaUmpqua Bank


4

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we refer to Columbia Banking System, Inc. as the "Company," "Columbia," "we," "us," "our," or similar references.
Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for "forward-looking statements" provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements may include statements that expressly or implicitly predict future results, performance, or events. Statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. You can find many of these statements by looking for words such as "anticipates," "expects," "believes," "estimates," "intends," "forecast", and words or phrases of similar meaning.

We make forward-looking statements including, but not limited to, statements made about the combined company’s prospects and results following the merger with Umpqua Holdings Corporation and the merger of Columbia State Bank into Umpqua Bank (collectively, the “Mergers”), completed in the first quarter 2023; derivatives and hedging; the results and performance of models and economic forecasts used in our calculation of the ACL; projected sources of funds and the Company's liquidity position and deposit level and types; our securities portfolio; loan sales; adequacy of our ACL, including the RUC; provision for credit losses; non-performing loans and future losses; our commercial real estate portfolio, its collectability and subsequent charge-offs; resolution of non-accrual loans; mortgage volumes and the impact of rate changes; the economic environment; inflation and interest rates generally; litigation; dividends; junior subordinated debentures; fair values of certain assets and liabilities, including MSR values and sensitivity analyses; tax rates; deposit pricing; and the effect of accounting pronouncements and changes in accounting methodology.

Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties, many of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. There are many factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these forward-looking statements. In addition to the factors set forth in the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from the anticipated results expressed or implied by forward-looking statements:
changes in general economic, political, or industry conditions, and in conditions impacting the banking industry specifically;
deterioration in economic conditions that could result in increased loan and lease losses, especially those risks associated with concentrations in real estate related loans;
uncertainty in U.S. fiscal and monetary policy, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve or the effects of any declines in housing and commercial real estate prices, high or increasing unemployment rates, continued inflation, or any recession or slowdown in economic growth particularly in the western United States;
volatility and disruptions in global capital and credit markets;
the impact of bank failures or adverse developments at other banks on general investor sentiment regarding the stability and liquidity of banks;
changes in interest rates that could significantly reduce net interest income and negatively affect asset yields and valuations and funding sources, including impacts on prepayment speeds;
the impact of transition of LIBOR to other indexes including SOFR;
competitive pressures among financial institutions and nontraditional providers of financial services, including on product pricing and services;
continued consolidation in the financial services industry resulting in the creation of larger financial institutions that have greater resources;
our ability to successfully, including on time and on budget, implement and sustain information technology product and system enhancements and operational initiatives;

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our ability to attract new deposits and loans and leases;
our ability to retain deposits;
our ability to achieve the efficiencies and enhanced financial and operating performance we expect to realize from investments in personnel, acquisitions, and infrastructure;
the possibility that our recorded goodwill could become impaired, which may have an adverse impact on our earnings and capital;
demand for financial services in our market areas;
stability, cost, and continued availability of borrowings and other funding sources, such as brokered and public deposits;
changes in legal or regulatory requirements or the results of regulatory examinations that could increase expenses or restrict growth;
changes in the scope and cost of FDIC insurance and other coverage;
our ability to manage climate change concerns, related regulations, and potential impacts on the creditworthiness of our customers;
our ability to recruit and retain key management and staff;
our ability to raise capital or incur debt on reasonable terms;
regulatory limits on the Bank's ability to pay dividends to the Company that could impact the timing and amount of dividends to shareholders;
financial services reform and the impact of legislation and implementing regulations on our business operations, including our compliance costs, interest expense, and revenue;
a breach or failure of our operational or security systems, or those of our third-party vendors, including as a result of cyber-attacks;
success, impact, and timing of our business strategies, including market acceptance of any new products or services;
the outcome of legal proceedings;
our ability to effectively manage credit risk, interest rate risk, market risk, operational risk, legal risk, liquidity risk and regulatory and compliance risk;
the possibility that the anticipated benefits of the Mergers are not realized when expected or at all, including as a result of the impact of, or problems arising from, the integration of the two companies or as a result of the strength of the economy and competitive factors in the areas where we do business;
potential adverse reactions or changes to business or employee relationships, including those resulting from the integration of the two companies and banks;
economic forecast variables that are either materially worse or better than end of quarter projections and deterioration in the economy that exceeds current consensus estimates;
the effect of geopolitical instability, including wars, conflicts, and terrorist attacks;
natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, fires, pandemics, and other similarly unexpected events outside of our control;
our ability to effectively manage problem credits;
our ability to successfully negotiate with landlords or reconfigure facilities; and
the effects of any damage to our reputation resulting from developments related to any of the items identified above.

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There are many factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required under federal securities laws. Readers should consider any forward-looking statements in light of this explanation, and we caution readers about relying on forward-looking statements.

For a more detailed discussion of some of the risk factors that could (i) affect our business, financial condition, and future results, or (ii) cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by these forward-looking statements, see the section entitled "Risk Factors" under Item 1A below. We do not intend to update any factors, except as required by SEC rules, or to publicly announce revisions to any of our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date that such statement was made. You should consider any forward-looking statements in light of this explanation, and we caution you about relying on forward-looking statements.

SEC Filings

We electronically file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy and information statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain these reports and statements, and any amendments, from the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. You may obtain copies of these reports, and any amendments, through the investor relations section of our website at www.columbiabankingsystem.com. These reports are available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC.

Introduction

Columbia Banking System, Inc. (referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as "we," "our," the "Company," and "Columbia") is a registered financial holding company. Columbia completed its previously announced merger with Umpqua Holdings Corporation on February 28, 2023. This combined two premier banks in the Northwest to create one of the largest banks headquartered in the West. Columbia completed its core systems conversion on March 20, 2023, and branch consolidations occurred through the second quarter of 2023.

Through the Bank, we provide a broad range of banking, private banking, mortgage, and other financial services to corporate, institutional, small business, and individual customers. FinPac, a commercial equipment leasing company, is a subsidiary of the Bank. Along with its subsidiaries, the Company is subject to the regulations of state and federal agencies and undergoes regular examinations by these regulatory agencies.

The majority of the Bank’s loans and deposits are within its service areas in Oregon, Washington, California, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. Umpqua Bank is an Oregon state-chartered commercial bank, the deposits of which are insured in whole or in part by the FDIC.
Business Strategy

Columbia Banking System, Inc., through its principal subsidiary, Umpqua Bank, seeks to bank businesses of all sizes, along with their owners, executives, and employees, in addition to the residents of the communities it serves. We seek to provide our customers with the financial sophistication and product depth of a regional banking company while retaining the appeal and service level of a community bank. Our approach is a concentrated focus on full banking relationships, bringing together collaborative teams from commercial and consumer banking as well as wealth management, and leveraging our retail branch network to provide community banking at scale.


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We continually evaluate our existing business processes while focusing on maintaining asset quality and a granular loan and deposit portfolio diversified by product, customer, industry, and geography. Our merger with Umpqua Holdings Corporation accelerated our targeted strategy to expand market share in communities in the western United States. Our scaled franchise and offerings, talented associate base, and customer-focused business model enable us to provide comprehensive financial services in a manner that serves our four identified stakeholder groups: associates, customers, shareholders, and communities. We seek to expand total revenue while controlling expenses in an effort to gain operational efficiencies and increase our return on average tangible common equity. As a result of our strong commitment to highly personalized, relationship-oriented customer service, our diverse products, our strategic branch locations, and the long-standing community presence of our associates, we believe we are well positioned to attract new customers while not only retaining existing customers, but also deepening our relationship with them. Our ability to attract and retain talented associates strengthens our ability to drive balanced growth in loans, deposits, and sustainable, core fee income that results from providing customers tailored financial solutions to meet their needs.

Products and Services

We place the highest priority on customer service and assist our customers in making informed decisions when selecting from the products and services we offer. Our array of financial products are delivered through traditional and digital channels to meet the banking needs of our market area and commercial and consumer customers. To ensure the ongoing viability of our product offerings, we regularly examine the desirability and profitability of existing and potential new products. Our customers can access our products through online banking, mobile banking applications, and our website: www.umpquabank.com (information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K).

Commercial Lending Products. We offer specialized loans for corporate, middle market, and small business customers, including commercial lines of credit and term loans, accounts receivable and inventory financing, international trade finance, commercial property loans, multifamily loans, equipment loans, commercial equipment leases, real estate construction loans and permanent financing, and Small Business Administration program financing as well as capital markets.

Treasury Management. As Umpqua Bank focuses on banking the full customer relationship and meeting the needs of customers of all sizes, we offer treasury management and payments solutions to our customers through our Global Payments & Deposits group. These products include business digital and mobile banking solutions, ACH, wires, positive pay, remote deposit capture, integrated payments, integrated receivables, lockbox, cash vault, Real-Time Payments via The Clearinghouse, commercial card, and foreign exchange and international banking related products. We also offer merchant services in coordination with a strategic partner. Within our business digital experience, customers can engage in a fully authenticated chat and co-browse feature with a knowledgeable Treasury and Payments representative if they require assistance with any of the Bank’s solutions.

Deposit Products. We offer deposit products, including non-interest bearing checking accounts, analyzed business accounts, interest-bearing checking and savings accounts, money market accounts, insured cash sweep and other investment sweep solutions, and certificates of deposit. Interest-bearing accounts earn interest at rates established by management based on competitive market factors and management's desire to increase certain types of deposit liabilities. Our approach is to provide a streamlined and differentiated experience that meets the customer's needs across all channels. This approach is designed to add value for the customer and generate related fee income for the services provided.

Wealth Management. As a division of Umpqua Bank, the Wealth Management team provides a full suite of financial planning, investment, trust, insurance, and private banking solutions to individuals, families, and businesses through the Columbia Wealth Advisors, Columbia Trust Company, and Columbia Private Bank. We deliver personalized service and experience through dedicated financial advisors that leverage an approach that revolves around the three stages of the wealth cycle: grow, preserve, and transition.

Residential Real Estate Loans. Real estate loans are available for the construction, purchase, and refinancing of residential owner occupied and rental properties. Borrowers can choose from a variety of fixed and adjustable rate options and terms. We sell many of the residential real estate loans that we originate into the secondary market. Servicing is retained on the majority of these loans.

Consumer Loans. We provide loans to individual borrowers for a variety of purposes, including secured and unsecured personal loans, home equity and personal lines of credit, and motor vehicle loans.

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Market Area and Competition

The geographic markets we serve are highly competitive for deposits, loans, and leases. We compete with traditional banking institutions, as well as non-bank financial service providers, such as credit unions, mortgage companies, fintechs, and online based financial service providers. In our primary market areas of Oregon, Washington, California, Idaho, and Nevada, major national banks generally hold top market share positions. Competition also includes small community banks that operate in concentrated areas within our footprint and other regional banks that focus on commercial and retail banking. In 2021, the Bank expanded our market area by adding loan production offices in Colorado and Arizona. In 2023, the Bank further expanded our market area by adding a branch in Utah.
As the industry becomes increasingly oriented toward technology-driven delivery systems, permitting transactions to be conducted on mobile devices and computers, non-bank institutions are able to attract customers and provide lending and other financial services even without offices located in our primary service area. Some insurance companies and brokerage firms compete for deposits by offering rates that are higher than the weighted average market price and may be inappropriate for the Bank in relation to its asset and liability management objectives.
Credit unions present a significant competitive challenge for our banking services and products. As credit unions currently enjoy an exemption from income tax, they are able to offer higher deposit rates and lower loan rates than banks can on a comparable basis. Credit unions are also not currently subject to certain regulatory constraints, such as the Community Reinvestment Act, which, among other things, requires us to implement procedures to make and monitor loans throughout the communities we serve. Adhering to such regulatory requirements raises the costs associated with our lending activities and reduces potential operating profits. Accordingly, we seek to compete by focusing on building customer relationships, providing superior service, and offering a wide variety of commercial and consumer banking products. Our branch system funds our lending activities and allows us to better serve both retail (consumer) and business (commercial) depositors. We believe this approach enables us to expand lending activities while attracting a stable core deposit base and enhancing utilization of our full range of products and services. Our branch system and other delivery channels are continually evaluated as an important component of ongoing efforts to improve efficiencies without compromising customer service.
The following table presents the Bank's market share percentage for total deposits as of June 30, 2023 in each state where we have operations. As the Bank's branch in Utah was not established until August 2023, it is not included in the table below. The table also indicates the ranking by deposit size in each market. All information in the table was obtained from S&P Global, which compiles deposit data published by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as of June 30, 2023 and updates the information for any bank mergers and acquisitions completed subsequent to the reporting date.
StateMarket ShareMarket RankNumber of Branches
Oregon15.78 %108 
Washington7.15 %106 
Idaho3.70 %11 25 
Nevada0.47 %16 
California0.39 %24 61 

Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Governance

We take pride in being a proactive partner to build stronger, more resilient, and inclusive economies. Our approach to sustainability is about making better business decisions that support all of our stakeholders for the long term, and it is embedded in the fabric of our corporate values and culture, driving us to think very intentionally about the communities we serve. In 2023, the organization continued to track our corporate responsibility performance against ESG standards outlined by the Global Reporting Initiative and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board frameworks.

Our annual ESG Report is available at the “About Us-Our Impact” section of the Bank's website (www.umpquabank.com) but is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The ESG Report provides additional detail about our evolving ESG work as it relates to the breadth of our stakeholders.

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The following is a brief overview:

Associates
We create an environment where our associates have the chance to grow, connect, and do meaningful work together. Relationship banking is at our core, and our people are the key to maintaining relationships with each other, our customers, and our communities. We intentionally create an environment where associates care about one another, root for the customer down the street, and participate in making their community a better place to live and work. Our associates are encouraged to use their skills and passions to make a difference in their communities while growing their careers and being recognized and appreciated for their diverse talents, backgrounds, and perspectives.

We emphasize a culture of kindness and positivity, encouraging behaviors consistent with our Do Right TOGETHER1 values, which describe the qualities we expect all of our associates to embody every day in all interactions with other associates, customers, shareholders, and in our communities.
Diversity, equity, and inclusion are strong anchors in our foundation. We celebrate differences and encourage authenticity, not just where we work, but also with our customers and in our communities.
We support our associates with a portfolio of programs that address their well-being, from physical and financial health to community connections and workplace recognition.

Customers
We are committed to helping individuals, families, and businesses thrive. The Company focuses on the genuine human connection and building long-term relationships by putting customer needs first. We see technology as a vital tool to better serve our customers expanding access to the expertise of our bankers.

We prioritize financial health and access to capital for our customers and communities. We continue to innovate and find new ways to provide access to financial solutions across a diverse customer base.
Underscoring our commitment to the growth and success of our customers and their needs, we surveyed 1,250 businesses nationwide to gauge their perspective and plans on the United States economy and business conditions. 2023 was the sixth year in a row that the Bank has published the Umpqua Bank Business Barometer Report with insights from these small and middle market business leaders throughout the country.
In 2023, we continued to invest in community lending efforts to promote access to homeownership for first-time homebuyers through responsible lending practices and education programs.


1 The Do Right TOGETHER values consist of:
T: Build TRUST through credibility.
O: Take OWNERSHIP of personal and company goals.
G: Pursue GROWTH for you, your customers, and communities.
E: Practice EMPATHY to increase understanding.
T: Embrace TEAMWORK to improve outcomes.
H: Serve others with HEART.
E: Bring ENJOYMENT to everything you do.
R: Form lasting RELATIONSHIPS with customers and each other.

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Communities
We strive to help level the economic playing field by taking a leading role in helping our communities prosper. Our approach to community investment focuses on increasing the economic vitality of our communities, particularly in places where systemic challenges hinder access to financial expertise, gainful employment, and building intergenerational wealth.

Through the Umpqua Bank Charitable Foundation, we are committed to providing grant funding in communities in which we have a physical banking presence. In addition to other programs and in celebration of Umpqua Bank and Columbia Banking System’s respective 70th and 30th anniversaries, the Foundation made grants totaling $1 million to several local nonprofits who have shown strong community leadership, a commitment to improving access to economic opportunity, and their support for a variety of under-resourced communities in the areas of affordable housing and homeownership, education, career readiness, entrepreneurship, and health and wellness.
In 2023, we initiated a giving focus for underrepresented groups, and we continue to support our associates by offering a matching program that doubles their gifts, including an increased giving match in support of organizations aligned with the Company's Associate Resource Groups.
Umpqua Bank expanded its operational capacity to meet the needs of Individual Development Accounts providers and savers, enabling low-income families to save towards a targeted goal and purpose.
After the Merger close in early 2023, we began executing on the $8.1 billion Community Benefits Plan with the National Community Reinvestment Coalition that builds on our commitment to advance economic opportunity for individuals and support small business formation in historically underserved communities throughout the Bank’s footprint. In support of this, we convened a Community Advisory Panel, comprised of nonprofit partners that represent under-resourced groups from throughout the Bank’s footprint, to help to guide our efforts.
The Company's Connect Volunteer Network™ continues to be one of the nation's leading volunteer programs, providing all associates with up to 40 hours of paid time off each year committed to a wide range of community needs.
2023 saw record contributions for our annual Warm Hearts Winter Drive supporting those experiencing homelessness, bringing the nine-year total to $2.5 million.

Planet
We focus on smart business operations that benefit both the environment and the company. As a financial institution, we acknowledge the economic, societal, and ecological impacts of climate change to our business and to our customers. It is our responsibility to advance smart, responsible practices that lessen our impact and contribute to the company's business goals. As we expand into new markets, we are taking steps that are designed to optimize the resources we consume and minimize the waste we create, limiting our operational impact so that we help both our communities and our bottom line.

The Company's intention to align operational processes with our commitment to reduce our impact on the environment is stronger than ever.
We maintain an Environmental Commitment Statement.
Through the ESG Report, we publicly report our Greenhouse Gas Inventory as well as our energy, water, and business travel usage.

Stakeholder Engagement
We solicit input from our stakeholders through a variety of channels, including:
Customers may provide feedback to any of our associates through our customer resource center and through outreach from our customer insights team.
Associates may provide feedback through periodic engagement surveys, executive listening sessions, and all-hands and division calls.
Communities may reach out anytime or talk directly with footprint-based Community Impact Officers.
We maintain regular contact with government entities and regulatory bodies.
Investors may contact our Director of Investor Relations via our Investor Relations webpage (www.columbiabankingsystem.com).


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Human Capital

In our unique brand of banking, where relationships come first, associates are vital to our success. We bring together the power of the collective talents, skills, and expertise of our dedicated associates to realize our purpose, and to deliver on our commitment to our customers and our communities. We believe in helping businesses and families thrive, and equally, in helping our associates thrive.

We strive to deliver an employment experience anchored in a healthy and vibrant culture that appreciates and respects all associates. Our Do Right Together culture, and the values of Trust, Ownership, Growth, Empathy, Teamwork, Heart, Enjoyment, and Relationships, shape how we approach and serve our associates, customers, shareholders, and communities.

We empower our associates to grow, connect, and do meaningful work. We recognize their diverse talents, backgrounds, and perspectives. And we are dedicated to providing competitive, performance-based compensation along with attractive benefits, a safe and healthy workplace, and a wealth of learning opportunities.

Demographics. As of December 31, 2023, we employed 5,114 employees, the majority of which were full-time associates. Our workforce includes customer-facing associates across our various business lines. These include our retail branches, business and commercial banking teams, Wealth Management experts, as well as professionals in various support functions that enable the business, such as technology, finance, risk, audit, legal, and human resources. Our teams are primarily in eight western states.
While our workforce increased compared to the prior period as a result of the Merger, total workforce decreased by 11% on a combined company basis, which was driven primarily by natural attrition, merger-related reductions, and shifts in the business strategy in specific lines of business. Turnover rate, as calculated in our payroll system on a combined basis, was under 24%.

Employee Health and Well-being. We have embraced a go-forward hybrid work model for many functions and roles, where associates may work remotely two days per week, while working in one of our Community Hubs the other three days. This model is supported by technology teaming solutions and allows our associates to have the flexibility to work remotely while also enjoying the benefits of in-person collaboration and being part of a workplace community and company culture.

We offer competitive medical, dental, vision, life, short and long-term disability, and accident insurance, in addition to paid time off for vacation, sick time, and volunteerism. Medical benefits are available to associates working 30 hours per week, while paid time off begins at 20 hours per week. These programs are assessed regularly against market benchmarks.

Compensation. We attract and reward our associates by providing market competitive compensation and benefit practices. Our compensation approach is designed to pay for performance and reward associate contributions. Our salary structure is informed by market data, and recognizing that the compensation environment is dynamic, we review and adjust our pay ranges regularly. This includes an ongoing practice of analyzing pay equity. In addition, many positions have incentive plans to encourage achievement of various corporate, business unit, and individual goals.

On a regular basis, we conduct an associate engagement survey to gain insights into associate sentiment about various aspects of the associate experience. This feedback is used to assess the effectiveness of our people practices and prioritize enhancements to our programs.

Talent Development. We believe in the growth of our associates as individuals and as professionals. Our talent development programs provide our associates with the skills and experiences that allow them to thrive, supporting achievement of their personal career goals. We provide a best-in-class online learning catalog that is on-demand for all associates, in addition to specific training for many roles. Our development programs build key leadership capabilities, and support growth of our internal leadership talent pipeline. We have available new manager programs, tuition reimbursement, banking school participation, coaching, and mentoring programs. Additionally, we have a robust annual talent review and succession planning program that is key to our overall talent management practice. This results in targeted development approaches, identification of emerging talent, and a healthy succession-talent bench.

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Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. The Company is committed to ensuring a culture of inclusion where differences are respected, celebrated, and embraced. We are committed to creating a banking experience where the relationships we build and the solutions we offer support and attract the diversity of our communities. Our goal is to recruit the best qualified associates, building teams that reflect our communities’ experiences, cultures, and perspectives, and it is our policy to comply with all laws applicable to discrimination in the workplace. Our commitment to inclusivity is embedded in our strategy and we continue to enhance our DEI practices, which are guided by our executive team and overseen by the Board of Director’s Nominating and Governance Committee. We have continued to expand programs that support inclusivity and belonging across all of our stakeholder groups, such as our Associate Resource Groups, which are open to all associates participating as members or allies and increasing our DEI-focused giving to $500,000 in 2023. We currently have five resource groups: Pride, Women, Military, BIPOC, and People with Disabilities. Our Diversity Council is comprised of individuals from across the organization, who advance our diversity and inclusion initiatives. We strive to be a bank for everyone and take pride in our role as a community leader. An illustration of our commitment at the most senior level is in the diverse make-up of our 14 member Board that includes five women and four BIPOC, with women chairing three, or 60%, of the Board committees or subsidiary boards.

Information about our Executive Officers

Information regarding employment agreements with our executive officers is contained in Item 11 below, which item is incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement.

Government Policies

The operations of the Company and our subsidiaries are affected by state and federal legislative and regulatory changes and by policies of various regulatory authorities, including domestic monetary policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, United States fiscal policy, and capital adequacy and liquidity constraints imposed by federal and state regulatory agencies.
Supervision and Regulation
The following discussion provides an overview of certain elements of the extensive regulatory framework applicable to the Company and Umpqua Bank, which operates in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. This regulatory framework is primarily designed for the protection of depositors, customers, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, rather than specifically for the protection of shareholders or non-depository creditors. Due to the breadth and growth of this regulatory framework, our costs of compliance continue to increase in order to monitor and satisfy these requirements.
To the extent that this section describes statutory and regulatory provisions, it is qualified by reference to those provisions. These statutes and regulations, as well as related policies, are subject to change by Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulators. Changes in statutes, regulations, or regulatory policies applicable to us, including the interpretation or implementation thereof, cannot be predicted, but may have a material effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Our continued efforts to monitor and comply with new regulatory requirements and developments add to the complexity and cost of our business.


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Federal and State Bank Holding Company Regulation

General. The Company is a bank holding company as defined in the BHCA that has elected to become a financial holding company, and is therefore subject to regulation, supervision, and examination by the Federal Reserve. The Company must file reports with and provide the Federal Reserve such additional information as it may require. Under the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, a bank holding company may apply to the Federal Reserve to become a financial holding company, and thereby engage (directly or through a subsidiary) in certain expanded activities deemed financial in nature, such as securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking and other activities that are determined by the FRB, in coordination with the Treasury Department, to be “financial in nature or incidental thereto” or that the FRB determines unilaterally to be “complementary” to financial activities. Upon the consummation of our merger with UHC in early 2023, the Company elected to be treated as a financial holding company. To maintain its status as a financial holding company, a bank holding company (and all of its depository institution subsidiaries) must each remain “well capitalized” and “well managed.” If a bank holding company fails to meet these regulatory standards, the Federal Reserve could place limitations on its ability to conduct the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or impose limitations or conditions on the conduct or activities of the bank holding company or its affiliates. If the deficiencies persisted, the Federal Reserve could order the bank holding company to divest any subsidiary bank or to cease engaging in any activities permissible for financial holding companies that are not permissible for bank holding companies.

Holding Company Bank Ownership. The BHCA requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring, directly or indirectly, ownership or control of any voting shares of another bank or bank holding company if, after such acquisition, it would own or control more than 5% of such shares; (ii) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or bank holding company; or (iii) merging or consolidating with another bank holding company. In addition, under the Bank Merger Act of 1960, as amended, the prior approval of the FDIC is required for the Bank to merge with another bank or purchase all or substantially all of the assets or assume any of the deposits of another FDIC-insured depository institution. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, bank regulators consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position and managerial resources of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant’s performance record under the CRA, the applicant’s compliance with other laws, including fair housing and consumer protection laws, and the effectiveness of all organizations involved in combating money laundering activities. In addition, failure to implement or maintain adequate compliance programs could cause bank regulators not to approve an acquisition where regulatory approval is required or to prohibit an acquisition even if approval is not required.

In July 2021, the Biden administration issued an executive order on competition, which included provisions relating to bank mergers. These provisions “encourage” the Department of Justice and the federal banking regulators to update guidelines on banking mergers and to provide more scrutiny of bank mergers. We are unable to predict what impact the executive order, or any responsive change to such guidelines, will have on the timing of or ability to obtain regulatory approvals of future mergers.
Holding Company Control of Nonbanks. With some exceptions, the BHCA also prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring or retaining direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company which is not a bank or bank holding company, or from engaging directly or indirectly in activities other than those of banking, managing, or controlling banks, or providing services for its subsidiaries. The principal exceptions to these prohibitions involve certain non-bank activities that, by statute or by Federal Reserve regulation or order, have been identified as activities so closely related to the business of banking as to be a proper incident thereto.

Tying Arrangements. We are prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with any extension of credit, sale or lease of property or furnishing of services. For example, with certain exceptions, neither the Company nor its subsidiaries may condition an extension of credit to a customer on either (i) a requirement that the customer obtain additional services provided by us; or (ii) an agreement by the customer to refrain from obtaining other services from a competitor.


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Support of Subsidiary Banks. Under Federal Reserve policy and federal law, the Company is required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to Umpqua Bank, including at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources, and it may not be in our, or our shareholders’ best interests to do so. This means that the Company is required to commit resources, as necessary, to support Umpqua Bank. Any capital loans the Company makes to Umpqua Bank are subordinate to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of Umpqua Bank.

State Law Restrictions. As a Washington corporation, the Company is subject to certain limitations and restrictions under applicable Washington corporate law. For example, state law restrictions in Washington include limitations and restrictions relating to indemnification of directors, distributions to shareholders, transactions involving directors, officers or interested shareholders, maintenance of books, records and minutes, and observance of certain corporate formalities.

Federal and State Regulation of Umpqua Bank

General. The deposits of Umpqua Bank, an Oregon state-chartered commercial bank in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, are insured by the FDIC. As a result, Umpqua Bank is subject to supervision and regulation by the DCBS and the FDIC. These agencies have the authority to prohibit banks from engaging in what they believe constitute unsafe or unsound banking practices. Furthermore, under the FDIA, insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC if the FDIC finds that the insured depository institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, or condition imposed by the FDIC. With respect to branches of Umpqua Bank, the Bank is also subject to certain laws and regulations governing its activities in the states in which we operate.

State Bank Regulation. Umpqua Bank, as an Oregon state-chartered bank, is primarily subject to the state-level supervision and regulation of the DCBS. In addition, Umpqua Bank is subject to regulation by the financial institution oversight authorities in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Our primary state regulator regularly examines the Bank or participates in joint examinations with the FDIC; these agencies may prohibit the Bank from engaging in what they believe constitute unsafe or unsound banking practices.

Consumer Protection. The Bank is subject to a variety of federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations that govern its relationship with consumers, including laws and regulations that impose certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which we take deposits, make, and collect loans, and provide other services. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may subject the Bank to various penalties, including but not limited to, enforcement actions, injunctions, fines, civil monetary penalties, criminal penalties, punitive damages, and the loss of certain contractual rights. As an insured depository institution with assets of $10 billion or more, the CFPB has primary enforcement and enforcement authority for federal consumer financial laws over the Bank. This includes the right to obtain information about the Bank’s activities and compliance systems and procedures and to detect and assess risks to consumers and markets. The CFPB engages in several activities, including (i) investigating consumer complaints about credit cards and mortgages, (ii) launching supervisory programs, (iii) conducting research for and developing mandatory financial product disclosures, and (iv) engaging in consumer financial protection rulemaking. Umpqua Bank has established a compliance management system designed to ensure consumer protection. In October 2023, the CFPB issued a proposed rule regarding personal financial data rights that would apply to financial institutions that offer consumer deposit accounts such as Umpqua Bank. Covered financial institutions would be required to provide consumers electronic access to 24 months of transaction data and certain account information under the proposed rule and would be prohibited from imposing any fees or charges for maintaining or providing access to such data. The proposed rule would also impose data accuracy, retention, and other obligations. We will continue to evaluate the proposed rule and the impact on Umpqua Bank.

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Community Reinvestment. The CRA requires that, in connection with examinations of financial institutions within their jurisdiction, the Federal Reserve, OCC or the FDIC evaluate the record of the financial institution in meeting the credit needs of its local communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operation of the institution. A bank’s community reinvestment record is also considered by the applicable banking agencies in evaluating mergers, acquisitions, and applications to open a branch or facility. The Bank’s failure to comply with the CRA could, among other things, result in the denial or delay of such transactions. The Bank received a rating of "Satisfactory" in its most recently completed CRA examination. On October 24, 2023, the Federal Reserve, FDIC and the OCC jointly issued a final rule amending the agencies’ CRA regulations to achieve the following goals: (i) encourage banks to expand access to credit, investment and banking services in low- and moderate-income communities, (ii) adapt to changes in the banking industry, including internet and mobile banking, (iii) provide greater clarity and consistency in the application of the CRA regulations and (iv) tailor CRA evaluations and data collection to bank size and type. Management will continue to evaluate any changes to CRA regulations.

Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism and Sanctions. The BSA requires all financial institutions, including banks, to, among other things, establish a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. It includes a variety of recordkeeping and reporting requirements (such as cash and suspicious activity reporting) as well as due diligence/know-your-customer documentation requirements.

The Patriot Act further augments and strengthens the requirements set forth in the BSA. The Patriot Act, in relevant part, (i) prohibits banks from providing correspondent accounts directly to foreign shell banks; (ii) imposes due diligence requirements on banks opening or holding accounts for foreign financial institutions or wealthy foreign individuals; (iii) requires financial institutions to establish an anti-money-laundering compliance program; and (iv) eliminates civil liability for persons who file suspicious activity reports. The Patriot Act also includes provisions providing the government with power to investigate terrorism, including expanded government access to bank account records.

Umpqua Bank is also subject to regulation under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act and the Trading with the Enemy Act, as administered by the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“Sanctions Laws”). The Sanctions Laws are intended to restrict transactions with persons, companies, or foreign governments sanctions by U.S. authorities. An institution that fails to meet these standards may be subject to regulatory sanctions, including limitations on growth. Umpqua Bank has established compliance programs designed to comply with the BSA, the Patriot Act and applicable Sanctions Laws.

Transactions with Affiliates; Insider Credit Transactions. Transactions between the Bank and its subsidiaries, on the one hand, and the Company or any other subsidiary, on the other hand, are regulated under federal banking law. The Federal Reserve Act imposes quantitative and qualitative requirements and collateral requirements on covered transactions by the Bank with, or for the benefit of, its affiliates. In addition, subsidiary banks of a bank holding company are subject to restrictions on extensions of credit to the holding company or its subsidiaries, on investments in securities of the holding company or its subsidiaries and on the use of their securities as collateral for loans to any borrower. These regulations and restrictions may limit the Company’s ability to obtain funds from Umpqua Bank for its cash needs, including funds for payment of dividends, interest, and operational expenses.

Banks are also subject to certain restrictions imposed by the Federal Reserve Act on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, or any related interests of such persons. Extensions of credit (i) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are at least as stringent as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with persons not related to the lending bank; and (ii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Banks are also subject to certain lending limits and restrictions on overdrafts to insiders. A violation of these restrictions may result in the assessment of substantial civil monetary penalties, regulatory enforcement actions, and other regulatory sanctions. The Umpqua Bank board has established controls to ensure compliance with regulatory expectations around affiliated transactions.

Regulation of Management. Federal law (i) sets forth circumstances under which officers or directors of a bank may be removed by the institution’s federal supervisory agency; (ii) places constraints on lending by a bank to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, and their related interests; and (iii) generally prohibits management personnel of a bank from serving as directors or in other management positions of another financial institution whose assets exceed a specified amount or which has an office within a specified geographic area.

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Safety and Soundness Standards. Certain non-capital safety and soundness standards are also imposed upon banks. These standards cover internal controls, information systems and internal audit, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, such other operational and managerial standards as the agency determines to be appropriate, and standards for asset quality, earnings, and stock valuation. An institution that fails to meet these standards may be subject to regulatory sanctions, including limitations on growth. Umpqua Bank has established policies and risk management activities designed to ensure the safety and soundness of the Bank.

Interstate Banking and Branching

The Interstate Act together with the Dodd-Frank Act relaxed prior interstate branching restrictions under federal law by permitting, subject to regulatory approval, state and federally chartered commercial banks to establish branches in states where the laws permit banks chartered in such states to establish branches. The Interstate Act requires regulators to consult with community organizations before permitting an interstate institution to close a branch in a low-income area. Federal banking agency regulations prohibit banks from using their interstate branches primarily for deposit production and the federal banking agencies have implemented a loan-to-deposit ratio screen to ensure compliance with this prohibition.

Dividends

Columbia is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank and its other subsidiaries. As a bank holding company, Columbia is subject to certain restrictions on its ability to pay dividends under applicable banking laws and regulations. Federal bank regulators are authorized to determine under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. In particular, federal bank regulators have stated that paying dividends that deplete a banking organization’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings. In addition, in the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. Federal Reserve policy also provides that a bank holding company should inform the Federal Reserve reasonably in advance of declaring or paying a dividend that exceeds earnings for the period for which the dividend is being paid or that could result in a material adverse change to the bank holding company’s capital structure.

A significant portion of our income comes from dividends from the Bank, which is also the primary source of our liquidity. In addition to the restrictions discussed above, the Bank is subject to limitations under Oregon law regarding the level of dividends that it may pay to the Company. Oregon law provides that a bank may not pay dividends greater than the bank’s unreserved retained earnings, deducting therefrom, to the extent not already charged against earnings or reflected in a reserve, all bad debts, which are debts on which interest is past due and unpaid for at least six months, unless the debt is fully secured and in the process of collection; all other assets charged-off as required by Oregon bank regulators or a state or federal examiner; and all accrued expenses, interest and taxes of the institution. Under the Oregon Bank Act and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, Umpqua Bank is subject to restrictions on the payment of cash dividends to its parent company and may be required to receive prior approval in certain circumstances. In addition, state and federal regulatory authorities are authorized to prohibit banks and holding companies from paying dividends that would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. The Bank currently has an accumulated deficit and is required to seek FDIC and DCBS approval for dividends from Umpqua Bank to the Company.

Regulatory Capital Requirements

The Federal Reserve monitors the capital adequacy of the Company on a consolidated basis, and the FDIC and the DCBS will monitor the capital adequacy of the Bank. The Capital Rules are based on the December 2010 final capital framework for strengthening international capital standards, known as Basel III, of the Basel Committee. As of December 31, 2023, Columbia and the Bank met all capital adequacy requirements under the Capital Rules, as described below.

The Capital Rules, among other things (i) include a capital measure called CET1, (ii) specify that Tier 1 capital consists of CET1 and “Additional Tier 1 capital” instruments meeting specified requirements and (iii) define CET1 narrowly by requiring that most deductions/adjustments to regulatory capital measures be made to CET1 and not to the other components of capital.

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Under the Capital Rules, the minimum capital ratios are (i) 4.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets, (ii) 6% Tier 1 capital (that is, CET1 plus Additional Tier 1 capital) to risk-weighted assets and (iii) 8% total capital (that is, Tier 1 capital plus Tier 2 capital) to risk-weighted assets.

The Capital Rules also require an institution to establish a capital conservation buffer of CET1 in an amount above the minimum risk-based capital requirements for “adequately capitalized” institutions equal to 2.5% of total risk-weighted assets. Banking institutions with a ratio of CET1 to risk-weighted assets above the minimum but below the capital conservation buffer will face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and compensation based on the amount of the shortfall and the institution’s “eligible retained income” (that is, the greater of (i) net income for the preceding four quarters, net of distributions and associated tax effects not reflected in net income and (ii) average net income over the preceding four quarters).

The Capital Rules provide for a number of deductions from and adjustments to CET1. These include, for example, the requirement that mortgage servicing rights, certain deferred tax assets and significant investments in non-consolidated financial entities be deducted from CET1 to the extent that any one such category exceeds 10% of CET1 or all such categories in the aggregate exceed 15% of CET1. The Capital Rules also generally preclude certain hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities, from being counted as Tier 1 capital for most bank holding companies.

In addition, the Company and the Bank are subject to the final rule adopted by the Federal Reserve, OCC and FDIC in July 2019 relating to simplifications of the capital rules applicable to non-advanced approaches banking organizations. These rules became effective for the Company on April 1, 2020 and provide for simplified capital requirements relating to the threshold deductions for mortgage servicing assets, deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences that a banking organization could not realize through net operating loss carry backs, and investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions, as well as the inclusion of minority interests in regulatory capital.

In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms. The standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV.” Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee’s standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as home equity lines of credit) and provide a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. The Basel framework standards have been generally effective since January 1, 2023, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2028.

The Bank is also subject to the prompt corrective action regulations pursuant to Section 38 of the FDIA. See “Prompt Corrective Action Framework” below.

Prompt Corrective Action Framework

The FDIA requires the federal bank regulators to take prompt corrective action in respect of depository institutions that fail to meet specified capital requirements. The FDIA establishes five capital categories (“well-capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized”), and the federal bank regulators are required to take certain mandatory supervisory actions, and are authorized to take other discretionary actions, with respect to institutions that are undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, or critically undercapitalized. The severity of these mandatory and discretionary supervisory actions depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, the FDIA requires the regulator to appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is critically undercapitalized.


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Under the rules currently in effect, the following table presents the requirements for an insured depository institution to be classified as well-capitalized or adequately capitalized:

“Well-capitalized”
“Adequately capitalized”
Total capital ratio of at least 10%,
Total capital ratio of at least 8%,
Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8%,
Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6%
CET1 ratio of at least 6.5%,
CET1 ratio of at least 4.5%, and
Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5%, and
Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4%.
Not subject to any order or written directive requiring a specific capital level.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. A bank’s capital category is determined solely for the purpose of applying prompt corrective action regulations, and the capital category may not constitute an accurate representation of the Bank’s overall financial condition or prospects for other purposes.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company and the Bank met the capital requirements to be well-capitalized with CET1 capital ratios of 9.64% and 10.52%, respectively, Tier 1 capital ratios of 9.64% and 10.52%, respectively, total capital ratios of 11.86% and 11.57%, respectively, and Tier 1 leverage ratios of 7.60% and 8.30%, respectively.

An institution that is categorized as undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal bank regulator. Under the FDIA, in order for the capital restoration plan to be accepted by the appropriate federal banking agency, a bank holding company must guarantee that a subsidiary depository institution will comply with its capital restoration plan, subject to certain limitations. The bank holding company must also provide appropriate assurances of performance. The obligation of a controlling bank holding company under the FDIA to fund a capital restoration plan is limited to the lesser of 5% of an undercapitalized subsidiary’s assets or the amount required to meet regulatory capital requirements. An undercapitalized institution is also generally prohibited from increasing its average total assets, making acquisitions and capital distributions, establishing any branches, or engaging in any new line of business, except in accordance with an accepted capital restoration plan or with the approval of the FDIC. Institutions that are undercapitalized or significantly undercapitalized and either fail to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan or fail to implement an approved capital restoration plan may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized depository institutions failing to submit or implement an acceptable capital restoration plan are subject to appointment of a receiver or conservator.

Brokered Deposits

The FDIA prohibits an insured depository institution from accepting brokered deposits or offering interest rates on any deposits significantly higher than the prevailing rate in the Bank’s normal market area or nationally (depending upon where the deposits are solicited) unless it is well-capitalized or is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the FDIC. A depository institution that is adequately capitalized and accepts brokered deposits under a waiver from the FDIC may not pay an interest rate on any deposit in excess of 75 basis points over certain prevailing market rates.

Regulatory Oversight and Examination

The Federal Reserve conducts periodic inspections of bank holding companies. The supervisory objectives of the inspection program are to ascertain whether the financial strength of the bank holding company is being maintained on an ongoing basis and to determine the effects or consequences of transactions between a holding company or its non-banking subsidiaries and its subsidiary banks.


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Banks are subject to periodic examinations by their primary regulators. Bank examinations have evolved from reliance on transaction testing in assessing a bank’s condition to a risk-focused approach. These examinations are extensive and cover the entire breadth of operations of the Bank. Generally, FDIC safety and soundness examinations for a bank of our size are completed on an annual basis through the execution of a quarterly focal review process. The FDIC and state bank regulatory agencies complete these examinations on a combined schedule.

The CFPB has primary examination and enforcement authority over institutions with assets of $10 billion or more, including the Bank, with respect to various federal consumer protection laws, and we are subject to continued examination by the FDIC on certain consumer regulations. State authorities are also responsible for monitoring our compliance with all state consumer laws.

The frequency of consumer compliance and CRA examinations is linked to the size of the institution and its compliance and CRA ratings at its most recent examinations. However, the examination authority of the Federal Reserve and the FDIC allows them to examine supervised banks as frequently as deemed necessary based on the condition of the Bank or as a result of certain triggering events.

Financial Privacy

Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, as amended, a financial institution may not disclose non-public personal information about a consumer to unaffiliated third parties unless the institution satisfies various disclosure requirements and the consumer has not elected to opt out of the information sharing. The financial institution must provide its customers with a notice of its privacy policies and practices. The Federal Reserve, the FDIC, and other financial regulatory agencies issued regulations implementing notice requirements and restrictions on a financial institution's ability to disclose non-public personal information about consumers to unaffiliated third parties.

In addition, privacy and data protection are areas of increasing state legislative focus, and several states have recently enacted consumer privacy laws that impose significant compliance obligations with respect to personal information. For example, the Company is subject to the CCPA and its implementing regulations. The CCPA gives consumers the right to request disclosure of information collected about them, and whether that information has been sold or shared with others, the right to request deletion of personal information (subject to certain exceptions), the right to opt out of the sale of the consumer’s personal information, and the right not to be discriminated against for exercising these rights. The CCPA contains several exemptions, including an exemption applicable to information that is collected, processed, sold, or disclosed pursuant to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, as amended. In November 2020, voters in the CPRA, a ballot measure that amends and supplements the CCPA by, among other things, expanding certain rights relating to personal information and its use, collection, and disclosure by covered businesses. The key provisions of the CPRA became effective on January 1, 2023, with civil and administrative enforcement of the CPRA beginning July 1, 2023. Similar laws may in the future be adopted by other states where the Company does business. The Company has made and will make operational adjustments in accordance with the requirements of the CCPA and other state privacy laws. Furthermore, privacy and data protection areas are expected to receive further attention at the federal level. The potential effects of state or federal privacy and data protection laws on the Company’s business cannot be determined at this time and will depend both on whether such laws are adopted by states in which the Company does business and/or at the federal level and the requirements imposed by any such laws.

Cybersecurity

The federal banking agencies have established certain expectations with respect to an institution's information security and cybersecurity programs, with an increasing focus on risk management, processes related to information technology and operational resiliency, and the use of third parties in the provision of financial services. In October 2016, the federal banking agencies jointly issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on enhanced cybersecurity risk-management and resilience standards that would address five categories of cyber standards which include (i) cyber risk governance, (ii) cyber risk management, (iii) internal dependency management, (iv) external dependency management, and (v) incident response, cyber resilience, and situational awareness. The federal banking agencies have not yet taken further action on these proposed standards.


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State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs with detailed requirements, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level cybersecurity regulation to continue and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which the Company operates.

In February 2018, the SEC published interpretive guidance to assist public companies in preparing disclosures about cybersecurity risks and incidents. These SEC guidelines, and any other regulatory guidance, are in addition to notification and disclosure requirements under state and federal banking law and regulations. In addition, on July 26, 2023, the SEC adopted new rules that require reporting in Current Reports on Form 8-K of material cybersecurity incidents. These new rules also require disclosures in Annual Reports on Form 10-K describing (i) the processes for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, (ii) the material effects or reasonably likely material effects of risks from cybersecurity threats and previous cybersecurity incidents and (iii) the board of directors’ oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats and management’s role and expertise in assessing and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats.

In November 2021, the U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies adopted a rule regarding notification requirements for banking organizations related to significant computer security incidents. Under the final rule, a bank holding company, such as the Company, and an FDIC-supervised insured depository institution, such as the Bank, are required to notify the Federal Reserve or FDIC, respectively, within 36 hours of incidents that have materially disrupted or degraded, or are reasonably likely to materially disrupt or degrade, the banking organization’s ability to deliver services to a material portion of its customer base, jeopardize the viability of key operations of the banking organization, or impact the stability of the financial sector.

Corporate Governance and Accounting

SOX addresses, among other things, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information, and penalties for non-compliance. Generally, SOX (i) requires CEOs and CFOs to certify the accuracy of periodic reports filed with the SEC; (ii) imposes specific and enhanced corporate disclosure requirements; (iii) accelerates the time frame for reporting of insider transactions and periodic disclosures by public companies; (iv) requires companies to adopt and disclose information about corporate governance practices, including whether or not they have adopted a code of ethics for senior financial officers and whether the audit committee includes at least one “audit committee financial expert;” and (v) requires the SEC, based on certain enumerated factors, to regularly and systematically review corporate filings.

Deposit Insurance

The Bank’s deposits are insured under the FDIA up to the maximum applicable limits and are subject to deposit insurance assessments designed to tie what banks pay for deposit insurance to the risks they pose. Under the FDIC’s assessment system for determining payments to the DIF, large IDIs with more than $10 billion in assets are assessed under a complex “scorecard” methodology that seeks to capture both the probability that an individual large IDI will fail and the magnitude of the impact on the DIF if such a failure occurs. The assessment base of a large IDI is its total assets less tangible equity. In addition, the FDIC must recover, by special assessment, losses to the FDIC deposit insurance fund as a result of the FDIC’s use of the systemic risk exception to the least cost resolution test under the FDIA. For additional discussion of this special assessment, see the section entitled "Non-Interest Expense" under Item 7 below.

The Volcker Rule

The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in and sponsoring hedge funds and private equity funds. The statutory provision is commonly called the “Volcker Rule.” The Volcker Rule does not significantly impact the operations of the Company and the Bank, as we do not have any significant engagement in the businesses prohibited by the Volcker Rule.


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Interchange Fees

The Company is subject to rules governing interchange fees, which establish standards for assessing whether the interchange fees that may be charged with respect to certain electronic debit transactions are “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by issuers for processing such transactions.

Interchange fees, or “swipe” fees, are charges that merchants pay to us and other card-issuing banks for processing electronic payment transactions. Under applicable rules, the maximum permissible interchange fee is equal to no more than 21 cents plus 5 basis points of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions. The Federal Reserve also adopted a rule to allow a debit card issuer to recover one cent per transaction for fraud prevention purposes if the issuer complies with certain fraud-related requirements required by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product.

Incentive Compensation

The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal bank regulators and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, including us and the Bank, having at least $1 billion in total assets that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. In addition, these regulators must establish regulations or guidelines requiring enhanced disclosure to regulators of incentive-based compensation arrangements.

In June 2010, the Federal Reserve and FDIC issued comprehensive final guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a banking organization’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that appropriately balance risk and financial results in a manner that does not encourage employees to expose their organizations to imprudent risk, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors.

During the second quarter of 2016, the U.S. financial regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the SEC, proposed revised rules on incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities having at least $1 billion in total assets, but these proposed rules have not been finalized.

The Federal Reserve will review, as part of the regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as us, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews will be tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives will be included in reports of examination. Deficiencies will be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the organization’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a banking organization if its incentive compensation arrangements or related risk management control or governance processes pose a risk to the organization’s safety and soundness and the organization is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.

In October 2023, Nasdaq adopted a rule as required by the SEC’s 2022 rule-making that requires listed companies to adopt policies mandating the recovery or “clawback” of excess incentive-based compensation earned by a current or former executive officer during the three fiscal years preceding a required accounting restatement, including to correct an error that would result in a material misstatement if the error were corrected in the current period or left uncorrected in the current period. The excess compensation would be based on the amount the executive officer would have received had the incentive-based compensation been determined using the restated financials. Effective as of December 1, 2023, Columbia adopted a clawback policy in accordance with Nasdaq’s listing standards.


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Proposed Legislation

Proposed legislation relating to the banking industry is introduced in almost every legislative session. Certain of such legislation could dramatically affect the regulation of the banking industry. We cannot predict if any such legislation will be adopted or if it is adopted how it would affect the business of Umpqua Bank or the Company. Recent history has demonstrated that new legislation or changes to existing laws or regulations usually results in a greater compliance burden and therefore generally increases the cost of doing business.

Effects of Government Monetary Policy

Our earnings and growth are affected not only by general economic conditions, but also by the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government, particularly the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve implements national monetary policy for such purposes as curbing inflation and combating recession, but its open market operations in U.S. government securities, control of the discount rate applicable to borrowings from the Federal Reserve, and establishment of reserve requirements against certain deposits influence the growth of bank loans, investments and deposits and also affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The nature and impact of future changes in monetary policies and their impact on us cannot be predicted with certainty.
ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS. 
 
The following is a discussion of what we currently believe are the most significant risks and uncertainties that may affect our business, financial condition, and future results.

Risks Relating to our Operations

A failure in or breach of our operational or security systems, or those of our third-party service providers, including as a result of cyberattacks, could disrupt our business, result in unintentional disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs, and cause losses.

As a financial institution, our operations rely heavily on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks. Any failure, interruption or breach in security or operational integrity of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in our online banking system, customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit and loan servicing and other systems. The security and integrity of our systems are susceptible to a variety of interruptions or information security breaches, including those caused by computer hacking, cyberattacks, electronic fraudulent activity or attempted theft of financial assets. We are not able to anticipate, detect, or implement effective preventative measures against all threats, particularly because the techniques used by cybercriminals change frequently, often are not recognized until launched and can be initiated from a variety of sources. We cannot assure you that we will be able to adequately address all such failures, interruptions or security breaches that may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. While we have certain protective policies and procedures in place, the nature and sophistication of the threats continue to evolve. We may be required to expend significant additional resources in the future to modify and enhance our protective measures.

Due to the complexity and interconnectedness of information technology systems, the process of enhancing our systems can itself create a risk of systems disruptions and security issues. Additionally, we face the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination, or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate our business activities, including exchanges, clearing agents, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties can also be the source of an attack on, or breach of, our operational systems. Failures, interruptions or security breaches in our information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in a violation of privacy or other laws, or expose us to civil litigation, regulatory fines or losses not covered by insurance, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Further, as an investigation into a cyberattack is inherently unpredictable, it may take a significant amount of time for us to fully uncover the scope of and damage related to a cyberattack and develop an effective mitigation plan. During such time, damage related to a cyberattack may continue and communications to the public, customers, regulators, and other stakeholders may not be timely or accurate. Potential new regulations may require us to publicly disclose information about a cyberattack before the incident has been resolved or fully investigated.


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The confidential information of our customers (including usernames and passwords) can also be jeopardized from the compromise of customers’ personal electronic devices or as a result of a data security breach at an unrelated company. Losses due to unauthorized account activity could harm our reputation and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

As previously disclosed in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 27, 2023 and discussed in greater detail in Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies, on June 21, 2023, Umpqua Bank was informed by one of its technology service providers (the “Vendor”) that a widely reported security incident involving MOVEit, a widely-used filesharing software, resulted in the unauthorized acquisition by a third party of the names and social security numbers or tax identification numbers of certain of Umpqua Bank’s consumer and small business customers. Umpqua Bank notified potentially affected customers of this incident and has worked with the Vendor to provide formal notification to affected customers with additional information and resources.

Acquisitions and the integration of acquired businesses subject us to various risks and may not result in all of the benefits anticipated, future acquisitions may be dilutive to current shareholders and future acquisitions may be delayed, impeded, or prohibited due to regulatory issues.

We have in the past sought, and expect in the future to continue to seek, to grow our business by acquiring other businesses. Our acquisitions, including our merger with UHC, may not have the anticipated positive results, including results relating to: correctly assessing the asset quality of the assets being acquired; the total cost of integration including management attention and resources; the time required to complete the integration successfully; the amount of longer-term cost savings; being able to profitably deploy funds acquired in an acquisition; or the overall performance of the combined entity.

In addition, unexpected contingent liabilities can arise from the businesses we acquire. Integration of an acquired business can be complex and costly, sometimes including combining relevant accounting and data processing systems, management, financial reporting, and internal controls, as well as managing relevant relationships with employees, clients, suppliers, and other business partners. Integration efforts could divert management attention and resources, which could adversely affect these systems, processes or controls and our operations or results.

Acquisitions may also result in business disruptions that cause us to lose customers or cause customers to remove their accounts from us and move their business to competing financial institutions. It is possible that the integration process related to acquisitions could result in the disruption of our ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies that could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with clients, customers, depositors, and employees. The loss of key employees in connection with an acquisition could adversely affect our ability to successfully conduct our business.

We may engage in future acquisitions involving the issuance of additional common stock and/or cash. Any such acquisitions and related issuances of stock may have a dilutive effect on EPS, book value per share or the percentage ownership of current shareholders. The use of cash as consideration in any such acquisitions could impact our capital position and may require us to raise additional capital.

Furthermore, notwithstanding our prior acquisitions, we cannot provide any assurance as to the extent to which we can continue to grow through acquisitions as this will depend on the availability of prospective target opportunities at valuations we find attractive and other factors. Among other things, acquisitions by financial institutions are subject to approval by a variety of federal and state regulatory agencies. Regulatory approvals could be delayed, impeded, restrictively conditioned, or denied due to existing or new regulatory issues we have, or may have, with regulatory agencies.


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Our ability to sustain or improve upon existing performance is dependent upon our ability to respond to technological change, and we may have fewer resources than some of our competitors to continue to invest in technological improvements.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than we do. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our clients by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy client demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. In addition, the implementation of technological changes and upgrades to maintain current systems and integrate new ones may also cause service interruptions, transaction processing errors and system conversion delays and may cause us to fail to comply with applicable laws. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully manage the risks associated with our increased dependency on technology.

We may not be able to attract or retain key employees.

Our success depends in significant part on the skills of our management team and our ability to retain, recruit and motivate key officers and employees. We expect our future success to be driven in large part by the relationships maintained with our clients by our executives and other key employees. Leadership changes will occur from time to time, and we cannot predict whether significant resignations or other departures will occur or whether we will be able to recruit additional qualified personnel. Competition for senior executives and skilled personnel in the financial services and banking industry is intense, which means the cost of hiring, incentivizing, and retaining skilled personnel may continue to increase. The increase in remote and hybrid work arrangements has also increased competition for skilled personnel, and our current or future approach to in-office or remote-work arrangements may not meet the needs or expectations of current or prospective employees or may not be perceived as favorable compared to arrangements offered by other companies, which could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain skilled and qualified personnel. We need to continue to attract and retain key personnel and to recruit qualified individuals to succeed existing key personnel to ensure the continued growth and successful operation of our business. The unexpected loss of any such employees, or the inability to recruit and retain qualified personnel in the future, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, the scope and content of U.S. banking regulators' regulations and policies on incentive compensation, as well as changes to these regulations and policies, could adversely affect our ability to hire, retain and motivate our key employees.

The development and use of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) presents risks and challenges that may adversely impact our business.

We or our third-party (or fourth-party) vendors, clients or counterparties may develop or incorporate AI technology in certain business processes, services, or products. The development and use of AI present a number of risks and challenges to our business. The legal and regulatory environment relating to AI is uncertain and rapidly evolving, both in the U.S. and internationally, and includes regulatory schemes targeted specifically at AI as well as provisions in intellectual property, privacy, consumer protection, employment, and other laws applicable to the use of AI. These evolving laws and regulations could require changes in our implementation of AI technology and increase our compliance costs and the risk of non-compliance. AI models, particularly generative AI models, may produce output or take action that is incorrect, that result in the release of private, confidential, or proprietary information, that reflect biases included in the data on which they are trained, infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, or that is otherwise harmful. In addition, the complexity of many AI models makes it challenging to understand why they are generating particular outputs. This limited transparency increases the challenges associated with assessing the proper operation of AI models, understanding and monitoring the capabilities of the AI models, reducing erroneous output, eliminating bias, and complying with regulations that require documentation or explanation of the basis on which decisions are made. Further, we may rely on AI models developed by third parties, and, to that extent, would be dependent in part on the manner in which those third parties develop and train their models, including risks arising from the inclusion of any unauthorized material in the training data for their models, and the effectiveness of the steps these third parties have taken to limit the risks associated with the output of their models, matters over which we may have limited visibility. Any of these risks could expose us to liability or adverse legal or regulatory consequences and harm our reputation and the public perception of our business or the effectiveness of our security measures.


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In addition to our use of AI technologies, we are exposed to risks arising from the use of AI technologies by bad actors to commit fraud and misappropriate funds and to facilitate cyberattacks. AI, if used to perpetrate fraud or launch cyberattacks, could create panic at a particular financial institution or exchange, which could pose a threat to financial stability.

Risks Relating to our Merger with UHC

Combining Columbia and UHC may be more difficult, costly, or time-consuming than expected, and Columbia may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the Merger.

The success of the Merger, which closed in early 2023, depends, in part, on the ability to realize the anticipated cost savings from combining the businesses of Columbia and UHC. To realize the anticipated benefits and cost savings from the Merger, Columbia and UHC must successfully integrate and combine their businesses in a manner that permits those cost savings to be realized without adversely affecting current revenues and future growth. If we are not able to successfully achieve these objectives, the anticipated benefits of the Merger may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected. In addition, the actual cost savings of the Merger could be less than anticipated, and integration may result in additional and unforeseen expenses.

While Columbia has realized $143 million in annualized cost-savings due to the merger as of December 31, 2023, exceeding its original $135 million target, an inability to maintain the full extent of these cost savings following the Merger, as well as any delays encountered in the integration process, could have an adverse effect upon the revenues, levels of expenses and operating results of the combined company, which may adversely affect the value of our common stock.

It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company’s ongoing businesses or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies that adversely affect the companies’ ability to maintain relationships with clients, customers, depositors, and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits and cost savings of the Merger. Integration efforts between the companies may also divert management attention and resources. These integration matters could have an adverse effect on the combined company for an undetermined period after completion of the Merger.

The Company may be unable to retain legacy personnel successfully.

The success of the Merger will depend in part on the Company’s ability to retain the talents and dedication of key employees. It is possible that these employees, including key employees, may decide not to remain with the Company. If the Company is unable to retain key employees, including management, who are critical to the successful future operations of the combined company, the Company could face disruptions in its operations, loss of existing customers, loss of key information, expertise or know-how and unanticipated additional recruitment costs. If key employees terminate their employment, the Company’s business activities may be adversely affected and the Company may not be able to locate or retain suitable replacements.

Interest Rate and Credit Risks

Economic conditions in the market areas we serve may adversely impact our earnings and could increase our credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, the value of our investment portfolio and the availability of deposits.

Substantially all of our loan and deposit customers are businesses and individuals in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California and Nevada, and soft economies in these market areas could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. A deterioration in the market areas we serve could result in consequences, including the following, any of which would have an adverse impact, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects:
loan delinquencies may increase;
problem assets and foreclosures may increase;
collateral for loans made may decline in value, in turn reducing customers’ borrowing power, reducing the value of assets and collateral associated with existing loans;
certain securities within our investment portfolio could require an ACL, requiring a write-down through earnings to fair value, thereby reducing equity;
low-cost or noninterest-bearing deposits may decrease; and
demand for our loan and other products and services may decrease.


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Concentrations within our loan portfolio could result in increased credit risk in a challenging economy.

While our loan portfolio is diversified across business sectors, it is concentrated in commercial real estate and commercial business loans. These types of loans generally are viewed as having more risk of default than residential real estate loans or certain other types of loans or investments. In fact, the FDIC has issued pronouncements alerting banks of its concern about significant loan concentrations. Commercial real estate valuations can be materially affected over relatively short periods of time by changes in business climate, economic conditions, interest rates, and, in many cases, the results of operations of businesses and other occupants of the real property. Emerging and evolving factors such as the shift to work-from-home or hybrid-work arrangements, changing consumer preferences (including online shopping), and resulting changes in occupancy rates as a result of these and other trends can also impact such valuations over relatively short periods. Because our loan portfolio contains commercial real estate and commercial business loans with relatively large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans may cause a significant increase in our non-performing loans. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses, or an increase in loan charge-offs, any of which would have an adverse impact, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

A large percentage of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate, in particular commercial real estate. Deterioration in the real estate market or other segments of our loan portfolio would lead to additional losses.

As of December 31, 2023, 75% of our total gross loans were secured by real estate. Any renewed downturn in the economies or real estate values in the markets we serve could have a material adverse effect on both borrowers’ ability to repay their loans and the value of the real property securing such loans. Commercial real estate mortgage loans, which comprise a significant portion of our loan portfolio, generally involve a greater degree of credit risk than residential real estate mortgage loans because they typically have larger balances and are more affected by adverse conditions in the economy. Because payments on loans secured by commercial real estate often depend upon the successful operation and management of the properties and the businesses which operate from within them, repayment of such loans may be affected by factors outside the borrower’s control, such as adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy or changes in government regulations. Following the COVID-19 pandemic there has been an evolution of various remote work options which could impact the long-term performance of some types of office properties within our commercial real estate portfolio. Accordingly, the federal banking regulatory agencies have expressed concerns about weaknesses in the current commercial real estate market. Our ability to recover on defaulted loans would then be diminished, and we would be more likely to suffer losses on defaulted loans, any or all of which would have an adverse impact, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our allowance may not be adequate to cover future loan losses, which could adversely affect earnings.

We maintain an ACL in an amount that we believe is adequate to provide for losses inherent in our loan portfolio. While we strive to carefully monitor credit quality and to identify loans that may become non-performing, at any time there are loans in the portfolio that could result in losses but that have not been identified as non-performing or potential problem loans. We cannot be sure that we will be able to identify deteriorating loans before they become non-performing assets or that we will be able to limit losses on those loans that have been identified. Additionally, the process for determining the allowance requires different, subjective and complex judgments about the future impact from current economic conditions that might impair the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. As a result, future significant increases to the allowance may be necessary. Future increases to the allowance may be required based on changes in the composition of the loans comprising the portfolio, deteriorating values in underlying collateral (most of which consists of real estate) and changes in the financial condition of borrowers, such as may result from changes in economic conditions, or as a result of actual future events differing from assumptions used by management in determining the allowance.

Additionally, banking regulators, as an integral part of their supervisory function, periodically review our allowance. These regulatory agencies may require us to increase the allowance. Any increase in the allowance would have an adverse effect, which could be material, on our financial condition and results of operations.


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Non-performing assets take significant time to resolve and could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our non-performing assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not record interest income on non-accrual loans, thereby adversely affecting our income. Moreover, non-accrual loans increase our loan administration costs. Assets acquired by foreclosure or similar proceedings are recorded at fair value less estimated costs to sell. The valuation of these foreclosed assets is periodically updated and resulting losses, if any, are charged to earnings in the period in which they are identified. An increase in the level of non-performing assets also increases our risk profile and may impact the capital levels our regulators believe is appropriate in light of such risks. We utilize various techniques such as loan sales, workouts, and restructurings to manage our problem assets. Decreases in the value of these problem assets, the underlying collateral, or in the borrowers’ performance or financial condition would have an adverse impact, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, the resolution of non-performing assets requires significant commitments of time from management and staff, which can be detrimental to performance of their other responsibilities. We may experience increases in non-performing loans in the future.

Fluctuating interest rates could adversely affect our business.

Significant increases in market interest rates on loans, or the perception that an increase may occur, could adversely affect both our ability to originate new loans and our ability to grow. Conversely, decreases in interest rates could result in an acceleration of loan prepayments. An increase in market interest rates or prolonged period in which market interest rates exceed the market interest rates at loan origination could also adversely affect the ability of our floating-rate and adjustable-rate borrowers to meet their higher payment obligations. If this occurred, it could cause an increase in non-performing assets and charge-offs, which could adversely affect our business.

Further, our profitability is dependent to a large extent upon net interest income, which is the difference (or “spread”) between the interest earned on loans, securities and other interest-earning assets and the interest paid on deposits, borrowings, and other interest-bearing liabilities. Because of the differences in maturities and repricing characteristics of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, changes in interest rates do not produce equivalent changes in interest income earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on interest-bearing liabilities. Accordingly, fluctuations in interest rates could adversely affect our interest rate spread, and, in turn, our profitability. The Federal Reserve raised benchmark interest rates throughout 2023 and interest rates may remain elevated in response to economic conditions, particularly inflationary pressures. Increases in interest rates, to combat inflation or otherwise, may result in a change in the mix of noninterest and interest-bearing accounts, and may have otherwise unpredictable effects. For example, increases in interest rates may result in increases in the number of delinquencies, bankruptcies or defaults by clients and more non-performing assets and net charge-offs, decreases in deposit levels, decreases to the demand for interest rate-based products and services, including loans, and changes to the level of off-balance sheet market-based investments preferred by our clients, each of which may reduce our interest rate spread. Lower rates would continue to constrain our interest rate spread and adversely affect our business forecasts. We are unable to predict changes in interest rates, which are affected by factors beyond our control, including inflation, deflation, recession, unemployment, money supply and other changes in financial markets.

Reform of interest rate benchmarks and the use of alternative reference rates by us and our clients could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Certain alternative reference rates appear to have gained acceptance among market participants as benchmarks in debt securities, loans, and other financial instruments. However, interest rate benchmark reforms may have unexpected adverse consequences that could be contrary to market expectations. Alternative reference rates may be based upon indices, and may have characteristics, different from the benchmarks they replace. In some cases, financial instruments may perform less predictably after alternative reference rates have replaced the original benchmarks. Further, given the limited performance and historical data of new alternative rates, there can be no assurance that: (i) any of the new rates will be similar to, perform the same as, produce the economic equivalent of, or be an adequate substitute for the benchmarks that they replace; or (ii) any particular use of hedges will be effective.


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In addition, we may be adversely impacted by the use of alternative reference rates as a result of our business activities and our underlying operations. We utilize reference rates in a variety of agreements and instruments and are responsible for the use of reference rates in a variety of capacities, as well as in our operational functions. We could be subject to claims from customers, counterparties, investors, or regulators alleging that we did not correctly discharge our responsibilities in interpreting and implementing contractual interest rate provisions or in selecting new alternative reference rates. These types of claims could subject us to increased legal and operational expenses and could damage our reputation.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully manage credit risk.

The operation of our business requires us to manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and that the collateral securing repayment of their loans, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, model and scorecard risks, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers. In order to successfully manage credit risk, we must, among other things, maintain disciplined and prudent underwriting standards and ensure that our bankers follow those standards. The weakening of these standards for any reason, such as an attempt to attract higher yielding loans, a lack of discipline or diligence by our employees in underwriting and monitoring loans, the inability of our employees to adequately adapt policies and procedures to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting borrowers and the quality of our loan portfolio, may result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs and may necessitate that we increase our ACL, each of which could adversely affect our net income. As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be required, in the future, to recognize a credit loss with respect to investment securities.

Our securities portfolio currently includes securities with unrecognized losses. As of December 31, 2023, gross unrealized losses in our securities portfolio were $488.1 million. We may continue to observe declines in the fair market value of these securities. Securities issued by certain states and municipalities may come under scrutiny due to concerns about credit quality. Although management believes the credit quality of the Company’s state and municipal securities portfolio to be good, there can be no assurance that the credit quality of these securities will not decline in the future. We evaluate the securities portfolio for any securities with an associated credit loss each reporting period, as required by GAAP in the United States. There can be no assurance, however, that future evaluations of the securities portfolio will not require us to recognize credit losses with respect to these and other holdings. For example, it is possible that government-sponsored programs to allow mortgages to be refinanced to lower rates could materially adversely impact the yield on our portfolio of mortgage-backed securities, since a significant portion of our investment portfolio is composed of such securities.

We are exposed to the risk of environmental liabilities in connection with real properties acquired.

During the ordinary course of business, we foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If previously unknown or undisclosed hazardous or toxic substances are discovered, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses which may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement polices with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. Although we have policies and procedures which require the performance of an environmental review at the time of underwriting a loan secured by real property, and also before initiating any foreclosure action on real property, these reviews may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


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Funding and Liquidity Risks

Our management of capital could adversely affect profitability measures and the market price of our common stock and could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock.

Our capital ratios are higher than regulatory minimums. We may lower our capital ratios through selective acquisitions that meet our disciplined criteria, share repurchase plans, organic loan growth, investment in securities, or other factors. We continually evaluate opportunities to expand our business through strategic acquisitions. There can be no assurance that we will be able to negotiate future acquisitions on terms acceptable to us.

Conversely, there may be circumstances under which it would be prudent to consider alternatives for raising capital to take advantage of significant acquisition opportunities or in response to changing economic conditions. In addition, we may need to raise additional capital in the future to have sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and fund our business needs and future growth, particularly if the quality of our assets or earnings were to deteriorate significantly. We may not be able to raise additional capital when needed on terms acceptable to us or at all. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on, among other things, conditions in the capital markets at the time, which are outside our control, and our financial performance. Further, if we need to raise capital in the future, we may have to do so when many other financial institutions are also seeking to raise capital and would then have to compete with those institutions for investors. An inability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, any capital raising alternatives could dilute the holders of our outstanding common stock and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

Deposits are a critical source of funds for our continued growth and profitability.

Our ability to continue to grow depends primarily on our ability to successfully attract deposits to fund loan growth. Core deposits are a low cost and generally stable source of funding and a significant source of funds for our lending activities. Our inability to retain or attract such funds could adversely affect our liquidity. If we are forced to seek other sources of funds, such as additional brokered deposits or borrowings from the FHLB, the interest expense associated with these other funding sources are now and may be higher than the rates we are currently paying on our deposits, which would adversely impact our net income, and such sources of funding may be more volatile and unavailable.

Rate fluctuations

Volatility in interest rates can also result in the flow of funds away from financial institutions into investments such as United States government and corporate securities and other investment vehicles (including mutual funds) that generally pay higher rates of return than financial institutions in part because of the absence of federal insurance premiums. This may cause the Bank to lose some of its low-cost deposit funding. Customers may also continue to move noninterest-bearing deposits into interest-bearing accounts, which increases overall deposit costs. Higher funding costs may reduce the Company’s net interest margin and net interest income. A prolonged period of high or increasing interest rates may cause the Company to experience an acceleration of deposit migration, which could adversely affect the Company’s operations and liquidity. This risk is exacerbated by technological developments and trends in customer behavior, including the ease and speed with which deposits may be transferred electronically, particularly by a growing number of customers who maintain accounts with multiple banks.

Loss of customer deposits could increase the Company’s funding costs.

The Company relies on bank deposits to be a low-cost and stable source of funding. The Company competes with banks and other financial services companies for deposits. Increases in short-term interest rates since March 2022 have resulted in and are expected to continue to result in more intense competition in deposit pricing. Competition and increasing interest rates have caused the Company to increase the interest rates it pays on deposits. If the Company’s competitors raise the interest rates they pay on deposits, the Company’s funding costs may increase, either because the Company raises the interest rates it pays on deposits to avoid losing deposits to competitors or because the Company loses deposits to competitors and must rely on more expensive sources of funding. Higher funding costs reduce the Company’s net interest margin and net interest income.


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Checking and savings account balances and other forms of customer deposits may decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing a better risk-adjusted return. When customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments, the Company may lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing the Company’s funding costs and reducing the Company’s net interest income. In addition, mass withdrawals of deposits occurred at certain banks that failed in 2023, seemingly triggered by losses in such bank's investment securities portfolios and concerns about uninsured and uncollateralized deposits. A loss in the value of the Company’s investment or loan portfolio, perceived concerns regarding the Company and Bank’s capital positions or perceived concerns regarding the level of the Bank’s uninsured and uncollateralized deposits could cause rapid and significant deposit outflows. This risk could be exacerbated by technological developments and changes in banking relationships, such as customers maintaining accounts at multiple banks, which increase the ease and speed with which depositors are able to move their deposits, as well as by the way information, including false information or unfounded rumors, can be spread quickly through social media and other online channels. If the Bank were to experience a significant outflow of deposits, the Company may face significantly increased funding costs, suffer significant losses and have a significantly reduced ability to raise new capital.

The Company could lose access to sources of liquidity if it were to experience financial or regulatory issues.

The Company relies on sources of liquidity provided by the Federal Reserve Bank, such as the Federal Reserve Bank discount window and other liquidity facilities that the Federal Reserve Board may establish from time to time, as well as liquidity provided by the FHLB. To access these sources of liquidity, the Federal Reserve Board or FHLB may impose conditions that the Company and the Bank are in sound financial condition (as determined by the Federal Reserve Board or FHLB) or that the Company and Bank maintain minimum supervisory ratings. If the Company or Bank were to experience financial or regulatory issues, it could affect the ability to access liquidity facilities, including at times when the Company or Bank needs additional liquidity for the operation of its business. If the Company or Bank were to lose access to these liquidity sources, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s operations and financial condition.

Legal, Accounting and Compliance Risks

We operate in a highly regulated environment and changes to or increases in, or supervisory enforcement of, banking or other laws and regulations or governmental fiscal or monetary policies could adversely affect us.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and examination by federal and state banking authorities. In addition, as a publicly traded company, we are subject to regulation by the SEC. Any change in applicable regulations or federal, state, or local legislation or in policies or interpretations or regulatory approaches to compliance and enforcement, income tax laws or accounting principles could have a substantial impact on us and our operations. Changes in laws and regulations may also increase our expenses by imposing additional fees or taxes or restrictions on our operations. Additional legislation and regulations that could significantly affect our powers, authority and operations may be enacted or adopted in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Failure to appropriately comply with any such laws, regulations or principles could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies or damage to our reputation, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act was enacted in July 2010. Among other provisions, the legislation (i) created the CFPB with broad powers to regulate consumer financial products such as credit cards and mortgages, (ii) resulted in new capital requirements from federal banking agencies, (iii) placed new limits on electronic debit card interchange fees and (iv) required the SEC and national stock exchanges to adopt significant new corporate governance and executive compensation reforms, some of which have yet to be promulgated. The Dodd-Frank Act and regulations that have been adopted thereunder have increased the overall costs of regulatory compliance, and further regulatory developments whether related to Dodd-Frank or otherwise may lead to additional costs. In addition, the CFPB has broad rulemaking authority and is the principal federal regulatory agency responsible for the supervision and enforcement of a wide range of consumer protection laws for banks with greater than $10 billion in assets.

If we fail to maintain appropriate levels of capital or liquidity, we could become subject to formal or informal enforcement actions that may impose restrictions on our business, including limiting our lending activities or our ability to expand, requiring us to raise additional capital (which may be dilutive to shareholders) or requiring regulatory approval to pay dividends or otherwise return capital to shareholders. We also face the risk of becoming subject to new or more stringent requirements in connection with the introduction of new regulations or modifications of existing regulations, which could require us to hold more capital or liquidity or have other adverse effects on our business or profitability.


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Further, regulators have significant discretion and authority to prevent or remedy unsafe or unsound practices or violations of laws or regulations by financial institutions and holding companies in the performance of their supervisory and enforcement duties. The exercise of regulatory authority may have an adverse impact, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Additionally, our business is affected significantly by the fiscal and monetary policies of the U.S. federal government and its agencies, including the Federal Reserve.

We cannot accurately predict the full effects of recent legislation or the various other governmental, regulatory, monetary, and fiscal initiatives which have been and may be enacted on the financial markets, the Company, and the Bank. The terms and costs of these activities, or any worsening of current financial market and economic conditions, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations, as well as the trading price of our common stock.

Changes in accounting standards could materially impact our financial statements.

From time to time, the FASB and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations.

Significant legal or regulatory actions could subject us to substantial uninsured liabilities and reputational harm and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are from time to time subject to claims and proceedings related to our operations. Claims and legal actions, including supervisory or enforcement actions by our regulators, or criminal proceedings by prosecutorial authorities, could involve large monetary claims, including civil money penalties or fines imposed by government authorities and significant defense costs. Following the consummation of the merger with UHC, we are also subject to the claims and proceedings related to UHC’s operations. To mitigate the cost of some of these claims, we maintain insurance coverage in amounts and with deductibles that we believe are appropriate for our operations. However, our insurance coverage does not cover any civil money penalties or fines imposed by government authorities and may not cover all other claims that might be brought against us or continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost. As a result, we may be exposed to substantial uninsured liabilities, which could adversely affect our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against us could cause significant reputational harm to us and/or could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Because we primarily serve individuals and businesses located in the western United States, any negative impact resulting from reputational harm, including any impact on our ability to attract and retain customers and employees, likely would be greater than if our business were more geographically diverse.

Financial holding company status.

Financial holding companies are allowed to engage in certain financial activities in which a bank holding company is not otherwise permitted to engage. However, to maintain financial holding company status, a bank holding company (and all of its depository institution subsidiaries) must be “well capitalized” and “well managed.” If a bank holding company ceases to meet these capital and management requirements, there are many penalties it would be faced with, including the FRB may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities, and it may not undertake any of the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or acquire a company engaged in such financial activities without prior approval of the FRB. If a company does not return to compliance within 180 days, which period may be extended, the FRB may require divestiture of that company’s depository institutions. To the extent we do not meet the requirements to be a financial holding company in the future, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.


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Risks Relating to Markets and External Events

National and global economic and other conditions could adversely affect our future results of operations or market price of our stock.

Our business is directly impacted by factors such as economic, political and market conditions, broad trends in industry and finance, changes in government monetary and fiscal policies and inflation, foreign policy, and financial market volatility, all of which are beyond our control. Global economies continue to face significant challenges to achieving normalized economic growth rates. Any renewed deterioration in the economies of the nation as a whole or in our markets would have an adverse effect, which could be material, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, and could also cause the market price of our stock to decline. If recessionary economic conditions or an economic downturn develop, they would likely have a negative financial impact across the financial services industry, including on us. If these conditions are more severe, the extent of the negative impact on our business and financial performance can increase and be more severe, including the adverse effects listed above and discussed throughout this “Risk Factors” section.

Supply chain constraints, robust demand and labor shortages have led to persistent inflationary pressures throughout the economy. Volatility and uncertainty related to inflation and the effects of inflation, which may lead to increased costs for businesses and consumers and potentially contribute to poor business and economic conditions generally, may also enhance or contribute to some of the risks discussed herein. For example, higher inflation, or volatility and uncertainty related to inflation, could reduce demand for our products, adversely affect the creditworthiness of our borrowers, result in lower values for our investment securities and other interest-earning assets, and increase expense related to talent acquisition and retention.

Additionally, economic conditions, financial markets and inflationary pressures may be adversely affected by the impact of current or anticipated geopolitical uncertainties, military conflicts, including those in the Middle East and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, pandemics, and global, national, and local responses thereto by governmental authorities and other third parties. These unpredictable events could create, increase, or prolong economic and financial disruptions and volatility that adversely affect our business, financial condition, capital, and results of operations.

Substantial competition in our market areas could adversely affect us.

Commercial banking is a highly competitive business. We compete with other commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions and finance, insurance and other non-depository companies operating in our market areas. We also experience competition, especially for deposits, from Internet-based banking institutions, which have grown rapidly in recent years. We are subject to substantial competition for loans and deposits from other financial institutions. Some of our competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulation and restriction as we are and/or have greater financial resources than we do. Some of our competitors may have liquidity issues, which could impact the pricing of deposits, loans, and other financial products in our markets. Our inability to effectively compete in our market areas could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Climate change concerns could adversely affect our business, affect client activity levels, and damage our reputation.

Concerns over the long-term impacts of climate change have led and will continue to lead to governmental efforts around the world to mitigate those impacts. Consumers and businesses are also changing their behavior and business preferences as a result of these concerns. New governmental regulations or guidance relating to climate change, as well as changes in consumers’ and businesses’ behaviors and business preferences, may affect whether and on what terms and conditions we will engage in certain activities or offer certain products or services. The governmental and supervisory focus on climate change could also result in our becoming subject to new or heightened regulatory requirements relating to climate change, such as requirements relating to operational resiliency or stress testing for various climate stress scenarios. Any such new or heightened requirements could result in increased regulatory, compliance or other costs or higher capital requirements. In connection with the transition to a low carbon economy, legislative or public policy changes and changes in consumer sentiment could negatively impact the businesses and financial condition of our clients, which may decrease revenues from those clients and increase the credit risk associated with loans and other credit exposures to those clients. Our business, reputation, and ability to attract and retain employees may also be harmed if our response to climate change is perceived to be ineffective or insufficient.


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Our business is subject to the risks of pandemics, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, fires and other natural catastrophic events and other events beyond our control.

A major catastrophe, such as an earthquake, tsunami, flood, fire, or other natural disaster, including those caused or exacerbated by climate change, public health issues such as the COVID-19 or other pandemics, or other events beyond our control, could result in a prolonged interruption of our business. For example, our headquarters is located in Tacoma, Washington and we have operations throughout the western United States, a geographical region that has been or may be affected by earthquakes, wildfires, tsunamis, and flooding activity. Because we primarily serve individuals and businesses in our eight-state footprint, a natural disaster likely would have a greater impact on our business, operations, and financial condition than if our business were more geographically diverse throughout the United States. The occurrence of any of these natural disasters could negatively impact our performance by disrupting our operations or the operations of our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Risks Relating to Investment in our Stock

There can be no assurance as to the level of dividends we may pay on our common stock.

Holders of our common stock are only entitled to receive such dividends as our board of directors declares out of funds legally available for such payments. Although we have historically declared cash dividends on our common stock, we are not required to do so and there may be circumstances under which we would eliminate our common stock dividend in the future. This could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We rely on dividends and other payments from our bank for substantially all of our revenue.

We are a separate and distinct legal entity from the Bank, and we receive substantially all of our operating cash flows from dividends and other payments from the Bank. These dividends and payments are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on our capital stock and interest and principal on any debt we may have. Various federal and state laws and regulations limit the amount of dividends that the Bank may pay to us. Also, our right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors. In the event the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common stock. The inability to receive dividends from the Bank could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We have various anti-takeover measures that could impede a takeover.

Our articles of incorporation include certain provisions that could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest, merger or otherwise. These provisions include certain non-monetary factors that our Board may consider when evaluating a takeover offer, and a requirement that any “Business Combination” be approved by the affirmative vote of no less than 66 2/3% of the total shares attributable to persons other than a “Control Person.” These provisions may have the effect of lengthening the time required for a person to acquire control of us through a tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and may deter any potentially hostile offers or other efforts to obtain control of us. This could deprive our shareholders of opportunities to realize a premium for their Columbia common stock, even in circumstances where such action is favored by a majority of our shareholders.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.


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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY.
Risk Management and Strategy
We recognize the importance of assessing, identifying, and managing material risks associated with cybersecurity threats, as such term is defined in Item 106(a) of Regulation S-K. We believe these risks include, among other things, operational risks resulting in system disruption; intellectual property theft; fraud; extortion; harm to associates or customers including by way of inadvertent release of information; violation of privacy or security laws and other litigation and legal risk; and reputational risks. We have implemented several cybersecurity processes, technologies, and controls to aid in our efforts to assess, identify, and manage such material risks. We have invested in data security and privacy protections, and we follow what we believe to be industry-standard recommendations for data security. However, if we fail to properly assess and identify cybersecurity threats, we may become increasingly vulnerable to such risks.

To identify and assess material risks from cybersecurity threats, our corporate risk management program considers cybersecurity threat risks alongside other Company risks as part of our overall risk assessment process. Our corporate risk professionals collaborate with subject matter specialists, as necessary, to gather insights for identifying and assessing material cybersecurity threat risks, their severity, and potential mitigations. We employ a range of tools and services, including programs across identity and access management, training and awareness, threat management, cybersecurity operations, cybersecurity enablement, and cybersecurity data, host, and network security. This includes regular network and endpoint monitoring, vulnerability assessments, penetration testing, and tabletop exercises to inform our professionals’ risk identification and assessment.

We also have a cybersecurity-specific risk assessment process, which helps identify our cybersecurity threat risks by comparing our processes to standards set by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council’s Cybersecurity Assessment Tool. These standards are aligned to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”), International Organization for Standardization, Center for Internet Security, and experts are engaged by us to evaluate the integrity of our information systems, as such term is defined in Item 106(a) of Regulation S-K.

To help us preserve the availability of critical data and systems, maintain regulatory compliance, and achieve our goal of managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats, and with an aim to protect against, detect, and respond to cybersecurity incidents, as such term is defined in Item 106(a) of Regulation S-K, we undertake the below listed activities:
• Closely monitor emerging data protection laws and implement changes to our processes designed to comply with such data protection laws;
• Undertake regular reviews of our policies and standards related to cybersecurity;
• Proactively inform our customers of substantive changes related to customer data handling;
• Conduct annual customer data handling and use requirements training for associates;
• Conduct annual cybersecurity management and incident training for associates involved in our systems and processes that handle sensitive data;
• Conduct regular cybersecurity training and awareness for all associates and all contractors with access to corporate systems;
• Through policy, practice, and contract (as applicable) require associates, as well as third-parties who provide services on our behalf, to treat customer information and data with care;
• Run tabletop exercises to simulate a response to a cybersecurity incident and use the findings to improve our processes and technologies;
• Leverage the NIST incident handling framework to help us identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover when there is an actual or potential cybersecurity incident; and
• Maintain what we believe to be customary and appropriate third-party information security coverage for incident loss mitigation.


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We also maintain an incident response plan designed to coordinate the activities we take with a goal to prepare for, detect, respond to, and recover from cybersecurity incidents, which include processes to triage, assess severity for, escalate, contain, investigate, and remediate the incident, as well as to comply with potentially applicable legal obligations and mitigate brand and reputational damage.

As part of the above processes, we regularly engage with regulatory examiners, internal and external auditors, and other third-parties, as well as a regular review by both our technology risk management team and corporate risk management team to help identify areas for continued focus, improvement and/or compliance.

Our processes also aim to address cybersecurity threat risks associated with our use of third-party service providers, including those in our supply chain or who have access to our customer and employee data or our systems. Third-party risks are included within our enterprise risk management assessment program, as well as our cybersecurity-specific risk identification program, both of which are discussed above. In addition, cybersecurity considerations affect the selection and oversight of our third-party service providers. We perform diligence on third parties that have access to our systems, data or facilities that house such systems or data, and monitor cybersecurity threat risks identified through such diligence. Additionally, we generally require those third parties that could introduce significant cybersecurity risk to us to agree by contract to manage their cybersecurity risks in specified ways, and to agree to be subject to cybersecurity audits, which we conduct as appropriate.

As disclosed above, we have implemented several cybersecurity processes, technologies, and controls to aid in our efforts to assess, identify, and manage material risks associated with cybersecurity threats, as such term is defined in Item 106(a) of Regulation S-K. However, any failure in, or unauthorized access to, our information systems, as such term is defined in Item 106(a) of Regulation S-K, could disrupt our business, result in unintentional disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information, damage our reputation, increase our costs and cause losses, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Failures, interruptions, or data breaches involving our information systems, or the information systems of our vendors, could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, result in a violation of privacy or other laws, or expose us to civil litigation, regulatory fines or losses not covered by insurance, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we do not believe that any risks from cybersecurity threats have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. The expenses we have incurred from cybersecurity incidents, including the Vendor Incident have been immaterial to date. Nevertheless, we also believe risks from certain cybersecurity threats, including as a result of our previously disclosed Vendor Incident could potentially result in charges, settlements or other potential liabilities that could materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, and financial condition, depending on the outcome of pending lawsuits as discussed further below.

As previously disclosed, on June 21, 2023, our wholly-owned subsidiary Umpqua Bank was informed by one of its technology service providers (the "Vendor") that a widely reported security incident involving MOVEit, a filesharing software used globally by government agencies, enterprise corporations, and financial institutions, resulted in the unauthorized acquisition by a third-party of the names and social security numbers or tax identification numbers of certain of Umpqua Bank’s consumer and small business customers (the "Vendor Incident"). Other than the information described above, no Umpqua Bank account information was compromised as a result of the Vendor Incident, and no information from Umpqua Bank’s commercial customers was involved in the Vendor Incident. On June 22, 2023, Umpqua Bank sent an email to potentially affected consumer and small business customers informing them of the Vendor Incident. In August 2023, the Vendor, on behalf of Umpqua Bank, also sent notice via U.S. mail to the 429,252 Umpqua Bank customers whose information was involved in the Vendor Incident.


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As previously disclosed, beginning on August 18, 2023, some of the notified individuals filed lawsuits against Umpqua Bank in various federal and state courts seeking monetary recovery and other relief on behalf of themselves and one or more putative classes of other individuals similarly situated. The cases collectively allege claims for negligence, negligence per se, breach of contract, breach of implied contract, breach of third-party beneficiary contract, breach of fiduciary duty, invasion of privacy, breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing, unjust enrichment and violation of certain statutes, namely the Washington Consumer Protection Act, the California Consumer Legal Remedies Act, the California Consumer Privacy Act, and the California Unfair Competition Law. Umpqua Bank has engaged defense counsel and intends to vigorously defend against these suits and any similar or related suits or claims. Umpqua Bank has notified relevant insurance carriers and business counterparties and continues to reserve all of its relevant rights to indemnity, defense, contribution, and other relief in connection with these matters. We cannot predict or determine the timing or outcome of these lawsuits or the impact they may have, if any, on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. We believe that if one or more outcomes that are determined in favor of the plaintiffs in the litigation arising from the Vendor Incident it could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, or financial results.

Separately and as previously disclosed, Umpqua Bank experienced an on-premises MOVEit security incident in May 2023. The on-premises instance was removed from the network immediately and decommissioned, and the unauthorized actor did not obtain any customer information or Umpqua Bank data. An independent forensics firm was engaged and confirmed our assessment of this on-premises MOVEit incident, which did not cause any interruption of business operations. We do not currently believe the on-premises incident will have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, or financial results.

Cybersecurity Governance

Cybersecurity is an important part of our risk management processes and an area of increasing focus for our Board and management.

Our Board of Director’s Enterprise Risk Management Committee (the "ERMC") is responsible for the oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats. At least annually, the ERMC receives an overview from management of our cybersecurity threat risk management and strategy processes covering topics such as anticipated emerging threats, cybersecurity posture, progress towards predetermined risk-mitigation-related goals, and material cybersecurity threat risks or incidents and developments, as well as the steps management has taken to respond to such risks. In such sessions, the ERMC generally receives materials including a cybersecurity scorecard and other materials indicating current and emerging cybersecurity threat risks, and describing the Company’s ability to mitigate those risks, and discusses such matters with our Chief Information Security Officer, Chief Information Officer, and Chief Privacy and Information Risk Officer. Members of the ERMC are also encouraged to regularly engage in ad hoc conversations with management on cybersecurity-related news events and discuss any updates to our cybersecurity risk management and strategy programs. Material cybersecurity threat risks are also considered during separate Board meeting discussions of important matters like enterprise risk management, operational budgeting, business continuity planning, mergers and acquisitions, brand management, and other relevant matters.

Our cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes, which are discussed in greater detail above, are led by our Chief Information Security Officer and Chief Privacy and Information Risk Officer. Such individuals have collectively over 40 years of prior work experience in various roles involving managing information security, developing cybersecurity strategy, implementing effective information and cybersecurity programs. They also have several relevant degrees and certifications, including Certified Information Security Manager, Certified Information Systems Auditor, Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Global Information Assurance Certification, and Certified Professional Hacker.

These members of management are informed about and monitor the prevention, mitigation, detection, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents through their management of, and participation in, the cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes described above, including the operation of our incident response plan. As discussed above, these members of management report to the ERMC about cybersecurity threat risks, among other cybersecurity related matters, at least annually.

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

The Company’s principal properties include our corporate headquarters which is located at 13th & A Street, Tacoma, Washington and leased corporate office space in Lake Oswego, Oregon.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had the following properties located throughout several counties in Oregon, Washington, California, Idaho, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah:
Owned PropertiesLeased PropertiesTotal Properties
Customer-facing locations169149318
Administrative locations72330
   Total locations176172348

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

The information required by this item is set forth in Part II, Item 8 under Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies—Legal Proceedings and Regulatory Matters, and incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable. 


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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
(a)Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC under the symbol "COLB." As of December 31, 2023, our common stock was held by 5,345 shareholders of record, a number that does not include beneficial owners who hold shares in "street name," or shareholders from previously acquired companies that have not exchanged their stock. As of December 31, 2023, a total of 1.7 million shares of unvested restricted stock units and awards were outstanding.

The payment of future cash dividends is at the discretion of our Board and subject to a number of factors, including results of operations, general business conditions, growth, financial condition, and other factors deemed relevant by the Board. Further, our ability to pay future cash dividends is subject to certain regulatory requirements and restrictions discussed in the Supervision and Regulation section in Item 1 above.

(b)Not applicable.

(c)The following table provides information about repurchases of common stock by the Company during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
Period
Total number of Common Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price
Paid per Common Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plan (2)
Maximum Dollar Value of Shares that May be Purchased at Period End under the Plan
10/01/23 - 10/31/23
8,142 $19.56 — $— 
11/01/23 - 11/30/23
301 $20.52 — $— 
12/01/23 - 12/31/23
364 $27.18 — $— 
Total for quarter8,807 $19.90 —  

(1)Common shares repurchased by the Company during the quarter consist of cancellation of 8,807 shares to be issued upon vesting of restricted stock to pay withholding taxes. During the three months ended December 31, 2023, no shares were repurchased pursuant to the Company's publicly announced corporate stock repurchase plan described in (2) below.

(2)As of December 31, 2023, the Company does not have a current share repurchase authorization from the Board of Directors.

Restricted shares cancelled to pay withholding taxes totaled 261,000 and 120,000 shares during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Information relating to compensation plans under which the Company's equity securities are authorized for issuance is set forth in "Part III—Item 12" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Stock Performance Graph
The following chart, which is furnished as part of our annual report to shareholders and not filed, compares the yearly percentage changes in the cumulative shareholder return on our common stock during the five fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, with (i) the Nasdaq Composite Index, (ii) the Standard and Poor's 500 Index and (iii) the Nasdaq Bank Index. This comparison assumes $100.00 was invested on December 31, 2018, in our common stock and the comparison indices, and assumes the reinvestment of all cash dividends prior to any tax effect and retention of all stock dividends. Price information from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023, was obtained by using the closing prices as of the last trading day of each year.
4056
Period Ending
12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
Columbia Banking System, Inc.$100.00$116.40$107.37$100.78$96.48$90.78
Nasdaq Composite Index$100.00$136.73$198.33$242.38$163.58$236.70
S&P 500 Index$100.00$131.47$155.65$200.29$163.98$207.04
Nasdaq Bank Index$100.00$124.38$115.04$164.41$137.65$132.92

ITEM 6. RESERVED

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND RISK FACTORS 

See the discussion of forward-looking statements and risk factors in Part I Item 1 and Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations constitutes management's review of the factors that affected our financial and operating performance for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Since the Merger was accounted for as a reverse acquisition, the Company's financial results for any periods prior to the Merger Date reflect UHC results only on a standalone basis, and all share and per-share data have been restated based on the exchange ratio from the Merger of 0.5958. Accordingly, for a discussion of the year ended December 31, 2021, including a comparison to the year ended December 31, 2022, see Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, on Umpqua Holding Corporation's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 24, 2023.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
 
Business Combination 
Columbia completed its previously announced merger with UHC on February 28, 2023. Promptly following the Merger, Columbia’s wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Columbia State Bank, merged with and into UHC’s wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Umpqua Bank, with Umpqua Bank surviving such merger. The Company acquired approximately $19.2 billion in assets, including $10.9 billion in loans measured at fair value and $15.2 billion in deposits. The comparison of the year ended December 31, 2023 to prior periods is significantly impacted by the Merger. See Note 2 - Business Combination to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding the Mergers.

Financial Performance 
Earnings per diluted common share were $1.78 for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $2.60 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the prior period, reflects an increase in average diluted shares to 195.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to 129.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, due to shares issued on February 28, 2023 in connection with the Merger.

Net income was $348.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $336.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily driven by higher interest income as a result of additional loans and securities acquired through the Merger and the favorable impact of higher interest rates on loan repricing, as well as higher non-interest income related to customers added through the Merger. The increase was partially offset by an increase in interest expense as a result of higher funding costs related to balances added through the Merger, deposit and liability mix shifting, and rising interest rates, as well as higher provision for credit loss largely due to the initial provision for historical Columbia non-PCD loans and higher non-interest expense due to the Merger. Net income in 2023 was also impacted by lower mortgage banking income following strategic business changes made in 2022 and reduced demand for single-family mortgage loans.


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Net interest margin, on a tax equivalent basis, was 3.91% for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to 3.62% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase is primarily due to an increase in interest earning asset yields given upward interest rate movements, with the most impactful average rate increases in the loan and taxable securities categories, as well as ten months of purchase accounting accretion and amortization. These effects were partially offset by higher funding costs. Trends affecting net interest margin had a similar impact on net interest income, which increased to $1.8 billion for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $1.1 billion for the year ended December 31, 2022, partly reflecting a larger balance sheet for the year ended December 31, 2023 due to the Merger.

Non-interest income was $203.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $199.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily driven by increases in service charges on deposits, card-based fees, and financial services and trust revenue, due to ten months of the higher run rate for the combined organization, in addition to a favorable change in the fair value adjustment for certain loans held for investment of $61.1 million, partially offset by a decrease in mortgage banking revenue driven by a $34.8 million decrease related to origination and sales of residential mortgages and an unfavorable change of $51.3 million related to fair value of the MSR asset.

Non-interest expense was $1.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $735.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. This reflects an increase in salaries and employee benefits of $174.9 million, due to ten months of the higher expense run rate as a combined organization, an increase in merger-related expenses of $154.3 million, an increase in intangible amortization of $107.2 million due to the core deposit intangible asset associated with the Merger, and an increase in FDIC assessments of $57.4 million largely driven by the $32.9 million FDIC special assessment expense incurred during the fourth quarter of 2023.

Total gross loans and leases were $37.4 billion as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $11.3 billion, or 43%, compared to December 31, 2022. The increase in total loans was primarily due to $10.9 billion in loans acquired through the Merger, which offset the sale of $743.9 million in loans during the year. The Bank is focused on generating business through customer relationships that drive balanced growth in loans, deposits, and core fee income.
 
Total deposits were $41.6 billion as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $14.5 billion, or 54%, from December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily due to $15.2 billion in deposits acquired in the Merger, partially offset by lower customer balances due primarily to the impact of inflation and market liquidity tightening. The deposit portfolio mix also reflects a migration from non-interest bearing to interest-bearing accounts and alternative investments, as customers evaluated the interest rate earned on excess cash balances in the higher interest rate environment.
 
Total consolidated assets were $52.2 billion as of December 31, 2023, compared to $31.8 billion as of December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily due to $19.2 billion in acquired assets as a result of the Merger, with the majority of the increase attributable to loans and investment securities. Refer to Note 2 - Business Combination for more information pertaining to the completed Merger.

Credit Quality
Non-performing assets increased to $113.9 million, or 0.22% of total assets, as of December 31, 2023, compared to $58.8 million, or 0.18% of total assets, as of December 31, 2022. Non-performing loans were $112.9 million, or 0.30% of total loans and leases, as of December 31, 2023, compared to $58.6 million, or 0.22% of total loans and leases, as of December 31, 2022. The increases in non-performing assets and non-performing loans reflects assets acquired in the Merger and a move toward a more normalized credit environment following a phase of exceptionally high-quality performance.

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The ACL was $464.1 million, or 1.24% of loans and leases, as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $148.7 million, as compared to $315.4 million, or 1.21% of loans and leases, as of December 31, 2022. The increase in the ACL was due to loan portfolio growth, largely reflective of loans acquired through the Merger, and changes in the economic forecasts used in credit models. As a result of the Merger, the ACL increased by $120.7 million, which reflects a $32.3 million upward adjustment at closing with no impact to the statement of operations due to acquired PCD loans and acquired unfunded commitments, in addition to an $88.4 million provision expense due to acquired non-PCD loans.

The Company had a provision for credit losses of $213.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to a provision for credit losses of $84.0 million in the prior year. The increase in provision expense for the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the prior year reflects the $88.4 million initial provision for historical Columbia non-PCD loans related to the Merger, changes in the economic forecasts used in credit models, and portfolio migration trends. As a percentage of average outstanding loans and leases, the provision for credit losses for the year ended December 31, 2023 was 0.60%, as compared to 0.35% for the prior year. 

Liquidity

Total cash and cash equivalents were $2.2 billion as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $867.9 million from December 31, 2022. The increase is mainly due to an increase in borrowings to support short-term liquidity, as there was reduced available liquidity within the banking industry as a result of recent volatility in response to the bank failures in early 2023.

Including secured off-balance sheet lines of credit, total available liquidity was $18.7 billion as of December 31, 2023, representing 36% of total assets, 45% of total deposits, and 138% of uninsured deposits.

Capital and Growth Initiatives
The Company realized $143 million in annualized cost-savings due to the Merger as of December 31, 2023, exceeding our original $135 million target.

The Company's total risk-based capital ratio was 11.9% and its common equity tier 1 risk-based capital ratio was 9.6% as of December 31, 2023, as compared to 13.7% and 11.0%, respectively, as of December 31, 2022. The decline in regulatory capital ratios was primarily driven by initial fair value marks related to historical Columbia asset and liability balances added to the balance sheet as a result of the Merger, and we expect net capital accretion as purchase accounting marks accrete into income on a quarterly basis. Post-closing capital ratios, as reported for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, represented the low point for the year as regulatory capital ratios expanded thereafter as capital generated through earnings offset capital paid out to shareholders through dividends.

The Company paid cash dividends of $1.43 per common share during the year ended December 31, 2023.

FDIC Special Assessment

In November 2023, the FDIC approved the final rule to impose a special assessment to recover the losses to the deposit insurance fund resulting from the closures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank. Under the final rule, the assessment base is the estimated uninsured deposits, as reported in Umpqua Bank and Columbia State Bank's December 31, 2022 Call Reports, excluding the first $5 billion in estimated uninsured deposits, allocated in proportion to each Bank's estimated uninsured deposits. The FDIC will collect the special assessment at an annual rate of approximately 13.4 basis points over eight quarterly assessment periods beginning in the first quarterly assessment period of 2024. The company accrued $32.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2023 related to the special assessment, which is included in non-interest expense on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.


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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES

In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the balance sheet and revenues and expenses for the period. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.

The consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with GAAP and follow general practices within the financial services industry, in which the Company operates. This preparation requires management to make estimates, assumptions, and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates, assumptions, and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements; accordingly, as this information changes, actual results could differ from the estimates, assumptions, and judgments reflected in the financial statements. Certain estimates inherently have a greater reliance on the use of assumptions and judgments and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported.

Management believes the ACL, business combinations and goodwill estimates are important to the portrayal of the Company's financial condition and results of operations and requires difficult, subjective, or complex judgments and, therefore, management considers them to be critical accounting estimates.

Allowance for Credit Losses

The Bank has established an Allowance for Credit Losses Committee, which is responsible for, among other things, regularly reviewing the ACL methodology, including allowance levels, and ensuring that it is designed and applied in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

CECL is not prescriptive in the methodology used to determine the expected credit loss estimate. Therefore, management has flexibility in selecting the methodology. However, the expected credit losses must be estimated over a financial asset's contractual term, adjusted for prepayments, utilizing quantitative and qualitative factors.

The Company utilizes complex models to obtain reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions dependent upon specific macroeconomic variables related to each of the Company's loan and lease portfolios. Loans and leases deemed to be collateral-dependent are individually evaluated for loss based on the value of the underlying collateral or a discounted cash flow analysis.

The adequacy of the ACL is monitored on a regular basis and is based on management's evaluation of numerous factors, including: the CECL model outputs; quality of the current loan portfolio; the trend in the loan portfolio's risk ratings; current economic conditions; loan concentrations; loan growth rates; past-due and non-performing trends; evaluation of specific loss estimates for significant problem loans; historical charge-off and recovery experience; and other pertinent information. As of December 31, 2023, the Bank used Moody's Analytics' November 2023 baseline forecast to estimate the ACL. To assess the sensitivity in the ACL results and, when necessary, to inform qualitative adjustments, the Bank used a second scenario, Moody's Analytics' November 2023 S2 scenario, that differs in terms of severity. For additional information related to the Company's ACL, see Note 6 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Because current economic conditions and forecasts can change and future events are inherently difficult to predict, the anticipated amount of estimated credit losses on loans, and therefore the appropriateness of the ACL, could change significantly. It is difficult to estimate how potential changes in any one economic factor or input might affect the overall allowance because a wide variety of factors and inputs are considered in estimating the allowance and changes in those factors and inputs considered may not occur at the same rate and may not be consistent across all product types. Additionally, changes in factors and inputs may be directionally inconsistent, such that improvement in one factor may offset deterioration in others. Management believes that the ACL was adequate as of December 31, 2023.

Business Combinations

The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting. Under this accounting method, the acquired company’s assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value at the date of the acquisition, except as provided for by the applicable accounting guidance, and the results of operations of the acquired company are combined with the acquiree’s results from the date of the acquisition forward. The difference between the purchase price and the fair value of

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the net assets acquired (including identifiable intangible assets) is recorded as goodwill. Management uses significant estimates and assumptions to value such items, including projected cash flows, repayment rates, default rates and losses assuming default, discount rates, and realizable collateral values. The ACL for PCD loans is recognized within acquisition accounting. The ACL for non-PCD assets is recognized as provision for credit losses in the same reporting period as the acquisition. Fair value adjustments are amortized or accreted into the statement of operations over the estimated life of the acquired assets or assumed liabilities. The purchase date valuations and any subsequent adjustments determine the amount of goodwill recognized in connection with the acquisition. The use of different assumptions could produce significantly different valuation results, which could have material positive or negative effects on our results of operations.

The determination of fair values is based on valuations using management’s assumptions of future growth rates, future attrition, discount rates, multiples of earnings or other relevant factors. In addition, the Company engages third-party specialists to assist in the development of fair values. Preliminary estimates of fair values may be adjusted for a period of time subsequent to the effective time of the acquisition if new information is obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the effective time of the acquisition that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date. Adjustments recorded during this period are recognized in the current reporting period. Management uses various valuation methodologies to estimate the fair value of these assets and liabilities and often involves a significant degree of judgment, particularly when liquid markets do not exist for the particular item being valued. Examples of such items include loans, deposits, identifiable intangible assets, and certain other assets and liabilities.

Changes in these factors, as well as downturns in economic or business conditions, could have a significant adverse impact on the carrying value of assets, including goodwill and liabilities, which could result in impairment losses affecting our financial statements as a whole and our banking subsidiary in which the goodwill is recorded.

Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level on an annual basis as of October 31 each year, and more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that there may be impairment. Goodwill impairment is determined by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, the difference is the amount of impairment and goodwill is written down to the fair value of the reporting unit. The Company has a single reporting unit.

In testing goodwill, the Company may assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. In this qualitative assessment, the Company evaluates events and circumstances which may include, but are not limited to: the general economic environment; banking industry and market conditions; a significant adverse change in legal factors; significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization; unanticipated competition; the testing for recoverability of a significant asset group within the reporting unit; and an adverse action or assessment by a regulator.

If the quantitative impairment test is required or the decision to bypass the qualitative assessment is elected, the Company performs the goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. The determination of the fair value of a reporting unit is a subjective process that involves the use of estimates and judgments about economic and industry factors and the growth and earnings prospects of the Bank. Variability in the market and changes in assumptions or subjective measurements used to estimate fair value are reasonably possible and may have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or results of operations.

Based on the results of the annual goodwill impairment test, it was determined that no goodwill impairment charges were required as our single reporting unit’s fair value exceeded its carrying amount. As of December 31, 2023, we determined there were no events or circumstances which would more likely than not reduce the fair value of our reporting unit below its carrying amount.

RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS 
 
Information regarding Recent Accounting Pronouncements is included in Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 below.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

As of December 31, 2023, Columbia's financial results for any periods ended prior to February 28, 2023, the Merger Date, reflect UHC results only on a standalone basis. Accordingly, Columbia's reported financial results for the first quarter of 2023 reflect only UHC financial results through the closing of the Merger. As a result of these two factors, Columbia's financial results for the year ended December 31, 2023, may not be directly comparable to prior or future reported periods.

Comparison of current year to prior year

For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company had net income of $348.7 million, compared to net income of $336.8 million for the same period in the prior year. The increase was mainly attributable to an increase in net interest income, partially offset by increases in non-interest expense and the provision for credit losses. The increase in net interest income was due to higher loan interest income from increasing rates and higher average loan and lease balances, as well as the addition of historical Columbia portfolios. In addition to the favorable impact of higher interest rates, the increase in net interest income is due to the impact of purchase accounting accretion and amortization that was $253.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. These increases were partially offset by higher funding costs. The increase in non-interest expense was mainly driven by higher salaries and employee benefits, merger-related expense, and intangible amortization, all of which were impacted by the Merger. The change in the provision was primarily due to the initial provision for historical Columbia non-PCD loans, in addition to changes in the economic forecasts used in credit models and portfolio migration trends.

The following table presents the return on average assets (GAAP), average common shareholders' equity (GAAP), and average tangible common shareholders' equity (non-GAAP) for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021. For each period presented, the table includes the calculated ratios based on reported net income. To the extent return on average common shareholders' equity is used to compare our performance with other financial institutions that do not have merger and acquisition-related intangible assets, we believe it is beneficial to also consider the return on average tangible common shareholders' equity. The return on average tangible common shareholders' equity is calculated by dividing net income by average shareholders' common equity less average goodwill and other intangible assets, net (excluding MSR). The return on average tangible common shareholders' equity is considered a non-GAAP financial measure and should be viewed in conjunction with the return on average common shareholders' equity.

Return on Average Assets, Common Shareholders' Equity and Tangible Common Shareholders' Equity 

For the Years Ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
 
 
(dollars in thousands)202320222021
Return on average assets0.70 %1.09 %1.39 %
Return on average common shareholders' equity7.81 %13.07 %15.56 %
Return on average tangible common shareholders' equity11.46 %13.11 %15.63 %
Calculation of average common tangible shareholders' equity:  
Average common shareholders' equity$4,466,725 $2,575,577 $2,700,711 
Less: average goodwill and other intangible assets, net1,423,075 6,847 12,057 
Average tangible common shareholders' equity$3,043,650 $2,568,730 $2,688,654 

Additionally, management believes tangible common equity and the tangible common equity ratio are meaningful measures of capital adequacy. Columbia believes the exclusion of certain intangible assets in the computation of tangible common equity and the tangible common equity ratio provides a meaningful base for period-to-period and company-to-company comparisons, which management believes will assist investors in analyzing the operating results and capital of the Company. Tangible common equity is calculated as total shareholders' equity less goodwill and other intangible assets, net (excluding MSR). In addition, tangible assets are total assets less goodwill and other intangible assets, net (excluding MSR). The tangible common equity ratio is calculated as tangible common shareholders' equity divided by tangible assets. Tangible common equity and the tangible common equity ratio are considered non-GAAP financial measures and should be viewed in conjunction with total shareholders' equity and the total shareholders' equity ratio.

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The following table provides a reconciliation of ending shareholders' equity (GAAP) to ending tangible common equity (non-GAAP), and ending assets (GAAP) to ending tangible assets (non-GAAP) as of December 31, 2023, and 2022: 
(dollars in thousands) December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Total shareholders' equity$4,995,034 $2,479,826 
Subtract:  
Goodwill 1,029,234 — 
  Other intangible assets, net603,679 4,745 
Tangible common shareholders' equity$3,362,121 $2,475,081 
Total assets$52,173,596 $31,848,639 
Subtract:  
Goodwill1,029,234 — 
  Other intangible assets, net603,679 4,745 
Tangible assets$50,540,683 $31,843,894 
Total shareholders' equity to total assets ratio9.57 %7.79 %
Tangible common equity ratio6.65 %7.77 %
 
Non-GAAP financial measures have inherent limitations, are not required to be uniformly applied, and are not reviewed or audited. Although we believe these non-GAAP financial measures are frequently used by stakeholders in the evaluation of a company, they have limitations as analytical tools, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analyses of results as reported under GAAP.
  
NET INTEREST INCOME 
 
Net interest income for 2023 increased by $723.2 million or 68% compared to the same period in 2022, due primarily to a $1.1 billion increase in loan interest income resulting from higher average rates and higher average loan and lease balances, attributable to the addition of historical Columbia portfolios and organic growth over the past year, as well as ten months of purchase accounting accretion and amortization, partially offset by a $413.5 million increase in interest expense on deposits as a result of the higher rate environment and higher average balances in deposits, largely due to the Merger, and a $234.0 million increase in term borrowings to support liquidity due to industry-wide deposit balance contraction, general liquidity management, and loan and lease growth that outpaced deposit growth during 2023 when acquired balances are excluded.
The net interest margin (net interest income as a percentage of average interest-earning assets) on a fully tax equivalent basis was 3.91% for 2023, an increase of 29 basis points compared to 2022. This increase primarily resulted from an increase in the average yields on interest-earning assets due to the higher rate environment and ten months of purchase accounting accretion and amortization, which more than offset correspondingly higher funding costs.
The yield on loans and leases for 2023 increased by 166 basis points as compared to 2022, primarily attributable to the rising interest rate environment and purchase accounting accretion and amortization related to the Merger.
The cost of interest-bearing liabilities increased 209 basis points for 2023, as compared to 2022, due to a higher mix of higher-cost time deposits and term borrowings, as well as rising interest rates driving up the cost of other deposits. Our net interest income is affected by changes in the amount and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, as well as changes in the yields earned on interest-earning assets and rates paid on deposits and borrowed funds.
The Federal Reserve increased the target range for the federal funds rate by 5.25% between March 2022 and July 2023, which marked the final increase to the federal funds rate to date during the current interest rate cycle. During that period, our net interest margin expanded as our asset sensitive balance sheet became increasingly profitable due to active rate increases by the Federal Reserve. Since the Federal Reserve ceased increasing the federal funds rate, we have experienced an increase in our funding costs that outpaces the increase in our earning asset yields as our deposits have continued to reprice higher and our funding base has experienced a shift toward higher-cost sources as Federal Reserve actions have reduced available liquidity within the banking industry. As a result, our net interest margin contracted from 3.93% in August 2023 to 3.63% in December 2023 due to the impact of higher funding costs and minimal change to the average yield on earning assets.

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Our cost of funds in 2023 was significantly impacted by higher balances in non-core funding sources such as brokered deposits and term borrowings, which carry a higher rate of interest as compared to our core deposit funding base. These balances, along with higher balances in public funds, time deposits, and other higher-cost deposit categories contributed to an increase in our cost of interest bearing deposits and interest bearing liabilities to 2.71% and 3.15% in December 2023, from 1.97% and 2.72% in August 2023, respectively. The cost of interest bearing deposits and interest bearing liabilities as of December 31, 2023 (the “spot rate”) was 2.75% and 3.19%, respectively, detailing that our cost of funds continued to increase through the month of December. Additional shifts in our funding mix will likely continue to pressure our cost of funds in 2024. Financial statement Note 13 – Interest-Bearing Deposits provides additional detail on the pricing characteristics of our time and brokered deposits scheduled to mature during 2024. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $6.0 billion in time deposits, including $2.6 billion in brokered time deposits, with a weighted average rate of 4.66% maturing in 2024.



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The following table presents condensed average balance sheet information, together with interest income and yields on average interest-earning assets, and interest expense and rates paid on average interest-bearing liabilities for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021: 
202320222021
(dollars in thousands) Average BalanceInterest Income or ExpenseAverage Yields or RatesAverage BalanceInterest Income or ExpenseAverage Yields or RatesAverage BalanceInterest Income or ExpenseAverage Yields or Rates
INTEREST-EARNING ASSETS:        
Loans held for sale$87,675 $3,871 4.42 %$208,141 $8,812 4.23 %$500,070 $15,149 3.03 %
Loans and leases (1)
35,412,594 2,109,744 5.95 %24,225,518 1,041,446 4.29 %21,925,108 875,366 3.99 %
Taxable securities7,479,573 289,944 3.88 %3,343,721 72,702 2.17 %3,321,142 61,717 1.86 %
Non-taxable securities (2)
740,376 28,236 3.81 %216,943 6,669 3.07 %248,256 7,458 3.00 %
Temporary investments and interest-bearing cash2,147,348 111,659 5.20 %1,561,808 19,706 1.26 %2,936,273 3,864 0.13 %
Total interest earning assets (1)(2)
45,867,566 2,543,454 5.54 %29,556,131 1,149,335 3.88 %28,930,849 963,554 3.33 %
Goodwill and other intangible assets1,423,075 6,847 12,057 
Other assets2,205,678   1,254,418   1,324,466   
Total assets$49,496,319   $30,817,396   $30,267,372   
INTEREST-BEARING LIABILITIES:        
Interest-bearing demand deposits$6,280,333 $97,162 1.55 %$3,886,390 $8,185 0.21 %$3,462,035 $1,865 0.05 %
Money market deposits9,962,837 185,035 1.86 %7,552,666 26,415 0.35 %7,624,707 5,964 0.08 %
Savings deposits2,994,333 3,384 0.11 %2,411,448 880 0.04 %2,200,608 729 0.03 %
Time deposits4,743,615 176,073 3.71 %1,743,988 12,715 0.73 %2,217,464 18,593 0.84 %
Total interest-bearing deposits23,981,118 461,654 1.93 %15,594,492 48,195 0.31 %15,504,814 27,151 0.18 %
Repurchase agreements and federal funds purchased269,853 3,923 1.45 %465,600 997 0.21 %454,994 280 0.06 %
Borrowings4,522,656 242,914 5.37 %226,665 8,920 3.94 %195,985 2,838 1.45 %
Junior and other subordinated debe