Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Cott
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$14.78 136 $2,010
10-K 2018-12-29 Annual: 2018-12-29
10-Q 2018-09-29 Quarter: 2018-09-29
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-30 Annual: 2017-12-30
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-07-01 Quarter: 2017-07-01
10-Q 2017-04-01 Quarter: 2017-04-01
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-10-01 Quarter: 2016-10-01
10-Q 2016-07-02 Quarter: 2016-07-02
10-Q 2016-04-02 Quarter: 2016-04-02
10-K 2016-01-02 Annual: 2016-01-02
10-Q 2015-10-03 Quarter: 2015-10-03
10-Q 2015-07-04 Quarter: 2015-07-04
10-Q 2015-04-04 Quarter: 2015-04-04
10-K 2015-01-03 Annual: 2015-01-03
10-Q 2014-09-27 Quarter: 2014-09-27
10-Q 2014-06-28 Quarter: 2014-06-28
10-Q 2014-03-29 Quarter: 2014-03-29
10-K 2013-12-28 Annual: 2013-12-28
8-K 2019-02-22 Earnings, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-08 Officers, Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Earnings, Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-03 Earnings, Shareholder Vote, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-01 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-01 Earnings, Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-30 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, M&A, Off-BS Arrangement, Officers, Regulation FD, Exhibits
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COT 2018-12-29
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareowner Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareowner Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Note 1-Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3-Revenue
Note 4-Acquisitions
Note 5-Other (Income) Expense, Net
Note 6-Interest Expense, Net
Note 7-Income Taxes
Note 8-Share-Based Compensation
Note 9-Common Shares and Net Income (Loss) per Common Share
Note 10-Segment Reporting
Note 11-Accounts Receivable, Net
Note 12-Inventories
Note 13-Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Note 14-Intangible Assets, Net
Note 15-Accounts Payable and Accrued Liabilities
Note 16-Debt
Note 17-Retirement Plans
Note 18-Consolidated Accumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) Income
Note 19-Commitments and Contingencies
Note 20-Hedging Transactions and Derivative Financial Instruments
Note 21-Fair Value Measurements
Note 22-Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)
Note 23-Subsequent Events
EX-3.1 cottarticlesofamalgamati.htm
EX-4.9 cott2024notes8thsuppleme.htm
EX-4.10 cott2024notes9thsuppleme.htm
EX-4.15 cott2025notes5thsuppleme.htm
EX-4.16 cott2025notes6thsuppleme.htm
EX-10.11 exhibit1011.htm
EX-21.1 exhibit211.htm
EX-23.1 exhibit231.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322.htm

Cott Earnings 2018-12-29

COT 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 a201810-k.htm 10-K Document


United States
Securities and Exchange Commission
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
Form 10-K
 

Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 29, 2018

Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-31410
 
COTT CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
CANADA
 
98-0154711
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
1200 BRITANNIA ROAD EAST
MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA
 
L4W 4T5
 
 
4221 WEST BOY SCOUT BOULEVARD SUITE 400
TAMPA, FLORIDA, UNITED STATES
 
33607
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (905) 795-6500 and (813) 313-1732
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
COMMON SHARES WITHOUT NOMINAL OR
 
PAR VALUE

 
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE
 
TORONTO STOCK EXCHANGE

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
ý
 
  
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
 
  
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
 
 
  
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ☐    No ý
The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2018 (based on the closing sale price of $16.55 for the registrant’s common shares as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on June 29, 2018) was $2,267.1 million.
(Reference is made to Part II, Item 5 for a statement of assumptions upon which the calculation is made).
The number of the registrant’s outstanding common shares as of February 21, 2019 was 135,963,224.
Documents incorporated by reference
Portions of our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareowners, to be filed within 120 days of December 29, 2018, are incorporated by reference in Part III. Such proxy statement, except for the parts therein which have been specifically incorporated by reference, shall not be deemed “filed” for the purposes of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


1



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

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Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in U.S. dollars. Unless otherwise indicated, all amounts in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are in U.S. dollars and U.S. GAAP.
Any reference to 2018, 2017 and 2016 corresponds to our fiscal years ended December 29, 2018December 30, 2017, and December 31, 2016, respectively.
Forward-looking statements
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the reports and documents incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, may contain statements relating to future events and future results. These statements are “forward-looking” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and applicable Canadian securities legislation and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, future expectations and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements of Cott Corporation to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements that relate to projections of sales, cash flows, capital expenditures or other financial items, statements regarding our intentions to pay regular quarterly dividends on our common shares, statements related to shares repurchased under share repurchase programs in effect from time to time, and discussions of estimated future revenue enhancements and cost savings. These statements also relate to our business strategy, goals and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, liquidity and capital resources. Generally, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “endeavor,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “should” and similar terms and phrases are used to identify forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in the documents incorporated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference. These forward-looking statements reflect current expectations regarding future events and operating performance and are made only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance or events and, by their nature, are based on certain estimates and assumptions regarding interest and foreign exchange rates, expected growth, results of operations, performance, business prospects and opportunities and effective income tax rates, which are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties. Material factors or assumptions that were applied in drawing a conclusion or making an estimate set out in forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, assumptions regarding management’s current plans and estimates. Although we believe the assumptions underlying these forward-looking statements are reasonable, any of these assumptions could prove to be inaccurate and, as a result, the forward-looking statements based on those assumptions could prove to be incorrect. Our operations involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside of our control, and any one or any combination of these risks and uncertainties could also affect whether the forward-looking statements ultimately prove to be correct. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those described from time to time in our future reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and Canadian securities regulatory authorities.
We undertake no obligation to update any information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to publicly release the results of any revisions to forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances of which we may become aware of after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Undue reliance should not be placed on forward-looking statements.
All future written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing.

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PART I
 
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
Our Company
When used in this report, the terms “Cott,” “the Company,” “our Company,” “Cott Corporation,” “we,” “us,” or “our” mean Cott Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, collectively.
We incorporated in 1955 and are governed by the Canada Business Corporations Act. Our registered Canadian office and our Canadian principal executive office is located at 1200 Britannia Road East, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 4T5, and our U.S. principal executive office is located at 4221 W. Boy Scout Boulevard Suite 400, Tampa, Florida, United States 33607.
Cott is a water, coffee, tea, extracts and filtration service company with a leading volume-based national presence in the North American and European home and office delivery industry for bottled water, and a leader in custom coffee roasting, iced tea blending, and extract solutions for the U.S. foodservice industry. Our platform reaches over 2.5 million customers or delivery points across North America and Europe and is supported by strategically located sales and distribution facilities and fleets, as well as wholesalers and distributors. This enables us to efficiently service residences, businesses, restaurant chains, hotels and motels, small and large retailers, and healthcare facilities.
On February 8, 2019, we sold all of the outstanding equity of Cott Beverages LLC (as defined below) to Refresco Group B.V., a Dutch company (“Refresco”). The aggregate deal consideration paid at closing was $50.0 million, subject to post-closing adjustments for working capital, indebtedness and other customary items. We used the proceeds of this transaction to repay a portion of the outstanding borrowings under our asset-based lending credit facility (the “ABL facility”)
In July 2017, we entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Refresco, pursuant to which we sold to Refresco, on January 30, 2018, our carbonated soft drinks and juice businesses via the sale of our North America, United Kingdom and Mexico business units (including the Canadian business) and our Royal Crown International (“RCI”) finished goods export business (collectively, the “Traditional Business” and such transaction, the “Transaction”). The Transaction was structured as a sale of the assets of our Canadian business and a sale of the stock of the operating subsidiaries engaged in the Traditional Business in the other jurisdictions after we completed an internal reorganization. The aggregate deal consideration was $1.25 billion, paid at closing in cash, with customary post-closing adjustments resolved in December 2018 by the payment of $7.9 million from the Company to Refresco. The sale of the Traditional Business represented a strategic shift and had a major effect on our operations and, therefore, the Traditional Business is presented herein as discontinued operations. See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on discontinued operations. The Transaction did not include our Route Based Services and Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segments, our Aimia Foods Limited (“Aimia”) and Decantae Mineral Water Ltd. (“Decantae”) businesses, or our soft drink concentrate production business and our RCI division (“Cott Beverages LLC”).
Our Operations
We operate through three reporting segments: Route Based Services; Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions; and All Other which includes our UK Other operating segment, Cott Beverages LLC and other miscellaneous expenses. Our corporate oversight function is not treated as a segment; it includes certain general and administrative costs that are not allocated to any of the reporting segments and it is also included in the All Other category.
Route Based Services
Our Route Based Services reporting segment provides bottled water, coffee and water filtration services to customers in North America, Europe, and Israel. Route Based Services products include bottled water, coffee, brewed tea, water dispensers, coffee and tea brewers and filtration equipment.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
Our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment provides premium coffee roasting and customized coffee, tea and extract solutions to customers in the United States. Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions products include fresh brewed coffee or tea, specialty coffee, liquid coffee or tea concentrate, single cup coffee, cold brewed coffee, iced blend coffee or tea beverages, tea, blended teas, hot tea, sparkling tea, and coffee or tea extract solutions.
All Other
Our All Other segment consists of our UK Other operating segment, Cott Beverages LLC and other miscellaneous expenses and services customers located primarily outside of North America. All Other products include hot chocolate, coffee, tea, soups, malt drinks, creamers/whiteners, cereals, beverage concentrates and mineral water.

4



Competitive Strengths
The combination of our scale and density of our routes in key markets, our industry-leading infrastructure, and our emphasis on superior customer service is intended to create significant competitive strengths. With respect to our Route Based Services and Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segments, we continually invest in our delivery infrastructure, call centers and service capabilities, as well as coffee roasting and extract capacity, to maintain our established position as a leader in these segments. We believe these investments have positioned us to capitalize on a number of positive industry dynamics and new growth opportunities. First, we intend to capture new customers as we capitalize on favorable consumer trends across our addressable markets, including increased focus on health and wellness, concerns about deteriorating municipal water quality and the shift to premium coffee systems and “on the go” coffee and tea purchases. Second, we believe our ability to cross-sell complementary water and coffee products and services represents a significant untapped opportunity. Third, the highly fragmented market in which we operate affords us ample opportunity to make the most of our scale, systems and customer density to execute synergistic tuck-in acquisitions across all of our service areas. We believe these strengths, along with the strengths outlined below, will allow us to capitalize on growth opportunities to drive sustainable and profitable growth.
Leading Position in Multiple Service Platforms
We have a leading volume-based national presence in the North American and European home and office industry for bottled water. In bottled water, we offer a portfolio of well-known brands with longstanding heritages, such as Mountain Valley, Crystal Rock, Vermont Pure, Sparkletts, Hinckley Springs, Kentwood Springs, Canadian Springs, Labrador and Eden Springs, which have contributed to our leadership position in the home and office bottled water industry. In office coffee services, we offer a complete range of products under leading brands including Keurig®, Mars Alterra®, Starbucks® Coffee, Caribou Coffee®, Peet’s Coffee & Tea®, Javarama® and Lavazza®.
In coffee roasting, tea blending, and extract production, we are a leading custom coffee, tea and extract solutions provider, offering a portfolio of service offerings to our customers. Our superior scale, product development and expertise, as well as our focus on customer service, differentiates us from our competition as we are able to partner with our customers on logistics, supply chain and ongoing strategy development.
We are one of the only direct-to-customer providers that can offer comprehensive services to residential customers and small and medium-sized businesses, as well as large regional and national corporations and retailers, universities and government agencies. Our broad direct-to-consumer network creates an advantage in marketing and customer reach, while our extensive range of products and capabilities allows us to offer customers a convenient, single solution for coffee, tea and high quality drinking water. We believe our position will be further strengthened through our ongoing efforts to enhance and promote our full-service beverage offering to new and existing customers.
We also believe that opportunities exist to increase sales of our products in our core markets by optimizing existing customer relationships, capitalizing on cross-selling and up-selling opportunities, obtaining new customers, exploring new channels of distribution and introducing new products through our broad reaching distribution network.
International Home and Office Water Delivery and Office Coffee Service Platforms
We believe that having one of the leading North American and European home and office water delivery production and distribution networks in the industry gives us the ability to reduce our purchasing, manufacturing and delivery costs relative to our competitors as well as drive customer density within the markets we serve. We have an extensive home and office water delivery and office coffee services distribution network with a unique ability to service customers. We believe few companies have a comparable footprint or infrastructure to support local, regional and national accounts directly, which differentiates us in the industry. Our network has allowed us to secure strategic relationships, which have been successful in attracting new customers and leveraging our production and delivery infrastructure. We are able to provide multiple products to our home and office water delivery and office coffee services customers at minimal additional cost and generate additional profits on those incremental sales.
The acquisition of Eden Springs Europe B.V. (“Eden”) in 2016 further expanded our European capabilities. We believe that our large distribution footprint in the water-and-coffee solutions space in Europe differentiates us from our competitors, providing us with region wide coverage for our most significant businesses and allowing us to meet the water and coffee needs of our diversified customer base, including both small and medium sized businesses and larger European customer accounts.
High Levels of Customer Service and Strong Customer Integration
Customer service and customer retention are key indicators of success within our Route Based Services reporting segment. Route Sales Representatives or “RSRs”, who comprise the consumer-facing part of the business, are an important part of the customer relationship and not only drive customer service, but also generate new organic customer growth. Our Route Based Services reporting segment provides reliable deliveries and closely tracks call center and customer service metrics to continually improve customer satisfaction.

5



Customer service is a key driver in the success and growth of our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment. Customers have access to a vast array of services, including our commodity sourcing, product development, delivery systems and sustainability programs, as well as a number of other services. Our ability to customize these services and respond quickly to our customers’ needs are hallmarks for our high level of customer service.
Business Strategy
Our vision is to be the preeminent international route based direct to consumer and service provider across water, coffee, tea, filtration and extract solutions with dedicated focus on shareowner returns through continuous growth, expanding margins, and growing free cash flow. Our business services profile offers recurring and repeatable revenue streams and scalable platforms that uniquely position us to allow for operational leverage with growth and to capture synergies through tuck-in acquisition opportunities. We intend to drive value creation through growth from our “Better-for-You” product offerings (positioned in growing categories of water, coffee, tea, filtration and extract solutions), focused innovation with product development, route logistics and technology creating further growth, as well as cross selling and customer service opportunities, margin expansion driven by scaled platforms with increased customer and route density, highly synergistic customer list or tuck-in acquisition opportunities, and strong free cash flow generation.
Focus on Water, Coffee, Tea, Filtration and Extract Services Growth
Our goal is to grow profitably as consumers move to healthier beverage options, and increase free cash flow by expanding our customer density and consumption, focusing on customer service and reducing costs to serve, as well as price improvement.
We will remain focused on expanding our small and medium-sized business customer base, a market segment that we believe remains underpenetrated, by continuing to capitalize on our strong direct-to-consumer distribution network, international sales and marketing efforts as well as our strategic partnerships.
We believe our ability to cross-sell complementary water, coffee, tea and filtration products and services represents a significant untapped opportunity as nearly all of our existing and target customers consume multiple products. We believe we are well-positioned to capitalize on this opportunity utilizing our strong relationships and frequent face-to-face interactions with our large installed customer base. RSRs are trained to sell across our product set and are highly incentivized through our commission structure to promote new products to existing customers, which increases sales and average revenue per customer.
We intend to proactively pursue accretive acquisitions to complement our organic growth. The highly fragmented market in which we operate affords us ample opportunities to execute synergistic home and office water, office coffee services and filtration tuck-in acquisitions. Our acquisition strategy is consistent with our objective to continually build customer density and reduce the overall cost of servicing our existing customer base. We have a proven track record of achieving significant synergies and integrating companies onto our platform, and we believe that our acquisition strategy will continue to improve our profitability and margins.
We have managed to pursue this acquisition strategy while reducing leverage levels from the time of the acquisition of DS Services of America, Inc. (“DSS”) in 2014 by employing a combination of disciplined purchase pricing, successful integration and synergy realization, and divestiture of assets that are no longer instrumental to our mission and strategy.
Evaluate Acquisition Opportunities
We will continue to evaluate additional mid-to-larger scale opportunities to expand our positions in the home and office water, coffee, tea, filtration and extract solution service categories, as well as other higher margin or growth-oriented categories where we believe our platform, operating strength and synergies can be leveraged.
Financial Information about Segments
For financial information about reporting segments and geographic areas, see Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

6



Ingredient and Packaging Supplies
In addition to water, the principal raw materials required to produce our products are green coffee, tea, polyethylene terephthalate (“PET”) resin, high-density polyethylene (“HDPE”) and polycarbonate bottles, caps and preforms, labels and cartons and trays. The cost of these raw materials can fluctuate substantially over time. We have implemented a number of risk mitigation programs including our futures contracts and hedging programs with our customers in order to reduce the risk of commodity fluctuations in key areas such as coffee procurement and energy surcharges tied to certain energy indexes within North America. We also have implemented a number of sustainability programs throughout our network to assist our suppliers in operating under changing environments. Our core product of home and office bottled water utilizes a reusable bottle that allows for the overall cost to service to be spread out over a number of recurring trips to our customer base. Where we have not established a risk mitigation program, it is often necessary to recover the increased cost of materials through price increases which we have historically had success in utilizing in order to reduce our overall exposure to rising ingredient and packaging costs.
Under many of our supply arrangements for these raw materials, the price we pay fluctuates along with certain changes in underlying commodity costs, such as green coffee, tea, resin in the case of PET, and HDPE. We believe that we will be able to either renegotiate contracts with these suppliers when they expire or find alternative sources for supply. We also believe there is adequate supply of the ingredient and packaging materials used to produce and package our products.
Generally, we bear the risk of increases in the costs of the ingredient and packaging materials used to produce our products, including the underlying costs of the commodities used to manufacture them and, to some extent, the costs of converting those commodities into the materials we purchase.
Green coffee, tea, resin for PET, HDPE and fuel are examples of underlying commodities for which we bear the risk of increases in costs. In addition, the contracts for certain of our ingredient and packaging materials permit our suppliers to increase the costs they charge us based on increases in their cost of converting the underlying commodities into the materials we purchase. In certain cases those increases are subject to negotiated limits. Changes in the prices we pay for ingredient and packaging materials occur at times that vary by product and supplier, and take place on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis.
A portion of our revenues is derived from coffee product distribution. The supply and price of coffee beans may be affected by weather, international conditions, consumer demand, and access to transportation. An increase in the price of coffee beans could reduce our coffee sales and coffee product margins, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Trade Secrets, Copyrights, Trademarks and Licenses
We sell a majority of our home and office three gallon (“3G”) and five gallon (“5G”) bottled water under our own brands while our office coffee services business sells both our branded products as well as products under which we have a distribution license. We sell a majority of our manufactured coffee and tea products under retailer or foodservice brands to customers who own the trademarks associated with those products. We own registrations, or applications to register, various trademarks that are important to our worldwide business, including Alhambra®, Crystal Rock®, Vermont Pure®, Mountain Valley®, Deep Rock®, Hinckley Springs®, Crystal Springs®, Kentwood Springs®, Mount Olympus®, Standard Coffee®, Javarama®, Athena®, Nursery®, Relyant®, Sierra Springs®, Sparkletts®, Constant Coffee®, Premium Gold®, S&D® and S&D Coffee & Tea® in the United States, Canadian Springs® and Labrador® in Canada, and Decantae®, Eden®, Eden Springs®, Chateaud’eau®, Edelvia®, Mey Eden®, Edenissimo®, Kafevend®, Pauza®, and Garraways® in Europe and Israel. The licenses to which we are a party are of varying terms, including some that are perpetual. Trademark ownership is generally of indefinite duration when marks are properly maintained in commercial use.
Our success depends in part on our intellectual property, which includes trademarks for the names of the beverages we sell. To protect this intellectual property, we rely principally on registration of trademarks, contractual responsibilities and restrictions in agreements (such as indemnification, nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements) with employees, consultants and customers, and on the common law and/or statutory protections afforded to trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and proprietary “know-how.” We also closely monitor the use of our trademarks and, when necessary, vigorously pursue any party that infringes on our trademarks, using all available legal remedies.
Customers
Our Traditional Business experienced some customer concentration. Following the closing of the Transaction on January 30, 2018, we have limited customer concentration, of which no customer accounts for more than 10% of our net revenues.

7



Competition
Our principal competitor in the 3G and 5G home and office bottled water business in the United States is Nestlé, which competes with us directly in many of our markets. Within Canada and Europe, our principal competitors are local or regional home and office bottled water businesses. We face competition in our home and office business as distribution methods for residential and commercial bottled water products continue to change and evolve, including the increasing availability of 3G and 5G water bottles in retail stores. This could affect our business as some customers may choose to purchase water in returnable bottles through retailers rather than through our sales and distribution network. We have a strategic alliance with Primo Water Corporation (“Primo”) to bottle and distribute Primo’s 3G and 5G water bottles through retail stores, but customers could choose to purchase Primo’s competitors’ retail products. Our home and office business also faces increased competition from filtration units in the residential and commercial market. Because homes and offices with installed filtration systems participate at a lower rate in the bottled water market, the installation of these systems poses a competitive threat to our business and reduces the number of potential customers for our bottled water products. In addition, consumers may choose to drink from municipal water sources instead of purchasing bottled water or using a filtration unit.
The coffee industry is highly competitive, including with respect to price, product quality, service, convenience and innovation, and competition could become increasingly more intense due to the relatively low barriers to entry. We face competition from many sources, including the institutional foodservice divisions of multi-national manufacturers of retail products, many of which have greater financial and other resources than we do, wholesale foodservice distributors, regional institutional coffee roasters, and specialty coffee suppliers. If we do not succeed in differentiating ourselves through, among other things, our product and service offerings, then our competitive position may be weakened and our sales and profitability may be materially adversely affected. If, due to competitive pressures or contractual restrictions, we are required to reduce prices to attract market share or we are unable to increase prices in response to commodity and other cost increases and we are not able to increase sales volumes to offset the margin declines, then our results of operations could be adversely affected.
We seek to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by offering our customers high-quality products, category management strategies, packaging and marketing strategies, efficient distribution methods, and superior service.
Government Regulation and Environmental Matters
The production, distribution and sale in the United States of many of our products are subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Lanham Act, state consumer protection laws, federal, state and local workplace health and safety laws, various federal, state and local environmental protection laws and various other federal, state and local statutes and regulations applicable to the production, transportation, import, sale, safety, advertising, labeling and ingredients of such products. Outside the United States, the production, distribution and sale of our many products and related operations are also subject to numerous similar and other statutes and regulations.
A number of states have passed laws setting forth warning or labeling requirements relating to products made for human consumption. For example, the California law known as “Proposition 65” requires that a specific warning appear on any product sold in California containing a substance listed by that state as having been found to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. This law, and others like it, exposes all food and beverage producers to the possibility of having to provide warnings on their products. The detection of even a trace amount of a listed substance can subject an affected product to the requirement of a warning label, although products containing listed substances that occur naturally or that are contributed to such products solely by a municipal water supply are generally exempt from the warning requirement. From time to time over the past several years, certain of our customers have received notices alleging that the labeling requirements of the relevant state regulation would apply to products manufactured by us and sold by them. There can be no assurance that we will not be adversely affected by actions against our customers or us relating to Proposition 65 or similar “failure to warn” laws.
We currently offer and use non-refillable recyclable containers in the United States and other countries around the world. We also offer and use refillable containers, which are also recyclable. Legal requirements apply in various jurisdictions in the United States and other countries requiring that deposits or certain taxes or fees be charged for the sale, marketing and use of certain non-refillable beverage containers. The precise requirements imposed by these measures vary. Other types of beverage container-related deposit, recycling, tax and/or product stewardship statutes and regulations also apply in various jurisdictions. We anticipate that additional, similar legal requirements may be proposed or enacted in the future at local, state and federal levels, both in the United States and elsewhere.

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We are a member of the International Bottled Water Association (“IBWA”) and the Water Quality Association. These associations often set higher water quality standards than those set by governmental agencies. Members must comply with these standards, which are enforced by the members themselves. The IBWA requires submission to annual plant inspections administered by an independent third-party inspection agency, such as the National Sanitation Foundation. These inspections audit quality and testing records, review all areas of plant operations and the bottling process, and check compliance with relevant national standards, good manufacturing practices, and any other regulations set by the IBWA. If we fail to meet the standards set by the IBWA and Water Quality Association, there could be an adverse impact on our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
All of our production facilities and other operations are subject to various environmental protection statutes and regulations, including those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), which pertain to the use of water resources and the discharge of waste water. Failure to comply with these regulations can have serious consequences, including civil and administrative penalties. Compliance with these provisions has not had, and we do not expect such compliance to have, any material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, net income or competitive position.
Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable policies, we have coverage for product recalls and product liability claims that could result from the injury, illness or death of consumers using our products, contamination of our products, or damage to or mislabeling of our products.
Employees
As of December 29, 2018, we had nearly 10,900 employees, of whom approximately 9,070 were in the Route Based Services reporting segment; 1,250 were in the Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment; and 570 were in All Other. We have entered into collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 1,300 of the employees in the Route Based Services reporting segment that contain terms that we believe are typical in our industry. As these agreements expire, we believe that they can be renegotiated on terms satisfactory to us. We consider our relations with employees to be generally good.
Availability of Information and Other Matters
We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and Canadian securities regulatory authorities. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. Information filed with the Canadian securities regulatory authorities is available at www.sedar.com.
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are also available free of charge on our website at www.cott.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report that we file with, or furnish to, the SEC or to Canadian securities regulatory authorities.
We are responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as required by the SEC. See “Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting” in Item 9A.

ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
In addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should carefully consider the following factors, which could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. The risks described below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may be unable to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate.

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We face competition in our home and office water business as distribution methods for residential and commercial bottled water products continue to change and evolve. The increasing availability of 3G and 5G water bottles in retail stores could affect our business as some customers may choose to purchase water in returnable bottles through retailers rather than through our sales and distribution network. We have a strategic alliance with Primo to bottle and distribute Primo’s 3G and 5G water bottles through retail stores, but customers could choose to purchase Primo’s competitors’ retail products. Our home and office water business also faces increased competition from filtration units in the residential and commercial market. Because homes and offices with installed filtration systems participate at a lower rate in the bottled water market, the installation of these systems poses a competitive threat to our business and reduces the number of potential customers for our bottled water products. In addition, consumers may choose to drink from municipal water sources instead of purchasing bottled water or using a filtration unit. Our office coffee services business is also subject to intense competition. Our coffee business consists of both large brewers and single-serve brewers, where increased competition has developed from food, beverage and office products distributors. Additionally, retail and internet availability of these products could negatively affect demand for the direct distribution sources we offer.
The coffee industry is highly competitive, including with respect to price, product quality, service, convenience and innovation, and competition could become increasingly more intense due to the relatively low barriers to entry. We face competition from many sources, including the institutional foodservice divisions of multi-national manufacturers of retail products, many of which have greater financial and other resources than we do, wholesale foodservice distributors, regional institutional coffee roasters, and specialty coffee suppliers. If we do not succeed in differentiating ourselves through, among other things, our product and service offerings, then our competitive position may be weakened and our sales and profitability may be materially adversely affected. If, due to competitive pressures or contractual restrictions, we are required to reduce prices to attract market share or we are unable to increase prices in response to commodity and other cost increases and we are not able to increase sales volumes to offset the margin declines, then our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ingredients, packaging supplies and other costs are subject to price increases, and we may be unable to effectively pass rising costs on to our customers, or effectively hedge against such rising costs.
We typically bear the risk of changes in prices on the ingredient and packaging materials in our products. The majority of our ingredient and packaging supply contracts allow our suppliers to alter the prices they charge us based on changes in the costs of the underlying commodities that are used to produce them and, in some cases, changes in production costs. Resin for PET, HDPE and polycarbonate bottles and green coffee are examples of these underlying commodities. These changes in the prices we pay for ingredient and packaging materials occur at times that vary by product and supplier, and take place, on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis.
Accordingly, we bear the risk of fluctuations in the costs of these ingredient and packaging materials, including the underlying costs of the commodities used to manufacture them and, to some extent, the costs of converting those commodities into the materials we purchase. If the cost of these ingredients or packaging materials increases, we may be unable to pass these costs along to our customers through adjustments to the prices we charge, which could have a negative effect on our results of operations. If we are able to pass these costs on to our customers through price increases, the impact those increased prices could have on our volumes is uncertain.
Our production facilities use a significant amount of electricity, natural gas and other energy sources to operate. Fluctuations in the price of fuel and other energy sources for which we have not locked in long-term pricing commitments or arrangements would affect our operating costs, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
We have entered into futures contracts designed to mitigate the price risk associated with forecasted purchases of green coffee used in our manufacturing process. Price increases could exert pressure on our costs, and we may not be able to effectively hedge any such increases. Furthermore, price decreases in commodities that we have effectively hedged could also increase our cost of goods sold for mark-to-market changes in the derivative instruments.
If we fail to manage our operations successfully, our business and results of operations may be negatively affected.
In recent years, we have grown our business and beverage offerings primarily through the acquisition of other companies, development of new product lines and growth with key customers. We believe that opportunities exist to grow our business by leveraging existing customer relationships, obtaining new customers, exploring new channels of distribution, introducing new products or identifying appropriate acquisition or strategic alliance candidates. The success of this strategy with respect to acquisitions depends on our ability to manage and integrate acquisitions and alliances into our existing business. Furthermore, the businesses or product lines that we acquire or align with may not be integrated successfully into our business or prove profitable. In addition to the foregoing factors, our ability to expand our business in foreign countries is also dependent on, and may be limited by, our ability to comply with the laws of the various jurisdictions in which we may operate, as well as changes in local government regulations and policies in such jurisdictions. If we fail to successfully manage our operations, our business and results of operation could be adversely affected.

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We may devote a significant amount of our management’s attention and resources to our ongoing review of strategic opportunities, and we may not be able to fully realize the potential benefit of any such alternatives that we pursue.
As part of our overall strategic planning process, from time to time we evaluate whether there are alternatives available to complement our strategy of organic growth and growth through diversification. Accordingly, we may from time to time be engaged in evaluating potential transactions and other strategic alternatives, and we may engage in discussions that may result in one or more transactions. Although there would be uncertainty that any of these discussions would result in definitive agreements or the completion of any transaction, we may devote a significant amount of our management’s attention and resources to evaluating and pursuing a transaction or opportunity, which could negatively affect our operations.
In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with evaluating and pursuing other strategic opportunities, regardless of whether any transaction is completed. We may not fully realize the potential benefits of any strategic alternatives or transactions that we pursue.
We have completed the divestiture of our Traditional Business, and have ongoing obligations and potential liabilities associated with the Transaction.
On January 30, 2018, we completed the divestiture of our Traditional Business in the Transaction. Under the Purchase Agreement, we remain liable for certain pre-closing liabilities associated with the divested business, such as taxes and certain litigation, and we remain liable for a period of time for breaches of representations, warranties and covenants made to the purchaser. We have also indemnified the purchaser in the event of such breaches and for other specific risks. Even though the Purchase Agreement contains what we believe to be customary liability caps, and we have established reserves for any expected ongoing liability associated with the divested business, unexpected liabilities may arise for which we could be responsible. If that occurs, or if established reserves are not sufficient, it could negatively affect our financial condition and future results of operations.
We may not realize the expected revenue and cost synergies related to our acquisitions.
The success of our acquisitions will depend, in part, on our ability to realize all or some of the anticipated benefits from integrating with our existing businesses. The integration process may be complex, costly, time-consuming and subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are difficult to predict and are beyond our control. The difficulties of integrating the operations and realizing revenue and cost synergies include, among others:
 
failure to implement our business plan for the combined business;
unanticipated issues in integrating manufacturing, logistics, information, communications and other systems;
possible inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, and compensation structures between acquired structures and our structure;
failure to retain key customers and suppliers;
unanticipated changes in applicable laws and regulations;
failure to retain key employees;
additional exposure to risks of new markets and geographies;
inherent operating risks; and
other unanticipated issues, expenses and liabilities.
We may not be able to maintain the levels of revenue, earnings or operating efficiency that each of Cott, on the one hand, and the acquired businesses, on the other hand, had achieved or might achieve separately. Even if we realize the expected benefits, this may not be achieved within the anticipated time frame. Furthermore, the synergies from acquisitions may be offset by costs incurred in consummating such acquisitions or in integrating the acquired businesses, increases in other expenses, operating losses or unrelated adverse results in the business. As a result, there can be no assurance that such synergies will be achieved.
In addition, actual results may differ from pro forma financial information of the combined companies due to changes in the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, changes in assumptions used to form estimates, difference in accounting policies between the companies, and completion of purchase accounting.
Changes in future business conditions could cause business investments and/or recorded goodwill, indefinite life intangible assets or other intangible assets to become impaired, resulting in substantial losses and write-downs that would negatively affect our results of operations.
As part of our overall strategy, we will, from time to time, make investments in other businesses. These investments are made upon target analysis and due diligence procedures designed to achieve a desired return or strategic objective. These procedures often involve certain assumptions and judgment in determining investment amount or acquisition price. After

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consummation of an acquisition or investment, unforeseen issues could arise that adversely affect anticipated returns or that are otherwise not recoverable as an adjustment to the purchase price. Even after careful integration efforts, actual operating results may vary significantly from initial estimates. Goodwill accounted for approximately $1,143.9 million of our recorded total assets of continuing operations as of December 29, 2018. We evaluate the recoverability of recorded goodwill amounts annually, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. The annual impairment test is based on several factors requiring judgment and certain underlying assumptions. Our other intangible assets with indefinite lives as of December 29, 2018 relate to the 2001 acquisition of intellectual property from Royal Crown Company, Inc., including the right to manufacture concentrates, with all related inventions, processes, technologies, technical and manufacturing information, know-how and the use of the Royal Crown brand outside of North America and Mexico (the “Rights”), and trademarks acquired in the acquisitions of DSS, Aquaterra Corporation (“Aquaterra”), Eden, Crystal Rock Holdings, Inc. (“Crystal Rock”) and Mountain Valley Spring Company (“Mountain Valley”). These assets have an aggregate net book value of $306.8 million, and are more fully described in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
As of December 29, 2018, our intangible assets subject to amortization, net of accumulated amortization for continuing operations were $432.4 million, which consisted principally of $392.0 million of customer relationships that arose from acquisitions, $17.5 million of software, and $12.7 million of patents. Customer relationships are typically amortized on an accelerated basis for the period over which we expect to receive the economic benefits. The customer relationships acquired in connection with the acquisitions of DSS, Aquaterra, Eden, S. & D. Coffee, Inc. ("S&D"), Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley are amortized over the expected remaining useful life of those relationships on a basis that reflects the pattern of realization of the estimated undiscounted after-tax cash flows. We review the estimated useful life of these intangible assets annually, taking into consideration the specific net cash flows related to the intangible asset, unless a review is required more frequently due to a triggering event such as the loss of a significant customer. The permanent loss of, or significant decline in sales to customers included in the intangible asset would result in either an impairment in the value of the intangible asset or an accelerated amortization of any remaining value and could lead to an impairment of the fixed assets that were used to service that customer. Principally, a decrease in expected reporting segment cash flows, changes in market conditions, loss of key customers and a change in our imputed cost of capital may indicate potential impairment of recorded goodwill, trademarks or tradenames. For additional information on accounting policies we have in place for goodwill impairment, see our discussion under “Critical Accounting Policies” in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Our geographic diversity subjects us to the risk of currency fluctuations.
Although our sales predominately come from the United States, we conduct operations in many areas of the world, involving transactions denominated in a variety of currencies. We are subject to currency exchange rate risk to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenues. In addition, because our financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars, changes in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had, and will continue to have, an impact on our results of operations. While we may enter into financial transactions to address these risks, there can be no assurance that currency exchange rate fluctuations will not negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, while the use of currency hedging instruments may provide us with protection from adverse fluctuations in currency exchange rates, by utilizing these instruments we potentially forego the benefits that might result from favorable fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
If we are unable to maintain relationships with our raw material suppliers, we may incur higher supply costs or be unable to deliver products to our customers.
In addition to water, the principal raw materials required to produce our products are green coffee, tea, PET resin, HDPE and polycarbonate bottles, caps and preforms, labels and cartons and trays. We rely upon our ongoing relationships with our key suppliers to support our operations.
We typically enter into annual or multi-year supply arrangements with our key suppliers, meaning that our suppliers are obligated to continue to supply us with materials for one-year or multi-year periods, at the end of which we must either renegotiate the contracts with those suppliers or find alternative sources for supply. There can be no assurance that we will be able to either renegotiate contracts (with similar or more favorable terms) with these suppliers when they expire or, alternatively, if we are unable to renegotiate contracts with our key suppliers, there can be no assurance that we could replace them. We could also incur higher ingredient and packaging supply costs in renegotiating contracts with existing suppliers or replacing those suppliers, or we could experience temporary disruptions in our ability to deliver products to our customers, either of which could negatively affect our results of operations.
With respect to some of our key ingredients, such as green coffee, we have entered into long-term supply agreements, the remaining terms of which range up to 12 months. In addition, the supply of specific ingredient and packaging materials could

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be adversely affected by many factors, including industry consolidation, energy shortages, governmental controls, labor disputes, natural disasters, transportation interruption, political instability, acts of war or terrorism and other factors.
Some of the Arabica coffee beans we purchase do not trade directly on the commodity markets. Rather, we purchase these coffee beans on a negotiated basis from coffee brokers, exporters and growers. If any of these supply relationships deteriorate, we may be unable to procure a sufficient quantity of high-quality coffee beans at prices acceptable to us or at all. Further, non-performance by suppliers could expose us to credit and supply risk under coffee purchase commitments for delivery in the future. In addition, the political situation in many of the Arabica coffee growing regions, including Africa, Indonesia, and Central and South America, can be unstable, and such instability could affect our ability to purchase coffee from those regions. If green coffee beans from a region become unavailable or prohibitively expensive, we could be forced to use alternative coffee beans or discontinue certain blends, which could adversely impact our sales. A raw material shortage could result in a decrease in revenues or a deterioration of our relationship with our customers in our office coffee services business, or could impair our ability to expand our office coffee services business.
We have a significant amount of outstanding indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health, and future cash flows may not be sufficient to meet our obligations.
As of December 29, 2018, our total indebtedness was $1,342.2 million. Our present indebtedness and any future borrowings could have important adverse consequences to us and our investors, including:
 
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments on this indebtedness;
making it more difficult to satisfy debt service and other obligations;
increasing the risk of a future credit ratings downgrade of our indebtedness, which would increase future debt costs;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
reducing the cash flow available or limiting our ability to borrow additional funds for share repurchases, to pay dividends, to fund capital expenditures and other corporate purposes and to grow our business;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors that may not be as highly leveraged as we are.
To the extent we become more leveraged, we face an increased likelihood that one or more of the risks described above would materialize. In addition, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us in amounts sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.
If we fail to generate sufficient cash flow from future operations to meet our debt service obligations, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on attractive terms, commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we cannot service or refinance our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances, any of which could impede the implementation of our business strategy, prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business and/or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Our future operating performance and our ability to service or refinance our indebtedness will be subject to future economic conditions and to financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
Our ABL facility and the indenture governing our outstanding notes each contain various covenants limiting the discretion of our management in operating our business, which could prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities and taking some corporate actions.
Our ABL facility and the indenture governing our outstanding notes each impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions will limit or restrict, among other things, our ability and the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to:
 
incur additional indebtedness;
make restricted payments (including paying dividends on, redeeming, repurchasing or retiring our capital stock);
make investments;
create liens;
sell assets;
enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make loans or transfer assets to us;
engage in transactions with affiliates; and
consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets.

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These covenants are subject to important exceptions and qualifications. In addition, our ABL facility also requires us, under certain circumstances, to maintain compliance with certain financial covenants as described in the “Covenant Compliance” section in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section. A breach of any of the covenants contained in our ABL facility, or the indentures governing our outstanding notes could result in an event of default under one or more of the documents governing such obligations, which would allow the lenders under our ABL facility to declare all borrowings outstanding, or in the case of the noteholders of our outstanding notes, all principal amounts outstanding on such notes, to be due and payable. Any such acceleration would trigger cross-default provisions under the ABL facility, and the indentures governing our outstanding notes and, potentially, our other indebtedness. In the event of an acceleration of payment obligations, we would likely be unable to pay our outstanding indebtedness with our cash and cash equivalents then on hand. We would, therefore, be required to seek alternative sources of funding, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, terms as favorable as our current agreements or at all. If we are unable to refinance our indebtedness or find alternative means of financing our operations, we may be required to curtail our operations, face bankruptcy, or take other actions that are inconsistent with our current business practices or strategy. For additional information about our ABL facility, see our discussion under “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
A portion of our debt may be variable rate debt, and changes in interest rates could adversely affect us by causing us to incur higher interest costs with respect to such variable rate debt.
Our ABL facility subjects us to interest rate risk. The rate at which we pay interest on amounts borrowed under such facility fluctuates with changes in interest rates and our debt leverage. Accordingly, with respect to any amounts from time to time outstanding under our ABL facility, we are and will be exposed to changes in interest rates. If we are unable to adequately manage our debt structure in response to changes in the market, our interest expense could increase, which would negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. The outstanding borrowings under the ABL facility as of December 29, 2018 were $81.1 million.
We incurred substantial indebtedness in order to finance acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business and limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business.
Our strategy of growth by acquisitions has been financed by the incurrence of substantial indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining any future debt financing on favorable terms or at all.
Our ability to make payments on our debt obligations and to fund planned capital expenditures depends on our ability to generate cash from our future operations. This, to a certain extent, is subject to financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In addition, if we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances, any of which could impede the implementation of our business strategy, prevent us from entering into transactions that would otherwise benefit our business and/or negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to refinance our indebtedness or take such other actions, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Uncertainty in the financial markets and other adverse changes in general economic conditions in the countries in which we do business could adversely affect our industry, business and results of operations.
Periods of uncertainty in the financial markets and adverse economic conditions in the countries in which we do business could have a number of different effects on our business, including:
 
a reduction in consumer spending, which could result in a reduction in our sales volume;
a negative impact on the ability of our customers to timely pay their obligations to us or our vendors to timely supply materials, thus reducing our cash flow;
an increase in counterparty risk;
an increased likelihood that one or more members of our banking syndicate may be unable to honor its commitments under our ABL facility; and
restricted access to capital markets that may limit our ability to take advantage of business opportunities.
If economic conditions deteriorate, our industry, business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

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Substantial disruption to production at our production facilities could occur.
A disruption in production at our production facilities or those of our suppliers, distribution channels or service networks could have a material adverse effect on our business. The disruption could occur for many reasons, including fire, natural disasters, weather, manufacturing problems, diseases, strikes, transportation interruption, government regulation or terrorism. Alternative facilities with sufficient capacity or capabilities may not be available, may cost substantially more or may take a significant time to start production, each of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations.
Our business is dependent on our ability to maintain access to our water sources; water scarcity and poor quality could negatively affect our long-term financial performance.
A disruption in the water flow at any one of our water sources, a dispute over water rights, increased legal restrictions on water use or access at our water sources or the failure to maintain access to our water sources could cause an increase in the cost of our products or shortages that would likely not allow us to meet market demand. The potential delivery and price disruptions due to the loss of any one water source or a decline in the volume of water available could significantly disrupt our business, result in the loss of customer confidence and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, if any of our municipal water sources were curtailed or eliminated as a result of, for example, a natural disaster, work stoppage or other significant event that disrupted water flow from such municipal source, we may have to purchase water from other sources, which could increase water and transportation costs and could result in supply shortages and price increases. Any one of these events could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, reputation and results of operations.
Water is a limited resource facing significant challenges from population growth, environmental contamination and poor management. As demand for water continues to increase and if water becomes more scarce and the quality of water available deteriorates, our business may incur increasing costs or face capacity constraints, which could adversely affect our profitability or net sales in the long run.
Our success depends, in part, on our intellectual property, which we may be unable to protect.
While we own certain of the trademarks used to identify our beverages, other trademarks are used through licenses from third-parties or by permission from our customers. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property.
To protect this intellectual property, we rely principally on registration of trademarks, contractual responsibilities and restrictions in agreements (such as indemnification, nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements) with employees, consultants and customers, and on common law and statutory protections afforded to trademarks, trade secrets and proprietary “know-how.” In addition, we vigorously protect our intellectual property against infringements using any and all legal remedies available. Notwithstanding our efforts, we may not be successful in protecting our intellectual property for a number of reasons, including: 
our competitors may independently develop intellectual property that is similar to or better than ours;
employees, consultants or customers may not abide by their contractual agreements and the cost of enforcing those agreements may be prohibitive, or those agreements may prove to be unenforceable or more limited than anticipated;
foreign intellectual property laws may not adequately protect our intellectual property rights; and
our intellectual property rights may be successfully challenged, invalidated or circumvented.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, our competitive position would weaken and we could face significant expense to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights.
Occasionally, third parties may assert that we are, or may be, infringing on or misappropriating their intellectual property rights. In these cases, we intend to defend against claims or negotiate licenses when we consider these actions appropriate. Intellectual property cases are uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. If we become involved in this type of litigation, it could consume significant resources and divert our attention from business operations.
If we are found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, we could incur significant damages, be enjoined from continuing to manufacture, market or use the affected product, or be required to obtain a license to continue manufacturing or using the affected product. A license could be very expensive to obtain or may not be available at all. Similarly, changing products or processes to avoid infringing the rights of others may be costly or impracticable.
Our products may not meet health and safety standards or could become contaminated and we could be liable for injury, illness or death caused by consumption of our products.

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We have adopted various quality, environmental, health and safety standards. However, our products may still not meet these standards or could otherwise become contaminated. A failure to meet these standards or contamination could occur in our operations or those of our bottlers, distributors or suppliers. This could result in expensive production interruptions, recalls and liability claims. We may be liable to our customers if the consumption of any of our products causes injury, illness or death. Moreover, negative publicity could be generated from false, unfounded or nominal liability claims or limited recalls. Any of these failures or occurrences could negatively affect our business, results of operations or cash flows.
Litigation or legal proceedings could expose us to significant liabilities and damage our reputation.
We are party to various litigation claims and legal proceedings. We evaluate these claims and proceedings to assess the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes, and, if possible, estimate the amount of potential losses. If our products are not safely and/or properly manufactured or designed, personal injuries or property damage could result, which could subject us to claims for damages. The costs associated with defending product liability and other claims, and the payment of damages, could be substantial. Our reputation could also be adversely affected by such claims, whether or not successful.
We may establish a reserve as appropriate based upon assessments and estimates in accordance with our accounting policies, and we have also asserted insurance claims where appropriate. We base our assessments, estimates and disclosures on the information available to us at the time and rely on legal and management judgment. Actual outcomes or losses or any recoveries we may receive from insurance may differ materially from assessments and estimates. Actual settlements, judgments or resolutions of these claims or proceedings may negatively affect our business and financial performance. A successful claim against us that is not covered by insurance or is in excess of our available insurance limits could require us to make significant payments of damages and could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For more information, see “Item 3. Legal Proceedings.”
Changes in the legal and regulatory environment in the jurisdictions in which we operate could negatively affect our results of operations, adversely affect demand for our products and services or result in litigation.
As a producer and distributor of beverages, we must comply with various federal, state, provincial, local and foreign laws relating to production, packaging, quality, labeling and distribution, including, in the United States, those of the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act and California Proposition 65. We are also subject to various federal, state, provincial, local and foreign environmental laws and workplace regulations. These laws and regulations include, in the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Unfair Labor Standards Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Act, laws governing equal employment opportunity, customs and foreign trade laws and regulations, laws relating to the maintenance of fuel storage tanks, laws relating to mineral and chemical concentration and water quality, consumption and treatment, and various other federal statutes and regulations. The Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) regulates bottled water as a food. Our bottled water must meet FDA requirements of safety for human consumption, labeling, processing and distribution under sanitary conditions and production in accordance with FDA “good manufacturing practices.” We import certain of our equipment, and we must comply with import laws and regulations. Outside the United States, the production and distribution of our products are also subject to various laws and regulations. These laws and regulations may change as a result of political, economic, or social events. Such regulatory changes may include changes in food and drug laws, laws related to advertising, accounting standards, taxation requirements, competition laws and environmental laws, including laws relating to the regulation of water rights and treatment. Changes in laws, regulations or government policy and related interpretations may alter the environment in which we do business, which may negatively affect our results of operations or increase our costs or liabilities.

16



Food/Beverage Production
A number of states have passed laws setting forth warning or labeling requirements relating to products made for human consumption. For example, the California law known as Proposition 65 requires that a specific warning appear on any product sold in California containing a substance listed by that state as having been found to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. This law, and others like it, exposes all food and beverage producers to the possibility of having to provide warnings on their products. The detection of even a trace amount of a listed substance can subject an affected product to the requirement of a warning label, although products containing listed substances that occur naturally or that are contributed to such products solely by a municipal water supply are generally exempt from the warning requirement. From time to time over the past several years, certain of our customers have received notices alleging that the labeling requirements of the relevant state regulation would apply to products manufactured by us and sold by them. There can be no assurance that we will not be adversely affected by actions against our customers or us relating to Proposition 65 or similar “failure to warn” laws. Were any such claim to be pursued or succeed, we might in some cases be required to indemnify our customers for damages and provide warnings on our products in order for them to be sold in certain states. Any negative media attention, adverse publicity or action arising from allegations of violations could adversely affect consumer perceptions of our products and harm our business.
Energy/Conservation Initiatives
The EPA has oversight over the voluntary Energy Star certification program for appliances, including bottled water dispensers. Since February 1, 2014, the EPA has required appliances in the program to adhere to a lower energy consumption standard of 0.87 kilowatt hours per day. While we are working closely with our water cooler manufacturers to ensure we have continued access to Energy Star certified bottled water dispensers, there can be no assurances that we will continue to have such access. Our inability to utilize compliant dispensers could negatively affect our business, financial condition, reputation and results of operations.
Recent initiatives have taken place in several markets in which we operate regarding bottled water. Regulations have been proposed in some jurisdictions that would ban the use of public funds to purchase bottled water, enact local taxes on bottled water and water extraction and restrict the withdrawal of water from public and private sources. We believe that the adverse publicity associated with these initiatives is generally aimed at the retail, small bottle segment of the industry that is a minimal part of our business, and that our customers can readily distinguish our products from the retail bottles that are currently the basis for concern in some areas. Our customers typically buy their water in reusable 3G and 5G water bottles that are placed on coolers and reused many times. While we believe that to date we have not directly experienced any adverse effects from these concerns, and that our products are sufficiently different from those under scrutiny, there is no assurance that adverse publicity about any element of the bottled water industry will not affect consumer behavior by discouraging buyers from buying bottled water products generally. In that case, our sales and other financial results could be adversely affected.
The increasing concern over climate change also may result in more regional, federal and/or global legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of greenhouse gases. In the event that such regulation is more aggressive than the sustainability measures that we are currently undertaking to monitor our emissions and improve our energy efficiency, we may experience significant increases in our costs of operation and delivery. In particular, increasing regulation of fuel emissions could substantially increase the cost of energy, including fuel, required to operate our facilities or transport and distribute our products, particularly in our DSS business, thereby substantially increasing the distribution and supply chain costs associated with our products. As a result, climate change could negatively affect our business and results of operations.

17



Packaging Ingredients
The manufacture, sale and use of resins and Bisphenol A (“BPA”) used to make our 3G and 5G water bottles are subject to regulation by the FDA. These regulations relate to substances used in food packaging materials, not with specific finished food packaging products. BPA is contained in substantially all of our 3G and 5G returnable polycarbonate plastic bottles. Negative media attention regarding BPA has generated concern in the bottled water market, although a January 2010 report by the FDA notes studies that suggest the low levels of BPA used in polycarbonate bottles are safe for human exposure and the FDA sustained this opinion in its March 2013 BPA consumer update. The FDA indicated that it will continue to evaluate these studies before issuing a final assessment on the safety of BPA and the FDA’s current public health recommendations include taking reasonable steps to reduce exposure of infants and young children to BPA. The FDA and certain states, however, may in the future decide to regulate more aggressively the potential harmful effects of BPA. Although the FDA rejected a 2012 citizen petition from the Natural Resources Defense Council seeking the ban of BPA from all food and drink packaging, including plastic bottles and canned foods, our customers and potential new customers may share the concerns raised by the citizens petition and may reduce their exposure to BPA as a result. The FDA has also asserted the need for additional studies on the safety of BPA in food packaging materials and acknowledged recent studies regarding potential developmental and behavioral effects of BPA exposure on infants and young children. The EPA and certain states also may in the future study or regulate BPA. Additionally, a number of states have passed legislation banning the use of BPA in packaging intended for children three years of age and younger, such as in baby bottles and sippy cups. Extensive negative public perception regarding food packaging that uses BPA could cause consumers to stop purchasing our products manufactured in polycarbonate bottles. Further, the emergence of new scientific evidence or reports that suggests our polycarbonate water bottles are unsafe, or interpretations of existing evidence by regulatory agencies that lead to prohibitions on the use of polycarbonate plastic as packaging for food contact materials, could cause a serious disruption in our ability to package our bottled water products. If polycarbonate plastic becomes a banned substance, we may not be able to adopt alternative packaging, and conduct extensive and costly safety testing, in time to prevent adverse effects to our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, if our competitors successfully integrate BPA-free packaging into their business and BPA is subsequently deemed undesirable or unsafe, our competitors may have a significant competitive advantage over us.
Hazardous Materials
We engage in or have in the past engaged in the handling, storage or use of hazardous substances, including for the maintenance and fueling of our vehicle fleet for our DSS business. We are also required to obtain environmental permits from governmental authorities for certain operations. We cannot assure you that we have been or will be at all times in complete compliance with such laws, regulations and permits. If we violate or fail to comply with these laws, regulations or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. We could also be held liable for any consequences arising out of human exposure to hazardous substances or other environmental damage.
Certain environmental laws impose liability on current or previous owners or operators of real property for the cost of removal or remediation of hazardous substances. These laws often impose liability even if the owner or operator did not know of, or was not responsible for, the release of such hazardous substances and also impose liability on persons who arrange for hazardous substances to be sent to disposal or treatment facilities. In addition to actions brought by governmental agencies, private plaintiffs may also bring personal injury claims arising from the presence of hazardous substances on a property. Certain environmental contamination has been identified at or in the vicinity of some of our DSS properties. From time to time, we have also been named a potentially responsible party at third-party waste disposal sites. There can be no assurances that we will not be required to make material expenditures in the future for these or other contamination-related concerns or that other responsible parties will conduct any required cleanup. Environmental laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and tend to become more stringent over time. We cannot assure you that our costs of complying with current and future environmental laws and regulations and our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances will not negatively affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business is seasonal and adverse weather conditions could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The sales of our products are influenced to some extent by weather conditions in the markets in which we operate. Unusually cold or rainy weather during the summer months may reduce the demand for our bottled water and other products and contribute to lower revenues, which could negatively affect our profitability. Warmer winter weather could decrease sales of our coffee and hot chocolate products and negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Global or regional catastrophic events could affect our operations and results of operations.

18



Our business can be affected by large-scale terrorist acts, especially those directed against the United States or other major industrialized countries in which we do business, major natural disasters, or widespread outbreaks of infectious diseases. Such events could impair our ability to manage our business, could disrupt our supply of raw materials, and could affect production, transportation and delivery of products. In addition, such events could cause disruption of regional or global economic activity, which can affect consumers’ purchasing power in the affected areas and, therefore, reduce demand for our products.
Our success depends in part upon our ability to recruit, retain and prepare succession plans for our CEO, CFO, senior management and key employees.
The performance of our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Chief Financial and Administrative Officer (“CFO”), senior management and other key employees is critical to our success. We plan to continue to invest time and resources in developing our senior management and key employee teams. Our long-term success will depend on our ability to recruit and retain capable senior management and other key employees, and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our future operating results and financial condition. Further, if we fail to adequately plan for the succession of our CEO, CFO, senior management and other key employees, our results of operations could be negatively affected.
We may not be able to renew collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms, or we could experience strikes.
Some of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements expiring on various dates. We may not be able to renew our collective bargaining agreements on satisfactory terms or at all. This could result in strikes or work stoppages, which could impair our ability to manufacture and distribute our products and result in a substantial loss of sales. The terms of existing or renewed agreements could also significantly increase our costs or negatively affect our ability to increase operational efficiency.
We depend on key information systems and third-party service providers.
We depend on key information systems to accurately and efficiently transact our business, provide information to management and prepare financial reports. We rely on third-party providers for various networking, application hosting and related business process services which support our key information systems. Issues with performance by these third-parties may disrupt our operations and as a result, our operating expenses could increase, which could negatively affect our results of operations.
In addition, these systems and services are vulnerable to interruptions or other failures resulting from, among other things, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, software, equipment or telecommunications failures, processing errors, computer viruses, hackers, other security issues or supplier defaults. Security, backup and disaster recovery measures may not be adequate or implemented properly to avoid such disruptions or failures. Any disruption or failure of these systems or services could cause substantial errors, processing inefficiencies, security breaches, inability to use the systems or process transactions, loss of customers or other business disruptions, all of which could negatively affect our business and results of operations.
If we are unable to securely maintain our customers’ confidential or credit card information, or other private data relating to our employees or our Company, we could be subject to negative publicity, costly government enforcement actions or private litigation, which could damage our business reputation and negatively affect our results of operations.
The protection of our customer, employee and Company data is critical to us. We have procedures and technology in place to safeguard our customers’ debit card, credit card and other personal information, our employees’ private data and Company records and intellectual property. However, if we experience a data security breach of any kind, we could be exposed to negative publicity, government enforcement actions, private litigation or costly response measures. In addition, our reputation within the business community and with our customers may be affected, which could result in our customers discontinuing their purchases of our products and services or their use of the debit or credit card payment option. Any loss of our ability to securely offer our customers a credit card payment option would make our products less attractive to many small organizations by negatively affecting our customer experience and significantly increasing our administrative costs related to customer payment processing. This could cause us to lose market share to our competitors and could have a negative effect on our results of operations.
In addition, the regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding, with frequent imposition of new and changing requirements. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, which became effective in May 2018, imposes significant new requirements on how we collect, process and transfer personal data, as well as significant fines for non-compliance. Compliance with changes in privacy and information security laws and standards may result in significant expense due to increased investment in technology and the development of new operational processes.

19



We may not continue our quarterly dividend and shareowners may never obtain a return on their investment.
We have paid quarterly cash dividends since 2012. Most recently, our Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.06 per common share to be paid in cash on March 27, 2019 to shareowners of record at the close of business on March 12, 2019. However, there can be no assurance that we will continue to declare quarterly dividends in the future. The declaration and payment of future dividends on our common shares is subject to, among other things, the best interests of our shareowners, our results of operations, cash balances and future cash requirements, financial condition, statutory regulations and covenants and other restrictions on payment set forth in the instruments governing our indebtedness and preferred shares in effect from time to time. Accordingly, shareowners must rely on sales of their common shares after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment.
We are subject to risks associated with our international operations, including compliance with applicable U.S. and foreign anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and other applicable anti-corruption laws, which may increase the cost of doing business in international jurisdictions.
We currently operate internationally and we intend to continue expansion of our international operations. We now operate in 17 European countries and Israel. As a result, our business is exposed to risks inherent in foreign operations. If we fail to adequately address the challenges and risks associated with our international operations and acquisition strategy, we may encounter difficulties in our international operations and implementing our strategy, which could impede our growth or harm our operating results. These risks, which can vary substantially by jurisdiction, include the difficulties associated with managing an organization with operations in multiple countries, compliance with differing laws and regulations (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and local laws prohibiting payments to government officials and other corrupt practices, tax laws, regulations and rates), enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through foreign legal systems. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with these laws, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies, particularly as we expand our operations through organic growth and acquisitions. Any such violations could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, including material fines or prohibitions on our ability to offer our products in one or more countries, and could also materially damage our reputation, brand, international expansion efforts, business and operating results. Additional risks include the potential for restrictive actions by foreign governments, changes in economic conditions in each market, foreign customers who may have longer payment cycles than customers in the United States, the impact of economic, political and social instability of those countries in which we operate and acts of nature, such as typhoons, tsunamis, or earthquakes. The overall volatility of the economic environment has increased the risk of disruption and losses resulting from hyper–inflation, currency devaluation and tax or regulatory changes in certain countries in which we have operations.
We are subject to the risk of increased taxes.
We base our tax positions upon our understanding of the tax laws of the various countries in which we have assets or conduct business activities. However, our tax positions are subject to review and possible challenge by taxing authorities. This includes adverse changes to the manner in which Canada and other countries tax multinational companies and interpret or change their tax laws. We cannot determine in advance the extent to which some jurisdictions may assess additional tax or interest and penalties on such taxes. In addition, our effective tax rate may be increased by changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in our cash management strategies, changes in local tax rates or countries adopting more aggressive interpretations of tax laws.
Our income tax expense includes tax benefits resulting from several reorganizations of our legal entity structure and refinancing of intercompany debt during the last three years. However, since the calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations, our effective tax rate may ultimately be different than the amount we are currently reporting. In addition, several jurisdictions in which we operate have tax laws with detailed transfer pricing rules which require that all transactions with nonresident related parties be priced using arm’s length pricing principles, and that contemporaneous documentation must exist to support such pricing. There is a risk that the taxing authorities may not deem our transfer pricing documentation acceptable. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) released guidance related to Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) which may also result in legislative changes that could impact our effective tax rate.

20



The interpretation and application of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate.
The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) was enacted on December 22, 2017, and significantly affected U.S. tax law. The U.S. rule-making bodies have the authority to issue regulations and interpretative guidance that may significantly impact how we apply the law and impact our results of operations in the period issued. The application of accounting guidance for such items is currently uncertain as the rules are broad and complex and require information not previously relevant or regularly produced. As a result, we have provided a provisional estimate on the effect of the Tax Act in our Consolidated Financial Statements. In the fourth quarter of 2018, our accounting for the effects of the enactment of the Tax Act was completed without any adjustments to our provisional estimates.
We also face other risks that could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition, which include:
 
any requirement to restate financial results in the event of inappropriate application of accounting principles or otherwise;
any event that could damage our reputation;
failure to properly manage credit risk from customers;
failure of our processes to prevent and detect unethical conduct of employees;
any significant failure of internal controls over financial reporting;
failure of our prevention and control systems related to employee compliance with internal policies and regulatory requirements;
failure of corporate governance policies and procedures; and
credit ratings changes.

ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Our business is supported by our extensive manufacturing and distribution network. Our manufacturing footprint encompasses 64 strategically located beverage manufacturing and production facilities, including 55 facilities in our Route Based Services reporting segment, which includes 36 facilities in the United States, 10 facilities in Canada and nine facilities in Europe; four facilities in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, all in the United States; four facilities representing our All Other reporting segment, all in the United Kingdom; and one concentrate manufacturing facility in the United States (which was sold in connection with the sale of Cott Beverages LLC to Refresco (see Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements)). We also have 367 branch distribution and warehouse facilities across all of our reporting segments, which include 240 facilities in the United States, 110 facilities in Europe and 17 facilities in Canada, and one customer service call center for the DSS business in the United States.
The total square footage of our manufacturing and production facilities is approximately 2.6 million square feet in the United States; 0.4 million square feet in Canada; and 0.7 million square feet in Europe, inclusive of 0.3 million square feet in the United Kingdom. The total square footage of our branch distribution and warehouse facilities is approximately 2.7 million square feet in the United States; 0.2 million square feet in Canada; and 0.9 million square feet in Europe. This square footage does not include 30 leased office spaces that comprise 0.5 million square feet. Lease terms for non-owned beverage production facilities and offices expire between 2019 and 2046.
The production facilities and square footage amounts noted above do not include vacant or underutilized properties.

ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to various claims and legal proceedings with respect to matters such as governmental regulations, income taxes, and other actions arising out of the normal course of business. Management believes that the resolution of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
The Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection (the “Ministry”) has alleged that a non-profit recycling corporation, which collects and recycles bottles sold by manufacturers, including Eden, failed to meet recycling quotas in 2016, in violation of Israeli law. The law imposes liability directly on manufacturers, and the Ministry has asserted that the manufacturers involved with the corporation owe a fine. Eden received a notice from the Ministry on June 21, 2018. Although we cannot predict the outcome of any potential proceedings at this early stage, Eden may be subject to a fine in excess of $0.1 million. Management believes, however, that the resolution of this matter will not be material to our financial position, results of operations, or cash flow.

ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.


21



SUPPLEMENTAL ITEM PART I. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following is a list of names, ages, offices and backgrounds of all of our executive officers as of February 27, 2019. Our officers do not serve for a set term.
 
 
  
Office
  
Age
Thomas Harrington
  
Chief Executive Officer
  
61
Jerry Fowden
 
Executive Chairman of the Board
 
62
Jay Wells
  
Chief Financial and Administrative Officer
  
56
Ron Hinson
  
Chief Executive Officer - S&D Business Unit
  
63
Marni Morgan Poe
  
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
  
49
Steven Kitching
  
Executive Chair - Route Based Services
  
56
Jason Ausher
  
Chief Accounting Officer
  
45
 
Thomas Harrington was appointed as Cott’s Chief Executive Officer effective as of the beginning of fiscal 2019. Prior to his appointment, Mr. Harrington served as the Chief Executive Officer of our DS Services business unit since our acquisition of DS Services in December 2014 and was appointed President Route Based Services in July 2016. Prior to the acquisition, Mr. Harrington served in various roles with DS Services from 2004 to 2014, including Chief Executive Officer beginning in February 2013, as well as President, Chief Operating Officer, West Division President, and Senior Vice President, Central Division. Prior to joining DS Services, Mr. Harrington served in various roles with Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc. including Vice President and General Manager of Coca-Cola Enterprises New York and Chicago divisions. He also served in various sales and marketing roles with Pepperidge Farm from 1979 to 1985. Mr. Harrington previously served as a member of the board of directors of the National Automatic Merchandising Association, the International Bottled Water Association and the Water Quality Association.  He has served on Cott’s Board since the beginning of fiscal 2019.
Jerry Fowden took up the position of Cott’s Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors on December 30, 2018 and, prior to that, was Cott’s Chief Executive Officer from 2009 until December 29, 2018. Prior to his service as Cott’s Chief Executive Officer, he served as President of Cott’s international operating segment, Interim President North America and Interim President of Cott’s UK and European business from 2007 to 2009. Prior to joining Cott, Mr. Fowden served as Chief Executive Officer of Trader Media Group and was a member of the Guardian Media Group plc’s board of directors from 2005 to 2007. Prior to this time, Mr. Fowden served in a variety of roles at multiple companies, including global Chief Operating Officer of AB InBev S.A. Belgium, an alcoholic beverage company, Chief Executive Officer of Bass Brewers Ltd., a subsidiary of AB InBev S.A. Belgium, Managing Director of the Rank Group plc’s Hospitality and Holiday Division and member of the Rank Group plc’s board of directors, Chief Executive Officer of Hero AG’s European beverage operations and various roles within PepsiCo Inc.’s beverage operations and Mars, Incorporated’s pet food operations. Mr. Fowden currently serves on the board of directors of Constellation Brands Inc., a premium alcoholic beverage company and is a member of its Corporate Governance Committee and Chair of its Human Resources Committee. Mr. Fowden previously served as a member of the board of directors of the American Beverage Association and the British Soft Drinks Association and as a member of the advisory board of Tchibo Coffee UK, a premium coffee company.  He has served on Cott’s Board since 2009.

Jay Wells was appointed Chief Financial Officer in 2012 and was appointed Chief Financial and Administrative Officer on October 1, 2018. Prior to joining Cott, Mr. Wells held various senior finance positions with Molson Coors from 2005 to 2012, including Chief Financial Officer of Molson Coors Canada, a subsidiary of Molson Coors Brewing Company, and Global Vice President, Treasury, Tax, and Strategic Finance of Molson Coors Brewing Company. From 1990 to 2005, Mr. Wells held several positions within Deloitte and Touche LLP, including partner.

Ron Hinson has been Chief Executive Officer of S&D Coffee and Tea since 2000, and he continued in that role after the closing of the acquisition of S&D. Prior to the acquisition, Mr. Hinson served in various roles with S&D over a 39 year period, beginning his career in the sales organization and working his way up to Chief Executive Officer in 2000 and Chairman of the Board of Directors of S&D in 2010. Mr. Hinson currently serves on the board of directors of the National Coffee Association and the Tea Association.


22



Marni Morgan Poe was appointed Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary in 2010. Prior to her appointment, Ms. Poe served as Corporate Counsel of the Company from 2008 to 2010. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Poe was a partner at the law firm of Holland & Knight LLP from 2000 to 2006 and an associate of the law firm from 1995 to 2000.

Steven Kitching was appointed Executive Chair for Route Based Services effective December 30, 2018. From 2008 to 2018, Mr. Kitching has served in various roles with Cott, including Executive Chairman of Aimia Foods/Decantae Mineral Water, President of Cott’s North America Business Unit and President of Cott’s United Kingdom/Europe Business Unit. From 2005 to 2008, Mr. Kitching held several positions with InBev UK, including Managing Director-On Trade Sales and Managing Director-Commercial and Field Operations. Prior to that, Mr. Kitching held several positions with Interbrew and Whitbread Beer Company from 1986 to 2005, including General Manager Netherlands of Interbrew from 2004 to 2005.

Jason Ausher was appointed Chief Accounting Officer in May 2015. Prior to his appointment, from 2011 to 2015, Mr. Ausher served as the Company’s VP Treasurer, Corporate Development. From 2010 to 2011, Mr. Ausher served as the Company’s Corporate Controller and from 2008 to 2010 he held the position of Controller for the Company’s U.S. Business Unit. From 2003 to 2008, Mr. Ausher held numerous positions with Walter Industries, Inc. and Mueller Water Products Inc. (a water infrastructure business and spin-off of Walter Industries, Inc.), including the position of Vice President of Finance. Prior to this, from 1996 to 2002, Mr. Ausher was with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.


23



PART II
 
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREOWNER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common shares are listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (“TSX”) under the ticker symbol “BCB,” and on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “COT.”
As of February 21, 2019, we had 909 shareowners of record. This number was determined from records maintained by our transfer agent and does not include beneficial owners of securities whose securities are held in the names of various dealers or clearing agencies. The closing sale price of our common shares on February 21, 2019 was C$20.57 on the TSX and $15.59 on the NYSE.
Our Board of Directors has declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.06 per common share in each quarter during 2017 and 2018 for an aggregate yearly dividend payment of approximately $33.7 million and $33.7 million, respectively. We intend to pay a regular quarterly dividend on our common shares subject to, among other things, the best interests of our shareowners, our results of operations, cash balances and future cash requirements, financial condition, statutory regulations and covenants set forth in the ABL facility and indentures governing our outstanding notes as well as other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant from time to time.
Dividends to shareowners who are non-residents of Canada will generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax. Under current Canadian tax law, dividends paid by a Canadian corporation to a non-resident shareowner are generally subject to Canadian withholding tax at a 25% rate. Under the current tax treaty between Canada and the United States, U.S. residents who are entitled to treaty benefits are generally eligible for a reduction in this withholding tax rate to 15% (and to 5% for a shareowner that is a corporation and is the beneficial owner of at least 10% of our voting stock). Accordingly, under current tax law, our U.S. resident shareowners who are entitled to treaty benefits will generally be subject to a Canadian withholding tax at a 15% rate on dividends paid by us, provided that they have complied with applicable procedural requirements to claim the benefit of the reduced rate under the tax treaty. The fifth protocol to the tax treaty between Canada and the United States places additional restrictions on the ability of U.S. residents to claim these reduced rate benefits. U.S. residents generally will be entitled on their U.S. federal income tax returns to claim a foreign tax credit, or a deduction, for Canadian withholding tax that applies to them, subject to certain applicable limitations. U.S. investors should consult their tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences and requirements applicable to them, based on their individual circumstances.

There are certain restrictions on the payment of dividends under our ABL facility and the indentures governing our outstanding notes. The ABL facility and the indentures governing our outstanding notes are discussed in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareowner Matters” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Calculation of aggregate market value of non-affiliate shares
For purposes of calculating the aggregate market value of common shares held by non-affiliates as shown on the cover page of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, it was assumed that all of the outstanding shares were held by non-affiliates except for outstanding shares held or controlled by our directors and executive officers. For further information concerning shareholdings of officers, directors and principal shareowners, see “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareowner Matters” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

24



Shareowner return performance graph
The following graph shows changes over our past five fiscal years in the value of C$100, assuming reinvestment of dividends, invested in: (i) our common shares; (ii) the Toronto Stock Exchange’s S&P/TSX Composite Index; (iii) the peer group utilized in prior annual reports, which consists of publicly-traded companies in the bottling and route based service industries comprised of Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc., Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated, Coca Cola FEMSA, S.A.B de C.V., Coca Cola Amatil Ltd., National Beverage Corp., A.G. Barr plc, Britvic plc, G&K Services, Inc., UniFirst Corp., ABM Industries Inc., Chemed Corp., ServiceMaster Global Holdings, Inc., Cintas Corp. and Aramark, and (iv) a new peer group utilized in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which better reflects our business following our recent divestitures and acquisitions, consisting of publicly-traded companies in the route based service industry comprised of UniFirst Corp., ABM Industries Inc., Chemed Corp., ServiceMaster Global Holdings, Inc., Cintas Corp., Aramark Corporation, Primo Water Corporation, AquaVenture Holdings Limited, Farmer Bros. Co., Rollins, Inc., and The Brink's Company. The closing price of Cott’s common shares as of December 28, 2018, the last trading day of 2018, was C$18.64 on the TSX and $13.66 on the NYSE. The following table is in Canadian dollars.

chart-94078a78453e50ae886a01.jpg

 ASSUMES $100 (CANADIAN) INVESTED ON DECEMBER 28, 2013
ASSUMES DIVIDENDS REINVESTED
FISCAL YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 29, 2018
Company / Market / Peer Group
12/28/2013
 
1/3/2015
 
1/2/2016
 
12/31/2016
 
12/30/2017
 
12/29/2018
Cott Corporation
$
100.00

 
$
98.16

 
$
186.38

 
$
189.18

 
$
265.54

 
$
239.90

S&P / TSX Composite
$
100.00

 
$
111.84

 
$
101.59

 
$
123.01

 
$
134.18

 
$
121.34

Peer Group
$
100.00

 
$
112.70

 
$
141.05

 
$
146.52

 
$
177.56

 
$
175.63

New Peer Group
$
100.00

 
$
128.81

 
$
178.57

 
$
210.98

 
$
259.05

 
$
278.26


25



Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Share Repurchase Programs

On May 1, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program for up to $50.0 million of Cott's outstanding common shares over a 12-month period commencing on May 7, 2018 (the “Initial Repurchase Plan”). Since that date, for the year ended December 29, 2018, we repurchased 2,973,282 common shares for approximately $46.0 million through open market transactions under the Initial Repurchase Plan. Shares purchased under the Initial Repurchase Plan were subsequently canceled.

The following table summarizes the repurchase activity under the Initial Repurchase Plan for the year ended December 29, 2018:

 
Total
Number of
Common Shares
Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per
Common Share
 
Total Number of
Common Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Approximate
Dollar Value of
Common Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
May 1 - May 31, 2018
583,122

 
$
15.87

 
583,122

 
$
40,735,492

June 1 - June 30, 2018
412,259

 
$
16.27

 
412,259

 
$
34,037,418

August 1 - August 31, 2018
1,202,704

 
$
15.49

 
1,202,704

 
$
15,454,541

September 1 - September 30, 2018
358,032

 
$
15.30

 
358,032

 
$
10,000,143

October 1 - October 31, 2018
350,265

 
$
14.37

 
350,265

 
$
4,968,480

November 1 - November 30, 2018
52,500

 
$
14.46

 
52,500

 
$
4,209,573

December 1 - December 29, 2018
14,400

 
$
14.47

 
14,400

 
$
4,001,220

Total
2,973,282

 
 
 
2,973,282

 
 

On December 11, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a new share repurchase program for up to $50.0 million of Cott’s outstanding common shares over a 12-month period commencing on December 14, 2018 (the “New Repurchase Plan”), with the Initial Repurchase Plan terminating with the commencement of the New Repurchase Plan. Since that date, for the year ended December 29, 2018, we repurchased 1,590,088 common shares for $22.2 million through open market transactions under the New Repurchase Plan. Shares purchased under the New Repurchase Plan were subsequently canceled.
    
The following table summarizes the repurchase activity under the New Repurchase Plan for the year ended December 29, 2018:
 
Total
Number of
Common Shares
Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per
Common Share
 
Total Number of
Common Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Approximate
Dollar Value of
Common Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
December 1 - December 29, 2018
1,590,088

 
$
13.93

 
1,590,088

 
$
27,847,986

Total
1,590,088

 
 
 
1,590,088

 
 
Tax Withholdings
The following table contains information about shares that we withheld from delivering to employees during 2018 to satisfy their tax obligations related to share-based awards:
 

26



 
Total
Number of
Common Shares
Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid per
Common Share
 
Total Number of
Common Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Approximate
Dollar Value of
Common Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
January 1 - January 31, 2018
99,484

 
$
16.77

 
N/A
 
N/A
February 1 - February 28, 2018
254,289

 
$
15.63

 
N/A
 
N/A
March 1 - March 31, 2018
820

 
$
14.44

 
N/A
 
N/A
May 1 - May 31, 2018
566

 
$
15.14

 
N/A
 
N/A
June 1 - June 30, 2018
5,203

 
$
16.51

 
N/A
 
N/A
August 1 - August 31, 2018
13,688

 
$
15.49

 
N/A
 
N/A
December 1 - December 29, 2018
43,174

 
$
14.76

 
N/A
 
N/A
Total
417,224

 
 
 
 
 
 


27



ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected financial data reflects our results of operations. This information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The financial information presented may not be indicative of future performance.
The Company has accounted for the disposition of our Traditional Business as discontinued operations beginning in 2017. All data for prior periods have been recast.
 
December 29, 2018
 
December 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016 1
 
January 2, 2016
 
January 3, 2015 2
(in millions of U.S. dollars, except per share amounts)
(52 weeks)

 
(52 weeks)

 
(52 weeks)

 
(52 weeks)

 
(53 weeks)

Revenue, net
$
2,372.9

 
$
2,269.7

 
$
1,623.2

 
$
1,187.3

 
$
160.8

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
28.9

 
(3.6
)
 
(60.3
)
 
$
15.7

 
$
7.1

Net income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes
354.6

 
10.7

 
(11.2
)
 
$
4.9

 
$
9.3

Net income (loss)
383.5

 
7.1

 
(71.5
)
 
$
20.6

 
$
16.4

Net income (loss) attributable to Cott Corporation
382.9

 
(1.4
)
 
(77.8
)
 
$
(3.4
)
 
$
10.0

Net income (loss) per common share attributable to Cott Corporation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.21

 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.47
)
 
$
(0.02
)
 
$
0.07

Discontinued operations
2.54

 
0.02

 
(0.14
)
 
(0.01
)
 
0.04

Net income (loss)
2.75

 
(0.01
)
 
(0.61
)
 
(0.03
)
 
0.11

Diluted:

 

 

 

 

Continuing operations
$
0.21

 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.47
)
 
$
(0.02
)
 
$
0.07

Discontinued operations
2.50

 
0.02

 
(0.14
)
 
(0.01
)
 
0.03

Net income (loss)
2.71

 
(0.01
)
 
(0.61
)
 
(0.03
)
 
0.10

Financial Condition
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
3,175.5

 
$
4,093.1

 
$
3,939.7

 
$
2,887.3

 
$
3,073.2

Short-term borrowings required to be repaid or extinguished from divestiture 3

 
220.3

 
207.0

 
122.0

 
229.0

Debt required to be repaid or extinguished from divestiture 4

 
519.0

 
1,135.4

 
1,133.6

 
1,132.5

Long-term debt, net of current maturities
1,250.2

 
1,542.6

 
851.4

 
390.1

 
405.6

Convertible preferred shares

 

 

 

 
116.1

Non-convertible preferred shares

 

 

 

 
32.7

Dividends declared per common share
$
0.24

 
$
0.24

 
$
0.24

 
$
0.24

 
$
0.24

______________________
1
In 2016, we completed the acquisitions of S&D, Eden, and Aquaterra for a combined $973.9 million, financed by a combination of cash on hand, incremental borrowings under our ABL facility of $270.0 million, proceeds from the issuance of €450.0 million (U.S. $513.1 million at the exchange rate in effect on December 29, 2018) of 5.500% senior notes due July 1, 2024 (the ”2024 Notes”), and net proceeds from the issuance of common shares in June 2016 having an aggregate value of $219.8 million.
2 
In 2014, we completed the acquisition of DSS for approximately $1.246 billion, financed by a combination of incremental borrowings under our ABL facility of $180.0 million, proceeds from the issuance of $625.0 million of 6.75% senior notes due 2020 (the “2020 Notes”), the assumption of DSS’s $350.0 million of 10.000% senior secured notes due 2021 (the “DSS Notes”), and the issuance to the owners of DSS of preferred shares having an aggregate value of approximately $148.8 million.

28



3 
The obligations under the ABL facility were required to be repaid in full at the closing of the sale of the Traditional Business. Accordingly, the ABL facility is presented as “Short-term borrowings required to be repaid or extinguished as part of divestiture.”
4 
All senior notes issued by Cott Beverages Inc., which was sold as part of the Traditional Business, were classified as “Debt required to be repaid or extinguished as part of divestiture” in prior periods.



29



ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
Cott is a water, coffee, tea, extracts and filtration service company with a leading volume-based national presence in the North American and European home and office delivery industry for bottled water, and a leader in custom coffee roasting, iced tea blending, and extract solutions for the U.S. foodservice industry. Our platform reaches over 2.5 million customers or delivery points across North America and Europe and is supported by strategically located sales and distribution facilities and fleets, as well as wholesalers and distributors. This enables us to efficiently service residences, businesses, restaurant chains, hotels and motels, small and large retailers, and healthcare facilities.
The market in which we operate is subject to some seasonal variations. Our water delivery sales are generally higher during the warmer months, while sales of our coffee products are generally higher during cooler months, and may also be influenced by the timing of holidays and weather fluctuations. Our purchases of raw materials and related accounts payable fluctuate based upon the demand for our products. The seasonality of our sales volume causes our working capital needs to fluctuate throughout the year.
Ingredient and packaging costs represent a significant portion of our cost of sales. These costs are subject to global and regional commodity price trends. Our most significant commodities are green coffee, tea, polyethylene terephthalate (“PET”) resin, high-density polyethylene (“HDPE”) and polycarbonate bottles, caps and preforms, labels and cartons and trays. We attempt to manage our exposure to fluctuations in ingredient and packaging costs by entering into fixed price commitments for a portion of our ingredient and packaging requirements and implementing price increases as needed.
We conduct operations in countries involving transactions denominated in a variety of currencies. We are subject to currency exchange risks to the extent that our costs are denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn revenues. As our financial statements are denominated in U.S. dollars, fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had, and will continue to have an impact on our results of operations.
In 2018, our capital expenditures were devoted primarily to supporting growth in our business, maintaining existing facilities and making equipment upgrades.
We operate through three reporting segments: Route Based Services; Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions; and All Other which includes our UK Other operating segment, our soft drink concentrate production business and our RCI division (“Cott Beverages LLC”) and other miscellaneous expenses.
Our corporate oversight function is not treated as a segment; it includes certain general and administrative costs that are not allocated to any of the reporting segments. During the second quarter of 2018, we combined and disclosed the corporate oversight function in the All Other category. Our segment reporting results have been recast to reflect these changes for all years presented. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for segment reporting.
After completion of the Transaction (as defined below), we re-evaluated the measure of profit for our reportable segments and determined that excluding corporate allocations from segment operating income was appropriate, as these costs are not considered by management when evaluating performance. Operating income for the prior years has been recast to reflect this change. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for segment reporting.
Our fiscal year is based on either a 52- or 53- week period ending on the Saturday closest to December 31. For the fiscal years ended December 29, 2018, December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had 52- weeks of activity. One of our subsidiaries uses a Gregorian calendar year-end which differs from the Company's 52- or 53- week fiscal year-end. Differences arising from the use of the different fiscal year-ends were not deemed material for the fiscal years ended December 29, 2018, December 30, 2017 or December 31, 2016.

30



Divestiture, Acquisition and Financing Transactions
Divestitures
On February 8, 2019, we sold all of the outstanding equity of Cott Beverages LLC to Refresco Group B.V., a Dutch company (“Refresco”). The aggregate deal consideration paid at closing was $50.0 million, subject to post-closing adjustments for working capital, indebtedness and other customary items. We used the proceeds of this transaction to repay a portion of the outstanding borrowings under our asset-based lending credit facility (the “ABL facility”).
In July 2017, we entered into a Share Repurchase Agreement with Refresco, pursuant to which we sold to Refresco, on January 30, 2018, our carbonated soft drinks and juice businesses via the sale of our North America, United Kingdom and Mexico business units (including the Canadian business) and our RCI finished goods export business (collectively, the “Traditional Business” and such transaction, the “Transaction”). The Transaction was structured as a sale of the assets of our Canadian business and a sale of the stock of the operating subsidiaries engaged in the Traditional Business in the other jurisdictions after we completed an internal reorganization. The aggregate deal consideration was $1.25 billion, paid at closing in cash, with customary post-closing adjustments resolved in December 2018 by the payment of $7.9 million from us to Refresco. The sale of the Traditional Business represented a strategic shift and had a major effect on our operations and, therefore, the Traditional Business is presented herein as discontinued operations. See Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on discontinued operations. The Transaction did not include our Route Based Services and Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segments, our Aimia Foods Limited (“Aimia”), Decantae Mineral Water Ltd. (“Decantae”) or Cott Beverages LLC businesses.
The operating results associated with the Traditional Business have been reclassified into net income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for all years presented. The assets and liabilities associated with the Traditional Business have been reflected as current and long-term assets and liabilities of discontinued operations in the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 30, 2017. Cash flows from the Company’s discontinued operations are presented in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for all years presented. The Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are presented on a continuing operations basis unless otherwise noted.
Acquisitions
On October 15, 2018, DS Services of America, Inc. (“DSS”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Cott, acquired Mountain Valley Spring Company (“Mountain Valley”), a growing American brand of spring and sparkling bottled water delivered to homes and offices throughout the United States (the “Mountain Valley Acquisition”). The purchase price was $80.4 million on a debt and cash free basis, subject to customary adjustments for closing date cash, working capital, indebtedness and certain expenses. The Mountain Valley Acquisition was funded through a combination of incremental borrowings under our ABL facility and cash on hand.
On March 21, 2018, we completed the acquisition of Crystal Rock Holdings, Inc., a direct-to-consumer home and office water, coffee and filtration business serving customers throughout New York and New England (“Crystal Rock”). The transaction was structured as a merger following a cash tender offer for all outstanding shares of Crystal Rock, with Crystal Rock becoming our wholly-owned indirect subsidiary (the “Crystal Rock Acquisition”). The aggregate consideration paid was $37.7 million and includes the purchase price paid to the Crystal Rock shareholders of $20.7 million, $0.8 million in costs paid on behalf of the sellers for the seller's transaction costs and $16.2 million of assumed debt and accrued interest obligations of the acquired company that was paid by us.
Financing Activity
On January 30, 2018, in connection with the closing of the Transaction, we used a portion of the proceeds to retire $525.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.375% senior notes due 2022 (the “2022 Notes”) and retire the remaining $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of 10.000% senior secured notes due 2021 (the “DSS Notes”). The redemption of our 2022 Notes included $21.2 million in premium payments and accrued interest of $2.2 million. The redemption of our DSS Notes included $12.5 million in premium payments and accrued interest of $10.3 million.
We also used a portion of the proceeds from the Transaction to repay in full our $262.5 million outstanding balance on our ABL facility and repay $1.9 million in aggregate principal outstanding on our capital lease finance arrangement with General Electric Capital Corporation. Additionally, we amended and restated our ABL facility in connection with the closing of the Transaction, as further discussed below.
In May 2017, we used a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the 2025 Notes (as defined below) to redeem $100.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the DSS Notes. The partial redemption of the DSS Notes included $7.7 million in premium payments, accrued interest of $1.8 million and the write-off of $9.2 million of unamortized premium.

31



In March and April 2017, we used a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the 2025 Notes (as defined below) to redeem all $625.0 million of our 6.75% senior notes due January 1, 2020 (the “2020 Notes”). The redemption of our 2020 Notes included $14.3 million and $7.1 million in premium payments, accrued interest of $7.4 million and $3.1 million, the write-off of $5.8 million and $2.9 million in deferred financing fees, and other costs of $0.1 million.
In March 2017, we issued $750.0 million of 5.500% senior notes due April 1, 2025 (the “2025 Notes”) to qualified purchasers in a private placement offering under Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and outside the United States to non-U.S. purchasers pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act and other applicable laws. The 2025 Notes were issued by our wholly-owned subsidiary Cott Holdings Inc., and most of our U.S., Canadian, U.K., Luxembourg and Dutch subsidiaries guarantee the 2025 Notes. The 2025 Notes will mature on April 1, 2025 and interest is payable semi-annually on April 1st and October 1st of each year commencing on October 1, 2017. We incurred $11.7 million of financing fees in connection with the issuance of the 2025 Notes.
In June 2016, we issued €450.0 million (U.S. $513.1 million at the exchange rate in effect on December 29, 2018) of 5.500% senior notes due July 1, 2024 (the “2024 Notes”) to qualified purchasers in a private placement offering under the Securities Act, and outside the United States to non-U.S. purchasers pursuant to Regulation S under the Securities Act and other applicable laws. We incurred $11.3 million of financing fees in connection with the issuance of the 2024 Notes. The proceeds of the 2024 Notes were used to fund a portion of the purchase price of the acquisition of Eden Springs Europe B.V. (“Eden”) and to pay related fees and expenses.
In June 2016, we completed a public offering, on a bought deal basis, of 15,088,000 common shares at a price of $15.25 per share for total gross proceeds to us of $230.1 million (the “June 2016 Offering”). We incurred $9.2 million of underwriter commissions and $1.1 million in professional fees in connection with the June 2016 Offering. The net proceeds of the June 2016 Offering were used to repay borrowings under our ABL facility, to finance the acquisition of S. & D. Coffee, Inc. (“S&D”) and for general corporate purposes.
In March 2016, we completed a public offering, on a bought deal basis, of 12,765,000 common shares at a price of $11.80 per share for total gross proceeds to us of $150.6 million (the “March 2016 Offering”). We incurred $6.0 million of underwriter commissions and $0.8 million in professional fees in connection with the March 2016 Offering. The net proceeds of the March 2016 Offering were used to repay borrowings under our ABL facility and for general corporate purposes.
Summary Financial Results
Net income from continuing operations in 2018 was $28.9 million or $0.21 per diluted common share, compared with net loss from continuing operations of $3.6 million or $0.03 per diluted common share in 2017.
The following items of significance affected our 2018 financial results:
 
Net revenue increased $103.2 million, or 4.5%, in 2018 compared to the prior year due primarily to the additions of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses, pricing initiatives, growth within our home and office water delivery operations and growth in retail in our Route Based Services reporting segment, growth in liquid coffee, extracts, tea and other in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, as well as the impact of favorable foreign exchange rates, partially offset by the reduction in volumes combined with lower green coffee commodity prices and a change in customer mix in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, as well as fewer trading days compared to the prior year in our Eden, S&D and Aimia businesses;
Gross profit increased to $1,175.6 million from $1,127.7 million in the prior year due primarily to the additions of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses, pricing initiatives, growth within our home and office water delivery operations, and the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates in our Route Based Services reporting segment, as well as growth in liquid coffee, extracts, tea and other in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, partially offset by increases in freight and transportation costs within our Route Based Services reporting segment and the reduction in coffee volumes and a change in customer mix, the reduction in juice and allieds, as well as an increase in manufacturing expenses within our Coffee, Tea, and Extract Solutions reporting segment. Gross profit as a percentage of revenue decreased to 49.5% in 2018 compared to 49.7% in the prior year;
Selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses increased to $1,092.1 million in 2018 compared to $1,043.2 million in the prior year due primarily to the addition of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses, the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rates within our Route Based Services reporting segment, and an increase in share-based compensation costs, partially offset by the reduction in depreciation and amortization and operating expenses within our Coffee, Tea, and Extract Solutions reporting segment. As a percentage of revenue, SG&A expenses were 46.0% in each of 2018 and 2017;
Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment, net was primarily related to the disposal of $9.4 million of equipment that was either replaced or no longer being used in our reporting segments;

32



Acquisition and integration expenses decreased to $15.3 million in 2018 compared to $30.4 million in the prior year due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our S&D and Eden businesses, partially offset by costs incurred with the integration of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses;
Other income, net increased to $42.9 million in 2018 compared to $8.0 million in the prior year due primarily to income recognized from favorable legal settlements, gains recognized on the redemption of the DSS Notes and the sale of our PolyCycle Solutions (“PCS”) business, mark to market gains on warrant securities, and the increase of net gains on foreign currency transactions;
Interest expense, net decreased to $77.6 million in 2018 compared to $85.5 million in the prior year due primarily to the redemption of $250.0 million aggregate principal of the DSS Notes in January 2018;
Income tax benefit was $4.8 million on pre-tax income from continuing operations of $24.1 million in 2018 compared to income tax benefit of $30.0 million on pre-tax loss from continuing operations of $33.6 million in the prior year due primarily to a Canadian valuation allowance release and releases of various uncertain tax positions in 2018 and the change in the U.S. federal enacted tax rate and valuation allowance releases in 2017;
Adjusted EBITDA increased to $312.0 million in 2018 compared to $295.6 million in the prior year due to the items listed above.
The following items of significance affected our 2017 financial results:
 
Net revenue increased $646.5 million, or 39.8%, in 2017 compared to the prior year due primarily to the additions of our S&D and Eden businesses, growth in volume and consumption, as well as increased pricing in our Route Based Services reporting segment, strong coffee volume growth in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, and the impact of favorable foreign exchange rates;
Gross profit increased to $1,127.7 million from $850.1 million in the prior year due primarily to the additions of our S&D and Eden businesses and growth in our DSS business. Gross profit as a percentage of revenue decreased to 49.7% in 2017 compared to 52.4% in the prior year. The decrease in gross profit as a percentage of net revenue is due to our S&D business, which is a lower gross profit business;
SG&A expenses increased to $1,043.2 million in 2017 compared to $806.2 million in the prior year due primarily to the additions of our S&D and Eden businesses and an increase in marketing and professional costs. As a percentage of revenue, SG&A expenses decreased to 46.0% from 49.7% in the prior year;
Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment, net was primarily related to the disposal of $10.2 million of equipment that was either replaced or no longer being used in our reporting segments;
Acquisition and integration expenses increased to $30.4 million in 2017 compared to $27.8 million in the prior year due primarily to the transaction costs in connection with the acquisitions of our S&D and Eden businesses;
Other income, net was $8.0 million in 2017 compared to other expense, net of $5.6 million in the prior year due primarily to the increase of net gains on foreign currency transactions and the gain recognized upon the partial redemption of our DSS Notes, and unrealized losses on our commodity hedges in the prior year;
Interest expense, net was $85.5 million in 2017 compared to $43.0 million in the prior year due primarily to the issuance of our 2025 Notes in the first quarter of 2017 and having a full year of interest expense in 2017 associated with our 2024 Notes;
Income tax benefit was $30.0 million on pre-tax loss from continuing operations of $33.6 million in 2017 compared to income tax expense of $21.2 million on pre-tax loss from continuing operations of $39.1 million in the prior year due primarily to the change in the U.S. federal enacted tax rate in 2017 and the Canadian valuation allowance recorded in the third quarter of 2016 and the U.S. federal valuation allowance recorded in the fourth quarter of 2016; and
Adjusted EBITDA increased to $295.6 million in 2017 compared to $211.6 million in the prior year due to the items listed above.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our significant accounting policies and recently issued accounting pronouncements are described in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe the following represent our critical accounting policies:
Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the amount of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The Consolidated Financial Statements include estimates and assumptions that, in the opinion of management, were significant to the underlying amounts representing the future valuation of intangible assets, long-lived assets and goodwill, realization of deferred income tax assets, the resolution of tax contingencies, and projected benefit plan obligations.

33



Impairment testing of goodwill
Cott operates through four operating segments: Route Based Services; Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions; UK Other; and Cott Beverages LLC. Route Based Services, Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions are also reportable segments and UK Other and Cott Beverages LLC are combined and disclosed in the All Other category. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually on the first day of the fourth quarter, based on our reporting unit carrying values, calculated as total assets less non-interest bearing liabilities, as of the end of the third quarter, or more frequently if we determine a triggering event has occurred during the year. Any impairment loss is recognized in our results of operations. We evaluate goodwill for impairment on a reporting unit basis, which is an operating segment or a level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. A component of an operating segment is a reporting unit if the component constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and management regularly reviews the operating results of that component. However, two or more components of an operating segment can be aggregated and deemed a single reporting unit if the components have similar economic characteristics. Our Route Based Services operating segment was determined to have four components: DSS, Mountain Valley, Aquaterra Corporation (“Aquaterra”) and Eden. We have determined that DSS and Aquaterra have similar economic characteristics and have aggregated them as a single reporting unit for the purpose of testing goodwill for impairment (“DSSAqua”). For the purpose of testing goodwill for impairment in 2018, we have determined our reporting units are DSSAqua, Eden, S&D, Aimia, Decantae, Farrers and Cott Beverages LLC. Mountain Valley was acquired subsequent to our annual goodwill impairment testing date and as such was not part of our annual assessment. DSSAqua and Eden are components of the Route Based Services operating segment. S&D is a component of the Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions operating segment. Aimia, Decantae and Farrers are components of the UK Other operating segment.
We had goodwill of $1,143.9 million on the Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 29, 2018, which represents amounts for the DSSAqua, Mountain Valley, Eden, S&D, Aimia, Decantae, Farrers and Cott Beverages LLC reporting units.
For purposes of the 2018 annual test, we elected to perform a qualitative assessment for our DSSAqua, Decantae, Farrers and Cott Beverages LLC reporting units to assess whether it was more likely than not the fair value of these reporting units exceeded their respective carrying values. In performing these assessments, management relied on a number of factors including, but not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors that would have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, overall financial performance compared with forecasted projections in prior periods, and other relevant reporting unit events, the impact of which are all significant judgments and estimates. Based on these factors, management concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair values of the DSSAqua, Decantae, Farrers and Cott Beverages LLC reporting units were greater than their respective carrying amounts, including goodwill, indicating no impairment. Goodwill allocated to the DSSAqua, Decantae, Farrers and Cott Beverages LLC reporting units as of December 29, 2018 is $637.3 million, $1.6 million, $0.5 million and $4.5 million, respectively.
For the Eden, S&D and Aimia reporting units, we elected to bypass the qualitative assessment and performed a quantitative analysis due to a decline in 2018 actual versus projected operating results. We determined the fair value of each reporting unit being evaluated using a mix of the income approach (which is based on the discounted cash flows of the reporting unit) and the guideline public company approach. We weighted the income approach and the guideline public company approach at 50% each to determine the fair value of each reporting unit. We believe using a combination of these approaches provides a more accurate valuation because it incorporates the expected cash generation of the Company in addition to how a third-party market participant would value the reporting unit. As the business is assumed to continue in perpetuity, the discounted future cash flows includes a terminal value. Critical assumptions used in our 2018 valuation of the reporting units include the weighted-average terminal growth rates of 1.5%, 2.5% and 2.0% and discount rates of 9.0%, 8.5% and 10.5% for our Eden, S&D and Aimia reporting units, respectively. The terminal growth rate assumption incorporated into the discounted cash flow calculation reflects our long-term view of the market and industry, projected changes in the sale of our products, pricing of such products and operating profit margins. The discount rate was determined using various factors and sensitive assumptions, including bond yields, size premiums and tax rates. This rate was based on the weighted average cost of capital a market participant would use if evaluating the reporting unit as an investment. These assumptions are considered significant unobservable inputs and represent our best estimate of assumptions that market participants would use to determine the fair value of the respective reporting units. The key inputs into the discounted cash flow analysis were consistent with market data, where available, indicating that the assumptions used were in a reasonable range of observable market data.
Based on the quantitative assessment including consideration of the sensitivity of the assumptions made and methods used to determine fair value, industry trends and other relevant factors, we noted that the estimated fair values of Eden, S&D and Aimia reporting units exceeded their carrying values by approximately 15.7%, 28.2% and 20.8%, respectively. Therefore no goodwill impairment charges were recorded in the fourth quarter ended December 29, 2018. Goodwill allocated to the Eden, S&D and Aimia reporting units as of December 29, 2018 are $313.9 million, $117.8 million and $47.8 million, respectively.

34



For the Mountain Valley reporting unit, we did not perform a qualitative or quantitative assessment as the underlying net assets of the reporting unit were acquired in the fourth quarter of 2018 and there was no indication of changes to the business environment or the operations of the reporting unit that would cause us to conclude that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Mountain Valley reporting unit was less than its carrying value, including goodwill. Goodwill allocated to the Mountain Valley reporting unit as of December 29, 2018 is $20.5 million.
Each year during the fourth quarter, we re-evaluate the assumptions used in our assessments, such as revenue growth rates, operating profit margins and discount rates, to reflect any significant changes in the business environment that could materially affect the fair value of our reporting units. Based on the evaluations performed in 2018, we determined that the fair value of each of our reporting units exceeded their carrying amounts.
Impairment testing of intangible assets with an indefinite life
Our intangible assets with indefinite lives relate to the 2001 acquisition of intellectual property from Royal Crown Company, Inc., and include the right to manufacture our concentrates, with all related inventions, processes, technologies, technical and manufacturing information, know-how and the use of the Royal Crown brand outside of North America and Mexico (the “Rights”); trademarks acquired in the acquisition of DSS (the “DSS Trademarks”); trademarks acquired in the acquisition of Eden (the “Eden Trademarks”), trademarks acquired in the acquisition of Aquaterra (the “Aquaterra Trademarks”), trademarks acquired in the acquisition of Mountain Valley (the “Mountain Valley Trademarks”) and trademarks acquired in the acquisition of Crystal Rock (the “Crystal Rock Trademarks”). These assets have an aggregate net book value of $306.8 million as of December 29, 2018. There are no legal, regulatory, contractual, competitive, economic, or other factors that limit the useful life of these intangible assets.
The life of the Rights, DSS Trademarks, Eden Trademarks, Aquaterra Trademarks, Mountain Valley Trademarks and Crystal Rock Trademarks are considered to be indefinite and therefore these intangible assets are not amortized. Rather, they are tested for impairment at least annually or more frequently if we determine a triggering event has occurred during the year. We compare the carrying amount of the intangible asset to its fair value and when the carrying amount is greater than the fair value, we recognize in income an impairment loss. During the fourth quarter of 2018, management concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Rights, DSS Trademarks, Eden Trademarks, Aquaterra Trademarks, Mountain Valley Trademarks and Crystal Rock Trademarks were greater than their respective carrying value, indicating no impairment.
We assessed qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances indicated that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Rights, DSS Trademarks, Aquaterra Trademarks, Mountain Valley Trademarks and Crystal Rock Trademarks were less than their respective carrying value. The qualitative factors we assessed included macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors that would have a negative effect on earnings and cash flows, overall financial performance compared with forecasted projections in prior periods, and other relevant events, the impact of which are all significant judgments and estimates. We concluded that it was more likely than not that the fair value of the Rights, DSS Trademarks, Aquaterra Trademarks, Mountain Valley Trademarks and Crystal Rock Trademarks were more than its carrying value and therefore we were not required to perform any additional testing.
To determine the fair value of the Eden Trademarks, we use a relief from royalty method of the income approach, which calculates a fair value royalty rate that is applied to revenue forecasts associated with those trademarks. The resulting cash flows are discounted using a rate to reflect the risk of achieving the projected royalty savings attributable to the trademarks. The assumptions used to estimate the fair value of these trademarks are subjective and require significant management judgment, including estimated future revenues, the fair value royalty rate (which is estimated to be a reasonable market royalty charge that would be charged by a licensor of the trademarks) and the risk adjusted discount rate. Based on our impairment test, the estimated fair value of the Eden Trademarks exceeded the carrying value by approximately 29.2%. If actual revenues in future periods, are less than currently projected for the Eden Trademarks, these trademarks could be impaired.

35



Other intangible assets
As of December 29, 2018, our intangible assets subject to amortization, net of accumulated amortization for continuing operations were $432.4 million, consisting principally of $392.0 million of customer relationships that arose from acquisitions, $17.5 million of software, and $12.7 million of patents. Customer relationships are typically amortized on an accelerated basis for the period over which we expect to receive the economic benefits. The customer relationship intangible assets acquired in our acquisitions are amortized over the expected remaining useful life of those relationships on a basis that reflects the pattern of realization of the estimated undiscounted after-tax cash flows. We review the estimated useful life of these intangible assets annually, unless a review is required more frequently due to a triggering event, such as the loss of a significant customer. Our review of the estimated useful life takes into consideration the specific net cash flows related to the intangible asset. The permanent loss of, or significant decline in sales to customers included in the intangible asset would result in either an impairment in the value of the intangible asset or an accelerated amortization of any remaining value and could lead to an impairment of the fixed assets that were used to service that customer. In 2018, we recorded $9.2 million in customer relationships acquired with the Mountain Valley Acquisition and $8.4 million in customer relationships acquired with the Crystal Rock Acquisition. We did not record impairment charges for intangible assets in 2018, 2017 or 2016.
Impairment and disposal of long-lived assets
When adverse events occur, we compare the carrying amount of long-lived assets to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows at the lowest level of independent cash flows for the group of long-lived assets and recognize any impairment loss based on discounted cash flows in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, taking into consideration the timing of testing and the asset’s remaining useful life. The expected life and value of these long-lived assets is based on an evaluation of the competitive environment, history and future prospects as appropriate.
Income taxes
We are subject to income taxes in Canada as well as in numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining the income tax expense in these jurisdictions. Our income tax expense, deferred tax assets and liabilities and reserves for unrecognized tax benefits reflect management’s best assessment of estimated future taxes to be paid in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
Deferred income taxes arise from temporary differences between the tax and financial statement recognition of revenue and expense. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets within the jurisdiction from which they arise we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial operations. In projecting future taxable income, we begin with historical results adjusted for the results of discontinued operations and changes in accounting policies and incorporate assumptions including the amount of future Canadian and foreign pre-tax operating income, the reversal of temporary differences, and the implementation of feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. These assumptions require significant judgment about the forecasts of future taxable income and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses. Changes in tax laws and rates could also affect recorded deferred tax assets and liabilities in the future.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations. In December 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax regime by, among other things, lowering the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, limiting various business deductions and repealing the corporate alternative minimum tax. Many provisions in the Tax Act are generally effective in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. U.S. GAAP requires the impact of tax legislation to be recognized in the period in which the law was enacted. As a result of the Tax Act, we recorded tax benefits in the fourth quarter of 2017 of $32.2 million due to a re-measurement of the U.S deferred tax assets and liabilities and $1.3 million due to the repeal of the corporate alternative minimum tax. The tax benefits represented provisional amounts and our best estimates. The provisional amounts incorporated assumptions made based upon our interpretation of the Tax Act and could be refined through the fourth quarter of 2018 as we received additional clarification and implementation guidance. In the fourth quarter of 2018, our accounting for the effects of the enactment of the Tax Act was completed without any adjustments to the provisional estimates.
Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”) provides that a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position may be recognized when it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolutions of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits. ASC 740 also provides guidance on measurement, derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.

36



We recognize tax liabilities in accordance with ASC 740 and we adjust these liabilities when our judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our current estimate of the tax liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which they are determined.
Pension costs
We account for our defined benefit pension plans in accordance with ASC No. 715-20, “Compensation—Defined Benefit Plans—General” (“ASC 715-20”). The funded status is the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the benefit obligation. The adjustment to accumulated other comprehensive income represents the net unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and unrecognized prior service costs. Future actuarial gains or losses that are not recognized as net periodic benefits cost in the same periods will be recognized as a component of other comprehensive income.
We maintain several defined-benefit plans that cover certain employees in the United States and Israel. We record the expenses associated with these plans based on calculations which include various actuarial assumptions such as discount rates and expected long-term rates of return on plan assets. Material changes in pension costs may occur in the future due to changes in these assumptions. Future annual amounts could be impacted by changes in the discount rate, changes in the expected long-term rate of return, changes in the level of contributions to the plans and other factors.
We utilize a yield curve analysis to determine the discount rates for our defined benefit plans’ obligations. The yield curve considers pricing and yield information for high quality corporate bonds with maturities matched to estimated payouts of future pension benefits. The expected return on plan assets is based on our expectation of the long-term rates of return on each asset class based on the current asset mix of the funds, considering the historical returns earned on the type of assets in the funds. We review our actuarial assumptions on an annual basis and make modifications to the assumptions based on current rates and trends when appropriate. The effects of the modifications to the actuarial assumptions which impact the projected benefit obligation are amortized over future periods.
In connection with certain other collective bargaining agreements to which we are a party, we are required to make contributions on behalf of certain union employees to multiemployer pension plans. The ongoing contributions and liabilities associated with these plans are not material.
Non-GAAP Measures
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we supplement our reporting of financial measures determined in accordance with GAAP by utilizing certain non-GAAP financial measures that exclude certain items to make period-over-period comparisons for our underlying operations before material charges. We exclude these items to better understand trends in the business. We exclude the impact of foreign exchange to separate the impact of currency exchange rate changes from our results of operations.
We also utilize earnings (loss) before interest expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), which is GAAP net income (loss) from continuing operations before interest expense, net, (benefit) expense for income taxes and depreciation and amortization. We consider EBITDA to be an indicator of operating performance. We also use EBITDA, as do analysts, lenders, investors and others, because it excludes certain items that can vary widely across different industries or among companies within the same industry. These differences can result in considerable variability in the relative costs of productive assets and the depreciation and amortization expense among companies. We also utilize adjusted EBITDA, which is EBITDA excluding acquisition and integration costs, share-based compensation costs, loss (gain) on commodity hedging instruments, net, foreign exchange and other (gains) losses, net, loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment, net, gain on extinguishment of long-term debt, gain on sale, inventory step-up adjustments, and other adjustments, net, as the case may be (“Adjusted EBITDA”). We consider Adjusted EBITDA to be an indicator of our operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain items to make more meaningful period-over-period comparisons of our underlying operations before material changes. Effective January 1, 2017, share-based compensation expense as a part of annual compensation packages is included as an adjustment to EBITDA, and prior periods presented have been updated to incorporate the change. This determination is based upon review of peer companies and business practices among entities undergoing transformation within their operations.
Because we use these adjusted financial results in the management of our business and to understand underlying business performance, we believe this supplemental information is useful to investors for their independent evaluation and understanding of our business performance and the performance of our management. The non-GAAP financial measures described above are in addition to, and not meant to be considered superior to, or a substitute for, our financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, the non-GAAP financial measures included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K reflect our judgment of particular items, and may be different from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures reported by other companies.


37



The following table summarizes our Consolidated Statements of Operations as a percentage of net revenue for 2018, 2017 and 2016: 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
(in millions of U.S. dollars, except percentage amounts)
 
 
Percentage of Revenue
 
 
 
Percentage of Revenue
 
 
 
Percentage of Revenue
Revenue, net
$
2,372.9

 
100.0
 %
 
$
2,269.7

 
100.0
 %
 
$
1,623.2

 
100.0
 %
Cost of sales
1,197.3

 
50.5
 %
 
1,142.0

 
50.3
 %
 
773.1

 
47.6
 %
Gross profit
1,175.6

 
49.5
 %
 
1,127.7

 
49.7
 %
 
850.1

 
52.4
 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses
1,092.1

 
46.0
 %
 
1,043.2

 
46.0
 %
 
806.2

 
49.7
 %
Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment, net
9.4

 
0.4
 %
 
10.2

 
0.4
 %
 
6.6

 
0.4
 %
Acquisition and integration expenses
15.3

 
0.6
 %
 
30.4

 
1.3
 %
 
27.8

 
1.7
 %
Operating income
58.8

 
2.5
 %
 
43.9

 
1.9
 %
 
9.5

 
0.6
 %
Other (income) expense, net
(42.9
)
 
(1.8
)%
 
(8.0
)
 
(0.4
)%
 
5.6

 
0.3
 %
Interest expense, net
77.6

 
3.3
 %
 
85.5

 
3.8
 %
 
43.0

 
2.6
 %
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
24.1

 
1.0
 %
 
(33.6
)
 
(1.5
)%
 
(39.1
)
 
(2.4
)%
Income tax (benefit) expense
(4.8
)
 
(0.2
)%
 
(30.0
)
 
(1.3
)%
 
21.2

 
1.3
 %
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
28.9

 
1.2
 %
 
(3.6
)
 
(0.2
)%
 
(60.3
)
 
(3.7
)%
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes
354.6

 
14.9
 %
 
10.7

 
0.5
 %
 
(11.2
)
 
(0.7
)%
Net income (loss)
383.5

 
16.2
 %
 
7.1

 
0.3
 %
 
(71.5
)
 
(4.4
)%
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interests - discontinued operations
$
0.6

 
 %
 
$
8.5

 
0.4
 %
 
$
6.3

 
0.4
 %
Net income (loss) attributable to Cott Corporation
$
382.9

 
16.1
 %
 
$
(1.4
)
 
(0.1
)%
 
$
(77.8
)
 
(4.8
)%
Depreciation & amortization
$
194.6

 
8.2
 %
 
$
188.6

 
8.3
 %
 
$
151.1

 
9.3
 %
    
Our corporate oversight function is not treated as a segment; it includes certain general and administrative costs that are not allocated to any of the reporting segments. During the second quarter of 2018, we combined and disclosed the corporate oversight function in the All Other category. Our segment reporting results have been recast to reflect these changes for all years presented.
After the completion of the Transaction, management re-evaluated the measure of profit for our reportable segments and determined that excluding corporate allocations from segment operating income (loss) was appropriate, as these costs are not considered by management when evaluating performance. Operating income (loss) for the prior years has been recast to reflect this change and resulted in a $2.0 million and $1.2 million increase to operating income for the years ended December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, in our Route Based Services reporting segment, a $0.2 million increase to operating income for the year ended December 30, 2017 in our Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions reporting segment, and a $2.2 million and $1.2 million increase to operating loss for the years ended December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, in the All Other category.

38




The following table summarizes our net revenue, gross profit and operating income (loss) by reporting segment for 2018, 2017 and 2016:

(in millions of U.S. dollars)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue, net

 

 

Route Based Services
$
1,599.9

 
$
1,501.7

 
$
1,224.3

Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
587.6

 
602.2

 
228.0

All Other
191.6

 
165.8

 
170.9

Eliminations
(6.2
)
 

 

Total
$
2,372.9

 
$
2,269.7

 
$
1,623.2

Gross profit

 

 

Route Based Services
$
992.4

 
$
939.9

 
$
752.4

Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
152.0

 
161.4

 
65.5

All Other
31.2

 
26.4

 
32.2

Total
$
1,175.6

 
$
1,127.7

 
$
850.1

Operating income (loss)

 

 

Route Based Services 1
$
84.7

 
$
74.0

 
$
42.4

Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
16.1

 
15.9

 
5.3

All Other
(42.0
)
 
(46.0
)
 
(38.2
)
Total
$
58.8

 
$
43.9

 
$
9.5

______________________
1
Operating income in our Route Based Services reporting segment for the year ended December 30, 2017 decreased $5.0 million as a result of adopting ASU 2017-07 (see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).
The following tables summarize revenue by channel for 2018, 2017 and 2016:

For the Year Ended December 29, 2018
(in millions of U.S. dollars)
Route Based Services
 
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
 
All Other
 
Eliminations
 
Total
Revenue, net

 

 

 

 

Home and office bottled water delivery
$
994.8

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
994.8

Coffee and tea services
189.4

 
461.9

 
3.5

 
(5.8
)
 
649.0

Retail
232.9

 

 
71.5

 
(0.4
)
 
304.0

Other
182.8

 
125.7

 
116.6

 

 
425.1

Total
$
1,599.9

 
$
587.6

 
$
191.6

 
$
(6.2
)
 
$
2,372.9


For the Year Ended December 30, 2017
(in millions of U.S. dollars)
Route Based Services
 
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
 
All Other
 
Eliminations
 
Total
Revenue, net

 

 

 

 

Home and office bottled water delivery
$
940.4

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
940.4

Coffee and tea services
184.2

 
501.7

 
2.6

 

 
688.5

Retail
216.9

 

 
65.3

 

 
282.2

Other
160.2

 
100.5

 
97.9

 

 
358.6

Total
$
1,501.7

 
$
602.2

 
$
165.8

 
$

 
$
2,269.7


39




For the Year Ended December 31, 2016
(in millions of U.S. dollars)
Route Based Services
 
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
 
All Other
 
Eliminations
 
Total
Revenue, net

 

 

 

 

Home and office bottled water delivery
$
799.4

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
799.4

Coffee and tea services
146.8

 
187.8

 
2.6

 

 
337.2

Retail
164.6

 

 
51.7

 

 
216.3

Other
113.5

 
40.2

 
116.6

 

 
270.3

Total
$
1,224.3

 
$
228.0

 
$
170.9

 
$

 
$
1,623.2

Results of Operations
The following table summarizes the change in revenue by reporting segment for 2018:
 
For the Year Ended December 29, 2018
(in millions of U.S. dollars, except percentage amounts)
Route Based Services

Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions

All Other

Eliminations

Total
Change in revenue
$
98.2


$
(14.6
)

$
25.8


$
(6.2
)

$
103.2

Impact of foreign exchange 1
(9.5
)



(2.3
)



(11.8
)
Change excluding foreign exchange
$
88.7


$
(14.6
)

$
23.5


$
(6.2
)

$
91.4

Percentage change in revenue
6.5
%

(2.4
)%

15.6
%

100.0
%

4.5
%
Percentage change in revenue excluding foreign exchange
5.9
%

(2.4
)%

14.2
%

100.0
%

4.0
%
Impact of fewer trading days 2
$
1.3


$
4.9


$
0.2


$


$
6.4

Change excluding foreign exchange and impact of fewer trading days
$
90.0


$
(9.7
)

$
23.7


$
(6.2
)

$
97.8

Percentage change in revenue excluding foreign exchange and impact of fewer trading days
6.0
%

(1.6
)%

14.3
%

100.0
%

4.3
%
______________________
1
Impact of foreign exchange is the difference between the current year’s revenue translated utilizing the current year’s average foreign exchange rates less the current year’s revenue translated utilizing the prior year’s average foreign exchange rates.
2 
Our Eden business had two fewer trading days, our S&D business had three fewer trading days, and our Aimia business had one fewer trading day for the year ended December 29, 2018 as compared to the prior year.
The following table summarizes the change in revenue by reporting segment for 2017:
 
For the Year Ended December 30, 2017
(in millions of U.S. dollars, except percentage amounts)
Route Based Services
 
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions
 
All Other
 
Eliminations
 
Total
Change in revenue
$
277.4

 
$
374.2

 
$
(5.1
)
 
$

 
$
646.5

Impact of foreign exchange 1
(16.9
)
 

 
4.2

 

 
(12.7
)
Change excluding foreign exchange
$
260.5

 
$
374.2

 
$
(0.9
)
 
$

 
$
633.8

Percentage change in revenue
22.7
%
 
164.1
%
 
(3.0
)%
 
%
 
39.8
%
Percentage change in revenue excluding foreign exchange
21.3
%
 
164.1
%
 
(0.5
)%
 
%
 
39.0
%
______________________
1
Impact of foreign exchange is the difference between the current year’s revenue translated utilizing the current year’s average foreign exchange rates less the current year’s revenue translated utilizing the prior year’s average foreign exchange rates.


40



The following table summarizes our EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the fiscal years ended December 29, 2018, December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively.
 
For the Year Ended
 
December 29, 2018
 
December 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
(in millions of U.S. dollars)

 

 

Net income (loss) from continuing operations
$
28.9

 
$
(3.6
)
 
$
(60.3
)
Interest expense, net
77.6

 
85.5

 
43.0

Income tax (benefit) expense
(4.8
)
 
(30.0
)
 
21.2

Depreciation and amortization
194.6

 
188.6

 
151.1

EBITDA
$
296.3

 
$
240.5

 
$
155.0

Acquisition and integration costs 1,3
15.3

 
30.4

 
27.8

Share-based compensation costs
18.4

 
14.0

 
6.6

Inventory step-up adjustments
1.5

 

 
6.2

Commodity hedging loss (gain), net 2
0.3

 
(0.3
)
 
4.1

Foreign exchange and other (gains) losses, net
(10.7
)
 
(2.0
)
 
0.2

Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment, net
9.4

 
11.1

 
6.6

Gain on extinguishment of long-term debt
(7.1
)
 
(1.5
)
 

Gain on sale
(6.0
)
 

 

Other adjustments, net 3
(5.4
)
 
3.4

 
5.1

Adjusted EBITDA
$
312.0

 
$
295.6

 
$
211.6

______________________
1
Includes a reduction of $1.1 million and an increase of $3.5 million and $0.4 million of share-based compensation costs for the years ended December 29, 2018, December 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively, related to awards granted in connection with the acquisitions of our S&D, Eden and DSS businesses.
2 
In the fourth quarter of 2016, unrealized gains and losses associated with coffee hedges were included as adjustments to EBITDA, while certain realized gains and losses were not included as adjustments. In 2017, with the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-12, “Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities,” management determined it was appropriate to include these realized and unrealized gains and losses as adjustments to EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 2016.
3 
With the adoption of ASU 2017-07 (see Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements), the gain on pension curtailment of $4.5 million that was previously recorded to acquisition and integration costs was reclassified to other adjustments, net for the year ended December 30, 2017. This reclassification had no effect on Adjusted EBITDA for the year ended December 30, 2017.
Year Ended December 29, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 30, 2017
Revenue, Net
Net revenue increased $103.2 million, or 4.5%, in 2018 from 2017.
Route Based Services net revenue increased $98.2 million, or 6.5%, in 2018 from 2017, due primarily to the addition of revenues from the Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses of $52.4 million, pricing initiatives and growth within our home and office water delivery operations of $25.8 million, growth in retail of $9.7 million, and the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates of $9.5 million.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions net revenue decreased $14.6 million, or 2.4%, in 2018 from 2017, due primarily to the reduction in volumes combined with lower green coffee commodity prices and a change in customer mix of $25.3 million, as well as the impact of three fewer trading days compared to the prior year of $4.9 million, partially offset by growth in liquid coffee, extracts, tea and other of $15.6 million.
All Other net revenue increased $25.8 million, or 15.6%, in 2018 from 2017, due primarily to increased volumes and the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates.

41



Gross Profit
Gross profit increased to $1,175.6 million in 2018 compared to $1,127.7 million in 2017. Gross profit as a percentage of net revenue was 49.5% in 2018 compared to 49.7% in 2017.
Route Based Services gross profit increased to $992.4 million in 2018 compared to $939.9 million in 2017, due primarily to the addition of the Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses, pricing initiatives and growth within our home and office water delivery operations of $58.5 million, and the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates of $4.0 million, partially offset by increases in freight and transportation costs of $8.9 million.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions gross profit decreased to $152.0 million in 2018 compared to $161.4 million in 2017, due primarily to the reduction in coffee volumes and a change in customer mix of $10.4 million, a reduction in juice and allieds of $1.0 million, as well as an increase in manufacturing expenses of $3.0 million, partially offset by growth in liquid coffee, extracts, tea and other of $5.2 million.
All Other gross profit increased to $31.2 million in 2018 compared to $26.4 million in 2017, due primarily to increased volumes.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
SG&A expenses increased to $1,092.1 million in 2018 compared to $1,043.2 million in 2017. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenue was 46.0% in each of 2018 and 2017.
Route Based Services SG&A expenses increased to $888.7 million in 2018 compared to $837.7 million in 2017, due primarily to the addition of the Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses and the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rates of $12.0 million.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions SG&A expenses decreased to $137.1 million in 2018 compared to $141.9 million in 2017, due primarily to the reductions in depreciation and amortization expense of $3.6 million and operating expenses of $1.2 million.
All Other SG&A expenses increased to $66.3 million in 2018 compared to $63.6 million in 2017, due primarily to an increase in share-based compensation costs.
Acquisition and Integration Expenses
Acquisition and integration expenses decreased to $15.3 million in 2018 compared to $30.4 million in 2017. Acquisition and integration expenses as a percentage of net revenue was 0.6% in 2018 compared to 1.3% in 2017.
Route Based Services acquisition and integration expenses decreased to $10.3 million in 2018 compared to $14.0 million in 2017, due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our Eden business, partially offset by costs incurred with the integration of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions acquisition and integration benefit was $1.9 million in 2018 compared to an expense of $3.1 million in 2017, due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our S&D business.
All Other acquisition and integration decreased to $6.9 million in 2018 compared to $13.3 million in 2017, due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our S&D and Eden businesses, partially offset by costs incurred with the integration of our Crystal Rock and Mountain Valley businesses.
Operating Income
Operating income increased to $58.8 million in 2018 compared to $43.9 million in 2017.
Route Based Services operating income increased to $84.7 million in 2018 compared to $74.0 million in 2017, due to the items discussed above.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions operating income increased to $16.1 million in 2018 compared to $15.9 million in 2017, due to the items discussed above.
All Other operating loss decreased to $42.0 million in 2018 compared to $46.0 million in 2017, due to the items discussed above.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net increased to $42.9 million in 2018 compared to $8.0 million in 2017, due primarily to income recognized from favorable legal settlements, gains recognized on the redemption of the DSS Notes and the sale of our PCS business, mark to market gains on warrant securities, and the increase of net gains on foreign currency transactions.

42



Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net was $77.6 million in 2018 compared to $85.5 million in 2017, due primarily to the redemption of our DSS Notes in January 2018.
Income Taxes
Income tax benefit was $4.8 million in 2018 compared to income tax benefit of $30.0 million in 2017. The effective tax rate was (20.0%) in 2018 compared to 89.3% in 2017. The income tax benefit in 2018 was due primarily to a $5.6 million release of Canadian valuation allowance and releases of various uncertain tax positions. The income tax benefit in 2017 was due primarily to a tax benefit of $32.2 million associated with the change in the U.S. federal enacted tax rate. The 2018 effective tax rate differs from the Canadian statutory rate primarily due to: (a) changes in valuation allowances and tax reserves; (b) significant permanent differences for which we have recognized a tax benefit; (c) income in tax jurisdictions with lower statutory tax rates than Canada; and (d) losses in tax jurisdictions with existing valuation allowances.
Year Ended December 30, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016
Revenue, Net
Net revenue increased $646.5 million, or 39.8%, in 2017 from 2016.
Route Based Services net revenue increased $277.4 million, or 22.7%, in 2017 from 2016, due primarily to a full year of operations from our Eden business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016, which resulted in additional revenues of $244.2 million, growth in volume, consumption and pricing of $20.0 million, and the favorable impact of foreign exchange rates of $16.9 million.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions net revenue increased $374.2 million, or 164.1%, in 2017 from 2016, due primarily to a full year of revenues from our S&D business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016.
All Other net revenue decreased $5.1 million, or 3.0%, in 2017 from 2016, due primarily to decreased volumes and the impact of unfavorable foreign exchange rates of $4.2 million.
Gross Profit
Gross profit increased to $1,127.7 million in 2017 compared to $850.1 million in 2016. Gross profit as a percentage of net revenue was 49.7% in 2018 compared to 52.4% in 2017.
Route Based Services gross profit increased to $939.9 million in 2017 compared to $752.4 million in 2016, due primarily to a full year of operations from our Eden business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016, which resulted in additional gross profit of $169.6 million, with the remaining increase of $17.9 million related to our DSS business and was due primarily to growth in volume, consumption and pricing, partially offset by higher production, transportation and other costs.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions gross profit increased to $161.4 million in 2017 compared to $65.5 million in 2016, due primarily to a full year of revenues from our S&D business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016.
All Other gross profit decreased to $26.4 million in 2017 compared to $32.2 million in 2016, due primarily to decreased volumes.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
SG&A expenses increased to $1,043.2 million in 2017 compared to $806.2 million in 2016. SG&A expenses as a percentage of net revenue was 46.0% in 2017 compared to 49.7% in 2016.
Route Based Services SG&A expenses increased to $837.7 million in 2017 compared to $698.0 million in 2016, due primarily to a full year of operations from our Eden business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016, which resulted in additional SG&A expenses of $142.4 million, partially offset by a reduction in compensation costs of $3.8 million.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions SG&A expenses increased to $141.9 million in 2017 compared to $55.7 million in 2016, due primarily to a full year of revenues from our S&D business in 2017 compared to five months in 2016.
All Other SG&A expenses increased to $63.6 million in 2017 compared to $52.5 million in 2016, due primarily to an     increase in marketing and professional costs.
Acquisition and Integration Expenses
Acquisition and integration expenses decreased to $30.4 million in 2017 compared to $27.8 million in 2016. Acquisition and integration expenses as a percentage of net revenue was 1.3% in 2017 compared to 1.7% in 2016.

43



Route Based Services acquisition and integration expenses increased to $14.0 million in 2017 compared to $4.9 million in 2016, due primarily to the costs incurred with the integration of our Eden business.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions acquisition and integration expenses decreased to $3.1 million in 2017 compared to $5.1 million in 2016, due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our S&D business.
All Other SG&A acquisition and integration decreased to $13.3 million in 2017 compared to $17.8 million in 2016, due primarily to the reduction in costs with the integration of our S&D and Eden businesses.
Operating Income
Operating income increased to $43.9 million in 2017 compared to $9.5 million in 2016.
Route Based Services operating income increased to $74.0 million in 2017 compared to $42.4 million in 2016, due to the items discussed above.
Coffee, Tea and Extract Solutions operating income increased to $15.9 million in 2017 compared to $5.3 million in 2016, due to the items discussed above.
All Other operating loss increased to $46.0 million in 2017 compared to $38.2 million in 2016, due to the items discussed above.
Other (Income) Expense, Net
Other income, net was $8.0 million in 2017 compared to other expense, net of $5.6 million in 2016, due primarily to the increase of net gains on foreign currency transactions, and the gain recognized upon the partial redemption of our DSS Notes in 2017 and unrealized losses on our commodity hedges in 2016.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net was $85.5 million in 2017 compared to $43.0 million in 2016, due primarily to the issuance of our 2025 Notes in the first quarter of 2017 and having a full year of interest expense in 2017 associated with our 2024 Notes.
Income Taxes
Income tax benefit was $30.0 million in 2017 compared to income tax expense of $21.2 million in 2016. The effective income tax rate was 89.3% in 2017 compared to (54.2%) in 2016. The income tax benefit in 2017 was due primarily to the change in the U.S. federal enacted tax rate in 2017. The income tax expense in 2016 was due primarily to the Canadian valuation allowance recorded in the third quarter of 2016 and the U.S. federal valuation allowance recorded in the fourth quarter of 2016. The effective tax rate differs from the Canadian statutory rate primarily due to: (a) the change in the U.S. federal enacted tax rate in 2017; (b) significant permanent differences for which we have recognized a tax benefit; (c) income in tax jurisdictions with lower statutory tax rates than Canada; and (d) losses in tax jurisdictions with existing valuation allowances.


44



Liquidity and Capital Resources

The following table summarizes our cash flows for 2018, 2017 and 2016 as reported in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements:

For the Year Ended

December 29, 2018
 
December 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
(in millions of U.S. dollars)

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations
$
244.3

 
$
176.0

 
$
145.5

Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations
(282.7
)
 
(153.6
)
 
(1,052.6
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities from continuing operations
(296.6
)
 
596.5

 
807.1

Cash flows from discontinued operations:

 

 

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities from continuing operations
(97.6
)
 
102.7

 
124.3

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities from continuing operations
1,225.5

 
(44.7
)
 
(44.0
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities from continuing operations
(769.7
)
 
(643.4
)
 
68.6

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(10.3
)
 
6.3

 
(7.9
)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
12.9

 
39.8

 
41.0

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of year
157.9

 
118.1

 
77.1

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of year
170.8

 
157.9

 
118.1

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash of discontinued operations, end of year

 
66.0

 
40.0

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash from continuing operations, end of year
$
170.8

 
$
91.9

 
$
78.1

Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations was $244.3 million in 2018 compared to $176.0 million in 2017 and $145.5 million in 2016. The $68.3 million increase in 2018 compared to 2017 was due primarily to the increase in net income from continuing operations and the change in working capital account balances relative to the prior year resulting primarily from timing of payments of interest on our 2024 Notes.
The $30.5 million increase in 2017 compared to 2016 was due primarily to the decrease in net loss from continuing operations, partially offset by the change in working capital account balances relative to the prior year resulting from timing of inventory purchases and payments of interest on our 2024 Notes.
Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities from continuing operations was $282.7 million in 2018 compared to $153.6 million in 2017 and $1,052.6 million in 2016. The $129.1 million increase in 2018 compared to 2017 was due primarily to the cash used to finance the Crystal Rock Acquisition and the Mountain Valley Acquisition, an increase in additions to property, plant and equipment and intangible assets relative to the prior year, partially offset by the proceeds received from the sale of our PCS business and proceeds received from the sale of equity securities.

45



The $899.0 million decrease in 2017 compared to 2016 was due primarily to the cash used in the acquisitions of our S&D, Eden and Aquaterra businesses in the prior year, partially offset by an increase in additions to property, plant and equipment relative to the prior year.
Financing Activities
Cash used in financing activities from continuing operations was $296.6 million in 2018 compared to cash provided by financing activities from continuing operations of $596.5 million in 2017 and cash provided by financing activities from continuing operations of $807.1 million in 2016. The $893.1 million decrease in 2018 compared to 2017 was due primarily to the redemption of the DSS Notes in the current year, the increase of common shares repurchased relative to the prior year, and the issuance of the 2025 Notes in the prior year, partially offset by an increase in borrowings under our ABL facility net of payments relative to the prior year and the partial redemption of the DSS Notes in the prior year.
The $210.6 million decrease in cash provided by financing activities from continuing operations in 2017 compared to 2016 was due primarily to the receipt of net proceeds from the issuance of common shares and the 2024 Notes in the prior year, partially offset by the issuance of the 2025 Notes and the partial redemption of the DSS Notes in the current year.
Financial Liquidity
As of December 29, 2018, we had $1,342.2 million of debt and $170.8 million of cash and cash equivalents compared to $2,287.0 million of debt and $91.9 million of cash and cash equivalents as of December 30, 2017. On January 30, 2018, in connection with the closing of the Transaction, we used a portion of the proceeds to (i) retire $525.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2022 Notes, (ii) retire the remaining $250.0 million aggregate principal amount of our DSS Notes, (iii) repay the $262.5 million outstanding balance on our ABL facility, and (iv) repay $1.9 million in aggregate principal outstanding on our capital lease finance arrangement with General Electric Capital Corporation.
We believe that our level of resources, which includes cash on hand, available borrowings under our ABL facility and funds provided by operations, will be adequate to meet our expenses, capital expenditures, and debt service obligations for the next twelve months. Our ability to generate cash to meet our current expenses and debt service obligations will depend on our future performance. If we do not have enough cash to pay our debt service obligations, or if the ABL facility or our outstanding notes were to become currently due, either at maturity or as a result of a breach, we may be required to take actions such as amending our ABL facility or the indentures governing our outstanding notes, refinancing all or part of our existing debt, selling assets, incurring additional indebtedness or raising equity. The ABL facility is secured by substantially all of our assets and those of the respective guarantor subsidiaries. If the ABL facility were to become currently due, the lenders may have the right to foreclose on such assets. If we need to seek additional financing, there is no assurance that this additional financing will be available on favorable terms or at all.
Our ABL facility and debt capital markets transactions are described under “Debt” below.
In June 2016, we completed the June 2016 Offering for gross proceeds to us of approximately $230.1 million. We incurred $9.2 million of underwriter commissions and $1.1 million in professional fees in connection with the June 2016 Offering. The net proceeds of the June 2016 Offering were used to repay borrowings under our ABL facility, to finance the acquisition of S&D and for general corporate purposes.
In March 2016, we completed the March 2016 Offering for gross proceeds to us of approximately $150.6 million. We incurred $6.0 million of underwriter commissions and $0.8 million in professional fees the March 2016 Offering. The net proceeds of the March 2016 Offering were used to repay borrowings under our ABL facility and for general corporate purposes.
In 2018, we declared a dividend of $0.06 per common share each quarter for an aggregate dividend payment of approximately $33.7 million.
We may, from time to time, depending on market conditions, including without limitation whether our outstanding notes are then trading at a discount to their face amount, repurchase our outstanding notes for cash and/or in exchange for shares of our common shares, warrants, preferred shares, debt or other consideration, in each case in open market purchases and/or privately negotiated transactions. The amounts involved in any such transactions, individually or in aggregate, may be material. However, the covenants in our ABL facility subject such purchases to certain limitations and conditions.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements as defined under Item 303(a)(4) of Regulation S-K as of December 29, 2018.

46



Contractual Obligations
The following table shows the schedule of future payments under certain contracts, including debt agreements and guarantees, as of December 29, 2018:
 

 
Payments due by period
(in millions of U.S. dollars)
Total
 
2019
 
2020
 
2021
 
2022
 
2023
 
Thereafter
5.500% senior notes due in 2024
513.1

 

 

 

 

 

 
513.1

5.500% senior notes due in 2025
750.0

 

 

 

 

 

 
750.0

Deferred consideration - acquisition payouts
0.1


0.1











ABL facility 1
81.1

 
81.1

 

 

 

 

 

Capital leases and other long-term debt
5.6

 
2.4

 
1.4

 
0.7

 
0.6

 
0.4

 
0.1

Interest expense 2
444.4

 
70.3

 
69.5

 
69.4

 
69.4

 
69.4

 
96.4

Operating leases
290.2

 
51.6

 
42.9

 
36.2

 
29.2

 
23.4

 
106.9

Pension obligations
10.2

 
0.7

 
0.7

 
0.7

 
0.7

 
0.6

 
6.8

Purchase obligations 3
157.0

 
147.8

 
8.1

 
1.0

 
0.1

 

 

Total 4
$
2,251.7

 
$
354.0

 
$
122.6

 
$
108.0

 
$
100.0

 
$
93.8

 
$
1,473.3

______________________
1
The ABL facility is considered a current liability. As of December 29, 2018, we had $81.1 million of outstanding borrowings under the ABL facility.
2
Interest expense includes fixed interest on the 2024 Notes, the 2025 Notes, the ABL facility, capital leases and other long-term liabilities. Actual amounts will differ from estimates provided.
3
Purchase obligations consist of commitments for the purchase of inventory, energy transactions, and payments related to professional fees and technology outsourcing agreements. These obligations represent the minimum contractual obligations expected under the normal course of business.
4
The contractual obligations table excludes the Company’s ASC 740 uncertain tax positions of $15.5 million because the Company cannot make a reliable estimate as to when such amounts will be settled.



47



Debt
Our total debt as of December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017 was as follows:
 
December 29, 2018
 
December 30, 2017
(in millions of U.S. dollars)
Principal
 
Unamortized Debt Costs
 
Net
 
Principal
 
Unamortized Debt Costs
 
Net
10.000% senior notes due in 2021 1

 

 

 
269.9

 

 
269.9

5.375% senior notes due in 2022






525.0


6.0


519.0

5.500% senior notes due in 2024
513.1


7.2


505.9


539.1


9.5


529.6

5.500% senior notes due in 2025
750.0


9.8


740.2


750.0


11.0


739.0

ABL facility
81.1




81.1


220.3