SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
☐ Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number: 001-31567
Central Pacific Financial Corp.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)|| ||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
220 South King Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class|| ||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock, No Par Value|| ||CPF||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large Accelerated Filer ||o||Accelerated Filer||x|
|Non-Accelerated Filer||o||Smaller Reporting Company ||☐|
| ||Emerging Growth Company ||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act . o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).Yes ☐ No ý
As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $438,719,000. As of January 29, 2021, the number of shares of common stock of the registrant outstanding was 28,183,340 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement for the 2021 annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this annual report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. The proxy statement will be filed within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this annual report on Form 10-K.
CENTRAL PACIFIC FINANCIAL CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Table of Contents
Forward-Looking Statements and Factors that Could Affect Future Results
Certain statements contained in this annual report on Form 10-K that are not statements of historical fact constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the "Act"), notwithstanding that such statements are not specifically identified. In addition, certain statements may be contained in our future filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), in press releases and in oral and written statements made by us or with our approval that are not statements of historical fact and constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Act. Examples of forward-looking statements include but are not limited to: (i) projections of revenues, expenses, income or loss, earnings or loss per share, the payment or nonpayment of dividends, capital position, net interest margin or other financial items; (ii) statements of plans, objectives and expectations of Central Pacific Financial Corp. or its management or Board of Directors, including those relating to business plans, use of capital resources, products or services and regulatory developments and regulatory actions; (iii) statements of future economic performance including anticipated performance results in light of the novel coronavirus disease ("COVID-19") pandemic and from our RISE2020 initiative; and (iv) statements of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing. Words such as "believes," "plans," "anticipates," "expects," "intends," "forecasts," "hopes," "targeting," "continue," "remain," "will," "should," "estimates," "may" and other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.
While we believe that our forward-looking statements and the assumptions underlying them are reasonably based, such statements and assumptions are by their nature subject to risks and uncertainties, and thus could later prove to be inaccurate or incorrect. Accordingly, actual results could differ materially from those in such statements or projections. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include but are not limited to:
•the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic virus on local, national and international economies, including, but not limited to, the adverse impact on tourism and construction in the State of Hawaii, our borrowers, customers, third-party contractors, vendors and employees as well as the effects of government programs and initiatives in response to COVID-19;
•the impact of our participation in the Small Business Administration ("SBA") Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") and fulfillment of government guarantees on our PPP loans;
•increase in inventory or adverse conditions in the real estate market and deterioration in the construction industry;
•adverse changes in the financial performance and/or condition of our borrowers and, as a result, increased loan delinquency rates, deterioration in asset quality and losses in our loan portfolio;
•our ability to successfully implement and achieve the objectives of our RISE2020 initiative;
•the impact of local, national, and international economies and events (including natural disasters such as wildfires, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, tsunamis, storms, earthquakes and pandemic virus and disease, including COVID-19) on the Company’s business and operations and on tourism, the military and other major industries operating within the Hawaii market and any other markets in which the Company does business;
•deterioration or malaise in domestic economic conditions, including any destabilization in the financial industry and deterioration of the real estate market, as well as the impact of declining levels of consumer and business confidence in the state of the economy in general and in financial institutions in particular;
•changes in estimates of future reserve requirements based upon the periodic review thereof under relevant regulatory and accounting requirements;
•the impact of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), changes in capital standards, other regulatory reform and federal and state legislation, including but not limited to regulations promulgated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the "CFPB"), government-sponsored enterprise reform, and any related rules and regulations which affect our business operations and competitiveness;
•the costs and effects of legal and regulatory developments, including legal proceedings or regulatory or other governmental inquiries and proceedings and the resolution thereof, the results of regulatory examinations or reviews and the effect of, and our ability to comply with, any regulatory orders or actions we are or may become subject to;
•ability to successfully implement our initiatives to lower our efficiency ratio;
•the effects of and changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including the interest rate policies of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the "FRB" or the "Federal Reserve");
•inflation, interest rate, securities market and monetary fluctuations, including the anticipated replacement of the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") Index and the impact on our loans and debt which are tied to that index;
•negative trends in our market capitalization and adverse changes in the price of the Company’s common stock;
•acts of war or terrorism;
•pandemic virus and disease, including COVID-19;
•changes in consumer spending, borrowings and savings habits;
•failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures;
•cybersecurity and data privacy breaches and the consequences therefrom;
•the ability to address deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures;
•technological changes and developments;
•changes in the competitive environment among financial holding companies and other financial service providers;
•the effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") and other accounting standard setters and the cost and resources required to implement such changes;
•our ability to attract and retain key personnel;
•changes in our organization, compensation and benefit plans; and
•our success at managing any of the risks involved in the foregoing items.
For further information with respect to factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from the expectations or projections stated in the forward-looking statements, please see also "Risk Factors" under Part I, Item 1A of this report. We urge investors to consider all of these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which such statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made, or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events except as required by law.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Central Pacific Financial Corp., a Hawaii corporation and bank holding company registered under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the "BHC Act"), was organized on February 1, 1982. Our principal business is to serve as a holding company for our bank subsidiary, Central Pacific Bank, which was incorporated in its present form in the state of Hawaii on March 16, 1982 in connection with the holding company reorganization. Its predecessor entity was incorporated in the state of Hawaii on January 15, 1954. As of December 31, 2020, we had total assets of $6.59 billion, total loans of $4.96 billion, total deposits of $5.80 billion and shareholders' equity of $546.7 million.
When we refer to "the Company," "we," "us" or "our," we mean Central Pacific Financial Corp. and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. When we refer to "Central Pacific Financial Corp.," "CPF" or to the holding company, we are referring to the parent company on a standalone basis. We refer to Central Pacific Bank herein as "our bank" or "the bank."
Through our bank and its subsidiaries, we offer full-service commercial banking with 31 bank branches and 69 ATMs located throughout the state of Hawaii. Our administrative and main offices are located in Honolulu and we have 23 branches on the island of Oahu. We operate four branches on the island of Maui, two branches on the island of Hawaii and two branches on the island of Kauai. During the third quarter of 2020, the Company consolidated three in-store branches with other existing nearby branches. These in-store branches had a small square footage which did not allow for adequate social distancing and had been closed since March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During the fourth quarter of 2020, a traditional branch was also consolidated with other existing nearby branches. Four of the Company's 31 branches remain temporarily closed to protect the health and well-being of the Company's employees and customers from COVID-19. Our bank's deposits are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") up to applicable limits. The bank is not a member of the Federal Reserve System.
Central Pacific Bank is a full-service commercial bank offering a broad range of banking products and services, including accepting time and demand deposits and originating loans. Our loans include commercial loans, construction loans, commercial and residential mortgage loans and consumer loans.
We derive our income primarily from interest and fees on loans, interest on investment securities and fees received in connection with deposit and other services. Our major operating expenses are the interest paid by our bank on deposits and borrowings, salaries and employee benefits and general operating expenses. Our bank relies substantially on a foundation of locally generated deposits.
In the first quarter of 2020, the Company reassessed the alignment of its reportable segments and combined its three reportable segments (Banking Operations, Treasury and All Others segments) into a single operating segment. We believe this change better reflects how the Company's Executive Committee, or its chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), manages, allocates resources and assesses performance of the activities of the Company. The Company also believes that this change is better aligned with how the Company's CODM manages its business. Segment results for 2019 have been reclassified to reflect the realignment of the Company’s reportable segments and be comparable to the segment results for 2020. This change in reportable segments did not have an impact on the Company's previously reported historical consolidated financial statements.
Our operations, like those of other financial institutions that operate in our market, are significantly influenced by economic conditions in Hawaii, including the strength of the real estate market and the tourism industry, as well as the fiscal and regulatory policies of the federal and state government and the regulatory authorities that govern financial institutions. See the "Supervision and Regulation" section below for other information about the regulation of our holding company and bank.
We offer a full range of banking services and products to businesses, professionals and individuals. We provide our customers with an array of loan products, including residential mortgage loans, commercial and consumer loans and lines of credit, commercial real estate loans and construction loans.
Through our bank, we concentrate our lending activities in five principal areas:
(1)Residential Mortgage Lending. Residential mortgage loans include fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans primarily secured by single-family, owner-occupied residences in Hawaii and home equity lines of credit and loans. We typically require loan-to-value ratios of not more than 80%, although higher levels are permitted with accompanying mortgage insurance. First mortgage loans secured by residential properties have an average loan size of approximately $0.5 million and marketable collateral. Changes in interest rates, the economic recession and other market factors have impacted, and future changes will likely continue to impact, the marketability and value of collateral and the financial condition of our borrowers and thus the level of credit risk inherent in the portfolio. A portion of our first residential mortgage loan originations are sold in the secondary market and a portion is put into our loan portfolio.
(2)Commercial, Financial and Agricultural Lending. Loans in this category consist primarily of term loans and lines of credit to small and middle-market businesses and professionals in the state of Hawaii. The borrower's business is typically regarded as the principal source of repayment, although our underwriting policies and practices generally require additional sources of collateral, including real estate and other business assets, as well as personal guarantees where possible to mitigate risk and help to reduce credit losses.
(3)Commercial Mortgage Lending. Loans in this category consist of loans secured by commercial real estate, including but not limited to, structures and facilities to support activities designated as multi-family residential properties, industrial, warehouse, general office, retail, health care and religious dwellings. Our underwriting policies and practices generally requires net cash flow from the property to cover the debt service while maintaining an appropriate amount of reserves and permits consideration of liquidation of the collateral as a secondary source of repayment.
(4)Construction Lending. Construction land development and other land loans encompasses the financing of residential and commercial construction projects.
(5)Consumer Lending. Loans in this category are generally either unsecured or secured by personal assets, such as automobiles, and the average loan size is generally small.
Beyond the lending function described above, we also offer a full range of deposit products and services including checking, savings and time deposits, cash management and electronic banking services, trust services and retail brokerage services.
Our Market Area and Competition
Based on deposit market share among FDIC-insured financial institutions in Hawaii, Central Pacific Bank was the fourth-largest depository institution in the state at December 31, 2020.
The banking and financial services industry in the state of Hawaii generally, and particularly in our target market areas, is highly competitive. We compete for loans, deposits and customers with other commercial banks, savings banks, securities and brokerage companies, financial technology ("fintech") companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, finance companies, credit unions and other nonbank financial service providers, including mortgage providers and brokers, operating via the internet and other technology platforms. Some of these competitors are much larger by total assets and capitalization, and have greater access to capital markets.
In order to compete with the other financial services providers in the state of Hawaii, we principally rely upon personal relationships between customers and our officers, directors and employees, and specialized services tailored to meet the needs of our customers and the communities we serve. We believe we remain competitive by offering flexibility and superior service levels to our customers, coupled with competitive interest rate pricing, strong digital technology and local promotional activities.
For further discussion of factors affecting our operations see, "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
No individual or single group of related accounts is considered material in relation to the assets or deposits of our bank, or in relation to the overall business of the Company. However, approximately 71% of our loan portfolio at December 31, 2020 consisted of real estate-related loans, including residential mortgage loans, home equity loans, commercial mortgage loans and construction loans. See "Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financial Condition—Loan Portfolio."
Our business activities are focused primarily in Hawaii. Consequently, our results of operations and financial condition are impacted by the general economic trends in Hawaii, particularly in the commercial and residential real estate markets. During periods of economic strength, the real estate market and the real estate industry typically perform well; during periods of economic weakness, they typically are adversely affected.
Central Pacific Bank is the wholly-owned principal subsidiary of Central Pacific Financial Corp. As of December 31, 2020, other wholly-owned subsidiaries include CPB Capital Trust IV and CPB Statutory Trust V. CPB Capital Trust II and CPB Statutory Trust III were terminated in January 2019.
In January 2020, the bank acquired a 50% ownership interest in a mortgage loan origination and brokerage company, Oahu HomeLoans, LLC. The bank concluded that the investment meets the consolidation requirements under Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 810, "Consolidation." The bank also concluded that the
entity meets the definition of a variable interest entity and that we are the primary beneficiary of the variable interest entity. Accordingly, the investment has been consolidated into our financial statements.
Central Pacific Bank also owns 50% of Gentry HomeLoans, LLC, Haseko HomeLoans, LLC and Island Pacific HomeLoans, LLC, which are accounted for under the cost method and are included in unconsolidated subsidiaries.
The Company sponsors the Central Pacific Foundation, which is not consolidated in the Company's financial statements.
Supervision and Regulation
The Company and the bank are subject to significant regulation and restrictions by federal and state laws and regulatory agencies for the protection of depositors and the FDIC deposit insurance fund, borrowers, and the stability of the United States of America ("U.S.") banking system. The following discussion of statutes and regulations is a summary and does not purport to be complete nor does it address all applicable statutes and regulations. This discussion is also qualified in its entirety by reference to the statutes and regulations referred to in this discussion. We cannot predict whether or when new legislative initiatives may be proposed or enacted or new regulations or guidance may be promulgated nor the effect new laws, regulations and supervisory policies and practices may have on community banks generally or on our financial condition and results of operations. Such developments could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the competitive balance among banks, savings associations, credit unions and other financial institutions. We also cannot predict whether or when regulatory requirements may be reduced or eliminated and the overall affect such reduction or elimination may have on the Company and the bank.
Central Pacific Financial Corp. is a legal entity separate and distinct from its subsidiaries. As the bank holding company for Central Pacific Bank, Central Pacific Financial Corp. is regulated under the BHC Act and is subject to inspection, examination and supervision by the FRB. It is also subject to Hawaii's Code of Financial Institutions and is subject to inspection, examination and supervision by the Hawaii Division of Financial Institutions ("DFI".)
The Company is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), as administered by the SEC. Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the trading symbol "CPF," and we are subject to the rules of the NYSE for companies listed there. In addition to the powers of the bank regulatory agencies we are subject to, the SEC and the NYSE have the ability to take enforcement actions against us.
In addition, the Company is also subject to the accounting oversight and corporate governance requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including, among other things, required executive certification of financial presentations, requirements for board audit committees and their members, and disclosure of controls and procedures and establishment and testing on internal control over financial reporting.
Central Pacific Bank, as a Hawaii state-chartered bank, is subject to primary supervision, periodic examination and regulation by the DFI and FDIC and is also subject to certain regulations promulgated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB"), Federal Trade Commission ("FTC"), and FRB. In periodic examinations, the DFI, FDIC, and FRB assesses our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, market sensitivity and other aspects of our operations. These bodies also determine whether our management is effectively managing the bank and the holding company and whether we are in compliance with all applicable laws or regulations.
Legislative and Regulatory Developments
The federal banking agencies continue to implement the remaining requirements in the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as promulgating other regulations and guidelines intended to assure the financial strength and safety and soundness of banks and the stability of the U.S. banking system. Following on the implementation of the new capital rules under Basel III ("Basel III Capital Rule") and the so-called Volcker Rule which restricts certain proprietary trading and investment activities, on February 3, 2017, President Trump issued an executive order identifying certain “core principles” for the administration’s financial services regulatory policy and directing the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the heads of other financial regulatory agencies, to evaluate how the current regulatory framework promotes or inhibits the principles and what actions have been, and are being, taken to promote the principles. In response to the executive order, on June 12, 2017, October 6, 2017,
October 26, 2017 and July 31, 2018, respectively, the U.S. Department of the Treasury issued four reports recommending a number of comprehensive changes in the current regulatory system for U.S. depository institutions, the U.S. capital markets, the U.S. asset management and insurance industries, and non-bank financial institutions, fintech and financial innovation around the following principles.
•Improving regulatory efficiency and effectiveness by critically evaluating mandates and regulatory fragmentation, overlap, and duplication across regulatory agencies;
•Aligning the financial system to help support the U.S. economy;
•Reducing regulatory burden by decreasing unnecessary complexity;
•Tailoring the regulatory approach based on size and complexity of regulated firms and requiring greater regulatory cooperation and coordination among financial regulators; and
•Aligning regulations to support market liquidity, investment, and lending in the U.S. economy.
•Creating a regulatory landscape that better supports nonbank financial institutions, embraces financial technology and fosters innovation.
The scope and breadth of regulatory changes that will occur as a result of the election of President Biden have yet to be determined, though we believe there will an increased focus on regulatory compliance, supervision and examination during President Biden’s term.
In 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act repealed or modified certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and eased regulations on all but the largest banks. Highlights from this legislation included, among other things: (i) creating a new category of "qualified mortgages" presumed to satisfy ability-to-repay requirements for loans that meet certain criteria and are held in portfolio by banks with less than $10 billion in assets from the ability-to-repay requirements for certain qualified residential mortgage loans held in portfolio; (ii) not require appraisals for certain transactions valued at less than $400,000 in rural areas; (iii) clarify that, subject to various conditions, reciprocal deposits of another depository institution obtained using a deposit broker through a deposit placement network for purposes of obtaining maximum deposit insurance would not be considered brokered deposits subject to the FDIC's brokered-deposit regulations; and (iv) simplify capital calculations by requiring regulators to establish for institutions under $10 billion in assets a community bank leverage ratio (tangible equity to average consolidated assets) at a percentage not less than 8% and not greater than 10% that such institutions may elect to replace the general applicable risk-based capital requirements for determining well-capitalized status (discussed in further detail below).
Capital Adequacy Requirements
Bank holding companies and banks are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by state and federal banking agencies. The Basel III Capital Rule, which initially became effective on January 1, 2015, has now been fully phased in. The risk-based capital guidelines for bank holding companies and banks require capital ratios that vary based on the perceived degree of risk associated with a banking organization's operations for both transactions reported on the balance sheet as assets, such as loans, and those recorded as off-balance sheet items, such as commitments, letters of credit and recourse arrangements. The risk-based capital ratio is determined by classifying assets and certain off-balance sheet financial instruments into weighted categories, with higher levels of capital being required for those categories perceived as representing greater risks and dividing its qualifying capital by its total risk-adjusted assets and off-balance sheet items. Bank holding companies and banks engaged in significant trading activity may also be subject to the market risk capital guidelines and be required to incorporate additional market and interest rate risk components into their risk-based capital standards.
The Federal Reserve monitors our capital adequacy on a consolidated basis, and the FDIC and the DFI monitor the capital adequacy of our bank. The Company and the bank are required to maintain minimum risk-based and leverage capital ratios, as well as a Capital Conservation Buffer, pursuant to the Basel III Capital Rule.
These rules implement the Basel III international regulatory capital standards in the United States, as well as certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. These quantitative calculations are minimums, and the Federal Reserve, FDIC or DFI may determine that a banking organization, based on its size, complexity or risk profile, must maintain a higher level of capital in order to operate in a safe and sound manner.
Under the Basel III Capital Rule, the Company's and the bank's assets, exposures and certain off-balance sheet items are subject to risk weights used to determine the institutions' risk-weighted assets. These risk-weighted assets are used to calculate the following minimum capital ratios for the Company and the bank:
•Tier 1 Leverage Ratio, equal to the ratio of Tier 1 capital to quarterly average assets (net of goodwill, certain other intangible assets and certain other deductions).
•Common Equity Tier 1 ("CET1") Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets. CET1 capital primarily includes common stockholders' equity subject to certain regulatory adjustments and deductions, including with respect to goodwill, intangible assets and certain deferred tax assets. Certain of these adjustments and deductions were subject to phase-in periods that began on January 1, 2015 and ended on January 1, 2018. The last phase of the Basel III Capital Rule's transition provisions relating to capital deductions for mortgage servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets and investments in the capital instruments of unconsolidated financial institutions, and the recognition of minority interests in regulatory capital was delayed for certain bank holding companies and banks, including us and the bank, but a revised rule was finalized in July 2019 that was effective in April 2020. Hybrid securities, such as trust preferred securities, generally are excluded from being counted as Tier 1 capital. However, for bank holding companies like us that have less than $15 billion in total consolidated assets, certain trust preferred securities were grandfathered in as a component of Tier 1 capital. In addition, because we are a not an advanced approach banking organization, we were permitted to make a one-time permanent election to exclude accumulated other comprehensive income items from regulatory capital. We made this election in order to avoid significant variations in our levels of capital depending upon the impact of interest rate fluctuations on the fair value of our bank’s available-for-sale securities portfolio.
•Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets. Tier 1 capital is primarily comprised of CET1 capital, perpetual preferred stock and certain qualifying capital instruments.
•Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio, equal to the ratio of total capital, including CET1 capital, Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital, to risk-weighted assets. Tier 2 capital primarily includes qualifying subordinated debt and qualifying allowance for credit losses. Tier 2 capital also includes, among other things, certain trust preferred securities.
The total minimum regulatory capital ratios and well-capitalized minimum ratios are reflected in the charts below. The Federal Reserve has not yet revised the well-capitalized standard for bank holding companies to reflect the higher capital requirements imposed under the Basel III Capital Rule. For purposes of the Federal Reserve's Regulation Y, including determining whether a bank holding company meets the requirements to be a financial holding company, bank holding companies, such as the Company, must maintain a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 6.0% or greater and a Total Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 10.0% or greater. If the Federal Reserve were to apply the same or a very similar well-capitalized standard to bank holding companies as that applicable to the bank, the Company's capital ratios as of December 31, 2020 would exceed such revised well-capitalized standard. The Federal Reserve may require bank holding companies, including the Company, to maintain capital ratios substantially in excess of mandated minimum levels, depending upon general economic conditions and a bank holding company's particular condition, risk profile and growth plans.
Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our operations or financial condition. Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could also result in restrictions on the Company's or the bank's ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute capital or to receive regulatory approval of applications.
In addition to meeting the minimum capital requirements, under the Basel III Capital Rule, the Company and the bank must also maintain the required Capital Conservation Buffer to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments to management. The Capital Conservation Buffer is calculated as a ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets, and it effectively increases the required minimum risk-based capital ratios. The Capital Conservation Buffer requirement was phased in over a three-year period that began on January 1, 2016. The phase-in period ended on January 1, 2019, and the Capital Conservation Buffer is now at its fully phased-in level of 2.5%.
The Tier 1 Leverage Ratio is not impacted by the Capital Conservation Buffer, and a banking institution may be considered well-capitalized while remaining out of compliance with the Capital Conservation Buffer.
The table below summarizes the capital requirements that the Company and the bank must satisfy to avoid limitations on capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments (i.e., the required minimum capital ratios plus the Capital Conservation Buffer):
|Minimum Basel III Regulatory Capital Ratio |
Plus Capital Conservation Buffer
|CET1 risk-based capital ratio||7.0 ||%|
|Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio||8.5 ||%|
|Total risk-based capital ratio||10.5 ||%|
As of December 31, 2020, the Company and the bank are well-capitalized for regulatory purposes. For a tabular presentation of the Company’s and the bank’s capital ratios as of December 31, 2020, see Note 26 - Parent Company and Regulatory Restrictions to the Consolidated Financial Statements under "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
If the Company were to cross the $10 billion or more asset threshold, its compliance costs and regulatory requirements, would increase.
In September 2019, the FDIC finalized a rule that introduces an optional simplified measure of capital adequacy for qualifying community banking organizations (i.e., the community bank leverage ratio ("CBLR") framework), as required by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act. The CBLR framework is designed to reduce burden by removing the 15 requirements for calculating and reporting risk-based capital ratios for qualifying community banking organizations that opt into the framework. In order to qualify for the CBLR framework, a community banking organization must have a tier 1 leverage ratio of greater than 9 percent, less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, and limited amounts of off-balance-sheet exposures and trading assets and liabilities. A qualifying community banking organization that opts into the CBLR framework and meets all requirements under the framework will be considered to have met the well-capitalized ratio requirements under the Prompt Corrective Action regulations and will not be required to report or calculate risk-based capital. The CBLR framework was first available for banks to use in their March 31, 2020, Call Report. We have determined that we will opt out of the CBLR framework as it was currently deemed not in the Company and the bank's best interest. The FDIC also finalized a rule that permits non-advanced approaches banking organizations to use the simpler regulatory capital requirements for mortgage-servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets arising from temporary differences, investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions, and minority interest when measuring their tier 1 capital as of January 1, 2020. Banking organizations may use this new measure of tier 1 capital under the CBLR framework. We have determined not to adopt this
In December 2017, the Basel Committee published standards that it described as the finalization of the Basel III post-crisis regulatory reforms (the standards are commonly referred to as “Basel IV”). Among other things, these standards revise the Basel Committee's standardized approach for credit risk (including by recalibrating risk weights and introducing new capital requirements for certain “unconditionally cancellable commitments,” such as unused credit card lines of credit) and provides a new standardized approach for operational risk capital. Under the Basel framework, as amended, these standards will generally be effective on January 1, 2023, with an aggregate output floor phasing in through January 1, 2028. Under the current U.S. capital rules, operational risk capital requirements and a capital floor apply only to advanced approaches institutions, and not to the Company and the bank. The impact of Basel IV on us will depend on the manner in which it is implemented by the federal bank regulators.
Prompt Corrective Action Provisions
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take "prompt corrective action" with respect to a depository institution if that institution does not meet certain capital adequacy standards, including requiring the prompt submission of an acceptable capital restoration plan. Depending on the bank's capital ratios, the agencies' regulations define five categories in which an insured depository institution will be placed: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, under-capitalized, significantly under-capitalized, and critically under-capitalized. At each successive lower capital category, an insured bank is subject to more restrictions, including restrictions on the bank's activities, operational practices or the ability to pay dividends or executive bonuses. Based upon its capital levels, a bank that is classified as well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, or under-capitalized may be treated as though it were in the next lower capital category if the appropriate federal banking agency, after notice and opportunity for hearing, determines that an unsafe or unsound condition, or an unsafe or unsound practice, warrants such treatment.
The prompt corrective action standards were also changed as the Basel III Capital Rule ratios became effective. Under the new standards, in order to be considered well-capitalized, the bank will be required to meet the new common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5%, an increased Tier 1 ratio of 8% (increased from 6%), a total capital ratio of 10% (unchanged) and a leverage ratio of 5% (unchanged).
The federal banking agencies also may require banks and bank holding companies subject to enforcement actions to maintain capital ratios in excess of the minimum ratios otherwise required to be deemed well capitalized, in which case institutions may no longer be deemed to be well capitalized and may therefore be subject to certain restrictions on items such as brokered deposits.
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act") was signed into law on March 27, 2020 to provide national emergency economic relief measures. Many of the CARES Act’s programs are dependent upon the direct involvement of U.S. financial institutions, such as the Company and the bank, and have been implemented through rules and guidance adopted by federal departments and agencies, including the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Federal Reserve and other federal banking agencies, including those with direct supervisory jurisdiction over the Company and the bank. Furthermore, as the on-going COVID-19 pandemic evolves, federal regulatory authorities continue to issue additional guidance with respect to the implementation, lifecycle, and eligibility requirements for the various CARES Act programs as well as industry-specific recovery procedures for COVID-19.
On December 21, 2020, Congress passed a $900 billion aid package, or the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, which extends certain relief provisions under the March 2020 CARES Act and provides additional funds for the Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") and extends the time of the PPP to March 31, 2021. This legislation also permits second PPP loans to certain entities which are subject to forgiveness subject to meeting certain required criteria. In addition, it is possible that Congress will enact supplementary COVID-19 response legislation, including amendments to the CARES Act or new bills comparable in scope to the CARES Act. The Company continues to assess the impact of the CARES Act and other statues, regulations and supervisory guidance related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Paycheck Protection Program. The CARES Act amended the SBA’s loan program, in which the bank participates, to create a guaranteed, unsecured loan program, the PPP, to fund operational costs of eligible businesses, organizations and self-employed persons during COVID-19. In June 2020, the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act was enacted, which among other things, gave borrowers additional time and flexibility to use PPP loan proceeds. The bank issued approximately $558.8 million in aggregate loans under the PPP in the year ended December 31, 2020, of which approximately $118.9 million had been forgiven or repaid by December 31, 2020.
Troubled Debt Restructuring and Loan Modifications for Affected Borrowers. The CARES Act permits banks to suspend requirements under GAAP for loan modifications to borrowers affected by COVID-19 that would otherwise be characterized as TDRs and suspend any determination related thereto if (i) the loan modification is made between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of December 31, 2020 or 60 days after the end of the COVID-19 emergency declaration and (ii) the applicable loan was not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019. The federal banking agencies also issued guidance to encourage banks to make loan modifications for borrowers affected by COVID-19 and to assure banks that they will not be criticized by examiners for doing so. Set to expire on December 31, 2020, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 extended this relief to the earlier of 60 days after the end of the COVID-19 emergency declaration or January 1, 2022. The Company is applying the guidance to qualifying loan modifications. See Note 4 - Loans to the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” which is included in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information about the COVID-19-related loan modifications completed by the Company.
Temporary Community Bank Leverage Ratio Relief. Pursuant to the CARES Act, the federal banking agencies authorities adopted an interim rule, effective until the earlier of the termination of the COVID-19 emergency declaration and December 31, 2020, to (i) reduce the minimum Community Bank Leverage Ratio from 9% to 8% percent and (ii) give community banks two-quarter grace period to satisfy such ratio if such ratio falls out of compliance by no more than 1%.
Federal Reserve Programs and Other Recent Initiatives Related to COVID-19
Main Street Lending Program. The CARES Act encouraged the Federal Reserve, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, to establish or implement various programs to help midsize businesses, nonprofits, and municipalities. On April 9, 2020, the Federal Reserve proposed the creation of the Main Street Lending Program (“MSLP”) to implement certain of these recommendations. On June 15, 2020, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston opened the MSLP for lender registration. The MSLP
supports lending to small and medium-sized businesses that were in sound financial condition before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The MSLP operates through five facilities: the Main Street New Loan Facility, the Main Street Priority Loan Facility, the Main Street Expanded Loan Facility, the Nonprofit Organization New Loan Facility, and the Nonprofit Organization Expanded Loan Facility. The bank is a registered lender but has not originated any of these loans. The bank continues to monitor developments related thereto.
Temporary Regulatory Capital Relief related to Impact of Current Expected Credit Losses ("CECL"). Concurrent with enactment of the CARES Act, federal banking agencies issued an interim final rule that delays the estimated impact on regulatory capital resulting from the adoption of CECL. The interim final rule provides banking organizations that implement CECL before the end of 2020 the option to delay for two years the estimated impact of CECL on regulatory capital relative to regulatory capital determined under the prior incurred loss methodology, followed by a three-year transition period to phase out the aggregate amount of capital benefit provided during the initial two-year delay. The federal banking agencies have since issued a final rule that makes certain technical changes to the interim final rule. The changes in the final rule apply only to those banking organizations that elect the CECL transition relief provided under the rule. The Company elected this option.
In December 2013, the federal bank regulatory agencies adopted final rules that implement a part of the Dodd-Frank Act commonly referred to as the "Volcker Rule." Under these rules and subject to certain exceptions, banking entities are restricted from engaging in activities that are considered proprietary trading and from sponsoring or investing in certain entities, including hedge or private equity funds that are considered "covered funds." Notwithstanding these provisions, in July 2019, the federal bank regulatory agencies finalized a rule which provides that community banks with $10 billion or less in total consolidated assets and total trading assets and liabilities of 5 percent or less of total consolidated assets, such as the bank, are excluded from the Volcker Rule.
The FDIC limits the ability to accept brokered deposits to those insured depository institutions that are well-capitalized. Institutions that are less than well capitalized cannot accept, renew or roll over any brokered deposit unless they have applied for and been granted a waiver by the FDIC. The FDIC has defined the “national rate” for all interest-bearing deposits held by less-than-well-capitalized institutions as “a simple average of rates paid by all insured depository institutions and branches for which data are available” and has stated that its presumption is that this national rate is the prevailing rate in any market. As such, institutions that are less than well capitalized that are permitted to accept, renew or rollover brokered deposits via FDIC waiver generally may not pay an interest rate in excess of the national rate plus 75 basis points on such brokered deposits. As of December 31, 2020, the bank did not have any deposit liabilities categorized as brokered deposits.
The FDIC has previously published industry guidance in the form of Frequently Asked Questions with respect to the categorization of deposit liabilities as brokered deposits. The FDIC published a proposed rule to modify the “national rate” definition that would apply to insured depository institutions that are less than well-capitalized in August 2019. In addition, in December 2019 and in connection with the Regulatory Relief Act, the FDIC published proposed revisions to its regulations relating to the brokered deposits restrictions. Specifically, the FDIC proposed to (i) revise the definition of the "facilitation" prong of the "deposit broker" definition; (ii) provide that a wholly-owned operating subsidiary be eligible for the insured depository institution exception to the deposit broker definition under certain circumstances; and (iii) amend the "primary purpose" exception. On December 15, 2020, the FDIC released a final rule, effective April 1, 2021, which may encourage the update of certain bank services. The changes introduced by the final rule include, among other things, (i) adding definitions of “engaged in the business of placing deposits” and “engaged in the business of facilitating the placement of deposits,” (ii) establishing certain designated business exceptions that would automatically meet the “primary purpose” exception from the deposit broker definition (Designated Business Exceptions), and (iii) formalizing an application process for the “primary purpose” exception for parties that do not qualify for the Designated Business Exceptions. The Company does not believe the final rule will have a material effect on its financial statements.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
As contained in both federal and state banking laws and regulations, a wide range of requirements and restrictions apply to bank holding companies and their subsidiaries which:
•require regular periodic reports and such additional reports of information as the Federal Reserve may require;
•require bank holding companies to meet or exceed minimum capital requirements (see the "Capital Adequacy Requirements" section above and the "Capital Resources" section in the MD&A);
•require that bank holding companies serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to subsidiary banks and commit resources as necessary to support each subsidiary bank. The source-of-strength doctrine most directly affects bank holding companies where a bank holding company's subsidiary bank fails to maintain adequate capital levels. In such a situation, the subsidiary bank will be required by the bank's federal regulator to take "prompt corrective action" (see the "Prompt Corrective Action Provisions" section above);
•limit dividends payable to shareholders and restrict the ability of bank holding companies to obtain dividends or other distributions from their subsidiary banks;
•require a bank holding company to terminate an activity or terminate control of or liquidate or divest certain subsidiaries, affiliates or investments if the Federal Reserve believes the activity or the control of the subsidiary or affiliate constitutes a significant risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary;
•require the prior approval for changes in senior executive officers or directors and prohibit golden parachute payments, including change in control agreements, or new employment agreements with such payment terms, which are contingent upon termination when a bank holding company is deemed to be in troubled condition;
•regulate provisions of certain bank holding company debt, including the authority to impose interest ceilings and reserve requirements on such debt and require prior approval to purchase or redeem securities in certain situations;
•require prior approval for the acquisition of 5% or more of the voting stock of a bank or bank holding company by bank holding companies or other acquisitions and mergers with other banks or bank holding companies and consider certain competitive, management, financial, and anti-money laundering compliance impact on the U.S.; and
•require prior notice and/or prior approval of the acquisition of control of a bank or a bank holding company by a shareholder or individuals acting in concert with ownership or control of 10% of the voting stock being a presumption of control.
Change in Bank Control
Federal law and regulation set forth the types of transactions that require prior notice under the Change in Bank Control Act (“CIBCA”). Pursuant to CIBCA and Regulation Y, any person (acting directly or indirectly) that seeks to acquire control of a bank or its holding company must provide prior notice to the Federal Reserve. A “person” includes an individual, bank, corporation, partnership, trust, association, joint venture, pool, syndicate, sole proprietorship, unincorporated organization, or any other form of entity. A person acquires "control" of a banking organization whenever the person acquires ownership, control, or the power to vote 25 percent or more of any class of voting securities of the institution. The applicable regulations also provide for certain other "rebuttable" presumptions of control. In April 2020, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule to revise its regulations related to determinations of whether a company has the ability to exercise a controlling influence over another company for purposes of the BHCA. The final rule expands and codifies the presumptions for use in such determinations. By codifying the presumptions, the final rule provides greater transparency on the types of relationships that the Federal Reserve generally views as supporting a facts and circumstances determination that one company controls another company. The Federal Reserve’s final rule applies to questions of control under the BHCA, but does not extend to CIBCA or applicable provisions of Hawaii law.
Other Restrictions on the Company's Activities
Subject to prior notice or Federal Reserve approval, bank holding companies may generally engage in, or acquire shares of companies engaged in, activities determined by the Federal Reserve to be so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. Bank holding companies that elect and retain "financial holding company" status pursuant to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 ("GLBA") may engage in these non-banking activities and broader securities, insurance, merchant banking and other activities that are determined to be "financial in nature" or are incidental or complementary to activities that are financial in nature without prior Federal Reserve approval. Pursuant to the GLBA and the Dodd-Frank Act, in order to elect and retain financial holding company status, a bank holding company and all depository institution subsidiaries of that bank holding company must be well capitalized and well managed, and, except in limited circumstances, depository subsidiaries must be in satisfactory compliance with the Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA"), which requires banks to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate. Failure to sustain compliance with these requirements or correct any non-compliance within a fixed time period could lead to the required divestiture of subsidiary banks or the termination of all activities that do not conform to those permissible for a bank holding company. The Company has not elected financial holding company status and neither the Company nor the bank has engaged in any activities determined by the Federal Reserve to be financial in nature or incidental or complementary to activities that are financial in nature.
It is the Federal Reserve's policy that bank holding companies should generally pay dividends on common stock only out of income available over the past year, and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization's expected future needs and financial condition. It is also the Federal Reserve's policy that bank holding companies should not maintain dividend levels that undermine their ability to be a source of strength to their banking subsidiaries. The Federal Reserve has also discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. The Company is also subject to restrictions on dividends under applicable Hawaii law.
The bank is a legal entity that is separate and distinct from its holding company. CPF is dependent on the performance of the bank for funds which may be received as dividends from the bank for use in the operation of CPF and the ability of CPF to pay dividends to shareholders. Subject to regulatory and statutory restrictions, including restrictions under applicable Hawaii law and federal regulation, future cash dividends by the bank will depend upon management's assessment of future capital requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors.
Regulation of the Bank
As a Hawaii state-chartered bank whose deposits are insured by the FDIC, the bank is subject to regulation, supervision, and regular examination by the DFI and by the FDIC as a state nonmember bank, as the bank's primary Federal regulator. Specific federal and state laws and regulations which are applicable to banks regulate, among other things, the scope of their business, their investments, their reserves against deposits, the timing of the availability of deposited funds, their activities relating to dividends, investments, loans, the nature and amount of collateral for certain loans, servicing and foreclosing on loans, transactions with affiliates, officers, directors and other insiders, borrowings, capital requirements, certain check-clearing activities, branching, and mergers and acquisitions.
FDIC and DFI Enforcement Authority
The federal and Hawaii regulatory structure gives the bank regulatory agencies extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement activities and examination policies, including policies with respect to the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves for regulatory purposes. The regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines to assist in identifying and addressing potential safety and soundness concerns before an institution's capital becomes impaired. The guidelines establish operational and managerial standards generally relating to: (1) internal controls, information systems, and internal audit systems; (2) loan documentation; (3) credit underwriting; (4) interest-rate exposure; (5) asset growth and asset quality; and (6) compensation, fees, and benefits. Further, the regulatory agencies have adopted safety and soundness guidelines for asset quality and for evaluating and monitoring earnings to ensure that earnings are sufficient for the maintenance of adequate capital and reserves. If, as a result of an examination, the DFI or the FDIC should determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, market sensitivity, or other aspects of the bank's operations are unsatisfactory or that the bank or its management is violating or has violated any law or regulation, the DFI and the FDIC, and separately the FDIC as insurer of the bank's deposits, have residual authority to:
•require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice;
•direct an increase in capital and the maintenance of higher specific minimum capital ratios, which may preclude the bank from being deemed well capitalized and restrict its ability to accept certain brokered deposits;
•restrict the bank's growth geographically, by products and services, or by mergers and acquisitions, including bidding in FDIC receiverships for failed banks;
•enter into or issue informal or formal enforcement actions, including required Board resolutions, memoranda of understanding, written agreements and consent or cease and desist orders or prompt corrective action orders to take corrective action and cease unsafe and unsound practices;
•require prior approval of senior executive officer or director changes; remove officers and directors and assess civil monetary penalties; and
•terminate FDIC insurance, revoke the charter and/or take possession of and close and liquidate the bank or appoint the FDIC as receiver, which for a Hawaii state-chartered bank would result in a revocation of its charter.
The FDIC is an independent federal agency that insures deposits through the Deposit Insurance Fund (the "DIF") up to prescribed statutory limits of federally insured banks and savings institutions and safeguards the safety and soundness of the banking and savings industries. The Dodd-Frank Act revised the FDIC's DIF management authority by setting requirements for the Designated Reserve Ratio (the "DRR", calculated as the DIF balance divided by estimated insured deposits) and redefining the assessment base which is used to calculate banks' quarterly assessments. The amount of FDIC assessments paid by each DIF member institution is based on its asset size and its relative risk of default as measured by regulatory capital ratios and other supervisory factors. We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance. On September 30, 2018, the DRR reached 1.36%. Because the reserve ratio has exceeded 1.35%, two deposit insurance assessment changes occurred under the FDIC regulations: 1) Surcharges on large banks (total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more) ended; the last surcharge on large banks was collected on December 28, 2018. and 2) Small banks (total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion) were awarded assessment credits for the portion of their assessments that contributed to the growth in the reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35%. Credits will be applied until exhausted when the reserve ratio is at least 1.35%. The reserve ratio exceeded the minimum 1.35% on June 30, 2019, September 30, 2019, December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020. Therefore, credits were applied on each invoice until exhausted on the June 30, 2020 invoice.
If there are additional bank or financial institution failures or if the FDIC otherwise determines or if our asset size or risk of default increases, we may be required to pay higher FDIC premiums. Any future increases in FDIC insurance premiums may have a material and adverse effect on our earnings and could have a material adverse effect on the value of, or market for, our common stock.
The Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal bank regulators and the SEC to establish joint regulations or guidelines prohibiting incentive-based payment arrangements at specified regulated entities, including the Company and the bank, having at least $1 billion in total assets that encourage inappropriate risks by providing an executive officer, employee, director or principal stockholder with excessive compensation, fees or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss to the entity. In addition, these regulators must establish regulations or guidelines requiring enhanced disclosure to regulators of incentive-based compensation arrangements. The agencies proposed such regulations initially in April 2011 and in April 2016, the Federal Reserve and other federal financial agencies re-proposed restrictions on incentive-based compensation. For institutions with at least $1 billion but less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets, such as the Company and the bank, the proposal imposes principles-based restrictions that are broadly consistent with existing interagency guidance on incentive-based compensation. Such institutions are prohibited from entering into incentive compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by the institution (1) by providing an executive officer, employee, director, or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits, or (2) that could lead to material financial loss to the institution. The proposal also imposes certain governance and record-keeping requirements on institutions of the Company’s and the bank’s size. The regulatory organizations reserve the authority to impose more stringent requirements on institutions of the Company’s and the bank’s size.
Federal regulators have issued multiple statements regarding cybersecurity stating that financial institutions need to design multiple layers of security controls to establish lines of defense and to ensure that their risk management processes also address the risk posed by compromised customer credentials, including security measures to reliably authenticate customers accessing internet-based services of the financial institution. In addition, a financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient business continuity planning processes to ensure the rapid recovery, resumption and maintenance of the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack involving destructive malware. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations and address rebuilding network capabilities and restoring data if the institution or its critical service providers fall victim to this type of cyber-attack. If we fail to observe the regulatory guidance, we could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties.
State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations, including California which adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act in 2018 and New York which adopted the Shield Act in 2019. Other states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue, and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which our customers are located in or in which we conduct business.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely on electronic communications and information systems to conduct our operations and to store sensitive data. We employ an in-depth, layered, defensive approach that leverages people, processes and technology to manage and maintain cybersecurity controls. We employ a variety of preventative and detective tools to monitor, block, and provide alerts regarding suspicious activity, as well as to report on any suspected advanced persistent threats. Notwithstanding the strength of our defensive measures, the threat from cyber-attacks is severe, attacks are sophisticated and increasing in volume, and attackers respond rapidly to changes in defensive measures. While to date we have not detected a significant compromise, significant data loss or any material financial losses related to cybersecurity attacks, our systems and those of our customers and third-party service providers are under constant threat and it is possible that we could experience a significant event in the future. Risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks are expected to remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats, as well as due to the expanding use of internet banking, mobile banking and other technology-based products and services by us and our customers. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for a further discussion of risks related to cybersecurity.
Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulation
The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, under authority of various laws, including designated foreign countries, nationals and others. OFAC publishes lists of specially designated targets and countries. We are responsible for, among other things, blocking accounts of, and transactions with, such targets and countries, prohibiting unlicensed trade and financial transactions with them and reporting blocked transactions after their occurrence. Failure to comply with these sanctions could have serious financial, legal and reputational consequences, including causing applicable bank regulatory authorities not to approve merger or acquisition transactions when regulatory approval is required or to prohibit such transactions even if approval is not required. Regulatory authorities have imposed cease and desist orders and civil money penalties against institutions found to be violating these obligations.
Operations and Consumer Compliance Laws
The bank must comply with numerous federal and state anti-money laundering and consumer protection and privacy statutes and implementing regulations, including the USA Patriot Act of 2001, GLBA, the Bank Secrecy Act, the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, the CRA, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Fair Housing Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the National Flood Insurance Act, and various federal and state privacy protection laws, including the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and the CAN-SPAM Act. Noncompliance with these laws could subject the bank to lawsuits and could also result in administrative penalties, including, fines and reimbursements. CPF and the bank are also subject to federal and state laws prohibiting unfair or fraudulent business practices, untrue or misleading advertising and unfair competition.
These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure and reporting requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, servicing, collecting, and foreclosure of loans, and
providing other services. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations can subject the bank to various penalties, including but not limited to enforcement actions, injunctions, fines or criminal penalties, punitive damages, and the loss of certain contractual rights.
The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (“AMLA”), which amends the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”), was enacted in January 2021. The AMLA is intended to be a comprehensive reform and modernization to U.S. bank secrecy and anti-money laundering laws. Among other things, it codifies a risk-based approach to anti-money laundering compliance for financial institutions; requires the development of standards for evaluating technology and internal processes for BSA compliance; expands enforcement- and investigation-related authority, including increasing available sanctions for certain BSA violations and instituting BSA whistleblower incentives and protections.
The bank received an "Outstanding" rating in the FDIC's 2019 Community Reinvestment Act performance evaluation that measures how financial institutions support their communities in the areas of lending, investment and service.
In December 2019, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) jointly proposed rules that would significantly change existing CRA regulations. The proposed rules are intended to increase bank activity in low- and moderate-income communities where there is significant need for credit, more responsible lending, greater access to banking services, and improvements to critical infrastructure. The proposals change four key areas: (i) clarifying what activities qualify for CRA credit; (ii) updating where activities count for CRA credit; (iii) providing a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (iv) revising CRA-related data collection, record keeping, and reporting. However, the Federal Reserve Board did not join in that proposed rulemaking. While the OCC issued its final rule, the FDIC has not finalized the revisions to its CRA rule. In September 2020, the Federal Reserve Board issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPR”) that invites public comment on an approach to modernize the regulations that implement the CRA by strengthening, clarifying, and tailoring them to reflect the current banking landscape and better meet the core purpose of the CRA. The ANPR seeks feedback on ways to evaluate how banks meet the needs of low- and moderate-income communities and address inequities in credit access. As such, we will continue to evaluate the impact of any changes to the regulations implementing the CRA and their impact to our financial condition, results of operations, and/or liquidity, which cannot be predicted at this time.
The Dodd-Frank Act provided for the creation of the CFPB as an independent entity with broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority over consumer financial products and services, including deposit products, residential mortgages, home equity loans and credit cards. The CFPB’s functions include investigating consumer complaints, conducting market research, rulemaking, and enforcing rules related to consumer financial products and services. CFPB regulations and guidance apply to all covered persons, and banks with $10 billion or more in assets are subject to supervision including examination by the CFPB. Banks with less than $10 billion in assets, including the bank, will continue to be examined for compliance by their primary federal banking agency.
The CFPB has finalized a number of significant rules which impact nearly every aspect of the lifecycle of a residential mortgage loan. These rules implement the Dodd-Frank Act amendments to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Among other things, the rules adopted by the CFPB require covered persons including banks making residential mortgage loans to: (i) develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with an "ability-to-repay" test and identify whether a loan meets a new definition for a "qualified mortgage", in which case a rebuttable presumption exists that the creditor extending the loan has satisfied the ability-to-repay test; (ii) implement new or revised disclosures, policies and procedures for originating and servicing mortgages including, but not limited to, pre-loan counseling, early intervention with delinquent borrowers and specific loss mitigation procedures for loans secured by a borrower's principal residence; (iii) comply with additional restrictions on mortgage loan originator hiring and compensation; (iv) comply with new disclosure requirements and standards for appraisals and certain financial products; and (v) maintain escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgage loans for a longer period of time.
The review of products and practices to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices ("UDAAP") has been a focus of the CFPB, and of banking regulators more broadly. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act provides the CFPB with broad supervisory, examination and enforcement authority over various consumer financial products and services, including the ability to require reimbursements and other payments to customers for alleged violations of UDAAP and other legal requirements and to impose significant penalties, as well as injunctive relief that prohibits lenders from engaging in allegedly unlawful practices. The CFPB also has the authority to obtain cease and desist orders providing for affirmative relief or monetary penalties. The Dodd-Frank Act does not prevent states from adopting stricter consumer protection standards. State regulation of financial products and potential enforcement actions could also adversely affect the bank’s business, financial condition or results of operations.
The federal bank regulators have adopted rules limiting the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to unaffiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a nonaffiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and asset and income information from applications. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services.
Under the Durbin Amendment to the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve adopted rules establishing standards for assessing whether the interchange fees that may be charged with respect to certain electronic debit transactions are “reasonable and proportional” to the costs incurred by issuers for processing such transactions.
Interchange fees, or “swipe” fees, are charges that merchants pay to us and other card-issuing banks for processing electronic payment transactions. Under the final rules, the maximum permissible interchange fee is equal to no more than 21 cents plus 5 basis points of the transaction value for many types of debit interchange transactions. The Federal Reserve also adopted a rule to allow a debit card issuer to recover one cent per transaction for fraud prevention purposes if the issuer complies with certain fraud-related requirements required by the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve also has rules governing routing and exclusivity that require issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product.
Currently, we qualify for the small issuer exemption from the interchange fee cap, which applies to any debit card issuer that, together with its affiliates, has total assets of less than $10 billion as of the end of the previous calendar year. We will become subject to the interchange fee cap beginning July 1 of the year following the time when our total assets reaches or exceeds $10 billion. Reliance on the small issuer exemption does not exempt us from federal regulations prohibiting network exclusivity arrangements or from routing restrictions.
Commercial Real Estate Concentration Limits
In December 2006, the federal banking regulators issued guidance entitled “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices” to address increased concentrations in commercial real estate and construction, or "CRE", loans. In addition, in December 2015, the federal bank agencies issued additional guidance entitled “Statement on Prudent Risk Management for Commercial Real Estate Lending.” Together, these guidelines describe the criteria the agencies will use as indicators to identify institutions potentially exposed to CRE concentration risk. An institution that has (i) experienced rapid growth in CRE lending, (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of CRE, (iii) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land representing 100% or more of the institution’s capital, or (iv) total CRE loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s capital, and the outstanding balance of the institutions CRE portfolio has increased by 50% or more in the prior 36 months, may be identified for further supervisory analysis of the level and nature of its CRE concentration risk. As of December 31, 2020, the bank’s construction, land development, and other land and total CRE loans represented 22.9% and 234.4% of its capital, respectively.
Future Legislation and Regulation
Congress may enact, modify or repeal legislation from time to time that affects the regulation of the financial services industry, and state legislatures may enact, modify or repeal legislation from time to time affecting the regulation of financial institutions chartered by or operating in those states. Federal and state regulatory agencies also periodically propose and adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. The substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulation, or the application thereof, cannot be predicted, although enactment of proposed legislation (or modification or repeal of existing legislation) could impact the regulatory structure under which the Company and bank operate and may significantly increase its costs, impede the efficiency of its internal business processes, require the bank to increase its regulatory capital and modify its business strategy, and limit its ability to pursue business opportunities in an efficient manner. Under these circumstances, the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may be adversely affected, perhaps materially.
Employees and Human Capital
We believe that the success of our business is largely due to the quality of our employees, the development of each employee's full potential, and our ability to provide timely and satisfying rewards. At December 31, 2020, we employed 822 persons, 764 on a full-time basis and 58 on a part-time basis. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreement.
We encourage and support the growth and development of our employees and, wherever possible, seek to fill positions by promotion and transfer from within the organization. Continual learning and career development are advanced through ongoing development conversations and annual performance reviews with employees, internally developed training programs, conferences, and other training events employees are encouraged to attend in connection with their job duties. Additionally, we invest in continual learning and development through tuition reimbursement for courses, degree programs and fees paid for certifications.
The safety, health and wellness of our employees is a top priority. The COVID-19 pandemic presented a unique challenge with regards to maintaining employee safety while continuing successful operations. Through teamwork and the adaptability of our management and staff, we were able to transition during the peak of the pandemic, over a short period of time, to a work schedule allowing employees to effectively work from home and ensure a socially-distanced working environment for employees performing customer-facing activities at branches, and employees working at our operations centers. All employees are asked not to come to work when they experience signs or symptoms of a possible COVID-19 illness or if they have come into contact with the possible illness. On an ongoing basis, we further promote the health and wellness of our employees by strongly encouraging work-life balance, offering flexible work schedules, keeping the employee portion of health care premiums to a minimum and sponsoring various wellness programs.
Employee retention helps us operate efficiently and achieve one of our business objectives, which is being an exceptional service provider. We believe our commitment to living out our core values, actively prioritizing concern for our employees’ well-being, supporting our employees’ career goals, offering competitive wages and providing valuable fringe benefits aids in retention of our top-performing employees. In addition, nearly all of our employees have the opportunity to become stockholders of the Company through a restricted stock grant issued to nearly all employees in 2020 and/or other restricted stock grants issued under our stock compensation plan, which aligns employees and stockholder interests by providing stock ownership on a tax-deferred basis at no investment cost to our employees. At December 31, 2020, the average employee has 10 years of service and 36% of our current staff had been with us for ten years or more.
Our internet website can be found at www.cpb.bank. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports can be found on our internet website as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Copies of the Company's filings with the SEC may also be obtained directly from the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. These documents may also be obtained in print upon request to our Investor Relations Department.
Also posted on our website and available in print upon request to our Investor Relations Department, are the charters for our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Corporate Governance Committee, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics. Within the time period required by the SEC and NYSE, we will post on our website any amendment to the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and any waiver applicable to our senior financial officers, as defined by the SEC, and our executive officers or directors. In addition, our website includes information concerning purchases and sales of our equity securities by our executive officers and directors, as well as disclosure relating to certain non-GAAP financial measures (as defined in the SEC's Regulation G) that we may make public orally, telephonically, by webcast, by broadcast or by similar means from time to time.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business faces significant risks, including credit, market/liquidity, operational, legal/regulatory and strategic/reputation risks. The factors described below may not be the only risks we face and are not intended to serve as a comprehensive listing or be applicable only to the category of risk under which they are disclosed. The risks described below are generally applicable to more than one of the following categories of risks. Additional risks that we do not yet know of or that we currently think are immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following factors actually occurs, our business, financial condition and/or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the State of Hawaii and our business. The ultimate impact on our business and financial results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic.
The pandemic has resulted in temporary closures of many businesses and the institution of social distancing and sheltering in place requirements in many states and communities. Our operations, like those of other financial institutions that operate in our market, are significantly influenced by economic conditions in Hawaii, including the strength of the real estate market and the tourism industry. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an extreme decline in tourism to the state of Hawaii. As a result, the demand for our products and services has been, and may continue to be, impacted which can negatively impact our results of operations, including our net income. In addition, material adverse effects on our business may include all or a combination of valuation impairments on our investments, loans, mortgage servicing rights, deferred tax assets or counter-party risk derivatives.
Furthermore, the pandemic could influence the recognition of credit losses in our loan portfolios and increase our allowance for credit losses, particularly as businesses remain closed and as more customers are expected to draw on their lines of credit or seek additional loans to help finance their businesses. Similarly, because of changing economic and market conditions affecting issuers, we may be required to recognize an allowance for credit losses in future periods on the securities we hold as well as reductions in other comprehensive income. We have already temporarily closed certain of our branches and offices in response to the pandemic and our business operations may be further disrupted if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, or other restrictions. In response to the pandemic, we are offering fee waivers, payment deferrals, and other expanded assistance for mortgage, business and personal lending customers, all of which impact our results of operations.
Loan payment deferrals are still continuing to accrue interest and fees during the deferral period. Should we later determine that collection of payments is not expected and eventual credit losses on these deferred payments emerge, accrued and unpaid interest and fees will need to be reversed. In such a scenario, interest income in future periods could be negatively impacted.
We and our customers have been, and will continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively impact our business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic and the fulfillment of government guarantees under the Small Business Administration ("SBA") Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP").
Difficult economic and market conditions in Hawaii would result in significant adverse effects on us because of the geographic concentration of our business.
Unlike larger national or other regional banks that are more geographically diversified, our business and operations are closely tied to the Hawaii market. The Hawaii economy relies on tourism, real estate, government and other service-based industries. Declines in tourism, increases in energy costs, the availability of affordable air transportation, adverse weather and natural disasters, and local budget issues impact consumer and corporate spending. As a result, such events may contribute to the deterioration in Hawaii's general economic condition, which could adversely impact us and our borrowers.
In addition, the high concentration of Hawaii real estate loans in our portfolio, combined with the deterioration in these sectors caused by an economic downturn, previously had and could have in the future a significantly more adverse impact on our operating results than many other banks across the nation. If our borrowers experience financial difficulty, or if property values
securing our real estate loans decline, we will incur elevated credit costs due to the composition and concentration of our loan portfolio, which will have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our real estate loan operations have a considerable effect on our results of operations.
The performance of our real estate loans depends on a number of factors, including the continued strength of the real estate markets in which we operate. As we have previously seen in the Hawaii and California construction and real estate markets, the strength of the real estate market and the results of our operations could be negatively affected by an economic downturn.
In addition, declines in the market for commercial property could cause some of our borrowers to suffer losses on their projects, which would negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Declines in housing prices and the supply of existing houses for sale could cause residential developers who are our borrowers to suffer losses on their projects and encounter difficulty in repaying their loans. We cannot assure you that we will have an adequate allowance for credit losses to cover future losses. If we suffer greater losses than we are projecting, our financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Our ability to maintain adequate sources of funding and liquidity and required capital levels may be negatively impacted by uncertainty in the economic environment which may, among other things, impact our ability to satisfy our obligations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of investments or loans, and other sources would have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity which could affect or limit our ability to satisfy our obligations and our ability to grow profitability at the same rate. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically, the financial services industry, or the economy in general. Factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include concerns regarding deterioration in our financial condition, increased regulatory actions against us and a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in the markets in which our loans or deposits are concentrated. Our ability to borrow could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as a disruption in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial industry in light of the past turmoil faced by banking organizations and the credit markets.
The management of liquidity risk is critical to the management of our business and our ability to service our customer base. In managing our balance sheet, our primary source of funding is customer deposits. Our ability to continue to attract these deposits and other funding sources is subject to variability based upon a number of factors including volume and volatility in the securities' markets, our financial condition, our credit rating and the relative interest rates that we are prepared to pay for these liabilities. The availability and level of deposits and other funding sources is highly dependent upon the perception of the liquidity and creditworthiness of the financial institution, and perception can change quickly in response to market conditions or circumstances unique to a particular company. Concerns about our past and future financial condition or concerns about our credit exposure to other parties could adversely impact our sources of liquidity, financial position, including regulatory capital ratios, results of operations and our business prospects.
If our level of deposits were to materially decrease, we would need to raise additional funds by increasing the interest that we pay on certificates of deposits or other depository accounts, seek other debt or equity financing or draw upon our available lines of credit. We rely on commercial and retail deposits, and to a lesser extent, advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Des Moines ("FHLB") and the Federal Reserve discount window, to fund our operations. Although we have historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances as necessary, we might not be able to replace such funds in the future if, among other things, our results of operations or financial condition or the results of operations or financial condition of the FHLB or market conditions were to change.
During 2020, our level of deposits increased largely driven by the response to the pandemic including market instability and deposits of PPP funds and government assistance. We cannot assure you that the bank will retain these deposits. Also, during 2020, we took advantage of favorable market conditions to raise $55 million in subordinated notes, which will increase our interest payment obligations in the future.
Our line of credit with the FHLB serves as a primary outside source of liquidity. The Federal Reserve discount window also serves as an additional outside source of liquidity. Borrowings under this arrangement are through the Federal Reserve's primary facility under the borrower-in-custody program. The duration of borrowings from the Federal Reserve discount window are generally for a very short period, usually overnight. In the event that these outside sources of liquidity become unavailable to us, we will need to seek additional sources of liquidity, including selling assets. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell assets at a level to allow us to repay borrowings or meet our liquidity needs.
We constantly monitor our activities with respect to liquidity and evaluate closely our utilization of our cash assets; however, there can be no assurance that our liquidity or the cost of funds to us may not be materially and adversely impacted as a result of economic, market, or operational considerations that we may not be able to control.
The fiscal, monetary and regulatory policies of the federal government and its agencies could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
The FRB regulates the supply of money and credit in the U.S. Its policies determine in large part the cost of funds for lending and investing and the return earned on those loans and investments, both of which affect the net interest margin. It also can materially decrease the value of financial assets we hold, such as debt securities.
In an effort to stimulate the economy, the federal government and its agencies have taken various steps to keep interest rates at extremely low levels. Our net interest income and net interest margin may be negatively impacted by a prolonged low interest rate environment like we are currently experiencing as it may result in us holding lower yielding loans and securities on our balance sheet, particularly if we are unable to replace the maturing higher yielding assets with similar higher yielding assets. Changes in the slope of the yield curve, which represents the spread between short-term and long-term interest rates, could also reduce our net interest income and net interest margin. Historically, the yield curve is upward sloping, meaning short-term rates are lower than long-term rates. When the yield curve flattens, as is the case in the current interest rate environment, our net interest income and net interest margin could decrease as our cost of funds increases relative to the yield we can earn on our assets.
In response to the threat on the economy posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, in March 2020 the FRB made two emergency rate cuts totaling 150 basis points to the Federal Funds range down to 0-0.25%. Should the FRB raise interest rates significantly and rapidly, there is potential for decreased demand for our loan products, an increase in our cost of funds, and the curtailment of economic recovery.
Changes in FRB policies and our regulatory environment are beyond our control, and we are unable to predict what changes may occur or the manner in which any future changes may affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Negative developments in the global and U.S. economies could have an adverse effect on us.
Our business and operations are sensitive to business and economic conditions globally and domestically. Adverse economic and business conditions in the U.S. generally, and in our market areas, in particular, could reduce our growth rate, affect our borrowers' ability to repay their loans and, consequently, adversely affect our financial condition and performance. Other economic conditions that affect our financial performance include short-term and long-term interest rates, the prevailing yield curve, inflation and price levels (particularly for real estate), monetary policy, unemployment and the strength of the domestic economy as a whole. Unfavorable market conditions can result in a deterioration in the credit quality of our borrowers and the demand for our products and services, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults and charge-offs, additional provisions for credit losses, adverse asset values and an overall material adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio. Unfavorable or uncertain economic and market conditions can be caused by declines in economic growth, business activity or investor or business confidence; limitations on the availability or increases in the cost of credit and capital; increases in inflation or interest rates; high unemployment; natural disasters; or a combination of these or other factors.
A large percentage of our loans are collateralized by real estate and any deterioration in the real estate market may result in additional losses and adversely affect our financial results.
Our results of operations have been, and in future periods, will continue to be significantly impacted by the economy in Hawaii, and to a lesser extent, other markets we are exposed to including California. Approximately 71% of our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020 was comprised of loans primarily collateralized by real estate, with the significant majority of these loans concentrated in Hawaii.
Deterioration of the economic environment in Hawaii, California or other markets we are exposed to, domestic or foreign, including a decline in the real estate market and single-family home resales or a material external shock, may significantly impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure. In the event of a default with respect to any of these loans, amounts received upon sale of the collateral may be insufficient to recover outstanding principal and interest on the loan. As we have seen in the past, material declines in the value of the real estate assets securing many of our
commercial real estate loans may lead to significant credit losses in this portfolio. As a result of our particularly high concentration of real estate loans, our portfolio had been and remains particularly susceptible to significant credit losses during economic downturns and adverse changes in the real estate market.
Our allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to cover actual credit losses, which could adversely affect our results of operations. Additional credit losses may occur in the future and may occur at a rate greater than we have experienced to date.
As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our loan customers may not repay their loans according to their terms and that the collateral or guarantees securing these loans may be insufficient to assure repayment. The underwriting and credit monitoring policies and procedures that we have adopted to address this risk may not prevent unexpected losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We maintain an allowance for credit losses to provide for loan defaults and non-performance, which also includes increases for new loan growth. While we believe that our allowance for credit losses is appropriate to cover expected losses, we cannot assure you that we will not increase the allowance for credit losses further or that regulators will not require us to increase the allowance for credit losses which could have a material adverse effect on our net income and financial condition.
Management makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectibility of our loan portfolio, which are regularly reevaluated and are based in part on:
•current economic conditions and their estimated effects on specific borrowers;
•an evaluation of the existing relationships among loans, potential credit losses and the present level of the allowance for credit losses;
•results of examinations of our loan portfolios by regulatory agencies; and
•management's internal review of the loan portfolio.
In determining the size of the allowance for credit loss, we rely on an analysis of our loan portfolio, our experience and a third-party economic forecast. If our assumptions prove to be incorrect, our current allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to cover the losses.
In addition, third parties, including our federal and state regulators, periodically evaluate the adequacy of our allowance for credit losses and may communicate with us concerning the methodology or judgments that we have raised in determining the allowance for credit losses. As a result of this input, we may be required to assign different grades to specific credits, increase our provision for credit losses, and/or recognize further loan charge offs which could have a material adverse effect on our net income and financial condition. See Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the Consolidated Financial Statements under "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
Our commercial, financial and agricultural loan and commercial real estate loan portfolios expose us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to our other loans.
Our loan portfolio includes commercial, financial and agricultural loans and commercial real estate loans, which are secured by commercial real estate, including but not limited to, structures and facilities to support activities designated as multi-family residential properties, industrial, warehouse, general office, retail, health care and religious dwellings. Commercial, financial and agricultural and commercial real estate loans carry more risk as compared to other types of lending, because they typically involve larger loan balances often concentrated with a single borrower or groups of related borrowers.
Accordingly, charge-offs on commercial, financial and agricultural and commercial real estate loans may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. In addition, these loans expose a lender to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate. The payment experience on commercial real estate loans that are secured by income producing properties are typically dependent on the successful operation of the related real estate project and thus, may subject us to adverse conditions in the real estate market or to the general economy. The collateral securing these loans typically cannot be liquidated as easily as residential real estate. If we foreclose on these loans, our holding period for the collateral typically is longer than residential properties because there are fewer potential purchasers of the collateral.
Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial or commercial real estate loan portfolios would require us to increase our provision for credit losses, which would reduce our profitability and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, federal and state banking regulators may require banks with higher levels of commercial real estate loans to implement more stringent underwriting, internal controls, risk management policies and portfolio stress testing, as well as possibly higher levels of allowances for losses and capital levels as a result of commercial real estate lending growth and exposures. Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial real estate loans, the banking regulators may require us to maintain higher levels of capital than we would otherwise be expected to maintain, which could limit our ability to leverage our capital and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may incur future losses in connection with certain representations and warranties we have made with respect to mortgages that we have sold in the secondary market.
In connection with the sale of mortgage loans into the secondary market, we make representations and warranties, which, if breached, may require us to repurchase such loans, substitute other loans or indemnify the purchasers of such loans for actual losses incurred in respect to such loans. A substantial decline in residential real estate values in the markets in which we originated such loans could increase the risk of such consequences. While we currently believe our repurchase risk is low, it is possible that requests to repurchase loans could occur in the future and such requests may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Interest Rate and Liquidity Risks
Our business is subject to interest rate risk and fluctuations in interest rates may adversely affect our earnings.
The majority of our assets and liabilities are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings and profitability depend significantly on our net interest income, which is the difference between interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. We expect that we will periodically experience "gaps" in the interest rate sensitivities of our assets and liabilities, meaning that either our interest-bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than our interest-earning assets, or vice versa. If market interest rates should move contrary to our position, this "gap" will work against us and our earnings may be negatively affected. In light of our current volume and mix of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, our net interest margin could be expected to remain relatively constant during periods of rising interest rates, and to decline slightly during periods of falling interest rates. We are unable to predict or control fluctuations of market interest rates, which are affected by many factors, including the following:
•changes in unemployment;
•the money supply;
•international disorder and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets; and
Our asset/liability management strategy may not be able to control our risk from changes in market interest rates and it may not be able to prevent changes in interest rates from having a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. From time to time, we may reposition our assets and liabilities to reduce our net interest income volatility. Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to effectively manage the composition and risk of our investment securities portfolio, which we expect will continue to comprise a significant portion of our earning assets, our net interest income and net interest margin could be adversely affected.
Our primary sources of interest income include interest on loans, as well as interest earned on investment securities. Interest earned on investment securities represented 12.1% of our interest income in the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 15.0% of our interest income in the year ended December 31, 2019. Accordingly, effectively managing our investment securities portfolio to generate interest income while managing the composition and risks associated with that portfolio, including the mix of government agency and non-agency securities, remains important. If we are unable to effectively manage our investment securities portfolio or if the interest income generated by our investment securities portfolio declines, our net interest income and net interest margin could be adversely affected.
We may be adversely impacted by the transition from LIBOR as a reference rate.
In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced that after 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate the LIBOR. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-indexed financial instruments.
We have a significant number of loans and debt with attributes that are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. The transition from LIBOR could create considerable costs and additional risk. Since proposed alternative rates are calculated differently, payments under contracts referencing new rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR. The transition may change our market risk profile, and require changes to risk and pricing models, valuation tools, product design and hedging strategies. Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation. Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on the mortgage secondary market for some of our liquidity.
We originate and sell mortgage loans. We rely on Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and other purchasers to purchase first mortgage loans in order to reduce our credit risk and interest rate risk and provide funding for additional loans we desire to originate. We cannot provide assurance that these purchasers will not materially limit their purchases from us due to capital constraints or other factors, including, with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, a change in the criteria for conforming loans. In addition, various proposals have been made to reform the U.S. residential mortgage finance market, including the role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The exact effects of any such reforms are not yet known, but may limit our ability to sell conforming loans to Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. In addition, mortgage lending is highly regulated, and our inability to comply with all federal and state regulations and investor guidelines regarding the origination, underwriting, documentation and servicing of mortgage loans may also impact our ability to continue selling mortgage loans. If we are unable to continue to sell loans in the secondary market, our ability to fund, and thus originate, additional mortgage loans may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength for our bank.
We are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to the bank. We may be required to commit additional resources to the bank at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources or when it may not be in our, or our shareholders’ best interests to do so. Providing such support is more likely during times of financial stress for us and the bank, which may make any capital we are required to raise to provide such support more expensive than it might otherwise be. In addition, any capital loans we make to the bank are subordinate in right of payment to depositors and to certain other indebtedness of the bank.
We rely on dividends from our subsidiary for most of our revenue.
Because we are a holding company with no significant operations other than our bank, we depend upon dividends from our bank for a substantial portion of our revenues and our liquidity.
Hawaii law only permits the bank to pay dividends out of retained earnings as defined under Hawaii banking law ("Statutory Retained Earnings"), which differs from GAAP retained earnings. As of December 31, 2020, the bank had Statutory Retained Earnings of $82.5 million. In addition, regulatory authorities could limit the ability of the bank to pay dividends to CPF. The inability to receive dividends from the bank could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our ability to pay cash dividends to our shareholders is subject to restrictions under federal and Hawaii law, including restrictions imposed by the FRB and covenants set forth in various agreements we are a party to, including covenants set forth in our subordinated debentures and subordinated notes. We cannot provide any assurance that we will continue to pay dividends.
Our RISE2020 initiative may not be successful.
During the second half of 2019 and throughout 2020, we invested an aggregate of approximately $40 million to upgrade our branch spaces, digital banking platforms and ATM network through a new initiative we called RISE2020. RISE2020 is intended to enhance customer experience, drive stronger long-term growth and profitability, improve shareholder returns and lower our efficiency ratio. However, we cannot provide any assurance that RISE2020 will achieve any of our objectives or will achieve our objectives to the extent we have forecasted. In particular, the costs of RISE2020 may exceed our expectations; there may be timing delays as we execute our plans; we may not be able to attract new business from existing customers; new customers may not be attracted to our platform despite the amount of expense we incur; and implementation of RISE2020 initiatives may disrupt our operations. Additionally, given the number of key projects involved in our RISE2020 initiative, there is execution risk which may include vendors failing to perform or deliver as expected, issues with system conversions or integrations, lack of internal resource capacity, among other things. If our RISE2020 initiative is not successful, our overall noninterest expense will have increased without a corresponding increase in revenue and growth which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The ongoing design and maintenance of data and related internal controls over financial reporting related to CECL will require a significant amount of time and resources which may have a material impact on our results of operations.
CECL has increased the amount of data and assumptions we need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses. A significant amount of time and resources has been spent and will continue to be spent in order to implement CECL effectively, including the design and implementation of related adequate internal controls, which may adversely affect our results of operations. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting relating to CECL, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately and on a timely basis could also be adversely affected.
Consumer protection initiatives related to the foreclosure process could materially affect our ability as a creditor to obtain remedies.
In 2011, Hawaii revised its rules for nonjudicial, or out-of-court, foreclosures. Prior to the revision, most lenders used the nonjudicial foreclosure method to handle foreclosures in Hawaii, as the process was less expensive and quicker than going through the court foreclosure process. After the revised rules went into effect, many lenders ended up forgoing nonjudicial foreclosures entirely and filing all foreclosures in court, which has created a backlog and slowed the judicial foreclosure process. Many lenders continue to exclusively use the judicial foreclosure process, making the foreclosure process very lengthy. Additionally, the joint federal-state settlement with several mortgage servicers over abuse of foreclosure practices creates further uncertainty for us and the mortgage servicing industry in general with respect to implementation of mortgage loan modifications and loss mitigation practices going forward. The manner in which these issues are ultimately resolved could impact our foreclosure procedures, which in turn could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our deposit customers may pursue alternatives to deposits at our bank or seek higher yielding deposits causing us to incur increased funding costs.
Checking and savings account balances and other forms of deposits can decrease when our deposit customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market or other non-depository investments, as providing superior expected returns or seek to spread their deposits over several banks to maximize FDIC insurance coverage. Furthermore, technology and other
changes have made it more convenient for the bank's customers to transfer funds into alternative investments including products offered by other financial institutions or non-bank service providers. Increases in short-term interest rates could increase transfers of deposits to higher yielding deposits. Efforts and initiatives we undertake to retain and increase deposits, including deposit pricing, can increase our costs. When the bank's customers move money out of bank deposits in favor of alternative investments or into higher yielding deposits, or spread their accounts over several banks, we can lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, thus increasing our funding costs.
The occurrence of fraudulent activity, data privacy breaches, failures of our information security controls or cybersecurity-related incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a financial institution, we are susceptible to fraudulent activity, information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents that may be committed against us, our customers or our business partners (including by our own employees and
consultants), which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or, our customers or our business partners, disclosure or misuse of our information or our client information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our clients, litigation, or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include fraudulent or unauthorized access to systems used by us, our vendors, or our clients, denial or degradation of service attacks, and malware or other cyber-attacks. In recent periods, there continues to be a rise in electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cyber-attacks within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector due to cyber criminals targeting commercial bank accounts. Consistent with industry trends, we have also experienced an increase in attempted electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents in recent periods. Moreover, in recent periods, several large corporations, including financial institutions and retail companies, have suffered major data breaches, in some cases exposing not only confidential and proprietary corporate information, but also sensitive financial and other personal information of their customers and employees and subjecting them to potential fraudulent activity. Some of our clients may have been affected by these breaches, which increase their risks of identity theft, credit card fraud and other fraudulent activity that could involve their accounts with us.
Information pertaining to us and our clients is maintained, and transactions are executed, on the networks and systems of us, our clients and certain of our third-party partners, such as our online banking or reporting systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information, as well as execution of transactions over these systems, are essential to protect us and our clients against fraud and security breaches and to maintain our clients' confidence. Breaches of information security also may occur, and in infrequent cases have occurred, through intentional or unintentional acts by those having access to our systems or our clients' or counterparties' confidential information, including employees. In addition, increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third-party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our clients and underlying transactions, as well as the technology used by our clients to access our systems. Although we have developed, and continue to invest in, systems and processes that are designed to detect and prevent data security breaches and cyber-attacks and periodically test our security, we may fail to anticipate or adequately mitigate breaches of security or experience data privacy breaches that could result in: losses to us or our clients; our loss of business and/or clients; damage to our reputation; the incurrence of additional expenses; disruption to our business; our inability to grow our online services or other businesses; additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties, including resulting violations of law (whether federal or one or more various states); or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability — any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
More generally, publicized information concerning security and cyber-related problems and other data privacy breaches could inhibit the use or growth of electronic or web-based applications or solutions as a means of conducting commercial transactions. Such publicity may also cause damage to our reputation as a financial institution. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could adversely affect our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately and on a timely basis.
A failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could adversely affect our ability to report our financial results accurately and on a timely basis, which could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reporting or adversely affect our access to sources of liquidity. Furthermore, because of the inherent limitations of any system of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls and fraud, even effective internal controls may not prevent or detect all misstatements. Frequent or rapid changes in procedures, methodologies, systems, personnel and technology exacerbate the challenge of
developing and maintaining a system of internal controls and can increase the cost and level of effort to develop and maintain such systems.
Changes in our accounting policies or in accounting standards could materially affect how we report our financial results and condition.
Periodically the FASB and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. As a result of changes to financial accounting or reporting standards, whether promulgated or required by the FASB or other regulators, we could be required to change certain of the assumptions or estimates we have previously used in preparing our financial statements, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. See Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to the Consolidated Financial Statements under "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
Financial services companies depend on the accuracy and completeness of information about customers and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements, credit reports and other financial information. We may also rely on representations of those customers, counterparties or other third parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other financial information could have a material adverse impact on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and market area.
We face substantial competition in all areas of our operations from a variety of different competitors, many of which are larger and may have more financial resources. Such competitors primarily include national, regional and community banks within the various markets we operate. Additionally, various out of state banks conduct business in the market areas in which we currently operate. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including, without limitation, savings banks, credit unions, finance companies, financial service providers, including mortgage providers and brokers, operating via the internet and other technology platforms, brokerage firms, insurance companies, factoring companies and other financial intermediaries.
The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Banks, securities firms and insurance companies can merge under the umbrella of a financial holding company, which can offer virtually any type of financial service, including banking, securities underwriting, insurance (both agency and underwriting) and merchant banking. Also, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. Many of our competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. Additionally, due to their size, many competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services as well as better pricing for those products and services than we can.
Our ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including, among other things:
•the ability to develop, maintain and build upon long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets;
•the ability to expand our market position;
•the scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;
•the rate at which we introduce new products and services relative to our competitors;
•customer satisfaction with our level of service; and
•industry and general economic trends.
Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the soundness of our financial condition may also affect our competitiveness. Customers may decide not to do business with the bank due to its financial condition.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our bank branches and any real estate collateral we acquire upon foreclosure.
During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans that we have originated or acquired. We also own several of our branch locations. For any real property that we may possess, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage and costs of complying with applicable environmental regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with such requirements can result in penalties. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property's value or limit our ability to use, sell or lease the affected property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by unfavorable actions from rating agencies.
Ratings assigned by ratings agencies to us, our affiliates or our securities may impact the decision of certain customers, in particular, institutions, to do business with us. A rating downgrade or a negative rating could adversely affect our deposits and our business relationships.
Risks Related to Legal, Compliance and Regulatory Matters
Governmental regulation and regulatory actions against us may impair our operations or restrict our growth.
As a regulated financial institution, we are subject to significant governmental supervision and regulation. These regulations affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Statutes and regulations affecting our business may be changed at any time and the interpretation of these statutes and regulations by examining authorities may also change. In addition, regulations may be adopted which increase expenses associated with running our business and adversely affect our earnings.
There can be no assurance that such statutes and regulations, any changes thereto or to their interpretation will not adversely affect our business. In particular, these statutes and regulations, and any changes thereto, could subject us to additional costs (including legal and compliance costs), limit the types of financial services and products we may offer and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. In addition to governmental supervision and regulation, we are subject to changes in other federal and state laws, including changes in tax laws, which could materially affect us and the banking industry generally. We are subject to the rules and regulations of the FRB, the FDIC and the DFI, and certain rules and regulations promulgated by the CFPB. In addition, we are subject to the rules and regulation of the NYSE and the SEC and are subject to enforcement actions and other punitive actions by these agencies. If we fail to comply with federal and state regulations, the regulators may limit our activities or growth, impose fines on us or in the case of our bank regulators, ultimately require our bank to cease its operations. Bank regulations can hinder our ability to compete with financial services companies that are not regulated in the same manner or are less regulated. Federal and state bank regulatory agencies regulate many aspects of our operations. These areas include:
•the capital that must be maintained;
•the kinds of activities that can be engaged in;
•the kinds and amounts of investments that can be made;
•the locations of offices;
•insurance of deposits and the premiums that we must pay for this insurance;
•procedures and policies we must adopt;
•conditions and restrictions on our executive compensation; and
•how much cash we must set aside as reserves for deposits.
In addition, bank regulatory authorities may bring enforcement actions against banks and bank holding companies, including CPF and the bank, for unsafe or unsound practices in the conduct of their businesses or for violations of any law, rule or regulation, any condition imposed in writing by the appropriate bank regulatory agency or any written agreement with the authority. Enforcement actions against us could include a federal conservatorship or receivership for the bank, the issuance of additional orders that could be judicially enforced, the imposition of civil monetary penalties, the issuance of directives to enter into a strategic transaction, whether by merger or otherwise, with a third-party, the termination of insurance of deposits, the issuance of removal and prohibition orders against institution-affiliated parties, and the enforcement of such actions through injunctions or restraining orders. In addition, if we were to grow beyond $10 billion in assets, we would be subject to enhanced CFPB examination and our compliance costs would increase.
We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The Bank Secrecy Act, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, and Internal Revenue Service. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Regulatory capital standards impose enhanced capital adequacy requirements on us.
Increased regulatory capital requirements (and the associated compliance costs), which have been adopted by federal banking regulators, impose additional capital requirements on our business. The administration of existing capital adequacy laws as well as adoption of new laws and regulations relating to capital adequacy, or more expansive or aggressive interpretations of existing laws and regulations, could have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations and could substantially restrict our ability to pay dividends, repurchase any of our capital stock, or pay executive bonuses. In addition, increased regulatory capital requirements as well as our financial condition could require us to raise additional capital which would dilute our existing shareholders at the time of such capital issuance.
We are subject to various legal claims and litigation.
From time to time, customers, employees and others whom we do business with, or are regulated by, as well as our shareholders, can make claims and take legal action against us. Regardless of whether these claims and legal actions are founded or unfounded, if such claims and legal actions are not resolved in a manner favorable to us, they may result in significant financial liability and/or adversely affect the market perception of us and our products and services, as well as impact customer demand for our products and services. Any financial liability or reputational damage could have a material adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Even if these claims and legal actions do not result in a financial liability or reputational damage, defending these claims and actions have resulted in, and will continue to result in, increased legal and professional services costs, which adds to our noninterest expense and negatively impacts our operating results.
Risks Related to an Investment in the Company's Securities
The market price of our common stock could decline.
The trading price of our common stock may fluctuate widely as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside our control. In addition, the stock market is subject to fluctuations in the share prices and trading volumes that affect the market prices of the shares of many companies. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:
•failure to comply with all of the requirements of any governmental orders or agreements we may become subject to and the possibility of resulting action by the regulators;
•deterioration of asset quality;
•the incurrence of losses;
•actual or anticipated quarterly fluctuations in our operating results and financial condition;
•changes in revenue or earnings/losses estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts;
•failure to meet analysts' revenue or earnings/losses estimates;
•speculation in the press or investment community;
•strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as mergers, acquisitions, restructurings, or public offerings;
•additions or departures of key personnel;
•actions by institutional shareholders;
•fluctuations in the stock price and operating results of our competitors;
•future sales of other equity or debt securities, including our common stock;
•general market conditions and, in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry;
•proposed or adopted regulatory changes or developments;
•breaches in our security systems and loss of customer data;
•anticipated or pending investigations, proceedings or litigation that involve or affect us; or
•domestic and international economic factors unrelated to our performance.
The stock market generally may experience significant volatility. In addition, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate more than usual and cause significant price variations to occur. Accordingly, the common stock that you purchase may trade at a price lower than that at which they were purchased. Volatility in the market price of our common stock may prevent individual shareholders from being able to sell their shares when they want or at prices they find attractive.
A significant decline in our stock price could result in substantial losses for shareholders and could lead to costly and disruptive securities litigation.
Anti-takeover provisions in our restated articles of incorporation and bylaws and applicable federal and state law may limit the ability of another party to acquire us or a significant block of common stock, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Various provisions of our restated articles of incorporation and bylaws and certain other actions we have taken could delay or prevent a third-party from acquiring us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. These include, among other things, the authorization to issue "blank check" preferred stock by action of the Board of Directors acting alone, thus without obtaining shareholder approval. In addition, applicable provisions of federal and state law require regulatory approval in connection with certain acquisitions of our common stock and supermajority voting provisions in connection with certain transactions. In particular, both federal and state law limit the acquisition of ownership of certain percentage thresholds of our common stock without providing prior notice to the regulatory agencies and obtaining prior regulatory approval or nonobjection or being able to rely on an exemption from such acquisition. See the "Supervision and Regulation" section. We are also subject to the provisions of the Hawaii Control Share Acquisitions Act which prohibits the consummation of a “control share
acquisition” (with threshold ranges starting at 10% and set at 10% intervals up to a majority) unless approved by our shareholders or otherwise exempt. Unless approved or otherwise exempt, for a period of one year after acquisition, the shares acquired by a person in a control share acquisition will be (i) denied voting rights, (ii) be nontransferable, and (iii) be subject to redemption at our option. Collectively, these provisions of our restated articles of incorporation and bylaws and applicable federal and state law may prevent a merger or acquisition that would be attractive to shareholders, limit the ability of another party to acquire a significant block of our common stock, and could limit the price investors would be willing to pay in the future for our common stock.
Our common stock is equity and therefore is subordinate to our subsidiaries' indebtedness and preferred stock.
Our common stock constitutes equity interests and does not constitute indebtedness. As such, common stock will rank junior to all current and future indebtedness and other non-equity claims on us with respect to assets available to satisfy claims against us, including in the event of our liquidation. We may, and the bank and our other subsidiaries may also, incur additional indebtedness from time to time and may increase our aggregate level of outstanding indebtedness. As of December 31, 2020, we had (i) $50.0 million in face amount of trust preferred securities outstanding and accrued and unpaid dividends thereon of $0.1 million and (ii) $55.0 million in principal amount of subordinated notes outstanding and accrued and unpaid interest thereon of $0.5 million. We also had short-term FHLB borrowings of $22.0 million as of December 31, 2020. Additionally, holders of common stock are subject to the prior dividend and liquidation rights of any holders of our preferred stock that may be outstanding from time to time. The Board of Directors is authorized to cause us to issue additional classes or series of preferred stock without any action on the part of our stockholders. If we issue preferred shares in the future that have a preference over our common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation, or if we issue preferred shares with voting rights that dilute the voting power of the common stock, then the rights of holders of our common stock or the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
There is a limited trading market for our common stock and as a result, you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you pay for them at the time you otherwise may desire.
Although our common stock is listed for trading on the NYSE, the volume of trading in our common shares is lower than many other companies listed on the NYSE. A public trading market with depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the market of willing buyers and sellers of our common shares at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. As a result, you may not be able to resell your common stock at or above the price you pay or at the time(s) you otherwise may desire.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. There is no assurance that any such losses would not materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Our common stock is not insured and you could lose the value of your entire investment.
An investment in our common stock is not a deposit and is not insured against loss by the government.
Risks Related to Technology
We continually encounter technological change.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. In addition, there are a limited number of qualified persons in our local marketplace with the knowledge and experience required to effectively maintain our information technology systems and implement our technology initiatives. Failure to successfully attract and retain qualified personnel, or keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.
General Risk Factors
We are dependent on key personnel and the loss of one or more of those key personnel may materially and adversely affect our prospects.
Competition for qualified employees and personnel in the banking industry is intense and there is a limited number of qualified persons with knowledge of, and experience in, the regional banking industry, especially in the Hawaii market. The process of recruiting personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to carry out our strategies is often lengthy. Our success depends