10-Q 1 cpng-20220331.htm 10-Q cpng-20220331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended: March 31, 2022
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File No. 001-40115
cpng-20220331_g1.jpg
COUPANG, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware27-2810505
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

Tower 730, 570, Songpa-daero, Songpa-gu, Seoul
Republic of Korea 05510
+82 (2) 6150-5422
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s) Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per shareCPNGNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmall reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by a check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
As of May 5, 2022, there were 1,587,626,918 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock and 174,802,990 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, each with a par value of $0.0001 per share, outstanding.
                        

COUPANG, INC.
Form 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2022
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page









1

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) contains forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “toward,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our customers, suppliers, and merchants operate;
our expectations regarding our future operating and financial performance;
the continued growth of the e-commerce segment and the increased acceptance of online transactions by potential customers;
the size of our addressable markets, market share, and market trends;
our ability to compete in our industry;
our ability to manage expansion into new markets, segments, and offerings;
our ability to effectively manage the continued growth of our workforce and operations;
the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents, and investments to meet our liquidity needs;
our ability to retain existing suppliers and merchants and to add new suppliers and merchants;
our suppliers’ and merchants’ ability to supply high-quality and compliant merchandise to our customers;
our relationship with our employees and the status of our workers;
our ability to maintain and improve our segment position;
our ability to operate and manage the expansion of our fulfillment and delivery infrastructure;
the effects of seasonal trends on our results of operations;
our ability to effectively manage our exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
the effects of global macroeconomic conditions, including impacts relating to the invasion of Ukraine by Russia and its regional and global ramifications;
our ability to attract, retain, and motivate skilled personnel, including key members of our senior management;
our ability to stay in compliance with laws and regulations, including tax laws, that currently apply or may become applicable to our business both in Korea and internationally and our expectations regarding various laws and restrictions that relate to our business;
the outcomes of any claims, litigation, governmental audits, inspections, and investigations;
our intended use of the net proceeds from our initial public offering; and
the other factors set forth in Part 1, Item 1A, under the caption “Risk Factors,” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 (the “2021 Form 10-K”)
We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-Q.
2

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in Part 1, Item1A, under the caption “Risk Factors,” of our 2021 Form 10-K and elsewhere in this Form 10-Q. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-Q. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements such as “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Form 10-Q. While we believe such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-Q to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-Q or to reflect new information, actual results, revised expectations, or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments.
Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.aboutcoupang.com), our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, webcasts, press releases, conference calls, and social media. We use these mediums to communicate with investors and the general public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available on our website may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the information contained on our website as referenced in this paragraph is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-Q or any other report or document we file with the SEC.
3

Part I. Financial Information
Item 1.  Financial Statements (Unaudited)
COUPANG, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except shares)
(unaudited)
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$3,369,353 $3,487,708 
Restricted cash307,100 319,800 
Accounts receivable, net170,603 175,350 
Inventories1,378,399 1,421,501 
Other current assets256,945 232,447 
Total current assets5,482,400 5,636,806 
Long-term restricted cash1,105 2,839 
Property and equipment, net1,425,839 1,347,531 
Operating lease right-of-use assets1,465,868 1,374,629 
Goodwill9,536 9,739 
Long-term lease deposits and other308,462 270,290 
Total assets$8,693,210 $8,641,834 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$3,330,095 $3,442,720 
Accrued expenses249,619 304,293 
Deferred revenue100,554 93,972 
Short-term borrowings7,686 7,811 
Current portion of long-term debt193,269 341,717 
Current portion of long-term operating lease obligations299,571 287,066 
Other current liabilities313,910 266,709 
Total current liabilities4,494,704 4,744,288 
Long-term debt611,053 283,190 
Long-term operating lease obligations1,296,787 1,201,277 
Defined severance benefits and other253,405 237,122 
Total liabilities6,655,949 6,465,877 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)
Stockholders' equity
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value, 10,000,000,000 shares authorized, 1,586,254,594 and 1,579,399,667 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively; Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value, 250,000,000 shares authorized, 174,802,990 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
176 175 
Additional paid-in capital7,937,813 7,874,038 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(40,917)(47,739)
Accumulated deficit(5,859,811)(5,650,517)
Total stockholders' equity2,037,261 2,175,957 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$8,693,210 $8,641,834 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
4

COUPANG, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Net retail sales$4,556,107 $3,807,043 
Net other revenue560,579 399,817 
Total net revenues5,116,686 4,206,860 
Cost of sales4,073,280 3,474,354 
Operating, general and administrative1,249,111 999,822 
Total operating cost and expenses5,322,391 4,474,176 
Operating loss(205,705)(267,316)
Interest income3,534 940 
Interest expense(7,368)(24,823)
Other income (expense), net490 (3,826)
Loss before income taxes(209,049)(295,025)
Income tax expense245 8 
Net loss(209,294)(295,033)
Net loss attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders per share, basic and diluted$(0.12)$(0.68)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted1,756,739 434,917 
Other comprehensive income:
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax3,011 14,972 
Actuarial gain on defined severance benefits, net of tax3,811 918 
Total other comprehensive income6,822 15,890 
Comprehensive loss$(202,472)$(279,143)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
5

COUPANG, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED UNITS AND STOCKHOLDERS’/MEMBERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Redeemable Convertible Preferred UnitsCommon UnitsClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders'/Members' Equity
UnitsAmountUnitsAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2021$ $ 1,754,203$175 $7,874,038 $(47,739)$(5,650,517)$2,175,957 
Net loss— — — — — (209,294)(209,294)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax— — — — 3,011 — 3,011 
Actuarial gain on defined severance benefits, net of tax— — — — 3,811 — 3,811 
Issuance of common stock, equity-based compensation plan— — 4,1471 8,182 — — 8,183 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of restricted stock units— — 2,708— — — —  
Equity-based compensation— — — 55,593 — — 55,593 
Balance as of March 31, 2022$ $ 1,761,058$176 $7,937,813 $(40,917)$(5,859,811)$2,037,261 

Redeemable Convertible Preferred UnitsCommon UnitsClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive
Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders'/Members' Equity (Deficit)
UnitsAmountUnitsAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 20201,329,465$3,465,611 105,822$45,122 $ $25,036 $(31,093)$(4,107,927)$(4,068,862)
Net loss— — — — — (295,033)(295,033)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax— — — — 14,972 — 14,972 
Actuarial gain on defined severance benefits, net of tax— — — — 918 — 918 
Issuance of common units, equity-based compensation plan— 22,90138,968 — — — — 38,968 
Equity-based compensation— 2,974 — — — — 2,974 
Impact of Corporate Conversion and IPO
Conversion of common units into Class A and Class B common stock— (128,723)(87,064)128,64813 87,051 — —  
Conversion of redeemable convertible preferred units into Class A and Class B common stock(1,329,465)(3,465,611)— 1,329,465133 3,465,478 — — 3,465,611 
Issuance of Class A common stock, net of underwriting discounts and offering costs— — 100,00010 3,416,809 — — 3,416,819 
Conversion of convertible notes into Class A common stock— — 171,75017 609,982 — — 609,999 
Issuance of common stock, equity-based compensation plan subsequent to Corporate Conversion and IPO— — 2,680— 4,767 — — 4,767 
Equity-based compensation subsequent to Corporate Conversion and IPO— — — 83,992 — — 83,992 
Balance as of March 31, 2021$ $ 1,732,543$173 $7,693,115 $(15,203)$(4,402,960)$3,275,125 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
6

COUPANG, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021
Operating activities:
Net loss$(209,294)$(295,033)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization59,240 47,384 
Provision for severance benefits44,482 32,272 
Equity-based compensation55,593 86,966 
Paid-in-kind interest and accretion of discount on convertible notes 20,148 
Non-cash operating lease expense77,223 57,318 
Non-cash others16,514 15,153 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net266 (14,076)
Inventories6,863 (209,443)
Other assets(66,512)(72,439)
Accounts payable28,044 166,536 
Accrued expenses(49,981)22,737 
Deferred revenue8,472 1,603 
Other liabilities(25,849)(42,475)
Net cash used in operating activities(54,939)(183,349)
Investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(238,906)(146,831)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment4,245 30 
Other investing activities(14,367)(3,681)
Net cash used in investing activities(249,028)(150,482)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of Class A common stock upon initial public offering, net of underwriting discounts 3,431,277 
Deferred offering costs paid (11,618)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock/units, equity-based compensation plan8,183 43,735 
Proceeds from short-term borrowings and long-term debt343,975 56,464 
Repayment of short-term borrowings and long-term debt(152,029)(13,687)
Other financing activities(1,547)(487)
Net cash provided by financing activities198,582 3,505,684 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash(27,404)(39,457)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash(132,789)3,132,396 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, as of beginning of period3,810,347 1,401,302 
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash, as of end of period$3,677,558 $4,533,698 
Supplemental disclosure of cash-flow information:
Cash paid for income taxes$2,232 $401 
Cash paid for interest$6,249 $6,973 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
(Decrease) increase in property and equipment-related accounts payable$(74,563)$1,230 
Conversion of common units into Class A and Class B common stock$ $87,064 
Conversion of redeemable convertible preferred units into Class A and Class B common stock$ $3,465,611 
Conversion of convertible notes into Class A common stock$ $609,999 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements
7


COUPANG, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
1.     Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Coupang, Inc. (“Coupang”), together with its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”), is a Delaware corporation, which owns and operates an e-commerce business that primarily serves the Korean retail market. Through the Company’s mobile applications and Internet websites, the Company offers products and services that span a wide range of categories, including home goods and décor, apparel and beauty products, fresh food and grocery, sporting goods, electronics, restaurant order and delivery, travel, content streaming, and everyday consumables, which are offered through a fully integrated technology, fulfillment and logistics infrastructure. The Company’s main operations, including procurement, marketing, technology, administrative functions, and fulfillment and logistics infrastructure, are predominantly located in South Korea, with other significant operations and support services performed in China, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations and comprehensive loss, and redeemable convertible preferred units and stockholders’/members’ equity (deficit), and cash flows for the periods presented, but are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be anticipated for any future annual or interim period. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company’s 2021 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, which include, but are not limited to, equity-based compensation, inventory valuation, income taxes, defined severance benefits, and revenue recognition. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. We based our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Given the global economic climate and additional or unforeseen effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, these estimates become more challenging, and actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Segment Information
On March 2, 2022, the Company announced that it revised its reportable segments to reflect the way the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) assesses performance and allocates resources. The change led to the following two operating and reportable segments: Product Commerce and Developing Offerings. Refer to Note 14 — "Segment Reporting" for further discussion.
8

Concentration of Credit Risk
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash are potentially subject to concentration of credit risk. Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash are placed with several financial institutions that management believes are of high credit quality, of which 77% and 77% were held at three and four financial institutions as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Adopted
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, “Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity's Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40).” The standard reduces the number of models used to account for convertible instruments, amends diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) calculations for convertible instruments, and amends the requirements for a contract (or embedded derivative) that is potentially settled in an entity's own shares to be classified in equity. The amendments add certain disclosure requirements to increase transparency and decision-usefulness about a convertible instrument's terms and features. Under the amendment, the Company must use the if-converted method for including convertible instruments in diluted EPS as opposed to the treasury stock method. The ASU is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is allowed under the standard with either a modified retrospective or full retrospective method. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2022. The adoption of the ASU did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, “Business Combinations (Topic 805) - Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2021-08 requires an entity to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606 (Revenue from Contracts with Customers). The ASU will generally result in an entity recognizing contract assets and contract liabilities at amounts consistent with those recorded by the acquiree immediately before the acquisition date rather than at fair value. The ASU is effective on a prospective basis for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 . We early adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2022. The adoption of the ASU did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
2.    Net Revenues
Details of total net revenues were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Net retail sales$4,556,107 $3,807,043 
Third-party merchant services491,347 350,934 
Other revenue69,232 48,883 
Total net revenues$5,116,686 $4,206,860 

This level of revenue disaggregation takes into consideration how the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors. Net retail sales are recognized from online product sales to consumers. Third-party merchant services represent commissions, advertising, and delivery fees earned from merchants and restaurants that sell their products through the Company’s online business. Other revenue includes revenue earned from our various other offerings.
Contract liabilities consist of payments in advance of delivery and customer loyalty credits, which are included in deferred revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company recognized revenue of $74 million and $60 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, which were included in deferred revenue on the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Revenue recognized from customer loyalty program liabilities as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
9

3.    Supplemental Financial Information
Property and Equipment, net
The following summarizes the Company’s property and equipment, net:
(in thousands)
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Land$137,844 $140,786 
Buildings313,330 320,059 
Equipment and furniture559,915 551,304 
Leasehold improvements363,325 340,468 
Vehicles157,985 168,585 
Software35,990 34,582 
Construction in progress303,770 200,735 
Property and equipment, gross1,872,159 1,756,519 
Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization(446,320)(408,988)
Property and equipment, net$1,425,839 $1,347,531 

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated other comprehensive loss includes all changes in equity during a period that have yet to be recognized in income. The major components are foreign currency translation adjustments and actuarial gains (losses) on the Company’s defined severance benefits. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the ending balance in accumulated other comprehensive loss related to foreign currency translation adjustments was $39 million and $36 million, respectively, and the amount related to actuarial losses on defined severance benefits was $(80) million and $(84) million, respectively.
4.    Leases
The Company is obligated under operating leases primarily for vehicles, equipment, warehouses, and facilities that expire over the next eleven years. These leases generally contain renewal options. Because the Company is not reasonably certain to exercise these renewal options, or the renewal options are not solely within the Company’s discretion, the options are not considered in determining the lease term, and the associated potential option payments are excluded from expected minimum lease payments. The Company’s leases generally do not include termination options for either party or restrictive financial or other covenants.
The components of operating lease cost were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Operating lease cost$102,098 $75,397 
Variable and short-term lease cost10,128 8,982 
Total operating lease cost $112,226 $84,379 

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information related to leases were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)
20222021
Cash paid for the amount used to measure the operating lease liabilities$83,063 $58,116 
Operating lease assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations$174,824 $214,745 
Net increase to operating lease right-of-use assets resulting from remeasurements of lease obligations$21,761 $6,938 
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The assumptions used to value leases for the periods presented were as follows:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Operating leases weighted-average remaining lease term6.0 years5.8 years
Operating leases weighted-average discount rate6.36 %6.17 %
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had entered into operating leases that have not commenced with future minimum lease payments of $460 million, that have not been recognized on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. These leases have non-cancellable lease terms of 2 to 10 years.
5.    Fair Value Measurement
Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. U.S. GAAP established a hierarchy framework to classify the fair value based on the observability of significant inputs to the measurement. The levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices in an active market for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs other than the quoted prices that are observable either directly or indirectly for the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The following table summarizes the Company's financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
March 31, 2022
(in thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$3,369,353 $ $ $3,369,353 
Restricted cash
Time deposit239,487   239,487 
Money market trust67,613   67,613 
Long-term restricted cash
Time deposit1,105   1,105 
Total financial assets$3,677,558 $ $ $3,677,558 
December 31, 2021
(in thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$3,487,708 $ $ $3,487,708 
Restricted cash
Time deposit250,839   250,839 
Money market trust68,961   68,961 
Long-term restricted cash
Time deposit2,839   2,839 
Total financial assets$3,810,347 $ $ $3,810,347 
Cash and cash equivalents includes bank deposits, money market trusts and time deposits. The carrying amounts of our cash equivalents approximate their fair values, which are based on Level 1 assumptions.
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6.    Long-term Debt
Details of carrying amounts of long-term debt were as follows:
(in thousands)March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Maturity DateInterest rate (%)Borrowing Limit
February 2024(1)
(4)
$1,000,000 $ $ 
April 2022 - October 2023(2)
2.65 4.8024,190 12,843 20,952 
April 2022 - March 2027(3)
2.87 8.501,031,384 795,176 605,229 
Total principal long-term debt$2,055,574 $808,019 $626,181 
Less: current portion of long-term debt(193,269)(341,717)
Less: unamortized discounts(3,697)(1,274)
Total long-term debt$611,053 $283,190 
_____________
(1)Relates to the Company’s 2021 revolving credit facility.
(2)The Company entered into various loan agreements with fixed interest rates for general operating purposes.
(3)At March 31, 2022, we had pledged up to $1.0 billion of land and buildings, and $190 million of time deposits, which is classified as short-term restricted cash, as collateral against term loan facilities.
(4)Borrowings under the 2021 revolving credit facility bear interest, at the Company’s option, at a rate per annum equal to (i) a base rate equal to the highest of (A) the prime rate, (B) the higher of the federal funds rate or a composite overnight bank borrowing rate plus 0.50%, or (C) an adjusted LIBOR for a one-month interest period plus 1.00% or (ii) an adjusted LIBOR plus a margin equal to 1.00%.
In March 2022, the Company entered into a new five-year loan agreement to borrow $330 million, which was partially used to extinguish the $149 million August 2020 term loan facility which matured in March 2022 and to finance infrastructure of a fulfillment center. The Company pledged up to $396 million of certain existing land and a building as collateral. The loan bears interest at a fixed rate of 4.26%.
The March 2017 $182 million term loan facility agreement was paid in April 2022 at maturity.
The Company was in compliance with the covenants for each of its borrowings and debt agreements as of March 31, 2022.
The Company’s long-term debt is recorded at amortized cost. The fair value is estimated using Level 2 inputs based on the Company’s current interest rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements. The carrying amount of the long-term debt approximates its fair value as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 due primarily to the interest rates approximating market interest rates.
7.    Convertible Notes and Derivative Instrument
From February 23, 2018 to May 16, 2018, the Company issued convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of $502 million (total proceeds of $507 million, which included a total net funding premium at issuance), the majority of which were purchased by existing unitholders of the Company’s preferred units, with a maturity equal to the earlier of (a) the fourth anniversary from the first issuance date, (b) the consummation of a liquidity event, or (c) upon an event of default, as defined in the LLC Agreement. In connection with the Company’s initial public offering (“IPO”) in March 2021, the principal balance and the accrued interest on the convertible notes were automatically converted into 171,750,446 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock.
The convertible notes had an annual effective interest rate of 16.99%. The Company recorded interest expense from its convertible notes for the three months ended March 31, 2021 of $20 million, consisting of $15 million of contractual interest expense and $5 million of debt discount amortization.
The convertible notes contained embedded derivatives that allowed or required the holders of the convertible notes to convert them into a variable number of the Company’s equity securities for a value equal to a significant premium over the then principal and accrued interest balance. These embedded derivatives were bifurcated and accounted for separately as a single, compound derivative instrument. The convertible notes did not convert to common shares based on this embedded feature, rather they converted based on a price calculated by dividing $6.3 billion with the number of common equity securities, on an as-converted and as-exercised basis, outstanding on the closing of the IPO. Following the convertible notes conversion to shares of Class A common stock, the embedded derivatives no longer exist.
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8.    Commitments and Contingencies
Commitments
The following summarizes the Company’s minimum contractual commitments as of March 31, 2022:
(in thousands)Unconditional purchase obligations (unrecognized)Long-term debt (including interest)Operating leasesTotal
Remainder of 2022$194,403 $209,647 $288,858 $692,908 
2023200,656 74,381 363,899 638,936 
202492,957 211,446 326,855 631,258 
202576,093 15,839 274,252 366,184 
202625,720 62,193 203,745 291,658 
Thereafter 333,832 507,708 841,540 
Total undiscounted payments$589,829 $907,338 $1,965,317 $3,462,484 
Less: lease imputed interest(368,959)
Total lease commitments$1,596,358 

Unconditional purchase obligations include legally binding contracts with terms in excess of one year that are not reflected on the consolidated balance sheets. These contractual commitments primarily relate to technology related service contracts, fulfillment center construction contracts and software licenses. For contracts with variable terms, we do not estimate the total obligation beyond any minimum pricing as of the reporting date.
Legal Matters
From time to time, the Company may become party to litigation incidents and other legal proceedings, including regulatory proceedings, in the ordinary course of business. The Company assesses the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes with respect to these matters and determines loss contingency assessments on a gross basis after assessing the probability of incurrence of a loss and whether a loss is reasonably estimable. In addition, the Company considers other relevant factors that could impact its ability to reasonably estimate a loss. A determination of the amount of reserves required, if any, for these contingencies is made after analyzing each matter. The Company's reserves may change in the future due to new developments or changes in strategy in handling these matters. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company currently believes that the final outcome of currently pending legal matters will not have a material adverse effect on its business, consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.
9.    Redeemable Convertible Preferred Units and Stockholders'/Members' Equity (Deficit)
Immediately prior to effectiveness of the Company’s IPO registration statement on Form S-1, Coupang, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, converted into a Delaware corporation pursuant to a statutory conversion, which changed the Company’s name to Coupang, Inc. (“Corporate Conversion”).
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, the Company’s Limited Liability Company Agreement (“LLC Agreement”), as amended and restated on April 11, 2019, authorized the issuance of 1,448,632,049 preferred units, which were convertible into the same number of common voting units issued upon conversion of the preferred units, as well as the issuance of 264,166,544 common units.
Pursuant to the Corporate Conversion and IPO:
1,196,605,432 preferred units and 85,579,584 common units (which include 22,443,220 PIUs), in each case, automatically converted into an equal number of shares of Class A common stock, except with respect to a conversion adjustment which reduced the outstanding common units designated as PIUs by 75,862 common units, and excluding any such preferred units and common units (including any PIUs) held by Mr. Bom Kim; and
13

132,859,550 preferred units held by Mr. Kim and 43,143,440 common units (all of which were designated as PIUs) held by Mr. Kim, in each case, converted into an equal number of shares of Class B common stock.
On March 15, 2021, the Company completed its IPO, in which it issued and sold 100,000,000 shares of its Class A common stock at a price of $35.00 per share. The Company received net proceeds of approximately $3.4 billion from its IPO after deducting underwriting discounts of $69 million and other offering costs. Also, the owner of our Class B common stock converted 1,200,000 shares of Class B common stock into Class A common stock, which were sold in the IPO.
Holders of vested PIUs had similar rights to those of common unit holders. The PIUs (with the exception of those granted to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, which convert into an equal number of shares of Class B common stock) convert to shares of Class A common stock at a ratio based on the excess of the per common unit value of the Company at the time of a Corporate Conversion over the per common unit value designated at the grant date of the PIUs (the participation threshold), as specified in the underlying award agreements. All outstanding PIUs automatically converted into 22,367,358 shares of Class A common stock and 43,143,440 shares of Class B common stock at the time of the Corporate Conversion.
10.    Equity-based Compensation Plans
The 2021 Equity Compensation Plan (the “2021 Plan”) provides for the granting of incentive stock options, non-statutory stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards, performance awards, and other equity-based awards (or the cash equivalent thereof). The number of shares of the Company’s Class A common stock reserved for issuance under the 2021 Plan will be increased on January 1 of each calendar year, starting on January 1, 2022 through January 1, 2031, in an amount equal to 5% of the total number of shares of the Company’s capital stock outstanding on the last day of the calendar month before the date of each automatic increase, or a lesser number of shares determined by the Company’s board of directors. Pursuant to the 2021 Plan, effective January 1, 2022, the maximum number of shares of the Company’s Class A common stock that may be issued under the 2021 plan increased by 87,710,132 shares, or 5% of the total number of shares of the Company’s capital stock outstanding as of December 31, 2021. Following the increase, the maximum number of shares of the Company’s Class A common stock that may be issued under the 2021 Plan is 302,813,864 shares
RSUs
The Company had previously granted restricted equity units under the 2011 Plan, which vest upon the satisfaction of both a service-based condition and a performance-based condition. In connection with the Company’s Corporate Conversion and IPO, the outstanding awards were converted into RSUs.
For the RSUs with the performance condition satisfied upon the completion of the Company’s IPO, the Company recorded $41 million in equity-based compensation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2021, consisting primarily of a cumulative catch-up adjustment related to such awards based on the full or partial fulfillment of requisite service periods. Unrecognized equity-based compensation expense related to these awards are recorded over the remaining requisite service period. RSUs generally vest over 2 to 4 years from the vesting start date, subject to the recipient remaining an employee of the Company at each vesting date.
As of March 31, 2022, the Company had $449 million of unamortized compensation costs related to all unvested RSU awards. The unamortized compensation costs are expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 2.9 years, net of estimated forfeitures.
The table below summarizes RSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 is as follows:
Outstanding RSUs
(in thousands, except unit price)Number of RSUsWeighted Average Grant-
Date Fair Value
December 31, 202123,511 $23.80 
Granted3,816 $23.35 
Vested(2,708)$24.21 
Forfeited / cancelled(1,149)$27.78 
March 31, 202223,470 $23.48 
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Equity-based Compensation Expense
The following table presents the effects of equity-based compensation in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Cost of sales$3,985 $1,609 
Operating, general and administrative51,608 85,357 
Total$55,593 $86,966 
11.    Income Taxes
The Company’s tax provision, or benefit, from income taxes for interim periods is determined using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate, adjusted for discrete items, if any, that are taken into account in the relevant period. Each quarter we update our estimate of the annual effective tax rate, and if our estimated tax rate changes, we make a cumulative adjustment. No income tax benefit was accrued for jurisdictions where the Company anticipates incurring a loss during the full fiscal year as the related deferred tax assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance. The Company’s resulting effective tax rate differs from the applicable statutory rate, primarily due to the valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets.
The Company is subject to income taxation through certain of its subsidiaries predominantly in the United States, China, South Korea, and throughout other Asian countries.
Significant judgment is required in evaluating the Company’s tax positions and determining its provision for income taxes. The impacts of uncertain tax positions are recognized only after determining a more-likely-than-not probability that the uncertain tax positions will not withstand challenge, if any, from the relevant taxing authorities. The Company did not have any material uncertain tax positions as of March 31, 2022 and 2021.
12.    Defined Severance Benefits
Defined severance benefits are for employees of the Company’s Korean subsidiaries. Pursuant to the Employee Retirement Benefit Security Act of Korea, eligible employees of the Korean subsidiaries receive defined benefits as severance payments upon leaving the Company based on employment length and pay rate.
The following table provides the components of net periodic benefit costs and the portion of these costs charged to expense:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)
20222021
Current service costs$38,967 $30,555 
Interest expense1,704 594 
Amortization of:
Prior service credit906 23 
Net actuarial loss2,905 1,100 
Net periodic benefit costs charged to expense$44,482 $32,272 
s
13.    Net Loss per Share
The Company computes net loss per share using the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock and participating securities. As the liquidation and dividend rights are identical, the undistributed earnings or loss are allocated on a proportionate basis to each class of common stock, and the resulting basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders are therefore the same for Class A and Class B common stock on both an individual and a combined basis. Basic net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed using the weighted-average number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock and potentially dilutive Class A and Class B potential common shares outstanding during the period. The Company's basic and diluted net loss per share are the same because the Company has generated a net loss to common stockholders.
15

Immediately prior to the IPO, the Company completed the Corporate Conversion. The Corporate Conversion resulted in a change of equity interests from common units to shares of common stock, but no change in relative shareholder rights, rank, or value before and after this reorganization transaction. As such, the Corporate Conversion of common units was considered equivalent to a stock split and requires retrospective treatment for net loss per share purposes. All share and per share information has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the Corporate Conversion for all periods presented. PIUs outstanding prior to the Corporate Conversion were considered compensatory arrangements that were settled with shares of Class A or Class B common stock at the time of the Corporate Conversion and have been included as outstanding shares subsequent to that date. Similarly, any preferred units that were converted in accordance with their terms into shares of Class A or Class B common stock at the time of the Corporate Conversion have also been included as outstanding shares subsequent to that date.
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
20222021
Numerator:
Net loss$(209,294)$(295,033)
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted1,756,739 434,917 
Net loss attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders per share, basic and diluted$(0.12)$(0.68)

Equity compensation awards of 28.9 million shares and 60.2 million shares for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, are excluded from the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
14.    Segment Reporting
The Company’s CODM is its Chief Executive Officer. On March 2, 2022, the Company announced that it revised its reportable segments to reflect the way the Company manages its business and to promote improved visibility to its business performance. The change led to the following two operating and reportable segments: Product Commerce and Developing Offerings. These segments are based on how the CODM manages the business, allocates resources, makes operating decisions and evaluates operating performance. Prior to this change, we operated in one operating and one reportable segment.
Product Commerce - primarily includes core retail (owned inventory) and marketplace offerings (third-party merchants) and Rocket Fresh, our fresh grocery offering, as well as advertising products associated with these offerings. Revenues from Product Commerce are derived primarily from online product sales of owned inventory to customers in Korea and from commissions earned from merchants that sell products through the Company’s mobile application and website.
Developing Offerings - primarily includes more nascent offerings and services, including Coupang Eats, our restaurant ordering and delivery service, Coupang Play, our online content streaming platform, fintech, certain international initiatives, as well as advertising products associated with these offerings. Revenues from Developing Offerings are primarily generated from online restaurant ordering and delivery services as well as advertising services provided on the Company’s mobile applications and websites.
Our segment operating performance measure is segment adjusted EBITDA. Segment adjusted EBITDA is defined as loss before income taxes for a period before depreciation and amortization, equity-based compensation expense, interest expense, interest income, and other income (expense), net. Segment adjusted EBITDA also excludes impairments and other items that we do not believe are reflective of our ongoing operations.
We generally allocate operating expenses to the respective segments based on usage. The CODM does not evaluate segments using asset information and, accordingly, the Company does not report asset information by segment.
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Results of operations for the reportable segments and reconciliation to loss before income taxes is as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Net revenues
Product Commerce$4,936,053 $4,097,651 
Developing Offerings180,633 109,209 
Total net revenues$5,116,686 $4,206,860 
Segment adjusted EBITDA
Product Commerce$2,877 $(69,289)
Developing Offerings(93,749)(63,677)
Total segment adjusted EBITDA$(90,872)$(132,966)
Reconciling items:
Depreciation and amortization$(59,240)$(47,384)
Equity-based compensation(55,593)(86,966)
Interest expense(7,368)(24,823)
Interest income3,534 940 
Other expense (income), net490 (3,826)
Loss before income taxes$(209,049)$(295,025)

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Item 2.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”), as well as our audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2021 Form 10-K. This discussion, particularly information with respect to our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties as described under the heading “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” in this Form 10-Q. As a result of many factors, including, without limitation, those factors set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of our 2021 Form 10-K and the “Risk Factors” section of subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our actual results or timing of certain events could differ materially from the results or timing described in, implied by, these forward-looking statements.
Overview
We are a leading e-commerce player in Korea. We believe that we are the preeminent online destination for e-commerce in the market because of our broad selection, low prices, and exceptional convenience across our owned inventory selection as well as products offered by third-party merchants. Our unique end-to-end fulfillment, logistics, and technology network enables Rocket Delivery, which provides free, next-day delivery for orders placed anytime of the day, even seconds before midnight—across millions of products. Our structural advantages from complete end-to-end integration, investments in technology, and scale economies generate higher efficiencies that allow us to pass savings to customers in the form of lower prices. The capabilities we have built provide us with opportunities to expand into other offerings and geographies.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2022, we organized our operations into two segments: Product Commerce and Developing Offerings. These segments reflect the way management evaluates its business performance and manages its operations. See Note 14 — "Segment Reporting" to the condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Our Product Commerce segment primarily generates revenues from online product sales of owned inventory to customers in Korea and from commissions earned from merchants that sell products through the Company’s mobile application and website as well as related advertising services associated with these offerings.
Our Developing Offerings segment focuses on our nascent offerings and primarily generates revenues from our online restaurant ordering and delivery services, online content streaming platform, fintech, as well as related advertising services associated with these offerings.
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Key Financial and Operating Highlights:
(in thousands)Three Months Ended March 31,
20222021% Change
Total net revenues$5,116,686 $4,206,860 22 %
Total net revenues, constant currency(1)
$5,534,178 $3,926,485 32 %
Gross profit(2)
$1,043,406 $732,506 42 %
Net loss$(209,294)$(295,033)(29)%
Net loss margin(4.1)%(7.0)%
Adjusted EBITDA(1)
$(90,872)$(132,966)(32)%
Adjusted EBITDA margin(1)
(1.8)%(3.2)%
Net cash used in operating activities$(54,939)$(183,349)(70)%
Free cash flow(1)
$(289,600)$(330,150)(12)%
Segment adjusted EBITDA:
     Product Commerce$2,877 $(69,289)
NM(3)
Developing Offerings$(93,749)$(63,677)47 %
Trailing Twelve Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)20222021% Change
Net cash used in operating activities$(282,168)$(196,515)44 %
Free cash flow(1)
$(1,041,827)$(759,379)37 %
_____________
(1)Total net revenues, constant currency; total net revenues growth, constant currency; adjusted EBITDA; adjusted EBITDA margin; and free cash flow are non-GAAP measures. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Reconciliations” below for the reconciliation of the Non-GAAP measures with their comparable amounts prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).
(2)Gross profit is calculated as total net revenues minus cost of sales.
(3)Non-meaningful

We have experienced and may continue to experience uncertainty in our business and the global economy due to the duration and intensity of the COVID-19 pandemic; effectiveness and extent of vaccinations; supply chain disruptions including those of our vendors, suppliers and third-party logistics; constraints in logistics and fulfillment related labor costs including costs to attract and retain employees; and consumer confidence which may impact our results. These drivers make it challenging to reasonably quantify the direct impact the pandemic has had, or may have in the future, on our business versus those impacts that may have been, or may be, indirectly related to the pandemic. For additional details, refer to Part I—Item 1A. “Risk Factors” contained in our Form 10-K.
Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We review the key business and financial metrics discussed below. We use these measures to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions.
Key Business Metrics
Three Months Ended
(in thousands, except net revenues per Active Customer)March 31, 2021June 30, 2021September 30, 2021December 31, 2021March 31, 2022
Active Customers16,037 17,022 16,823 17,936 18,112 
Total net revenues per Active Customer$262 $263 $276 $283 $283 
Active Customers
As of the last date of each reported period, we determine our number of Active Customers by counting the total number of individual customers who have ordered at least once directly from our apps or websites during the relevant period. A customer is anyone who has created an account on our apps or websites, identified by a unique email address. The change in Active
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Customers in a reported period captures both the inflow of new customers as well as the outflow of existing customers who have not made a purchase in the period. We view the number of Active Customers as a key indicator of our potential for growth in total net revenues, the reach of our network, the awareness of our brand, and the engagement of our customers.
Net Revenues per Active Customer
Net revenues per Active Customer is the total net revenues generated in a period divided by the total number of Active Customers in that period. A key driver of growth is increasing the frequency and the level of spend of Active Customers who are shopping on our apps or websites. We therefore view net revenues per Active Customer as a key indicator of engagement and retention of our customers and our success in increasing the share of wallet.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Reconciliations
We report our financial results in accordance with U.S. GAAP. However, management believes that certain non-GAAP financial measures provide investors with additional useful information in evaluating our performance. These non-GAAP financial measures may be different than similarly titled measures used by other companies.
Our non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as substitutes for, financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP measures have limitations in that they do not reflect all the amounts associated with our results of operations as determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These measures should only be used to evaluate our results of operations in conjunction with the corresponding U.S. GAAP measures.
Free Cash Flow
Free cash flow is defined as cash flow from operations less purchases of property and equipment, plus proceeds from sale of property and equipment. We believe that free cash flow is an additional and useful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from our core operations that, after purchases and sales of property and equipment, can be used for strategic initiatives, including investing in our business and strengthening our balance sheet. Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of other U.S. GAAP financial measures, such as net cash provided by operating activities. A limitation of free cash flow is that it may be calculated differently by other companies in our industry, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure. We expect our free cash flow to fluctuate in future periods as we invest in our business to support our plans for growth.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income/(loss) for a period before depreciation and amortization, interest expense, interest income, income tax expense (benefit), other income (expense), net, equity-based compensation, impairments, and other items that we do not believe are reflective of our ongoing operations. Adjusted EBITDA margin is defined as adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of total net revenues. We use adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin as key measures to evaluate and assess our performance and allocate internal resources. We believe adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are frequently used by investors and other interested parties in evaluating companies in the e-commerce industry for period-to-period comparisons as they remove the impact of certain items that are not representative of our core business, such as material non-cash items and certain variable charges. However, other companies may calculate adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin in a manner different from ours and therefore they may not be directly comparable to similar terms used by other companies. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are not measures of financial performance under U.S. GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to cash flow from operating activities or as measures of liquidity or alternatives to net income/(loss) as indicators of operating performance or any other measures of performance derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin have limitations as analytical tools, and you should consider them in addition to, and not in isolation or as substitutes, for analysis of our results as reported under U.S. GAAP.
Constant Currency Revenue and Constant Currency Revenue Growth
The effect of currency exchange rates on our business is an important factor in understanding period-to-period comparisons. Our financial reporting currency is the U.S. dollar (“USD”) and changes in foreign exchange rates can significantly affect our reported results and consolidated trends. For example, our business generates sales predominantly in Korean Won (“KRW”), which are favorably affected as the USD weakens relative to the KRW, and unfavorably affected as the USD strengthens relative to the KRW. We use constant currency revenue and constant currency revenue growth for financial and operational decision-making and as a means to evaluate comparisons between periods. We believe the presentation of our results on a constant
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currency basis in addition to U.S. GAAP results helps improve the ability to understand our performance because they exclude the effects of foreign currency volatility that are not indicative of our actual results of operations.
Constant currency information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant. We define constant currency revenue as total revenue excluding the effect of foreign exchange rate movements, and use it to determine the constant currency revenue growth on a comparative basis. Constant currency revenue is calculated by translating current period revenues using the prior period exchange rate. Constant currency revenue growth (as a percentage) is calculated by determining the increase in current period revenue over prior period revenue, where current period foreign currency revenue is translated using prior period exchange rates.
These results should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Results on a constant currency basis, as we present them, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and are not a measure of performance presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
The following tables present the reconciliations from each U.S. GAAP measure to its corresponding non-GAAP measure for the periods noted:
Free Cash Flow
Three Months Ended March 31,Trailing Twelve Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)2022202120222021
Net cash used in operating activities$(54,939)$(183,349)$(282,168)