Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Part II. Other Information
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Other Information
Item 6. Exhibits
Salesforce.com Earnings 2019-04-30
CRM 10Q Quarterly Report
Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended April 30, 2019
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission File Number: 001-32224
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
415 Mission Street, 3rd Fl
San Francisco, California 94105
(Address of principal executive offices)
Telephone Number (415) 901-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
New York Stock Exchange, Inc.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days: Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer ¨
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
As of May 31, 2019, there were approximately 776 million shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
Salesforce.com, inc. (the "Company") is a leading provider of enterprise software, delivered through the cloud, with a focus on customer relationship management, or CRM. The Company introduced its first CRM solution in 2000, and has since expanded its service offerings into new areas and industries with new editions, features and platform capabilities.
The Company's core mission is to empower its customers to connect with their customers in entirely new ways through cloud, mobile, social, Internet of Things (“IoT”) and artificial intelligence ("AI") technologies.
The Company's Customer Success Platform is a comprehensive portfolio of service offerings providing sales force automation, customer service and support, marketing automation, digital commerce, integration solutions, community management, industry-specific solutions, analytics, application development, IoT integration, collaborative productivity tools, an enterprise cloud marketplace which the Company refers to as the AppExchange, and its professional services.
The Company’s fiscal year ends on January 31. References to fiscal 2020, for example, refer to the fiscal year ending January 31, 2020.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets as of April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019 and the condensed consolidated statements of operations, condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income, condensed consolidated statements of stockholders' equity and condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively, are unaudited.
These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the financial information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s balance sheets as of April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019, and its results of operations, including its comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and its cash flows for the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018. All adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. The results for the three months ended April 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarter or for the fiscal year ending January 31, 2020.
These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 8, 2019.
The Company prospectively adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)" ("ASU 2016-02"), also referred to as Topic 842, as discussed below. As a result, the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of April 30, 2019 is not comparable with that as of January 31, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
Significant estimates and assumptions made by management include the determination of:
the standalone selling price (SSP) of performance obligations for revenue contracts with multiple performance obligations;
the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed for business combinations;
the recognition, measurement and valuation of current and deferred income taxes and uncertain tax positions;
the average period of benefit associated with costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts;
the fair value of certain stock awards issued;
the useful lives of intangible assets; and
the valuation of privately-held strategic investments.
Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, the result of which forms the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities.
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The Company operates as one operating segment. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision makers in deciding how to allocate resources and assess performance. Over the past few years, the Company has completed a number of acquisitions. These acquisitions have allowed the Company to expand its offerings, presence and reach in various market segments of the enterprise cloud computing market. While the Company has offerings in multiple enterprise cloud computing market segments, including as a result of the Company's acquisitions, the Company’s business operates in one operating segment because most of the Company's offerings operate on its single Customer Success Platform and most of the Company's products are deployed in a nearly identical way, and the Company’s chief operating decision makers evaluate the Company’s financial information and resources and assess the performance of these resources on a consolidated basis. Since the Company operates in one operating segment, all required financial segment information can be found in the consolidated financial statements.
Concentrations of Credit Risk, Significant Customers and Investments
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable. Collateral is not required for accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for its doubtful accounts receivable. This allowance is based upon historical loss patterns, the number of days that billings are past due and an evaluation of the potential risk of loss associated with delinquent accounts. Receivables are written-off and charged against the recorded allowance when the Company has exhausted collection efforts without success.
No single customer accounted for more than five percent of accounts receivable at April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019. No single customer accounted for five percent or more of total revenue during the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019, assets located outside the Americas were 15 percent and 14 percent of total assets, respectively. As of April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019, assets located in the United States were 83 percent and 84 percent of total assets, respectively.
The Company is also exposed to concentrations of risk in its strategic investment portfolio. As of April 30, 2019, the Company held five investments that were individually greater than five percent of its total strategic investments, of which three were publicly traded and two were privately held. As of January 31, 2019, the Company held five investments that were individually greater than five percent of its total strategic investments of which four were publicly traded and one was privately held.
The Company derives its revenues from two sources: (1) subscription revenues, which are comprised of subscription fees from customers accessing the Company’s enterprise cloud computing services (collectively, "Cloud Services"), software licenses, and from customers paying for additional support beyond the standard support that is included in the basic subscription fees; and (2) related professional services such as process mapping, project management and implementation services. Other revenue consists primarily of training fees.
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products and services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount, for example, overage fees, contingent fees or service level penalties, the Company includes an estimate of the amount it expects to receive for the total transaction price if it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur.
The Company determines the amount of revenue to be recognized through application of the following steps:
•Identification of the contract, or contracts with a customer;
•Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
•Determination of the transaction price;
•Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
•Recognition of revenue when or as the Company satisfies the performance obligations.
The Company’s subscription service arrangements are non-cancelable and do not contain refund-type provisions.
Subscription and Support Revenues
Subscription and support revenues are comprised of fees that provide customers with access to Cloud Services, software licenses and related support and updates during the term of the arrangement.
Cloud Services allow customers to use the Company's multi-tenant software without taking possession of the software. Revenue is generally recognized ratably over the contract term.
Since the May 2018 acquisition of MuleSoft, subscription and support revenues also includes software licenses. These licenses for on-premises software provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available. Customers purchase these licenses through a subscription. Revenues from distinct licenses are generally recognized upfront when the software is made available to the customer. In cases where the Company allocates revenue to software updates and support, primarily because the updates are provided at no additional charge, such revenue is recognized as the updates are provided, which is generally ratably over the contract term.
The Company typically invoices its customers annually. Typical payment terms provide that customers pay within 30 days of invoice. Amounts that have been invoiced are recorded in accounts receivable and in unearned revenue or revenue, depending on whether transfer of control to customers has occurred.
Professional Services and Other Revenues
The Company’s professional services contracts are either on a time and materials, fixed fee or subscription basis. These revenues are recognized as the services are rendered for time and materials contracts, on a proportional performance basis for fixed price contracts or ratably over the contract term for subscription professional services contracts. Training revenues are recognized as the services are performed.
Significant Judgments - Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
The Company enters into contracts with its customers that may include promises to transfer multiple Cloud Services, software licenses, premium support and professional services. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer products or services that are distinct. Determining whether products and services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or combined as one unit of accounting may require significant judgment.
Cloud Services and software licenses are distinct because such offerings are often sold separately. In determining whether professional services are distinct, the Company considers the following factors for each professional services agreement: availability of the services from other vendors, the nature of the professional services, the timing of when the professional services contract was signed in comparison to the subscription start date and the contractual dependence of the service on the customer’s satisfaction with the professional services work. To date, the Company has concluded that all of the professional services included in contracts with multiple performance obligations are distinct.
The Company allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price ("SSP") basis. The SSP is the price at which the Company would sell a promised product or service separately to a customer. Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation.
The Company determines SSP by considering its overall pricing objectives and market conditions. Significant pricing practices taken into consideration include the Company’s discounting practices, the size and volume of the Company’s transactions, the customer demographic, the geographic area where services are sold, price lists, the Company's go-to-market strategy, historical sales and contract prices. As the Company’s go-to-market strategies evolve, the Company may modify its pricing practices in the future, which could result in changes to SSP.
In certain cases, the Company is able to establish SSP based on observable prices of products or services sold separately in comparable circumstances to similar customers. The Company uses a single amount to estimate SSP when it has observable prices.
If SSP is not directly observable, for example when pricing is highly variable, the Company uses a range of SSP. The Company determines the SSP range using information that may include market conditions or other observable inputs. The Company typically has more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customer size and geography.
Costs Capitalized to Obtain Revenue Contracts
The Company capitalizes incremental costs of obtaining a non-cancelable subscription and support revenue contract. The capitalized amounts consist primarily of sales commissions paid to the Company’s direct sales force. Capitalized amounts also include (1) amounts paid to employees other than the direct sales force who earn incentive payouts under annual compensation plans that are tied to the value of contracts acquired, (2) commissions paid to employees upon renewals of subscription and support contracts, (3) the associated payroll taxes and fringe benefit costs associated with the payments to the Company’s
employees, and to a lesser extent (4) success fees paid to partners in emerging markets where the Company has a limited presence.
Costs capitalized related to new revenue contracts are amortized on a straight-line basis over four years, which, although longer than the typical initial contract period, reflects the average period of benefit, including expected contract renewals. In arriving at this average period of benefit, the Company evaluated both qualitative and quantitative factors which included the estimated life cycles of its offerings and its customer attrition. Additionally, the Company amortizes capitalized costs for renewals and success fees paid to partners over two years.
The capitalized amounts are recoverable through future revenue streams under all non-cancelable customer contracts. The Company periodically evaluates whether there have been any changes in its business, the market conditions in which it operates or other events which would indicate that its amortization period should be changed or if there are potential indicators of impairment.
Amortization of capitalized costs to obtain revenue contracts is included in marketing and sales expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
During the three months ended April 30, 2019, the Company capitalized $124 million of costs to obtain revenue contracts and amortized $209 million to marketing and sales expense. During the same period a year ago, the Company capitalized $118 million of costs to obtain revenue contracts and amortized $188 million to marketing and sales expense. Costs capitalized to obtain a revenue contract, net on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets totaled $1.9 billion at April 30, 2019 and $2.0 billion at January 31, 2019. There were no impairments of costs to obtain revenue contracts for the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value.
The Company considers all of its marketable debt securities as available for use in current operations, including those with maturity dates beyond one year, and therefore classifies these securities within current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Securities are classified as available for sale and are carried at fair value, with the change in unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported as a separate component on the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income until realized. Fair value is determined based on quoted market rates when observable or utilizing data points that are observable, such as quoted prices, interest rates and yield curves. Declines in fair value judged to be other-than-temporary on securities available for sale are included as a reduction to investment income. To determine whether a decline in value is other-than-temporary, the Company evaluates, among other factors: the duration and extent to which the fair value has been less than the carrying value and its intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. For the purposes of computing realized and unrealized gains and losses, the cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. Interest on securities classified as available for sale is included as a component of investment income.
The Company holds strategic investments in publicly held equity securities and privately held debt and equity securities in which the Company does not have a controlling interest or significant influence. Publicly held equity securities are measured using quoted prices in their respective active markets with changes recorded through gains (losses) on strategic investments, net on the condensed consolidatedstatement of operations. Privately held equity securities without a readily determinable fair value are recorded at cost and adjusted for impairments and observable price changes with a same or similar security from the same issuer and are recorded through gains (losses) on strategic investments, net on the condensed consolidatedstatement of operations. Privately held debt securities are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value recorded through accumulated other comprehensive income on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. If, based on the terms of these publicly traded and privately held securities, the Company determines that the Company exercises significant influence on the entity to which these securities relate, the Company will apply the equity method of accounting for such investments.
Privately held debt and equity securities are valued using significant unobservable inputs or data in an inactive market and the valuation requires the Company's judgment due to the absence of market prices and inherent lack of liquidity. The carrying value is not adjusted for the Company's privately held equity securities if there are no observable price changes in a same or similar security from the same issuer or if there are no identified events or changes in circumstances that may indicate impairment, as discussed below. In determining the estimated fair value of its strategic investments in privately held companies, the Company utilizes the most recent data available to the Company. Valuations of privately held companies are inherently complex due to the lack of readily available market data. In addition, the determination of whether an orderly transaction is for
a same or similar investment requires significant management judgment including the nature of rights and obligations of the investments, the extent to which differences in those rights and obligations would affect the fair values of those investments, and the impact of any differences based on the stage of operational development of the investee.
The Company assesses its privately held debt and equity securities strategic investment portfolio at least quarterly for impairment. The Company’s impairment analysis encompasses an assessment of the severity and duration of the impairment and qualitative and quantitative analysis of other key factors including the investee’s financial metrics, the investee’s products and technologies meeting or exceeding predefined milestones, market acceptance of the product or technology, other competitive products or technology in the market, general market conditions, management and governance structure of the investee, the investee’s liquidity, debt ratios and the rate at which the investee is using its cash. If the investment is considered to be impaired, the Company recognizes an impairment through the condensed consolidatedstatement of operations and establishes a new carrying value for the investment.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company enters into foreign currency derivative contracts with financial institutions to reduce foreign exchange risk. The Company uses forward currency derivative contracts to minimize the Company’s exposure to balances primarily denominated in the Euro, British Pound Sterling, Japanese Yen, Canadian Dollar and Australian Dollar. The Company’s foreign currency derivative contracts, which are not designated as hedging instruments, are used to reduce the exchange rate risk associated primarily with intercompany receivables and payables. The Company’s derivative financial instruments program is not designated for trading or speculative purposes. The Company generally enters into master netting arrangements with the financial institutions with which it contracts for such derivative contracts, which permit net settlement of transactions with the same counterparty, thereby reducing credit-related losses in the event of the financial institutions' nonperformance. As of April 30, 2019 and January 31, 2019, the outstanding foreign currency derivative contracts were recorded at fair value on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Foreign currency derivative contracts are marked-to-market at the end of each reporting period with gains and losses recognized as other expense to offset the gains or losses resulting from the settlement or remeasurement of the underlying foreign currency denominated receivables and payables. While the contract or notional amount is often used to express the volume of foreign currency derivative contracts, the amounts potentially subject to credit risk are generally limited to the amounts, if any, by which the counterparties’ obligations under the agreements exceed the obligations of the Company to the counterparties.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company measures its cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and foreign currency derivative contracts at fair value. In addition, the Company measures its strategic investments, including its publicly held equity securities, privately held debt securities and privately held equity securities for which there has been an observable price change in a same or similar security, at fair value. The additional disclosures regarding the Company’s fair value measurements are included in Note 5 “Fair Value Measurement.”
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of those assets as follows:
Computers, equipment and software
3 to 9 years
Furniture and fixtures
Shorter of the estimated lease term or 10 years
Building and structural components
Average weighted useful life of 32 years
When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from their respective accounts and any loss on such retirement is reflected in operating expenses.
Capitalized Software Costs
The Company capitalizes costs related to its enterprise cloud computing services and certain projects for internal use incurred during the application development stage. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post implementation activities are expensed as incurred. Internal-use software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, which is generally three to five years. Management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets.
Intangible Assets Acquired through Business Combinations
Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Each period, the Company evaluates the estimated remaining useful life of its intangible assets and whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. Management tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets.
The Company evaluates intangible assets and long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. This includes but is not limited to significant adverse changes in business climate, market conditions, or other events that indicate an asset's carrying amount may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount of each asset to the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. If the undiscounted cash flows used in the test for recoverability are less than the carrying amount of these assets, the carrying amount of such assets is reduced to fair value.
The Company evaluates and tests the recoverability of its goodwill for impairment at least annually during its fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more often if and when circumstances indicate that goodwill may not be recoverable.
There were no material impairments of capitalized software, intangible assets, long-lived assets or goodwill during the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to assign fair value to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. The Company’s estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. During the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, the Company may record adjustments to the fair value of these tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax-related valuation allowances are initially recorded in connection with a business combination as of the acquisition date. The Company continues to collect information and reevaluates these estimates and assumptions quarterly and records any adjustments to the Company’s preliminary estimates to goodwill provided that the Company is within the measurement period. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the fair value of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company’s condensed consolidatedstatement of operations.
In the event the Company acquires an entity with which the Company has a preexisting relationship, the Company will recognize a gain or loss to settle that relationship as of the acquisition date within the condensed consolidated statements of operations. In the event that the Company acquires an entity in which the Company previously held a strategic investment, the difference between the fair value of the shares as of the date of the acquisition and the carrying value of the strategic investment is recorded as a gain or loss and recorded within net gains (losses) on strategic investments in the condensed consolidatedstatement of operations.
Effective at the start of fiscal 2020, the Company adopted the provisions and expanded disclosure requirements described in Topic 842. The Company adopted the standard using the prospective method. Accordingly, the results for the prior comparable periods were not adjusted to conform to the current period measurement or recognition of results.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, operating lease liabilities, current and noncurrent operating lease liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, accrued expenses and other liabilities, and other noncurrent liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and the corresponding lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Lease ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. The lease ROU asset is reduced for tenant incentives and excludes any initial direct costs incurred. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the net present value of future minimum lease payments is determined using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. The Company's incremental borrowing rate is estimated to approximate the interest rate on a collateralized basis with similar terms and payments, in an economic environment where the leased asset is located. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease. These options are reflected in the ROU asset and lease liability when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the option. The Company reassesses the lease term if and when a significant event or change in circumstances occurs within the control of the Company, such as construction of significant leasehold improvements that are expected to have economic value when the option becomes exercisable.
Lease expenses for minimum lease payments for operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Amortization expense of the ROU asset for finance leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and interest expense for finance leases is recognized based on the incremental borrowing rate.
The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which it has elected to combine for all asset classes. In addition, the Company does not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for leases with a term of 12 months or less of all asset classes.
On the lease commencement date the Company establishes assets and liabilities for the present value of estimated future costs to retire long-lived assets at the termination or expiration of a lease. Such assets are depreciated over the lease term to operating expense.
The Company additionally has entered into subleases for unoccupied leased office space. Any impairments to the ROU asset, leasehold improvements or other assets as a result of a sublease are recognized in the period the sublease is executed and recorded as an operating expense. Any sublease payments received in excess of the straight-line rent payments for the sublease are recorded as an offset to operating expenses and recognized over the sublease life.
Stock-based expenses related to stock options are measured based on grant date at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and restricted stock awards based on grant date at fair value using the closing stock price. The Company recognizes stock-based expenses related to stock options and restricted stock awards on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting term of four years.
Stock-based expenses related to its Amended and Restated 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP” or “2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan”) are measured based on grant date at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company recognizes stock-based expenses related to shares issued pursuant to the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan on a straight-line basis over the offering period, which is 12 months. The ESPP allows employees to purchase shares of the Company's common stock at a 15 percent discount and also allows employees to reduce their percentage election once during a six month purchase period (December 15 and June 15 of each fiscal year), but not increase that election until the next one-year offering period. The ESPP also includes a re-set provision for the purchase price if the stock price on the purchase date is less than the stock price on the offering date.
Stock-based expenses related to performance share grants, which are awarded to executive officers, are measured based on grant date at fair value using a Monte Carlo simulation model and expensed on a straight-line basis, net of estimated forfeitures, over the service period of the awards, which is generally the vesting term of three years.
The Company, at times, grants unvested restricted shares to employee stockholders of certain acquired companies in lieu of cash consideration. These awards are generally subject to continued post-acquisition employment. Therefore, the Company accounts for them as post-acquisition stock-based expense. The Company recognizes stock-based expense equal to the grant date fair value of the restricted stock awards on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally four years.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax laws is recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company’s tax positions are subject to income tax audits by multiple tax jurisdictions throughout the world. The Company recognizes the tax benefit of an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the position is sustainable upon examination by the taxing authority, solely based on its technical merits. The tax benefit recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit which is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority. The Company recognizes interest accrued and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the income tax provision.
Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts that are more likely than not expected to be realized based on the weighting of positive and negative evidence. Future realization of deferred tax assets ultimately depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character (for example, ordinary income or capital gain) within the carryback or carryforward periods available under the applicable tax law. The Company regularly reviews the deferred tax assets for recoverability based on historical taxable income, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and tax planning strategies. The Company’s judgments regarding future profitability may change due to many factors, including future market conditions and the ability to
successfully execute its business plans. Should there be a change in the ability to recover deferred tax assets, the tax provision would increase or decrease in the period in which the assessment is changed.
Foreign Currency Translation
The functional currency of the Company’s major foreign subsidiaries is generally the local currency. Adjustments resulting from translating foreign functional currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are recorded as a separate component on the condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in other income in the condensed consolidatedstatement of operations for the period. All assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average exchange rate during the period. Equity transactions are translated using historical exchange rates.
Warranties and Indemnification
The Company’s enterprise cloud computing services are typically warranted to perform in a manner consistent with general industry standards that are reasonably applicable and materially in accordance with the Company’s online help documentation under normal use and circumstances.
The Company’s arrangements generally include certain provisions for indemnifying customers against liabilities if its products or services infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights. To date, the Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such obligations and has not accrued any material liabilities related to such obligations in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company has also agreed to indemnify its directors and executive officers for costs associated with any fees, expenses, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these persons in any action or proceeding to which any of those persons is, or is threatened to be, made a party by reason of the person’s service as a director or officer, including any action by the Company, arising out of that person’s services as the Company’s director or officer or that person’s services provided to any other company or enterprise at the Company’s request. The Company maintains director and officer insurance coverage that would generally enable the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. The Company may also be subject to indemnification obligations by law with respect to the actions of its employees under certain circumstances and in certain jurisdictions.
New Accounting Pronouncements Adopted in Fiscal 2020
In February 2016, the FASB issued Topic 842, which requires lessees to record most leases on their balance sheet but recognize the expenses on their statement of operations in a manner similar to previous accounting guidance. Topic 842 generally requires that lessees recognize operating and financing liabilities for the obligation to make lease payments and a right-to-use asset for the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term.
Effective on February 1, 2019, the Company adopted the provisions and expanded disclosure requirements described in Topic 842. The Company adopted the standard using the transitional provision of Accounting Standards Update 2018-11, “Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements” (“ASU 2018-11”), which allows for the adoption of Topic 842 to be applied prospectively at the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. As such, the condensed consolidated balance sheets and statements of operations for prior periods are not comparable to fiscal 2020. The Company elected the package of practical expedients and therefore did not reassess prior conclusions on whether contracts are or contain a lease, lease classification, and initial direct costs. The Company did not use hindsight when determining the lease term.
Upon adoption of Topic 842, leases previously designated as operating leases are now reported on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, which has materially increased total assets and liabilities. Specifically, the Company recorded operating lease ROU assets of approximately $2.9 billion and corresponding operating lease liabilities of $3.1 billion on its opening condensed consolidated balance sheet. Leases previously designated as capital leases are now identified as finance leases and continue to be reported on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. In addition, the previously recorded financing obligation and building asset associated with the Company's leased facility at 350 Mission Street was derecognized and the lease is now accounted for as a finance lease on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet. Topic 842 did not have a material impact to the Company’s condensed consolidatedstatement of operations or net cash provided by operating activities. The adoption did not impact the Company’s compliance with its debt covenants.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13 (ASU 2016-13) "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held at amortized cost, which includes the Company's accounts receivables, certain financial instruments and contract assets. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2019, and requires a cumulative effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. The Company is evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-13 on its consolidated financial statements in order to adopt the new standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2021.
Certain reclassifications to fiscal 2019 balances were made to conform to the current period presentation in the condensed consolidated balance sheets, statements of operations and statements of cash flows. These reclassifications did not affect net cash provided by operating, investing, or financing activities.
Disaggregation of Revenue
Subscription and Support Revenue by the Company's core service offerings
Subscription and support revenues consisted of the following (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30,
Salesforce Platform and Other
Marketing and Commerce Cloud
Total Revenue by Geographic Locations
Revenues by geographical region consisted of the following (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30,
Revenues by geography are determined based on the region of the Company's contracting entity, which may be different than the region of the customer. Americas revenue attributed to the United States was approximately 96 percent during the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018. No other country represented more than ten percent of total revenue during the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
As described in Note 1, subscription and support revenue is generally recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the commencement date of each contract. License revenue is recognized as the licenses are delivered. The Company records a contract asset when revenue recognized on a contract exceeds the billings and unearned revenue when the billings on a contract exceed the revenue recognized. The Company's standard billing terms are annual in advance. Contract assets were $260 million as of April 30, 2019 as compared to $215 million as of January 31, 2019 which is included in prepaid expenses
and other current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Impairments of contract assets were immaterial during the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Unearned revenue represents amounts that have been invoiced in advance of revenue recognition and is recognized as revenue when transfer of control to customers has occurred or services have been provided. The unearned revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual or multi-year, non-cancelable subscription agreements. The Company generally invoices customers in annual installments. The unearned revenue balance is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the compounding effects of renewals, invoice duration, invoice timing, dollar size and new business linearity within the quarter.
The change in unearned revenue was as follows (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30, 2019
Three Months Ended April 30, 2018
Unearned revenue, beginning of period
Billings and other*
Contribution from contract asset
Revenue recognized ratably over time
Revenue recognized over time as delivered
Revenue recognized at a point in time
Unearned revenue from business combinations
Unearned revenue, end of period
*Other includes, for example, the impact of foreign currency translation
Revenue recognized ratably over time is generally billed in advance and includes Cloud Services, the related support and advisory services. The majority of revenue recognized for these services is from the beginning of period unearned revenue balance.
Revenue recognized over time as delivered includes professional services billed on a time and materials basis, fixed fee professional services and training classes that are primarily billed, delivered and recognized within the same reporting period. The majority of revenue recognized is billed and recognized in the current period.
Revenue recognized at a point in time substantially includes the portion of software subscriptions allocated to the on-premise software element, which either resulted in smaller unearned revenue or a contract asset.
Remaining Performance Obligation
Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation, referred to by the Company as remaining performance obligation, represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized, which includes unearned revenue and unbilled amounts that will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligation is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the timing of renewals, average contract terms and foreign currency exchange rates. Unbilled portions of the remaining performance obligation denominated in foreign currencies are revalued each period based on the period end exchange rates. Unbilled portions of the remaining performance obligation are subject to future economic risks including bankruptcies, regulatory changes and other market factors.
The Company excludes amounts related to performance obligation that are billed and recognized as they are delivered. This primarily consists of professional services contracts that are on a time-and-materials basis.
The majority of the Company's noncurrent remaining performance obligation is expected to be recognized in the next 13 to 36 months.
Remaining performance obligation consisted of the following (in billions):
The unrealized losses for each of the fixed rate marketable securities were less than $1 million. The Company does not believe any of the unrealized losses represent an other-than-temporary impairment based on its evaluation of available evidence as of April 30, 2019, such as the Company's intent to hold the investment and whether it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the investment before recovery of the investment's amortized basis. The Company expects to receive the full principal and interest on all of these marketable securities.
Investment income consists of interest income, realized gains and realized losses on the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The components of investment income are presented below (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30,
Strategic investments by form and measurement category as of April 30, 2019 were as follows (in millions):
Fair Value (1)
Balance as of April 30, 2019
(1) Equity securities under fair value represent the carrying value of strategic investments in publicly held equity securities.
(2) Other includes the Company's investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting or amortized cost.
Strategic investments by form and measurement category as of January 31, 2019 were as follows (in millions):
Fair Value (1)
Balance as of January 31, 2019
(1) Equity securities under fair value represent the carrying value of strategic investments in publicly held equity securities.
(2) Other includes the Company's investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting or amortized cost.
Measurement Alternative Adjustments
Privately held equity securities accounted for under the measurement alternative in the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018 were as follows (in millions):
Three months ended April 30, 2019
Three months ended April 30, 2018
Carrying amount, beginning of period
Adjustments related to privately held equity securities:
Impairments and downward adjustments
Carrying amount, end of period
As of April 30, 2019, cumulative impairments and downward adjustments were $50 million and cumulative upward adjustments were $314 million.
Gains and losses recognized in the three months ended April 30, 2019 and 2018 were as follows (in millions):
Three Months Ended April 30,
Net gains recognized on publicly traded securities
Net gains (losses) recognized on privately held securities
Net gains recognized on sales of equity securities
Net gains (losses) recognized on debt securities
Gains on strategic investments, net
Net gains recognized in the three months ended April 30, 2019 for investments still held as of April 30, 2019 were $262 million. This excludes recognized gains on the sale of our equity securities for the three months ended April 30, 2019 of $19 million.
In April 2019, Salesforce Ventures, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, made a strategic investment of $100 million in cash for common shares of a technology company in a private placement concurrent with the investee company's initial public offering. The Company's shares are subject to a 365-day market standoff agreement. As of April 30, 2019 the fair value of the investment was approximately $201 million. The investment was made as part of the Company's overall strategy of investing in complementary companies to facilitate potential alignment and integration into the Company’s offerings or product features. The Company's ownership interest represents approximately one percent of the economic interest of the investee company's outstanding capital stock.
Details on outstanding foreign currency derivative contracts are presented below (in millions):