Company Quick10K Filing
Ceragon Networks
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-31
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-01
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-27
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-04-07
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-23
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-04-02
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-04-30
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-04-03
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-04-05
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-03-31
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-04-19

CRNT 20F Annual Report

Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8: Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities.
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies.
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds.
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services - Still To Come
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
Note 1:- General
Note 2:- Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3:- Marketable Securities
Note 4:- Other Accounts Receivable and Prepaid Expenses
Note 5:- Inventories
Note 6:- Property and Equipment, Net
Note 7:- Intangible Assets, Net
Note 8:- Goodwill
Note 9:- Other Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses
Note 10:- Long-Term Loan
Note 11:- Pension Liabilities
Note 12:- Commitments and Contingent Liabilities
Note 13:- Shareholders' Equity
Note 14:- Taxes on Income
Note 15:- Segments, Customers and Geographic Information
Note 16:- Selected Statements of Operations Data
Note 17:- Related Party Balances and Transactions
EX-1.1 exhibit_1-2.htm
EX-8.1 exhibit_8-1.htm
EX-10.1 exhibit_10-1.htm
EX-12.1 exhibit_12-1.htm
EX-12.2 exhibit_12-2.htm
EX-13.1 exhibit_13-1.htm

Ceragon Networks Earnings 2011-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 zk1211198.htm 20-F zk1211198.htm


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 20-F
 
o
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR

x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011
 
OR
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR
 
o
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from __________ to __________
 
Commission file number 0-30862
_________________________
 
 
CERAGON NETWORKS LTD.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
_______________________
 
Israel
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
24 Raoul Wallenberg Street, Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
Donna Gershowitz, (+972) 3-645-5733 (tel.), (+972) 3-645-5499 (fax), 24 Raoul Wallenberg Street, Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

________________________
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class Name of Exchange of Which Registered
Ordinary Shares, Par Value NIS 0.01 Nasdaq Global Select Market
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
 
 
 

 
 
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:  None
 
________________________
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:   36,324,997 Ordinary Shares, NIS 0.01 par value.
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  
 
Yes ¨   No þ
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant  to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  
 
Yes ¨   No  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days:
 
Yes þ   No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
 
Yes þ   No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)
 
Large accelerated filer ¨          Accelerated filer þ          Non-accelerated filer ¨
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  þ
 
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board  ¨
 
Other  ¨
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:  
 
Item 17 ¨   Item 18 ¨
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Yes ¨   No þ
 
 
 

 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
 
ITEM 1.
Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
1
ITEM 2.
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
1
ITEM 3.
Key Information
1
ITEM 4.
Information on the Company
21
ITEM 4A
Unresolved Staff Comments
36
ITEM 5.
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
37
ITEM 6.
Directors, Senior Management and Employees
53
ITEM 7.
Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
69
ITEM 8.
Financial Information
72
ITEM 9.
The Offer and Listing
72
ITEM 10.
Additional Information
74
ITEM 11.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
85
ITEM 12.
Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities
85
PART II
   
ITEM 13.
Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
86
ITEM 14.
Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
86
ITEM 15.
Controls and Procedures
86
ITEM 16.
[RESERVED]
87
ITEM 16A
Audit Committee Financial Expert
87
ITEM 16B
Code of Ethics
87
ITEM 16C
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
87
ITEM 16D
Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees
88
ITEM 16E
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
88
ITEM 16F
Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant
88
ITEM 16G
Corporate Governance
88
PART III
 
ITEM 17.
Financial Statements
89
ITEM 18.
Financial Statements
89
ITEM 19.
Exhibits
89
 
 
- i -

 
 
INTRODUCTION
 
Definitions
 
In this annual report, unless the context otherwise requires:
 
 
·
references to “Ceragon,” the “Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” refer to Ceragon Networks Ltd. (the “Registrant”), an Israeli company, and its consolidated subsidiaries;
 
 
·
references to “ordinary shares,” “our shares” and similar expressions refer to the Registrant’s Ordinary Shares, NIS 0.01 nominal (par) value per share;
 
 
·
references to “dollars,” “U.S. dollars” and “$” are to United States Dollars;
 
 
·
references to “shekels” and “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels, the Israeli currency;
 
 
·
references to the “Companies Law” are to Israel’s Companies Law, 5759-1999;
 
 
·
references to the “SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission; and
 
 
·
References to the "Nasdaq Rules" are to rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
 
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
This annual report includes certain statements that are intended to be, and are hereby identified as, “forward-looking statements” for the purposes of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events.
 
Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue,” “believe” or other similar expressions, but are not the only way these statements are identified.  These statements discuss future expectations, plans and events, contain projections of results of operations or of financial condition or state other “forward-looking” information.  When a forward-looking statement includes an underlying assumption, we caution that, while we believe the assumption to be reasonable and make it in good faith, assumed facts almost always vary from actual results, and the difference between a forward-looking statement and actual results can be material.  Forward-looking statements may be found in Item 4: “Information on the Company” and Item 5: “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and in this annual report generally. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements as a result of various factors, including all the risks discussed in “Risk Factors” and other cautionary statements in this annual report.  All of our forward-looking statements are qualified by and should be read in conjunction with those disclosures. Except as may be required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.  In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this annual report might not occur.
 
PART I
 
 
Not applicable.
 
 
Not applicable.
 
 
Selected Financial Data
 
The selected financial data set forth in the table below have been derived from our audited historical financial statements for each of the years from 2007 to 2011. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2010 and 2011, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements set forth in “Item 18 – Financial Statements.” The selected consolidated statement of income data for the years 2007 and 2008, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2007, 2008 and 2009, have been derived from our previously published audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this annual report. This selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and are qualified entirely by reference to such consolidated financial statements. We prepare our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars and in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”).  You should read the consolidated financial data with the section of this annual report entitled “Item 5 - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
 
 
1

 
 
    Year ended December 31,  
Consolidated Statement of  Operations Data:
 
2007
   
2008
   
2009
   
2010
   
2011
 
   
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
                               
Revenues
  $ 161,888     $ 217,278     $ 184,220     $ 249,852     $ 445,269  
Cost of revenues
    103,406       144,040       122,662       160,470       323,191  
Gross profit
    58,482       73,238       61,558       89,382       122,078  
                                         
Operating expenses:
                                       
Research and development
    15,457       19,413       18,954       25,115       50,456  
Selling and marketing
    25,344       31,663       29,251       37,179       81,716  
General and administrative.
    5,277       9,203       10,705       12,328       26,524  
Expense in respect of settlement reserve
    450       --       --       --       --  
                                         
Restructuring costs
    --       --       --       --       7,834  
                                         
Acquisition related cost
    --       --       --       775       4,919  
                                         
Total operating expenses
    46,528       60,279       58,910       75,397       171,449  
                                         
Operating income (loss)
    11,954       12,959       2,648       13,985       (49,371 )
Financial income, (expense) net
    1,182       2,184       1,496       1,255       (2,024 )
                                         
Income (loss) before taxes
    13,136       15,143       4,144       15,240       (51,395 )
                                         
Tax benefit (taxes on income)
    --       10,834       (489 )     (1,178 )     (2,259 )
Net income (loss)
    13,136       25,977       3,655        14,062       (53,654 )
                                         
Basic net earnings (loss) per share
  $ 0.44     $ 0.70     $ 0.11     $ 0.40     $ (1.49 )
                                         
Diluted net earnings (loss) per share
  $  0.41     $  0.68     $  0.10     $  0.38     $ (1.49 )
                                         
Weighted average number of shares used in computing basic earnings (loss) per share
          29,692,670             36,863,684             34,369,212             34,854,657             35,975,434  
Weighted average number of shares used in computing diluted earnings (loss) per share
        32,101,394           38,338,584           35,796,878           36,564,830           35,975,434  
 
 
2

 
 
   
At December 31,
 
   
2007
   
2008
   
2009
   
2010
   
2011
 
   
(In thousands)
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
                                       
Cash and cash equivalents, short and
long term bank deposits, short and
long term marketable securities 
  $ 121,741     $ 97,761     $ 98,320     $ 81,533     $ 49,531  
Working capital                                              
    132,420       136,294       149,284       167,509       154,987  
Total assets                                              
    217,640       244,221       269,373       287,182       411,158  
Total long term liabilities                                              
    9,936       6,647       7,174       8,600       76,664  
Shareholders’ equity                                              
    160,894       182,916       180,906       204,169       161,051  

Risk Factors
 
The following risk factors, among others, could affect our actual results of operations and cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements made by us. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and we assume no obligation to update this information.  You should carefully consider the risks described below, in addition to the other information contained elsewhere in this annual report. The following risk factors are not the only risk factors facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be seriously harmed if any of the events underlying any of these risks or uncertainties actually occur. In that event, the market price for our ordinary shares could decline.
 
Risks Relating to Our Business
 
We face intense competition from other wireless equipment providers. If we fail to compete effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

The market for wireless equipment is rapidly evolving, fragmented, highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change. Increased competition, which may differ from region to region, in the wireless equipment market could result in reduced demand for our products, price reductions and reduced gross margins, any of which could seriously harm our business and results of operations. Our primary competitors include industry “generalists” such as Alcatel-Lucent, Fujitsu Limited, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., L.M. Ericsson Telephone Company, NEC Corporation (NEC), Nokia Siemens Networks B.V. (NSN) and ZTE Corporation. In addition to these primary competitors, a number of small “specialist” microwave communications equipment suppliers, including Aviat Networks (formerly known as Harris Stratex Networks, Inc.), DragonWave Inc., and SIAE Microelectronica S.p.A., offer or are developing products that compete with our products. Some of our competitors are original equipment manufacturers through whom we market and sell our products, which means our business success may depend on these competitors to some extent.
 
 
3

 

Most of our principal competitors are substantially larger than we are and have longer operating histories and greater financial, sales, service, marketing, distribution, technical, manufacturing and other resources than we have. They also have greater name recognition and a larger customer base than we have. Many of these competitors have well-established relationships with our current and potential customers, have extensive knowledge of our target markets, and have begun to focus more on selling services and bundling the entire network as a full-package offering. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly to evolving industry standards and changes in customer requirements, or devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their products than we can. In addition, our competitors, especially those from China, may be able to offer customers financing that would increase the attractiveness of their products in comparison to ours.

Additionally, the telecommunications equipment industry has experienced significant consolidation among its participants, and we expect this trend to continue.  Recent examples include our acquisition of Nera Networks AS (“Nera”) in January 2011 and DragonWave’s recent announcement of its intention to purchase the microwave division of NSN, which itself was formed as a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens. Other examples include the mergers of Alcatel and Lucent and the wireless divisions of Harris and Stratex Networks, and the acquisition by Ericsson of Marconi. These consolidations have increased the size and thus the competitive resources of these companies. In the future, current and potential competitors may make additional strategic acquisitions or establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may allow them to increase their market share and competitive position.

We expect to face increasing competitive pressures in the future. If we are unable to compete effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

Our recent acquisition of Nera exposes us to risks and liabilities.

The Nera Acquisition was our first acquisition involving significant international operations. Although the integration of the Nera business has been completed, we expect that other aspects of the integration will continue to be a complex and time-consuming and may also be a costly process involving both typical and unique acquisition risks and related challenges, some of which are discussed below:

 
assessing and maintaining the combined company’s internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures as required by U.S. securities laws;
 
the possibility that we may  be required to expend material sums on potential contingent tax, litigation or other liabilities associated with Nera’s prior operations or facilities;
 
the possibility that we may not be able to collect a portion of Nera's customers' debts or may be subject to penalties or other financial exposures towards a few of Nera's customers because of political, commercial or other reasons;
 
greater cash management, exchange rate, legal and taxation risks associated with the combined company’s new multinational character and the movement of cash between Ceragon  and its foreign subsidiaries;
 
managing geographically dispersed personnel with diverse cultural backgrounds and organizational structures; and
 
the Nera Acquisition may create or result in additional liquidity needs, including to support a much larger and more dispersed business organization.

In acquiring Nera, we undertook a number of identified contingent liabilities of Nera, such as various known litigations with third parties, and other contingent exposures with customers, suppliers and employees, all of which could accumulate to a substantial amount.  In addition, we may be exposed to potential tax liabilities worldwide with governmental authorities, any of which could result in a substantial amount.  We also undertook certain exposures for penalties and other financial risks towards a few of Nera's customers in the event of a default by us due to commercial or political circumstances, which may not be under our control.  We assessed these contingent liabilities in the purchase price allocation.
 
 
4

 

However, our assessment of such contingent liabilities may not have been accurate and we may be exposed to actual payments which may be significantly higher than we assessed which could result in the Nera Acquisition being substantially more expensive than originally estimated, may not be fully covered by the seller’s indemnification or by the insurance we purchased and would negatively affect results of our operations and financial condition.

In addition, the accounting treatment for the Nera acquisition resulted in $13.4 million of amortizable intangible assets and $14.6 million of goodwill, which, if impaired, would negatively affect our consolidated results of operations.

Global competition and current market conditions have resulted in downward pressure on the prices for our products, which could result in reduced revenues, gross margins and profitability.

Currently, we and other manufacturers of telecommunications equipment are experiencing, and are likely to continue to experience, declining sales prices. This price pressure is likely to result in downward pricing pressure on our products and services. As a result, we are likely to continue to experience declining average sales prices for our products. Our future profitability will depend upon our ability to improve manufacturing efficiencies, reduce costs of materials used in our products, and to continue to introduce new lower-cost products and product enhancements. If we are unable to respond to increased price competition, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed. Because customers frequently negotiate supply arrangements far in advance of delivery dates, we may be required to commit to price reductions for our products before we are aware of how, or if, cost reductions can be obtained. As a result, current or future price reduction commitments and any inability on our part to respond to increased price competition could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Also, following our acquisition of Nera, we have increased sales of our products in Latin America and Africa, regions typically characterized, along with India, as having strong downward pricing pressures, in response to the rapid build-out of cellular networks in those regions. For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2011 7% and 23%, respectively, of our revenues were earned in  Latin America, the majority of which was derived from a  single customer group, 4% and 17%, respectively, were earned in Africa and 38% and 10%, respectively, were earned in India. We expect that our revenues from sales of our products in Latin America, Africa and India will continue to constitute a significant portion of our business in the future. .

If we are unable to effectively respond to these pricing pressures, our revenues, gross margin and profitability could be materially reduced, and our gross margins could continue to be reduced.

We are dependent upon sales of our single family of products into a single market. Any reduction in demand for these products in this market would cause our revenues to decrease.

We design, develop, manufacture and sell nearly all of our products to meet high-capacity point-to-point wireless backhaul needs. Nearly all of our revenues are generated from sales of our single portfolio of products which are developed through our two Solution Groups: Long Haul and Short Haul. We expect sales of our single portfolio of products to continue to account for nearly all of our revenues for the foreseeable future. As a result, we are more likely to be adversely affected by a reduction in demand for point-to-point wireless backhaul products than companies that sell multiple and diversified product lines or into multiple markets.
 
A single customer group represented a significant portion of our revenues in 2011, and if we were to lose this customer group or experience any material reduction in orders from this customer group, our revenues and operating results would suffer.

In 2011, we had revenues from a single group of affiliated companies, which has been a long-term customer of Nera prior to the acquisition that accounted for approximately 13.4% of our total revenue. We have entered into or received purchase orders from a number of related companies in this group of companies.  Our sales are generally made from standard purchase orders rather than long-term contracts. Accordingly, this customer group may generally terminate or reduce its purchases from us at any time without notice or penalty.  The loss of this customer group or any material reduction in orders from this customer group could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flow and financial position.
 
 
5

 

We rely on a limited number of contract manufacturers to manufacture our products and if they experience delays, disruptions, quality control problems or a loss in capacity, it could materially adversely affect our operating results.

While a portion of our manufacturing is performed in our production facility in Slovakia which was acquired in the Nera Acquisition, we outsource most of our manufacturing processes to a limited number of contract manufacturers that are located in Israel, Malaysia and the Philippines. We do not have long-term contracts with any of these contract manufacturers. From time to time, we have experienced and may in the future experience delays in shipments from these contract manufacturers.

Although we believe that our contract manufacturers have sufficient economic incentive to perform our manufacturing, the resources devoted to these activities are not within our control, and we cannot assure you that manufacturing problems will not occur in the future. In addition, the operations of our contract manufacturers are not under our control, and may themselves in the future experience manufacturing problems, including inferior quality and insufficient quantities of components.  These delays, disruptions, quality control problems and loss in capacity could result in delays in deliveries of our product to our customers, which could subject us to penalties payable to our customers, increased warranty costs and possible cancellation of orders. If our contract manufacturers experience financial, operational, manufacturing capacity or other difficulties, or shortages in components required for manufacturing, our supply may be disrupted and we may be required to seek alternate manufacturers. We may be unable to secure alternate manufacturers that meet our needs in a timely and cost-effective manner. In addition, some of our contract manufacturers have granted us licenses with respect to certain technology that is used in a number of our products. If we change contract manufacturers, we may be required to renegotiate these licenses or re-design some of our products, either of which could increase our cost of revenues and cause product delivery delays. If we change manufacturers, during the transition period, we may be more likely to face delays, disruptions, quality control problems and loss in capacity, and our sales, profits and customer relationships may suffer.

We are increasingly engaged in supplying installation or turnkey projects for our customers. Such long-term projects have inherent additional risks. Problems in executing these turnkey projects, including delays or failure in acceptance testing procedures, would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

We are increasingly engaged in supplying installation and other services for our customers. In this context, we may act as prime contractor and equipment supplier for network build-out projects, providing installation, supervision and commissioning services required for these projects, or we may provide such services and equipment for projects handled by system integrators. As we engage in more turn-key projects, we expect to continue to routinely enter into contracts involving significant amounts to be paid by our customers over time and which often require us to deliver products and services representing an important portion of the contract price before receiving any significant payment from the customer.

In addition, in certain projects we are dependent on the customer to issue acceptance certificates to generate and recognize revenue.  In such turn-key projects, we typically bear the risks of loss and damage to our products until the customer has issued an acceptance certificate upon successful completion of acceptance tests. The early deployment of our products during a long-term project reduces our cash flow as we generally collect a significant portion of the contract price after successful completion of an acceptance test. If our products are damaged or stolen, or if the network we install does not pass the acceptance tests or if the customer does not or will not issue an acceptance certificate, the end user or the system integrator, as the case may be, could refuse to pay us any balance owed and we would incur substantial costs, including fees owed to our installation subcontractors, increased insurance premiums, transportation costs, and expenses related to repairing or manufacturing the products. Moreover, in such a case, we may not be able to repossess the equipment, thus suffering additional losses.

If any of the above occurs, we may not be able to generate or recognize revenue and we may incur additional costs, any of which could materially adversely impact our results of operation and financial position.
 
 
6

 

We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from fixed-price projects, including our turn-key projects, under which we assume greater financial risk if we fail to accurately estimate the costs of the projects.
 
We are increasingly engaged in supplying turn-key projects, which involve fixed-price contracts. We assume greater financial risks on fixed-price projects, which routinely involve the provision of installation and other services, versus short-term projects, which do not similarly require us to provide services or require customer acceptance certificates in order for us to recognize revenue.  If we miscalculate the resources or time we need for these fixed-price projects, the costs of completing these projects may exceed our original estimates, which would negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

We may be exposed to the credit risk of customers that have been adversely affected by weakened markets.
 
When we sell our products and related services as part of long-term turn-key projects, a customer’s financial constraints during the life of the project can impact the scope of a project and the customer’s ability to make required payments. In addition, adverse general business conditions may degrade the creditworthiness of our customers over time, and we can be adversely affected by bankruptcies or other business failures.  As a result of financing that may be provided to customers and our commercial risk exposure under long-term contracts, our business could be adversely affected if the financial condition of our customers erodes.  If customers fail to meet their obligations to us, we may experience reduced cash flows and losses in excess of reserves, which could materially adversely impact our results of operations and financial position.

Due to the growing volume of our sales in emerging markets, we face challenges and are susceptible to a number of political and economic risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

A majority of our sales are made in countries in Latin America, Africa, Eastern Europe, India and Asia Pacific. For the year ended December 31, 2011, sales in these regions accounted for approximately 67% of our revenues. As a result, the occurrence of any international, political or economic events in these regions could adversely affect our business and result in significant revenue shortfalls. Any such revenue shortfalls could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in 2011, following the regulatory investigation in the Indian telecommunications market which culminated in the revocation by the Supreme Court of India in 2012 of approximately 120 licenses and spectrum granted after January 10, 2008, sales by vendors, including us, to telecommunications operators in India significantly decreased, which situation has not yet stabilized. The following are some of the risks and challenges that we face doing business internationally, several of which are more likely in the emerging markets than in other countries:

 
unexpected changes in or enforcement of regulatory requirements, including security regulations relating to international terrorism and hacking concerns and regulations related to licensing and allocation processes;

 
unexpected changes in or imposition of tax and/or customs levies;

 
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;

 
imposition of tariffs and other barriers and restrictions;

 
management and operation of an enterprise spread over various countries;

 
burden of complying with a variety of foreign laws;

 
general economic and geopolitical conditions, including inflation and trade relationships;

 
longer sales cycles;
 
 
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difficulties in protecting intellectual property;

 
laws and business practices favoring local competitors;

 
demand for high-volume purchases with discounted prices;

 
payment delays and uncertainties; and

 
civil unrest, war and acts of terrorism.
 
In addition, local business practices in jurisdictions in which we operate, and particularly in emerging markets, may be inconsistent with international regulatory requirements, such as anti-corruption and anti-bribery regulations to which we are subject. It is possible that some of our employees, subcontractors, agents or partners may violate such legal and regulatory requirements, which may expose us to criminal or civil enforcement actions. If we fail to comply with such legal and regulatory requirements, our business and reputation may be harmed.

If we fail to effectively manage deliveries of our products and ancillary equipment, we may be unable to timely fulfill our customer commitments, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations and, in the event of an inability to fulfill commitments, would harm our customer relationships.

We outsource most of our manufacturing operations and purchase ancillary equipment to our products from contract and other independent manufacturers and other third parties.  If we fail to effectively manage and synchronize our deliveries from all these sources to the customer, if we underestimate our production requirements which could interrupt manufacturing or if one or more of the contract and other independent manufacturers or other third parties does not fully comply with their contractual obligations or experience delays, disruptions or component procurement problems, then our ability to deliver complete product orders to our customers or otherwise fulfill our contractual obligations to our customers could be delayed or impaired, could result in higher manufacturing costs, could damage to customer relationships and/or could result in our payment of penalties to our customers, which would adversely affect our business, financial results and customer relationships.

Part of our inventory may be written off, which would increase our cost of revenues.  In addition, we may be exposed to inventory-related losses on inventories purchased by our contract manufacturers and other suppliers due to inaccurate forecasts.
 
Our contract manufacturers and other suppliers are required to purchase inventory based on manufacturing projections we provide to them. If the actual orders from our customers are lower than these manufacturing projections, our contract manufacturers and/or other suppliers will have excess inventory of raw materials or finished products which we would be required to purchase.   

We require our contract manufacturers and other suppliers from time to time to purchase more inventory than is immediately required, and, with respect to our contract manufacturers, to partially assemble components, in order to shorten our delivery time in case of an increase in demand for our products. In the absence of such increase in demand, we may need to make advance payments or compensate our contract manufacturers and/or other suppliers, as needed.  We also may purchase components or raw materials from time to time for use by our contract manufacturers in the manufacturing of our products.

Inventory of raw materials, work in-process or finished products located either at our warehouse or our customers’ sites as part of the network build up may accumulate in the future, and we may encounter losses due to a variety of factors including:

 
new generations of products replacing older ones, including changes in products because of technological advances and cost reduction measures; and

 
the need of our contract manufacturers to order raw materials that have long lead times and our inability to estimate exact amounts and types of items thus needed, especially with regard to the frequencies in which the final products ordered will operate.
 
 
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Further, our inventory of finished products located either at our warehouse or our customers’ sites as part of a network build-up may accumulate if a customer were to cancel an order or refuse to physically accept delivery of our products, or in turnkey projects which include acceptance tests, refuse to accept the network. The rate of accumulation may increase in a period of economic downturn.
 
If we fail to accurately predict our manufacturing requirements or forecast customer demand and are required to purchase excess inventory from our contract manufacturers and/or other suppliers or otherwise compensate our contract manufacturers and/or other suppliers for purchasing excess inventory, we may incur additional costs of manufacturing and our gross margins and results of operations could be adversely affected. If we overestimate our requirements and actual sales differ materially from these estimates, our inventory levels may be too high, and inventory may become obsolete and/or over-stated on our balance sheet.  This result would require us to write off inventory, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our contract manufacturers obtain some of the components included in our products from a limited group of suppliers and, in some cases, single or sole source suppliers. The loss of any of these suppliers could cause us to experience production and shipment delays and a substantial loss of revenue.

Our contract manufacturers currently obtain key components from a limited number of suppliers. Some of these components are obtained from a single or sole source supplier. Our contract manufacturers’ dependence on a single or sole source supplier or on a limited number of suppliers subjects us to the following risks:

 
The component suppliers may experience shortages in components and interrupt or delay their shipments to our contract manufacturers. Consequently, these shortages could delay the manufacture of our products and shipments to our customers which could result in penalties and/or cancellation of orders for our products.

 
The component suppliers could discontinue the manufacture or supply of components used in our systems. In such an event, our contract manufacturers or we may be unable to develop alternative sources for the components necessary to manufacture our products, which could force us to redesign our products. Any such redesign of our products would likely interrupt the manufacturing process and could cause delays in our product shipments. Moreover, a significant modification in our product design may increase our manufacturing costs and bring about lower gross margins.

 
The component suppliers may increase component prices significantly at any time and with immediate effect, particularly if demand for certain components increases dramatically in the global market. These price increases would increase component procurement costs and could significantly reduce our gross margins and profitability.

We are exposed to general global economic and market conditions, particularly those impacting the communications industry which may adversely affect our results.
 
Current uncertainty in global economic conditions as well as the markets in which we operate, including the residual effects of the disruption in financial and credit markets in the recent past, pose a risk to the overall economy that may result in our customers postponing spending, which could adversely affect demand for our products and services, as well as our ability to manage commercial relationships with our customers, suppliers and creditors. Partly as a result of the recent recession, entire industries faced, and may in the future face, extreme contraction.  These adverse financial conditions may still exist in certain jurisdictions, including specific governments in Europe.  If the current economic situation deteriorates or if the markets in which we operate do not recover or stumble, our business could be negatively impacted, including such areas as reduced demand for our products and services, slowed customer buying decisions, pricing pressures, supplier or customer disruptions, or insolvency of certain of our key distributors, resellers, OEMs and systems integrators, which could impair our distribution channels, which could reduce our revenues or our ability to collect our accounts receivable and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  Adverse market conditions such as the impact of industry consolidation, emergence of new competitors and changes in the regulatory environment,   may also have a negative impact on our business by decreasing new customer engagements and the size of initial spending commitments under those engagements, as well as decreasing the level of discretionary spending by existing customers.  In addition, a slowdown in buying decisions may extend our sales cycle period and may limit our ability to forecast our flow of new contracts.  If such adverse business conditions arise in the future, our business may be harmed. In the past, these conditions reduced the high growth rates that the market in which we operate had previously experienced, and caused the market value, financial results and prospects and capital spending levels of many telecommunications companies to decline or degrade.  During previous economic downturns, the market in which we operate has experienced significant financial pressures that caused many in the market to cut expenses and limit investment in capital intensive projects and, in some cases, led to restructurings and bankruptcies.
 
 
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Our success in handling a possible contraction of our business due to global economic turmoil and market conditions will depend on our ability, among other things, to:

 
develop efficient forecast methods for evaluating the prospective quantity of products that will be ordered by our customers;

 
control inventories of components ordered by our contract manufacturers required to meet actual demand, including but not limited to handling the effects of excess inventories accumulated by such manufacturers;

 
reduce the costs of manufacturing our products;

 
collect receivables from our customers in full and in a timely manner; and

 
properly balance the size and capabilities of our workforce.

We face intense competition from other high-speed communications solutions that compete with our high-capacity point-to-point wireless products, which could reduce demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our products compete with other high-speed communications solutions, including fiber optic lines, leased copper lines and other wireless technologies. Some of these technologies utilize existing installed infrastructure and have achieved significantly greater market acceptance and penetration than high-capacity point-to-point wireless technologies.

Some of the disadvantages of high capacity, point-to-point wireless technologies that may make other technologies more appealing include:

 
Extreme Weather Conditions: wireless backhaul solutions may not operate optimally in certain extreme weather conditions, including severe rainfalls or hurricanes; and

 
Line-of-Sight Limitations: wireless backhaul solutions generally require a direct line-of-sight between antennas. Consequently, service providers often install these solutions on wireless antenna towers, rooftops of buildings and on other tall structures. As a result, service providers must generally secure roof or other property rights from the owners of each building or other structure on which our products are installed. This may delay deployment and increase the installation costs. Some base stations cannot be linked by line-of-sight solutions.

In addition, customers may decide to use transmission frequencies for which we do not offer products.

To the extent that these competing communications solutions reduce demand for our high-capacity point-to-point wireless transmission products, which is of greater concern in the United States and in Europe, there may be a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 
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Consolidation of our potential customer base could harm our business.

The trend toward mergers in the telecommunications industry has resulted in the consolidation of our potential customer base. In situations where an existing customer consolidates with another industry participant which uses a competitor’s products, our sales to that existing customer could be reduced or eliminated completely to the extent that the consolidated entity decides to adopt the competing products. Further, consolidation of our potential customer base could result in purchasing decision delays as consolidating customers integrate their operations and could generally reduce our opportunities to win new customers to the extent that the number of potential customers decreases. Moreover, some of our potential customers have agreed to share backhaul networks which results in a decrease in the overall size of the market.  Finally, as our customers become larger they may have more leverage to negotiate better pricing which could harm our revenues and gross margins.

We have recently acquired and may additionally acquire other businesses, which could result in integration problems and adversely affect our business.

Following our acquisition of Nera in January 2011, we continue to seek opportunities to acquire other businesses.  We are unable to predict whether or when any prospective acquisitions will be completed.  The process of integrating an acquired business may be prolonged due to unforeseen difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of our resources and management’s attention.  We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions, integrate acquired businesses into our operations, or expand into new markets.  Future acquisitions may require substantial capital resources, which may require us to seek additional financing, and could result, without limitation, in the following, any of which could seriously harm our results of operations or the price of our ordinary shares:

 
the issuance of equity securities that would dilute our current shareholders;
 
 
 
the diversion of management’s attention from our core business during the integration process;

 
the management of a larger combined business, including implementing adequate internal controls;

 
the loss of key employees and customers of the acquired businesses;

 
loss of revenue due to overlapping product lines, customers and/or services;

 
difficulties in the assimilation and integration of operations, personnel, technologies, products and information systems of the acquired companies;

 
risks of entering geographic and business markets in which we have limited or no prior experience; and

 
unanticipated losses in the event the acquisition is not consummated.

Moreover, the acquired businesses may not achieve comparable levels of revenues, profitability or productivity as our existing business or otherwise perform as expected or may result in write-down or impairment charges.  In the event that we consummate the acquisition of other businesses, these challenges and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additional tax liabilities could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

As a global corporation, we are subject to income and other taxes both in Israel and various foreign jurisdictions. Our domestic and international tax liabilities are subject to the allocation of revenues and expenses in different jurisdictions and the timing of recognizing revenues and expenses. Additionally, the amount of income taxes paid or accrued is subject to our interpretation of applicable laws in the jurisdictions in which we do business. From time to time, we are subject to income and other tax audits, the timings of which are unpredictable. While we believe we comply with applicable tax laws, there can be no assurance that a governing tax authority will not have a different interpretation of the law and assess us with additional taxes. Should we be assessed additional taxes, there could be a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
 
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Our ability to grow depends on acceptance by our customers of IP-based solutions, our ability to develop and introduce IP-based products, our ability to provide solutions to transition from circuit-switched to hybrid products to IP-based products and our ability to develop enhanced support of software solutions.

The market for IP-based backhaul equipment for mobile networks is continuing to evolve. Our future success depends in part on the acceptance by customers of IP-based networks, IP-based or hybrid backhaul solutions and IP-based or hybrid products that we currently sell and continue to develop. Moreover, our future success depends on our ability to design and manufacture IP-related products and solutions that satisfy our customers’ needs to transition to IP-based networks and IP-based backhaul.  In addition, there is a growing focus on software and networking functionality which requires us to meet our customers’ needs and demands for feature-rich software solutions in our products. If the IP-based backhaul for mobile networks market does not develop at the rate we expect as a result of alternative or changing technologies, changes in product standards and regulation, inability to gain customer acceptance, inability to meet customer demand for greater software enhanced products, or for any other reason, our future growth, business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

If we do not succeed in developing and marketing new products that keep pace with technological developments, changing industry standards and our customers’ needs, we may not be able to grow our business.

The market for our products is characterized by rapid technological advances, changing customer needs and evolving industry standards, as well as increasing pressures to make existing products more cost efficient. Accordingly, our success will depend on our ability to:

 
develop and market new products in a timely manner to keep pace with developments in technology;

 
meet evolving customer requirements;

 
enhance our current product offerings, including technological improvements which reduce cost and manufacturing time; and

 
timely deliver products through appropriate distribution channels.

In addition, radio components used in our products, such as ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) and RFICs (radio frequency integrated circuits), continue to advance technologically, and must be replaced or upgraded from time to time in order for us to remain competitive. Our success depends on our ability to continuously redesign our products to integrate new components and technologies.   We are currently developing in-house new ASIC and RFIC components for our next generation products. We cannot assure you that we will successfully develop these components and bring them into full production with acceptable reliability, or that any development or production ramp-up will be completed in a timely or cost-effective manner.

Further, the wireless equipment industry is subject to evolving industry standards. The emergence or evolution of new industry standards for wireless products, through official standards committees or widespread use by operators, could either render our products obsolete or require us to modify our products. Any such modifications may be expensive and time-consuming and, if we are able to meet these standards at all, could increase our product costs and adversely affect our profitability.

We are continuously seeking to develop new products and enhance our existing products. Developing new products and product enhancements requires research and development resources and cooperation with subcontractors. We may not be successful in enhancing our existing products or developing new products in response to technological advances or to satisfy increasingly sophisticated customer needs in a timely and cost-effective manner which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to grow our business.
 
 
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We rely on a limited number of contractors as part of our research and development efforts.

We conduct a part of our research and development activities through outside contractors. We depend on our contractors’ ability to achieve stated milestones and commercialize our products, and on their ability to cooperate and overcome design difficulties. Our contractors may experience problems, including the inability to recruit professional personnel, which could delay our research and development process. These delays could:

 
increase our research and development expenses;

 
delay the introduction of our upgraded and new products to current and prospective customers and our penetration into new markets; and

 
adversely affect our ability to compete.

If our contractors fail to perform, we may be unable to secure alternative contractors that meet our needs. Moreover, qualifying new contractors may also increase our research and development expenses.

Our sales cycles in connection with competitive bids or to prospective customers are lengthy.

It typically takes from three to twelve months after we first begin discussions with a prospective customer before we receive an order from that customer, if an order is received at all. In some instances, we participate in competitive bids in tenders issued by our customers or prospective customers. These tender processes can continue for many months before a decision is made by the customer. As a result, we are required to devote a substantial amount of time and resources to secure sales. In addition, the lengthy sales cycle results in greater uncertainty with respect to any particular sale, as events may occur during the sales cycle that impact customers’ decisions which, in turn, increases the difficulty of forecasting our results of operations.

We sell other manufacturers’ products as an original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, which subjects us to various risks that may cause our revenues to decline.

We sell a limited number of products on an OEM basis through relationships with a number of manufacturers.  Some of these OEM products enable us to offer a complete solution to some of our customers.  These manufacturers have chosen to sell a portion of their systems through us in order to take advantage of our reputation and sales channels. The sale of these OEM products by us depends in part on the quality of these products, the ability of these manufacturers to deliver their products to us on time and their ability to provide both presale and post-sale support. Sales of OEM products by us expose our business to a number of risks, each of which could result in a reduction in the sales of our products. We face the risks of termination of these relationships, technical and financial problems these companies might encounter or the promotion of their products through other channels and turning them into competitors rather than partners. In addition, failure by our OEM manufacturers to deliver their products or discontinue production of their products may cause difficulty to and may have adverse effect on our business.  If any of these risks materialize, we may not be able to develop alternative sources for these OEM products, which may cause us to lose certain customers or a part of their business which would cause our revenues to decline.

If we fail to develop and maintain distribution and OEM relationships, our revenue may decrease.

Although a majority of our sales are made through our direct sales force, we also market and sell our products to customers through OEMs that integrate our solutions into their product offerings as well as distributors and other system integrators.

Our sales to our OEMs and distributors are made on the basis of purchase orders rather than long-term purchase commitments. Our relationships with our OEMs are generally governed by non-exclusive agreements that require us to competitively price our products, have no minimum sales commitments and do not prohibit our OEMs from offering products that compete with our solutions. The size of purchases by our OEMs and distributors typically fluctuates from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, and may continue to fluctuate in the future, which may affect our quarterly and annual results of operations.
 
 
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We may not be able to maintain and develop additional relationships or, if additional relationships are developed, they may not be successful.  If we experience a loss or a substantial reduction in orders from these OEMs or distributor relationships, our revenues may decline, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

In the event we are unable to satisfy regulatory requirements relating to internal controls, or if our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective, our business could suffer.  

In connection with our certification process under Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley, we have identified in the past and will from time-to-time identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. We cannot assure you that we will be able to implement enhancements on a timely basis, especially in light of our new combined global integrated operations with the Nera business, in order to prevent a failure of our internal controls or enable us to furnish future unqualified certifications. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting.  In addition, we may identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.  Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in investigation and/or sanctions by regulatory authorities, and could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results, investor confidence in our reported financial information, and the market price of our ordinary shares.   Any internal control or procedure, no matter how well designed and operated, can only provide reasonable assurance of achieving desired control objectives and cannot prevent intentional misconduct or fraud.

Uncertainty and possible delays in deployment of advanced wireless and other networks could cause our revenues to be lower than expected.

Our sales depend on the deployment of advanced wireless networks and other networks. Any delay by wireless service providers in their network deployment schedules, including as a result of political or other circumstances beyond their control, could result in lower than expected revenues for us, since these delays would also delay purchasing decisions by the wireless providers.

If we fail to obtain regulatory approval for our products, or if sufficient radio frequency spectrum is not allocated for use by our products, our ability to market our products may be restricted.

Radio communications are subject to regulation in most jurisdictions and to various international treaties relating to wireless communications equipment and the use of radio frequencies. Generally, our products must conform to a variety of regulatory requirements established to avoid interference among users of transmission frequencies and to permit interconnection of telecommunications equipment. Any delays in compliance with respect to our future products could delay the introduction of those products. Also, these regulatory requirements may change from time to time, which could affect the design and marketing of our products as well as the competition we face from other suppliers’ products.

In addition, in most jurisdictions in which we operate, users of our products are generally required to either have a license to operate and provide communications services in the applicable radio frequency or must acquire the right to do so from another license holder. Consequently, our ability to market our products is affected by the allocation of the radio frequency spectrum by governmental authorities, which may be by auction or other regulatory selection. These governmental authorities may not allocate sufficient radio frequency spectrum for use by our products or we may not be successful in obtaining regulatory approval for our products from these authorities. Historically, in many developed countries, the lack of available radio frequency spectrum has inhibited the growth of wireless telecommunications networks. If sufficient radio spectrum is not allocated for use by our products, our ability to market our products may be restricted which would have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, regulatory decisions allocating spectrum for use in wireless backhaul at frequencies used by our competitors’ products could increase the competition we face.
 
 
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Other areas of regulation and governmental restrictions, including tariff on imports and technology controls on exports or regulations related to licensing and allocation processes, could adversely affect our operations and financial results.

Our products are used in critical communications networks which may subject us to significant liability claims.

Since our products are used in critical communications networks, we may be subject to significant liability claims if our products do not work properly. The provisions in our agreements with customers that are intended to limit our exposure to liability claims may not preclude all potential claims. In addition, any insurance policies we have may not adequately limit our exposure with respect to such claims. We warrant to our current customers that our products will operate in accordance with our product specifications. If our products fail to conform to these specifications, our customers could require us to remedy the failure or could assert claims for damages. Liability claims could require us to spend significant time and money in litigation or to pay significant damages. Any such claims, whether or not successful, would be costly and time-consuming to defend, and could divert management’s attention and seriously damage our reputation and our business.

Widespread use of wireless products may have health and safety risks.

Our wireless communications products emit electromagnetic radiation. In recent years, there has been publicity regarding the potentially negative direct and indirect health and safety effects of electromagnetic emissions from wireless telephones and other wireless equipment sources, including allegations that these emissions may cause cancer. Health and safety issues related to our products may arise that could lead to litigation or other actions against us or to additional regulation of our products. We may be required to modify our technology and may not be able to do so. We may also be required to pay damages that may reduce our profitability and adversely affect our financial condition. Even if these concerns prove to be baseless, the resulting negative publicity could affect our ability to market these products and, in turn, could harm our business and results of operations. Claims against other wireless equipment suppliers or wireless service providers could adversely affect the demand for our backhaul solutions.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights, our competitive position may be harmed.

Our ability to compete will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain and enforce intellectual property protection for our technology internationally. We currently rely upon a combination of trade secret, trademark and copyright laws, as well as contractual rights, to protect our intellectual property.

In 2009, we began to more aggressively pursue patent protection and consequently, our patent portfolio may not be as extensive as those of our competitors. As a result, we may have limited ability to assert any patent rights in negotiations with, or in counterclaiming against, competitors who assert intellectual property rights against us.  In connection with the Nera Acquisition, we acquired additional patents and patent applications.

We also enter into confidentiality, non-competition and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors engaged in our research and development activities, and enter into non-disclosure agreements with our suppliers and certain customers so as to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. We cannot assure you that any steps taken by us will be adequate to deter misappropriation or impede independent third-party development of similar technologies. Moreover, under current law, we may not be able to enforce the non-competition agreements with our employees to their fullest extent.

We cannot assure you that the protection provided to our intellectual property by the laws and courts of foreign nations will be substantially similar to the remedies available under U.S. law. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that third parties will not assert infringement claims against us based on foreign intellectual property rights and laws that are different from those established in the United States. Any such failure or inability to obtain or maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property rights for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
 
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Defending against intellectual property infringement claims could be expensive and could disrupt our business.

The wireless equipment industry is characterized by vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights, which has resulted in often protracted and expensive litigation.  We have been exposed to infringement allegations in the past.   We may in the future be notified that we are allegedly infringing certain patent or other intellectual property rights of others. Any such litigation or claim could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. In the event of an adverse result of any such litigation, we could be required to pay substantial damages (including potentially treble damages and attorney’s fees should a court find such infringement willful), cease the use and licensing of allegedly infringing technology and the sale of allegedly infringing products and expend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology or to obtain licenses for the infringing technology. We cannot assure you that we would be successful in developing such non-infringing technology or that any license for the infringing technology would be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all.

If we fail to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business, operations and product development efforts may be materially adversely affected.

Our products require sophisticated research and development, marketing and sales, and technical customer support. Our success depends on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel in all these areas. We compete with other companies for personnel in all of these areas and we may not be able to hire sufficient personnel to achieve our goals or support the anticipated growth in our business. The market for the highly-trained personnel we require is competitive, due to the limited number of people available with the necessary technical skills and understanding of our products and technology. If we fail to attract and retain qualified personnel due to compensation or other factors, our business, operations and product development efforts would suffer.

Our international operations expose us to the risk of fluctuation in currency exchange rates.

Although we derive a significant portion of our revenues in U.S. dollars, a portion of our U.S. dollar revenues are derived from customers operating in local currencies which are different from the U.S. dollar.  Therefore, devaluation in the local currencies of our customers relative to the U.S. dollar could cause our customers to cancel or decrease orders or delay payment. In addition, part of our revenues from customers are in non-U.S. dollar currencies, therefore we are exposed to the risk of devaluation of such currencies relative to the dollar which could have a negative impact on our revenues.

 Following the Nera Acquisition, while a substantial portion of our expenses are denominated in New Israeli Shekels, or NIS, an additional portion is denominated in Norwegian Kroner, or NOK, and to a lesser extent other non-U.S. dollar currencies. Our NIS and NOK-denominated expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs and related personnel expenses. We anticipate that a portion of our expenses will continue to be denominated in NIS and NOK. In 2011, the NIS and NOK continued to fluctuate in comparison to the U.S. dollar, appreciating by approximately 4% and 8% in the first half of the year, respectively, and then devaluating by approximately 12% and 12% in the second half of the year, respectively. In total, during 2011, the NIS and NOK devaluated by 8% and 3% in comparison to the U.S. dollar, respectively. If the U.S. dollar continues to weaken against the NIS and the NOK in the future, there will be a negative impact on our results of operations.     In some cases, we are paid in non-U.S. dollar currencies or maintain monetary assets in non- U.S. dollar currencies, which could affect our reported results of operations.  In addition, we have assets and liabilities that are denominated in non-U.S. dollar currencies. Therefore, significant fluctuation in these other currencies could have significant effect on our results.

We use derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward contracts, to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates on balance sheet accounts and forecast cash flows. We may not purchase derivative instruments adequate to insulate ourselves from foreign currency exchange risks and over the past year, we have incurred losses as a result of exchange rate fluctuations that have   not been offset in full by our hedging strategy. The volatility in the foreign currency markets may make it challenging to hedge our foreign currency exposures effectively.
 
 
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If we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company, our U.S. shareholders may suffer adverse tax consequences, including higher tax rates and potentially punitive interest charges on certain distributions and on the proceeds of share sales.

We do not believe that for the year ended December 31, 2011 we were a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Non-U.S. corporations may generally be characterized as a PFIC if for any taxable year in which 75% or more of such company’s gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of the average value of all such company’s assets are held for the production of, or produce, passive income. If we are characterized as a PFIC, our U.S. shareholders may suffer adverse tax consequences, including having gains realized on the sale of our ordinary shares treated as ordinary income, rather than capital gain income, and having potentially punitive interest charges apply to the proceeds of share sales.  Similar rules apply to distributions that are “excess distributions.”

It is possible that the United States Internal Revenue Service could attempt to treat us as a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2011 or prior years. The tests for determining PFIC status are applied annually and it is difficult to make accurate predictions of our future income, assets, activities and market capitalization, including fluctuations in the price of our ordinary shares, which are relevant to this determination. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not become a PFIC in 2012 or in subsequent years. For a discussion of the rules relating to passive foreign investment companies and related tax consequences, please see the section of this annual report entitled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

Our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter.

Our quarterly results are difficult to predict and may vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Most importantly, delays in completing product order delivery or completion of a sale or related services can cause our revenues, net income and operating cash flow to fluctuate significantly from anticipated levels. Furthermore, we may reduce prices in specific instances in response to competition or increase spending in order to pursue new market opportunities.

Additionally, the following factors may also cause fluctuations in our quarterly results:

 
accurately forecasting the volume and timing of product orders received and delivered during the quarter;

 
the timing of when our customers provide acceptance certificates in turnkey projects;

 
the ability to effectively manage and synchronize delivery of completed product order to customer;

 
the ability of our contract manufacturers to manufacture products on time;

 
our customers’ financial and cash flow constraints;

 
the efficient deployment of our customers’ networks in turn-key projects;

 
the fulfillment of all revenue recognition criteria;

 
worldwide regulatory developments;

 
maintaining key customer relationships;

 
changes in the mix of products sold by us;

 
timing of new product introductions by us or our competitors;

 
disruption in our continued relationships with our OEM partners and distributors;
 
 
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cost and availability of components and subsystems;

 
adoption of new technologies and industry standards;

 
competitive factors, including pricing, availability and demand for competing products;

 
ability of our customers to obtain financing to enable their purchase of our products;

 
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and

 
global economic conditions.

The quarterly variation of our operating results, may, in turn, create volatility in the market price for our shares.

The price of our ordinary shares is subject to volatility.

The price of our ordinary shares has experienced volatility in the past and may continue to do so in the future.  In the two year period ended December 31, 2011, the price of our ordinary shares has ranged from a high of $14.34 to a low of $6.88.  On December 30, 2011, and March 15, 2012, the closing price of our ordinary shares was $7.70 and $9.41, respectively.  Other factors that may contribute to wide fluctuations in our market price, many of which are beyond our control, include, but are not limited to:

 
announcement of corporate transactions;

 
announcements of technological innovations;

 
customer orders or new products or contracts;

 
competitors’ positions in the market;

 
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 
our earnings releases and the earnings releases of our competitors;

 
the general state of the securities markets (with particular emphasis on the technology and Israeli sectors thereof); and

 
the general state of the credit markets, the current volatility of which could have an adverse effect on our investments.

In addition to the volatility of the market price of our shares, the stock market in general and the market for technology companies in particular have been highly volatile and at times thinly traded. Investors may not be able to resell their shares following periods of volatility.

Due to the size of their shareholdings, Yehuda and Zohar Zisapel have influence over matters requiring shareholder approval.

As of March 15, 2012, Yehuda Zisapel beneficially owned, directly or indirectly, 6.2% of our outstanding ordinary shares; and Zohar Zisapel, our Chairman, beneficially owned, directly or indirectly, 14% of our outstanding ordinary shares. Such percentages include options which are exercisable within 60 days of March 15, 2012. Yehuda and Zohar Zisapel, who are brothers, do not have a voting agreement. Regardless, these shareholders may influence the outcome of various actions that require shareholder approval.
 
 
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Provisions of our Articles of Association, Memorandum of Association and Israeli law could delay, prevent or make difficult a change of control and therefore depress the price of our shares.

Under the Israeli Companies Law, or the Companies Law, companies such as ours which were incorporated prior to the effectiveness of the Companies Law, are required to obtain a shareholder approval of a merger by at least 75% of the shares participating at the meeting and voting thereon. Moreover, the modification of our Memorandum of Association requires a 75% majority vote, and such a requirement may subject certain types of merger transactions or other business combinations to the same super-majority approval requirements. Additionally, under certain circumstances, a request of a creditor of a party to the proposed merger to the court may delay or prevent a merger. Further, a merger generally may not be completed until the passage of certain time periods. In certain circumstances, an acquisition of shares in a public company must be made by means of a tender offer. Our Articles of Association provide that our directors (other than the external directors) are divided into two classes: Class I and Class II. A director will generally serve for a term ending on the date of the third annual general meeting following the annual general meeting at which such director was elected. This election mechanism may discourage a takeover of our company.

Furthermore, certain provisions of other Israeli laws may have the effect of delaying, preventing or making more difficult an acquisition of or merger with us. For example, Israeli tax law treats some acquisitions, such as share-for-share exchanges between an Israeli company and a foreign company, less favorably than U.S. tax laws. In addition, approvals of a merger that may be in certain circumstances required under the Restrictive Trade Practices Law and , 1988, and under of the Israeli Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development of 1984 may impede, delay or restrict our ability to consummate a merger or similar transaction. See Item, “Additional Information—Mergers and Acquisitions under Israeli Law” in this annual report, for additional discussion about some antitakeover provisions.

Risks Relating to Israel

Conditions related to the Israel-Arab conflict may disrupt our ability to design, produce and sell our products. This could result in a decrease of our revenues.

Our principal offices and a substantial portion of our research and development and contract manufacturers’ facilities are located in Israel. Accordingly, we are directly influenced by the political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel.

Israel has been subject to a number of armed conflicts that have taken place between it and its Arab neighbors. While Israel has entered into peace agreements with both Egypt and Jordan, Israel has not entered into peace arrangements with any other neighboring countries, the numerous uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East, including in Egypt, Syria and Jordan which border Israel, have introduced additional uncertainty in the region. Recent events in Iran, including reports of its continuing nuclear development program, have further strained relations between Israel and Iran.

Over the past several years there has been a significant deterioration in Israel’s relationship with the Palestinian Authority and a related increase in violence, including recent hostilities related to Lebanon and the Gaza Strip. Efforts to resolve the problem have failed to result in a permanent solution.  Further deterioration of relations with the Palestinian Authority or other countries in the Middle East might require more military reserve service by some of our Israeli workforce,  could disrupt international trading activities in Israel and may materially and negatively affect our business conditions and those of our major contract manufacturers and could harm our results of operations.

Certain countries, as well as certain companies and organizations, primarily in the Middle East, as well as Malaysia and Indonesia, continue to participate in a boycott of Israeli firms and others doing business with Israel and Israeli companies. Thus, there have been sales opportunities that we could not pursue and there may be such opportunities in the future from which we will be precluded. For example, certain countries participating in the boycott described above have recently been increasing their investment in telecom operators in Africa. This growing control of the market in Africa could lead to a decrease of our sales in Africa in the future. The boycott, restrictive laws, policies or practices directed towards Israel or Israeli businesses could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse affect on our business in the future.
 
 
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We can give no assurance that the political and security situation in Israel, as well as the economic situation, will not have a material impact on our business in the future.

Since we received Israeli government grants for research and development expenditures, we are subject to ongoing restrictions and conditions, including restrictions on our ability to manufacture products and transfer technologies outside of Israel.

We received grants from the Government of Israel through the Office of the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, or the OCS, for the financing of a significant portion of our research and development expenditures in Israel through the end of 2006. We therefore must comply with the requirements of the Israeli law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development of 1984 and regulations promulgated thereunder which we refer to as the R&D Law with respect to a portion of our products. Under the R&D Law, we cannot transfer technology developed with OCS grants, including by the sale of the technology, the grant of a license of such technology or the manufacture of a significant amount of our products that are based on such technology outside of Israel, unless we obtain the approval of an OCS committee. There is no assurance that we will receive such OCS approvals. Even if such OCS approvals are obtained, we may be required to pay additional royalties to the OCS or, in case of a transfer of the technology outside of Israel, a percentage of the consideration paid for such transfer, but not less than the OCS grants. In addition, under the R&D Law, any non-Israeli who becomes a direct holder of 5% or more of our share capital is required to notify the OCS and to undertake to observe the law governing the grant programs of the OCS, the principal restrictions of which are the transferability limits described above in this paragraph.

The tax benefits to which we are currently entitled from our approved enterprise program and our beneficiary enterprise program require us to satisfy specified conditions. If we fail to satisfy these conditions, we may be required to pay increased taxes and would likely be denied these benefits in the future.

The Company has capital investment programs that have been granted approved enterprise status ("Approved Programs") and a program under beneficiary enterprise status pursuant to the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments, 1959 ("Beneficiary Program"). When we begin to generate taxable income from these approved and/or beneficiary enterprise programs, the portion of our income derived from these programs will be exempt from tax for a period of two years and will be subject to a reduced tax for an additional eight years thereafter, depending on the percentage of our share capital held by non-Israelis. The benefits available to an approved enterprise program are dependent upon the fulfillment of conditions stipulated under applicable law and in the certificate of approval. If we fail to comply with these conditions, in whole or in part, we may be required to pay additional taxes for the period in which we benefited from the tax exemption or reduced tax rates and would likely be denied these benefits in the future. The amount by which our taxes would increase will depend on the difference between the then applicable tax rate for regular enterprises and the rate of tax, if any, that we would otherwise pay as an approved enterprise and/or beneficiary enterprise, and the amount of any taxable income that we may earn in the future.

The tax benefits available to approved and beneficiary enterprise programs may be reduced or eliminated in the future. This would likely increase our tax liability.

The Israeli government may reduce or eliminate in the future tax benefits available to approved and/or beneficiary enterprise programs. Our approved and beneficiary program and the resulting tax benefits may not continue in the future at their current levels or at any level and the new legislation regarding Preferred Enterprise may not be applicable to us or may not fully compensate us for such change. The termination or reduction of these tax benefits would likely increase our tax liability. The amount, if any, by which our tax liability would increase will depend upon the rate of any tax increase, the amount of any tax benefit reduction, and the amount of any taxable income that we may earn in the future.
 
 
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It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us, and our officers and directors named in this annual report, to assert U.S. securities laws claims in Israel and to serve process on substantially all of our officers and directors.

We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel. Service of process upon our directors and officers, substantially all of whom reside outside the United States, may be difficult to obtain within the United States. Furthermore, because the majority of our assets and investments, and substantially all of our directors and officers are located outside the United States, any judgment obtained in the United States against us or any of them may not be collectible within the United States. It may be difficult to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel. Israeli courts may refuse to hear a claim based on a violation of U.S. securities laws because Israel is not the most appropriate forum to bring such a claim. In addition, even if an Israeli court agrees to hear a claim, it may determine that Israeli law and not U.S. law is applicable to the claim. If U.S. law is found to be applicable, the content of applicable U.S. law must be proved as a fact, which can be a time-consuming and costly process. Certain matters of procedure will also be governed by Israeli law. There is little binding case law in Israel addressing these matters.

Subject to specified time limitations and legal procedures, Israeli courts may enforce a U.S. final judgment in a civil matter, including a judgment based upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws, and including a judgment for the payment of compensation or damages in a non-civil matter, provided that:

 
the judgment was given by a court which was, according to the laws of the state of the court, competent to give it;

 
the judgment is executory in the state in which it was given;

 
the judgment is no longer appealable;

 
the judgment was not given by a court that is not competent to do so under the rules of private international law applicable in Israel;

 
there has been due process;

 
the obligation imposed by the judgment is enforceable according to the rules relating to the enforceability of judgments in Israel and the substance of the judgment is not contrary to public policy;

 
the judgment was not obtained by fraud and does not conflict with any other valid judgment in the same matter between the same parties; and

 
an action between the same parties in the same matter is not pending in any Israeli court or tribunal at the time the lawsuit is instituted in the U.S. court.

Even if these conditions are satisfied, an Israeli court will not enforce a foreign judgment if it was given in a state whose laws do not provide for the enforcement of judgments of Israeli courts (subject to exceptional cases) or if its enforcement is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State of Israel.

 
A.  History and Development of the Company
 
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel on July 23, 1996 as Giganet Ltd.  We changed our name to Ceragon Networks Ltd. on September 6, 2000. We operate under the Israeli Companies Law.  Our registered office is located at 24 Raoul Wallenberg Street, Tel Aviv 69719, Israel and the telephone number is 011-972-3-543-1000.  Our web address is www.ceragon.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute a part of this annual report.
 
 
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Our agent for service of process in the United States is Ceragon Networks, Inc., our wholly owned U.S. subsidiary and North American headquarters, located at 10 Forest Avenue, Suite 120, Paramus, New Jersey 07652.
 
In the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, our capital expenditures were $14.4 million, $9.8 million and $6.7 million, respectively.  In 2011 capital expenditures were primarily for the purchase of additional testing equipment and office equipment as a result of the acquisition of Nera.  In 2010 and 2009, our capital expenditures were spent primarily for production test equipment, information-technology systems, equipment for research and development, general computer software and hardware and leasehold improvements. In 2012 and 2013 we anticipate capital expenditures on a new enterprise resource planning, or ERP, system to be implemented at our offices worldwide.
 
B.  Business Overview

We are the #1 wireless backhaul specialist, in terms of revenue, unit shipments and global distribution of our business.  We provide solutions that enable cellular operators and other wireless service providers to deliver voice and data services, enabling smart-phone applications such as Internet browsing, music and video applications.  Our wireless backhaul solutions use microwave technology to transfer large amounts of telecommunication traffic between base stations and the core of the service provider’s network.
 
Designed to enable risk-free migration from legacy to next-generation backhaul networks, our solutions provide fiber-like connectivity for  next generation Ethernet/Internet Protocol, or IP-based, networks; for circuit-switched, or SONET/SDH, networks and for hybrid networks that combine IP and circuit-switching. Our solutions support all wireless access technologies, including GSM, W-CDMA, CDMA, EV-DO, HSPA, LTE and WiMAX. These solutions allow wireless service providers to cost-effectively and seamlessly evolve their network from circuit-switched and hybrid concepts to all IP thereby meeting the increasing demands by the growing numbers of subscribers and the increasing demand for mobile data services. Our systems also serve evolving network architectures including all-IP long haul, heterogeneous networks, small-cell applications and more.

We also provide our solutions to businesses and public institutions that operate their own private communications networks. Our solutions are deployed by more than 430 service providers of all sizes, as well as in hundreds of private networks, in more than 130 countries.

In January 2011, we completed the purchase of all the shares of privately-held Nera from Eltek ASA, pursuant to a Share Purchase Agreement dated January 19, 2011 (the "SPA") (the “Nera Acquisition”).  The consideration for all of the shares of Nera was approximately $48.5 million, on a cash-free debt-free basis. At closing, an additional amount of approximately $9.7 million was paid on account of the balance of cash that remained in Nera and its subsidiaries.  In accordance with the terms of the SPA, the amount of $10 million out of the consideration was deposited in escrow for 18 months to cover possible claims by us under the SPA.
 
The indemnification obligations of the seller with respect to breach of representations and warranties is capped at $22 million, except for taxes, title on shares and illegal payments which are capped at the full purchase price, and subject to a minimal threshold amount of losses. The seller undertook also to indemnify us for actions and proceedings by a customer or supplier against Nera or its subsidiaries for events occurring prior to the closing.
 
The limitation period for indemnification with respect to breach of representations and warranties of the SPA is 18 months, except that with respect to title on shares, taxes and brokers fees in which case the limitation period is generally 10 years, and with respect to illegal payments is five years.  No limitation on our indemnification right applies in case of gross negligence, willful misrepresentation or misconduct or fraud.
 
To increase the protection in respect of breach of the representations and warranties given in the SPA, we have acquired, from Beazley Solutions Ltd. and Zurich Insurance PLC (respectively), a warranty and indemnity insurance policy and an excess warranty and indemnity insurance policy, up to the amount of the purchase price ($48.5 million).
 
Eltek ASA undertook not to compete with us for a period of five years.
 
 
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In connection with the SPA and on the same day, Nera entered into: (i) a Trademark Purchase Agreement with Nera Telecommunications Ltd. ("NeraTel"), a subsidiary of Eltek ASA, under which it sold to NeraTel certain trade names and domain names of Nera, retaining a right to use the name "Nera" for the first two years, and NeraTel undertook a three-year period non-compete; and (ii) a non-exclusive OEM supply agreement..
 
In order to finance the consideration we entered into a loan agreement (the "Loan Agreement") with Bank Hapoalim Ltd. (the “Bank”) for a loan in the principal amount of $35 million. The Loan Agreement provides that the principal amount bears interest at a rate of Libor + 3.15%, which Libor is updated every three months. The principal amount is to be repaid in 17 quarterly installments from February 19, 2012, until February 19, 2016 and the interest is to be paid in quarterly payments starting as of February 19, 2012.
 
Pre-payment of the loan or any part of it is allowed, subject to a predetermined prepayment fee on the prepaid amount if the prepayment is within the first two years.  The loan is secured by a floating charge over all our assets as well as several customary fixed charges on specific assets.  Repayment of the loan may be accelerated by the Bank in certain events of default including in insolvency events, failure to comply with financial covenants and an event whereby we will no longer be a traded company.
 
The financial covenants that we undertook to maintain are that: (i) the ratio of the shareholders' equity in relation to the total assets shall not, at any given time, be lower than 35%; (ii) the sum of the shareholders' equity shall not at any given time be lower than the total sum of $100 million; and (iii) the ratio of the net financial debt in relation to the working capital shall not exceed, at any given time, 30%.
 
In the framework of the Loan Agreement, we undertook, inter alia, that without the Bank's prior written consent, certain corporate restructuring events may not take place, shareholders loans will not be repaid and we shall not distribute dividends (unless certain terms are met).
 
By the end of 2011, we completed the integration of Nera’s business, product line, customer base and activities into a combined company under the Ceragon brand. In the process we have significantly minimized Nera’s pre-acquisition unprofitable short-haul products portfolio, while integrating Nera’s leading Evolution Long-Haul product line into a newly formed Long-Haul Solutions Group. Moreover, we were able to retain substantially all of the combined company’s customer base.

Short-haul and Long-haul Applications

Today’s wireless base stations handle many different technologies such as cell phones, tablets and PCs. Voice and data traffic generated by these high-end devices are then gathered and transmitted via the backhaul network to the radio frequency (RF), or wireless, network. Wireless backhaul offers network operators a cost-efficient alternative to wire-line (copper/fiber) applications. Support for high capacities mean that all value-added services can be supported, while the high reliability of wireless systems provide for lower maintenance costs. Because they require no trenching, wireless links can also be set up much faster and at a fraction of the cost of wire-line solutions. This translates to lower total cost of ownership and faster time to market, as well as new revenue streams, for the operator.

The wireless backhaul space is segmented into short-haul and long-haul applications. Short-haul, devices typically have a capacity of up to 1 Gbps per link channel and are used to carry voice and data services over distances of between several hundred feet and 10 miles. Short-haul links are deployed in access backhaul applications, connecting the individual base-stations and cellular towers to the core network. Short-haul solutions are also used in a range of non-carrier “vertical” applications such as broadcast, state and local government and education; Long-haul links, with a capacity of up to 2 Gbps, make up the “highways” in the telecommunication backbone network. These links are used to carry services at distances of 10 to50 miles, and, using the right planning, configuration and equipment, can also bridge distances of 100 miles or even longer.

Ceragon has more than once been the first to introduce new products and features to the market, including the first solution for wireless transmission of 155 Mbps at 38 GHz, the first native IP wireless transmission offering. More recently, we introduced a variety of technological enhancements including the first hitless/errorless 8-step Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) technology (2007); first native Ethernet multichannel LH radio with ACM (2010); unique asymmetric transfer mode and multi-layer compression (2011); and 1024QAM Long-Haul IP radio with 9 step ACM (2012).
 
 
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Industry Background

The market for wireless backhaul is being generated primarily by cellular operators, wireless broadband service providers and businesses and public institutions operating private networks. This market is constantly on the rise, fueled by the continuous customer growth in developing countries, and the explosion in mobile data usage in developed countries.

Rapid subscriber growth and the proliferation of advanced, data-centric handsets have significantly increased the amount of traffic that must be carried over a cellular operator’s backhaul infrastructure. As a result, existing backhaul capacity is heavily strained, creating a bottleneck that hinders service delivery and quality. In order to meet the demand for more bandwidth, operators turn to high-capacity solutions in order to modernize and upgrade previous generation equipment. Wireless backhaul systems offer service providers a variety of advantages over competing technologies including ease and speed of deployment, scalability and lower total cost of ownership.

Traditionally based on circuit-switched solutions such as T1/E1 or SONET/SDH, the market for high-capacity wireless backhaul is now shifting to more flexible and cost efficient architectures based on high-capacity IP/Ethernet. This shift enables next-generation mobile backhaul networks to successfully cope with the continuing growth of bandwidth-hungry data services over 3G, HSPA and LTE access technologies. New wireless broadband networks as well as wireless Internet service providers (WISP) and private networks also rely on high-capacity IP/Ethernet technology to backhaul large amounts of data traffic.

Cellular Operators

In order to address the strain on backhaul capacity, cellular operators have a number of alternatives, including leasing existing copper or fiber lines, laying new fiber optic networks or deploying wireless backhaul solutions. Leasing existing lines requires a significant increase in operating expenses and, in some cases, requires the wireless service provider to depend on a direct competitor. Laying new fiber-optic lines is capital-intensive and these lines cannot be rapidly deployed. The deployment of high capacity point-to-point wireless links represents a scalable, flexible and cost-effective alternative for expanding backhaul capacity. Supporting data rates of up to two Gigabits per second, wireless backhaul solutions enable cellular operators to add capacity only as required while significantly reducing upfront and ongoing backhaul costs.

Today’s backhaul networks are still dominated by circuit switched (or TDM) solutions - be it T1/E1 or high-capacity SDH/SONET. These networks, originally designed to carry voice-only services, have a limited bandwidth capacity and offer no cost-efficient scalability model. The surge in mobile data usage drives operators to migrate their networks to a more flexible, feature-rich and cost optimized IP/Ethernet architecture. Additionally, the surge in data usage in densely populated areas drives operators to explore new network architecture that utilize small-cell technology and require highly compact, high-capacity systems for the backhaul.  As operators transition to HSPA and 4G/LTE, two IP-based wireless access technologies, they look for ways to benefit from IP technology in the backhaul segment, while maintaining support for their primary legacy services.

In order to ensure the success of this backhaul network migration phase, operators require solutions that can support their legacy transport technology (TDM) while providing all the advanced IP/Ethernet capabilities and functionalities. This is because, in most cases, next generation HSPA and LTE base stations are co-located with 2G/3G base stations, and thus share the same backhaul network. Cellular operators therefore seek “hybrid” wireless backhaul solutions that can carry both types of traffic seamlessly over a single network, to facilitate their network migration.   Our solutions, which support any network architecture and include both all-IP as well as hybrid systems, offer operators a simple migration plan.

Wireless Broadband Service Providers

For wireless broadband service providers, which offer alternate high data access, high-capacity backhaul is essential for ensuring continuous delivery of rich media service across their high-speed data networks.  If the backhaul and its components do not satisfy the service providers’ need for cost-effectiveness, resilience, scalability or ability to supply sufficient capacity, then the efficiency and productivity of the network may be seriously compromised. While both wireless and wireline technologies can be used to build these backhaul systems, many wireless service providers opt for wireless point-to-point microwave solutions. This is due to a number of advantages of the technology including: rapid installation, support for high-capacity data traffic, scalability and lower cost-per-bit compared to wireline alternatives.
 
 
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Private Networks
 
Many large businesses and public institutions require private high bandwidth communication networks to connect multiple locations. These private networks are typically built using IP-based communications infrastructure. This market includes educational institutions, utility companies, oil and gas industry, broadcasters, state and local governments, public safety agencies and defense contractors. These customers continue to invest in their private communications networks for numerous reasons, including security concerns, the need to exercise control over network service quality and redundant network access requirements. As data traffic on these networks rises, we expect that businesses and public institutions will continue to invest in their communications infrastructure, including backhaul equipment. Like wireless service providers, customers in this market demand a highly reliable, cost-effective backhaul solution that can be easily installed and scaled to their bandwidth requirements.  Approximately 20% of our business is associated with private network operators.

Microwave vs. Fiber

Though fiber-based networks can easily support the rapid growth in bandwidth demands, they carry high initial deployment costs and take longer to deploy than microwave. Certainly, where fiber is available within several hundred feet of the operator’s point of presence, with ducts already in place, and when there are no regulatory issues that prohibit the connection – fiber can become the operator’s preferred route. In almost all other scenarios, high-capacity microwave is simply much more cost efficient. In fact, in most cases the return-on-investment from fiber installations can only be expected in the long term, making it hard for operators to achieve lower costs per bit and earn profits in a foreseeable future.

Wireless microwave backhaul solutions on the other hand are capable of delivering high bandwidth, carrier-grade Ethernet and TDM services. Microwave is suitable for all capacities up to one Gbps over a single radio connection (or “link”) and may be scaled up to multiple Gbps using aggregated links techniques. Unlike fiber, wireless solutions can be set up quickly and are much more cost efficient on a per-bit basis from the outset. In many countries, microwave links are deployed as alternative routes to fiber, ensuring on-going communication in case of fiber-cuts and network failures.

Licensed vs. License-exempt Radios

Service providers select the optimal available transmission frequency based on the rainfall intensity in the transmission area and the desired transmission range. The regulated, or licensed, bands are allocated by government licensing authorities for high-capacity wireless transmissions. The license grants the licensee the exclusive use of that spectrum for a specific use thereby eliminating any interference issues.  Licensed microwave is typically the choice of leading operators around the world because it matches the bandwidth and interference protection they require. Our products operate in the 6 – 42 GHz frequency bands, the principal licensed bands currently available for commercial use throughout the world. We also offer products in the 60, 70, 80 GHz frequency bands for use in ultra-high, short-distance networks, such as small-cell backhaul applications.

License-exempt systems typically operate in the “sub-6” 2.4 — 5.85 GHz or in the 24 GHz spectrum band.  These systems can be deployed without any regulatory approval. Due to limited availability of spectrum, and the narrow bandwidth of frequency channels in this range, licensed-exempt systems have limited capacities. Often operating in a near-line-of-sight (NLOS) mode, these systems also suffer from high signal loss which puts more limitations of their ability to provide high capacities. Another disadvantage is that since these frequencies are unregulated, it is impossible to ensure high, carrier-grade quality of service and high availability. There are, however, applications in which service providers, public or private, may use license-exempt systems, for instance in enterprises, education, utility, financial, or public safety. Cellular operators and wireless ISPs may also use unlicensed solutions where NLOS is the only means to connect two end-points. For the license-exempt wireless networks market we offer products that are designed to operate in the sub-6 frequencies.
 
 
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Industry Trends and Developments

 
·
While green-field deployments tend to be all-IP based, the overwhelming portion of network infrastructure investments goes into upgrading, or “modernizing” existing cell-sites to fit new services with a lower total cost of ownership. Modernizing is more than a simple replacement of network equipment. It helps operators build up a network with enhanced performance, capacity and service support.  For example, Ceragon offers a variety of innovative mediation devices that eliminate the need to replace costly antennas that are already in deployment. In doing so, we help our customers to reduce the time and the costs associated with network upgrades.  The result: a smoother upgrade cycle, short network down-time during upgrades and faster time to revenue.
 
 
·
The emergence of small cells present backhauling challenges that differ from those of traditional macro-cells. Small cells can be used to provide a second layer of coverage in 3G and LTE networks, resulting in higher throughput and data rates for the end-user.  Although small cell deployments are not expected in significant volumes before 2014, Ceragon already offers tailored solutions for forward looking mobile operators. Our small-cell backhaul portfolio includes a variety of compact all-outdoor solutions that provide operators with optimal flexibility in meeting their unique physical, capacity, networking, and regulatory requirements.
 
 
·
Heterogeneous networks, or HetNets, are a means for increasing the capacity in mobile networks. HetNets are typically composed of multiple radio access technologies, architectures, transmission solutions, and base stations of varying generations. Fixed mobile convergence, which is aimed at removing the distinctions between fixed and mobile networks by using a combination of wire-line broadband and local access wireless technologies, is creating further opportunities for HetNets. As operators look to consolidate their backhaul networks, they also want to maintain the different access networks they have in order to serve different customers (for example, DSL, cable and 3G). Our advanced systems are already deployed in a wide range of network architectures, serving a host of wireless voice and broadband data access technologies. In addition, our systems interface and interoperate with a variety of wireline and wireless solutions from other global vendors, to enable smooth and cost optimized delivery of value added, revenue generating services.
 
 
·
A growing market for non-mobile backhaul applications which includes: Offshore communications for the oil and gas as well as the shipping industry, require a unique set of solutions for use on moving rigs and vessels; Broadcast networks that require robust, highly reliable communication for the distribution of live video content either as a cost efficient alternative to fiber, or as a backup for fiber installations. Smart Grid networks for utilities, as well as local and national governments that seek greater energy efficiency, reliability, and scale.
 
 
·
A growing demand for high capacity, IP-based Long Haul solutions in emerging markets. This demand is driven by the need of operators to connect more communities to mobile added value services, and a lack of alternative (wireline) backbone telecommunication infrastructure in these emerging markets.
 
 
·
Market consolidation in the wireless backhaul segment continues. This trend was made evident in our acquisition of Nera and DragonWave’s announcement that it intends to acquire the microwave division of Nokia Siemens Networks.
 
 
·
Subscriber growth continues mainly in emerging markets such as India, Africa and Latin America.
 
 
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Our Solutions
 
We offer a broad portfolio of innovative, field-proven, high capacity wireless backhaul solutions which enable cellular operators and other wireless service providers to effectively eliminate the backhaul capacity bottleneck, significantly reduce backhaul costs and gradually evolve their networks from TDM to IP/Ethernet-based networks. We also provide advanced pure IP/Ethernet solutions to wireless broadband service providers as well as to businesses and public institutions that operate their own private communications networks.

Our FibeAir® Short-Haul family of products supports any transport technology, from 2G up to 4G/LTEE, and any deployment architecture or network topology. We deliver platforms that carry pure TDM, a combination (hybrid) of native TDM and native IP/Ethernet and pure IP/Ethernet traffic. Our systems can be deployed in high density, split-mount or compact all-outdoor installations. Understanding the many needs of our customers, we provide solutions for every segment of the backhaul network – from tail site to large aggregations sites – and that support both tree and ring topologies.

Our Evolution™ Series IP Long-Haul family of products provides a field-proven, quality microwave radio solution for long distance, high capacity telecommunication networks. Evolution products allow operators to smoothly migrate from legacy TDM to all-IP, satisfying the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth - while keeping revenue generating 2G/3G services intact. Evolution Series IP Long Haul is available in both all indoor as well as split-mount configurations and supports all licensed frequency bands from 4 to 13 GHz. This highly efficient solution provides up to 4 Gbps aggregated Ethernet traffic.

We believe our solutions have proven their ability to provide high performance in a cost-effective manner, and they are differentiated in the following ways:
 
Leading Offering for Wireless Backhaul Market.  We believe that we provide our customers with a leading offering of high capacity wireless backhaul solutions for the broader wireless backhaul market. Our competitive differentiation is demonstrated by our growing customer base which includes a number of Tier 1 operators, and our relationships with our OEMs. This differentiation results from our focus on product development from components to subsystem integration to overall system solution design.  Our IP-based wireless backhaul solutions provide fiber-like performance with throughput speeds from 10 Megabit up to 4 Gigabits per second, with high availability and low latency. Our solutions enable wireless service providers to gradually evolve their networks from all circuit-switched through a combined “hybrid” model to all IP/Ethernet-based networks. We provide operators with a range of systems allowing them to serve any application in their network – from small cell sites using a compact all-outdoor device, up to large multi-carrier solutions for long-distance backbone applications.

Our suite of IP-based wireless backhaul products and hybrid network products is currently deployed in over 430 wireless service providers’ networks, including a growing number of global Tier 1 players, as well as private networks around the world. These solutions were the first of their kind to receive certification from Metro Ethernet Forum, a leading industry alliance of telecommunications service providers and other industry participants that develop technical specifications to promote the adoption of IP-based networks.
 
Broad Product Portfolio.  We offer a broad range of high capacity wireless backhaul systems, enabling us to offer complete solutions for the specific needs of a wide range of customers, based on service type, frequency, distance and capacity requirements. Our solutions include platforms based on circuit-switched (or TDM), pure IP-based products, and hybrid solutions that deliver both circuit-switched and IP traffic in their native form over a single radio. This functionality makes the latter particularly attractive for wireless service providers and facilitates cost effective, risk-free migration to IP-based backhaul network and can be integrated in any pure IP, hybrid or circuit-switched network. Our solutions can be deployed in all-indoor, all-outdoor and split-mount configurations and support a wide range of network topologies.
 
 
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Network Management Tools for Ethernet Microwave Networks. Our innovative, user-friendly Network Management System (NMS) is designed for managing large scale wireless backhaul networks.  We offer both “stand-alone” management tools as well as tailored solutions in combination with third party partners. These tools enable advanced Ethernet service delivery across the network, while allowing effectively seamless management of all the backhaul network’s elements; thus reducing operational costs. Ceragon NMS provides enhanced system functionality and comprehensive network management for current and legacy radios, including FibeAir and Evolution Series radios. Built on a powerful platform, our NMS allow operators to provide maximized network uptime by including functionality for managing end-to-end configuration, performance, faults and system security.
 
Turnkey Services Capabilities. At the end of 2011, we were responsible for installing most of all the links we ship.  We offer complete solutions and services for the design and implementation of telecommunication networks, as well as the expansion or integration of existing ones. In 2011, we put in place a Global Projects and Services group that operates alongside our Solutions Groups. Under the new group we offer our customers a comprehensive set of turn-key services including: advanced network and radio planning, site survey, solutions development, installation, maintenance, training and more. Our services include utilization of powerful project management tools in order to streamline deployments of complex wireless networks, thereby reducing time and costs associated with network set-up, and allowing faster time to revenue. Our experienced teams can deploy hundreds of “links” every week, and our turn-key project track-record includes hundreds of thousands of links already installed and in operation with a variety of industry leading operators.

Low Total Cost of Ownership.  Our solutions address industry requirements for low total cost of ownership backhaul solutions. Total cost of ownership includes the combined cost of initial acquisition, installation and ongoing operation and maintenance, regardless of whether these costs are incurred through leasing arrangements or operating owned equipment. For example, we offer a unique solution that enables legacy links to be swapped for new, modern radios, while reusing other vendors’ antennas. Replacing antennas is a costly effort, not only in equipment and installation costs, but also in network downtime during the set-up and re-alignment of new antennas. By enabling our systems to interface with any antenna in the field and compensating for the lower system gain of older installations, we allow operators to keep the existing antennas and cabling, and reduce the loss of revenues, by minimizing downtime.  In addition, our products also offer better spectral utilization, which allows the use of smaller antennas, and results in lower CAPEX and site rental costs. Additional savings can be achieved through our green-mode radios that include adjustable power features and can reduce radio link power consumption by as much as 30% compared with existing solutions.  In some of the regions we serve, this is translated into significant operating expense reductions by saving fuel required for the generators on site.
 
Design to Cost. We see an increasing demand for smaller systems with low power consumption and a cost structure that fits the “flat price” models of mobile operators. We believe that this complicated puzzle can only be solved through vertical integration from system to chip level. Our strategy to drive performance up while driving cost down is achieved through our investment in modem and RF (radio frequency) integrated circuit (IC) design. Our advanced chipsets, which are already in use in hundreds of thousands of units in the field, integrate all the radio functionality required for high-end microwave systems. By owning the technology and controlling the complete system design, we achieve a very high level of vertical integration. This, in turn, yields systems that have superior performance, due to our ability to closely integrate and fine-tune the performance of all the radio components. By significantly reducing the number of components in the system and simplifying its design, we have made our solutions easier to manufacture. We have introduced automated testing that allows us to speed up production while lowering the costs for electronic manufacturing services manufacturers. Thus we believe we are able to achieve one of the lowest per-system cost positions in the industry and can offer our customers further savings through compact, low power consumption designs – which is becoming a key parameter in the ability of operators to deploy LTE small cells.
 
Scalability and Flexibility.  We design our products to enable incremental deployment to meet increased service demand, making it possible for wireless service providers to rapidly deploy additional capacity as needed. This approach allows our customers to establish a wireless broadband network with a relatively low initial investment and later expand the geographic coverage area of their networks as subscriber demand increases. Our pay-as-you-grow model allows our customers to add new features along the product’s evolution cycle. This software-based model allows for seamless upgrades of already-deployed solutions, saving the need for additional site visits and hardware replacements.

Strategic Partnerships. Ceragon maintains strategic partnerships with third party solution vendors and network integrators. Through these relationships Ceragon develops interoperable ecosystems, enabling operators to profitably evolve mobile networks by using complementary backhaul and networking alternatives.
 
 
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Our Products
 
Our portfolio of products utilizes microwave radio technology that provides our customers with a wireless connectivity that dynamically adapts to weather conditions and optimizes range and efficiency for a given frequency channel bandwidth. Our products are typically sold as a complete system comprised of four components: an outdoor unit, an indoor unit, a compact high-performance antenna and a network management system. We offer all-packet microwave radio links, with optional migration from TDM to Ethernet. Our products include integrated networking functions for both TDM and Ethernet.

Split-mount solutions consist of:
 
 
Indoor units which are used to convert the transmission signals from digital to intermediate frequency signals and vice versa, process and manage information transmitted to and from the outdoor unit, aggregate multiple transmission signals and provide a physical interface to wireline networks.

 
Outdoor units or Radio Frequency Units (RFU), which are used to control power transmission, convert intermediate frequency signals to radio frequency signals and vice versa, and provide an interface between antennas and indoor units. They are contained in compact weather-proof enclosures fastened to antennas. Indoor units are connected to outdoor units by standard coaxial cables.
 
 
All-indoor solutions refer to solutions in which the entire system (indoor unit and RFU) reside in a single rack inside a transmission equipment room. A waveguide connection transports the radio signals to the antenna mounted on a tower. All indoor equipment is typically used in long-haul applications.

 
All-outdoor solutions combine the functionality of both the indoor and outdoor units in a single, compact device. This weather-proof enclosure is fastened to an antenna, eliminating the need for rack space or sheltering as well as the need for air conditioning.

 
Unique pointing accuracy solutions for high vibration environments. These are advanced microwave radio systems for use on moving rigs/vessels where the antenna is stabilized in one or two axes, azimuth or azimuth/elevation.

 
Antennas are used to transmit and receive microwave radio signals from one side of the wireless link to the other. These devices are mounted on poles typically placed on rooftops, towers or buildings. We rely on third party vendors to supply this component.

 
End-to-End Network Management.  Our network management system uses standard management protocol to monitor and control managed devices at both the element and network level and can be easily integrated into our customers’ existing network management systems.

An antenna, an RFU and an indoor unit comprise a terminal. Two terminals are required to form a radio link, which typically extends across a distance of several miles and can extend across a distance of over 100 miles. The specific distance depends upon the customer’s requirements and chosen modulation scheme, the frequency utilized, the available line of sight, local rain patterns and antenna size. Each link can be controlled by our network management system or can be interfaced to the network management system of the service provider. The systems are available in both split-mount, including an indoor and outdoor unit, all-indoor and all-outdoor installations.
 
 
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The diverse FibeAir® product family offers products that address the complete backhaul needs of IP-based, hybrid and circuit-switched networks:
 
 
Short-Haul
Network
Infrastructure
IP-based
 
Hybrid
Product
FibeAir IP-10C
FibeAir IP-70
FibeAir
IP-10E
 FibeAir 2500
FibeAir
IP-10Q
FibeAir
 
IP-10G
FibeAir
 
2000/4800
Description
High-Capacity Compact All-Outdoor
High-Capacity 70 GHz Backhaul Solution
High-Capacity Ethernet
Sub 6GHz, Point to Multi Point system
High-Capacity, High-Density solution for aggregation sites
High-Capacity
Multi-Service
Sub 6GHz, Point to Point system,
Multi-Service
Interfaces
Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet
Multiple Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet multiple E1/T1, Fast Ethernet multiple E1/T1
Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet multiple E1/T1
Typical Applications
Wireless backhaul at tail-sites and small-cell sites
Wireless backhaul at tail-sites and small-cell sites
Wireless backhaul for carriers,   Private networks and Metro area networks
Private Networks, Business access, Wireless backhaul at small cells sites
Wireless backhaul at aggregation sites
Wireless backhaul for carriers and Private networks
Private Networks, Business access,  Wireless backhaul at small cells sites
Type of Customers
Cellular operators, Wireless ISPs, Private Network providers
Cellular operators, Wireless ISPs, Private Network providers
Cellular operators, WiMax carriers, Wireless ISPs, Incumbent local exchange carriers, Businesses, Public institutions
Cellular operators, Wireless ISPs, Businesses, Public institutions
Cellular operators, Wireless service providers, Incumbent local exchange carriers
Cellular operators, Wireless service providers, Incumbent local exchange carriers
Cellular operators, Wireless ISPs, Businesses, Public institutions
 
Our Evolution™ product family offers products that address the needs for high capacity all-IP, TDM or hybrid long-haul and backbone applications:

 
Long-Haul
Network
Infrastructure
IP/Hybrid All-Indoor
Split-Mount
Product
Evolution Long-Haul IP
FibeAir
3200
Evolution IP-10 Compact Long-Haul (CLH)
Evolution Long-Haul IP
PointLink
Description
Multi-channel High-Capacity
Long-Haul solution
High-Capacity Circuit-switched TDM
Compact all-indoor system for high capacity long distance applications.
 
4-channels High-Capacity
Long-Haul solution
High capacity offshore communication
Interfaces
6 Gigabit ports (SFP or electric),
nxSTM-1/OC-3, nxSTM-4/OC-12, 75xE1s/80xDS1s
Multiple STM-1/OC-3
Gigabit Ethernet multiple E1/T1, Fast Ethernet multiple E1/T1
6 Gigabit ports (SFP or electric),
nxSTM-1/OC-3, nxSTM-4/OC-12, 75xE1s/80xDS1s
 
Typical Applications
Wireless backhaul, Wireless backbone, simple migration from TDM to IP long-haul
Wireless backhaul, Long distance networks
Wireless backhaul, Long distance networks in sites with limited ‘real-state’
Wireless backhaul, Wireless backbone, simple migration from TDM to IP long-haul
Offshore oil/gas rigs in high vibration environment
Type of Customers
Wireless service providers, Incumbent local exchange carriers, Public institutions
Wireless service providers, Incumbent local exchange carriers
Wireless service providers, private network operators (utilities, rail, state & local government etc.)
Wireless service providers, Incumbent local exchange carriers, Public institutions
Oil and gas drilling companies, shipping industry
 
 
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Our network management system (NMS) can be used to monitor network element status, provide statistical and inventory reports, download software and configuration to elements in the network, and provide end-to-end service management across the network. Our NMS solutions can support both the FibeAir and Evolution products through a single user interface.

 
Network Management System (NMS)
   
Description
User-friendly Network Management System designed for managing large scale wireless backhaul networks. Optimized for centralized operation and maintenance of a complete network with an intuitive graphical interface for managing performance, end-to-end configuration, faults and system security.
Key Features
Managing wireless backhaul networks; Fault management; Configuration & performance management; Network awareness; Full FCAPS Support Redundancy & Backup; Pay as you Grow with Software Key Mechanism; Northbound Interfaces; Multi-platform Operating System Support

Our IP-based network products use native IP technology. Our hybrid products use our hybrid concept which allows them to transmit both native IP and native circuit-switched TDM traffic simultaneously over a single radio link. Native IP refers to systems that are designed to transport IP-based network traffic directly rather than adapting IP-based network traffic to existing circuit-switched systems. This approach increases efficiency and decreases latency. Our products provide effectively seamless migration to gradually evolve the network from an all circuit-switched and hybrid concept to an all IP-based packet.

As telecommunication networks and services become more demanding, there is an increasing need to match the indoor units’ advanced networking capabilities with powerful and efficient radio units. Our outdoor RFUs are designed with sturdiness, power, simplicity, and compatibility in mind. As such, they provide high-power transmission for both short and long distances and can be assembled and installed quickly and easily. The RFUs can operate with different Ceragon indoor units, according to the desired configuration, addressing any network need be it cellular, backbone, rural or private backhaul networks.

Our RFUs deliver a maximum capacity over 3.5-56 MHz channels with configurable modulation schemes from QPSK to 1024QAM. High spectral efficiency is ensured by using the same bandwidth for double the capacity, using a single channel, with vertical and horizontal polarizations. This feature is implemented with a built-in cross polarization interference canceller (XPIC) mechanism.

Our Services
 
We are committed to providing high levels of service and implementation support to our customers. Our sales and network field engineering services personnel work closely with customers, system integrators and others to coordinate network design and ensure successful deployment of our solutions.

We offer our customers turnkey project services that include: advanced network and radio planning, site survey, solutions development, installation, maintenance, training and more.  We are increasingly engaged in projects in which we provide the requisite installation, supervision and testing services, either directly or through subcontractors.

We support our products with documentation and training courses tailored to our customers’ varied needs. We have the capability to remotely monitor the in-network performance of our products and to diagnose and address problems that may arise. We help our customers to integrate our network management system into their existing internal network operations control centers.
 
 
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Our Customers
 
We have sold our products through a variety of channels to over 430 service providers and the operators of hundreds of private networks in more than 130 countries. Our principal customers are mobile operators, cellular operators and wireless service providers that use our products to expand backhaul network capacity, reduce backhaul costs and support the provision of advanced telecommunications services. In 2011, as a result of the Nera Acquisition and our positioning as the #1 specialist in  the market in terms of revenue, unit shipments and global distribution of our business, we were able secure a number of long term agreements with a number of global Tier 1 operators. While most of our sales are direct, we do reach a number of these customers through OEM or distributor relationships. We also sell systems to large businesses and public institutions that operate their own private communications networks through system integrators, resellers and distributors. Our customer base is diverse in terms of both size and geographic location.  In 2011, customers from the Europe region contributed 22% of total yearly revenue. Our sales in Latin America and Africa have increased significantly following the acquisition of Nera, and reached 23% and 17% of yearly revenue in 2011 respectively. Our sales in Asia Pacific, North America and India in 2011 were 17%, 11% and 10% respectively.
 
The following table summarizes the distribution of our revenues by region, stated as a percentage of total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, and the names of representative customers:
 
   
Year Ended December 31,
   
 
 
2009
   
2010
   
2011
   
Region
                  Representative Customers
                           
North America
    16 %     17 %     11 %
CellularOne, Connectronics,
Hutton Communications, Conterra
                           
Europe
    29 %     23 %     22 %
Hutchison 3, Telenor Serbia,  KPN, Tele2
                           
Africa
    9 %     4 %     17 %
Botswana Telecom, Globacom, DOPC, Celtel
                           
Asia Pacific
    13 %     12 %     17 %
Digitel Mobile Philippines, ATI
                           
India
    24 %     37 %     10 %
Bharti Airtel, IDEA Cellular,
Reliance Communications, Tata Teleservices,
                           
Latin America
    9 %     7 %     23 %
 Telefonica, Telcel
 
Sales and Marketing

We sell our products through a variety of channels, including direct sales, OEMs, resellers, distributors and system integrators. Our sales and marketing staff includes approximately 684 employees in numerous countries worldwide, who work together with local agents, distributors and OEMs to expand our sales.

We are a supplier to three OEMs, which together accounted for approximately 7% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011. We are focusing our efforts on direct sales, which accounted for approximately 93% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011, because we believe that this is the way to provide more value to our customers. We also plan to develop additional strategic relationships with equipment vendors, integrators, networking companies and other industry suppliers with the goal of gaining greater access to our target markets.

Our marketing efforts include advertising, public relations and participation in industry trade shows and conferences.
 
 Manufacturing and Assembly

Our manufacturing process consists of materials planning and procurement, assembly of indoor units and outdoor units, final product assurance testing, quality control and packaging and shipping. With the goal of streamlining all manufacturing and assembly processes, we have implemented an outsourced, just-in-time manufacturing strategy that relies on contract manufacturers to manufacture and assemble circuit boards and other components used in our products and to assemble and test indoor units and outdoor units for us. The use of advanced supply chain techniques has enabled us to increase our manufacturing capacity, reduce our manufacturing costs and improve our efficiency.
 
 
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We outsource most of our manufacturing operations to major contract manufacturers in Israel, Malaysia and the Philippines. Some of our manufacturing and warehousing is done in our production facility in Slovakia which we acquired as part of the Nera Acquisition.  Most of our warehouse operations are outsourced to subcontractors in Israel and the Philippines. The raw materials for our products come primarily from the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific. In 2011, we opened an RMA (return merchandise authorization) center in India at our New Delhi offices to provide quick and efficient repair services to our customers in that region.

We comply with standards promulgated by the International Organization for Standardization and have received certification under the ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 standards. These standards define the procedures required for the manufacture of products with predictable and stable performance and quality, as well as environmental guidelines for our operations.   We are also registered to be certified to the ISO-18001 for Occupational Health and Safety assurance system

Our activities in Europe require that we comply with European Union Directives with respect to product quality assurance standards and environmental standards including the “RoHS” (Restrictions of Hazardous Substances) Directive.
 
Research and Development
 
We place considerable emphasis on research and development to improve and expand the capabilities of our existing products, to develop new products, with particular emphasis on equipment for transitioning to IP-based networks, and to lower the cost of producing both existing and future products. We intend to continue to devote a significant portion of our personnel and financial resources to research and development. As part of our product development process, we maintain close relationships with our customers to identify market needs and to define appropriate product specifications. In addition, we intend to continue to comply with industry standards and, in order to participate in the formulation of European standards, we are full members of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

Our research and development activities are managed under two Solutions Groups for Short Haul and Long Haul products, respectively. Research and development activities for Short-Haul products are conducted mainly at our facilities in Tel Aviv, Israel and also at our subsidiary in Greece. Our research and development activities for Long-Haul products are conducted mainly at our facilities in Bergen, Norway and also in Tel Aviv, Israel. As of December 31, 2011, our research, development and engineering staff consisted of 280 employees. Our research and development team includes highly specialized engineers and technicians with expertise in the fields of millimeter wave design, modem and signal processing, data communications, system management and networking solutions.
 
Our research and development department provides us with the ability to design and develop most of the aspects of our proprietary solutions, from the chip-level, including both application specific integrated circuits, or ASICs and RFICs, to full system integration. Our research and development projects currently in process include extensions to our leading IP-based networking product lines and development of new technologies to support future product concepts. In addition, our engineers continually work to redesign our products with the goal of improving their manufacturability and testability while reducing costs.

Intellectual Property

To safeguard our proprietary technology, we rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, confidentiality agreements and other contractual arrangements with our customers, third-party distributors, consultants and employees, each of which affords only limited protection. We have a policy which requires all of our employees to execute employment agreements which contain confidentiality provisions.
 
 
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In 2009, we began to more aggressively pursue patent protection and consequently, our patent portfolio may not be as extensive as those of our competitors. As a result, we may have limited ability to assert any patent rights in negotiations with, or in counterclaiming against, competitors who assert intellectual property rights against us.  To date, we have 19 patents granted in the United States and other foreign jurisdictions,  38 patent applications pending in the United States and other foreign jurisdictions, three patent applications pending in the PCT and one provisional patent applications, most of which were acquired in connection with the Nera Acquisition. We cannot assure you that any patents will actually be issued or that the scope of any issued patent will adequately protect our intellectual property rights.

We have registered trademarks as follows:

 
for the standard character mark Ceragon Networks and our logo in the United States, Israel, and the European Union;
 
 
for the standard character mark Ceragon Networks in Canada;
 
 
for the standard character mark Ceragon in Russia
 
 
for our design mark for FibeAir in the United States, Israel and the European Union;
 
 
for the standard character mark FibeAir in the United States;
 
 
for the standard character mark CeraView in the United States, Israel and the European Union; and
 
 
For the standard character mark Native2 in India.

Competition
 
The market for wireless equipment is rapidly evolving, fragmented, highly competitive and subject to rapid technological change. We expect competition, which may differ from region to region, to persist, intensify and increase in the future, especially if rapid technological developments occur in the broadband wireless equipment industry or in other competing high-speed access technologies. We also expect consolidation to continue as some players are looking to exit the wireless backhaul space in order to focus on other lines of their business. We believe that in a consolidating market the role of microwave specialists, such as ourselves, will be more significant.

We compete with a number of wireless equipment providers worldwide that vary in size and in the types of products and solutions they offer. Our primary competitors include industry “generalists” such as Alcatel-Lucent, Fujitsu Limited, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., L.M. Ericsson Telephone Company, NEC Corporation (NEC), Nokia Siemens Networks B.V. (NSN) and ZTE Corporation. In addition to these primary competitors, a number of other smaller “specialist” microwave communications equipment suppliers, including Aviat Networks (formerly known as Harris Stratex Networks, Inc.), DragonWave Inc., and SIAE Microelectronica S.p.A offer or are developing products that compete with our products.

Additionally, the telecommunications equipment industry has experienced significant consolidation among its participants, and we expect this trend to continue.  Recent examples include our acquisition of Nera in January 2011 and DragonWave’s recent announcement of its intention to purchase the microwave division of NSN, which itself was formed as a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens. Other examples include the mergers of Alcatel and Lucent and the wireless divisions of Harris and Stratex Networks, and the acquisition by Ericsson of Marconi. These consolidations have increased the size and thus the competitive resources of these companies.
 
We believe we compete favorably on the basis of:

 
product performance, reliability and functionality;

 
range and maturity of product portfolio, including the ability to provide both circuit switch and IP solutions and therefore to provide a migration path for circuit-switched to IP-based networks;

 
cost structure;
 
 
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focus on high-capacity, point-to-point microwave technology, which allows us to quickly adapt to our customers’ evolving needs;

 
range of turnkey services offering for faster deployment of an entire network and reduced total cost of ownership; and

 
support and technical service, experience and commitment to high quality customer service.

Our products also indirectly compete with other high-speed communications solutions, including fiber optic lines and other wireless technologies.

Israeli Office of Chief Scientist

The Government of Israel encourages research and development projects through the Office of the Chief Scientist of the Israeli Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, or the OCS, pursuant to the Law for the Encouragement of Industrial Research and Development, 1984, and the regulations promulgated thereunder, commonly referred to as the R&D Law.
 
Under the R&D Law, we applied for and were granted R&D grants. In exchange, we as a recipient of such grants were required to pay the OCS royalties from the revenues derived from products developed within the framework of such R&D programs.
 
In December 2006, we entered into an agreement with the OCS to conclude our R&D grant programs sponsored by the OCS. We have retired all the debt remaining from this agreement by mid 2008.  The R&D Law generally requires that the product developed under a program be manufactured in Israel. However, upon the approval of the OCS, some of the manufacturing volume may be performed outside of Israel, provided that the grant recipient pays royalties at an increased rate and at an increased total amount, which may be substantial.
 
The R&D Law also provides that know-how developed under an approved research and development program may not be transferred to third parties in Israel without the approval of the research committee.  Such approval is not required for the sale or export of any products resulting from such research or development. The R&D Law further provides that the know-how developed under such research and development program may not be transferred to any third parties outside Israel, except in certain circumstances and subject to prior OCS approval, which may be conditioned by payment of substantial payments or reciprocal exchange of know-how with the recipient or a cooperation program therewith.
 
The R&D Law imposes reporting requirements with respect to certain changes in the ownership of a grant recipient.  The law requires the grant recipient and its controlling shareholders and foreign interested parties to notify the OCS of any change in control of the recipient or a change in the holdings of the means of control of the recipient that results in a non-Israeli becoming an interested party directly in the recipient and requires the new interested party to undertake to the OCS to comply with the R&D Law.  In addition, the rules of the OCS may require additional information or representations in respect of certain of such events. For this purpose, “control” is defined as the ability to direct the activities of a company other than any ability arising solely from serving as an officer or director of the company.  A person is presumed to have control if such person holds 50% or more of the means of control of a company.  “Means of control” refers to voting rights or the right to appoint directors or the chief executive officer.  An “interested party” of a company includes a holder of 5% or more of its outstanding share capital or voting rights, its chief executive officer and directors, someone who has the right to appoint its chief executive officer or at least one director, and a company with respect to which any of the foregoing interested parties owns 25% or more of the outstanding share capital or voting rights or has the right to appoint 25% or more of the directors.  Accordingly, any non-Israeli who acquires 5% or more of our ordinary shares will be required to notify the OCS that it has become an interested party and to sign an undertaking to comply with the R&D Law.
 
 
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C.  Organizational Structure
 
We are an Israeli company that commenced operations in 1996.  The following is a list of our significant subsidiaries:
 
Company
 
Place of Incorporation
 
Ownership Interest
         
Ceragon Networks, Inc.
 
New Jersey
 
100%
Ceragon (Texas) Inc.
 
Texas
 
100%
Ceragon Networks, S.A. de C.V.
 
Mexico
 
100%
Ceragon Networks (India) Private Limited
  India   100%
Ceragon Networks AS
  Norway  
100%
Ceragon Networks s.r.o.
  Slovakia  
100%
Nera Microwave Nigeria Ltd.
  Nigeria  
100%
Ceragon Argentina s.a.
  Argentina  
100%
Ceragon Telecommunicaciones Latin America S.A.
  Venezuela  
100%
Ceragon America Latina Ltda.
  Brazil  
100%

D.  Property, Plants and Equipment.
 
Our corporate headquarters and principal administrative, finance and operations departments are located at a leased facility of approximately 73,680 square feet in Tel Aviv, Israel.  The leases for the majority of this space are valid until December 2012, with an option to renew for an additional two-year period.
 
We also lease the following space at the following properties:
 
 
·
in the United States, we lease approximately 5,800 square feet in Paramus, New Jersey and 12,000 square feet in Richardson, Texas.  The lease in Paramus is valid until July 2013 and the lease in Texas is valid until December 2012;
 
 
·
in Norway, we lease approximately 110,370 square feet in Bergen expiring in September 2013;
 
 
·
in India, we lease approximately 11,737 square feet in New Delhi expiring in October 2013;
 
 
·
in Slovakia, we lease approximately 44,780 square feet in Liptovsky Hradoc expiring in January 2014;
 
 
·
in Brazil we lease approximately 34,200 square feet in Barueri expiring in December 2013; and
 
 
·
in Mexico, we lease approximately 15,150 square feet in Mexico City expiring in August 2012.
 
We also lease space for other local subsidiaries to conduct pre-sales and marketing activities in their respective regions.
 
 
Not applicable.
 
 
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The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the notes to those financial statements and other financial data that appear elsewhere in this annual report. In addition to historical information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements based on current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of certain events may differ significantly from those projected in such forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those set forth in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP.

A.           Operating Results

Overview

We are the #1 wireless backhaul specialist in terms of revenue, unit shipments and global distribution of our business.  We provide solutions that enable cellular operators and other wireless service providers to deliver voice and data services, enabling smart-phone applications such as Internet browsing, music and video applications.  Our wireless backhaul solutions use microwave technology to transfer large amounts of telecommunication traffic between base stations and the core of the service provider’s network.
 
Designed to enable risk-free migration from legacy to next-generation backhaul networks, our solutions provide fiber-like connectivity for next generation Ethernet/Internet Protocol, or IP-based, networks; for circuit-switched, or SONET/SDH, networks and for hybrid networks that combine IP and circuit-switching. Our solutions support all wireless access technologies, including GSM, W-CDMA, CDMA, EV-DO, HSPA, LTE and WiMAX. These solutions allow wireless service providers to cost-effectively and seamlessly evolve their networks from circuit-switched and hybrid concepts to all IP thereby meeting the increasing demands by the growing numbers of subscribers and the increasing demand for mobile data services. Our systems also serve evolving network architectures, including all-IP long haul, heterogeneous networks, small-cell applications and more.

We also provide our solutions to businesses and public institutions that operate their own private communications networks. Our solutions are deployed by more than 430 service providers of all sizes, as well as in hundreds of private networks, in nearly 130 countries.

In January 2011, we completed the purchase of all of the shares of privately-held Nera  pursuant to the SPA.  The consideration for all of the shares of Nera was approximately $48.5 million, on a cash-free debt-free basis. At closing, an additional amount of approximately $9.7 million was paid on account of the balance of cash that remained in Nera and its subsidiaries.  In accordance with the terms of the SPA, the amount of $10 million out of the consideration was deposited in escrow for 18 months to cover possible claims by under the SPA.

We have grown our revenues from $108.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2006 to $445.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, representing a 33% compound annual growth rate, or CAGR. Our revenues for 2011 represent an increase of 78% compared to our revenues for 2010, primarily as a result of the Nera Acquisition.  In 2011, approximately 17% of our revenues were derived from customers in Asia Pacific, 10% from India, 23% from Latin America, 22% from Europe, 17% from Africa and 11% from North America.

Industry Trends

Market trends have placed, and will continue to place, pressure on the selling prices for our products and on our gross margins. Our objective is to continue to meet the rising demand for our solutions while at the same time increasing our profitability. We seek to achieve this objective by constantly reviewing and improving our execution in, among others, development, manufacturing and sales and marketing. Set forth below is a more detailed discussion of the trends affecting our business:

 
Growing Number of Global Wireless Subscribers. Growth in the number of global wireless subscribers is being driven by the availability of inexpensive cellular phones and more affordable wireless service, particularly in developing countries and emerging markets, and is being addressed by expanding wireless networks and by building new networks.
 
 
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Increasing Demand for Mobile Data Services. Cellular operators and other wireless service providers are facing increasing demand from subscribers to deliver voice and data services, including Internet browsing, music and video applications.

 
Transition to IP-based Networks. Cellular operators and other wireless service providers are beginning to deploy all-IP networks and upgrade their infrastructure to interface with an IP-based core network in order to increase network efficiency, lower operating costs and more effectively deliver high-bandwidth data services.

We are also experiencing pressure on our sale prices as a result of several factors:

 
Increased Competition: Our target market is characterized by vigorous, worldwide competition for market share and rapid technological development. These factors have resulted in aggressive pricing practices and downward pricing pressures, and growing competition from both start-up companies and well-capitalized telecommunication systems providers.

 
Regional Pricing Pressures: In recent years we have increased sales of our products in India and Latin America in response to the rapid build-out of cellular networks in those regions. For the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, 24%, 38% and 10%, respectively, of our revenues were earned in India. In addition, for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, 9%, 7% and 23%, respectively, of our revenues were earned in Latin America. Sales of our products in these markets are generally at lower gross margins in comparison to other regions.

 
Transaction Size: Competition for larger equipment orders is increasingly intense since the number of large equipment orders in any year is limited. Consequently, we generally experience greater pricing pressure when we compete for larger orders as a result of this increased competition and demand from purchasers for greater volume discounts. As an increasing portion of our revenues is derived from large orders, we believe that our business will be more susceptible to these pressures.

 
Sales through OEMs: Sales through our OEM relationships result in lower gross margins than sales directly to end-users through distributors and re-sellers. By selling our products to OEMs, we rely in part on the sales and marketing efforts of the OEMs, as well as on their post-sale support. For the year ended December 31, 2011, approximately 7% of our sales were to our three OEMs of wireless equipment, rather than directly to end users.

Although we have successfully reduced the cost of producing our equipment and continue to focus on operational improvements, these price pressures may have a negative impact on our gross margins.

As we continue to expand our geographic footprint, we are increasingly engaged in supplying installation and other services for our customers, often in emerging markets. In this context, we may act as prime contractor and equipment supplier for network build-out projects, providing installation, supervision and commissioning services required for these projects, or we may provide such services and equipment for projects handled by system integrators. In such cases, we typically bear the risks of loss and damage to our products until the customer has issued an acceptance certificate upon successful completion of acceptance tests. If our products are damaged or stolen, or if the network we install does not pass the acceptance tests, the end user or the system integrator, as the case may be, could delay payment to us and we would incur substantial costs, including fees owed to our installation subcontractors, increased insurance premiums, transportation costs and expenses related to repairing or manufacturing the products. Moreover, in such a case, we may not be able to repossess the equipment, thus suffering additional losses.  Also these projects are turn-key projects, which involve fixed-price contracts. We assume greater financial risks on fixed-price projects, which routinely involve the provision of installation and other services, versus short-term projects, which do not similarly require us to provide services or require customer acceptance certificates in order for us to recognize revenue.
 
 
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Finally, our revenues have grown rapidly over the last several years, except the slowdown in 2009 due to the general global economic condition at that time; we cannot assure you that we will be able to sustain the rate of growth in future periods, taking also into consideration that a large portion of the growth resulted from the Nera Acquisition.  You should not rely on our revenue growth in any prior quarterly or annual period as an indication of our future revenue growth.

Results of Operations

Revenues. We generate revenues primarily from the sale of our products, and, to a lesser extent, services. The final price to the customer may vary based on various factors, including but not limited to the size of a given transaction, the geographic location of the customer, the specific application for which products are sold, the channel through which products are sold, the competitive environment and the results of negotiation.

Cost of Revenues. Our cost of revenues consists primarily of the prices we pay contract manufacturers for the products they manufacture for us, estimated warranty costs, costs related to management of our supply chain and shipping. In addition, we pay fees to subcontractors relating to installation services with respect to our products.

Significant Expenses
 
Research and Development Expenses. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for research and development personnel, subcontractors’ costs, costs of materials and depreciation of equipment. All of our research and development costs are expensed as incurred. We believe continued investment in research and development is essential to attaining our strategic objectives.

Selling and Marketing Expenses. Our selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of compensation and related costs for sales and marketing personnel, amortization of intangible assets, trade show and exhibit expenses, travel expenses, commissions and promotional materials.

General and Administrative Expenses. Our general and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation and related costs for executive, finance, information system and human resources personnel, professional fees (including legal and accounting fees), insurance, provisions for doubtful accounts and other general corporate expenses.

Restructuring costs. During the first quarter of 2011, we initiated a restructuring plan to improve our operating efficiency as a result of the impact on our operations caused bythe Nera Acquisition. The restructuring expenses include severance and other compensation related expenses associated with the termination of employment under the restructuring plan.

Acquisition related costs. The Nera Acquisition related costs consist primarily from fees associated with transaction financial advisors, as well as legal, accounting and tax related fees associated with the due diligence.

Financial Income (expenses), net.  Our financial income (expenses), net, consists primarily of interest earned on bank deposits and marketable securities, gains and losses arising from the remeasurement of transactions and balances denominated in non-dollar currencies into dollars, gains and losses from our currency hedging activity, amortization of marketable securities premium, net, interest on bank debts and other fees and commissions paid to banks.
 
Taxes.  Our tax expenses consist of current corporate tax expenses in various locations and changes in deferred tax assets.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These accounting principles require management to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions based upon information available at the time they are made, historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. These estimates, judgments and assumptions can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented.

 
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Our management believes the accounting policies that affect its more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of its consolidated financial statements and which are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results include the following:

 
Revenue recognition;
 
 
Inventory valuation;
 
 
Provision for doubtful accounts;
 
 
Taxes on income;
 
 
Stock-based compensation expense;
 
 
Marketable securities;
 
 
Business combinations and purchase price allocation; and
 
 
Impairment of long-lived assets
 
Revenue recognition.  We generate revenues from selling products to end users, distributors, system integrators and original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”).

Revenues from product sales are recognized in accordance with ASC topic 605-10, "Revenue recognition" and with ASC 605-25 "Multiple-Element Arrangements" ("ASC 605"), when delivery has occurred, persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the vendor's fee is fixed or determinable, no future obligation exists and collectability is probable.

We record a provision for estimated sale returns and stock rotation granted to customers on products in the same period the related revenues are recorded in accordance with ASC 605. These estimates are based on historical sales returns, stock rotations and other know factors. Such provisions are immaterial as of December 31, 2010 and 2011, respectively.

In October 2009, the FASB issued ASU 605-25 “Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements”. The new standard changes the requirements for establishing separate units of accounting in a multiple element arrangement by elimination of the residual method and requires the allocation of arrangement consideration to each deliverable to be based on using the relative selling price method. We adopted this standard as of the beginning of fiscal year 2011 on a prospective basis for new and materially modified deals that include the sale of products and post delivery installation services, originating after January 1, 2011. For the year ended December 31, 2011, the impact of the adoption of this standard resulted in an increase in revenues in an amount of $23,900.

For  2011 and future periods, pursuant to the guidance of ASU 605-25, when a sales arrangement contains multiple elements, such as equipment and services,  we allocate revenues to each element based on a selling price hierarchy. The selling price for a deliverable is based on its vendor specific objective evidence (‘‘VSOE’’) if available, third party evidence (‘‘TPE’’) if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price (‘‘ESP’’) if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. In multiple element arrangements, revenues are allocated to each separate unit of accounting for each of the deliverables using the relative estimated selling prices of each of the deliverables in the arrangement based on the aforementioned selling price hierarchy.

We consider the sale of equipment and its installation to be two separate units of accounting in the arrangement in which the installation is not essential to the functionality of the equipment, the equipment has value to the customer on a standalone basis and whenever the arrangement does not include a general right of return relative to the delivered item or delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the company. In such an arrangement, revenues from the sale of equipments are recognized upon delivery, if all other revenue recognition criteria are met and the installation revenues are deferred to the period in which such installation occurs (but not less than the amount contingent upon completion of installation, if any) using relative selling prices of each of the deliverables based on the aforementioned selling price hierarchy.
 
We determine the selling price in our multiple-element arrangements by reviewing historical transactions, and considering internal factors including, but not limited to, pricing practices including discounting, margin objectives, and competition. The determination of estimated selling price ("ESP") is made through consultation with   management, taking into consideration the pricing model and strategy.
 
 
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When sale arrangements include a customer acceptance provision, revenue is recognized when we demonstrate that the criteria specified in the acceptance provision has been satisfied or as the acceptance provision has lapsed and deemed to be attained.

To assess the probability of collection for revenue recognition purposes, we analyze historical collection experience, current economic trends and the financial position of our customers. On the basis of these criteria, we conclude whether revenue recognition should be deferred and recognized on a cash basis.

Deferred revenue includes unearned amounts received in our arrangements, and amounts received from customers but not recognized as revenues due to the fact that these transactions did not meet the revenue recognition criteria.

Inventory valuation.  Our inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market value. Cost is determined by using the moving average cost method. At each balance sheet date, we evaluate our inventory balance for excess quantities and obsolescence. This evaluation includes an analysis of slow-moving items and sales levels by product and projections of future demand. If needed, we write off inventories that are considered obsolete or excessive. If future demand or market conditions are less favorable than our projections, additional inventory write-downs may be required and would be reflected in cost of revenues in the period the revision is made.  As of December 31, 2011 our inventory write-off provision was $3.5 million.

Provision for doubtful accounts.  We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our trade receivables and maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts, based upon our judgment as to our ability to collect outstanding receivables. Allowance for doubtful accounts is made based upon a specific review of all the outstanding invoices. In determining the provisions, we analyze our historical collection experience, current economic trends, the financial position of our customers and the payment guarantees (such as letters of credit) that we receive from our customers. We also insure certain trade receivables under credit insurance policies. If the financial condition of our customers deteriorates, resulting in their inability to make payments, additional allowances might be required. As of December 31, 2011, our allowance for doubtful accounts was $3.6 million and our trade receivables were $143.2 million. Historically, our provision for doubtful accounts has been sufficient to account for our bad debts.

Taxes on income.  We utilize the liability method of accounting for income taxes. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amount that we believe is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies, and recent financial performance. Forming a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not required is difficult when there is negative evidence such as cumulative losses in the past. As a result of our cumulative losses and the utilization of our loss carry forward opportunities, we have recorded valuation allowances to reduce our net deferred tax assets to the amount we believe is more likely than not to be realized. While we have considered future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies in assessing the need for any valuation allowance, in the event we were to determine that we will be able to realize our deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would increase income in the period such a determination is made. Likewise, should we determine that we would not be able to realize all or part of our net deferred tax assets in the future, an adjustment to the valuation allowance would be charged to expenses in the period such a determination is made.  Following our determination that it is more likely than not that we will be able to realize a portion of our deferred tax assets.

We establish reserves for tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. These reserves are established when we believe that certain positions might be challenged despite our belief that our tax return positions are in accordance with applicable tax laws. As part of the determination of our tax liability, management exercises considerable judgment in evaluating tax positions taken by us in determining the income tax provision and establishes reserves for tax contingencies in accordance with ASC 740 "Income Taxes" guidelines. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit, new tax legislation or the change of an estimate based on new information. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts recorded, such differences will affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the effect of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related interest and penalties.
 
 
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Management’s judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. The provision for income tax is calculated based on our assumptions as to our entitlement to various benefits under the applicable tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The entitlement to such benefits depends upon our compliance with the terms and conditions set out in these laws. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable and that we have considered future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax strategies in estimating our tax outcome, there is no assurance that the final tax outcomes will not be different than those which are reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Such differences could have a material effect on our income tax provision, net income and cash balances in the period in which such determination is made.

Stock-based compensation expense.  ASC 718, “Compensation- Stock Compensation”, requires companies to estimate the fair value of equity-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as an expense over the requisite service periods in our consolidated income statement.

We selected the binomial option pricing model as the most appropriate fair value method for our share-option awards based on the market value of the underlying shares at the date of grant. We recognize compensation expenses for the value of our awards, which have graded vesting, based on the accelerated attribution method over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures. Estimated forfeitures are based on actual historical pre-vesting forfeitures and on management’s estimates. If actual forfeitures differ from our estimates, stock-based compensation expense and our results of operations would be impacted.
 
Stock-based compensation expense recognized under ASC 718 was $3.6 million, $4.2 million and $6.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively.
 
Marketable Securities.  We account for investments in marketable securities in accordance with ASC topic 320, "Debt and Equity Securities", ("ASC 320"). Our management determines the appropriate classification of our investments in marketable debt securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such determinations at each balance sheet date. During the last quarter of 2010, we classified our debt securities as available-for-sale in connection with the anticipated acquisition of Nera. As a result of the Nera Acquisition, we did not have the intent to hold the securities until maturity; we changed the classification of our investments from held-to-maturity to available-for-sale.  Available for sale securities are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported in “accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)” in shareholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses on sale of investments are included in “financial income, net” and are derived using the specific identification method for determining the cost of securities. The amortized cost of debt securities is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization together with interest and dividends on securities are included in “financial income, net”.   We periodically review our marketable securities for impairment. If we conclude that any of our investments are impaired, we determine whether such impairment is "other-than-temporary" as defined under ASC 320-10-35. During 2009, 2010 and 2011 no other-than-temporary impairments were identified.
 
 
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Business combinations and purchase price allocation.  In accordance with ASC 805 “Business Combinations”, we allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, based on their estimated fair values.

We engage third-party appraisal firms to assist management in determining the fair values of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Estimating the fair value of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires judgment and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions, mainly with respect to intangible assets. Management makes estimates of fair value based upon market participants’ assumptions believed to be reasonable. These estimates are based on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies, and although they are deemed to be consistent with market participants’ highest and best use of the assets in the principal or most advantageous market, they are inherently uncertain. While there are a number of different methods for estimating the value of intangible assets acquired, the primary method used is the income approach. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in the income approach include projected future cash flows, including their timing, a discount rate reflecting the risk inherent in the future cash flows and a terminal growth rate. We also estimate the expected useful lives of the intangible assets, which requires judgment and can impact our results of operations. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.

To the extent intangible assets are assigned longer useful lives, there may be less amortization expense recorded in a given period. Because we operate in industries which are extremely competitive, the value of our intangible assets and their respective useful lives are exposed to future adverse changes, which can result in an impairment charge to our results of operations.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. Our long-lived assets include property and equipment, goodwill and identifiable other intangible assets that are subject to amortization. In assessing the recoverability of our goodwill, property and equipment and other identifiable intangible assets that are held and used, we make judgments regarding whether impairment indicators exist based on our legal factors, market conditions and operating performances. Future events could cause us to conclude that impairment indicators exist and that the carrying values of the goodwill, property and equipment and other intangible assets are impaired. Any resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.

ASC 350 "Intangible – Goodwill and Other", requires that goodwill be tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the company below its carrying value. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition or sale or disposition of a significant portion of the company. We have concluded that we have one reporting unit. The goodwill impairment test is a two-step test. Under the first step, the fair value of the company is compared with its carrying value (including goodwill). If the fair value of the company is less than its carrying value, an indication of goodwill impairment exists and we must perform step two of the impairment test (measurement). Under step two, an impairment loss is recognized for any excess of the carrying amount of the company’s goodwill over the implied fair value of that goodwill. If the fair value of the company exceeds its carrying value, step two does not need to be performed. The fair value of the company is estimated using a discounted cash flow methodology. This requires significant judgments including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of our long-term rate of growth, the period over which cash flows will occur and determination of our weighted average cost of capital. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and/or goodwill impairment for the company.

We are required to assess the impairment of long-lived assets, tangible and intangible, other than goodwill, under ASC 360 "Property, Plant, and Equipment", when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Impairment indicators include any significant changes in the manner of our use of the assets or the strategy of our overall business, significant negative industry or economic trends and significant decline in our share price for a sustained period.

Upon determination that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon a comparison of aggregate undiscounted projected future cash flows to the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment charge is recorded for the excess of fair value over the carrying amount. We measure fair value using discounted projected future cash flows.
 
 
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Comparison of Period to Period Results of Operations

The following table presents consolidated statement of operations data for the periods indicated as a percentage of total revenues.
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
 
2009
   
2010
   
2011
 
Revenues
    100 %     100 %     100 %
Cost of revenues
    67.0       64.2       72.6  
Gross profit
    33.0       35.8       27.4  
Operating expenses:
                       
Research and development, net
    10.9       10.1       11.3  
Selling and marketing
    16.3       14.9       18.4  
General and administrative
    4.3       4.9       6.0  
Restructuring costs
    --       --       1.8  
Acquisition related costs
    --       0.3       1.1  
Total operating expenses
    31.5       30.2       38.5  
Operating income (loss)
    1.5       5.6       (11.1 )
Financial income (expenses), net
    0.8       0.5       (0.5 )
Taxes on income
    0.3       0.5       0.5  
Net income (loss)
    2.0       5.6       (12.0 )

Year ended December 31, 2010 compared to year ended December 31, 2011
 
Revenues.  Revenues increased from $249.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $445.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $195.4 million, or 78.2%. This increase was attributable primarily to the Nera Acquisition . Revenues increased significantly in Europe, Africa and Latin America regions. Revenues in the Latin America region increased to $104.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to $17.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. Revenues in the Europe region increased to $101.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 compared to $56.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. Revenues in the Africa region increased to $57.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 compared to $10 million for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Cost of Revenues.  Cost of revenues increased from $160.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $323.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $162.7 million, or 101.4%. This increase was attributable mainly to the following:

 
·
Higher revenues attributed to the Nera Acquisition resulting in an increase of purchased  products from our contract manufacturers of $56.0 million, or 66.8%, an increase of subcontractors’ expenses associated with the provision of our services of $23.3 million, or 257.6%, and an increase in payroll, payroll related expenses and other manufacturing overhead expenses of $25.2 million, or 307.4%.

 
·
Cost of inventory step-up adjustment of acquired deferred revenue and customer orders to be delivered as of the closing of the Nera Acquisition, in the amount of $15.4 million.

 
·
Higher material expenses associated with certain of Nera’s legacy products in the first half of the year in the amount of $15.8 million prior to the completion of the migration of Nera’s customers to the Ceragon short-haul products.

Gross Profit.  Gross profit as a percentage of revenues decreased from 35.8% for the year ended December 31, 2010 to 27.4% for the year ended December 31, 2011. This decrease was attributable mainly to incremental revenues from the Nera Acquisition at lower gross margins, an inventory step-up and a higher percentage of service revenues, which carry lower gross margins.
 
 
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Research and Development Expenses. Our research and development expenses increased from $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $50.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $25.3 million, or 101%. The increase in our research and development expenses was attributable primarily to the increase of approximately $18.3 million or 122% in payroll and payroll related expenses, mainly due to an increase in headcount following the Nera Acquisition and the higher cost structure of Nera’s research and development operations in Norway, as well as an increase of $1.6 million or 30% in subcontractors expenses. Our research and development efforts are a key element of our strategy and are essential to our success.  We intend to maintain our commitment to research and development An increase or a decrease in our total revenue would not necessarily result in a proportional increase or decrease in the levels of our research and development expenditures. As a percentage of revenues, research and development expenses increased to 11.3% in the year ended December 31, 2011 compared to 10.1% for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Selling and Marketing Expenses. Selling and marketing expenses increased from $37.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $81.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $44.5 million, or 120%. This increase was attributable to the increase of approximately $22.9 million or 135% in payroll and payroll related expenses, as a result from the Nera Acquisition. As a percentage of revenues, selling and marketing expenses were 18.4% in the year ended December 31, 2011 and 14.9% in the year ended December 31, 2010.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses increased from $12.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $26.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $14.2 million, or 115%. This increase was attributable primarily to the increase in payroll and payroll related expenses of $5.2 million or 137%, as well as increase in financial consulting and audit fees expenses of $2.9 million or 403%.  As a percentage of revenues, general and administrative expenses were 4.9% and 6% for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2011 respectively.

Restructuring costs. Restructuring costs consist of severance payments for employees in entities to which they were previously not entitled. Restructuring costs were $7.8 million in 2011.

Acquisition related costs. The acquisition related costs consist primarily of fees for Nera’s transaction financial advisors, as well as legal, accounting and tax related fees associated with the due diligence.  Acquisition related costs increased from $0.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $4.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2011.

Financial income (expenses), Net. Financial income (expenses), net changed from $1.3 million income for the year ended December 31, 2010 to an expense of $(2.0) million for the year ended December 31, 2011, a change of $3.3 million. The increase in the financial expenses is mainly related to interest accrued and paid on the loan Agreement with Bank Hapoalim as part of the Nera Acquisition, in the amount of $1.3 million, an increase in currency revaluation expenses in the amount of $1.2 million, and an increase in bank charges and other expenses in the amount of $1.7 million, offset by an increase in interest on marketable securities and bank deposits in the amount of $0.9 million, all mainly due to the Nera Acquisition.  As a percentage of revenues, financial income (expenses), net changed to (0.5)% in the year ended December 31, 2011 compared to 0.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Taxes on income. Taxes on income increased from $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, an increase of $1.1 million, or 91.8%.   Our effective tax rate was 8% in 2010 and 4% in 2011.  This change was attributed to tax expenses related to higher taxable income in our sales, distribution and subcontracting manufacturing subsidiaries, where the local activities are profitable and taxable, partially offset with the increase in deferred tax assets, net.

Net Income (loss). Net income (loss) changed from net income of $14.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 to net loss of $(53.7) million for the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of revenues, net income (loss) changed to (12) % for the year ended December 31, 2011 from 5.6% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease in net results was attributable primarily to the increase in operating expenses partially offset by an increase in revenues and gross profit, mainly related to the Nera Acquisition.
 
 
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Year ended December 31, 2009 compared to year ended December 31, 2010

Revenues.  Revenues increased from $184.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $249.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $65.7 million, or 36%. This increase was attributable primarily to increased sales of our products to wireless service providers, mainly within the Asia Pacific regions. Revenues in the Asia Pacific region increased to $123.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to $67.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in revenues in the Asia Pacific region was primarily due to recognition of revenues from turn key projects of a leading mobile operator in India.  As a percentage of revenues, sales in the Asia Pacific region increased to 50% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from 37% for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Cost of Revenues.  Cost of revenues increased from $122.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $160.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $37.8 million, or 31%. This increase was attributable mainly to increased purchases of products from our contract manufacturers, in line with the increase in our revenues.

Gross Profit.  Gross profit as a percentage of revenues increased from 33.4% for the year ended December 31, 2009 to 35.8% for the year ended December 31, 2010. This increase was attributable mainly to cost reduction activities relating to product materials and the introduction of our new IP series products which are more cost effective.

Research and Development Expenses. Our research and development expenses increased from $19.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $25.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $6.1 million, or 33%. The increase in our research and development expenses was attributable primarily to the increase by approximately 30% in the number of our research and development employees as well as additional expenses related to research and development subcontractors in our efforts to advance the launch of our new products.  As a percentage of revenues, research and development expenses slightly decreased to 10.1% in the year ended December 31, 2010 compared to 10.3% for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Selling and Marketing Expenses. Selling and marketing expenses increased from $29.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $37.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $7.9 million, or 27%. This increase was attributable primarily to an increase in the number of employees in our subsidiaries.  The activities in our subsidiaries are primarily pre-sales sales.  As our sales and revenues grew in 2010 we were required to increase the number of employees at the subsidiaries to support this growth.  The increased staff and sales resulted in an increase of payroll and payroll related expenses of approximately $3.2 million and our increase in travel and office expenses of $2.3 million.  As a percentage of revenues, selling and marketing expenses were 15% in the year ended December 31, 2010 and 16% in the year ended December 31, 2009.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses increased from $10.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $12.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $1.6 million, or 15%. This increase was attributable primarily to an increase of $1.2 million in payroll and payroll related expenses as a result on increase in number of employees in our management information system (“MIS”) department related to projects executed in 2010 to upgrade our MIS systems and, increase of $0.4 million of stock based compensation expenses. As a percentage of revenues, general and administrative expenses were 6% and 5% for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2010 respectively.

Acquisition related costs. Acquisition related costs consist of expenses paid in relation to the acquisition of Nera.  Acquisition related expenses were $0.8 million in 2010.

Financial income, Net. Financial income, net decreased from $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, a decrease of $0.2 million, or 16%. As a percentage of revenues, financial income, net decreased to 0.5% in the year ended December 31, 2010 compared to 0.8% for the year ended December 31, 2009. This decrease was attributed mainly to lower income on our short-term and long-term interest-bearing investments due to reduction of interest rates in the financial markets.
 
 
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Taxes on income. Taxes on income increased from $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $1.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $0.7 million, or 141%.   Our effective tax rate was 12% in 2009 and 8% in 2010.  This decrease was attributed mainly to a decrease in the statutory tax rate in Israel from 26% in 2009 to 25% in 2010 and a release in the valuation allowance offset by an increase in taxable income of certain of our foreign subsidiaries.

Net Income. Net income increased from $3.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 to $14.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. As a percentage of revenues, net income increased to 6% for the year ended December 31, 2010 from 2% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in net income was attributable primarily to the increase in revenues and gross profit offset by an increase in operating expenses and decrease in interest income in 2010 compared to 2009.

Impact of Currency Fluctuations

We typically derive the majority of our revenues in U.S. dollars. Although the majority of our revenues were denominated in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our expenses were denominated in NIS, NOK and Euros. Our NIS- and NOK-denominated expenses consist principally of salaries and related personnel expenses. We anticipate that a material portion of our expenses will continue to be denominated in NIS and NOK.

Part of our revenues and expenses in Europe are received or incurred in Euros. We are exposed to the risk of an appreciation of the Euro if our expenses in Euros exceed our sales in Euros. In addition, if the Euro devaluates relative to the dollar and sales in Euros exceed expenses incurred in Euros, our operating profit may be negatively affected as a result of a decrease in the dollar value of our sales.

Transactions and balances in currencies other than U.S. dollars are remeasured into U.S. dollars according to the principles in ASC topic 830, “Foreign Currency Matters”. Gains and losses arising from remeasurement are recorded as financial income or expense, as applicable.

The following table presents information about the exchange rate of the NIS, NOK and Euro against the dollar:

Appreciation against US Dollar
 
Year ended December 31,
 
NIS (%)
   
NOK (%)
   
Euro (%)
 
                         
2007
    (9.0 )     (13.9 )     (10.5 )
2008
    (1.1 )     29.4       5.6  
2009
    (0.7 )     (17.7 )     (3.3 )
2010
    (6.0 )     1.6       8.0  
2011
    7.7       3.0       3.3  

Since exchange rates between the NIS and the dollar, between the NOK and the dollar and between the Euro and the dollar, fluctuate continuously, exchange rate fluctuations would have an impact on our results and period-to-period comparisons of our results. We reduce this currency exposure by entering into hedging transactions. The effects of foreign currency re-measurements are reported in our consolidated financial statements of operations. For a discussion of our hedging transactions, please see “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”

Effects of Government Regulations and Location on the Company’s Business

For a discussion of the effects of Israeli governmental regulation and our location in Israel on our business, see “Information on the Company – Business Overview – Conditions in Israel” in Item 4 and the “Risks Relating to Israel in Item 3, above.
 
 
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B.           Liquidity and Capital Resources

Since our initial public offering in August 2000, we have financed our operations primarily through the proceeds of that initial public offering and a follow-on offering and through royalty-bearing grants from the OCS. In the initial public offering, we raised $97.8 million; and through December 31, 2006, we received a total of $18.5 million from the OCS. In a follow-on public offering completed in December 2007, we raised a net amount of $88.3 million.

In January 2011, we entered into  the Loan Agreement in the principal amount of $35 million in order to help finance the Nera Acquisition. The Loan Agreement provides that the principal amount of $35 million bears interest at a rate of Libor + 3.15%, which Libor is updated every three months. As of December 31, 2011 the accrued interest was $141,000 and was recorded as part of our accrued expenses. The principal amount is to be repaid in 17 quarterly installments from February 19, 2012, through February 19, 2016 and the interest is to be paid in quarterly payments starting as of February 19, 2011.

The loan is secured by a floating charge over all Company assets as well as several customary fixed charges on specific assets.  Repayment of the loan may be accelerated by the bank in certain events of default including insolvency events, failure to comply with financial covenants and an event whereby we will no longer be a traded company.

As of December 31, 2011, we had approximately $49.5 million in cash and cash equivalents, short term bank deposits, and short- and long-term marketable securities.

As of December 31, 2011, our cash investments were comprised of the following: 59% consisted of short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of up to three months, and 34% consisted of short-term deposits and marketable securities with original maturities of up to one year, with a minimum credit rating of A/A1. The remaining balance of our liquid assets is invested in corporate and government debt securities, carrying a minimum rating of A/A1. Most of these investments are in US dollars.

Net cash used in operating activities was $20.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 and $10.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. Net cash provided by operating activities was $16.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009.

In 2011, our cash used by operating activities was affected by the following principal factors:

 
our net loss of $53.7 million;

 
a $13.8 million decrease in other accounts payable and accrued liabilities, primarily attributed to a decrease in subcontractors accruals, a decrease in provision for collection fee, a decrease in provision for warranty and a decrease in provision for tax; and

 
a $11.9  million decrease in deferred revenues paid in advance.

These factors were offset by:

 
a $6.8  million decrease in other accounts receivable and prepaid expenses; and

 
a $40.6  million decrease in inventories, net of write-off.

In 2010, our cash used by operating activities was affected by the following principal factors:

 
our net income of $14.1 million;

 
a $3.3 million increase in other accounts payable and accrued expenses, primarily attributed to an increase in employees accruals, an increase in warranty provision and an unrealized loss in open forward foreign exchange contracts;
 
 
a $2.1  million increase in deferred revenues paid in advance;
 
 
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These factors were partially offset by:

 
a $19.6 million increase in trade receivables, which was primarily attributable to our increased revenues;

 
a $11.7 million decrease in trade payables which was primarily attributable to advances paid to our contract manufacturers; and

 
a $7.7 million increase in other accounts receivable and prepaid expenses which was primarily attributable to an increase of $5.6 million in advances paid to our contract manufacturers and an increase of $1.1 million in prepaid expenses mainly subcontractors expenses for installation services for our turnkey projects for which revenues have not yet recognized.

In 2009, our cash provided by operating activities was affected by the following principal factors:

 
our net income of $3.7 million;

 
a $12.8 million increase in trade payables, which was mostly attributable to increased purchases of products from our contract manufacturers primarily for turnkey projects for which revenues have not yet been recognized;

 
a $12.7 million increase in deferred revenues paid in advance; and

 
a $2.4 million decrease in trade receivables, which was primarily attributable to the decrease in our revenues.

These factors were partially offset by a $25.4 million increase in inventories, primarily resulting from an increase in turn key projects in which revenues are often recognized after products are installed and accepted by the customer.

Net cash used in investing activities was approximately $28 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, as compared to net cash provided by investing activities of approximately $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and net cash provided by investing activities of approximately $2.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. In the year ended December 31, 2011, our investment in short-term bank deposits of $7.3 million, purchase of property and equipment of $14.4 million and payment related to the Nera Acquisition of $42.5 million, were offset partially by proceeds from maturity of short-term bank deposits of $25.7 million and by proceeds from maturities of marketable securities of $10.5 million. In the year ended December 31, 2010, our proceeds from maturity of short-term bank deposits of $31.7 million and from maturities of marketable securities of $16.6 million were offset partially by investment in short and long-term bank deposits of $13.8 million and in marketable securities of $18.3 million.  In the year ended December 31, 2009, our proceeds from maturity of short-term bank deposits of $46.2 million and from maturities of held-to-maturity marketable securities of $11.8 million were offset partially by investment in short and long-term bank deposits of $44.0 million and in held-to-maturity marketable securities of $4.7 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $39.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $4.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and net cash used in financing activities of $9.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The balance of the cash as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 consisted of proceeds from exercises of share options by employees of $4.5 million, $4.9 million and $3.0 million, respectively.  For the year ended December 31, 2009, the Company used an amount of $12.2 million to purchase treasury shares as part of the Company’s share repurchase program. For the year ended December 31, 2011, the Company entered into the Loan Agreement in the amount of $35 million to finance the consideration of the Nera Acquisition.
 
 
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As of December 31, 2011, our principal commitments consisted of $12.9 million for obligations outstanding under non-cancelable operating leases.

In October 2008, we announced the adoption a share repurchase program under which the total amount to be paid for the repurchase of shares would not exceed $20 million. The share repurchase program was completed in 2009. As of December 31, 2011, we purchased 3,481,523 shares at a weighted average price per share of approximately $5.74 per share (excluding commission and broker fees).

Our capital requirements are dependent on many factors, including working capital requirements to finance the growth of the Company, and the allocation of resources to our research and development efforts, as well as our marketing and sales activities. We anticipate continuing to engage in capital spending consistent with anticipated growth in our operations as a result, in part, from our increased participation in turnkey projects. We anticipate that our capital expenditures during 2012 and 2013 will be primarily for a new enterprise resource planning, or ERP, system to be implemented at our offices worldwide.

We believe that current cash and cash equivalent balances, short-term bank deposits and short-term marketable securities will be sufficient for our requirements through at least the next 12 months.

C.           Research and Development

We place considerable emphasis on research and development to improve and expand the capabilities of our existing products, to develop new products, with particular emphasis on equipment for emerging IP-based networks, and to lower the cost of producing both existing and future products. We intend to continue to devote a significant portion of our personnel and financial resources to research and development. As part of our product development process, we maintain close relationships with our customers to identify market needs and to define appropriate product specifications. In addition, we intend to continue to comply with industry standards and, in order to participate in the formulation of European standards, we are full members of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

Our research and development activities are conducted at our facilities in Tel Aviv, Israel, Bergen, Norway and Greece. As of December 31, 2011, our research, development and engineering staff consisted of 280 employees. Our research and development team includes highly specialized engineers and technicians with expertise in the fields of millimeter wave design, modem and signal processing, data communications, system management and networking solutions.

Our research and development department provides us with the ability to design and develop most of the aspects of our proprietary solutions, from the chip-level, including both ASICs and RFICs, to full system integration. Our research and development projects currently in process include extensions to our emerging IP-based networking product lines and development of new technologies to support future product concepts. In addition, our engineers continually work to redesign our products with the goal of improving their manufacturability and testability while reducing costs.

Our research and development expenses were approximately $50.5 million or 11.3% of revenues in 2011, $25.1 million or 10% of revenues in 2010, and $19.0 million or 10% of sales in 2009.

Intellectual Property

See: “Item 4. History and Development of the Company–Intellectual Property” for a description of our intellectual property.

D.           Trend Information

See discussion in Parts A and B of Item 5 “Operating Results and Financial Review and Prospects” for a description of the trend information relevant to us.

E.           Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

We are not party to any material off-balance sheet arrangements. In addition, we have no unconsolidated special purpose financing or partnership entities that are likely to create material contingent liabilities.
 
 
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F.           Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations

 
 
Payments due by period (in thousands of dollars)
 
 
Contractual Obligations
 
 
Total
   
Less than 1
year
   
 
1-3 years
   
 
3-5 years
   
More than
5 years
 
Operating lease obligations1 
    12,858       7,794       4,782       282        
Purchase obligations2 
    57,081       57,081                        
Other long-term commitment3 
    5,636                               5,636  
Uncertain income tax positions4
    9,741                               9,741  
Loan Agreement
    35,000       8,232       16,464       10,304          
Total
    120,316       73,107       21,246       10,586       15,377  
____________
(1) 
Consists of operating leases for our facilities and for vehicles.
 
(2)
Consists of all outstanding purchase orders for our products from our suppliers.
 
(3)
Our obligation for accrued severance pay under Israel’s Severance Pay Law as of December 31, 2011 was approximately   $8.1 million, of which approximately $5.6 million was funded through deposits in severance pay funds, leaving a net commitment of approximately $2.5 million.  In addition, the commitment includes a net amount of approximately $3.1 million in pension accruals.
 
(4)
Uncertain income tax position under ASC 740-10, “Income Taxes,” are due upon settlement and we are unable to reasonably estimate the ultimate amount or timing of settlement. See Note 14j of our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the Company’s liability under ASC 740-10.

Effect of Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2011-12, “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220)”. The amendments in this Update supersede certain pending paragraphs in Accounting Standards Update 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income, to effectively defer only those changes in Update 2011—5 that relate to the presentation of reclassification adjustments out of accumulated other comprehensive income. For public entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this update on the consolidated financial statements.

In November 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards 2011-08 "Intangibles—Goodwill and Other" (Topic 350), which introduced an optional qualitative assessment for testing goodwill for impairment that may allow companies to skip the annual two-step test. ASU 2011-08 allows companies to qualitatively assess whether it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of greater than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If that is the case, the company would have to perform the annual two-step impairment test. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after 15 December 2011. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of ASU No. 2011-08, but does not expect its adoption will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income, which specifies that the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income and the components of other comprehensive income are to be presented in either a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. This update eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. No change has been made in the items to be reported in comprehensive income. ASU No. 2011-05 is effective for the interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011, and should be applied retrospectively. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of ASU No. 2011-05, but does not expect its adoption will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
 
 
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In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP. This pronouncement is an authoritative guidance to amend certain measurement and disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements to improve consistency with international reporting standards. This guidance is effective prospectively for public entities for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2011, with early adoption prohibited. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of ASU No. 2011-04, but does not expect its adoption will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.

In December 2010, the EITF issued ASU 2010-29, Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations codified in ASC 805, "Business Combinations". This ASU responds to diversity in practice about the interpretation of the pro forma disclosure requirements for business combinations. When a public entity’s business combinations are material on an individual or aggregate basis, the notes to its financial statements must provide pro forma revenue and earnings of the combined entity as if the acquisition date(s) had occurred as of the beginning of the annual reporting period. The ASU clarifies that if comparative financial statements are presented, the pro forma disclosures for both periods presented (the year in which the acquisition occurred and the prior year) should be reported as if the acquisition had occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only and not as if it had occurred at the beginning of the current annual reporting period. The ASU also expands the supplemental pro forma disclosure requirements to include a description of the nature and amount of any material non-recurring adjustments that are directly attributable to the business combination. The guidance in the ASU is effective for business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15 2010, and should be applied prospectively. We believe that the adoption could have an impact on its Pro Forma information in future periods.

In April 2010, the EITF issued ASU 2010-13, an amendment to ASC No. 718 "Compensation - Stock Compensation. This ASU clarifies employee stock options that have exercise prices denominated in the currency of any market in which a substantial portion of the entity’s equity securities trade. These should be classified as equity, assuming all other criteria for equity classification are met. The amendments in the ASU do not contain any disclosure requirements incremental to those required by ASC 718. The guidance is effective in 2011. The adoption of the new guidance will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

 In February 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-09, an amendments to certain recognition and disclosure requirements of Subsequent Events codified in ASC 855, "Subsequent Events". This update removes the requirement to disclose the date through which subsequent events were evaluated in both originally issued and reissued financial statements for "SEC Filers." The adoption of the new guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In January 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-06, updating the "Fair Value Measurements Disclosures" codified in ASC 820. This update requires (a) an entity to disclose separately the amounts of significant transfers in and out of Levels 1 and 2 fair value measurements and to describe the reasons for the transfers; and (b) information about purchases, sales, issuances and settlements to be presented separately (i.e. present the activity on a gross basis rather than net) in the reconciliation for fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 inputs). This update clarifies existing disclosure requirements for the level of disaggregation used for classes of assets and liabilities measured at fair value, and require disclosures about the valuation techniques and inputs used to measure fair value for both recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements using Level 2 and Level 3 inputs. As applicable to us, this update became effective in these annual financial statements. The adoption of the new guidance did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
 
 
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Directors and Senior Management
 
The following table lists our current directors and senior management:
 
Name
Age
Position
Zohar Zisapel
63
Chairman of the Board of Directors
Ira Palti
54
President and Chief Executive Officer
 Aviram Steinhart
41
Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer
Gil Solovey
43
Executive Vice President, Global Operations
Eran Westman
41
Executive Vice President, Global Business
Sharon Ganot
43
Executive Vice President, Human Resources
Udi Gordon
45
Executive Vice President, Corporate Marketing and Business Development
Donna Gershowitz
48
Vice President and General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Hagai Zyss
40
Executive Vice President and General Manager, Short-Haul Solutions Group
Eyal Assa
40
Executive Vice President and General Manager, Long-Haul Solutions Group
Ole Lars Oye
50
VP Global Projects & Services
Joseph Atsmon
63
Director
Yael Langer
47
Director
Yair E. Orgler
72
Director
Avi Patir
63
Director
 
Zohar Zisapel has served as the Chairman of our board of directors since we were incorporated in 1996.  Mr. Zisapel is also a founder and a director of RAD Data Communications Ltd., of which he served as CEO from January 1982 until January 1998 and has served as chairman since 1998.  Mr. Zisapel serves as chairman of two other public companies, RADVision Ltd. and RADCOM Ltd., as a director of Silicom Ltd. and as chairman or director of several private companies. Since July 2008, Mr. Zisapel has been a director of Amdocs Limited, a public company.  Mr. Zisapel received a B.Sc. and an M.Sc. in electrical engineering from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology (“Technion”) and an M.B.A. from Tel Aviv University.
 
Ira Palti has been our President and Chief Executive Officer since August 2005. From January 2003 to August 2005, Mr. Palti was Chief Executive Officer of Seabridge Ltd., a Siemens company that is a global leader in the area of broadband services and networks. Prior to joining Seabridge, he was the Chief Operating Officer of VocalTec Communications Ltd., responsible for sales, marketing, customer support and product development. Among the positions he held before joining VocalTec was founder of Rosh Intelligent Systems, a company providing software maintenance and AI diagnostic solutions and one of the first startups in Israel. Mr. Palti received a B.Sc. in mathematics and computer science (magna cum laude) from Tel Aviv University.
 
Aviram Steinhart joined Ceragon in December 2011 from Lumenis Ltd., where he was the Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President from 2007. Prior to that, he served as the Corporate Vice President of Finance at Alvarion Ltd., as well as in a variety of senior financial positions at Siemens/UGS PLM solutions, Tecnomatix, and NetReality Communications.  Mr. Steinhart holds a B.A. from Haifa University, and an M.B.A. from Tel Aviv University and is a qualified CPA.
 
Gil Solovey joined Ceragon in May 2010. In his last position, Mr. Solovey served as VP Operations and a member of the management at Orbit Technology Group, an Israeli company that develops, manufactures and supplies communication equipment solutions. Prior to joining Orbit, Mr. Solovey served various position in HP Scitex, a pioneer and a leading worldwide developer of format printing equipment, including as VP Operations and managed the global supply chain group in HP Scitex. Before joining HP Scitex in 2004, Mr. Solovey managed the purchasing, Logistics and planning division at Applied Materials Israel. Mr. Solovey holds a B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering from the Technion, and an M.B.A. in marketing from Herriot Watt University in Scotland (Israel branch).
 
 
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Eran Westman has served as our Executive Vice President, Global Operations since October 2008. From January 2004 to September 2008, Mr. Westman served as President Asia Pacific, and from July 2001 to December 2003, he was Vice President Sales for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Mr. Westman holds a LL.B degree from the Herzog Faculty of Law at Bar Ilan University.
 
Sharon Ganot has served as our Executive Vice President, Human Resources since March 2000.  From December 1999 until March 2000, Ms. Ganot was the manager of our human resources department.  From April 1994 until December 1999, she was a personnel recruiter and training manager with RAD Data Communications Ltd.  Ms. Ganot received a B.A. in psychology and an M.A. in industrial studies from Tel Aviv University.
 
Udi Gordon has served as our Executive Vice President Marketing & Business Development since June 2009.  From October 2008 through May 2009, Mr. Gordon served as our Vice President, Business Development. From 2003 to 2008, Mr. Gordon headed our research and development department, his most recent position being Executive Vice President R&D. From 1997 until June 2003, he served as a senior manager in our research and development department.    Mr. Gordon received a B.Sc. in electrical engineering from the Technion (cum laude) and an M.B.A. from Bar-Ilan University.
 
Donna Gershowitz has served as our Vice President and General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since June 2009.  Prior to joining Ceragon, Ms. Gershowitz served as the General Counsel of Elron Electronic Industries Ltd. from March 2008 through April 2009, as the Regional General Counsel of SanDisk Corporation from November 2006 through March 2008 and as the Vice President and  General Counsel of msystems Ltd. (prior to its acquisition by SanDisk Corporation) from June 2004 through November 2006.  Ms. Gershowitz has also held positions as legal counsel in other Israeli high tech companies.  Ms. Gershowitz holds a B.A. in Politics from Brandeis University and a J.D. from Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California, at Berkeley. Ms. Gershowitz is a member of the Israeli Bar and the California Bar. 
 
Hagai Zyss has served as our Executive Vice President and General Manager, Short-Haul Solutions Group since March, 2011.  Prior thereto, Mr. Zyss served as our Vice President, Research and Development since October 2008. Previously, Mr. Zyss served in our research and development from June 2000, his most recent position being Vice President Next Generation Networks. Mr. Zyss received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees (cum laude) in electrical engineering and electronics from Tel-Aviv University.
 
Eyal Assa has served as our Executive Vice President and General Manager, Long-Haul Solutions Group since March, 2011.   Prior thereto, Mr. Assa served in various positions at Ceragon including as our Chief Operating Officer, Sales since 2008 and prior thereto as VP Business Development and OEM Relations.  From August 1998, Mr. Assa held several senior R&D positions at Seabridge Ltd., a Siemens company, the last one being Vice President of Research and Development.  Mr. Assa holds a B.Sc. in Mathematics and Statistics (cum laude) and M.Sc. in Computer Science (summa cum laude), both from Tel-Aviv University.
 
Ole Lars Oye  has served as our VP Global Projects & Services since January 2011.  Prior to the Nera Acquisition, Mr. Oye has served as Senior Vice President, Global Projects, of Nera since September 2009. Previously, Mr. Oye served in various positions at Nera, which he joined in 1987, including as VP Sales North Europe of Nera Networks, General Director of Nera Networks s.r.o. in Slovakia, VP Supply and Technical Director Americas.  Mr. Oye holds a B.Sc degree in Electronics/Telecommunication from Gjovik ingeniorhogskole in Norway.
 
Joseph Atsmon has served as a director since July 2001. Mr. Atsmon has also served as a director of Nice Systems Ltd. since July 2001 and of RADVision Ltd. since June 2003. From November 2005 until December 2008, Mr. Atsmon was a director of VocalTec Communications Ltd. From April 2001 until October 2002, he served as Chairman of Discretix Ltd.  From 1995 until 2000, he served as Chief Executive Officer of Teledata Communications Ltd., a public company acquired by ADC Telecommunications Inc. in 1998.  From 1986 until 1995, Mr. Atsmon served in various positions at Tadiran Ltd., among them a division president and Corporate Vice President for business development.  Mr. Atsmon received a B.Sc. in electrical engineering (summa cum laude) from the Technion.  Mr. Atsmon is one of our independent directors for the purposes of the Nasdaq Rules and is our audit committee chairman and financial expert.
 
 
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Yael Langer has served as a director since December 2000.  Ms. Langer served as our general counsel from July 1998 until December 2000.  Ms. Langer is General Counsel and Secretary of RAD Data Communications Ltd. and other companies in the RAD-BYNET group.  Since July 2009, Ms. Langer serves as a director in RADWARE Ltd. From December 1995 to July 1998, Ms. Langer served as Assistant General Counsel to companies in the RAD-BYNET group.  From September 1993 until July 1995, Ms. Langer was a member of the legal department of Poalim Capital Markets and Investments Ltd. Ms. Langer received an LL.B. from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
 
Yair E. Orgler has served as an external director since March 2007. Prof. Orgler is Professor Emeritus at the Leon Recanati Graduate School of Business Administration, Tel Aviv University (the “Recanati School”). From 1996 to June 2006, Prof. Orgler was Chairman of the Board of the Tel-Aviv Stock Exchange. From 2001 to 2004, he was President of the International Options Markets Association (IOMA). Prof. Orgler serves as a director at Israel Chemicals Ltd., Atidim-High Tech Industrial Park Ltd., ICL-IP Co. Ltd., ICL-IP Ltd., Itamar Medical Ltd. and Gazit-Globe Ltd. Other public positions held by Prof. Orgler in recent years include: Director at Bank Hapoalim, B.M., Founder and Chairman of “Maalot”, Israel’s first securities rating company; Chairman of the Wage Committee of the Association of University Heads in Israel; Chairman of the Executive Council of the Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo; and member of the Board of the United States-Israel Educational Foundation (USIEF). Previous academic positions held by Prof. Orgler include: Vice Rector of Tel-Aviv University and before that Dean of the Recanati School. For over 20 years he was the incumbent of the Goldreich Chair in International Banking at Tel-Aviv University and served frequently as a Visiting Professor of Finance at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University. Prof. Orgler holds a Ph.D. and Master’s degree in industrial administration from Carnegie Mellon University, an M.Sc. in industrial engineering from University of Southern California and a B.Sc. in industrial engineering from the Technion. Prof. Orgler is one of our independent directors for the purposes of the Nasdaq Rules and one of our external directors for purposes of the Companies Law.
 
Avi Patir has served as an external director since March 2007. Mr. Patir is Senior Vice President and CTO at MIRS Communications Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of HOT Telecommunication.  From 2004 to 2006, Mr. Patir served as the Group COO and Head of the Wireline Division of “Bezeq” – The Israel Telecommunication Corp. Limited (“Bezeq”), Israel’s national telecommunications provider. From 2003 to 2004, Mr. Patir was President and CEO of American Israel Paper Mills Ltd., the leading Israeli manufacturer and marketer of paper and paper products. From 1996 to 2003, he was the President and CEO of Barak International Telecommunication Corporation Ltd., a leading provider of international telecommunications services in Israel, and from 1992 to 1996, he was Executive Vice President Engineering and Operations at Bezeq. Mr. Patir has been a board member of, among others, Bezeq International, Pelephone Communications Ltd. and Satlink Communications Ltd.  Mr. Patir holds an M.Sc. in electrical and electronic engineering from Columbia University and a B.Sc. in electrical and electronic engineering from the Technion. He is, in addition, a graduate of the Kellogg-Recanati executive management program. Mr. Patir is one of our independent directors for the purposes of the Nasdaq Rules and one of our external directors for purposes of the Companies Law.
 
 
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Compensation of Directors and Senior Management
 
The following table presents all compensation we paid to all of our directors and senior management as a group for the year ended December 31, 2011.  The table does not include any amounts we paid to reimburse any of such persons for costs incurred in providing us with services during this period.
 
   
Salaries, fees, commissions and bonuses
   
Pension, retirement and other similar benefits
 
All directors and senior management as a group, consisting of 171 persons
  $ 5,780,000     $ 305,000  

1The group includes two former members of senior management whose employment with the Company ceased during 2011.

During 2011, we granted to our directors and senior management 757,500 options to purchase ordinary shares, in the aggregate, with exercise prices of $8.54 - $13.04 per share. The options expire 10 years after grant.
 
Other than payment of fees to our external directors as required by the Companies Law, reimbursement for expenses and the award of stock options, we do not compensate our directors for serving on our board of directors.  For more information, please see “Remuneration of Directors” and “The 2003 Share Option Plan” below and Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included as Item 18 in this annual report.
 
Board Practices
 
Our board of directors presently consists of five members, the minimum number authorized by our Articles of Association. The board retains all the powers in running our company that are not specifically granted to the shareholders; for example, the board may make decisions to borrow money for our company, and may set aside reserves out of our profits, for whatever purposes it thinks fit.

The board may pass a resolution when a quorum is present, and by a vote of at least a majority of the directors present when the resolution is put to vote.  A quorum is defined as at least a majority of the directors then in office who are lawfully entitled to participate in the meeting but not less than two director. The Chairman of the board is elected and removed by the board members. Minutes of the board meetings are recorded and kept at our offices.

Classes, Terms and Skills of Directors

Our board of directors is presently divided into two classes: Class I and Class II. Each director (other than an external director), when elected, will be designated as a member of one of the two classes of directors. Our Articles of Association provide that directors, other than our external directors described below, are elected at our annual general meeting of shareholders by a vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power represented at that meeting and voting thereon, and serve a term ending on the date of the third annual general meeting following the general meeting at which they were elected.  Ms. Langer was reelected to serve as our Class I director at the annual general meeting held in September 2011 for a term that will end at 2014 annual general meeting of shareholders. Messrs. Zisapel and Atsmon are currently our Class II directors, serving for a term ending at the 2012 annual general meeting of the shareholders.

According to the Companies Law, a person who does not possess the skills required and the ability to devote the appropriate time to the performance of the office of director in a company, taking into consideration, among other things, the special requirements and size of that company, shall neither be appointed as director nor shall serve as director in a public company. A public company shall not summon a general meeting whose agenda includes the appointment of a director, and a director shall not be appointed, unless the candidate has submitted a declaration that he or she possesses the skills required and the ability to devote the appropriate time to the performance of the office of director in the company, that sets forth the aforementioned skills and further states that the limitations set forth in the Companies Law regarding the appointment of a director do not apply in respect of such candidate.
 
A director who ceases to possess any qualification required under the Companies Law for holding the office of director or who becomes subject to any ground for termination of his/her office must inform the company immediately and his/her office shall terminate on such notice.
 
 
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Independent Directors

As a company organized in Israel whose ordinary shares are listed for quotation on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, we are required to comply with the rules of the SEC and the Nasdaq Rules applicable to listed companies, as well as with the Companies Law, which is applicable to all Israeli companies. Under the Nasdaq Rules, a majority of our directors is required to be independent. The independence standard under the Nasdaq Rules excludes, among others, any person who is a current or former (at any time during the past three years) employee of a company or its affiliates as well as the immediate family members of an executive officer (at any time during the past three years) of a company or its affiliates. Messrs. Joseph Atsmon, Yair Orgler and Avi Patir currently serve as our independent directors.

External Directors

Under the Companies Law, we are required to appoint at least two external directors. Each committee of a company’s board of directors which is authorized to exercise the board of directors’ authorities is required to include at least one external director, except for the audit committee, which is required to include all of the external directors.

Qualification

To qualify as an external director, an individual or his or her relative, partner, employer, any person to whom such person is directly or indirectly subject to, or any entity under his or her control may not have, as of the date of appointment, or may not have had, during the previous two years, any affiliation with the company, any entity controlling the company on the date of the appointment or with any entity controlled, at the date of the appointment or during the previous two years, by the company or by its controlling shareholder. In general, the term “affiliation” includes:

 
• 
an employment relationship;

 
• 
a business or professional relationship maintained on a regular basis;

 
• 
control; and

 
service as an office holder; the Companies Law defines the term “office holder” of a company to include a director, the chief executive officer, the chief business manager, a vice general manager, deputy general manager and any officer that reports directly to the chief executive officer or any other person fulfilling any of the foregoing positions (even if such person’s title is different).
 
"Control" is defined in the Securities Law as the ability to direct the actions of a company but excluding a power that is solely derived from a position as a director of the company or any other position with the company; a person who is holding 50% or more of the "controlling power" in the company – voting rights or the right to appoint a director or a general manager – is automatically considered to posses control.

In addition, no person can serve as an external director if the person’s position or other business creates, or may create, conflicts of interest with the person’s responsibilities as an external director or may otherwise interfere with the person’s ability to serve as an external director.

Election and Term of External Directors

External directors are elected by a majority vote at a shareholders’ meeting, provided that either:

 
majority of the shares voted at the meeting, which are not held by controlling shareholders or shareholders with personal interest in approving the appointment (excluding personal interest not resulting from contacts with the controlling shareholder), not taking into account any abstentions, vote in favor of the election; or

 
the total number of shares referred to above, voted against the election of the external director, does not exceed two percent of the aggregate voting rights in the company.
 
 
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In a company in which, at the date of appointment of an external director, all the directors are of the same gender, the external director to be appointed shall be of the other gender.

An external director can be removed from office only by the same majority of shareholders that is required to elect an external director, or by a court, if the external director ceases to meet the statutory qualifications with respect to his or her appointment, or if he or she violates his or her duty of loyalty to the company. The court may also remove an external director from office if he or she is unable to perform his or her duties on a regular basis.

Each of our external directors serves a three-year term, and may be re-elected to serve in this capacity for two additional terms of three years each. Thereafter, he or she may be reelected by our shareholders for additional periods of up to three years each only if the audit committee, followed by the board, have approved that considering the expertise and special contribution of the external director to the work of the board and its committees, the appointment for a further term of service is beneficial to the company.

Financial and Accounting Expertise

Pursuant to the Companies Law and regulations promulgated thereunder, (1) each external director must have either “accounting and financial expertise” or “professional qualifications” and (2) at least one of the external directors must have “accounting and financial expertise”.  A director with “accounting and financial expertise” is a director whose education, experience and skills qualifies him or her to be highly proficient in understanding business and accounting matters and to thoroughly understand the company’s financial statements and to stimulate discussion regarding the manner in which financial data is presented. A director with “professional qualifications” is a person that meets any of the following criteria: (i) has an academic degree in economics, business management, accounting, law, public administration; (ii) has a different academic degree or has completed higher education in an area relevant to the company’s business or which is relevant to his or her position; or (iii) has at least five years experience in any of the following, or has a total of five years experience in at least two of the following: (A) a senior position in the business management of a corporation with substantial business activities, (B) a senior public position or a senior position in the public service, or (C) a senior position in the company’s main fields of business.

Our External Directors

Yair Orgler and Avi Patir were initially appointed in 2006 as our external directors. Their terms began in March 2007 and in December 2009, at the annual meeting of shareholders, Messrs. Orgler and Patir were appointed for a second terms as external directors.  Their second terms will expire in March 2013.  Our board of directors has determined that Prof. Orgler has the “accounting and financial expertise” required by the Companies Law, and that Mr. Patir has the required “professional qualifications.”

Audit Committee

Nasdaq Requirements

Under the Nasdaq Rules, we are required to have an audit committee consisting of at least three independent directors, all of whom are financially literate and one of whom has been determined by the board to be the audit committee financial expert. We have adopted an audit committee charter as required by the Nasdaq Rules. The responsibilities of the audit committee under the Nasdaq Rules include responsibilities relating to: (i) registered public accounting firms, (ii) complaints relating to accounting, internal controls and auditing matters, (iii) authority to engage advisors, and (iv) funding as determined by the audit committee.  Currently, Messrs. Joseph Atsmon, Yair Orgler and Avi Patir serve on our audit committee, each of whom has been determined by the board to be independent. Mr. Atsmon is the chairman of the audit committee and its financial expert.

The Nasdaq Rules require that director nominees be selected or recommended for the board’s selection either by a nominations committee composed solely of independent directors or by a majority of independent directors, in a vote in which only independent directors participate, subject to certain exceptions. Similarly, the compensation payable to a company’s chief executive officer and other executive officers must be determined or recommended to the board for determination either by a majority of the independent directors on the board, in a vote in which only independent directors participate, or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors, subject to certain exceptions. In October 2010, our board of directors determined that the compensation committee would carry out these functions, and submit its recommendations in this respect to the  audit committee, which is comprised solely of independent directors.
 
 
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Companies Law Requirements

Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of any Israeli company whose shares are publicly traded must appoint an audit committee, comprised of at least three directors including all of the external directors. . In addition, the majority of the members must meet certain independence criteria and may not include the chairman of the board, any controlling shareholder or any director employed by, providing services to, or whose main livelihood is generated from, the Company or a controlling shareholder of the Company.

The role of our audit committee is (i) to identify irregularities and deficiencies in the management of our business, in consultation with the internal auditor and our independent auditors, and to suggest appropriate courses of action to amend such irregularities; (2) to define whether certain acts and transactions that involve conflicts of interest are material or not and whether transactions that involve interested parties are extraordinary or not, and to approve such transactions; (3) to oversee and approve the retention, performance and compensation of our independent auditors and to establish and oversee the implementation of procedures concerning our systems of internal accounting and auditing control; (4) to examine the performance of our internal auditor and whether he is provided with the required resources and tools necessary for him to fulfill his role, considering, among others, the Company's size and special needs; and (5) to set procedures for handling complaints made by Company's employees in connection with management deficiencies and the protection to be provided to such employees.

Those who are not entitled to be members, shall not attend audit committee's meetings or take part in its decisions, unless the chairman of the audit committee has determined that such person is required for the presentation of a certain matter.

The quorum for discussions and decisions shall be the majority of the members, provided that the majority of the present members are independent directors and at least one of them is an external director.

Messrs. Yair Orgler and Avi Patir serve as our two external directors and meet the independence criteria defined in the Companies Law. As stated above, Mr. Atsmon is the chairman of our audit committee; According to a recent amendment to the Companies Law, the chairman of the audit committee must be an external director. Mr. Atsmon is not an external director, but, in accordance with a transition provision included in applicable regulations, he is allowed to continue to hold such position until September 14, 2014.

Compensation Committee

Our compensation committee is to administer our 1996 Key Employee Share Incentive Plan, our 1997 Affiliate Employee Option Plan and our 2003 Share Option Plan. The board of directors has delegated to the compensation committee the authority to grant options under the 1996, 1997 and 2003 option plans, and to act as the share incentive committee pursuant to those plans, provided that such grants are within the framework determined by the board.

In addition, our compensation committee is to approve and recommend to the audit committee and the board, compensation of all members of senior management. As mentioned above, all compensation arrangements with a general manager, or any other office holder who is not a director, require the approval of the audit committee and board of directors (except for non material changes in compensation arrangements of serving office holders, which may be approved by audit committee only, provided that the audit committee confirms that such changes are in fact non material).
 
The members of the compensation committee are Messrs. Zisapel and Patir.
 
 
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Internal Auditor

Under the Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint an internal auditor proposed by the audit committee. The internal auditor may be an employee of the company but may not be an interested party, an office holder or a relative of the foregoing, nor may the internal auditor be the company’s independent accountant or its representative. The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other things, whether the company’s conduct complies with applicable law, integrity and orderly business procedure.  The internal auditor has the right to request that the chairman of the audit committee convene an audit committee meeting, and the internal auditor may participate in all audit committee meetings.

We have appointed the firm of Chaikin, Cohen, Rubin & Co., Certified Public Accountants (Isr.) as our internal auditor. Our internal auditor meets the independence requirements of the Companies Law, as detailed above.

Approval of Certain Transactions with Related Party

The Companies Law requires the approval of the audit committee, thereafter, the approval of the board of directors and in certain cases — the approval of the shareholders, in order to effect specified actions and extraordinary transactions such as the following:

 
·
transactions with office holders and third parties  - where an office holder has a personal interest in the transaction);

 
·
employment terms of office holders who are not directors, and employment terms of directors (and terms of engagement with a director in other roles); and

 
·
extraordinary transactions with controlling parties, and extraordinary transactions with a third party  - where a controlling party has a personal interest in the transaction, or any transaction with the controlling shareholder or his relative regarding terms of service provided directly or indirectly (including through a company controlled by the controlling shareholder)  and terms of employment (for a controlling shareholder who is not an office holder).. A “relative” is defined in the Companies Law as spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent, descendant, spouse’s descendant, sibling or parent and the spouse of any of the foregoing.

Such extraordinary transactions with controlling shareholders require the approval of the audit committee, the board of directors and the majority of the voting power of the shareholders present and voting at the general meeting of the company (not including abstentions), provided that either:

 
·
the majority of the shares of shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction and who are present and voting, vote in favor; or