10-Q 1 csr-20240331.htm 10-Q csr-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission File Number 001-35624
CENTERSPACE
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
North Dakota45-0311232
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
3100 10th Street SWPost Office Box 1988MinotND58702-1988
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
(701) 837-4738
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to the filing requirements for at least the past 90 days.
YesNo
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
YesNo
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated filer Non-accelerated filer
Smaller Reporting CompanyEmerging growth company
    If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
YesNo
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest, no par valueCSRNew York Stock Exchange
Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred SharesCSR-PRCNew York Stock Exchange
    The number of common shares of beneficial interest outstanding as of April 22, 2024, was 14,912,055.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
 
  
 
2

PART I
Item 1. Financial Statements.

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 (in thousands, except per share data)
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
ASSETS(Unaudited)
Real estate investments  
Property owned$2,413,488 $2,420,146 
Less accumulated depreciation(553,231)(530,703)
Total real estate investments1,860,257 1,889,443 
Cash and cash equivalents12,682 8,630 
Restricted cash1,066 639 
Other assets29,468 27,649 
TOTAL ASSETS$1,903,473 $1,926,361 
LIABILITIES, MEZZANINE EQUITY, AND EQUITY  
LIABILITIES  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$54,614 $62,754 
Revolving lines of credit40,357 30,000 
Notes payable, net of unamortized loan costs of $525 and $541, respectively
299,475 299,459 
Mortgages payable, net of unamortized loan costs of $3,342 and $3,427, respectively
585,382 586,563 
TOTAL LIABILITIES$979,828 $978,776 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (NOTE 10)
SERIES D PREFERRED UNITS (Cumulative convertible preferred units, $100 par value, 166 units issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, aggregate liquidation preference of $16,560)
$16,560 $16,560 
EQUITY  
Series C Preferred Shares of Beneficial Interest (Cumulative redeemable preferred shares, no par value, $25 per share liquidation preference, 3,881 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, aggregate liquidation preference of $97,036)
93,530 93,530 
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest (Unlimited authorization, no par value, 14,912 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and 14,963 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023)
1,160,492 1,165,694 
Accumulated distributions in excess of net income(564,951)(548,273)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(922)(1,119)
Total shareholders’ equity$688,149 $709,832 
Noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units218,255 220,544 
Noncontrolling interests – consolidated real estate entities681 649 
TOTAL EQUITY$907,085 $931,025 
TOTAL LIABILITIES, MEZZANINE EQUITY, AND EQUITY$1,903,473 $1,926,361 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
3

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (unaudited)

 (in thousands, except per share data)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
REVENUE$64,506 $67,897 
EXPENSES  
Property operating expenses, excluding real estate taxes18,764 21,342 
Real estate taxes6,305 7,581 
Property management expense2,330 2,568 
Casualty loss
820 252 
Depreciation and amortization27,012 25,993 
General and administrative expenses4,623 7,723 
TOTAL EXPENSES$59,854 $65,459 
Gain (loss) on sale of real estate and other investments
(577)60,159 
Operating income
4,075 62,597 
Interest expense(9,207)(10,319)
Interest and other income
340 49 
NET INCOME (LOSS)
$(4,792)$52,327 
Dividends to Series D preferred unitholders(160)(160)
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units
1,079 (8,566)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests – consolidated real estate entities
(32)(30)
Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interests
(3,905)43,571 
Dividends to preferred shareholders(1,607)(1,607)
NET INCOME (LOSS) AVAILABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS
$(5,512)$41,964 
NET INCOME (LOSS) PER COMMON SHARE – BASIC
$(0.37)$2.79 
NET INCOME (LOSS) PER COMMON SHARE – DILUTED
$(0.37)$2.76 
Weighted average shares - basic14,922 15,025 
Weighted average shares - diluted14,922 18,359 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
4

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS) (unaudited)


(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Net income (loss)
$(4,792)$52,327 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Loss on derivative instrument reclassified into earnings
197 138 
Total comprehensive income (loss)
$(4,595)$52,465 
Net comprehensive (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units
1,112 (8,543)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests – consolidated real estate entities
(32)(30)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to controlling interests
$(3,515)$43,892 

See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

5

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY (unaudited)

 (in thousands, except per share data)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023PREFERRED
SHARES
NUMBER
OF
COMMON
SHARES
COMMON
SHARES
ACCUMULATED
DISTRIBUTIONS
IN EXCESS OF
NET INCOME (LOSS)
ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
NONCONTROLLING
INTERESTS
TOTAL
EQUITY
Balance at December 31, 2022$93,530 15,020 $1,177,484 $(539,422)$(2,055)$220,759 $950,296 
Net income attributable to controlling interests and noncontrolling interests
   43,571 8,596 52,167 
Amortization of swap settlements138 138 
Distributions - common shares and Units ($0.73 per share and Unit)
   (10,962)(706)(11,668)
Distributions - Series C preferred shares ($0.4140625 per Series C share)
(1,607)(1,607)
Distributions - Series E preferred units ($0.96875 per unit)
(1,704)(1,704)
Share-based compensation, net of forfeitures 12 1,519   1,519 
Redemption of Units for common shares4 (697)697  
Redemption of Series E preferred units for common shares16 (935)935  
Shares repurchased(19)(1,022)(1,022)
Shares withheld for taxes(161)(161)
Other (1)(129) (24)(153)
Balance at March 31, 2023$93,530 15,032 $1,176,059 $(508,420)$(1,917)$228,553 $987,805 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Balance at December 31, 2023$93,530 14,963 $1,165,694 $(548,273)$(1,119)$221,193 $931,025 
Net loss attributable to controlling interests and noncontrolling interests
   (3,905)(1,047)(4,952)
Amortization of swap settlements197 197 
Distributions - common shares and Units ($0.75 per share and unit)
   (11,166)(639)(11,805)
Distributions - Series C preferred shares ($0.4140625 per Series C share)
   (1,607) (1,607)
Distributions - Series E preferred units ($0.96875 per unit)
(1,671)(1,671)
Share-based compensation, net of forfeitures 4 749   749 
Redemption of Units for common shares17 (398)398  
Redemption of Series E preferred units for common shares16 (702)702  
Shares repurchased(88)(4,703) (4,703)
Shares withheld for taxes(118)(118)
Other (30) — (30)
Balance at March 31, 2024$93,530 14,912 $1,160,492 $(564,951)$(922)$218,936 $907,085 

See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
6

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (unaudited)
 (in thousands)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES  
Net income (loss)
$(4,792)$52,327 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
  
Depreciation and amortization, including amortization of capitalized loan costs27,305 26,650 
(Gain) loss on sale of real estate and other investments
577 (60,159)
Share-based compensation expense749 1,519 
Other, net526 332 
Changes in other assets and liabilities:  
Other assets1,778 1,783 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(1,740)(648)
Net cash provided by operating activities
$24,403 $21,804 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES  
Increase in mortgages and real estate related notes receivable(7,279) 
Net proceeds from sale of real estate and other investments
18,251 141,587 
Proceeds from insurance1,635 620 
Payments for improvements of real estate investments(21,810)(11,237)
Other investing activities171 214 
Net cash provided by (used by) investing activities
$(9,032)$131,184 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES  
Principal payments on mortgages payable(1,529)(20,734)
Proceeds from revolving lines of credit40,556 35,969 
Principal payments on revolving lines of credit(30,198)(6,000)
Principal payments on notes payable (100,000)
Repurchase of common shares(4,703)(1,022)
Distributions paid to common shareholders(10,923)(10,917)
Distributions paid to preferred shareholders(1,607)(1,607)
Distributions paid to Series D preferred unitholders(160)(160)
Distributions paid to noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units(2,300)(2,413)
Other financing activities(28)(153)
Net cash used by financing activities
$(10,892)$(107,037)
NET INCREASE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH
4,479 45,951 
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH AT BEGINNING OF PERIOD9,269 11,891 
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH AT END OF PERIOD$13,748 $57,842 
SUPPLEMENTARY SCHEDULE OF NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES  
Accrued capital expenditures$3,153 $3,804 
Operating partnership units converted to common shares(398)(697)
Distributions declared but not paid to common shareholders11,805 11,668 
Series E preferred units converted to common shares(702)(935)
Retirement of shares withheld for taxes118 161 
Involuntary conversion of assets160  
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION  
Cash paid for interest$8,302 $6,168 

(in thousands)
Balance sheet descriptionMarch 31, 2024December 31, 2023March 31, 2023
Cash and cash equivalents$12,682 $8,630 $8,939 
Restricted cash1,066 639 48,903 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$13,748 $9,269 $57,842 
See accompanying Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
7

CENTERSPACE AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (unaudited)
March 31, 2024
NOTE 1 • ORGANIZATION 
Centerspace, collectively with its consolidated subsidiaries (“Centerspace,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”), is a North Dakota real estate investment trust (“REIT”) focused on the ownership, management, acquisition, redevelopment, and development of apartment communities. As of March 31, 2024, Centerspace owned interests in 70 apartment communities consisting of 12,883 apartment homes.
NOTE 2 • BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES 
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Centerspace conducts a majority of its business activities through a consolidated operating partnership, Centerspace, LP, a North Dakota limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), as well as through a number of other consolidated subsidiary entities. The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the Company’s accounts and the accounts of all its subsidiaries in which it maintains a controlling interest, including the Operating Partnership. All intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements also reflect the Operating Partnership’s ownership of a joint venture entity in which the Operating Partnership has a general partner or controlling interest. This entity is consolidated into the Company’s operations, with noncontrolling interests reflecting the noncontrolling partners’ share of ownership, income, and expenses.
UNAUDITED INTERIM CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Centerspace’s interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Accordingly, certain disclosures accompanying annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP are omitted. The year-end balance sheet data was derived from audited consolidated financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting solely of normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the interim periods, have been included.
The current period’s results of operations are not necessarily indicative of results which ultimately may be achieved for the year. The interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as filed with the SEC on February 20, 2024.
USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
RECLASSIFICATIONS
Certain previously reported amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current financial statement presentation. These reclassifications had no impact on net income as reported in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations, total assets, liabilities or equity as reported in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and the classifications within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. Centerspace reclassified certain items within the disaggregated revenue table included in Note 2.
CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS, AND RESTRICTED CASH
Cash and cash equivalents include all cash and highly liquid investments purchased with maturities of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents consist of bank deposits and deposits in a money market mutual fund. The Company is potentially exposed to credit risk for cash deposited with FDIC-insured financial institutions in accounts which, at times, may exceed
8

federally insured limits. Although past bank failures have increased the risk of loss in such accounts, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, restricted cash consisted of $1.1 million and $639,000, respectively, in escrows held by lenders. Escrows include funds deposited with a lender for payment of real estate taxes and insurance and reserves to be used for replacement of structural elements and mechanical equipment at certain communities. The funds are under the control of the lender. Disbursements are made after supplying written documentation to the lender.
LEASES
As a lessor, Centerspace primarily leases multifamily apartment homes which qualify as operating leases with terms that are generally one year or less. Rental revenues are recognized in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) ASC 842, Leases, using a method that represents a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, rental income represented approximately 98.2% of total revenues, and included gross market rent less adjustments for gain or loss to lease, concessions, vacancy loss, and bad debt. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, other property revenues represented the remaining 1.8% of total revenues, and were primarily driven by other fee income, which is typically recognized when earned, at a point in time.
Some of the Company’s apartment communities have commercial spaces available for lease. Lease terms for these spaces typically range from three to fifteen years. The leases for commercial spaces generally include options to extend the lease for additional terms.
Many of the leases contain non-lease components for utility reimbursement from residents and common area maintenance from commercial tenants. Centerspace has elected the practical expedient to combine lease and non-lease components for all asset classes. The combined components are included in lease income and are accounted for under ASC 842.
The aggregate amount of future scheduled lease income on commercial operating leases, excluding any variable lease income and non-lease components, as of March 31, 2024, was as follows:
(in thousands)
2024 (remainder)
$1,361 
20251,799 
20261,661 
20271,373 
2028986 
Thereafter5,734 
Total scheduled lease income - commercial operating leases$12,914 
REVENUES AND GAINS ON SALE OF REAL ESTATE
Revenue is recognized in accordance with the transfer of goods and services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled for those goods and services.
Revenue streams that are included in revenues from contracts with customers include other property revenues such as application fees and other miscellaneous items. Centerspace recognizes revenue for these rental related items not included as a component of a lease as earned.
The following table presents the disaggregation of revenue streams for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
Revenue StreamApplicable Standard20242023
Fixed lease income - operating leasesLeases$60,034 $63,169 
Variable lease income - operating leasesLeases3,287 3,500 
Other property revenueRevenue from contracts with customers1,185 1,228 
Total revenue$64,506 $67,897 
In addition to lease income and other property revenue, the Company recognizes gains or losses on the sale of real estate when the criteria for derecognition of an asset are met, including when (1) a contract exists and (2) the buyer obtained control of the nonfinancial asset that was sold. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized a loss of $577,000 and a gain of $60.2 million, respectively, on the sale of real estate and other investments. Any gain or loss on real estate dispositions is net of certain closing and other costs associated with the disposition.
9


MARKET CONCENTRATION RISK
The Company is subject to increased exposure from economic and other competitive factors specific to markets where it holds a significant percentage of the carrying value of its real estate portfolio. As of March 31, 2024, Centerspace held more than 10% of the carrying value of its real estate portfolio in the Minneapolis, Minnesota and Denver, Colorado markets.
IMPAIRMENT OF LONG-LIVED ASSETS
The Company evaluates long-lived assets, including real estate investments, for impairment indicators at least quarterly. The judgments regarding the existence of impairment indicators are based on factors such as operational performance, market conditions, expected holding period of each property, and legal and environmental concerns. If indicators exist, the Company compares the estimated future undiscounted cash flows for the property against the carrying amount of that property. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is generally recorded for the difference between the estimated fair value and the carrying amount. If the anticipated holding period for properties, the estimated fair value of properties, or other factors change based on market conditions or otherwise, the evaluation of impairment charges may be different and such differences could be material to the consolidated financial statements. The evaluation of estimated cash flows is subjective and is based, in part, on assumptions regarding future occupancy, rental rates, and capital requirements that could differ materially from actual results. Plans to hold properties over longer periods decreases the likelihood of recording impairment losses.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded no impairment charges.
VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES
Centerspace has determined that its Operating Partnership and each of its less-than-wholly owned real estate partnerships are variable interest entities (each, a “VIE”), as the limited partners or the functional equivalent of limited partners lack substantive kick-out rights and substantive participating rights. The Company is the primary beneficiary of the VIEs, and the VIEs are required to be consolidated on the balance sheet because the Company has a controlling financial interest in the VIEs and has both the power to direct the activities of the VIEs that most significantly impact the economic performance of the VIEs as well as the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIEs that could potentially be significant to the VIEs. Because the Operating Partnership is a VIE, all of the Company’s assets and liabilities are held through a VIE.
REAL ESTATE RELATED NOTES RECEIVABLE
The Company has a tax increment financing note receivable (“TIF”) with a principal balance of $5.4 million and $5.7 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, which appears within other assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value. The note bears an interest rate of 4.5% with payments due in February and August of each year.
In 2023, the Company originated a $15.1 million mezzanine loan for the development of an apartment community located in Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. The mezzanine loan bears interest at 10.0% per annum. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had funded $8.8 million and $1.6 million of the mezzanine loan, respectively. The loan matures in December 2027 unless extended to December 2028 in accordance with the terms of the mezzanine loan agreement. The loan is secured by a pledge of and first priority security interest against 100% of the membership interests in the mezzanine borrower and the agreement provides the Company with an option to purchase the development. The loan represents an investment in an unconsolidated variable interest entity. The Company is not the primary beneficiary of the VIE as Centerspace does not have the power to direct the activities which most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance nor does Centerspace have significant influence over the entity. The note receivable appears within other assets in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at fair value.
ADVERTISING COSTS
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and reported on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations within the property operating expenses, excluding real estate taxes line item. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, total advertising expense was $738,000 and $702,000, respectively.
SEVERANCE AND TRANSITION
On March 23, 2023, the Company entered into a Separation and General Release Agreement (the “Separation Agreement”) in connection with the departure of former CEO, Mark Decker, Jr. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company incurred total severance costs of $2.2 million for the cash severance and benefits for Mr. Decker, $737,000 in share-based compensation expense for the acceleration of certain equity awards, and $306,000 in other CEO transition related expenses.
10

INVOLUNTARY CONVERSION OF ASSETS
In April 2023, a portion of an apartment community was destroyed by fire. The Company recorded a write-down of the apartment community asset, in accordance with ASC 610-30 on involuntary conversion of non-monetary assets, totaling $1.3 million with an offsetting insurance receivable recorded within other assets on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the claim was settled for $1.6 million, including remediation and other operating expenses.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, Centerspace recognized $618,000 in additional casualty loss resulting from updated loss estimates from four separate insurance events at apartment communities. Any insurance funds received will be recognized when received in accordance with ASC 610-30.
NOTE 3 • NET INCOME (LOSS) PER SHARE
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares of beneficial interest (“common shares”) outstanding during the period. Centerspace has issued restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and incentive stock options (“ISOs”) under the 2015 Incentive Plan, Series D Convertible Preferred Units (“Series D preferred units”), and Series E Convertible Preferred Units (“Series E preferred units”), which could have a dilutive effect on net income (loss) per share upon vesting of the RSUs, upon exercising of ISOs, or upon conversion of the Series D or Series E preferred units (refer to Note 4 for further discussion of the Series D and the Series E preferred units). The Company calculates diluted net income (loss) per share using the treasury stock method for RSUs and ISOs and the if converted method for Series D preferred units and Series E preferred units. Other than the issuance of RSUs, ISOs, Series D preferred units, and Series E preferred units, there are no outstanding options, warrants, convertible stock, or other contractual obligations requiring issuance of additional common shares that would result in a dilution of net income (loss). Under the terms of the Operating Partnership’s Agreement of Limited Partnership, limited partners have the right to require the Operating Partnership to redeem their limited partnership units (“Units”) any time following the first anniversary of the date they acquired such Units (“Exchange Right”). Upon the exercise of Exchange Rights, and in Centerspace’s sole discretion, it may issue common shares in exchange for Units on a one-for-one basis.
The following table presents a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator used to calculate basic and diluted net income (loss) per share reported in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.  
 (in thousands, except per share data)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
NUMERATOR  
Net income (loss) attributable to controlling interests
$(3,905)$43,571 
Dividends to preferred shareholders(1,607)(1,607)
Numerator for basic income (loss) per share – net income (loss) available to common shareholders
(5,512)41,964 
Noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units (1)
 8,566 
Dividends to Series D preferred unitholders (2)
 160 
Numerator for diluted income (loss) per share
$(5,512)$50,690 
DENOMINATOR  
Denominator for basic income (loss) per share weighted average shares14,922 15,025 
Effect of redeemable operating partnership units 968 
Effect of Series D preferred units 228 
Effect of Series E preferred units 2,118 
Effect of dilutive restricted stock units and stock options 20 
Denominator for diluted income (loss) per share14,922 18,359 
NET INCOME (LOSS) PER COMMON SHARE – BASIC
$(0.37)$2.79 
NET INCOME (LOSS) PER COMMON SHARE – DILUTED
$(0.37)$2.76 
(1)For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the impact of Units and Series E preferred units was excluded from the calculation of net income (loss) per common share - diluted as they were anti-dilutive.
(2)For the three months ended March 31, 2024, dividends to preferred unitholders are excluded in the calculation of net income (loss) per common share - diluted as they were anti-dilutive.
11

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, operating partnership units of 854,000, Series D preferred units of 228,000, as converted, Series E preferred units of 2.1 million, as converted, time-based RSUs of 20,000, and performance-based RSUs of 41,000 were excluded from the calculation of diluted net income (loss) per share because they were anti-dilutive as including these items would have improved net loss per share.
For the three months ended March 31, 2023, performance-based RSUs of 36,000 were excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per share because they were anti-dilutive as including these items would have improved net income per share.
NOTE 4 • EQUITY AND MEZZANINE EQUITY
Operating Partnership Units. The Operating Partnership had 844,000 and 861,000 outstanding Units at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Exchange Rights. Centerspace redeemed Units in exchange for common shares in connection with Unitholders exercising their exchange rights during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 as detailed in the table below.
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,Number of UnitsNet Book Basis
202417 $(398)
20234 $(697)
Series E Preferred Units (Noncontrolling Interests). Centerspace had 1.7 million Series E preferred units outstanding on March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. Each Series E preferred unit has a par value of $100. The Series E preferred unit holders receive a preferred distribution at the rate of 3.875% per year. Each Series E preferred unit is convertible, at the holder’s option, into 1.2048 Units. Centerspace has the option, at its sole election, to convert Series E preferred units into Units if its stock has traded at or above $83 per share for 15 of 30 consecutive trading days and it has made at least three consecutive quarters of distributions with a rate of at least $0.804 per Unit. The Series E preferred units have an aggregate liquidation preference of $171.2 million as of March 31, 2024. The holders of the Series E preferred units do not have voting rights.
(in thousands)
Number of Series ENumber ofTotal
Three Months Ended March 31,Preferred Units RedeemedCommon Shares IssuedValue
202413 16 $702 
202313 16 $935 
Common Shares and Equity Awards. Common shares outstanding on March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, totaled 14.9 million and 15.0 million, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, Centerspace issued approximately 3,742 and 11,877 common shares, respectively, with a total grant-date fair value of $445,000 and $1.1 million, respectively, under its 2015 Incentive Plan, as share-based compensation for employees and trustees. These shares vested based on performance and service criteria. Refer to Note 11 for additional details on share-based compensation.
Equity Distribution Agreement. Centerspace has an equity distribution agreement in connection with an at-the-market offering (“2021 ATM Program”) through which it may offer and sell common shares having an aggregate sales price of up to $250.0 million, in amounts and at times determined by management. Under the 2021 ATM Program, the Company may enter into separate forward sale agreements. The proceeds from the sale of common shares under the 2021 ATM Program may be used for general corporate purposes, including the funding of acquisitions, construction or mezzanine loans, community renovations, and the repayment of indebtedness. There were no sales of common shares under the 2021 ATM Program during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. As of March 31, 2024, common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $126.6 million remained available under the 2021 ATM Program.
Share Repurchase Program. On March 10, 2022, the Board of Trustees approved a share repurchase program (the “Share Repurchase Program”), providing for the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $50.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common shares. Under the Share Repurchase Program, the Company is authorized to repurchase common shares through open market purchases, privately-negotiated transactions, block trades or otherwise in accordance with applicable federal securities laws, including through Rule 10b5-1 trading plans and under Rule 10b-18 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The repurchases have no time limit and may be suspended or discontinued completely at any time. The specific timing and amount of repurchases will vary based on available capital resources or other financial and operational performance, market conditions, securities law limitations, and other factors. The table below provides details on the shares repurchased during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had $4.7 million remaining authorized for purchase under this program.
12

(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Three Months Ended March 31,Number of Common Shares
Aggregate Cost(1)
Average Price Per Share(1)
202488 $4,703 $53.62 
202319 $1,022 $52.51 
(1)Amount includes commissions.
Series C Preferred Shares. Series C preferred shares outstanding were 3.9 million shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Series C preferred shares are nonvoting and redeemable for cash at $25.00 per share at Centerspace’s option. Holders of these shares are entitled to cumulative distributions, payable quarterly (as and if declared by the Board of Trustees). Distributions accrue at an annual rate of $1.65625 per share, which is equal to 6.625% of the $25.00 per share liquidation preference ($97.0 million liquidation preference in the aggregate).
Series D Preferred Units (Mezzanine Equity). Series D preferred units outstanding were 165,600 preferred units at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Series D preferred units have a par value price of $100 per preferred unit. The Series D preferred unit holders receive a preferred distribution at the rate of 3.862% per year. The Series D preferred units have a put option which allows the holder to redeem any or all of the Series D preferred units for cash equal to the issuance price. Each Series D preferred unit is convertible, at the holder’s option, into 1.37931 Units. The Series D preferred units have an aggregate liquidation value of $16.6 million. Changes in the redemption value are based on changes in the trading value of common shares and are charged to common shares on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets each quarter. The holders of the Series D preferred units do not have voting rights. Distributions to Series D unitholders are presented in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Equity within net income (loss) attributable to controlling interests and noncontrolling interests.
NOTE 5 • DEBT
The following table summarizes the Company’s secured and unsecured debt at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
(in thousands)
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Carrying AmountWeighted Average Interest RateCarrying AmountWeighted Average Interest RateWeighted Average Maturity in Years at March 31, 2024
Lines of credit (1)
$40,3576.68 %$30,000 6.74 %1.49
Unsecured senior notes (2)(5)
300,0003.12 %300,000 3.12 %6.38
Unsecured debt340,357330,000 5.80
Mortgages payable - Fannie Mae credit facility (5)
198,8502.78 %198,850 2.78 %7.31
Mortgages payable - other (3)(5)
389,8744.05 %391,140 4.05 %5.55
Total debt (4)
$929,0813.59 %$919,990 3.54 %6.01
(1)Interest rates on lines of credit are variable and exclude any unused facility fees and amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into interest expense from terminated interest rate swaps.
(2)Included within notes payable on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3)Represents apartment communities encumbered by mortgages; 14 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
(4)Excludes deferred financing costs and premiums or discounts.
(5)Interest rate is fixed.
As of March 31, 2024, 45 apartment communities were not encumbered by mortgages and were available to provide credit support for the unsecured borrowings. The Company’s primary unsecured credit facility (“Unsecured Credit Facility” or “Facility”) is a revolving, multi-bank line of credit, with the Bank of Montreal serving as administrative agent. The line of credit has total commitments and borrowing capacity of $250.0 million, based on the value of unencumbered properties. As of March 31, 2024, there was $40.0 million outstanding on this line of credit, therefore the additional borrowing availability was $210.0 million. This unsecured credit facility matures in September 2025, with an option to extend maturity for up to two additional six-month periods and has an accordion option to increase borrowing capacity up to $400.0 million.
On May 31, 2023, the Unsecured Credit Facility was amended to replace the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the benchmark alternative reference rate under the Facility. The interest rates on the line of credit are based on the consolidated leverage ratio, at the Company’s option, on either the lender’s base rate plus a margin, ranging from 25-80 basis points, or daily or term SOFR, plus a margin that ranges from 125-180 basis points with the consolidated leverage ratio described under the Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, as amended. Prior to the amendment, interest rates on the line of credit were based on the consolidated leverage ratio applying the same margins to LIBOR. The unsecured credit facility and unsecured senior notes are subject to customary financial covenants and limitations. The Company believes that it was in compliance with all such financial covenants and limitations as of March 31, 2024.
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Centerspace also has a $6.0 million operating line of credit. As of March 31, 2024, there was $357,000 outstanding on this line of credit. As of December 31, 2023, there was no outstanding balance on this line of credit. This operating line of credit is designed to enhance treasury management activities and more effectively manage cash balances. This operating line matures on September 30, 2024, with pricing based on SOFR.
Centerspace has a private shelf agreement with PGIM, Inc., an affiliate of Prudential Financial, Inc., and certain affiliates of PGIM, Inc. (collectively, “PGIM”) under which the Company has issued $200.0 million in unsecured senior promissory notes (“unsecured senior notes”). The Company also has a separate note purchase agreement for the issuance of $125.0 million senior unsecured promissory notes, of which $25.0 million was issued under the private shelf agreement with PGIM. The following table shows the notes issued under both agreements as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
(in thousands)
AmountMaturity DateInterest Rate
Series A$75,000 September 13, 20293.84 %
Series B$50,000 September 30, 20283.69 %
Series C$50,000 June 6, 20302.70 %
Series 2021-A$35,000 September 17, 20302.50 %
Series 2021-B$50,000 September 17, 20312.62 %
Series 2021-C$25,000 September 17, 20322.68 %
Series 2021-D$15,000 September 17, 20342.78 %
Centerspace has a $198.9 million Fannie Mae Credit Facility Agreement (the “FMCF”). The FMCF is secured by mortgages on 11 apartment communities. The notes are interest-only, with varying maturity dates of 7, 10, and 12 years, and a blended, weighted average interest rate of 2.78%. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the FMCF had a balance of $198.9 million. The FMCF is included within mortgages payable on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
As of March 31, 2024, Centerspace owned 14 apartment communities that served as collateral for mortgage loans, in addition to the apartment communities secured by the FMCF. All of these mortgage loans were non-recourse to the Company other than for standard carve-out obligations. As of March 31, 2024, the Company believes that there were no material defaults or instances of material noncompliance in regard to any of these mortgage loans.
The aggregate amount of required future principal payments on lines of credit, notes payable, and mortgages payable as of March 31, 2024, was as follows:
(in thousands)
2024 (remainder)$5,688 
202576,290 
202699,499 
202748,666 
2028118,363 
Thereafter580,575 
Total payments$929,081 
NOTE 6 • DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS
Centerspace used interest rate derivatives to stabilize interest expense and to manage its exposure to interest rate fluctuations. To accomplish this objective, the Company primarily used interest rate swap contracts to fix variable interest rate debt.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives designated and that qualified as cash flow hedges were recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“OCI”) and subsequently reclassified into earnings in the period that the hedged transaction affects earnings. Amounts reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) will be reclassified to interest expense in the periods in which interest payments are incurred on variable rate debt. During the next twelve months, the Company estimates an additional $690,000 will be reclassified as an increase to interest expense.
In February 2022, the Company terminated its interest rate swaps. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 the Company had no remaining interest rate swaps.
The table below presents the effect of the Company’s derivative financial instruments on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations as of March 31, 2024 and 2023.
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(in thousands)
Gain Recognized in OCI Location of Gain (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into IncomeLoss Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income (Loss)
Three months ended March 31,2024202320242023
Total derivatives in cash flow hedging relationships - Interest rate contracts$ $ Interest expense$(197)$(138)
NOTE 7 • FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other liabilities are carried at amounts that reasonably approximate their fair value due to their short-term nature. For variable rate line of credit debt that re-prices frequently, fair values are based on carrying values.
In determining the fair value of other financial instruments, Centerspace applies FASB ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurement and Disclosures.” Fair value hierarchy under ASC 820 distinguishes between market participant assumptions based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity (Levels 1 and 2) and the reporting entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions (Level 3). Fair value estimates may differ from the amounts that may ultimately be realized upon sale or disposition of the assets and liabilities.
Fair Value Measurements on a Recurring Basis
(in thousands)
Balance Sheet LocationTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
March 31, 2024
Assets
Real estate related notes receivableOther assets$14,103   $14,103 
December 31, 2023    
Assets
Real estate related notes receivableOther assets$7,039   $7,039 
Centerspace utilizes an income approach with Level 3 inputs based on expected future cash flows to value the notes receivable. The unobservable inputs include market transactions for similar instruments, management estimates of comparable interest rates (range of 5.00% to 9.00%), and instrument specific credit risk (range of 0.5% to 1.0%). Changes in the fair value of these receivables from period to period are reported in interest and other income on the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(in thousands)
Fair Value MeasurementOther GainsInterest IncomeTotal Changes in Fair Value Included in Current-Period Earnings
Three months ended March 31, 2024
Notes receivable$14,103 $5 $208 $213 
Three months ended March 31, 2023
Notes receivable$5,661 $5 $67 $72 
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, Centerspace had investments totaling $2.1 million in real estate technology venture funds consisting of privately held entities that develop technology related to the real estate industry. These investments appear within other assets on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The investments are measured at net asset value (“NAV”) as a practical expedient under ASC 820. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had total unfunded commitments of $1.0 million.
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Fair Value Measurements on a Nonrecurring Basis
There were no non-financial assets or liabilities measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis at March 31, 2024. Non-financial assets measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis at December 31, 2023 consisted of real estate investments that were written-down to estimated fair value during the year ended December 31, 2023.
(in thousands)
Balance Sheet LocationTotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
December 31, 2023    
Assets
Real estate investments measured at fair value
Property owned
$19,250 $ $19,250 $ 
As of December 31, 2023, the Company estimated the fair value of real estate investments using market offers to purchase and other market data.
Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Measured at Fair Value
The fair value of unsecured senior notes and mortgages payable are estimated based on the discounted cash flows of the loans using market research and management estimates of comparable interest rates, excluding any prepayment penalties (Level 3).
The estimated fair values of the Company’s financial instruments as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, are as follows:
(in thousands)
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Balance Sheet LocationCarrying AmountFair ValueCarrying AmountFair Value
FINANCIAL ASSETS    
Cash and cash equivalentsCash and cash equivalents$12,682 $12,682 $8,630 $8,630 
Restricted cashRestricted cash$1,066 $1,066 $639 $639 
FINANCIAL LIABILITIES    
Revolving lines of creditRevolving lines of credit$40,357 $40,357 $30,000 $30,000 
Unsecured senior notesNotes payable$300,000 $250,704 $300,000 $252,108 
Mortgages payable - Fannie Mae credit facilityMortgages payable$198,850 $167,501 $198,850 $168,555 
Mortgages payable - otherMortgages payable$389,874 $365,190 $391,140 $367,080 
NOTE 8 • ACQUISITIONS AND DISPOSITIONS
ACQUISITIONS
Centerspace did not acquire new real estate during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
DISPOSITIONS
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, Centerspace disposed of two apartment communities in two exchange transactions for an aggregate sales price of $19.0 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, Centerspace disposed of nine apartment communities, in four exchange transactions for an aggregate sales price of $144.3 million. The dispositions for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are detailed below.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
(in thousands)
DispositionsDate
Disposed
Sale Price
Net Book Value and Transaction Costs
Gain/(Loss)
69 homes - Southdale Parc - Richfield, MN
February 29, 2024$6,200 $6,497 $(297)
136 homes - Wingate - New Hope, MN
February 29, 2024$12,800 $13,080 $(280)
Total Dispositions$19,000 $19,577 $(577)
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Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
(in thousands)
DispositionsDate
Disposed
Sale Price
Net Book Value and Transaction Costs
Gain/(Loss)
115 homes - Boulder Court - Eagan, MN
March 8, 2023$14,605 $4,970 $9,635 
498 homes - 2 Nebraska apartment communities
March 14, 2023$48,500 $14,975 $33,525 
892 homes - 5 Minnesota apartment communities
March 15, 2023$74,500 $55,053 $19,447 
62 homes - Portage - Minneapolis, MN
March 15, 2023$6,650 $9,098 $(2,448)
Total Dispositions$144,255 $84,096 $60,159 
NOTE 9 • SEGMENTS 
Centerspace operates in a single reportable segment which includes the ownership, management, development, redevelopment, and acquisition of apartment communities. Each of the operating properties is considered a separate operating segment because each property earns revenues, incurs expenses, and has discrete financial information. The chief operating decision-makers evaluate each property’s operating results to make decisions about resources to be allocated and to assess performance and do not group the properties based on geography, size, or type for this purpose. The apartment communities have similar long-term economic characteristics and provide similar products and services to residents. No apartment community comprises more than 10% of consolidated revenues, profits, or assets. Accordingly, the apartment communities are aggregated into a single reportable segment. “All other” includes non-multifamily components of mixed-use properties and apartment communities the Company has disposed or designated as held for sale. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, two sold apartment communities were reclassified from the multifamily segment to all other for all periods presented.
The members of the executive management team are the chief operating decision-makers. This team measures the performance of the reportable segment based on net operating income (“NOI”), a non-GAAP measure, which the Company defines as total real estate revenues less property operating expenses, including real estate taxes. Centerspace believes that NOI is an important supplemental measure of operating performance for real estate because it provides a measure of operations that excludes gain (loss) on the sale of real estate and other assets, impairment, depreciation, amortization, financing, property management overhead, casualty losses, and general and administrative expense. NOI does not represent cash generated by operating activities in accordance with GAAP and should not be considered an alternative to net income (loss), net income (loss) available for common shareholders, or cash flow from operating activities as a measure of financial performance.
The following tables present NOI for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, along with reconciliations to net income (loss) in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. Segment assets are also reconciled to total assets as reported in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
 (in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024MultifamilyAll OtherTotal
Revenue$63,339 $1,167 $64,506 
Property operating expenses, including real estate taxes24,561 508 25,069 
Net operating income $38,778 $659 $39,437 
Property management expense(2,330)
Casualty loss
(820)
Depreciation and amortization(27,012)
General and administrative expenses(4,623)
Loss on sale of real estate and other investments
(577)
Interest expense(9,207)
Interest and other income340 
Net loss
$(4,792)
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 (in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023MultifamilyAll OtherTotal
Revenue$59,439 $8,458 $67,897 
Property operating expenses, including real estate taxes24,526 4,397 28,923 
Net operating income$34,913 $4,061 $38,974 
Property management expense(2,568)
Casualty loss
(252)
Depreciation and amortization(25,993)
General and administrative expenses(7,723)
Gain on sale of real estate and other investments
60,159 
Interest expense(10,319)
Interest and other income
49 
Net income
$52,327 
Segment Assets and Accumulated Depreciation
Segment assets are summarized as follows as of March 31, 2024, and December 31, 2023, respectively, along with reconciliations to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements:
 (in thousands)
As of March 31, 2024MultifamilyAll OtherTotal
Segment assets   
Property owned$2,396,195 $17,293 $2,413,488 
Less accumulated depreciation(549,160)(4,071)(553,231)
Total real estate investments$1,847,035 $13,222 $1,860,257 
Cash and cash equivalents12,682 
Restricted cash1,066 
Other assets29,468 
Total Assets$1,903,473 
 (in thousands)
As of December 31, 2023MultifamilyAll OtherTotal
Segment assets   
Property owned$2,381,461 $38,685 $2,420,146 
Less accumulated depreciation(524,364)(6,339)(530,703)
Total real estate investments$1,857,097 $32,346 $1,889,443 
Cash and cash equivalents8,630 
Restricted cash639 
Other assets27,649 
Total Assets$1,926,361 
NOTE 10 • COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Litigation.  Centerspace was the named defendant in a lawsuit where the owner of a neighboring property claims a retaining wall at one of its properties is causing water damage to the neighboring property. The claim was for damage to the property and monetary losses. The original judgment was ordered on October 9, 2023 for $2.9 million which the Company immediately paid. In November 2023, the claimant filed motions requesting additional interest on the judgment and trial costs. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the claimant was awarded an additional $1.0 million in a judgment related interest and costs. The additional $1.0 million was a recognizable subsequent event for the year ended December 31, 2023 so was recorded as a loss during the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company cannot, with any level of certainty, predict or estimate if there will be additional costs incurred as a result of the lawsuit as the matter is ongoing. Centerspace is involved in various lawsuits arising in the normal course of business and believes that such matters will not have a material adverse effect on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Environmental Matters.  Under various federal, state, and local laws, ordinances, and regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of real estate may be liable for the costs of removal of, or remediation of, certain hazardous or toxic substances in,
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on, around, or under the property. While the Company currently has no knowledge of any material violation of environmental laws, ordinances, or regulations at any of the properties, there can be no assurance that areas of contamination will not be identified at any of its properties or that changes in environmental laws, regulations, or cleanup requirements would not result in material costs.
Limitations on Taxable Dispositions.  Twenty-seven properties, consisting of 5,033 apartment homes, are subject to limitations on taxable dispositions under agreements entered into with certain of the sellers or contributors of the properties and are effective for varying periods. Centerspace does not believe that the agreements materially affect the conduct of its business or its decisions whether to dispose of these properties during the limitation period because it generally holds these and other properties for investment purposes rather than for sale. In addition, where the Company deems it to be in the shareholders’ best interests to dispose of such properties, it generally seeks to structure sales of such properties as tax-deferred transactions under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. Otherwise, the Company may be required to provide tax indemnification payments to the parties to these agreements.
Unfunded Commitments. Centerspace has unfunded commitments of $1.0 million in two real estate technology venture funds. Refer to Note 7 - Fair Value Measurements for additional information regarding these investments.
NOTE 11 • SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION
Share-based awards are provided to officers, non-officer employees, and trustees under the 2015 Incentive Plan approved by shareholders on September 15, 2015, as amended and restated on May 18, 2021 (the “2015 Incentive Plan”), which allows for awards in the form of cash, unrestricted and restricted common shares, stock options, stock appreciation rights, and RSUs up to an aggregate of 775,000 shares over the ten-year period in which the plan is in effect. Under the 2015 Incentive Plan, officers and non-officer employees may earn share awards under a long-term incentive plan (“LTIP”), which is a forward-looking program that measures long-term performance over the stated performance period. These awards are payable to the extent deemed earned in shares. The terms of the long-term incentive awards granted under the revised program may vary from year to year. Through March 31, 2024, awards under the 2015 Incentive Plan consisted of restricted and unrestricted common shares, RSUs, and stock options. The Company accounts for forfeitures of restricted and unrestricted common shares, RSUs, and stock options when they occur instead of estimating the forfeitures.
2024 LTIP Awards
Awards granted to employees on January 1, 2024, consisted of an aggregate of 21,059 time-based RSU awards and 18,876 performance RSUs based on total shareholder return (“TSR”). The time-based awards vest as to one-third of the shares on each of January 1, 2025, January 1, 2026, and January 1, 2027.
The performance RSUs are earned based on the Company’s TSR as compared to the FTSE Nareit Equity Index over a forward looking three-year period. The maximum number of performance RSUs eligible to be earned is 37,752 RSUs, which is 200% of the performance RSUs granted. Earned awards (if any) will fully vest as of the last day of the measurement period. These awards have market conditions in addition to service conditions that must be met for the awards to vest. Compensation expense is recognized ratably based on the grant date fair value, as determined using the Monte Carlo valuation model, regardless of whether the market conditions are achieved and the awards ultimately vest. Therefore, previously recorded compensation expense is not adjusted in the event that the market conditions are not achieved. The Company based the expected volatility on a weighted average of the historical volatility of the Company’s daily closing share price and a select peer average volatility, the risk-free interest rate on the U.S. treasury bond rates with a maturity equal to the remaining performance period of the award, and the expected term on the performance period of the award. The assumptions used to value the TSR performance RSUs were an expected volatility of 27.21%, a risk-free interest rate of 4.01%, and an expected life of 3 years. The share price at the grant date, January 1, 2024, was $58.20 per share.
Share-Based Compensation Expense
Share-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements for all outstanding share-based awards was $749,000 and $1.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. On March 31, 2023, the Company accelerated the vesting of all unvested time-based RSUs and stock options in connection with the Separation Agreement with Mr. Decker. This resulted in the acceleration of share-based compensation expense for those awards resulting in an additional $737,000 in expense for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2024 (the “Report”), the audited
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financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023, which are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2024, and the risk factors in Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
This discussion and analysis and other sections of this Report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) , and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), with respect to the expectations for future periods. Forward-looking statements do not discuss historical fact, but instead include statements related to expectations, projections, intentions or other items related to the future. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “will,” “assumes,” “may,” “projects,” “outlook,” “future,” and variations of those words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from the results of operations, financial condition, or plans expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Although we believe the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions, we can give no assurance that our expectations will be achieved. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact should be deemed forward-looking statements. As a result, reliance should not be placed on these forward-looking statements, as these statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors beyond our control and could differ materially from actual results and performance.
The following factors, among others, could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements:
inflation and price volatility in the global economy;
uncertain global macro-economic and political conditions;
deteriorating economic conditions, including rising unemployment rates, energy costs, and inflation, in the markets where we own apartment communities or in which we may invest in the future;
rental conditions in our markets, including occupancy levels and rental rates, potential inability to renew residents or obtain new residents upon expiration of existing leases, changes in tax and housing laws, include rent control laws, or other factors;
timely access to material and labor required to renovate and maintain apartment communities;
adverse changes in our markets, including future demand for apartment homes in those markets, barriers of entry into new markets, limitations on the ability to increase rental rates, our inability to identify and consummate attractive acquisitions and dispositions on favorable terms, our ability to reinvest sales proceeds successfully, and inability to accommodate any significant decline in the market value of real estate serving as collateral for debt and mortgage obligations;
pandemics or epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and any effects on our business, financial condition, and results of operation;
the impact of the conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, as well as Israel, Gaza, and Iran, on inflation, trade, and general economic conditions;
reliance on a single asset class (multifamily) and certain geographic areas (Midwest and Mountain West regions) of the U.S.;
inability to expand operations into new or existing markets successfully;
failure of new acquisitions to achieve anticipated results or be efficiently integrated;
inability to complete lease-up of projects on schedule and on budget;
inability to sell our non-core properties on terms that are acceptable;
failure to reinvest proceeds from sales of properties into tax-deferred exchanges, which could necessitate special dividend and/or tax protection payments;
inability to fund capital expenditures out of cash flow;
inability to pay, or need to reduce, dividends on common shares;
inability to raise additional equity capital, if needed;
financing risks, including the potential inability to meet existing covenants in existing credit facilities or to obtain new debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all;
level and volatility of interest or capitalization rates or capital market conditions;
uninsured losses due to insurance deductibles, uninsured claims or casualties or losses in excess of applicable coverage;
loss contingencies and the availability and cost of casualty insurance for losses;
inability to continue to satisfy complex tax rules in order to maintain status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, inability of the Operating Partnership to satisfy the rules to maintain its status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, and the risk of changes in laws affecting REITs;
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inability to attract and retain qualified personnel;
cyber liability or potential liability for breaches of privacy or information security systems;
recent developments in artificial intelligence, including software used to price rent in apartment communities;
inability to address catastrophic weather, natural events, and climate change;
inability to comply with laws and regulations, including those related to the environment, applicable to the business and any related investigations or litigation; and
other risks identified in this Report, in other SEC reports, or in other documents that we publicly disseminate.
New factors may also arise from time to time that could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Except as otherwise required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise these forward-looking statements to reflect events, circumstances, or changes in expectations after the date on which this Report is filed. Readers also should review the risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in filings with the SEC, including the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Executive Summary
We are a real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns, manages, acquires, redevelops, and develops apartment communities. We primarily focus on investing in markets characterized by stable and growing economies, strong employment, and an attractive quality of life that we believe, in combination, lead to higher demand for apartment homes and retention of our residents. As of March 31, 2024, we owned interests in 70 apartment communities consisting of 12,883 apartment homes. Property owned, as presented in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at historical cost, was $2.4 billion at March 31, 2024 and $2.4 billion at December 31, 2023.
Renting apartment homes is our primary source of revenue, and our business objective is to provide great homes. We strive to maximize resident satisfaction and retention by investing in high-quality assets in desirable locations and creating vibrant apartment communities through resident-centered operations. We believe that delivering superior resident experiences will enhance resident satisfaction while also driving profitability for our business and shareholders. We have paid quarterly distributions continuously since our first distribution in 1971.
Overview of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we sold two non-core apartment communities for an aggregate sales price of $19.0 million. See Note 8 of the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in the report for more details.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, revenue decreased by $3.4 million or 5.0% to $64.5 million, compared to $67.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, due to decreased revenue from dispositions, offset by a 3.5% increase from same-store communities and an increase from non-same-store communities. 
Same-store revenues increased by 3.5% for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period of the prior year, driving a 7.5% increase in same-store NOI compared to the same period of the prior year.
Total expenses decreased by $5.6 million or 8.6% to $59.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to $65.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Net loss was $0.37 per diluted share for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to net income of $2.76 per diluted share for the same period of the prior year.
Non-GAAP Core Funds from Operations (“Core FFO”) applicable to common shares and Units for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by $2.5 million or 12.8% to $22.0 million compared to $19.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023. See the description of Core FFO on page 25 and the reconciliation of net income (loss) available to common shareholders to FFO and Core FFO on page 26. This increase was primarily due to increased NOI from same-store and non-same-store communities and expense savings in property management and interest expense, offset by decreased NOI from dispositions. The drivers of these changes are discussed in more detail in the “Results of Operations” section below.
We repurchased 87,722 common shares for total consideration of $4.7 million and an average price of $53.62 per share.
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Results of Operations
GAAP and Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Net operating income (“NOI”) is a non-GAAP financial measure, which we define as total real estate revenues less property operating expenses, including real estate taxes and is reconciled to operating income below. We believe that NOI is an important supplemental measure of operating performance for real estate because it provides a measure of operations that is unaffected by sales of real estate and other investments, impairment, depreciation, amortization, financing costs, property management expenses, casualty losses, and general and administrative expenses. NOI does not represent cash generated by operating activities in accordance with GAAP and should not be considered an alternative to net income (loss), net income (loss) available for common shareholders, or cash flow from operating activities as a measure of financial performance.
We have provided certain information on a same-store and non-same-store basis. Same-store apartment communities are owned or in service for substantially all of the periods being compared, and, in the case of newly-constructed properties, have achieved a target level of physical occupancy of 90%. On the first day of each calendar year, we determine the composition of our same-store pool for that year as well as adjust the previous year, which allows us to evaluate the performance of existing apartment communities and their contribution to net income. We believe that measuring performance on a same-store basis is useful to investors because it enables evaluation of how a fixed pool of communities are performing year-over-year. We use this measure to assess whether or not we have been successful in increasing NOI, raising average rental revenue, renewing the leases with existing residents, controlling operating costs, and making prudent capital improvements. The discussion below focuses on the main factors affecting real estate revenue and expenses from same-store apartment communities because changes from one year to another in real estate revenue and expenses from non-same-store apartment communities are generally due to the addition of those properties to the real estate portfolio, and accordingly provide less useful information for evaluating ongoing operational performance of the real estate portfolio.
For the comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, one apartment community was non-same-store. Sold communities are included in “Dispositions,” while “Other properties” includes non-multifamily properties and the non-multifamily components of mixed-use properties. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we disposed of two and nine apartment communities, respectively, consisting of 205 and 1,567 apartment homes, respectively.
Reconciliation of Operating Income to Net Operating Income (non-GAAP)
The following table provides a reconciliation of operating income to NOI (non-GAAP), which is defined above.
 (in thousands, except percentages)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023$ Change% Change
Operating income
$4,075 $62,597 $(58,522)(93.5)%
Adjustments:
Property management expenses2,330 2,568 (238)(9.3)%
Casualty loss
820 252 568 225.4 %
Depreciation and amortization27,012 25,993 1,019 3.9 %
General and administrative expenses4,623 7,723 (3,100)(40.1)%
(Gain) loss on sale of real estate and other investments
577 (60,159)60,736 (101.0)%
Net operating income$39,437 $38,974 $463 1.2 %

22

The following consolidated results of operations, including GAAP and non-GAAP metrics, cover the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
 (in thousands, except percentages)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023$ Change% Change
Revenue
Same-store$61,536 $59,439 $2,097 3.5 %
Non-same-store1,803 — 1,803 N/A
Other properties638 675 (37)(5.5)%
Dispositions529 7,783 (7,254)(93.2)%
Total64,506 67,897 (3,391)(5.0)%
Property operating expenses, including real estate taxes
Same-store23,995 24,526 (531)(2.2)%
Non-same-store566 — 566 N/A
Other properties182 87 95 109.2 %
Dispositions326 4,310 (3,984)(92.4)%
Total25,069 28,923 (3,854)(13.3)%
Net operating income(1)
Same-store37,541 34,913 2,628 7.5 %
Non-same-store1,237 — 1,237 N/A
Other properties456 588 (132)(22.4)%
Dispositions203 3,473 (3,270)(94.2)%
Total$39,437 $38,974 $463 1.2 %
Property management expenses(2,330)(2,568)(238)(9.3)%
Casualty loss
(820)(252)568 225.4 %
Depreciation and amortization(27,012)(25,993)1,019 3.9 %
General and administrative expenses(4,623)(7,723)(3,100)(40.1)%
Gain (loss) on sale of real estate and other investments
(577)60,159 (60,736)(101.0)%
Interest expense(9,207)(10,319)(1,112)(10.8)%
Interest and other income
340 49 291 *
NET INCOME (LOSS)
$(4,792)$52,327 $(57,119)(109.2)%
Dividends to Series D preferred unitholders(160)(160)— — 
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests – Operating Partnership and Series E preferred units
1,079 (8,566)9,645